Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 20, 2012
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
May 28, 1952
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00039R000200040019-6.pdf185.51 MB
Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~otilxc e ; 1'o.ro ~h1~o~roy~~ '`ro~,~'~.1.:1.o~rocle;na.~Tc: ~ ~~~ l- 33~ 9 :1)11.8, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 STAT Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ ? ~,~u. I~AI~' r~1.1 a~,N ~~~~,~~r ~c:t.c;r~~i~:'ico ~- Tcchn_i.ca~. }~u1:,,li.~~h:.i.n~: ~{oti1~e ~o~~ Taa--tc i~al~tti~c u~ F~r~~~ous end neon-~'r,~~'r;~u~, ;,4rt~a.~111a: ~Y ~it)SCG~W 1)L~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~t~V~.~?'I+JG~~ ~~~~ ' ~;l~r 1~1~~~;oro~r~'~.~~~1 ~~.'UUxlds.t~.onu ~~I~. ~,s, book ].S ~.ri e:x~3osa.~~~.an o~ ~11 (~,1~:~~a.r~s t~lio ~~%~' ~ ~~~ti~d~w:t^ rar~~ra~~:lu.x~~~r ~. ~t'~1~: l~.ro~~ew... , ~~ 1 ~ aowcl.~r~' anc~, ~thc~ ~cc,~~~m?' ~~~';;~titr~7.~ian ~. , rate Ley ~ (;ausea ~'or i'law~ ~nc~ rejects G;l, :C5 there a aual.itat~.~r~: d~~f'erence between loaWe a.nd rom~>r~~ssed powc:~ers? '?.. The c;ald-pr.~;~s:~ng proceGC, :~l~om the angle of ener- 5 geta.cs ~ , - ~Cn~tro~~uc; ton ini:,o the Theory of ~3aki Gl~~pl~cx JIB --~------"" ~Y~~, ,ability of.' the atam~ Ind its eh~~nge in th.e 53 ~ pror:.eU~ o~i' heating 5~~~ Further. data on atomic mobilit,~ ~'~` ef'ormati.ari in carnpar,,t metaJ.s due to the mobility >,~. D of ator~ts ' ere 7sion a~.~d recrysta.:l.l.i~aation in compact metals ~6. ~~ ~; larmation inducer. b~ a,to.rnic motion a.larig the surface ,~ j , De ~J -lwnetric changes in the annealing af' compact metals ~8. Va 'c f or:~atian in. hes?ting under the of feat of exte.r. nal 5~ ~ Ue forces. Cz'eep a..n rnetale Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Chapte a~ lX. ~ ~ ~~~~~. he d,e~'a.~n~.t~.on. off' ?~he tex'm "ball.a.n~; ~~u~~'~ se s taking p~,ace a~n }~{a.ka.ng ~ '~hc , lax oae Eat . ~ 1 in the contact s~lrf'ace. ? ~'he raw ~1111'llhl'l~~ t~V'1 ?~~ and c ~' ' ~ ` ~ ~:~ ha~~~) ~ ~ a ~' laa rt~.c ~.e s in~,r toge'Lhe~? and th.e ~~'~` p~"' e contact s~urfacP and shrinkage .~ th 6?. The as a xc;s~,tl't of a,'~omic mo~ilit~l . Thka absorption of'~ residual s~,resses lad ? .~~ Mated localization of shrin~ca.ge ~,~. The non ~ividual, changes in the p[~rtic~.es ~~, lnc }1erlnal expan51on and canatriction bla. T ~7 ? The of f e c~~ o~ admixture s l~gti Rc;crystallizatz.on ~~ 1 on the micro-structure of baked Lp he effect of compression density l 5 `~ ? e reliminary trea,tmc~nt of powders 76? T!1e effect of th p the eneric type of metal and phase r~7, The effect 0~ ~~ en structural ch~an~es anal shrinkage The l~.nk betwe .~ off' tQmp~;ra.ture upon structural changes. ~~~,, TYIe of f.ect inka e, and. mechanical. properties ~hr. g The ~ff'ect ofi' Rake-ng Canda.t~.n'. Chapter X ,.~,......~.-~..~.. anon off' the baking process cycle h~o The eva.lu tempera-t~zz~ upan conta,ct~ 'jct. T'ne of ~'ect of the baking o p ';M~ ~~ _.~a c~,~~r,~ of the particles ~' articles . ~, ~? . ~,, ~, e and structure 9 ,.,ha.p , ~j~3, The e:E:~ect of the _. -~ im.e 7 ~ The e~'fect of Yanking Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 txa nsf oxrns,~~a.alns ~,? o~~ ~,nc~a,va~du~1? change ~ X71 the parta.c~.es ~ r ~+ xa.m:~n~~t~..~n dur?~.n~ the p~~ocess off' bak~,n~ . ~h~; effect off' the bak~.n~; a,tmUSph~,re 7~ .? ~ ~ka.n~ o~. ~~,~...Camponent ~awders C1lapter X~ ,[he_~? ..~....,.~.... 8p r r,enerfl.:1. note s U~.r ~.'Yle Cc~ae Uf nonwsa;a.uba:l.~.ty of -~rl~ ~~~~~~~~~,.~,~~~~ ith ..,y,l,~~ co~.ubi1~,~~v off. com~:~an~.nt~~. ~'re~ 82. Powc~exs w ~~ J.a.~~ .vary note s re?C~~? ~; ";~ CGS 1 so:luba.lity off" c ocnponents. Sub ~33rpowders wa.th ..,. equen~t notc~4 a a:[' rnul~~~:i-companent powders with the ~'o~'mM Sly r m~~e bak:~n,, . a.t:i.on of a. J.a.qua.d phase 'kin wa.~Lhaul, ~t,he f artnation of a ~-iquid Actyvatea lea phase Chapter XiI - ~?~"Pr....~ ~n~ 86~ ~?asic data M he Praperti.es of Raked P~derR Metes Chapter X_[Ii ~ .......~.....~.._____. mechc~,nicc.l prapert~.Ee of porous me~ta~.s 8? . The "ica.l rope?~ti.es of comp~,c~L biked metals gg, The mech~,n p anc~ ally}ors w ~'he lmpor. ta.nce of Power Met~:ll.o~r~.ph~ Ch apte ~ X1V _~~___..___....._.~,.--- gq, General notes e tal.lo~r~phy a,nd the study o~ def orrllat~-an qo, powder m Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and ~~~~ 9~.r ~'lle ah~.n~~a ~.n a~n~~~-~~~~nu~aa^ con~aot~ a.n ~~m~a~.c~ me ~~ a~.s ~ ~ ~ ~,Cma.x~ur~ s a.n c r~.~ ~ ~rnc ~~a~.~ )3, ~~owd~.r m~~~1.~.a~~~a~ahy aria. ~r~G cry~~tal1.a.~~t~.a.on Q,~' ~'u.scd me~~a~l~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .aceraanics, a,s a bz~anch of sc~,enae, t1nf~'a.~. r~ece;nt~.y meta~.~ ~ tur~.n owder zne'Lal~.ur~y (thQ manu,~ac ~ was nat d.~.f'f'eremt~.ated a.nta p -' oww o:~ powders (manufi.acturaal~; of P of products), the metallurf~y he thear~' af' powder me'~aa.~.~~.r~~~y) . ~ a.nd pawder~ metallo~'x~pYry (~ dcr~) , e to thy: publication of a ~~~' a~t A ~ the p~r~e sent ta.rne, du . ,. -~ ~; on cr~rdc:r mE,~talll~.r~;y, the ranstr~uc- number of sca.ent1~?~c w?r k~. ~ ~ ~~ ~ f'undarnen~ a~.ra ~h, devoted 'to the scient~f ~.c .ta.an of a separate man ~' p and powder metallo~r~:r~hya became ta1.~; oi' powd.er rnctallurg~' pu~c~ible~ ~~' but~.on to the creation of the the- A very suable contr. r n1etallur~y was trade by uoviet oretical foundat:i.ons of powde rber of 'the Academy of Sciences, scientists The carres~~ond~n~ met ~ ld Ollt the fun+~.amenta,ls of the theory USSI~, Ya. I? Frenl~el la . Z? ~,ukirskiy discovered "tY~e excep-~ of ~bakin~,? Academec~-an 1' - nra l1ic phenotner~a ~tak~.n~ place in tl.onally important metallo~ ~ the . J~~onox~able m~7ntion is me:r.~ited by the bak:Ln~; of rock sa7.t avslci , a pioneer. in the field of wcrkN of en~a.neer V ~ S. ~~ak Y r~leta.dNZ'ab7_e stresses surface be;tweE~n the p ~ the ' ~.e; hn rlon-cold~har~dened caznpa.c,t, metal, a.re locaJ.~.1JE~d, who. ontact a.r.'ea.s d-r.e Free fro~rl ~:~txesses. Tn com~- inter-~~,r'anv.lar. c r ~ - is hnsh~;nhf'icant, whip; in po;~ders it p~~, I y - 1 ]. ~'~ St should be noted that the residual surface is also a .. sp? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 was taken to avoid displacing the plate par~~icular care move/ of loads No attent~.on was paid dltring the addition and re ikerman abs?nae of surface contaulinations? ~ to the pr,asonc~+ or ? od that, in the caso of all the tested and P~aydil establ~.sh the exception of paraffin, within the range materials, with eriment, ~ = ~~ For '~hg sliding of of er~?ors of the vxp ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 io ~,nae the presenoe of residual 4ontc~at~ ts'str.QSSed surface, s ? which equal ~~ a.s due to the exis~;vnce of residual s'~ra~see, per un~.t of oc~ntaat srea) ntact conduct~,~va.tY undertaken b~ Holm ResQarch into ca eased that, when thq load was remov?d, anc~, h.a.s Qolle,bora~~ors, rev ee cases af' var~.at~.on of th? contact all the abo'v'e dpsarib?d thr surface with pressure, were absvrvad~ 1 studl.ed the revv~?s~.bil3.ty of ~'rict:i.on Bikerman and Rayd~- ?tests war4 conducted on an inclined farces during unlos,d~.nb~ Th tae made from parafFin, tin, brass, bless, plane with squz,~.re Pia ' hie from 0.2 to 2U bra;cns? 'f ha friction and chromium, wea.g b ~ la ,~ ~ ~ Sl Yl ~ , where f is force was studied by the forma the weibht of the load, a~:~d ?~ is the farce of frict~.on, W is r ins,tion of '~ha plane at which sliding bvban. thc~ angle of a,n~l made of the followings the Friction force Detvrraina~~a.ons were he by inning of the sl~.ding of the test Fla requisite fort g F ' . ht? the friction force f~ (after appl~'?- platy under a.ts ws~g ~ o the weigh?~ of the tASt plate) y i,nb an additia,nal load ague./ t after the removal of ~~ha additional and the friction farce f 3, loads Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~: I - '~ ?/ fr~r ~,he e:l.idi~~g v~' ~,~~af'~'a,.~, ~,~ ' i para~~. ~n otx p ~ ,~ ~, E, ',~ p (~,,~, ~, residual contact aurfaae araffi~n an ta~,n `~~~ p ~ludod that the aantaa?~ surface cauld not was formed~~ They cant to last~.c defar~tata.an. Tn their apina.on, have been f az?med due p ~ ' ~~ rasa oses ~~ ~ , sincse the rasenae of plasta.c dafortnr~'~a.o p p~ p ? h cauld, duri the removal of the load, na foraas exist wha.c break a pla,sta.aally dpformad contact. r aammi~~'~ed by the above twa observers i s Ve1'y TY~a are a ealib, ' regaa?d:less of whebh~ar bhe appli? aharacter~st~o. xn r ~' ' nduced elastic ar plastic dofoz~~na~~ian, bhe cation of the load a. load always releases internal elastic forces. remo?~l of bhe ? c s be~.ng absorbed after a finite time in~ ~'hesa elasb~c fora , oral of the load through the elastic af~'ser~- terval upon th9 rpm ' 11 e ual to the load being removed, and affect, are spea.Lf~.ca y ~ esidual C011~iaC~isr Frequently, as already they Land to break th? r elastic molecular forces may disrupt the indicated aoovo, the 1 ax1d, in st,tch cases, the process of change contact carnplete y, bhe contact surface, when apply~.ng and dis- in the magni~tuda of ?' uin the load, will seem to ba reversible. Cond. n ~ w~;ver erroneous to concluda~, an the basis It would be, ho ~ ? ~ ersibility of bhe process, that the appla.~ of the seem~.n~ rev ' educes a reversible def orma~~ion. xn this ca~~~.on of the lead ~ could not register the non?reversible nature case, we s~.mply ' ~,~ For instance, prior to the appla.cat Lon of the defarmat~.o e test body was tasting upon one contact pro of the load th aoond rotuberance was at a distance of tubers.nc?, while the s p fro~a the bearing surface. rJpau the appli- l,p(~p atomic layers Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 by vontaa~t is agaa.n n~:~eated nd the remaval of ?tha loud, ~ d vat~on a e but the seavnd one 3.s now a xaa through the First prQtuberan,v , la ers froze. 'the sur~'aae. Th~.e t a da.stanca oi' or~~.y lq e,~tom~.c y ible a as a revers ~arsible proe4sa, but it may appear ~, s a non~-re r Ona~ ~/``1 The Toughness ai' theme ~aa~ ust be ovarcorne in order to dis~ The rasistanva wha.ch m ~ mechani~ twaen. solid bodies, in the absence o r~upt ?tha contact be the contact ' s deterini,ned by th4 product of cal. engagement, ~ of contact cross section) by y the area ara4~. ~ more pr3ca.sal , a unit aF this of the cohesion Forces acting upon th? magnitude area. cohasxan botwaen bodies, not E~amplas of considerable Some d to vary high pressure, are i'ew. pr?li~.narily sub~acte ' available in the interasi~ing theses inf armation on this ~s sion f ores of (~,~1, 110) Macaulay discovered a cobs by Jones ' ntimetHr between ?th? thin Fresh. y about 40 kilograms par square ee this case, the ada~uate contact area Foliated mica leaves. ].n ace rel~lef ~' obtaining a smooth f let surf was due to ?the eas?o as of cleavages and Nation of mica along the plan thxough thn Fo A which pro" 'nness and elasticity of the laava~, also ?to the thy. area of co? Tomlinson demonstrated the dew motes their snug F~t? reshl sheared surFaces of lead. h?sion of pure f y educe considerably the strength SurFar~' adm~.xture films r s have no direct effect upon the of cohesion. Adsorbed Base Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~cantact, as d?~;anatrated by Halm' ~~ exppr~,m,enta, tauzfhness c~' tha ha ~.an 'ae~t;~raen var~,aus metals (capper ~ s~.lvar, ~, n who. ch the c o s ' xon niclcal) was the same in a vacuum as wall as p~,a?~a.num, a. ~ ro en and argon. ~o~vden and hu~has, ~,n study~.ng ~.n pure hyd ~ is of ~r~.ctian i'or capper, na.cke7., bald, and tha aoaff~c~,en ? tharau h~.y decontam~.na?~sd Exam sur~'ace admixtures tungsten, ~ atom ara.ng, also obtained the same results in vacuum, by vacuum p na.tra ren~ Howavsr, the adma.ttanc? o~ even traces hydra~sn, and ~ n im~nsd~.ate reducttion 3.n tha caef~'a.cient o:f of air Doused a eta ~th? fo1^rnat~.on oaf axa.dat~.on f:i~.ms~ 'S'he ad? fr~ct~on, du w ter ~~a ar, conden. atin~ at raozn te7npvrature in SUrpt.Lal1 of a p . ~ taus shs.rpl'y reduces cohesion. `~ha admissS.an l~.qu~.d or sol~.d s , of asolins vapors a.n thg 'Holm and ~irchsteill ox- into vacuwn ~ (1~2) r tho resenca of mercury vapors in the Bowden por~..meni;s o p rimantu, reduced cohesion and fra.ctian consider- and H.u~;hs s exile ably. vs citad examples, if not analyzed with ~rsat cars, ~'he abo ha erroneous conclusion that noticeable cahe5ion may S.ead to t bstwc~en ur? surfa.cas only, and that s~~r~'aco ~,y bra observed p ? b - t~ha~nsslves, will pract3.cally reduce cohes:~on adm~.xtUrsS? ~+ zarap Such a v~,ewpo~.nt would be practically betwcen sur.Faces to dm~.ssian that there sx~.st two classes off' sub? equivalent to an a with considerable cohesion at contact, and impure, stances . pure, t contact pI'acti caJ.ly absent. borne authors do w~.th col~as~on a to this viewpaintr thus, Jones takes pains in par~- subscr~.be zin tho urity of the metal and assumes that, l~iJ.~iuyaarly slnphasl ~ p a uate ds rea a~' purity, the welding of metals may ~rantad an ad q ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 hrafi,in~; and wa,th bha app7?~aa~iaa~ a~ v9ry be accamp~~shcad w~~thoub ~.ow pro gsure s. ~ an examples of tough cohesian, in. the Neverth,o ,_~ s s , 7n y ' xt,ures, may be cibed. `rha difficulties presence of surft~ce adm~. chana.sir~s and macha.nery ~~'~ 'was ste,nd:>.n.g of disassembla,ng me lads due to bough cahesian b?tween bhe idle Door Long par , armatian of surface axides (rush), pares as a resulb ai' the f n knawledgo. 'f he dry lids of das~.ccators i s a m,~tter of commo ? Sian while it is very hard to dabach da not man~.fest a~.y cv1~? ~ faces ltd frcarn bhe wetted and lubricated sur a vaselii~.e-covered nsiderable cohesion b?bween particles than ~ta dry arras. A co urntl absarved, In yards of machines of axides is very f~"aq y ' dined ~ts bhe forrns.tian of solid lumps from axi building plan , r Ved. Methods for developing cohesion metal chips can be obaer ' xc~d ~.n? titles by way of oxidation are utili between metal par i es packing ' 11 . Far sealing butt~jo~ints in water p p ~ dustria y with the addit~.an of small quantities with cast iron chips, ~ chloride, and water, to induce th.a sur?- ?f sulfur, ammoni articles, is resorted too F'allaw~? face oxidation of the chip p ~ tionally well set mass is formed, ~rhe ing oxa.da~~ion, an ex~op titles of which and bhe pipe walls is cohesion between the per are difficult to remove during repairs. so great that the, ition was used far the sealing of the Thn same tempos ' tan subway tubin~,s ? Some methods butt-joints in the metrapoli ? n axe based an the addibian and sub ?f iron are agglomerabio of iron or cast-iron dust particles. sequeni~ oxidation Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ace adma.xture s fac~.lstate s the dig- The presence of surf of a contact between two oxidized Not so is the case It of cold deformatian under t was formed as a resu ,t sedn surfaces tha ires . ressure. Such a contact is a s the effect of external p t? n o remo~~~al of the pressure, no ap~al~.ca a contact, and, upon the ince ? uir?d for its disruption, s of external forces will be r q the f internal. stresses as a result o it will be d~.srupted by elastic aftflref fact in unloading. . n Sed.~~ contact for the following reasons rapid. an o.~ sire s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 atura~. tQ pase the question as ?~? It ~.s, therefare~ n surface adm.~.~uras of oxides and. why, i~. some cases, small. e cohesion between two pieces of water vapors will disrupt th ce her cases, the formation of surfa pure metal, whale, in of will. effect of the air and moisture, oxides, as a result of the between pieces off' metal, when laid up ~.vad to the cohesion o?var a period of timv~ uestion was alrbady given in part The answer to th~.s q that subdivisions of this book As a in p~.ragraph 9 a~td o ' n during the periods of idla.ng, the result of rust formata.o daces. he g aces between th? contiguous iron su o:Xa.des f~.ll t p tact surface is non~s~tressed ar, at any The thus formed con ~ abl below the its internal. stresses are consider y rate, pntact between such oxidized surfac?s value. Therefore, th? c sion for th? disruption of which is distinguished by tough cope , ' arable external forces are required rather consid Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The effect of surface admixtures an the toughness of a ~istressed~i contact ~ can be l,llustrated by examples. Bri uettes of th? follow:~ng materials were pressed under a ure of 3 U~?0 kilagrams per square centimeter; (1) from a press , awd?rs; (~) from very fine soatwgraphite; (3) from. mix a.ron p was thoroughly intermixed with the Iran powders in such a way the Iran s.rt~.cles ware enveloped by the particles of that p hite and the aon~ract between t'rie iran p~~rticles was efa grap , throuTh a graphi~~e film. The pure iron powder briquettes f4C~ed b of iron. owders with 2 percent graphite The graphite t~,,r o s p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~, , if th? basic metal is hs.rder than thv e,dmixtur?~ ~} 'n ~~,he case of a~.l films), thc~ disrupt~,Gn 3.s facilitated (as a. act that the s~,ze of the contact sur~'aca is determined by the ~' he sbran'bh of the metal, and, the tensile strength of the by t ~ contact ~~ by the strength of the admixtures. '~ if the admixtures are harder than thQ basic metal ~ )~ as i'ar e;~ample, aluminum oxide), the disrupt~,on of the cone tact will be promoted by two factors: a although the CF~~' value far the brittle oxide ~) reefer than for the metal, its resistance to disruptian ~.s ~ is, on the conta?ary, less than far the metal; ~b} since the ~~~value for the ax~.de, in this case, th?~absolute size of the elastic ~.s graa~ter than for the metal, atian of the contact sections in unloading (paragraph 9, deform Table 9} will also be greater. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and the ure grapha.te briquettes were of adequate toughness, p while the ~,ran?~graphita mixture bra.quettes lacl~ad toughness d showed cracks, duE~ to the elastic afteraffect upon the an ~ oval of the pressure This expe'r~.mant revealed that the rim a uata cohesion in the presence of surface admixtures a.s ~.nad q nl to the low toughness of the contact (pure graphite due net a y ure iron contacts had considerable toughness}, but also and p res in the value o~f the cri.tia~~l st~~ess C:3~1~. as to the da.f:feren. be~LWeen ~~.hr~ ~t^s,,,h;i.te and thF~ iran~ As ano~~har example, we ~~?1 cite the commonly known ring of stressed brass. Inthis case, internal elan anon tensian,s cause ~thv~~?a:~~-~~he mctal as a re~ g . sul~t of the weakena.ng a~' the bond bvtwean the brass uly~_. 7'n selective corras~.one This axamp].a indicates that follo~v~. g combination of the effect of internal stresses with the the enc~~ of adrna.xtu,res may lead not only to the disruption Ares act between metals, but also to the disintegration of of cant the ~iti~~te 1 itself . x eriments, which may help in the quantitative evaluate ~p tion of contact toughness between pure metallic surfaces, are ~~ erous~ As per the data gathered by Halm. and his collabor- no ~ nuln the cah?sion between nickel contacts in vacuum, upon the atars of the load, amounted to 70 percent of the previously removal lied rassure, while in the air, cohesion amounted to zero. app p later thesis, Holrn, while making computations orl the basis In a measurin the coefficient of friction and contact eanduc~ of g Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ the cohesion tou~hnass of a nick?~, tivity, d~.sco'vored the ~, ~,~ ?i~ht timos greater than the temporary contact in vacu na ~~alxn explains this 1~.~;h va~.ue off' resistance to disruptia b ~~he fact that the temporary resistance aohesian tau~hness y . balaw the rc~a1 tou~hnvss off' the metaa. to disrupt:~on is always he res?nca of 1oca1 structural defec~ts~ due tot p tad that temporary resistaraae to rupture, It must be no tial crass sactxan area o~f the spQCiman, as related to th.e ini of ~t;hQ actual tensile stress at the ~. s zaot character ~. sti c area at as related to the transverse seot~.on braaki ng poa.nt, (146) aks Fi~ura 13 shows the Stead diagram the moment of the bra or as related al tansians during the elongation of cope of the ac,tu ' n of the specimen, with. the reduction to the actual cross seotlo ea durin>r the test taken into account i~~ rho c~'ass.. secta.an ar ~u ~x Ratio of diame~tar to i~.tial diameter actual tensions during the elongation Figure 13, Tho diagram of ~, non-cald~hardaned; (2) deformed of C0 pax (as par Stead) ~ ( ) p t. 3 deformed to file extant of $4 () to the e~,tant of 23 percen ~ pprcante Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The follow. deductions z~ay be drawn fro~~i this d~,agrarns ( ~,) ~ The actual tens~.an at the moment of xupturv far nancoldwhard?ned copper was 5Q ka.iograms par square ma,ll~.meter, w}~iich is ' times gxeatex than the temporary resistancQ and somewhat gr?ater than 'the critical stress cry for nonMco~,d-harden ed copper. Such results are natured, since elongation was in excess of the co~.d-hardness (2). The actual tensian at the mom?nt off' rupture was approximately the same for bath the cold-hardened and nan- cold-hardened specimens, which is natural, since d~a~'orme.+,ia,'~ considera,b~.y toughens the non~ca~.d-hardenad copper and does not toughen the maximum coldahardenod ca}aper. (3). The diagram permits t}ao extrapolation of the thearetica~. resistance of a material to rupture, which is to exist under conditions 4f reduced cross section areas down to zero Such extrapols.~ed va1,ues of tensile str4ngth con- vey a ~'or cald?hardened and non-cold hardened specimons at one g Dint, and constitute about 90 kilograms per square millimieter, p i.e. about 2~ to 3 times greater than th~~ critical stress GYM and 4 to 5 times greater than the temporary resistance to rup~ fora of nan?~cold-hardened coppe1". Acrarda.ng to O'Neil, such theoretically extrapolated tensian value is three times greater than the r~ value of non cold-hardened and 4 to 7 times greater than t hfl temporary resistance to rupture a the same Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 umad with adequate plaus~.ballty tha'~ the It may ba ass teat between pur4ly meta~,l.~.a surfaaas ~.s strr~n~th of the can time ardor as the strength of the mata~ a magnitude of the s re matall~.a surfacQS,. the internal Thus, in the ease o:~ pu crit~.cal ,'tress value ,cannot induce strassc~s, equal to tho ntact since the actue~l contact strQngth thQ disruptzan of the ca ~ ~'~ value a~f ~thn pure nan-~to~u~henad mAtal~ may exceed th? ~, surface, upon the removal of the load, Hence, such a contact wall retain tits initaa~ d~:mansinn~o sear to underscore that tho residual. ~awaV'~r , ~,t 1 s na G e ~ ' a],sa be a stressed surface, at being the case surfac.? w~.ll ual the ~, ;~:. Q ma nitude of tho contact stresses will eq that th ~ value. ' c surfaaas with adm~.xtures, as already in- xn metall~. h 9 Table 9, the rotaanang o:f some part dicated an paragrap a . face u on the removal of the lead is mare of the contact sur p re of tungsten than in the case of lead. tames greater aYi the ca'' babi~it ,the resistances to rupture of the Whereas, ~.n a11. pro ~' ' Lun titan and ].cad are much less apart. Thare- surface f~.l,ms an g .__._. .. ' sated cause of this phonamonor. (a To the alrear~y a.nd~. taon value of the contact s?ctions in the lowor elast~.c def orme. . t metals } , ].et us add the .follov~.ng ; case of sof ram Table 9, the elastic stress (equal (~,~. To quote f tending to d1grupt the contact, is 160 ~~' ~ value) ~ to the ~,:1' ~Y-b,eb7.e in the case of metals of lower hardnoss. p~ u .. . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 r?~.eased by the removal of thv ~,aad, fora, ~k~e ea?e.stic forces, u ?~ the aan~a.~nlns,tec3 tungstan can?Lt~cts wi~.~~ mare ns,sily disr p ~,he.n th,ase of ~,ead. e same load, a lead surfac? is subaec't (~), Under th ACC times greater than t~ ~tungstan surfac?. to a deforn~atian thexe is a {;rest?r drawing off Th.erefar?, in the case o.~i Lead, , surface t~dill.iY'tures, a9 a result of the ex- and d~.sple?Gernent of rmation to a greater depth, the pressing tension of plastic defo and the advancing of new surface sections. out of the admixtures, f't metals, such as tin and lead, are at ~~)? Very so .fusible metals, with. a temporatu~?e of rew the same time easily e rossian (repose) near roam temperature crystallization and r g ? ,the '~strainn of the contact is possible Hence, a diminuta.on ~n ? of regress7.on and recrystallization. at the expens scam?nt of tha Contact Surfaca in Sliding 11. Thd Dz p ~.~.~ ? f bodies in ~t;he direction of their plane ~'he sliding, a ~~. M?w+c g is linked 'to a ~erieS of phenomena. ) In sliding, the pra,rious cOn~;S.at 56Ctiana a~?e disple?ced and formed sections which, in turn, are dis- substituted by newly laced and substitut?d by athors, etc? p ni;erference ir,~ sliding, work is expendedA '~a overcome ~ riction. Part of this work is expended the s o~ cal led work o f f the cohesion between the contact sections for the d~,sruption of Another pa~'u of the womb is used to overcame of the surface. tween the surface protubaran,ces, far the the enga~,ement b? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 acaompl~,shm~ex~,t of which the protuberances mush be da~'arn~ed. The defarmatiari of the protuberances may be e~.astic, plast~,a, or br~.ttla~ ~'he work of bear~,ngs furnishes a series of examples showing that in friction a~~. these types of wank ocaur~ In the set zar~ of bearings, cohesion betw~sen the beara.ng bushix~tg and the shaft occurs, as a result o:f' which pi~rt of the bearing ~r~aterie.~. is forced aff and adheres to the shaft As a result of plastic deformation, the surface of the bearing is run ire to the shaft, whi~.e britt~.o axed abrasive deformation result in the wearing out of the bearing and tho shaft. path of displacement, is also in direct ratio to the contact d?formatiUn). Hence, the total work of friction, far the given the irregulara.ta.es, forming the contact, the,t era subject to in direct ratio to the contact area (since it is specifically The work expended far the disruption of cohesion is izi direct ratio to the sire of contact surface (for brevity, we use in this paragraph the expression '~contaet surfa.ce'~ in place of "th? pro,jection of the contact surface upaia tY~e plane of sliding"). Thn work used to overcome the engagement between the iY?regule.ritie a.i ttYe surface through deformation, is also surfac? ;`~ is the pro~ectian of the contact surface upon the is the constant coefficient Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 , , tomb law on the direct r ~. xence ~ the AmoutonwCon n az~d the no r~r~al load ?~-,~,a~n the, force of frictia _ is the critical stress where ~ , 0 ~ 1 ~ ~ ooeff~.r.,~-ent off' fra.ot~.on. re ~. s the constant whe Zed by Bowdon and Leben, as ana~.y This ratio, ~'ootnote? stat~.c ?~ nature. ~'""~~ a statisb~-cal L wden and 'l'abor, ~.s of ~ otion, in and by Bo the coefficient of frti 11 ,the magna.tudo of actua y oscillates at all times. slidinga In this transformed into heat The wax's of friction ~.s as demonstrated furs of the surfe,ce layer, the temp9ra and, in the ~rocQSS: high, 1er(a~, , mad become verb' b~ Bowden and Ra.d 'ding, it mar reach the id.erable speeds of sly. presence of cons melting point Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 cap also be prasen~c~d ass This equatlan ~~ ~ ~ ~~ `" ~r~,ct~on a.~e~, the farce a~' s tha farce of fx~Ct~.an~ whore ~ ~ ct surface t a to ~,he con s alsa fir, direct raga ~ ~, , as per the contact sur~a'Ce ~ ThQ proaeotian of direct ratio to load P~ f'orrnula. (6~2~, is 1r~ ~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,r 1 ,. ~ the fr~at~.an :f.orcQS and tl~e ao?~~'ia~?nts' 2hd magn~.?~uda s a ' cti on de and gxeat~,~-' an the sur Face adm~.x~tur43 e ~ xn ~~he of fra. p b Bowden and Hughes ~w~.th pure metal surf'aceq af' exper~,ments y nickel., capper', and ga~.d, atta~.ned through vacuum tungsten, faction of vacuum b?1ow l.Qw~ m~,l.l.a.meters}, the hardena.ng (rare C~,ent9 of fr1ctian Wera w~.th~.r~ th? range of ~.5 to 5. coef Via. he same metals, with surfaces contam~.nated by adm~.xtures, al.ue of f 0.3 to 0.6? ~'~,gure '14, as per Campbell., showed a v r. ~.7.lustration of the d.rap in the stat~,c coeffa.ca.ent a,s a graph. ' ' on of corpei~ against copper ~n rcal~ata.on to the tha.ck~ of fra.cta r Hess of the surf ac? sulfa.de fa.1.m: ' ure 1~. Ratio between ca?ffieient of fricta.on and surface F ~~ uestian as to what pe.r't of the work and the fr~.ction The q n umed for the disruption of cohesion and What pert fCrC"?c 3 S Cd 5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,~ oor1~~'~mad ~~'or 'l;h~ ~1~+,~~rrnr~~~,~ta o!' ~~h~ c~a~r,~rf~.d~a~G au~~"1"~~a+~ ,1,~ a:G' 1a~~~~.~; 1~m~ox~ 1:~,~t~~;~ ~ J'.'L u~a:r r~a.~o bay ~'~~rn~ua.fa'l,~~l, ~~ ,C'o1~1 ~awa~ i ~,rq '~~~r~ ~ah~norri.ar,~ a.f.` ~L',~~~lc~',f.r~x~, ha~;1.~-~;ti1.'l.,Y, ~ rnax~i~,:f'a~~~F~'1~;9,r~~~ ?7.f' nr~r~ ~ur~~'~cA aoht,;~,t.on, Qr ~r~ ~Ll~~y ~;1.~a ~ m~rrai.f'~t~~~.l~:l,or~ v~~ 'Lh~ vo1.umca'Gr~.o (da.Ca'r~rtt~t.'1,1,o.n o.~ l;h~ daa'~~~r a.i~yaz~~) ~~ro~~~r~"'l;~l,a~ o,~ 111U'~;dlla. ? ~itz:r~rly, ~,C'o~rt7,~.i~~on., ~~~ol.rn, ra,rrCi o'~Nter~ ~~~~ur~M~~~ '1;hr~~l; ~'r.;1,o'h~i,ar1 ~ p.~].ma,;~~ ~~r~~l;~.r~7~.y ~~'l;~rm~.r:te,d ~b;y ~suht,~ia~x,. 1~~~~;h~m ~v+~rra ~Lk'rH~,'~ ~~l~r~ ,~,~,>!axi.nnam ~w'ar~~~~. 4.f ,['7~~.a~l;~.~rr ~.~ ~;?r~,~~umod t'or ~~h~ av~~~,ro~~rnS,n~; o~l~` an- har~:9.o~xr, rand on~.;y a.0 '~o ~0 ~arr~~,n:~~ ~'or ~l;~~a cla,f,"vrrax~~~l,;l,?~r off' ~~r~p~ Luborarra~~. aoa:f.f'~.c.~.an'~ o.C :Cr;1.al;i.ar- U1 irre u],ar fraction, or in percent 1 is expross?d by an ~ low~.n~ b which the volume of the free-~ the number of t~.m?s y atoria:l ~ ~'~ than the volume of the ~.n~t~-&~ m occup~.e y ~ or a.n n abstract number, a r?gular fract~.on, is ?xpressed by s, ~9 ~~ pprCen a ..a an abstract number indicating (~) Rela.ta~ve vo~.um ' characterizes the part of the volume ~ Poros~.ty () ores usually expressed irn, percent that iS occupi?d by the p ~, (~) Coefx"~c~.ent of poros1ty an abstract number e Volume of the pores to th? total. indicating the ra'~io of th 'n body. It is expressed by an ab?~ of the free flows. ~ volume value from . or in parce.nt, and it may assume any s tract number,. zero to ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Or between tha ~?oo~f~-cisn~ of porasa~by and The re~ti.o porosity is expressed by formulas. .c~ ~ .... n and r .,... (146) C1 (14/x) .r with tho volume, the magni~~ude of all other Togethe ? ~ f the orous body undergoos a change. The aharacber~.sb~-cs o ~ uentl arises for the use of the so?-called necess~.ty freq ~' ~i ~o nitudes, i.e., magnitudes corres~~ond~.n~; to a co7rtM reduced mag ct bod of the sam4 mass as the porous body. pa y a few examp~.es. Thn "1 educed" volume of a Let us cite the volume of the compact material f rd e-f lawin~ bady ~ a. s (the 'skeleton") of the powder. (149) Yter? ~ is the volum? of the porous bady, w is its relative density. t "~ hei ht ~ of a powder press-maid chs,rge Th? 4~educad g . ri uette, with the same cross section is the height of a,.b q com reseed to a c~arnpact st>~.te i p '~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 : CIA RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 where ~1 ~,s ~hci he~gh~ of the porous body, is ~~s re~~,t~.ve dens~.~y~ the "reduced' spoc3.~'i.a work off' compressa.on is rho work a.~ Makes ~a compross a quan~iby of powder cor~~espond~n~; ~o ~. cub~.c eent~.mctex o:f compact ma~aria~.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~i~~~~~~' ~~ a~, ~~~~ ~Q~D~~ ~ ? ~~Fa~~~~~a~ cap ~pnexa~ Notes the at~,on a,n cha~~e o~ ~.~~ ~arm? Deform of ~th~.s w0~~'' ~S ~ ac.~ maba'~ ere m?~'n~' ~~ ti ion ~n a c o~np 1~tera~. de~orma ~e- dur~.n~ th? be disre~e,rded~ metra. c change ~ they can usually ~~, cant that not only ~.ts f orl~ a ,.~, tnS~~~' _ a,r chfl,n~83 on In a ?reeM~lo~~~~, .,_ - ~ o he volume ~$ usua~~y ~ ., ~oxYnat~ xn press~.n~; ~ t oros~t'1? lts v0~,ume ~ the d~.~nut~'0n ~n ~ . a bu't also onse ~ tames at the e~p duced 3 to eas~eSt to observe ~? compact b?d~.es is t oly" ~,t~.on o} t~.on ~n ca.n~?ac ~ the deform a o~ de~or"~' ~h? PhenOm?n re coz~ptieX ~'s bhe in monocrystals~ Sty./l mo s are mox,e complex' de forina'~~.on cr stab. i c meta~- Y odios. Durln~ the ,~ free.flow~.n~ b ?ach crystal/lte d$ foxmatlon ? the ou,~l~nes of crystal ~ of the ad~aGOri~ of a compact p?ly ~ n the boundar~.es the changes ~ change ces fully lso reproduces the raprodu a ~ re?~'s~on~ a . ~ , compress r less p w~.th more o example, ~r.. ra~,n, For ~ ~ body? on t~ e . c~~oss sec ~n o~ the entir , ~orrespond~.n~ ~n the ??r ,_,~, _ ~~~ ~,~~+ S~Z~' ~._ th.e cam,,. _ ~ _ ~,~ 1.~ Sj, xU o ~ur~n~ _? ; n~4t to ra~.n is s'ls? reQuc~~ - to a e?rta~.n a~~,} ~'- ay ~ s ar~~i.cles m of the e of wders ~ .the p d the outl~.n press~.on of p? b?dles a an ndivldual f ~.ts ~ , dine o n as ~ reprodue? the ou sustain def ormat~0 t y l y e must n?t exac chs,n~es not on cl ty oes - but un,der~ each par body r free..flow~n~ A e articles px ope ne,~~hbors. atiou of th p m erase of the defor at the exp Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 acar~enb a~' th? ~.abber and bho change 3.n also d~aQ 'to the d~spl res. Hvnca, in comprdssi~ag a briqueb'~e 'the vo~.utne a;f the po the corraspanding cross suction of bhe par- ta half its size, titles may remain almost tha same. es o~ deformation and dis.. ~'iguro 29 shows various byp akin lacr~ during bhe de~'armabian of pa.acement o~ particles b ~ p y a metal powder. c, ~,,- ~ 2 ~ nt of articles in deformabtion; a. the F~~ 29. U~.splac?ma p G ijhe titles; b. bhe diverging of particles, ? converging of par . d. the rotation of part~.clos; ee dis_ sliding of parti c~.cs, placement with subdivision. ~in of particles (Figure 29,a), leading (a) The oonve r~, g actions (in the first stage of drawn to an incr. eas? in contact s , ntact Qb b?tween tho particldsj. ing close there may be no co Y ;~ articles (Figure 29,b}, leading bo (b) The diverging o p t sections (the diverging; of pcrticles may a decrease in contac end by disruption of contact). rticles accompanied by a displacement (c) The sliding of pa o~ contact sections (Figure 29,c) ~e,tian of particles (Figure 29,d). (d} Rot articles linked with their subdi? (e) Displacement of p rasive de~arr~~tion (Figure ~9,e) , vision as a result o~ brittle and ab t ., ~~ , , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 dis ].acemgnt of 'the aangloxnerata particles, as analyzed The p ~~ sticall ,and also th? displacemen't of an indiv'idua7. par- sta ~. y ~,a si.multaneougly occur ~.n several types of deforrnation~ ticle, y instance, a particle may b? dis~alacvd, with reference to For ta.cle according to type ~, and with rifer.enc? to anathor onn par , particle, acaording to .type bo n ressing, powders may sustain simultaneously els.stic, I p 'brittle, and plasta.c deformation of their particles. she contact phenomena in powders are also mare complex. the case of solid bodies, the contact surface may, in a In r of cases, b9 considered as situated in one plane. In numbs -~flawin bodies, the contact suctions of the the case of free g ?ticles are situated in many layers and in all directions par ~he ressure applied. In compact bodies, we could analyze to ~ p rate/ the change i n th? size of the contact surface under saps Y ~' normal forces, and its displacement and?~? the effect the ef~ect a of tan enta.al forces. 7.n prass].ng frr~e-flowing bodies, same g antac?t sections are subject to the effect of normal forces, c other contact sections, to the effect of, tangential farces, `Il other sections, to the effect of both normal and tan- stx rces. Hence, the change in the size of the contact gen?~~.al fa cannot be analyzed separately from its displacement. surface a contact surface in free-flowing bodies is The concept of of a s?tatistic~l nature. Final/ even simple and conventional concepts. such as y~ r~lpi ~ 'z ? 111 - ~~ ~~ 414, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s~~xc~ss and cross seotion, when applied to freewflowiHg bad~.es, become complex In compact ma'~als, stress is determined by the ratio of doformat~.on force P to the area o.f the ~.Htarsection of the specimen by a plane Harms]. to the da.recti.an of thcj fares (sao Fi~;ura 30,a} o .T.n '~,hea casr~ o!' powder: , stress cannot be determirtad by dividing the deformation force F by the entire area of the tra~,rasverse section of the free-flawing body, since stress is not transmitted through the pores. Obvious~.y, tho force is to be related only to the part of the transvars? section which is not occupied by the pores. But it is nat.. difficult to see that these parts of tho area are by far not the same for a number of pare/] Al intersections of the free?flo~v~.ng rrdy, r`or instance, in the intersection by plena 1-1, the stresses are transa~ittad through its entire area, while in the intersection by plane 2-2, the stresses are transmitted only through a small area of the intersection (sea Figure 30,b). Figure 30o Intersections normal to the acting Force; a. in compact metal; b. in powdered metal. Hence, the process?s of deformation of Eros-flowing bodies may, at the first glance, seam ?xcaptionally complex. Nevertheless, many phanomana ocouring during the daforncatiaH owdars are o~ the contrary, mares s~.mp]-e than 3.n compact of p bodies. A].1 the properties of compact bodies are related in a -112 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 aompl~+x mt~nner to both the propert~.es of th? crystal].~.tes, rota which they are livid?d, as weld, as to the charact4x~is- t~,es of the bond be'~ween, th.e orygtallites~ For instance, a fracture as a result of thQ deformation in a compact meta may be either in?~raarystalline or 3,nte~~ax?ys~tal~.~.ne, depending on which off' the two i s the greater strength zn powder briw que~=t's, the contact surface is so insignificant that the str?ngth of the conglomerate is always determined, not by the strength of the particles, but by the strength of the bond between them, and fractures, when oacuring, wi~.l run not through the pe,rticles, but between them (Footnote The strength of compressed briquettes is fre uently tens and hundreds of tunes below the strength of q the corresponding 'compact metals)d Subsequ?ntly, we will see that not only str?ngth, but also other prop?rties of briquettes, such as electrical conductivity, hardness, are -rcontact" properties, and they run in vary simple relation to the size of the contact surface Footnote. This is not to be understood in the sense that r. o erties of pawders do not depend on the ma,teria~. of the par., p p tides, but only on the contact between them. As we will see subse uently, the properties of the material of the particles q not the nature per. se of the ratio between the degree stipulate contact and the properties, but the magni.~;ude of the numerical of coefficients ~.n th?se ratios. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Contact phenomena in campacb bod~,es seem to be mare ? n in free flawing bodies until such time only as we sa,rr~ple tha ? ernal contact between various badies~ When deal w~.th the ex~t to the internal contact between bha gains of a aomM passing on these phenomena became more carnplex~ In bhe case pact body, cam rased as well as non-compressed), all the of powders ( p sections of bhe internal contact surface the surface etween the partic~.es) are "sbressed" ~ It being of contact b asses er unit of area of the pra~ectio n the casa that the str p et u on a plane norrrtaJ. to the pressure are the of the c~ nta p the critical each section, and they equal ~~ 9 same ~. n t which non-reversible deformation begins In a stress, a he intergranular contact is effected along the compact body, b ' ost the entire) surface of the grains. During entire for alm of a compact body, the internal contact surface def armat~-on m a non stressed to a "stress?d'~ abate, it being passes fro at the stresses, at various sections are nat the the ca,.e th be both equal to the ~ -value as well as below same , and may contact surx'ace of the particles of freoMfiawing tho same The as will be seen further down in the text, increases bad~.es, ? e with a simple qua>~titative ratio between pressure w~.th pr?ssur , and the size of the contact surface. The contact surface of the bodies, as shown by electrical conducbivity grains in compact . on the contrary, decreases with deformation, determa.nat~.ons, that it is difficult to astablish a definite it being the case between the size of the. contact surf ace and quantibati4e rat~.o Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the degree 0~' defor7rtati0n~ In order to in~,roduoe clarity into the study of de~ Formation in :free-flowing bodies, it is necessary to specify more accurately the concepts "stress" and 'tcross section" as applied to powder metals (see paragraph 7.~i)? 16? Maximum S'treoses and Ma.nimum Cross Sections in. ~'owder }3odies ? patio between Contact Surface and pressure It is simple to reala..ze that in the compression ar in the elongation of a corrtpact meta. (see paragraph 15, Figure 30,a~, the intersection by a plane norrrtal to the acting farco has the minimum area as compared to all other cross sections. Tnverse? ly, the elongation or compression stress in this intersection has its maximum value. xn a compact metal specimen (see Figure 30,a), any intersection by a plane normal to the acting force has the same and the minim~zm area value. In cantradistincti~an to this, in the ce.se of pawder metal, various intersections by planes normal to the pressure have a different and usually not the minimum area, occupied by the metal (but not by the pares). We are primarily interested in intersections wa.th mininnam mete,/ surface values ? These, being the most attenuated spats, with 'the maximum concentration of stresses, deter~r~ine the toughness and the behavior of the pavrder metal in deformati,on? As a rule, the intersection of the pov~der metal by a piano normal 'to pressure, will not be the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ri1aSt at'~ea~ua,ted, since ~,'~ runs not only be'~Ween th0 part~.Cles, but also through them. The mast attenuated intersection w~.th min,ir~,um area is the intersection by a broken surfaca which passes axclusively through the poxes and through the sections of mutual contact. Lot us have in a prE~ss mold a rectangular pavrder br3.quotte under pressure P, and let HH be its intersection by a horizontal plane see Figure 3l}, Plane HH intersects one layer of par tides. The surface of the contact of this "solitary" layer of particles with t:he next horizontal solitary layer in Figure ail a.s indicated by heavy ].fines ~Tt must be remembered that the "solitary" layer is rather a mathematical than a physical concept). ~~ __..~--~ b Figure 3l, Contact surw Figure ~2. Contact section; fare of "solitary's layer harizantal dotpa.nd~dash line H ~ H indicates the transverse, the broken datMandwdash line indicates the contact section; the dotted parts of tl~.e broken line pass through the pares, the solid parts pass through the contact sections Let us nova turn to the projection ~ of ;his contact surface upon the p],ane HH, or, which is .the same, the broken surface forme. by the sections of the planes passing through ,, iii I ;i ij Y~.~ ii ~? ~ .:~~ ^~rc... ~ :~. .~i, ...; y. ;' i ,'_~ ~ ~~~~; , ~ ~~ , ~, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ure 32) , the area of which s the dotted lanes in Fig aralle~. the poxe ( banes p ~ and the seatians of` the p . is not taken ~nta accoun ~ ns the. fatal eras a~t;hwart the contact sectio , e.ssing . to HMI and p t surface AH a:s It is easily realized the being equal to ~~ ~'"' is the nd the oorresponding stress the minimum S1zr face, a the stress at any other inter ximum stress as compared to ma the intersection ubse cent text, for brovity~ section. Tn the s q es be referred to ace (Figuro 32) will samet~.m by a broken surf as the ~ taco ~~~ litany layer to the noxt is r~he pressure P from one so urface of the contact seC~~ions transmitted only through the s ' erin the free flowing body a er. H?nce, when cans~.d g of this 1 y (articles), it becomes omeration of compact bodies p as a congl to write do~i nce with formula (6~2) oossible, in accords L ~ ~ (101) ~ ~ ~"~ ~~ ss which is approximately cones (~ is the critical sire where ~ ~ is the projection attain pr6SSUre interval, AH scant within. a c la er upon ., ?of a horizontal solitary y of the contact sumac the magnitude of A~ lane. For further brevity a horizontal. p sol.iw the contact surf ace ?f th? 11 be referred to as s~-mply wi 'the critical ? la er, or the contact section Lary horizantal y coincides with ? the case in compact mewls, stress ~ ' ss ~s de tee etal under a corresponding g the hardness o f the powder m se to its Brinell and dickers tou herring, and is very clo of g 1~;r do?s s values . ~;~., ~ ., .~ ~ ~ ~ Declassifie n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a.fied in a~ctendin~ the princip~,e aF 'thus , we are oust aontact suxface aF horizontal salitaxy proportional la.m~t ~a the la ers, which are perpendicular to pressure. Y n~ f armula (161) that the surface of any It f a~.laws fro ar ~. s the same (if the lasses aF Fracture solitaxy horizontal lay e arded)? 'nst the walls of the press mold are disr g to friction agar. la?stic doforma,tian of cast metals, th? cross Zn the e ' si niFicantly that it can be regarded section changes so ~n g while the stresses change in direct practically as constant, ad. xn the nary-reversible deformation ratio to the external la h on the contrary, in conformance wet of powder briquettes, c if toughening is disregarded) formula (16~1)~ the strQSaes ant and the area of the contact section are practically const ~ hi ' -- ct rati a to the load. This correlations p A' varies a.n da.~ e H more complex than the is arsly less usue.l but, by no means, elastic deformation of compact m?tals. carrelatiar~ship a.n the ler than the corresponding ~correlation- At any rate, it is situp formation of compact metals, when both ship in the plasta-c de ses and the crass sections undergo changes. the sires sioal State of hen ?s in the Structure and in the phy 17 . C ~ powders Induced by Compression insi nificant) consolidation of powders Any (even the most g ~n the cont'.act surface of the particles promotes an increase ~. andreversible deformation, which stipu~ and is accompanied by n re and raperties aF the powder fates changes in the structu p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 coz~~lomerate. fain pawdc~~~s, stitch s,s rc~ci~;,csd ua,~pvx, The ps,rrt~.aa.es of car re fled In by Faroes of cahasion Iron, nickel, cobalt, tun~stvn, a a h l2, Figure 16}~ ~:r~ press~?n~~ into lame s,~~~,amerates (para~r p into lnda.~v~,dual parl;iclae? if s~xc;h con~;lo,nvrt~tHS e,r? bra~~on up ak a ..hs articles of the a~~lomor.at? tis we r the band bettye8n. ~ p antimvter wild. are of 5evsral kila~rams per square c mere preys There occur, however, ?vsry tauh be sufficient to break lt~ g of ich canna's bo smashed even by pressure a~~lomerates, wh d kila~rams per square centimeter. sevexal thousan ~ salt of brittle d?farms.tian, not xn same asses , as a - e articles, but the part~a.clss th?mM only the a~c~lomeratss of p ? e, rated. This phenomenon occurs very selves become d~.slnt ~ ~ substances, while, thc~ corcipression of non~?metall.~.c ;frequently dura.n~ cent, lances, its occurrence is less fraq i:r~, the case of metallic subs rfhin rs with brittl~3 and hard par~ticlvs. prsdaminantly in powds sion. fib" ? s are easily disinte~ratsd by c,ompres cast iron chtip ? hs s littin~.?off of surface sections rasive wear, man~.festsd by t p also linked to brittle deformation of the partic~.ss, a.s ' n of party-cles a,narsasns with the plast~.c defarrnata.o ~~ tho metal and with 'the comprQSSion softness and plast~.c~-ty of lien is manifested by lead and tin, pressure Maximum de.forma .stela. . e,tion, by carbides of the refractory m minimum deform . tho articles is localized in the seC? ~ls.stic defarmat~ox~ ?f p ~ tress contact which are subJQat to maxa.mum s liens of mutual w. , e, The deform?d vole increases more Q qua/ ,t o the ~~ vela .119 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 tact sl~rf acp (see ps,ra~raph B}; henc~+, rapidly than the con ? u heni~g duxir~~ aompressian inareasa pra" deformation and to ~ ever lamer areas and extending fram ~ressivoly, embrac~.~a~ v th o~ the pa.xticlas~ F~,uxe 33 shows the surfaco rota ~l;he d p der a ranule.ted capper powder camprassed un the particles of ~ ercent s or square millimeter to a ~5 p pressure of 40 ka?lo~ram p the rticlps ware spherical ire shapes paros~.ty~ A~t f~,rst, ~' t deformation was localized i.n 'the The ma.crophoto shows tha as a res~~lt of which the particles ac.. places of con~f;act, ~t drops: Figure 34, as per Goetzel, gaited the shape off' pol~he uetta with a twinning a micro hata of a capper powder brig is p riot to compression, re. the planes of twinning, which, p struc to 'phis flat ware considerably curved out? were absa~.ute~-.Y ,~ that lactic deformation extends from pha~tograph shows clearl,~ p anti c; ~. a s m ontact surf ace into thA depth off' the p the c Micraphoto owder briquette. Magnify-ed x 50~ Figure 33e Granulated copper p M.icrophoto electrolytic copper powder (as Figure 34~ briquette made ~'om ~~ 'on ressure was 63 kilograms per square per Goc~tzel}. Compress. p millimeter. Ma~n~-Pied x 504 .~ scion, the surface roughness of the As a resul~ of comps he author's axperiments with th? ad? particles :a:1sa changes `~ ' on is on owder surfaces, prior to campress~. sorption off' pigmen p sled a diminw com ress~.on and pulverization, haue rave ~,nd after P 120- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 aca~ a~'ter defarnlation~ The increase ut~.0~ Of thA ~pe4if ~.C ~Llxf . .seed owders (see T~b~.a l~) in the poura.Ag weight o.~ compre p a9t cases, a d~.minutian a,n roug]~ess~ also indicates, in m ~ smooth par'. ' ni~t~.a1 powders had suf fic~,ently 'However, ~f the ~. of re ular spherical shape), canti~ ta.cles (r~s, for instance, ~ ma' induce an i,ncxeaso in roughness pr cssian, an the cantrary, Y d in the size of the speci~'ic purpose. an a reductian in both interparticle Compress~an tinduces rositY~ it being the case tl~.at the as we].J. as intraparL2cle po ' a.led first. e the sire of the psrtiales are f~. largest poxes, abov ' ed in with the toughening of powders. Def oranation is t~ the rasence of alb. the indicatio1as Tr~ebiatowskiy ?stabl:~shed p ~,,tions and by hardness determinate of toughQning by ,.ray exams re of 300 bxi uettes compressed under a pressu Lions of copper q ercent. e millimeter to a porosity of ~ p kilograms per squat to rams reveal all indications Debyegrams ~Debye crys~al ~ ,~ disc pearance of the VanMArkel cf cold~hardaning, namely; the p the expansion of ~~he in~~.erferencc~ splitting of the return l~.nes, ed radiations The ~-ndicatians of lines, the increase in d~,f fus eratuxe. ? ear only with an increase in temp cold deformation disapp under a pressure the copper briquettes contpr essed The hardness of illimeter attained a value of 18U of 300 kilograms per square m Maximum hardness of deformed oast Drinell units, while the ? core, was only 1~0 ~BrineJ.l units copper, as determ~.ned by ~ ~,ct metal, s , th? change i n the Tn the deformation of comp ~12~.~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 7.e when the overall crass section overall. shape' for ?~camp , ~,s reduced by several t~.me ea, the core of a con~paat metal body the same t~ian of thn crysta~.s a.s reduced by responding; cross sea the orienta?~a.on of the crystals ~:s numbax of times, Hence, rl mani~'ested in deformed 'metals. Ilea Y furs of briquv'~tes reveals tha'~ the ~, s?~udy of the strut ~, to the . ~ rc~ew;elow~;Ln~ bodies basically is due no comprsss~n~ of ~ o th?a,r mutual of the ~,,rticles th?mselves, but t comprFjssin~ displacement and slidin~~ ct tha't campressian ~,n a number of. cases Foatnote~ 'the fa r?v~.ous contac ' disruption and displt~cement oz" the p causes the d follows from the break:i.ng up of between particles alrva y ? s A.n analysis of ,~h? slac~,rical con- parta.clo a~~lomerat~.on . s eve paragraph ~~) con~'irms the same. uvtte ductivity of bl"xq . ~ the au`~hor of powders with ~, mctallograph~c Study bJ . s non?compresssd as ws11. as paraders comM vgl~~.axial particle ~.tios and to a porosity ran~,~.n~ ~~^om grassed 'to various dens nt inclusive rovva~.ad the fallo~~.n~ 10 to 15 parts live flattanin~ of particl?s in the (1), No eaten nd ds a,rtur? o:g psrticles Pram pqu~- da.roction of campreSS~on a p e ar- ~i are 35~. Thv defnx?mation of th p a,xa.ality.was not~.ced ~~' ~ minantly in the places of mutual titles was localized predo contact ~122M Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _. .yM Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~, ~~ ~ ~, ' ation diagram: ao in~,tia]. porosity 5Q ~+~g ~ COn50~1d :.~ 26 preant; c. porosity zero percent; percent; b. poros.~ y p ' n due to the deformation of 'the particles d~ consolidata.o themselves in the direction of cornprassion. the numbar of par~~~-clew p?r unit (2), In corn~pressing, de area (for both the transverse and longi~ of the m~,cra~sli tivn was increasing in direct ratio to the tudinal Cross sec ) ' uette~ The numbar of particles per unit density of the bra.q so ear ing in proportion to density. This of length was al Y to aoincidss with the theoretical assumptiana expera.mental da olefin to coraprsssin~, by the filling of the by the author r g rticlss. Diagram in pores, with th? displacsmsnt a:f the pa, shows such a d~.splaGSment of particles at Figure 35 a,b,G in u~ the pores, in the pr?ssncs of which the expanse of f a.ll g P ticks er unit of von-tee, arse, and length the number of par p direct ratio to density. I{or purposes of com-~ is increased in bows the changs in the number of particles parisoY~ Figure ~5,d s orr~ation of the particles themselves in the duo to the def rn; ression? As Gan be seen, the number of direction off' co p lon itudinal direction (the direction of com~ part~.clss ~,n a g 'on to density (in an inverse ratio pr ession) is in pr~po_rt~ n a transverse di rsction -. in proportion to height), and ~. From diagram 35 (a,b, and c) to the square root of density. :.x,23- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,~~ fallaws that, i.n a briquette, the voluznetr~,o and suxf>~ae porasiity (the quota of pares ~'or thc~ grass se?t~.an area} and the linger porasity (thv quota o:F. parres par una~t a~' length} are mutually equal The absence of crys~allo~raphic orientation of the particles in co~,~tpressad brique~~tes is la.nlced to this nature of deformation of free-f lowing bodies (regardless of th? presence of structural ario~tation}, x~ray examinations by Trzobiatowsky(15~') ravoaled tho absence of texture in copper briquettes aomprassad under 300 k~.lograms pc~r square mil~a.i- meter to a practically compact state (porosity only 3 por- cent) Thus, the particles of the pawder era subjE;ct to a sort of magnifiod pressure, Already in the free pouring of the powder, the par titles orientate themselves, i.e., they dispose themselves with thea.r wider and flatter cross section normal to the force of gravity. Compression makes this orientati~an even mare pronouncr~d: with the narrow cross section a.n a longi- tud~.nal direction (tho direction of pressure), and with the wide cross section in a transverse direction, In compressed bod.a,es, ther? is not onl,~r an orientation of particles in relation to direction, but also a surface orientation, In the surface layers of briquettes, the particles are diseased predominantly with tha~.r wider side parallel to the surface (at the sides as well as at the faces)o ~? 12~~? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 rt~.c:~es wa.th non,~pqu~,a~~.a~. crass ThQ oxa.entat~vn of pa Attvs ed ~n the m~.arophatos of br~.qu sect~.ons can be abserv s,ctures of a~" wa~,l as ~,n some asses of fr ~~~.gure 36,b~~ e.s ready baked produats~ ~a) Microphato ~~ crapho'to ._....~.~...-.~-~ elative to f torn elactroly~,i c .tin po~vder, r F~~u~ ~, ~ra.quE~~t if~.ed x 500; a. trana~'erSe arass dens'i.ty 8G peraPnt, magn . ~ sections shaves the di~ section; b. lon~it~ad~nal cros~ rection of compress].an~ cturvs in baked capper mold~.z1~s Fa.pure 37 shows fra es an the ao per ore concentrate slim having flat parta.clss ~ p ?r on t~rticles ~eleatra~.y~~-o cope left) and more e quiaxial p tr. a?te sl~.mes show a lamellate the right) The capper cancan a?tion of the lamina Harms/ to cam- cleavage with an arient pressian? Microphato /late clea~~rage 3 on the right, a On 1,he left, a lame Figures;. finely granular frartureo so the pares in ?the briquettes, t only the par't~cles, but al No s the di- Wider crass section normal to axe orientated wa.th their , ~ shows the orientation of the ctian of pressuree F~.gure 5 re articles ' from copp9r powdor with flat p area in a briquette made p bath th? fatal centrate slimes~~ In most cases, capper con , .?125? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. _ _ . _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ?at~.on of individual pores (can,. porosity and the Gross s clue in a a their per~,ee,bility) are lotiver in ~' spquent~.y, a~.s lon~~itudinal d~rect3.an. ,.w..-----~-- akin up of agglornerationst the f arena particles (thv bre g themselves in the intarspaces br~tweon of fragments, disposing tides M~.craphoto on?ritudinal cross section) from copper Figure 38. B:r~.quette ~. ~ ensit 80 percent; n~agnifa.ed x 504, concentrate sla,me, d ~ shows the direction of compression. ct surface in a transverse (nar;mal The s~.zti of the coma ~ ? ion is ;rester than in a longitudina to cornpr es s~.an) darect ~ directions of compression, the volumetric aharac- As a re s,~l~ r changes. The pouring weight of a eom~ teristiC Of a powde rated powder, particularly in the case pressed and re~d~.sa.nteg T'nis in-~ ecomes increased (see Table l7}? of raft powders, b a~ht i s due to t h? dim,inutz. an in the crease in pouring wea.~ oxidation layer, that was cracked toughness of the s1..~rface in og the rv com ression, and to tho be?~ter pack g during the fa.r?t p tion th? adaptation of the shape o~ the par a.arge pa,rt~,cles, uring the like). This increase in po .~,,,~-,, a 1 contact and. with the degree of def ormat~.an, becor~~a.n~ ~~.~~,-~~~ weight grows n (see t e as in the case of tungs uro. Sometimes, ith press w creasod, d e ht of the powder wall be Table 17) , the pouring Ne~.g om- n in c ex ease of increased d~.spersio most probably at the p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 pression~ ocess of compression, the surface oxides and xn ~,hQ pr ' ns ma be stripped aff. '~h? e~.im1n~ation of adw cantama.nat~.o Y the article sur~'s,co may result a.n ~r~,ctional maxtuz es Pram p which is promoted to a certain degree by the increase oxadatian, in temperature caused by fraction. TA~3L~; 17 t of Qom ressian upon the Pour~.ng eight oa' a Powder The Ef.Eec p ~. --------?.~`r" arac= ?_'" ompress~.on our~.ng w"' e~~ ~.n gr au cm .5eristic prossure Praor to cam- After com- Kind of ressian er of Pawder (kg~sq cm) lp~os,s~an p Powd ,~,~.,,,,_.., ~. Electrolytic capper ~'o:ft 2000 ~.. 50 2, 07 1'1 Sarno as above S~aft 2500 1.50 2a Same as above Safi 2500 247 3.28 Electrolytic iron Saft 2500 2.11 2.55 Tungsten, redwcod Hard 2500 ~~ 52 ~? r5 he articles, distributed in the charging mixture homo- T p a be redistributed an the compressed semifinished geneously, m ~' ' on du.e to the dif f.oronee an. deformability and "yield"? composite. , "n anon-homogeneous manner, both by dispers3.on and by ~nroduct a. non ~rhicr. is a sort of "liquatian't, is more strongly The.s phenome , many.fested at law ratos of compression. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ ~~SS'~,an 0~' a of pr vs suxe for the comp The expQnd~'~'~'e . ,~~~ ? u a~' th~?c~c~ camp~~n?n~s powd? r~ ~ ~ ma do P r the consol~dation.of re~ua.rod fo ~~~ ~ pr~,ssure, p~: w ut~.on of pressure and den ' th th? ~,~,f orm d~stra.b ].asses th? powder, w~. tih? absenc~a of s off, .the bra.quette and . s~.ty a.n all place ~ ainst 'the wa].].s of ction of ~~h? part~,alea aka to the external fry :~ sure can be cal],ed n? ~, ],d. ~~his component of pros the ~~rE s s ma , pre~u~. to the ox~ex'nal fr~.ction ~ Loss of pressure, p~, C a ainst the walls of of tho part~,cle~ ~ nduco d by the non-~~ f orm t~~~ Excess pressure, p3~ laces d dens~tY at the var'~-ous P istr~bution of pressure an d of compressian? ma be p P com ression 1 "~r~>~~.~ ~ hest?tal pressure of ~' ss~.on pressure. T ~ compre~ s ressuro or the full deSl~nated the Bras P sl zed that th.e loss ?~ st b? particularly empha 1t mu owder partic~.es . eternal f ricti~?n of the P to the ~. For pressurQ reSSUre formula. that does not enter the p against each ? full compression pressure ee k~iguxe 3g~} ~ ?ut of a ure against instance ~s the external Press le t ~ tons be last to ?f lp tons, only 5 tons far the con the press mold leaving the walls of ~ tons, Lost by the bri. of .the ~bri queue. `These amely aga~.nst the walls solida~ion Calixed somewhere, else, n ~uette, are 1~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and o~nto~ 'the prays table, is transm~.tted off' the press mold, , lion rassuxe of 10 Mons as follows; 6 tons tYr.A fu~1 aompres '~ ~, and ~ tons throu~,h the press mold matra.~~ through the bra.que ute, s ots af' the briquette four tons will, be Howeva r , ~. f ~ n some p nal but to internal pr~assure, they will lost not to eater tt ~ ~ er s ots of the same briquette. Qne would "be found ~,n o ~h p lass the shifting of money from one pocket not des7.gnate as a $ the same token, there is no such thing as into another. Y loss of pr?ssure to internal fricti.an~ a ram erta.ining to the loss of pressure to Fagure~3~ Dia,g p friction own in the text (paragraph ~0) , it wall e Further d ~tior~ in pressure brought about by the adw s down that t ha re du ~ bricants to t~~e povrdor is due entirely to a ro~ da.t~.on of lu but not `in'ternal friction? It is necessary, duction in external, hat although it is not expedient to dis- however, to remember t : nal friction, it nevertheless exists and cuss losses to ~.nter me indirect effect upon the pressure increase. even exertw so ' ribution of density along the cross section `the non-uniform dust 'ch induces an excess pressure, is linked of the briquette, whx e ree with internal friction in the powders. to a considerable d g elatively small. Although the internal 'But this effect ~.s r e bri uettes is immeasurably greatex than friction s~arface of th q ce sometimes, by millions or e~ren billions the eat?rnal surfs. ( e excess pr?ssure is usually very small as comes. of tunes), th Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 h the ressure lasses to external fric~ian~ pe,r?d wit ~ is devoted to the analysa.s of the net This chap'~er cam orients axe discussed a,n pre sure ~ `t'he other pre s aura p nsalidation of smallbriquettes (with Cha~eter V. In the co rr ~, 2 to 3 ~,1,limeters and a diameter of a "reduced hea.ght o ~~ ars the full pressure practically cainM 10 to 15 m~,llimet ressure (it probably is only' by 2 to 10 cider with the net p rcant in excess of the not pressure} ? pe tween Net Pressure and Deforrnat1on in the l~ ~ The Rat~.o be .~....,.,. --~ ~Compre sing of Powders wean. elastic deformation a,nd 'the tensile The rat;a.o bet 1 str. ass?s in a compact motel is subject or comprc~ss~.ve norma Hooke's laws In this ce.se, 'the infini- ~to the very s~-mills ormation is in direct rata,o to the tesimal increment a.n def 1z~finitesimal increm.Qn~t in stress: where is the load, i~initesimal deformation increment, the is a constant coefficiont~ + law in the form of s. differential `Phe formula for Hooke s most convenient, sinc? in this forms the.. equation (191} is?the active for the case when A is not a con abov? law ~.s ..also of f ..hardening is disregard?d, formula stant, If the effect of cold Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 is the crass section area, is the stress, is the length (l~.eight} of the body Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 tic de~oxmat~.on o~ ~,n the case o~ ~~.as ~ is e:~~~ecti~e also (7,~~ ) a compact me'h,a1 ? nd nonreversible dew etWeen the pressure a tia ~ com~?reSSed met>~1 The ra b simple in the Case ? is dust as o~ a briquette ,~,,th ~~ormat.~on ~a tha canso~.~data.on der dez's ~ Zet us anal' w _ 'cal press ~orm~ ~1n pa + in a cy~.indra. n heiFrht rl G Chen the ht h (F~,~ux~, ~ )' a iireduced ~ briquQtte has a he~.~, P the 1 0~' the briquette is ~.oad ~ b dP, the he~,~,ht area sure is increas?d ~ r er briquette (sae p Ares thg ~,ov~d dh~ Th6 stress Zn P by tha area of reduced by dividing the load 6 is determined, by t ratio between .the graph ~') A~ The d~,rec ,tccross section K' ? n this the "con'tact will b? eXpressed a. Crass and de~o~?ma'~lon ~.x~.cremEnt in s f` dimensions, the pr dependent o is accep~ued~ t) length (h.eigh to the in~t~al Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. case by the ~,?rmula .~ is disxe~ax'ded' is cold~,haz~denixl~ ef~'eC if' the where ~ ' rtion. o o t uoeffic~,ent o~ pr p ~ ~ a nS t 8'~ .~'"'~'""""~ru..ri ,~....~ of briquettin~ atic rE,~reSentation Figure 4Q. ~ia~ramm ~~ ~) depends ,.r....---~-~-?"..""" ].9 ~) and ~ / formulas ( cien~t ~ ~~~ er the order to rend The coa~~~- In len~,th (he~~ht} h?' .~ metals, a.n' on the in~.tial the case of compac ? 'ent o~ prop?rt~on' ~n deformation caeff~ca. active of relating Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Wp then obtaixx; ~, ~/ ~ ~ ra . where ~ is the cox~s'~ant coefficisxa,t, independent of the di? mensians of the specimen, the sowaalled modulus of norma]. elasticity (Young's modulus) ' ~~he same independence of thc~ coefficient from the dimensions of the briquette can be attained by dividing dh in the equation (19~Z} by the initial height of the poured powder ho, Aa.so, ~.~ is convex.uent, in place of the hotel pressure p per unit of the nominal transaerse section of the briquette, ode obtain: where , if the e.f fsct of toughsnin.g i s disregarded,, is a constant coefficient, similar, in a certain degree, to Young's mo du ].u s a J~t is practically mare convenient to adapt dh not to the initial height of the poured, powder, but to the "reduced" height of the briquette ~ i..ea, to its height at 100 per~? cent d.ansity (zero porosity), then: ?. ~ mire ~r+'. rue ...w (l ~~~ ) ~ ~ ~ ~.` ,~ _~~ where is the relati'v~e volume of the briquette (/~ can be ~~ ' ~ ince with the ermanent crass s?c- substx.tuEed by f s , p tiara of the briquette, the volume changes with the height}, and ~,~ ~ ~ ~,~ o ~ ~ ~~ ~7 ~.~. ~ ~i. ~ W w' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~. ,~.~~ ~" C ~~' ~ ~~ ~armu~.a~ ~1y/oJ ~.~~ ~?.- ~ l~ tian A ~, Substitut~.n~ in~~a ? the ~_ . _,_ ~.~ ~, / 1 S ma;~~tude of the ,tcontaGt c _; rnQ ~-heV conta~.n 1,ha .. .. __, ~ ?a of A' .~ lg ~) are not c on~'e ni e nt 19 '2a) , and ( Formulas (1~~2}, ( ,~ toss seCw ~..,~~~ ~.~ s value _~;~.,~,~1 stress, we deriVe~ wY18re ,~~ ~ s60 ~r~,. t of porosa.ty p Y G' f fieien r~, coe i s the ~. ~ ~" gre,ph ~-'~)~ (2,10) eras d~si~nated. as as the compressi?n s m rossion madulus. At the the co p r e Sri ou s .the s e s by the autl~.or in the p de ~ itu n The mad ~ time, the ref ?rab18 to de s~. gnata author considers it ~ is the re;l.at~ve valume to cam.. what v dar pr~.ar ow the rclat~.va densa.ty off' th? 1s pressian~ ? ~ tha Qntire vo1~~ that is :Ln br~.quettir~~, ~~ ~s no ?he vo7.ume that is accup~.~d to deformation, but only ~, sub~~ect be related nat to '~harofore, deformation m~Y by the poss. n d`t volume (height) y by' the r educ? ) e a~' the pores. 1n thi5 Gale: j,nitial V01Ulll /~ !~J Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the cofactors of modulus Magna.tuda , as one of . ,~~ from farmul~ ~19~6~. Modulus modulus the ,magnitude kad to magnitude ~,~,,~ by the Fallowing farmu~.a. a. s ~.~ n si mated as the compxess~on Factor, and ?~~ as the may be de ~, ressure does not, affect the value of ,and the pra- txons, p of the powder metal ~ affect st lsttle, but at per~,~.es ~' ~~ ~~ m rossson modulus The magnstude of the compression reduced co P if the caldMhardensng value ss disregarded, ss con~? factor I/ ion , sn this cas? ,~~ ',- sta,n.t (since, not even to meat ~ ,,~ re snde endent of the prossure)~ Under these condiM and ~~ a ~' on ~. de ends an the volumetric charactersstac of the pow'" str g y p der (see paragraph 23), as per formula; ctuall, ,the phenamen~ of cold-Y~iardensng are very inlw A Y ~l and ~' are perceptibly therefore, ,~ 1~ ~ rtant and, t ,a ~ po , e sure. Hence, even formula (1J~8) lacks pre- dependent on pr s dsn to arl approximated evaluation an a number cision- Accor g .~ C equals 4 -- 7, thus making the value of cases . o e c;om ression modulus 4 -~ 7 greater than the value of th P If the cold-hardening effect ss disregarded, the of ression modulus wall depend on the composition. of 'the c omr~ al onl ~ ,but not on the physical characteristics :maters Y tha awder and pressur?, In thss respect, there ss a o f. P Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 where is th.e specific pressure corresponding to the max1.~- pmax . ,. :. f mum degree of consolidation, when Proceed7.ng, for the sake of convenience, from na~Lurs.l ~. og x to decimal logarathms and remembering that In x : ~o where e is the natural logarithm base, we derive: whe~'e Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a~,n anala between Yaung's modulus and the aampraes~.an oer~t ~~' modulus Substatu'~ing ~.nto Formula (196}, ~.n the p~,ace of ~ ~ ~~H th? retie ~~"'~"" , which is equal. to the farmer, ~we obta~.ns ,~'~ On the ba,as of Formulas (1.9/5) and (1~~9), the value of ~L as a faa~or ~.ndicating by how marry times the relative or the reia- azicremont of tho contact cross secta,on ~~~ ~ is greater thaxl the reduction five ~.n.cre~ent of pressure ~ , in relative volume ~~? ante rating th.e differential equation (19~5)s we By oY~tain: (19~7.0a) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ ___ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 equation ~~.9~1,Qa), rQpresent?d grs,phiQally ~.n ooordinates of relative volume and the 1,ogarithm of specific pressure, ~.s ,shown by a straight line in Fi,a~ure ~~. 'below, The straight sine is characterised by two parameters. As the firs' parameter, it is best to bake a point oorresponding to log Amax' as the second parameter, the tangent of the angle of i.nclinabior~ to ?bhe x-axis, which a.s aqua]. to the compression fac?tar ~ . Figure 41o Ideal compression diagram 'the value of log p in the case of ne?~ pressure, i.e., max in the absence of pressure lossos and oxcess pressure, can by dotermined with facilit;r. VYith the maximum degree of consolir elation, the area oi' the "contact" cross section equals the entire area off' ?the transverse section, in this caso, un~.ty (since to a sp?cific pressure Amax corresponds a cross sec- tion equal to unity). It being the case that the pressure p ,requisite bo bringing the briquette ~to full compact- max ness ~ ' ,obviously equals the critical stress ~ (see t paragraphs 6 and 16). If specific pressure (and ~ ) is measured in ]cilograms per square millime~ber, theno rl~~6r Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 whexe kIIV~ is the Meyer h~?rdn~ss, H is the Brinell hardness, ~I ~.s ?~he Vialcers hardness (~~ M~value ~.s a ~,~.tt~.e V greater, by a to ?U percent, than HH and HV), ;Home, bo?~h the aompressaon equation and the vaa.ue of the constant ~?~ essentially foll.aw almost directly from the definitions of the t?rms "contact surface" (see paragraph 2) and "coaltaat cross s?ctian" (see paragraphs 6 and l6)~ t3y integx?ating the differential equataan (1~/8), we derive: a ~G Gy G~' ~~ +~I / 1"1 what?A is the nominal area of''~he transverse section of the briquette (or, what is the same, the area of the 11~ontacti' dross section at 1~J0 percent cotisalida?~ian, when is t'ne area of ?k,he "contact" crass sectiano ~' having familia~?ized himsol:f, recently w~.th sciontif~.a data pF~rtai:na.ng to the soil and to textiles, the author re~ ali 7~ed that, in the deri~vati on of formula (1~~9 ), insofar as (62) it relates to soil compression, he was preced?d by l'ertsag~. (1~4) Sommer established a similar ratio an the consolidation of t?~r~ila materials about the same tame the author arrived at his formula with relation to metal powder. s, `1'heso men derived the analogous formulas empirically (and not on the basis of theoretical premises, and they did not clarify the F nature of the constant ~ of the law of compression. -137- .. ? 5~i 1 ~f ''V 1 1 ~',Y I I '.,. I l ~'~:, l It I ~ ~1V~ ~V i ~, 'V 1 I' j .. ~ ~Jc ~I " ,t, 1 1 I I.'~P o~ -,dl r I 4. ~~'e ~~ I 1 ~ " f .C ~~. I ~I Ir;~. ~ ~ Declassified in Part - Sanit py pp ized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 .CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ ~ ~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Det ue draw a line tangent to the curve in Fa~ure 42, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 2Q. Tp,ngib~.e Caxnpression Diagramst Rv1at~.va Va~.um4 ~~ the Figure ~? be~,ow shows a rather typical tangib~,e com~ pre~ssion diagram obtaa,ned an a Gagarin press , in the aria of an eleatrol;ytic copper powder with a pouring weight of 1,~2 grams pot cubia aentime~er. the diarnater of the bri- w 9.25 mall^me~ters its reduced heaght ~ was 2 queue as a ~, millimeters. pressure of 69 kalagrams per square milla~~eter is 8 portent. guts can be disregarded. Tho final porosity, at a specific Dub 'to the small dimensions of th? b.riquatte, the pressure lasses to external f.'riction and to ?xcess pres~ ~~ T'igure 42, `l'ypi ral tsngible ~ compre ss ion diagram ~, As can be seen in Figure 42, the tangible compression die ram is aurvilanear, and the compression factor g constant. 'l'he nnn-constancy ofth,e value of the compression factor ~ is due to the change an the properties o:f the powder during the process of compression. `f'he value of fac~tc~r at any point of the tangible diagram an Figure 42 is determined by -the tangent of the an~;l~s formed by a lane tangent to the curve at Chas paint with the x-axis. In this case, the curve is facing with its convexity downward, and the factor is all the time increasing. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 to a speai.~'ic pressure ~.~ 3,~ kiloM at a poa.nt coca"eslaondin~ alativs volusns ~.~ 2, 5, gams par square m~~.~,mater, and a r ale formed by this line with the x?aacis The tan~,ont o~ the end m rsssion factor ~- at the divan degree (p, 68) equals the eo p ' duotion, lf, 'with tha inaxeaso in the degree of co~npressarag rs .ties and the critical stress ~,~ of of pressure, the propor e value of ~.~ would at all tha powder would remain constant, th 6g, 'f'hc~refors, the point of intsrsscta.on times be equal to 0, may be accepA nn~snt l~.ns with ~,ho ordinate M of tha.s to ~~ ?f the critical stress corresponding tc ted as the lo~,arithm t hs point of tangoncy. tt?d value of ~,~ and In table 18, tho graphically p~.o curvy in Figure 42, a?t low, medium, and for tha points in tha final pressure, ors cited, TA~3LE 18 Critical ~tTeSS `~ and the Degrg of 'Ratio between he Value o --~-?~ ure 42) Compressing, .~..-~--~-?------~" ~~" of tr~do~'-'e~ of compressing reduction C hs,r a c t e r ~. s t a. c .....~...-~=--~- ~---~-~-.,._.___......M--------~ _ _ Compression ~.n No. ~pe~~, fic 'compreaw sion pressure in Relative volume of in ~arcent t factor ~,~ in kg~sq ~ s e~ u~ e~ mm k~~s q _..~._.__---~- b~ qustt~e ,._ ?.5 y _ p . Foros~. 60 _ 0.6 g 36 3,4 1 $ 0. ~3 56 82 1 45 10 w7 . 2 39 1 88 8 0 69 1059 .139 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ?he value of the ar~tias,l s'~xe~~ ~~ of As ~.nd~.cat?d aba~re, ~ ? coa.nc;~des w~.th ~.ta ~Ieyar hardness, the 1,attex bhp matera.a~. ter b 6 to za percent) than thQ ~r~,nall bei n~; somAwhe~t area ( Y hardness of 'L?he mator~.al~ ~~va],up, for e~e,mpla, at a specific pressure Hence, the ~~ s uare m~.lli.me'ter correspau.ds to the hard? of 107 kilograms per q ld ossess under canditians of a compressive Hess the materas~l wou p ? sit of 45 percent to a completely compact reductaan from a pogo y ~'urthor change in properta.es ~ '1'hi s me,croMhardw state wa.thaut any f cartes onds to the microhardnnss of the powder Hess appraxamatel,~ p n their places of mutual contact at a given degree particles ~. reduction Tn the first stages of compressive of compressive uals 3~ kilograms per square millimeter, which reduction ~~ eq to th? conventional hardness of non-toughened copper. corresponds r cam ressive reduction when the parasity of the .At the stake of p . cent the ~ ..va~.ue equals the hardness of b~^i que~ttn ~. s 45 po r ~ ~? ' rams er .~ in its medium degree of toughdning (56 k~log p the m~ tal star . Final.~y, the critical stress under the square mallam com ressive reduct7.on a.s class to 'the h~~.rdness high stages of p of co er in s,ts m.s.ximum degree of toughening. pp he ~~ariations il~ the values of the con1pression Thus, t ho critical stress iri the diagram, presented factor and off' t . be understoad, if 'the cold hardening effect in Figure 42, can 'th the increase in compressive reduction, is of the metal, wa taken into account u now compute the errors that occurred in the Let s ~14aw Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' rraln9 per squt~'x'a a,nata.on~ of the ~ value as a~ ~lo~ determ ~ oslt, of $ percent ~aslaally, these ma.la?~.metex for a pot 1 erroz's are reduced to th? ~'ollowa.n~~ 88 ka.lo~rams per square m~,ll~,meter lq ( ~,~ ~ The value . ?~he real ~~ Mv~alue on s,ccount of losses somewhat greater than ~ the ~~, wvalue ~ s sum?what a.ncre as ed tp external f ricta.on? Also, ~ un3.fos~ma.'~y of density d9.str~.'buta.on alan~ due to the ~.mperfect and hea.ght. xt may be assumed that these the cross section tease in the -value, as a~~,i,nst the factors induce an inc real, by approximately 5 percent. utation, tho specific gravity of capper was (2~, X n the comp to Hanson., lV~ariat, and ~~ord, the den taken as 8.93. According onta.in.a.ng 36 percent oxygen, is 8.75 sity of rolled copper, c than the bic centimeter, i.e., by 2 percent lower grams per cu ~~ owders involved had a content of ~.5 computation value. the p result of which the departure of the percent oxygen, as a ?~ from the 8.93 value amounted to about actual spec~.f ~c grav~.ty ~~ e error caused. ~oy it re~"alts in are increase 2 or 3 pare?nt. 1h . -value by approximately l0 percent. of tho ~~ ' c ex ansion of the briquette after the (~y~. the elast~. p lied in an increase in volume by about pressure was removed rasa tad b the volume, ,reduced" as l ercentA r~he ~ ?value com.pu Y p astir afterdffect, is in this case by approx~ a result of the el ' ned b the nt teeter than the ~~. -value determ~. y ].mately ~ pence ~ ,~ However,this difference may b? dis_ "non~r?duced volume. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 owders s,re ~ wn in. Fi~urQ ~3. The vaJ.ues sho 1 , , - , mo to p and the campres51on factor ~~ cra.tioa~ stress in Ts.b1.e l9. etal powdors are comp1Ted .~.~,...~..~Y..w.? case o? vara.ous m _..r. ~ ~ da~exm~na~~vns v~ harder ~ne~smua~ as ~ha con'vent~vna re~,ax~dpd, ress~ans~ , m '~ ~ p . nductad w~.tl~. ureduced mess are s,~,sa co ~, to $8 k~.~.a~rams per square Thus, the ~~,.ge,~.ua as aqua ert?nt, ~.s ?ducta.vn o:~ 92 p ? 'meter, under a aomprass~.~e r m~~.~.a. to ~,~ percnnte '~ ~Q xcess error of atau e da~drma,ned w~.th s,r~ CI" .va~.ue Bred as s,pproxa.mat~ng 'the ~ d app percent. of the Se~~,o~~ara.thma. 2~. e The ~rther Study , Hence, ~~ cs.n be cons to a relat~4e d?ns~'~~' o~ ximum compres.~a.ve rsduct~.on un,de r ma ~.on d~,a~rams ;far soveral 'the sema.~-o~arithrnic compress for the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ ~ ~ ~ x x- ~ ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 : - - - --~ CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 1 ~ ! ~3~ ~1 ~ ~ ~' ~ ~~, f7 Q 9 f10 (ll~ ;I2~ 13 reachcn a~ wood shaVl S wlth ~. sul hate cc er PP P c 1 3 ~ 4 3 .3 ~ _~, _0 0- 3 ~~ b ~ 3 b 3 I 2.~ 2 -~ 0 1.8 1 ~ 1. 9f CrE ,V la C~~ eri al 8 Co er, s h c PP P ranulated non- .. ~ J 1 apnea ea . 0 4 5 (~ i . z.. ~ 0 b~ 3 {.~V 5 ~ ~ a G~ 3 1. Lli ~. b ~e ~ L b~ ~a0~ or er s herical 9 C ~p p ,, _ ranulatee; an- ~. rsealed in hydro, 0 en at boo ~ 0 ~ ~ . 2 ~, ~~'.G ~.~ , 0-h0 3 ''0 , ~ 7 ~ 1.~~0 ~ 1.~~.0 ~ l.6 2.~~ 63 1.O1; l0 Iron, fulls re- duced at 7 CO?C 60 minuteu 0.15 11 Iron, Pay?tly re- duced at 70000, 10 minutes 0.2L+, 12 Iron, reduced at `; 00oC, 30 minutes 0.21 2.3 1- 3.5 3.3 105 Q.2U 0,93 1.8 ~. 63 1.23 ~0 1-j 70U 33C 1.74 1.61 2.0 2.G0 1- ~; b3 lip 2 !~~ 0 1.03 1.2;6 2.0 3.2b 63 1.59 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s ~ at 1000aC __ nea~ed c '-steel thin ~9 uem~ ~ ri the chip, b ., 1,10 a.clculdr i-steel fire 20 hem s un step ca.r~ide ~2 T Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ reduced fram 1, Iran 8 ~pa0 he a_e at t ~ lb Iran white 17 Iron white, an- 7 1 , ~ v 500aC _e nee _e~' ~- g iron white, an- t ~ ~~ l.a~ nan-brltits., ch~.p .~ ~ - ~ 21 'gun s yen rcd~.cea ~? g ~ ~o ~.c6 l.ob S80 -- 1.78 3.2 2.~b 63 ?.33 60 -- 2~5 -- ?.~6 -- -- 63 1.39 bo -- l5U -- 1. L.o 5~0 - lOGO 20G 2G0 1. b6 1. bb 1 2.l;~ b3 1.3~ . ~~ 1.~2 ~ e l 2.3~ o~ ;0 1. _U 3 7 ~ L~GG X35 1, ~ 1- ~- ~..L: ~ oc b3 - ro ~ Q ~ l0 1 2. 1150 1. 1- 0.32 0.9 2.7 3.81 b9 1.?8 55 7a 1.60 1.9b l.0 2.15 5~ Na~rp~ Mast pf th? powders can?~aix~ed up to O~~i percent of c~xy~en, .No oarrespanding aorrec?~~ar~s to ~,he specific gravl? ?~ies of the pars metal's w?re in?~raduced ir~ta ?~he ca~npu?~a?~ian of the relative valumas of the briquettes. Henae, the values of 'the relative volumes ~ and ~ ar? somewhat in excess of tha actual values. ~'he ~~ and ~ values are taken by the aftereffect ~?~- "reduaad'~ volumes (the difference between the ~~ values, by "reduced" and "non-reduced" vo].urnes, are in most casos less than 2 '~ pOT'CF311t~ ~ tiGrl'E~C'~i:1.A~1~S fox' ~.;f.1~ C}~a.t~c~ in specific gravity s.s a resul'E o:[' axidation wor? introduced only for tho partly-reduced i.rox~ Na. la. (the degree off' rsduct~.on 51.7 percent), and for No. l2 iron (degree of reduction 53.9 per. cent,} For a number of powders, the ~~ values in the first stages of compressing rQduc'ticn are cl~~so to thn hardness of. nonM'~oughensd metalp For instance, in elsctralytic tin, ~~ 4d~3 kilograms per square millimster~ in pule?rizsd tin, 3,2 kilograms per square millimeter; in pul'vsrizsd lead, 402 kilogr>a.ms per squs,re mil].imster; in electrolytic capper, from 36 'to 4~ ki.lograms per square mil;a.imeter; in elactrolytic iron, 65 kilograms poi square mila.imetsr. In some light-weight and fins powders, the ~~ value is mo,ny times below tha hardness of the nonMtoughsnnd metal. For instance, in reduced iron powder with a pouring weight of 0.67 grams par. cubic c?ntimetar (the relative densi'~y of the poured charge is 8.5 percent), under a specifio pressure of lJ ~ 2.7 kilograms per square millimeter and a relative Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .~? ~ oros~ ~ of ~~ha briquette is 7~ percent) ~ volume ~ aMB~ (th p y c s ar square mil,lima~~er~ Th,e initial value off' ~~- ~.~ k~,lagrs,m p ? lower in thc~ oasa of a fine ~,;~.ght..weight reducsed CSC a. s s ta.1.~. wdar with a pouring weight o~ p~15 grams per cubic iron pa ? ad chax ?~~ 2.3 centimeter (thc~ relativ4 densa.ty of the pour ~ owder, under a specific pressure of l.8 l~.lo~ perac~nt)~ This p us.re m~,llimetar and a briquette par~si'ty of 76 grams par s q ? . s a car~1 ression factor of 0~2a and a ora.~tical stress percent, ha p ' ns ar square millimeter, which i.s rathei^ close to of 5 ka.lograr p the hardnnss~val'ue of nonMcold-k~ardened tin. w initial values of the cra.tioal stress ~ for Stich la with a low pouring weight era due to ~k,ha fallowing? metal powders The arl;icl.es of such loose powders undoubtedly (1)~ p ' ds.rable interval and '~surface~f porosity (sae para~ have cons. which is 70 to 90 kilograms per square millimoter? erred iron, a ress, they had the hardness of pure cold~hardp duct:~.on ~.n th p r The or?~.tical stress is determined by the hardness ~xaph l~S) ~~ sections of the particles, the value of wha.ch of the contac considerably by such porosity. For instat1ce, the is lowered 'ran fil7.ing compounds with a 60 par, cent poi~osa.ty, pxa'~ baked 1 the author, had a Brinol~. hardness, prior to ~tha pared by eduction, of ~`5 to ~ kilograms par square rnilli~- compr?ssa.ng r the samo as lead. However, after the oompressing ra?~ mater, n the case of powders with a high degree of. disc (2~ ? x ' ure 29:), 'the exceptional-ly low hardness of the narsion (Sea Fig external moi~~tura-containing ~targyllaceoustt layer off' ox~a?s very ce of the particles may ba ?f som? importance on the surf a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (the deeper layers of the 'dry" oarides, an the co~~trary, axe hardaz? ~~han the bask metal) ~ In addit~,on, the aontaat seotions off' the small particles should be less ~;ough~anad and less hard than in the case of large compact bodies ~ L?~~ us paint out that as er ear e.rimants b O'Neil~~7~ Hen~iot(y~~, Harl,is(47}~ p ~ y Krupkavskiy(1lS), and o~~hc~rs, in the complete absence of coldw hardening an the impressions, hardness is approarimately bhrae times b?low thc~ aanventional values for the non-toughen?d ~~~~etal, and a.s rather close to the value of the yield pointe Hea~Qy powders have a higher initial ~ -values ~lectro- lytia ~a.ron wibh a pouring weight of 2.70 grams per cubic conti? meter, under a speca.fic press?rQ ?~ l kilogram per square I millimeter, has a value of ~~ = 6a kilograms per square m~.lli~ muter, xn granulated annealed copper the initial value ~=65 kilograms per square millimeter,o Ser~mingly, thQ heavy particles, even prior to compression, sustain a greater cold?ha,rdening effect at the contaots than the lighter particles. In para- graph 13 (Figure 28), it was pointed out that the consolidating moment, stipulated by the very weight of the particles, grows in a direct ratio to th? diameter of the particles raised to the fourth power, and to their weight raised to th? po~Ver 4~3. Some powders manifest vexy high initial ~ -values, that are considerably in exc~?ss of the hardness of the metal under a maximum degree of toughening .The initial critical s~tr?s~ of granulated non-annealed copper is 500 kilograms per square millim?ter, same far tungsten is 1000 kilagrarns per ~quar~ milli~zater,~fc~r only p~r~ly reduced iron with a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o aan~a.~lo~ex ~,s ~lpQ ~~,1oM ,~ of 0 ~ ~~ ~;xams pex aub~. pouring wvi~,h a~ns per s~,uaxo m~,~.7~lmotex~ gr ~ lr era due pr;inc~.pall~ h initial vt~~uos o Such h:~~~ to the ~reatex hs,r. d surface s,dm~,ac~ures ox to the pxespnae of ~xom of the paxt~.clas resu~,ta.ng Hass of the sur~acQ ~,~,yex , .n ~~ ~.s hard yes of cor~pre~sl.o ~ ~? Dar ,ng the fixst shat., ~.~ sustains txea'~men articles ~,h the der sur~fs,c? 7.ayer of ~ ~ (6g) usually the her (10~) ~hrushchev ,and ton. Accardin~ to Ho1.m ~ def ormat under a very ess vela?s are observed ,hats, incroased hardn of ' nitial .vela?s of o some oxtent~ the high '~~ . smaa.]. laad~ ~ of. elastic a b the considerable role ~,-. may be explained y is th? and ~, ~ ~ s act. f":i ca1~y at low pressures. rh~.s, ~ deformations .. ~ 1 values off' ~ under to which the high in~,~l,aa circumstance, attri- already baked articles ar6 omnressing reduction of c 1 ~ble (s?e Figure 43,b) bate mate the hs,rdr,ess of the he final?values approxa. ~ ~ degree of toughening. m act metals under a max1m co p ,~ r?s sure of out. (75) introduced the term ~ Aclcermann unch der which a cylindrical p r+~ to designate a stress, un ?~ n tested. ~',, c~. .the metallic sp?ca.men bG~. rapidly submez'ges into .bhe ass~p'~ion that the nenwood(127) offered ~ + Neil and Gr hro,agh an opening e~ual.s . he extrusion of metal ~ stress oft ~ ~ to O'Neil, the pressure Luxe of outf /owe According the pre 5'' of the metal at the corresponds to the hardness of extrusion 'mum degree off" tough?ning~ maxi re of extrusion of var~,ous The valud s for the pre s su " accordance with 4' Neil. are cited in Table 20., ~n metals ~].(~9w Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 qures arQ a?~5 to 3 tames a.n exc~sss Qf tie Br~~e~,~ Thane pxes~ hardness a~' nan~-toughened rn.eta~.5~ TAPL~ 20 Pressure off' Emanata.o~ Q ~ ' ---"'~"" """' """"'"~"' ~ ~"'~'"""""`~"' Bra. ne 11 Pressure a ~' at a. o b e twe oo n Metal extrusion in k s mm ~~ q .,,..,_,...,..,,_,.p,.,.,,,, ........... hardness in. k~;~sq mm ..,......-.---~ pr?ssure of ex- trusion and Brinsll hardness Lead 10 3.5 2.9 2~8 ~ ~' ~ Tin Aluminum. ' ~~ 20 ~?~ 2 2 Silver 76 V?~ , SO 25 ~' (~o].d Capper 92 ~ 109 49 1.9 W ~~~ 126 - 133 ~a Sa~'t ~.raffi l~$ ~ ~~~ .L 4/ V ~ ~ V S/ ?M ~ Steel (Oe26/ C~ Tungsten 4f~ Q 24:0 1.7 n the case of t~:~a saf't metal powders, the ultimate I .. ~~ lues are hi~;he", and in the teas of the hs.rd metal ~~, ~ a the are /ewer than the pressures of extrusions The powders , y ? s henamenon wa:~].1 be analyzed in paragraph 22. causes of thi p ~$~~ faJ.lowed up with th.? a.l].ustration of Bridgeman rennin the metal to sill compactness under the pressure comp ~ rusiano ~Iollaw capper pipes, sealed at bath ends, were af' ext rnani~'old hydraulic pressure. When the pressurE sub,~ected to a].50a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 usion 100 k~.~,ograms per square m~.lla.mster) was v,tt,r~~,~aad, of extr ~ the ~,nternal diameter of the pipes was reduced to zeta. In the case of very l~.ght pawdars, the values of the (~ and the ~'a,ator ~+ are ~.ncreased greatly critical pressuro ~ with the compression pressure. ~'or instance, in an ~.ron poww with a outing weight of 0~1~ grams p~~x cubic centimotor, der p .~ uare millianeter to the d ~valu? rose from 5 kilograms per sq 105 kilo rams per square millimeter and the value of the com- p ' n factor ~ rose from. 0,20 to 0.90 'I'h~.s is basically pressa.o due to three causes. 1 . The increase in the cold hardening effect with. com- e pressing reduction. 2 , Tho increase in t~t,e hardness of the particles at ~~ the reducta.on in the intrapartiCle and '~surface'~ the expense of porosity with compressing reductian. 3 . The increase ire 'the coof:(?icient ai" tho lateral ~~ ,~ Cac~ff'icient increases in transrna~ scion of px c~ssuz e ? .ta.o to the relat~.ve density of ~~he briquette (see d~.rect rc~ ~ ter V , ~Nith the increase in let?ral pressure, the ~ha.p in " between th? partic].as becomes ~,reater, resulting 'twedg g 'n a rester resistance b~~ the briquette to compressing re~ ~ g reduction. '1']~e effect of th?se threo causes is considerably attvn- Ue,ted in the case of th? heavier powders, as fol.laws: The initial cold-harderi~-ng effect a~t the contacts, as ?151-~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 was a7.rvady ind~.catvd, is cans~.derably mare pranauncad he aasv of the heavy pawdar~~ Henov, ~Lhis e:Cfea~, spread a, n ~ avvx ?bhe entire prnGr~as, is sass pxana~~navd~ ~ ~ Tha ~.ntra;part~ cle and, "surface" ~aarasi~y caf the ~) ..~cles is insignificant, and a peraeptilale increa~v in hard para. ue to the dim~.nutiora in, phis parasity is no~~ very likely nAss d ~~ aCCU~'. ~~)d Tho initial densa.ty of bhe briquett~Q is considerably ter as a result of which the increase in the coeffioienb grea , of ls,~~exal pressure is ~.ess prUnaunccde e in the case of heavy pawders, tha values of ~~ .~QnC , increase with pressure less rapidly. 'bhe above Hated and ressian factor J~ wibh pressu~?o in bhe v'ex' decrease a,n the comp first stages of compression is, on bhe contrary, more pro naunced in bho case of the heavy powders. The initial pressures for thn at-~s,inment of the same ~, u~tte den.sa.ties are al~Nays greater in the easo of light br. q owdnrs than ~~hey are in the case of heavy anesg T~~is is p u to tha highAr '~sbructural~t ~t;oup;hnc~ss of pawders with law d E~ ourin w9ight and their law density prio.? to campy?ssion. p ~ arvever the ul~~imate pressures r?quisite for the attainment H , of 100 percent density for the various powders of tho same metal are almost the same and approximately equal to the sure of extrusion see Figure 44). Far this reason, the Ares (. m ression factor ~ in light powders of the same mewl is cop . greater than i~ heavy' powders. M162- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 i Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Re la~'~~~ ~? ? oaan~ resr~.an d~.a~;ro,ms i.,n rr~1r~~~~.a:n rune ~~~ 5d7n.~.~,a~;ar~.thnia.e ~ F~_ ~ ?....~...~ er ~owdars; ~.. olectraa..y'~~.c copper, t0 ~;hh~ p~~ur~.n~; wa~.~hb of ca~~p C con~;;Lmo Lnr 3 2, saana, wa,'~h n.r wf~a.~h't Q. `~~ ~ra;~is pot cubl,a pOUr1 E5 'r r riu~.~'~?Cl ' gams er cubic aentlme der; ~. ~,r~. pourira~ wei~h~~ ~~a0 ~~ p ~ cc~nti~nc~~~vr. wa ;ht ~~ 50 ~r~ztns por cu,btia cnp~aQr, wi'rh, pouring, b~l.e tha'~, with ?~hc~ so,rne po,ckia~ xt is also camprahc~ns~ s wild, have a hi~hax campressian density', hard. ,nlptal ~,owder factor '~11an soft metal pa'wdors. hed data by Steinitx rels.~~in~ to Tho recan~~.,y publ~.s crohardnes, of powder ps,r'1;icles the de~terminata.an of the ma. ~ er close dnass of ~~~Yi,o part.oles is rash revealed that the her m act m,otals ess va~.ues of 'Gh4 non~tou~hened co p .~o the hr~rdn rl'hus, a~ccorw 6`..valuos ar:z?ivod a'r by' th.o au~t,har. and to ~~he ~ ass of 'the annoaled oloctxal,y~ic di:n~, to '~.toini'~z, tho 1lardn 9 kilograms por square millimoter Iran powdors was ~~ to ~ ,~.c Iran hor's ~ -value for olectroly~ (as compaz'ed i,a tlla aut ~ mill'~,meter). Tho hardness of re~ of 65 ka.la~r~ms por square ~ta S'-;ainitz, is ~7 to 60 kila- duc?d Iran 'po~vd4xs, accord~.n?~ of the incompletely xeducad in~ nrarns per squaro millirna~~er, 350 kilo~xs~.zns por squv.r? milli ClUgi011S in the :iron powder, - e author's ~ :,Value fo:r the incom- es aa'mpared to t,h ~, motet, ~ uaxe rnilliw _ . 4 a iron powder of 330 kilo~,razns ~~er 5,q plotHly radac~a r steel, accoxdin~ to ~toin~.t~, motor. The hardness of powde Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ken the values for the critical stress ~y tha same to ~ ~ factor, caraPuted by the author from and the compressioi Hoto ~(115~ for tho compression of the data of Kieffer and ~, and der the speca.fic pressures of 20, 40, various powders un ~ ire rnillimQ~ter, are also close to the 60 ki to gams per s ~uF c~.'.ilr. by the author, The results of results o~atax.ned emp~.r~. ~ ~ations are cited in Table 21o On the thc~ author's comput to ~'; ..values, computed by ~L-he author on whole, tht~ ult~.ma ~, ? , of Kief.far and Hotop, are somewhat the basis of thEa da~La btained by the author independently highc r than the o n?s o the fact that the expQrimE~ntal potivder :r_t i s probably due to nd Hatop wars sorne~4vhat larger than be.tches used by K~.ef far a of the author, causing greater lossQs 'the be,tchas used by to extar, nal friot~on and excess pressure prossuro Se? next page for Table 21~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. ~,~.~.~.mA~tar, and after deos,rbQn~.za'S~.?n is 7~i0 k~,~,agra~ns per s~~~are m d ~.6a kilograms per square ma~1~.:~matex s.nnealin~; it is ~,6o an ~ s ~ ~,y~,~.uas for nar~~annealed whits as aonlparad to thn author ~ of tar graphi~ la rams per sguar. ~ millimeter, and~a iron a~' Sao ki ~ and 150 ka.].ograms per squar? milli? tization a~eal.ing, of X35 mstax)~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 1.82 Co er electrol Uic 1,2~ Pp ~ ~` Tron vorticit~ mill 2.li2 - s ~ Iron c~.rbonvl annealet~ -- ~ v ame but non-annealed 3?L~ 6 S 9 .~ 7 Tun Lien, reCuced ?o; 8 Tun step mechanical/, ~ ~ ulveri~ed f ror~~ baked P up to 3U f~ 59 100 1.03 1. K[ 86.7 up to 3v~,1 98 98 1.2? 1.23 81x.5 up to U.l;msn 101 152 1.1s1~ 1.87 83.C ~a~ to ~ l~ -- 118 -- 1..~~~ ~' ~ 81. b ug to 5 ~I.l 93 2~t+ 1006 1.9? 78.7 up to 5 ~i 317 317. 1.88 1.88 ?1.9 ~; n 6.80 u- to ~0 S 2 !~ G 3. ~2 2.22 ?~.~ r~~olt._~l ~ 3 9 ~ ~ o? ,, ~ ~ --- u- t0 II?~Ti -- 17 -- 1. r~ ~8. ~ ar,e ~.. above 3 3 ~ 9 ~ A Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 - ?+? ~ ~ ~~ ~o~: rtss ~ on actor Com>Juted b T the Author fror~, the %ata b~ l~le~~'er and ~o~op Cry- v~.Lal_ ~,tre,~.~ and G p F _ ~ ~,. '~ourin Lzltimate rela- i ~ ?~ s- , ~-s. o, in wei nt in Par~icle tlve aer~~.~y ~I 1' - ' r `cu cm size initial ultimate initial ultimate ire ,~ ?equence T~-pe of Po~~aer g / ~- - ~ ;~ ~- - to . ~ ~t `' 1. ~~ 1. QE 95 . ~ e .8 u ( ~~ , ~ ra a1~11 t7 ~ 1 ~.~1~ ._ n 3 ~ ,~ P 2 Silver, from ~ G1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~2o Comarvs~~on ~~~gxams ~,n gelation t~ ~e~af M d Com~aression Temat It was brought out in Chapters ~q and 2l that, in the absence of losses to friction against the wal~.s of tho press maid and wi'~h a uniform d?n~ity of tl~p briquette, the line tanw sta~Ee without a,ny further change in the hardness off' the con- tact ar?as. press?d frarn this degree of collsolidata.on to a fully compact antersacts the orda.nats for at a poa.nt cc~rresponc~ing to the c~^itical stress the matvriaJ..f.o7M the given density. This valu4 of ~~ is approximately aqua]. to tho Mayor hardness of the partacle con tact sections at t;he given degree of com~pressang red~:~etion. More specifically, the t;~ ?value oarnputed a.n 'thee manner equals the Mayer hardness ?w thQ material would hs.ve, if it were comes It may be assumed that the ~~Nvaluas, as abava deter- mined, wall, with briquette densities of 90 to 99 perc'Ant, ~~~ ~ ~' the critical stress at the almost equal the ~ value iae., maximum d?gree of toughening, or practically equal the pressure of a:~ctrusion (see Table 20,E It fol].aws Pram Table 19 that, in the case of soft metals, the maa~imum critical stress x.s considerably higher than the pros,,~urc of extrusion. The ultimate -values for tin are ~6 and 40 kilograms per squaro millarr~eter, wh~.le the extrusion pressure is 14 kilagrarns per sque,re mila.ame~ter; for lead, the ultimate (~' ~valu? is ~~ kilograms per square mall.ime'ter, while the pressuro of extrusion is 10 k~.lograms per square milli Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012]04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s such as coppsr and iron, r mstale o~ msd~?m ha,rdnss , meter ~ Fo dstQrmi.nad at br~.~uette ~oa1 s.~xeSSes ~~ ~ the ult~,mats axa.t. ressure o~ srcent, almost equal the p densa.tles of 9Q to 9~ ~ .er osclllatsd wa.~th- 1ta.mate ~ .,value s for cap}? ~~ ha u ~ e~c?~rus~.on~ er square ma.lTlme?~~er, from 63 to 1~0 klla~rams ~ ~,n the range rams psr s guars slurs bea.n~ 1261,33 ka.la~a wa.th the e~trus~.on pre the ma~a.mum speca.fic e~tretnely hard mat?rials, mill~,m,eter. ror all art of ~,ts hardness re slurs s were on1,y a sm p campress~.on ~ tur~stsn and 5 percent nt of ~~; In the case of value (25 perce ~~ence, ~~ ~s dif'f'icult o of tun~,sten carbf.de)? tin the case .the ms,x~.mum elat~n~ to the .Value of make any aSgumpta.ons ~' stlc of these mat?ra.als tlcal stress char'acteri cr ~. g tYxat the values o~ the o follows From Table 1 1 xt a,1s morn raptidy' crease with con.sol.idation comprs scion factor ~n lead) than In ? metal powdsrs (tln and ln, tr~s case of the sof t the hard metal. pavrdex's. the case of ~n the the aut'fl.ar on the change ~~~me data compiled by . sure , of t~~.e cr~.t~.ce,1 cif~.c compressian pies ~' values of the spe r With the a.ncrease factor G~ ~ and o~ the com.pre ss a.on ?rcents stress ~ n from 80 percent to 90 p the degree of co:a.salidat~.o these values ~.ncrease mor~~ tin ca er ~ and it an. All for ti.n~, lead, pp the case of soft mQtals. rapl~dlY a,n Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 TABLE 22 ttiueen ~'_rle Ct.~CD ~e `~. ,er,ei pies z~, ue vtie ~ l~ti~ve B q ~~ , ~rd the Re nd jj~.! sae S a ~ a_ or C31'i?Jrr~,~SL~ cn ~~C ~-~ a1 S,,reS? ~' - rl U~.C ~~ r Zc ~,..~u_e p .. , . ec1_ p ~.~len- p cond ? of bri - oen?1ty ~Tei~nt In ~Le a Zve ourln ~~ s in cm quet ue r cu o:f ceder e p . electro- Tlr~, Sv ,,. cond/ ~lon- ~`~ -----~' '~ Lion- ----~-'" cona.~ . , c~ un1 ~s al al units ' to k~ ~~ TilIil mm al unl U,. k~ sq goo 90 1G0 80 in ulver- T j p `1Zed 3.5G so 80 a ulve r- I,e d, p 1ZeC~ a 3g 3~ ~ o er 1~OZ C pp ele ctre_ hopper, lytic . electro- ~ron, 2,70 9u 8v 90 &o 90 10.j 200 192 46 r L? JL 10C 6.31 25~ 22.5 100 LLt 100 1.~$ lad 192 2. it6 228 12.5 lUG l.Kl 100 18.7 i5o 2.30 1.53 2.30 135 11.3 1c9 62 loo 1.80 loo 63 lol 1.80 10u 81 lOC~ 1.2Q X00 88 io9 1.39 il5 78 loo 1.9b 100 7 8 100 ~r, 177 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ?~h~a ~~.rst glance, these results may seam san1ewhat At . ~ eratuxe a~' aampression. (rapm tamperatu.x~) paradaac:~ cal ? the tamp is ha. her than the temperature of reoxystalli.w for ta.n and lead ~ harefore it would seam, no perce'pta?~ble toughening z~atian, and t ~ It can be seen, however, from 'able 20 that the should aacur- eon area, hardness at maximum toughening) pressure of extrus ( eater than the hardness of non-toughened material, is 2.9 times gr a case of soft matal.s (lead and tan), l.8 to 2~2 times in th e of metals of medium hardness (capper, /ran), greater ~.n the cos 7 tames ~reater in the case of metals of great hardness, and 1. g n~sten~ HEnce, the compact soft and plastic lead such as to g c ma tou~henad at room temperature to a greater da- and txn ba o g the hard and brittle metals Numerous scientific Brea than ' their investigations of the hardness of compact wr~.ters, in va shown that the maximum toughening of a meta. metals, ha rs eat at the lawes~t, but at comparatively high tempera?~ occu and Lee(13~) , iron and steel are tures~ According to Sauveur 'r maximum hardness when deformed in the temperature at they. v ade~ Shwarz(135) revealed that interval 200 to 400 Cent~.gr 't to cold~hardanang in soft ste?1 is greater at the capac~. ~' ra.ture of 300? Centigrade than at room temperature, the tempe the hardness and capacity for cold-hardening in copper and .eater at xaom temperature than ].t is at lower tempera- . s gr efor~a that Robin(123) established tho fact that tures~ given b cit of metals far toughening as reduced when the the Capa y dro s below room temperatur?. According to Robin, temperature p solute zeta are not capable o:E' perceptible -rough- matals at ab h conducted by 0' Neil confirmed the deductions erring. Researc -159w Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 arz~~vad at by Hob~n~ ? is al,ta~,etl~er passib~.e thab the cansiderab~.e 1 l~u s , ~. ~ esistance to deformation with the compress~.ng ;i,nGrOas~ ~~ the r ft metal powders ~.s to a certa~.n extent st~?pup reduction of so ,~ enin ~. It must be remembered that the re1a~ fated by cold. hsxd ~ to of caniprFSSian and thv high content of ad~ t~vely h~.gh ra ? aifiCally, in the contact sections) must sub m~,xtures (spe h bit the detou~;hening of the powdered. metal,. sta.ntially in. i tho increased resistance to deformation an tho Haw?ver, 1. awders is not exclusively due to cold-hard part of s aft meta p e to no lesser, and perhaps even to a greater erring. It may b ? ed b other factors. In Chapter VlI we shall see extent, ~.nduc y ~- r the same degree of compressing reduction, the than, unde ~- ~ a:f soft and plastic r~etal powder briquettes is many ~au.ghne sa than that of hard and brittle rfletal. powder brims times greater the re sure requisite f ar a given degree of com~ queues, And p uction is specificalJ.y determined by the toughness pressing red of the bri queue at the. s densityo densit of 8D p?rcent, the bond between ~lnder a re lata.ve y 1cles is much tou?her than between copper or iron party t~,n part. he fax.ce required for the shearing acta.an of tides. Hence, t le s as er the da,agram in Figure 29c (in th? pre~- the panic p ust be rester in the case of -rin and lead than ceding text), m g in the case of capper and iron. It shall be shown an Chapter ~~ and VxI that Footnote. ter tau hness of soft metals is stipulated to a con- the Brea g able dxtent by a high Poisson's ratio valu?. seder ~160- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (~'07~ ~.nves~ta.gated the press~.~a~~.a.~~y off' iron, Jvnes y s,ncl uo ~por at raQm ~L?vlnperature and at low ~l~e~npe~~a~ a~.ura.r nti.rr~, Z .?ap .133? Cen'~igrade), Regxettably, he does turps (~2a, , an data oil the densa.ty oi' briquettes a~h 1Qrv pressures, not furn~. sh Y cures ~,n general, are not very speci:F~.o~ Sc~ma.~ and ha. s ~~.,. , , ' cpm ressian curves plotted 'bytthe author by the ],ogarithma~ c p 1o,tivn a.,n Figure ~5. The assumod paths of the Jones data are sl w ressures a,s sho~vn by do~~ted lines The values aurves at to A d in the case of iron at various camprQSS~an~ ~'', an for ~, tc~m~pQratures are gi ~~en ire Tabl~a ~~~ ~emilo arithmic compression cl~rves Far iron at F~.guro ~5. ~ g ~~ ~ Lures (].ot"fed by the author on the basis of various tempos p Jones data) 5?e next page for Table 23 r t follows from th.e JanAS research that pressures re- I e r?es o~ consalida~~ion at var~.ous carnpressio11 quired ~'Q1 h~.gh d ~ ware not vory much apart. The sp?eific pressure tempc~rattares reduction of iron to m relative density of for th? aompressin~ ~; at room temperature is 61.7 kilograms per square 30 per can nd at minus 193? Centigrade it is 70+8 kilograms mill.imater, a ' E1tOr e `l'he carre gpanding ~~ value s are 10 5 per square mi.ll~.m r s er square mila.imetgr, respectively. During and 107 k~loWram p of com gassing reduct:~on, it takes savgral, tr,.e f.'irst stages p -1G1~- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ ___ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 THE.LE 23 awes for d~ p and I, ati ~,Iarious Comress ~ on Tem~,p ratures for Iron ro:~rder ~ase~ on the hones Dana ~ 5 1 1 p t"' Cry ~~cal . tJpe vif ~L Cr j U~~.a~ Cornpre~ ~, ,. 1 ~ u , p s~_e.,,~ sign gem- Specific prey- i~elat.ive a a+ , ~ -~ i ens; i~ ~r~.,~re ~u3e p, n d ~ p condi- ~, oral Relative 'ensz ~,v o u, condo - t i ona~ ~ cendi- ? c~ ~ t~ na_ o 7 _n C k m ~q m i n ~ k ~~ ~, ~ mm ci .1 ~ unl ~.. _ ~, i rs ~ k mm g sq ~~+~ ~r ~ - ~ _ sc~ mm - ~ .c un~~~ ~ ~ ~ ,~ a 8 62. ~ ~2.? 10~;~ 1.22 62. r, 8 100 ' 2 4 ? ~ GG ~. "2 1. ~~ , 8. '? 66.8 1~6 1. b~ co 2 ! ? 5 ?; 3~ ~ I i ? , 3 7 1 5, ~ _? ~~ 0 T23 8 ~ ~.~ 8, V~ 1 n 2~ 5 ~ ~ ~.1_; G 9 r ol. ? ?? l '~ G I r r 2 ;b !~ ~, 2.3 b~ ?G. ~ ; l0'- r 286 2. C 3 -- -- - _.. _ -- 8 4l.? ?~2.? lG~~ U. ~~ /! b2. ~ J 2t~.~ GO ~ 63 ~~;~ lv J ~. 8~ ~~ oJ.B ~b.8 1',6 G.86 ~0 ~ +. ~~. 7 Zia ~ ~-? ~ t~ ~. - 1.2~ -l~2? ~8 8l. l0~ 2~~6 1. t8 C G ~ ~~ J t ~ ;, 4 6~. ~~~? . 8 10 5 2 ~ 6 ~ 1. ~ 8 4 - - --- - -- - -- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (136) srtaining to the data by Schwarzkapf and Go?tzsl p acific ressura in the hot-pressing of iron/ powder value o.~ s p p Centi7rade) is presorted in Te.?ble 24, (at 20, 600, and 1100 ~ e resistance to deforms.ta.an, with the degrso of It shaves that th ssin reduction increases more rapidly a?t hi~,her com~ compre ~ pression tsm,peratureso . _ .. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ s ac~.f~c px?ssure to at?~,a~,n a relat~,va dans~.ty times the aba p ~,nua 1~3a Can~a.~rade, and tha ~~ .~~1,ue, of 626 percent a~ m ' nsiderably hiQhex~ Tha values of the aarnpress~.an~ taa, tie ca a hi har da~rea of campr~+sgin~ reduat~.an, also f actor ~,, undp r idl at ;~a,~h temparatures. Hance, the canclu~? a.nardase mare rap Y ' hat w~?th an incraasa in temperature, the rasis?~ance s~ar~ t , ? ion in aam,pressa?n~; reduction draws mare rapidly. to defarmat ' s classy to the tempsraturfl of recrystalli nation hanomena observod with the increase in aompressa.on T ho p e are anala~aus to the chan~os in th? capacity for ?ternperatur ' th reduced hardness ~,n powders, and ?~hey can be de:~'armat~.on w~. n the samo manner, ~.,e., by 'the ].ncrsased tou~hnass oxpla:-.nod ~. of brique~~tes with co~nprsssion temperature. softor ure metals are the more easily fusa.bl? ones, Ths p ' their ct~se, roam temperature is closer to the tempsra~ hence, in stallization. k1.loys may havo ?~ lower melting turn of recry ~res.tar hardness than pure metals, however, their poa.nt at g furs of recrys~~a.~la.zation is usually hi~'.nQr? Talus, tempera ature in most cases pertaining tc softor metals, roam temper Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 TAUL~ 2"C V ~uas~o~' S~eaifia ~~ressuxe~~ ta',an tc~ Ra~~tiva Dansa.~ and Compression '~c~mperature off' Sponge Tron as 1'e~' Schwarz- MMw1~Ywl~wwq~y~~~~MM1Y r~Ty'M'~Mi-11YN ?w?gln~ MMAM~y kopf and Gaetza~. (t.he high Values Axe Probably Dua to the R~a~.sti~vely S~argo Size of the Briquettes, l~els,tive ~OoC 600oC -----_-_._--.w_110 '"'~"'~~~MwYM?wp~~lw~~ w~wwr~??~+M.`M+w~~wWw~~lw?Ywi~MM?w p p ...._..._,__,. ~ wwwr~.rl~r~.y. Y density CgI1d ~ .....~.._.......,_....., ~ ~.~, _...._......_.,,W..,....Y ............. cond'T in ~ w kg~sq mm ~~ unit 90 1F3U l0U 95 240. x.50 lU0 350 X12 kg~sq .~nm units kg~sq mm units TC lU0 3U 138 47 294 ~ lUU 6 20U l:k 36 6 23? Semilogarithmic Comprr~ssion Diagrams in T{elation to the Volumetric Characteristic and Structural Factors r......~..._..~.,.,~.........,...~, --- Tt was painted out in paa~agraph 13 that the valurn~;tric characteristic directly reflects the toughness of the powder its .resistance to colapre~si,ng reduction under the ?f.fQCt of its own weight. 7.'he lighter and the looser the powders, the greater their toughness? In the First stages of compression, ender insignificant pressures, the contact sections of thQ particles, assuming the entire load, are small in size? Hence, at the beginning of compression, the toughness of a powder at a given density, as determin?d by a pressure requisite for th? attainment of such density, is a ~~structuxal" toughness, stipulated by the size, structure, suri'ace relief, and the .properties of the thin surer Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'aae layer of ~k~he part~.oles~ of ormi~~ with -the abov?, the d~,a~rams in Figure ~~ In as Y a Pram 'able 19 (see i'aragraph ~~.) shave the,t, a.n the and .~ ha dt~t a,a~es raC aorn~ression, the pressures requis~,~te for. the ;~';~.rs~ s~, ~, s' n ~ reducti.on ~~f powders of the same metal ~to the same cam.pres a. g r't are dif:~eren~t far powders 'with different pouring den~a.y, '.a~hts~ For powders of 1ow,pourang weight, these pressures, we a ~, to the toughness of the powder a~t t)ne given density, are equal greater than for heavy powders with higher poux'- consadora'bly a.ng weightse uVath incz??ased pressure the deformed valume of the par- extends in'width and in depth embracing ever greater ~',a.C~.eS a ].00 ercent~densaty of the briquetto, the aroa of areas. ~1,t p ' on rna extend to the entire volume of the material. deformata. y ra with th? increas? in comprer~sang reduction, th? I'herefo , 1t- ral" toughness becomes less and less impartant, and ~tructu . hness of thQ metal itself , more and morF imporiaant. the t.oug re ssion diagrams of powders o:f the same metal, but 1 l.e cornE~ metric che,re,ctez?astics (see Figure 4~) with different volu wthat with the higher densities of briquettes, pressures sho ~ ui sate for the same de~~ree of colnpre sang r?duction ap?? rq he ra resga.vely, each other. At a 100 percent-den.. Proxima p g ,the extensions of. ali the curves are inter-~ sa.ty d a .roa:imatel~y at the same paint an the ardanate axis sects pp ' h in this ease, is the ].one drawn through the paints, ~Wh1C , z? whioh ~ ), the point oorrespanding to the maximum fo 1 stress ~ of the given meta]., i~eA, approximately CrltiCa res sure of extrusion. Ho~vever, some dif feronces i.n tothep -1.65- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 its own weight G, the powder, w pressure of ressure of : the p five volume ~, and under mold, has a rela . , 1 ;~ in pr ace ding text 7 e of 1. F~.gure ~ a relative volum ,. log G ht..angle trian~,le lag ~~ shows that the lei, of the ra.g tangent of the lti lied by the _.. j mu p equals the other leg 0 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 in even under vary ha.~h de~,re?s the pressure ve.~.u? ~Y rams assib~-e tY~t the valuraatr~,c, m cession rEductian~ 1'~ is p of cap act upon certa~.n maxaM ? c of the pawdex has an of f cl~,racter~. sty ~.ven meta], -value oyaillat~.ans far the ~. mum ara.ta.cal stress ~, oura.n~ waa~ht the cas? of copper M0~ with a p For exempla, in ~ _ ~?, ? ter (see table 1g), ~ `" f 351 gams per cubic cont~.me a~,trusiar~)3 ? ressure of s uare~ millimoter (below th,e p ~,i~.o~rams por ~. ourin~ weight , ne elec.tra~~ytia copper with a '~ in tide case ?f f~ 00 kilograms per 1 g~j rams per cubic centa.meter, ~, of 0~ ~ of e~;rusion) ~ l ' llimeter (equal to the pressure square ma. the maximum cra- diffarsnc?s in the value of may be ths,t the are caused by the volurrletric fecal stress in these powder s of th? heav'y ~iOZ cappe7' powder, factors , and that, in the case "? rcan~, dp~s not extend to the when ~ .. 100 pa the toughens-ng, 'titer electrolytic coppers it tare vol~a ~ whj.la a.n the leg en assible ? e volume. I~ is, neVertr~elessa p does involve the enter ce admixtures, of fact is exerted by the surfs that a certa~.n of awders of e in the li~.ht hash"d~.spersion p which tY~,ere is mor electrolytic copper la,~hardenix~g effect (see Figure l n the abs ante of a co en the pour" ute the ratio betwe it would be simple to comp ~1), ~ (ar L)~ Under the . ht and the compression factor ing we~.~, hon poured in ? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 angle formed with the x-~axls, ~.e. ~; ~~o-~~=.fa9~p-,1a7 (23/z) ~'or various powders of tha same m~~ta1. lag '~~ -log ~ l ~~~ n c nsta,n,t hence ~ ~ '~" ~,~' 0 1n mast cases ~. ~~ a a ~, equals 4 -- 7, ~ ~ ~. ~~ ~ ~~ ..~ ~ rfh.e dispersion and structural factors are reflected ire the compr~~,ssion diagrams indirectly, deterrr~in.ing the value of the volumetric characteristic of the powder, In those cases when powders of varl.ous dispersion had approximately the same volumetric characteristic, the author observed a very insignificant change in the maximurrt critical stress with the size of the particles. Soma deta7.led data on the ef:eect of ~~he volumetric charact?ristic upon pov~der oompressian was already discussed in paragraph 21, 24. ~fhe Compressing; of ~.ixtures 'the compressibility of charges made up of mixtures of powders of different m?tals as well as d~.fferent powders of the same metal, is related to the volumetric characteristics of the initial powders and their mixture. Generally speaking, there may, be three cases of mixing powders with different pouring weights~2~. In the first case, -167- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sub~aat to the rule of additivitY'~ the vo~.ume of ~~hq ma.~,ture ~s ~ ~ the volumes of the, mixture i~ equa,~. to the sum o i ~ e ~ the valumv awdc,r If ~, gravimetria parts of p oi' the initial powder s e mixed with ~'~. gravimetr~.c par's ? th a During wea.ght ~~ ar wa. p of '~ ,the pouring weight of of owd,er with a poura.z~g ~NEight 2- p 'xturn can. be computed by formulas th? ma. ~" -- ~ ~' ~~~ _ ~ ~ ~ whonce r ~ ~.. i v uantitY of the paurvd m],xture is Most frequently th ~, uld be by th.e rule of add,a." somewhat in excess of what a.t sho an rare aCCaSlanS ~~ 1~ ~?SS. tivity, ,tee of. the mixture ros~~ponds to the If the pouring ~rol . e vole of the mixture under pressur? rule of add~.t~.vlty, th will be subject to the same rule. e of tha charge departs from addi" If the pouring volum he briquettes will also depart from tivity 9 the valumv of t additivity by the same degree. essicn diagram far a coarse electro- F i gur v 9: 6 .i s s. c ampr in volume of 0.47 cubic centimeters lytic Iran powder with a po'~ g tiara with volume of 1.69 cubic centimeters per gr a pouring fine iron powder, obtained by rvdua per gram, for a am and for ~r, h.a mixture a ~' the two 50 ; 50 a PY pp _ .. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 6 Com ras sing a m~.xtl~z'a of iron pa~n~ders ; 1. Pour ng figure ~ , p .'7 c,,~l7icf c~~7~~t~imeters por gram; ~o paurin~, volume of volume o,~ 0 d ~ ba.c centimeters per gram, s~ thn mix~turv of the two 1~G9 cu 5G~50, computata.on by rule of additi'vity~ mixin tho small particles located the,.msnlves between In g~ n?s cz~using thereby the pouring volume of the charge the la.rg?a , ram additi~vity~ As 'per the rule of additivity, the t o de par t f ~, ~-~ -~' ~, ~,_~w ~ ~ d ouring volume of 'the ma.xture is to be ,~ ?.. p ' actual outing volume is 0.88 cubic centimeters per gram, 'I by p by 18 percent below the computed value, ~e attars of the briquette volume from the computod The ~ p ~s a raximately to th? same degree. Tt oan be seen value i pp ' kes a considerably lesser pressure to compress the that ~t to ' would follow from the ale of additivity (the mixture than ~t re ssuxn in Figure 4.6 wa~a roduced appraxime.tely logar~.tYmi of p ' ch correspond,s to a reduction i,n the pressure its by 0.3, why. self 'to half its va~.ue~ 25. The _~f:fe. ~ O~,d?..~ n o~rrders are formed ?ither on th? surface of the Oxa.de s ~- p s as a result of oxidation in storage, ar izl soma cases pa~~~ti clo wders are obtained by reductian~ they are present when the po .169M Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 iron owder. No. ~ h~~s an ac~;us.1. and oornputa~tion Fully a^eduoad p ' 2.~ argent a the incon~plately reduced iron powder porosa.ty of 3 p otual orasity o~ 9:8.2 peroent and a ca~putation ~ o ~ ]. has an a p porosit;~ off' 65.8 peroant. TABLE 25 V~d6r"a in ~a1^:I,aUS ~OgrB?S a~ P~diXC~~.On Undf~r ' On P o 1^ a s 7. ty 0~ ~. r Pp ..~...--..?--.~.~-- mm the prc~ss~?~o~ 40 k ~ q . ""` e~ o~ Pour~.n~ ~~ --a-~~-?~'"~'" '" Conditions D gre aSit duotion reduction o.f r e wea.ght o~ Par y.,.._. y ~- ?- ~ ~ in awder cornpuM in Na. Tempera- . T~.me ~.n. ?. (~ of o~ry , p l Cation LlQt1c8 59(~ ? n Cure ~. .~,,...,,,~,..,. ?C ~,..... m~:nutes ~....~, gen rarnoval) ~ r cu cm ~ ~ ...~.. actua , ~~, .~.,....,....~ ~. 600 30 51.7 0.22 ~ ~ o ~+ 6 ~ r 0.?~: 5g.0 r,8~7 7a~ la X1.7 ~ 700 30 58.9 0.21. 39.6 57..4 ~ 700 60 100 0.1.8 32.3 32.3 5 800 l0 76.1. 0.23 36.8 9:8.5 rc~liminary mrst,tmont on the Co~rprossibilitY of The~~~Gt at' P ? powders rnber of cases, powders are subject to prelizn~.nary Inanu ' heat-treatmnrt? These treatments a~'f.ect the com- me chan~. ca.l or o~ the owders to a considerable extont. pre s s a.b~.l~.ty p tmen~t of powders in ball mills increases their 7.he tree and the. cold hardening of the particles. The pouring weight. rticles increases the values of the critical toughening of .Cho pa ion factor L at not too high densities str?ss ~~ and comprESs Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~? casv that the values of spec~fio of the lara.~,uettes. 7.t be~.n?g ?~~ ~s d?gree of compressing reduction, ressure p, requisa.te ~'or the. p ourin at due to the increase iz~l the p ~ are even reduced sornewh ?., ready era Compr?ssa.ng tc high densa.ties ~ , weight of the powd he initial cold-hardening effect urhens the particles, hence, ?~ to ~, ? trea'~ment ~. s not important a.n this case. of the preliminary' resentation of a typical case of com- Figure 47 is a graphic p er owder with a pouring weight rassin~, an e1?ectrolytic copp p treat- p ' centimeter. prior to and after its of ~..~~ gams per cubic 7.nitial pressures, in the cas? of ment in a ball mill ~ Tho . ~, ff Brent, but after attaj.ning the both powders, are somewhat d to one. i n f~ two curves in tY>.e graph blend _~,,,o L'~ ~ ~.~ 5, the The col on the value tment of the powdor has na effect up liminary tree ~" the pressur? of ertrus~.on). of ?th? critical stress ,~, ~ `~ articles during ~i~p ~~" d hardening sustained by the p ?~ ~4 ~, +~ ~ ~! ~~,~ M rams e r cub ~' c er owder, pouring weight 1.42 ,,.. p ~igu..-~-xe~ Gopp p ' ].l? 2. powdor pre- er: 1. powder not treated in ball ma. ~ centimet limina,rily treated in bald. mill the mothod of obtaining the powder In a number of cases, for instance particles of such powders causes it to ba 'arittle. ~ compression. iron chaps) disintegrate easily in ,. powders from gray awders in com- en?ss xeduues the toughness of the p such brittl their de formation. ~'ar instance, ression, facilitating thereby p see Table 1J7s r chi of semisteel No. 19 ~ the brittle acicula p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (2) ? The :remo~aal of the co1r.~~hardenin, g effect- This r reduces cons~.d?rably the specific pressures p and the facia critical stress?s ~ in th? case of briquet;tes of law density. The effect of tha.s fatter is reduced considerably with a high de roe of consolidation, da.sappearing completely when a 100 pPr" g cent density is attained. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 under a presslxre of 63 ka~.agrams per square mallimeter, has a arosaty of 16?7 percent and a ~~~ :130 ~i.lograms per square p ma.l,lameter, whale the less brattle chip Na. 20, obbaa.nad through the light grinding of chip Noe ].~, has a p'ox~asity of 23 per cent and a d ~ 200 kilograms pc~r square mallameter. Preliminary annealing of the powders induces a change an proper. ties and structure and has a substantial effect upon corn rossibility~ ~as~-ally, the elaangas devo~.opod by annea~.in~; p mp,y be rQduaed to the fallowing. (lj, A chang~o ~.n tholu~ m~~?'~c charactQristic. Lav~r- tem stature annealing reduces, while high-temperature annealing p a.neraases, the pouring weight of a powder. Therefore, if other changes induced by inn?aling are abs~~ractl,y disregarded, it may be stated that .a low-tAmperature preher~~ting somewhat increases, while ahigh-tem~~eratu,r~ preh.~at~ing somewhat reduces, the spe- cific pressures, requisite far the obtaining of br~.que~l;tes of not too high densities. In th9 cas? of high-density briquettes, the annealing of the powd?r, while changz.ng the pouring ~,ueigh~, o?s not substantially affect the values of ~~ rn ~~ and specific d pressures. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 n 1n the amo1~~~~ of adma.xtures (re" (;~) , The d1m~,nutlo ~,,,,,,.,,~.~....~~.-., anneal~.~ng, the burn~.ng out of duct:~on of oxides in reduction ' annpa~~ing, and the ~.a,kc~)~ This factaz as,rbon ~.n d?carbonizing nd ~ (inc7.usi~~re of ~ Mix ), reduces thc~ va~.ues of ~ a ? , of f'ect of the above factors , a.t may In suriun~?ng up the , reliminary annealing aonslderably be takon that, tin most cases, p facile-tatos th? operation izi the press ? th, al:l.o~T powda.rs, two types of preliminary When doaling w~. eat-treatment era to ;~e d1 f feT'entlatod. h a.~? atm?nt to obtain solid s olutl ons or rota r" (~,), ~l.ea~ tre from the initial :metal powders p For in- metallic ca~npounds ar-zinc charges, a b~?ass powder is ob" stance, 1.11 heating cope ,~, has a much h~.~~her hardness than the copper" tamed. S~a,nce br. ass ~? i11t is decreased considerably at the zinc mi:~~ure ~ cornpros~1'o y ~~ exponsa of an increase in p and . ~ ~. eatment for dissociating solid solutions or (~), Hoak. tr into 1nltial components Tha graph/" intermetal.llc compounds lie of the powders of white iron induces a tizat~.on apnea g Ito into ferri~~e and graphs-te: it being disintegration of cement nc~ss of. the particles is reduced and the the case that the hard the awder impro~red. For ins~~ance, the un- ca~nprossibility of p owder ~Vo~ 16 (sea Table 19) has avalue annealed white iron p er s uare millimeter, while after graphi- of' ~ ~ 580 k11o~;rams p q ~. er square millimet?r ~ -? 150 k 1lograms p ~~ization annealin, -" (awder No. 18, Tab~.e l9) p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 27. Qther ~'armul~t~,ons of ~th ~~a~awb ~wegn?.. su~^~ a~~~d ~h~ ~egr~?m.,~,x, es?"~ng l~edua~~on The seml,logarithmi.c dia;~rams a;F comp~'ess~.on make ~.~ passi~b].? to interpret 'the essQnce of the processes inval~ved in ~tho ccnsol~.data.on of powders. However, the values of the co~npryssion factor L ahang? considerably even within sma~.l prassuro intervals, It is, th?ret'oz?e, not a].ti~rays canvanien~b to use the compresaiora equation (1~~10a): to _/~ ~ =~~ ~-~I na ~k ~~ ~~ I~t can be predicted a priori that the attempts to arrive a~t a compression equation with constant coeffica.onts, to apply to all powders and to the entire rams of pressures, is doomed 'to failurs~ I~ever~theless, in a numbsr of cases, it is possibl? to arrive a~t :Formulas with cosf:Ficisnts morQ or less constant within a widen range of pressures. As brought out by the experiments conducted by the author, in i~he case of most of the ~powdars of rnsdium hard ness (copperA iron), the compress~.on factor L in tho differ- ential compr~~=~ssion equation (].'~~~j ~~ ~. ~~ ~~ can be presented as a function: ,~ w~ '..' a. ~,~~ where m 9.s approximr~tel.y constant within a rather considerable pressure range. -175 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 : CIA-RDP82-0003 98000200040019-6 _.. m ~? s w 'or the interval in which tin equation ~~~~~~ ~ T.nte~,ra ~ . compact stat? ' ar to th? ]3oy19'T,~ariotte we have a ratio s~ma.1 Here e ual ~.. except that m does not q formula for gages, can be d?'" t in formula ~2~~~} the value of the constan ?c~.f~-c I 'then p equals the maxa.mum s~? assuming ~~r ~ a fully rived by th,e briquette to uisite for bringing req pressure Amax Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Thin a constant, we darive~ ict.on against the ~,11s l~gSeS Of p~"BSSUX"0 t0 ~"r xf the can be disregarded, then of the fire ss mold ,~. where ~~~~ eXtrusion)? ~ 27 ~~~ ~ L, ~, I'~?i ~ ~w ~-- L'~~ ~ ~IiCJ ~`'~') ~ rr the pr?ssure of ~' um cr~.tical stze~~ ~, s the maxa.rn In this case: 27 1), when the relative with formula Conf ?rmantly and the comeres sion p the values of factor 'volume ~~` onent m ar e equal exp J is the relative densi~~y wherQ 5,ince ~ resented as~ e cation ~27~~~ may bo p of the briquett?, q ~. ~~ ~ ~27~5~ ~27~6~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 me dl um hardn8a~s, when ~oug~~ned Va~.uH x.11 ~le~~~~,5 Of rax~.~na~e~.;y three times greator khan to a max~.mum degree, ~,s app is e,1so lardoned sate ? The re]a t~.ve volume ~n a non~~^cold 1 lso ba d?r~ved ee t~.mes~ ~quatlan (272) can a d~m~.na. shed thr ~,~ 2a , we assume a proport~ona~.ity d:~re ,~ ~ ~ I and .....~-~ ~..,...'.~ but between ~ ~ and ~ not bet~we en ~ , ~, ~ ~ s 27 3) and (27~~) logara.~~hm~,caa.ly, Ear r?ssing equata.an ( p we obta,~.n; ~ f ,~~ = /~ k/n ~ ~ ~; ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~/ ~ ~ ~- ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~` /~~` ~ ,~ e uata.ons (277) and (278) In gra~~hic presentata.on, q ght linos (Fa.gure 9:8) tra ~ , . e s wall b ~,5[~ ~~ ~ ~K ~~ y Idea. tll~~,~ w~~;w s r~ ~ ,~ ~ ? n. of maximum critical stress) ? it equals the logar:~thr of the stra~.ght line to the abscissa The ~.nellnat~on and the part, ~-ntersected e uals th? compreSS~-on exponent m, q ara.thm ine on the ord~.nate, equals th? log by the stra~.ght l ~ n the ideal. ecific corapre5sig11 pressure (~ of the maximum sp re s s maid, e are no losses to fricticn in the P ca,e, when that s a resentation of 1o.garithmic curves Figure 49 ~. p rs th? curves are practically stra~g COp~er pOWd? ~ ~ For most of the lion and a ~. `~ for certain powders, ht lines ? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 aria of soma othor powders, ?~hvY d?part frazn rQati~ In the x.n this sass, m i~ nat ~ cons~~ant, s,nd thv vs.lu?~ l~nas.r~tY, ' a?~ an aint s,ra ds'F~srrninsd, r~sspvct~.velY, by the ofmand ~ Yp ~, ?~he tanren~~ to tha absca.ssa s,nd by the pal.nt of a.ncl,inat~.an of ~ intersaction of the tangent with 'the Y~axis~ _ W._....~....,, ~.._..,_.....1 9 '~,a arithrnia curve diagrams; 1, electrolytic ti,n., Figure 49. ~ wei~'ht 1..02 gams per cubic centa.meter; 2. electro~- poura.ng q ' o ~aer outing wea.ght ~? 42 grams pot cubic contimeter; l y t a. c c p k p ? n ourin~ weight 4.18 grams per cubic enti- 3, reduced tungste , p metar. .n tha case of the sernil.ogara.th~nic curvo for electro- 1 er with a pourinl~ weight at' 1.42 grams per cubic l~rtic cope ' star see Figure 42), the ultimate valuo of factor centim ( 'nitial value by 104 perc?nt~ The log- ic greater than a.ts ~. ' 'c curve for the same powdor (Figure 49) shows a 10 ar a. thm~. ., ference betwden tho ultimate and the initial percont d~.f ex~.aonent m. T~L~-s example illustrates how much values of he logarithmic curves fog metal powders of medium Glaser t ~ s aro to ractilinEarity~ Tn the case o.f' tungsten pow. h~.r dne s ~~ ~ 9 and copper 1V10G, the initial. values of dens (4ee figure 4 ) rester than the ul.timate~ Tn the cas? of tin exponent m ar e g Q cantrary, the ultimate valu?s of m are greater powders, an th 'tial~ The values of m increase with the pourir~ than the ~n~ he owder and -the hardness of the metal. TY~e we~.ght oft p ~178- r;~~ ~,' ;: ; ~ `Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 prma~r~ed by ~~he hardness of th? meta]., and ~~ ~a~.ues are deb thee' approxa.mately ?c~ua~. a oom 1].ata.on of thQ u].t~.mato values of m ~e,ble 26 ~ s ~ b the lo~ax'1thm~.c d~,s,gxams of soma powders and ~ , com;pt~~ted Y ~~~ and cam ar3.san w~.th the data off' Tak~le ~`~, the for purposes of ~' ' terms of bhe sem~,lo~ar~:thm~-c da.aQ,rams of L.values are pa.ven ~,n e an f ram r,Cab le ~~ , the ~~ "'values for the tree se powder s o ,~s s ' ~ ams are Glaser to the pressure of extrusa.on a,agara.thma.c d~.a~,r e C~~se of al]. metals, except the very soft Table 20) , a. r~ th ones. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 road b the hardness of the nlatal, and "' vr~ lue s ar a det e rm Y they s,pproxlma'bely e~ua~. Dorn a.].e,tion of the ultimate values of m Ta~,le 26 i s a p the logaz'ithmic diagrams of some pawders~ and ~~ , computed by with th9 data a~' 'Sable 19, the ~~_ and For purposes of campaY'ison arms of the sem~ilagar~.thmic diagrams of Irvaluss are liven in,t n from Ta'bla 26 , the ~~ ~ values far the tree se powder s ~ As se e s are closer to the aressure of e~trusian laga7~ithm~.c da.agram case of all metals, excopt the very soft (Table 20), in the ones. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 . ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~: - 3. J1 ~ ~ f ~o~~e~ , _i0~, ~. j-. C a. , 9 r lj8 n n ~?! v,b~ _ ~ ' ^'~ti 1 i ne, in- C.urvt ~U~r x c , ., ~~^="Z area 1,C3" ~,'_~22? l~ tv'arVc Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 w - ; Gur~fe ;ia~i 2riS ,.,;, ,.: ' ,-, T p ~_ ice= ~''ITiLC Gom.,ut~c: c; ~r is ram of cuz~re p, d g V r in k~/?~'r!` L ~~ s ~ L~ ~. ~6 c- ~ ~ ~.r= ~~ E~ECUrp~J, t,~C, i?~ ~ Ti~_, ~ ,G ~~ n n r L1 Q ~ ~ nn, ~~ :. e ~eC j~~~, of r~ ~.nd ,~ ~_ae s * n !~ 1 ? . ~ ~ C 1~1 3 . Ll ~i. lld L ~ 1.l tJ l r ' frcr~ %~?e aer~- ~~ar?n increase ~ ~ m a__n y.i 1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 r. [ 4?C lc; on r.~t 1.4~? Ir ~ ~ . t : 1~uc~ x.18 ~ . ,..ter ~; Ting ~ `7 uG Gi s.. ~.T'i~ ,, al ia~r~~ of curve ~ ~ ~, ~ - came ~~ a~~ove ,r,`~.Iif? ~~ c.%GjJe ., ~ 1 m reate~r thaT~ ~n~ ~~al val~.e.. o_ g 1 ~:ltir:?a. to Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~h~k a~' Contipr?ss~.on lied to 'the p1ur~~er of the caress mold, The pressure app r , a erforms a aer~taa.n amount of work i17 aansa].idata.n~ the c~ha ~ , p work, b the following eXample~ An iron Let us evaluate this ~' , wei ht of ~.~ 30 ~ralns per cubic centi- powdor with a pouring d in a press mold having; a wide Dross mater is being corr-presse h?i ht of tho poured. powdor charge, nozl.~acln~ secta.on~ The ~ ma.lli.meters. After bea.n~; subjected ?~o a pressed., ~s ~ ~ ams er square centimet?r, its h?ight pressure of 3000 ki /oar p 3 r~lillimoters, which corresponds to a paros- is reduced to ~..3 ei ht of ~l,he 1.a.yer of compact material ity of 25 percent (the h 'hus the path along which the work of d?~ i s ~, mi ~.~. imeter) : ~ formed equals C - 1,~3= 4,67 ~.llimeters. formation was per to accomplish the consol~.dation, is Tho wnrk ?xpended ~ ~~,~;~ ~1~~~ w1~~ere h is the hai~,ht of the briquotte, iS tale CnTil'preS8i0n pressure, f'urict Inn of the height of the briquette wl~~. cY~ i s s am.e work is made up of the fol.].owin[a part's Thi s r ao7~.sumed irA overcom~.ng friction between (l~ , Ene gY Iles and. the ~ar.ess maid walls. In, this case, tho powder parts. ' t of the powder layer, this fraction of due to the small, hea.gh that ' sre ~arded. We shall see in Chapter' V the work may be d~. ~ consumes a considerable fract~.on of the fr~.ction, even when it es not chang? the carrelationship bet~nreeza enemy expended, do and tho dvforlnation., being ref/acted ~~he work, the. pressure, 1 e constaxlts in. the dorresponding forxnuw only in the value of th I?, J. 41 ~M Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 consumed in the elasti.a deformation of the (~~ , ~n~z ~y antic defarrnation of the pa,r?~ic1QS, wi~~h the particles El ct 1a ?r being 1 mil].imater, a pressure of haa.ght of the comps. y s ware ContimQter, and the aa.ast^ci~~y madu? 3000 kilograms per 6 kilo rams por square centimeter, may reduce lus of ^ron 2 x 10 ~a . br~i c uetta by 1. ~ ~~~ ,which amounts to only tho ha a, E?;ht o f th? ~ ath traveled by the press mold plunder OpQ3 pprcant of the p s `t'hus, this part of the work is only (of 4.67 ma.ll.a.meter ercent of the entire energy consumed, and a fraction of a p can, therefore, 'be d^sragarded. consumed ire the surfac? deformation cf' (4), Energy i.ei in the displacement o.~ the contact sec- t~~e parta.clas, , ` phis o,~;'! an of a paw contact surfaces ~~ ~n~ ~~nct ire t~~e ~'ortn to 1 arc~+nt, anal may else be practically approximately amaunta p 05 ma.llimater. `t'his fraction of the work Lion arnounta.ng to 0 ~s motion of the parta.cles not along tho enure ttvolumetra.c daf or millimeters) of the plunger, bu.t only alan~; a SeC" path (4.67 ed in th.e non-reversible ''volumotricn (3 ), Energy c,onsum ra rah 17, it was menta.oned that the powder da f armata. an. In pa g p 'r~ com resslon, are flattened to a small degreo parta.cles, ~ p ~to the extent of 5 percent of their diameter only, hardly ' s erformod the work of the non-reversible rt'hus, the pressure ha p disregarded. urn along the entire path (4.67 ~.llime?tc~rs ) de.~ornlata.ori occ og ?~he plunger. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a by c~seumed with a aartaa.n d~~,rcae of praM ~lenoa, ~~ ~ Y off' c~c~rnpz' ess~.an ~.s datarm~.nc~d b~ ~;he deN oa,sa.an ?tha't -the work aon~t~aat sur:faoe ~,n the da,s~~~aae~mp~at of parts f armata.an of the as er da.a~~~'ain in ~~lgure 36 ~precad~.ng ?tlalv5 into the parse, P by other wont aompar~anta s.~?a praat,~.ca1.].y tex?~), a.nasrnuah as ~ i~nsigni~'~cant. w car w:Lt~l a reduced ~Va.l.urna (see Paragraph Suppose, a pa d ?' afar is being corapresec~d ~.n a prr~ss mold k rlhe raduc?d vin across sec?t:i.or~ of 1 square cer~tirrtc~ter ha g ' ue?tto h ~ 1 een~t3.me for. The work of eom~? height of .the bra.q k ~~ ~?ed~~ced volume, i ~ e ~ , b1~e reduced work prossio~n per una.t a nter'val frOlll O '~~ p, w~.ll be oxpressad by wk in 'th? prcassure i formulas ~, ~~, ~ ~~ ufhaning e;f:fect a.s disregardQd3 'then, in con- zf the to (,, ?~ ,and, after mc,king ' ~ h f ormula (].9~G) ~ ~. f orm~. ty wa. ~ .ubstitution, we derive, aftez~ integrating the corraspa~lding 5 equation (2~i~].) s ~. ~ ~ Thnning effect tai~en a.~nto account, after ~fith the tn~F, ~ ~, in conforrr~ty w~-'~h :formulae ubstit~.a~ting into equation (2 ~) ~ s ~ ,~~~, ~" and again integrating equation (~~~3) s.nd (274) , (2$~].) , we derive ; MI '~ ~ ~.M (z8/2) (28/3> Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '~ha ~~,axa.mur~ ~valua foi~ tha reduced speaif~.c work at x.00 accent?ao:~so~.ids.ta.an wk max wall ba expressed by ~'armu'iae p Forinula (28/3) can aa.so bo presented In 'the wr w~` C ..~.+ ~Wrowwww nwr""wwwruww M,w Mr., ,,.~..,...M"'""" ~~~ ~~ ~, form: ~28~5) ~~~ ~ ~ ~~, .~ ~ / (28/30, (28%x) and (z8/~) , the If, in formula 28 ~)~ ma nitudes p and p are given in kilograms per square enti- g max mQter, the magnitude of the reduced specifa.c work will. be ox- ressed in kilo~;ram~eenti.meters per cuba.c centimeter, and if p ~the;~ are gi~verl in kilograms pe.r square millimeter, the dimen- sionality of the reduced specific work wi11 be expressed in kilogram-millimeters per cubic millimeter, If work is expcandod for the consolidation of the powder d the losses to the frict7.on of the powder against ar~ly, an the press mold walls are disregarded, the magnitude of Amax in the above formuls~.s can be substituted b,1' ~ ~~,~ , resulting in the formula belo~r: ~ ~ ~ ~-~ .~ ~a~ ~' ~ ~ m a ~ .~ I ~ ~ ~ ~,w~~.,.w~ .~ ~ rnr~,_ (28/6 ) ~~~. ~ ~m~4~ ~~ I~ and (28~~) I~t Follows from. formula (28/6} that the magnat~d~.of the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 spac;ii'~.a work depends not only oz~ the r~~~bure a~' ?~he meta. beat a~,sa an ~,ts vu~.umatr~,a charaater~.stic (m). The reduaed work i.ricreasss wXth the hardness of the metal and w:~th the di~ minution in ~tiha pouring wai~ht off' the powdar~ ~~ha speca,.f is work of the cans ol,i.dati. an w, i ~ e r , the work of, compressa.n~ ~'~he c{uantity of pawdor, which, under ~~ho ~ivnn ul~~,imate pressure and density, ,has a volume of ~ cubic centimeter, is linked to ~Lhe reduced sped tic work wk by forraulc~ s ^~ W ~v.1 ~` ~~J 288) V~ ~ ( from which f of laws : The work w of compressing a powder that has a reduced vol~une Vk cubic can"timc~ters is linked to the reduced specific work b,y ~'ormu.la Footnote Formult~s (2~3~8) ~ (~~~~) s and (2d~10) prc~vai l only in the cash of r~~bsEnce of work losses 'to friction against the press mo~.d walls. specific work by the ,Following corx'elationsh~.p: '~`1 = ` ~ As fol~.ows fror~. formula (2$,~9), the campress?ion exponent ra is linked to t]Ze rat~.o botw?en the speei.f i~; pressurE and tho . _ _ _. ' '' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 .CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The reduaed speaifa.a wax?k of aompressing a powder may be computed by the aampression diagram With a srna~.l value of of the reduced height of the briquette hk, 'the formu~.as exM pressing the ra~tia ~e~~rr4er. the work expended s,nd the pressure and the densa.by of the briquettes, coincide pretty accurately with the results abtai:ned empirically in the case of mast of the powders of iron and coppero Tt follows from formulas (2f3~8) and (28~~) that the specific wark of compression changes with the, first power of p.r ensure, and 'the red~.~ced wark of compression changes with pressure raised into a power of even loss than unity. The work involved in th?, i.ncr?asing of ~tho con~l;act surface of a compact body increases in a power greater than unity (Para- graphs 8 and 9). 2~~ Departures of Logarithmic ~urves~from ~~?ctilinearity if in equations ~ ~vt ~ - ~,~~~/, m=ml~ constant in 'the entire interval of densities, .from ~ the relative volumo of the non-consolidated powdor to ~,i~,. ~, then the compression diagram will ba as presented in Figure 50, a, ;~~. lad M ~ I o~ ~?~ Fi 50, Diagrams ('b), the real curve log p ~ log MfS~ ~~p 1~~ ~~ (a). the ideal cure?; In the interval between po~.nts A for thn initial ~voluxa? and 13 for the curve runs along the straight line AB. r J. V 1 "n Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 r the angle formed by l~na A~ wibh bhe x,?ax~.$ the br~ngen~, of the rassurv xs da.m~,n~.shc~d ~;o a va~.ue below ac~ua~s m~~ When p ? he owdar, the re7.a,b~.ve vo7,uma wa.a.~. nob expand the we~ht oft p aa.cal~. required by formula (273}, to ~n;~ina.ty, e,s ~.b ;1.s a,lgabr y ' n without, change. 'HancQ, bha.s pa~.nt of the hub wa. ll r amaa. ? ht ],ina log j ;log curvy 'will be expressed by a vert7,cal straa,g lame of non..cor~salidated powder (,A.A' ~.n Figure ralat~v? vo ~ UV-hen the pressure 50,a)~ Tn this path of, the curvy m ~- ovo the valuo, the Yrolume, ~,f the relativow is inaraasod ab pmax of tho r,om~pact metal is disregarded) ly lotiv compress].ba.~.a.ty char?fore, it can ba assumed that, wa.th the ~w~, ~, ~, not change . the curvy will ba expressed by the straight pressure above pmax' + '' are 50,a). For this part of the line log ~Q(BB in ~a.g curvy, too, m = ~ ? ' ~ the curves run not along the brokon straight xn reala.t,~, e 50 a but along a smooth curve of the ].ina, as shown a,n Figur . re 5Q b. ~n the case of all potivdars, without ~rypa shown In F~gu ' fade m does not suddenly j~p from infinity to excepta.on, magna. m but is gradually diminished ~.nto it, withM the finite value 1, ' n d interval of densities, which is dependent in a pre detarYn~. e of the owder (2~'igure 50,b)' By the same to~:en, on the nature p its finite value ml to infinity not in one jump, m passes from . in Fi are 50,a, but, in most cases, gradually, when ~ ~~ as g as in Figure SQ,b. asans for the higher vela?s of m at the beginning TY~,a re ? essian may be basically reduced to ~tha fol].owingc of r~ompr In the vary First stages of compression, deform~- ~l}~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ta.an is susta~.ned primc~ri~y by the sur~aae ~,ayvrs off' th? parts ~icles or~ntaining admixtures tha~~ a~?v harder than the basin m4tal (Paragraph 21)~ ~2), In a number of cases (suoh as when powders are obtain?d by mechanical dasintegrat~.on), the surfaav ls,yar of thv particles has sustaa.ned a greater cold.?hardening effacb~ (~)~ A nan-homogeneous distribution of dansi~~y a.n the powder, charge may at times cause hid;her prr~ssures at the b4~ ,xnna.ng of campression, (~). The cotlsadc~rably part pls.yod by elasta.a deforrna~ Lions iri the prespnc? of ~,he lo~vest pressures The higher vaa.ues of m an the ultimate staves of com- p.rc~ssian are duo to the following: (1). In the ultimate stages oi' cornprassa:,on (s?e :~a.ra- graph 2?), deformation is strongly anhxbited by the co~.d?-hard- ening, th? growing toughness of the braquett?, and geometracal factors, (~ ). 'lhe density of the Braque ate as not un.af orm, and therefore, long before the 10()..pera~nt~compressing raductian is attained, part of the briquQtte has a donsi~ty of 100 percent and develops as characterized by segment BB' (~agure 50,a), whila ano'~her part changes as characterized by branch .AB (Fig- ure 50,a}, with the resultinb curve, characteristic far the en~ tare braquett?, running as indicated in Figure 50,b (also see Chapter VI). Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 e5 0~ conso~.a.dt~'~lo~, ~n as In bhp ul~~ims,be sba~ ~,~; tam ~ ~ and?r conda.ba,a~~s xom soft me'~a1s and s,~,so bhe casQ ?:~ powd?xs ~ w~.1.1 canf arr,~ant with reallbY ~ rassa.n~, .bhp :formula moxp of hob ~ (~) as f a~,~.aws e $ubm~.'bted by thy' s,ubhor , be the on r ~~a /~ 1 s u on Com xes,~~,,, o.~ ~a~ ~~ The off?ct of x,ubr'icanb S0. ex erg-menbs w~bh bho ~n.tro.~ thor conducted numerous p nd The au sorbs of.' liqua.d a r ess ink charge ?~ all duction Into bhe p araf f ixl oils, ~7.ycerin, stearina p solid, lubricants, such as Fhb h considerable x?educpd h.e9.~ k otc. :fin bhe case of a water, lubricants essential~~y es bhe introduction of of bhe bra.qu?bt , bhe press of th? powders against ced the external friction redo bl reducing thereby bhe to 5 ta.mes), consa.dera Y .. t of pr?debermir~ed densi y? mold walls (2 e ui.sitp for bhp atba~.n~npn pr?ssure r q ~ n curv'p, semilogarithmic .he nature of the comprpss~? ~ovlpver, t rcmainad bhe .bhp magnitudes off' ~., and. m, and. logarithmic ~ and ,was effected same reduction in pressure. same l.n addition, bhp walls without introducing ricating bhe press maid by merpl`~ lub In bhe case of low chs rga. bricant into bhe pressing any lu bho br i gUette s , the intr o~ ` he reduced height h,~ of ~ralues of b u ?n bhe compression dia.. ubricant, had, no ef'fpcb p duc~~ion of ~' dial not change both under a nibudes p and ~~ greens , and bhe m ~ ~.a. as under hi~,h pressures. law as we orb,ance. `they indicate e results are of basic imp The abo~ , n?d nob by forces re.. ession ~,ressur? is deberrN. that bhe comer ~ tion between the particles vercom? bhe ~-eternal fryc qua red to a .. ~.90~ . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200 py pp 040019-6 _. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 bud by Farces requisite far their defor~~atiar~~ ~~Ierace, ?~he luM br~icants, while rGducin~; the exterrtal~ fra.etion of ?t;ha powder against ?~he ixner surf'aae of the press molds, had no effect whatever upon the internal friction, The rc~rently publ.i.shed thesis by ~ehli~ and Wul.ff(l~~} ean~irms ?the fact that the introduction of lubricant into tho pressirt~ cl~ar~;e has appraxi- mately the same effect as ,the lubrication of the press .mold walls, !'hat the ~~~ompressl.an pressure z.n its predominate pert, a.s expended for 1:he deformation. o:E' the meta]., is already evi- dent from the far, that the values of the critics./ stress Uri prevai.lin~ under ~~,ny pressures and under any dispersion charac- taristics of the initial powders, conform to the hardness of the conts,ct sections;; The out}star also eac:perimsnted with the additian. of water and ocher substances ,a nanmstal.l.l.c pawd,ers. V~hen these added subs~{~ances were not reacting with the powder, no compressioza d9 ram char e were ~~~ F' ~ ' g ~ s observed, ar ~.nstance, w~~h a low value r'~ of l~, the additian of a~t affect its compressibil Sta.nCe r?acteC~, W1.th the unavoidably linl~ed, the particles), a very curve was observed, oil. to the tungstie anhydride did net ity~ If , on th.e other hand, ?the added powder (and each chemical, reaction ~.s le!s.st, to the surface deformation of ~. 4 i pronounced change in the campres sion Thus,~ths additian of water to the tungw ~, stic anhydride reduced the value of the pressure reguxred far the attainment of tie pxsdetermined d?nsity several. tames as compar?d to dry powder, -`~ 9~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sub- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 dr a h.i li c sub st e,nce that ~n stic anhydride ~s a by ~ '~h? t~ ~ ch f e?o~ ~~" star, the additian of whs. ~ters into a r~,actian with w er henca, additions af.~'ect formatian of the ~arta.cles, ta.tes .the de read, ch,et7~a.cally and in the case when they compressibility ~ ?tatin~ thereby the ' Iles of iJhe powdor faca.la. wa.th the part. terials . ressin~; of ceramic ~~ . ? n of .the l~tter~ the web p de f army tti o reduce the ,., .~~ ~~dditions, which only is based upon this of f0o can o not react ~w~.th the powdar, ' cient of friction, but d c,oeff~. Tess mold, but have e external friction ira the P ?z~1y reduc? th of the powd?rs, t u on th? compreSSibioity no other eff ec ~' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ': Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 w xis is parallel to the pressure. 7 a ~~ 'c mass, cannot expand, as a resu b'I a metalli stresses p are evolved. _ um Lion of the lateral pressure ' are 5~.. Diagram 1'or the cans p F a.~ ~~-____....._.-. the shrinkage ?f the cubelet The pressuxe wi11 cause horizanta~. ? coon (z-axis) and expand it in a in a vertical dare balm surrounded axes). The cubelet, however, direction (x and y It of which lateral r ' r. the direction of the x-axis The ~;rar~s~re~rse ex~?ans~on ~. 1 at~.o ~ and the vort?iaal pressure is proportional to 'Poisson s r modulus ~~ it y to the elastic e,nd inversely p~'oportional p?, ~.. i.e., i~t equals' ~.~ the direction of the Y-axis, ' n The /store/ pressure pr: 1 Dt~. ? I ?-~ ~. xis equal t o V ~- induce expansion along the ~ a , .will also nsion along the ~.?axis equals Hence, the total expa Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~1~~ ~~r ~~ ~~s p~.ESS~~~~ AND p~l~~ ~,s,~-ae~ra s~~ d to lpp parGent..density and In a brique?~te carnprasse e?~ us mentally conceive of ~ ? r a v?rtiaal pressure p~, ~ ands ribs , ~'r~re 5l} with l~aantimetar long sa~,re~atad cubal.et ~~ a.~, e that the coord.inata axes, it being thQ cas para,llal to the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Since the lateral expansioxa of the cubelet is actually ' ssib~.e the total e~,pans~.an along th~a ~.-axis mush equal a.mpo , wiil a,n.duce shrinlrage a~.an? 'the X~-a~~s equal ~Eo its shr9.nkage along ?the same axis, i.e~, from where e same cox~rela'tionship can bo deducted :~ox~ 'the l~a~teral Th pressure along tho Y-axis. ~~'hn rns,gni~tudE ~ i . e. , the ratio off' the spe cif i c ,~ ~.l ressure p to the specific cornpressian pressure, which, l~,tar p r ~ is called in the case of a compact briquette, equal:s I , the coefficient of lateral pressure. ' ons`~i b?twe en and ' v aan al,s o bE ex? The correlate. p grossed as follows Let us now pass to the value of the coefficient of lat?? re~'~' and Poisson's ratio ~ for porous briquettes. era/ pressu ~_ the author ~s `~ -graph 17) - that the area of th? mieraslide, acaupi.ed by the meta]. a.ndicated ' a orous briquette, ~s in direct ratio to its relative dents 1n p . Let us concei~re oi' the relative density of the cubo~- se.ty 1 t in T'i~urn 61 as being equal to 60 percent, which would --g ~ ,save g;p Qrcent of the lateral surface of separata.on GY betwQen 1 p Niotallagraphic exama.n Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 A~~ the same time, the lateral presasure px, along th,e XMaxis Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~hQ cube~.~et e,nd ?bhe mc~ta;~ surraundin~ ~.~, far the pares ~n this pare of the surfaoe, the cubelo~ car; expand, and ~.atera~. forays are absent Th?a/efara, latc~ra~. pressur? a,s ava].vad wally at 5Q percQn~- of the surt'ace of sQparat~.an ocoupa.od by the ane~tal, and oquals pa~ly 60 percent of tha la'~era1 pressuro which would exist ia1 the case of a oarnpart cubel~s?~. It a,s tha author's ppa.nion that in ?t~~~s ~enaral case; `~ 1 whore G is bhe caof~'~,cien~~ of laboral prassure a.n a is the coefficient of lateral pa^ess~are in a compact briquette; is the relative density of the briqu?tte ~in fractions of unity} ~'aotnote~ The actual lateral pressure may differ some? ...... _.. ~... w..... _.. r, what from thQ one computed by for~raula (~1~3~, since the relative density of the mc;tal in a lon~i'.. F,~,; .a1 direction may be sornew what higher, and in a ~transTJerse direction, somewhs.t lawor than th? general valurnatri c density ? The poi~soa~'s ratl.o ~ ?f the porous briquette must be J ~ ~? by the same dent of lateral pressure la,nked to the c,oeff.~ correlationship a5 in the case of compact metal, from whence Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ lows, f~~om formula (3~.~~) ~hE~~ ~.~ can be subs~i~ x~ Lol ula 31 1) also a.n Abe casa of pa.raus brique~~~es ?~u~t,vd by form ( lea nalninal lv,teral surface, the reduced lateral a.f, instvad of ~ s oars centi~ su,rfaca o.t' a porous briquatt? cax~1 aspondt~ to q meters cf' 'bhp reducvd surfaca~~ I ~"~ and compl,ited by the authar with a~1d (31~`~) for various ns ides of ceri~a~.n mv~t~a~.s, al~~e compiled in T~~b1e brlquetre d? the aid of formtal~~s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Tk~LE 2 Talue e cf Zan sten .~ a ~ ~e - 1- ,, ~ and De,~L ~j o~ Zn~ ~;~r~.c~, e; ~.. , on tia she ..e~~l ~ In j~Clat a ~-!(+ yet = 6,0 percent Q 7' .en~J ??~ V Nvl 1~E 11J i ,... 1 r. Y p ~ UO el C 1 n r ~ ~. 0 ue_ c.,n~t ~ 1 _cent ~ ~, .100 jUe ~, , ? ~ 0.16 u 0? -0~ e 1~ %. 11 0.1?3 G.1~ ~~ G 2b o x 35 C.~. c. 21 0.27 Ircrs ,~ u.28 ~.38~ . . lin G.33 0 ~ . ~.~ 0.31 0. G.28 x.39 0.2 ~ 0..~1~ C cpper r x.35 u, [~. 0.33 0. ~9 ;. 3u 0. ?.i3 u. 27 u.38 ^ ~ 2 0 0.3? u. c ~ 0.3 z c.5~ 0.33 c. 5o Gold ~ C ~. . ~ ~~ 0.~2 0. E3 r ~ ~?3J ~ ~ ?J= Lead G. 15 0.23 0.23 ~?3~ o. 2u o.32 ii.32 0.l~7 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 'Tun sten 1_ron Gold Le2d Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~, r0 e scent P l} ` -~?_i U. u9 0. l+~ 0. ~ 1 o. 2b o.36 0.103 0.19 0.25 n 0.2. 0, 2? -t 1 _~ _ ~ ~0 percent i ~ 0 ~e_ cc,~t J J' v. 08 0, 22 G.aC x?24 0.082 ;;.~nilnlleQ u.06 G.~~62 p,-iQ 0.10 c. 2ii 0.13 o.z2 i20 percent l ~ ercent J.O~ 0.041 0.02 0.02 G. 12 0.07 G.08 0, OQ u. I0 0.15 p. ?5 6.18 0.22 0.32 0.19 0.24 0.10 O.ll 0.12 0.7J F o. v~ ~' 0' ~ C. Oi~ J. 4 0.0 0.06 o.ob o. 07 0. u7 f~ 0.08 -~ 0 0. ~ O.s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and the Pressure of ejection Let a bri~quet-~e with a? .height h and a relative density be in a cylindrical press mold of diameter D under a spew Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~?~ fol~.ows from '~ab1~ ~? that, wa,th soma exaQp?~~?ons, ?~ha va~,u~s of ~ and, d~.~nl.na.sh with hay^dnsss and ra~'raa?~oi1~nass c~:~ the metal. 1'o~,ssan's ratio inaraasQS wi?~h the ~.naraa,sc~ In the tempsi~aturp of the me?~al, ~?~ bai,n~; the aass that the aoaff~,aa.ent of latr~ra~. prossurs, tao, mus?~ inaroase~ U:n?ti1 now, no gauging of ~~he lattea]. pr? essurs in me~Gal bra.qu?ttss was e,?tt?m~ptad. Amex~a,aan dasignc~rs of press mo~.cJ,~, aacordin~ to ?~he boo~~ by Wulff' on 'Powder i~etallur~;y't~155), ass~m~s ?L?he latex?al pressure aga~.nst ?Eho pr?ss mold walls to ba 2U to 25 percent of the compression pressure, Th?ss figuras ara not far off from the da?~a in fable ~7~ Far ins~ranc?, in thQ casa of iron. powdors, at 3U percentwparosity, the coefficient of la,?teral prQSSUre is 27 perasnt, 2'ha f orrnulas in ~tha.a 'Paragraph are dove~.oped f rnm the assumption of the impossiba.lity of the lateral deformation of the press ma1d., In connection with the elastic deforrna?tion of the press mold walls, the actual lateral prQSSUre may be bslo~v, but not e,bave, the computad valu?r Tn the cornputatians, ~.t is ~~ 1 also necessary to remember that the cosf~'icisnt is charac~ teristic of the ratio of the lateral pressure not to the full comprsssian pressure, but only -to the part of the latter rea maining after the deduct~,on of lasses to friction, 32~ Loss of Pr?essure to Friction aga:'tnst the Press l~o1d V~alls Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 alf~.a prQSSUra of p (F:l~ure 52). Thc~ fatal pressure upon ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ the br~quQtte The ].ass of pressure to the friction of the powder against Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Fi~ura 5~, Loss of pressure camputatian d~.a~ram The pressure a#' ~ square centimn~ber of the latoral surface of the br9.gizet~te px, accard;i,n~ to formulas (31~1~ and (313), pro~~idi:ag the briqu?tte ~.s sma11, eaxa. be presented as ~~ ,whore r a.s thn caef:~icie ~ " " ~ ]. pressure fox ~~h4 ral.a~tive briquot~o densitl of ~ , The entire lateral, surface of th? briquette equals `"T~~7h, and the fatal pxassuxe upon it w~,l]. bos w where ~ is the caef:fica,ent f 1 r o atexal ras~ure with p lna pexcant; hk i.s the xaduced height of the briquette with ].QO percent Tt follows from formula (321) that the total pressure upon the latera]. surface of a briquette is aqua]. to the prad~uat of the specific pressure by th,e roducad, lateral surface of the bra.quatte and by the eoaf.~'icient for the lateral pressure of the compact motel, Thus, the total lateral pressure depends not an the compression pressure and not an the porosity of the bz?i quattr~ , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 d ~ ~n c~Qr~f,'arm~,~~y with ~'armu~.a thc~ reps mol ?~ha wa~~.s a~ ~ ~,n the preced~n~, tvx?t~, gqua~s: (~/) ~ nt of fr~ation of the pativdet' s,~ainst where (is the coo~fiGie the press mold walls rom farmulaa (322) and (321} that: It fol~.ows ~' 't'his force ' ction (maximum), f, is eXactly equal i,ea, the pressure of eke the lass in pressure ~ ~~ to .s a raph diagram showing that such a cor- ~igure 53 ~. ~ tools lace and that the pressure of r?lationship actually p t r irec e loss of pressure) was always a.n d e jec~tion (equal to th Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~s of rc,ssure ~ ~ and the '1'he ratio batty?en the log p total compression pressure P aqua s. ~' ~ ~ ~ p ~~ ure to fxiction a~' the powder against ~rhe loss of pre;~s be determined with appz'o,xima~tion ex~ the press mold wa11s ma,~ din from the followin~o Uparl tho dis- perimentally, by procee ~ 1 r.?ssure r.essure upon the briquette, the latera p continuata.on of p ' nce the walls of the prays mold pre r emai.ns the s ama (Pr) , s 1 the briquette. Therpf ore, a force f vent the e:xpan.s;~.on of e used in order to eject the briquette. must b Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 rassura, re~ar"dless of the parp~~.t~, ratio to the ca~nprQSS1~on p .. thes~.s Simi~.ar results wars publa.shod ~,n~ the qE thta bric~ua'~te. (~s} by ~amoylo~v . ' m~,nution in the genera, pressure, the if after the d~ to 9P , where ~ is the constant lateral pressure Px a,s reduced r hen unity in value, a propo7"b~ona~.'~~y cap f fia~.ent, which ~.s less t n the pre scorn of e jQCtion f and '~~e shall. be observed batwes compression pressuze? w ~. s ~Q k'~' " i 4p 1W..~ r I ~ wean the pressure off' ejection and `rho Figure 55a Re,t1a b? h 20 millimeters; D = 13 millimetarss oampress'ion pressure ~ wdar; 2. iron with 2 percent graphs-te 1. iron po nfirm the proportionality d~sc~ussedl These experiments co -~~ wean the, coe:~ficient of lateral pr. assure in Paragraph. 31 bet .~ ho relative density of the .briquette and t ho coef r"ic~.ent o.f ~ricb7 on ~ in the h'he ma~nitud? of t lic owders, without any special e.ddita.ans, case off' dry mQtal p or's experiments from 0.05 to 0.~0? ~,,,~~:,,~tsd in the math ra~ hite considor, ably reduced the lass o:~ ~~ ~~y~~ - Addi,ti.ans of ~ p ction d u ' Lion. For instar..~ce, the intro and the pressure of e ,le c the ducsd ssin charge of 3 percent graphitQ re ~..~? +.h~ nre ~ _ _-~~~ ~7 And. of friction and pressure 2 to 5 times, anu ~A~u ercent graphite, 3 to 6 't~.mes. ~rnd ~.~~~ti introduction of 4 p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 of var~.aus lubra.can~~s, such as stear~,c acid, oa.J., ducba.pn a.n reduced the pressure off' e jpct~on ~~~ to ~ ta.~nes. glycpr , thor's expvra.ments with i~he prass~ng off' dry powders '~ n the au dda,ba.ons, the coe~'~'ic:~enb o:~ ~'r~c~~~on was usually w~bhout any a creased somewhat with th? hardness of bad ~aeta~~ in lubrioata.on (gxapha~'re) reduces ~ with- Faotna~~e~ Dry yMM ~, Considerable quantita~es o:f la.gi~a.d lubricant out changing 1 e of G , a1.so ~.narease bhe may, alongside o:~ reduc~.ng the va, u ^ ~~ha.s phenomenon may somewhat reduce bhe effec~ value ox decreasing the pressures of ejection when liquid t~.veness off' 1Ltbrication is used. Formulas (3?~l} and (324) pro~aa~.l ozaly when the e insi nificant, Indeed, formula (324} conforms values of h~ ar ~ w' th what actually takos plac? only when tha value pr?cisely ~. Integrating this equality, we ae~-~. ~~ ~ y.. ~ ~ is the compression pressure at: the bottom of Fh of h is infinit?s'~imal, i?e?: k I~ re pis tho compression pressure at the plunger; xh? he bra. uette, at the distance of hk frarn the plungers t ~, k is a constant. Th? pressure of ejection and the rata. o Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 lase rapidly (particularly in the presence ratio to hk, but ? ressure of ejection increase not in a. o,f pressure and th p (S a d`rect g that with the increase ~.n the va~.ue o~~' nk, ~~~~ ~..,.M-~ 2/ ~. .,! .~, it follows ~'roin. z a~~~u~~~.w Henae, p 1_nwer value than ?^ ~~ ' h , ass w? h.. i_.e.. when there is ~.oss of pressure, ~ 4~ 1~ ~~he v~~.'us a:~ The ms,gn~,~ude `"~ ~ appraximc~~?s ` ~~. r -? ~.s c1.o3a ~;p un~~Ey~ ~W~.~h r~~n ~.ncrer~se I ~ '~? when ra~~i a of high values of ?dr Rr cloth. ~'he following conclusions can ~~ wiped with a y riot to each pressing the press mold was r F, pure 5~~ ~ 9 h as obtained by the authar, are depa. of ~Ehe briquett k, oa ehar.ac'~erizing the ratio between the tome of the cure ? n rossure lasses and the reduced heign~ pressure of e~eeta.o (p 'cted drawn from these experiments: ~; rrr~re 59~a ~~ MM k do between pressure of ejection and hk, ~.a x:13 millimeters; P = 9:Q00 ki~.ograms. ~? a.r?~1 ~'""""v`' - ~.ron with 2 percent graphite in conformity with formula increase in direct retie to hk, e of is small (Figure 54, curve 2a When the vela (Z~ . of e'ectian (losses of pressure iron graphite), the pressures ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 4~ the value ai' ~~~ ,~ s,pproximatsa The magnitude o -F:M. is alone to unity.With an increase ~ when rats ~ ~"" ~, 9 ~ un16 S when there is ~,oss of pressure, "~ in hk, i.e+~ ,~ ~? ~ Hence, ~~ follows from f arrnula wer valuo than ~ ~ (~' a ~. A f he increase in the value of hk, the loss?s (32~g) tha~~, with t re of e~ectian increase not in direct of pressure and the pressu less rapidly (part~.cularly in the presence ratio to hk, but of high values of ~ )~ es characterizing the ratio between tho Some of the aurv ? c sure losses) and t h? reduced height pressure of e~ecta.an (pr s obta~ ned by the author, are dep~.cted of the briquette hk, as riar to each pressing, the press mold was ' n Figure 5~. P ~, ~ ~ >~ M ~~ 'tio between pressure of ejection and hk, ~; a~~~re 54. Ra ~~ k~ cloth. The follo~~i.ng conclusions can b? wiped with a dry drawn from these experiments ~ ~ 13 millimeters; F = 40Q0 ki~.ograms; ~.. a.rv~~ ~??,,...,. iron with 2 percent graphite e of is small (Figure 5~, curve 2, When the valu (1) ? of e'ection (losses of pressure) .. ra hit9) , the pressures J iron g p + atio to h , in aonfors~.t}r ,nth formula increase in d7.rect r k Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,, 2 , When the values of ~'~'.~~ are aonslderable (Figure ~} ~ 5~, curve ~,, iran powder), the increase in the pressure a~' e~?atian (].asses of pressure) with the increase in h~ is slowed up, somptimas almost in confar~rdty with formula, (326}, and frequent~.y to an even greater d?gree than what is stipu- fated by this foranula, Suah departures from formula (3~~6} are ascribed by the author to the non homogeneous distribution of pressure and density along the cross section of the bri- quQtte (Paragraph 33)~ It follows from formula (324) that the pressure of e4~ection (loos 3.n pressure) varies i n an inverse ratio to the value of the diameter D of the briquette. Actually, the pbessuxa of ejection drops at a somewhat lower rate with the increase i,n diameter. This, too, is ascribed by tho author tp the non~unif or~r~. distribution oi' pr9wsura and density along the cross section of't ha briquette (Paragraph 33)e 33. Hon-Uniform Density Along the_Height and Cross ~eation of Briquettes Loss of prossur? to the fric~~ion of the powder against the press mold walls results in the non-uniform distri.butian of density both alar~; the height as wolf as along the ara~ss section of the briquette, The drop of pressure with height is sub jact to formulas. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Ih 4 ? raa~~.~ r " can be substituted w~,th app Then ex.pr??s~on ~ o dro ~n the ~ rvlativn density ,t ~ e re ~ ~ ~, s tho p ~; mata.on by lun gar, n is the at the he i ~,ht h,~ from the p ~ a:~ the briquvttn 29 ~)) , which dvpr~nds on thn for (s?e f ormu~.a t~.on fac propor the same direatian as modulus roperties of the powder a,n p on a~ponont m. We than derive and th? compressi ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ hat has a constant value with~? c is a proportion factor t where in a certain interval. with height is in direct ratio Thus, the loss of d?nsity reduced units) Pram the plun~er~ to distance hk ~ ~n r? resentation ozry tho resul~t~s pi~ura 55 is a grapl~.c p ious sections of cylindrical determination of dansi~ty in ear ^ of the bra.gUettes o faca~litate the division of briquettes o T the awder eras poured into thca o s? orate parts by hai~ht, p int p y their intarlayers se~raral batches separated b press maid by in conformity (2,54) The ?xperim?nts showed that, of graphite in. density is in dir?c~t ratio with formula (331), the drop lun er, and is sub~eCt to the o ~thc~ distance hk from. the p ~ t foJ.lcwin~ rules s 't ~.s dimina.shed with the dimi~ (1}. The drop ifl dense. y i.e?, nth e value of the friction factor notion in th w~a~w Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 th,e add~.tian of graphite and. ~.~t.br .csanta (1. `~ ~~a 5 ~~:1,111F3a~ (~,~, ~'he rJ.z~o~7 ~.~.~ d~jnsity with he~.ght is incrQased iant of :la ~;sr'n~l dare sure with the caeff~.c (5)~ Ths drag in ~pr~~ssurn ~r~~.fah h~~a-?11~; wa.tl~~ the d~.s,mstex of the press mold d~.r;~ir~i ,~l~.eci (~~, Da~tble-end compression considerably in~lproves the distribution of densitye end camprassion, A vsrticaJ. section of a cyl~.ndrice,l briquette compressed from a metal powder with interlayers of graphit~- is spawn same what schematically in Figure 5~~ The cambered form of th? ~gre.phitE~-to-graphite ]~ cylinder sections ~. s due to the de taming effect of the press mold. wall supon the movement of tho particles, This flexure of the separate cylinder sections becomes roster with tY~.e height of the briquette and wi~uh the g ' the camber of the layer can also be seen clearly. Figure ang, irsg the lamellar break in a Copp?r ore cancontrate slims mold- do ree of consolidation In Figure 37 ~'"'precsding text' show- g Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 PY pp __ _ _ ~ i ~fi''~t~NC e ~'ron~ la ~"~ ~~ ~ vtiq c.9^ Figure 55, Varie,tian in density slang the height of brique~~tess 1. copper, without graphite, single-end compression; 2? same, with 4Q percent graphite; 3, copper, without s~,raphite, double- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ u er sea~ion of the ay~lnder, r~?ar?~'~ 66 shows that in. th pp mum dens ~,ty w~. ~.l be at the e dge a , why, le to the plunder, the maxi. '~, w~lll be ~,YI the middle. Fi~urq b7 shaves In the la~rrer seats. on a. hardness, as per Shor, in a compressod the distributa,on of ~, which di stributi an al.sa c onfa.rms the above. cubele , ~ ~~ ~"` ore 57 ~ Di stribution of ~~i~ure 5fi. The form of the ~'~~ od hardness, as par Shar, in a sections of a compre ss camprvssed copper cubelet cylinder of Fi ores 56 and 57 furnishes the answer to The study ~ of ressure with height ~Para~ the question as to why the lass p r much slower then the rate implied in f ormu- ~rs,ph 32} may occu ' u?ttes, thQ density near the walls of la (326). In tall brx.q .sat s, more rapid rata with distance from the press meld drop s inside the briquette. Hence, in. tall the plunder than a.t doe surevertical as well as lateral} is bra.quett?s, the pres l ld walls than in the internal parts of the lower at the press mo ow bri uettes, density and pressure at the briquette In l q a on the contrary, be hi~,her than in the press mold walls m y' Therefore, the pressure of election, with an internal parts. duced he~.~ht of the briquette r~, will frees incroase in tho re e a.t a lower rate than the re,te implied in quently xncreas f ormu].a (325} a distxMibution of pressure and density The non-un~.f orm to its fullest by the effect of the frig cannot be explai nod a ainst the wa~.ls of the press mold Far tion of the powder g Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A ~4,. ? >;, py pproved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 nae of fra.ab~.on aga~.n,st tha walks, instance, i,n thv aamp].eta abse ? e~tQri parts of th? briquette the ~ taro/ pressure in th internal parts This e~'fect a.narc~ases must b? greater than in th? ~ e cation ' uett?. Hence, the pressur? o~ ,~ with the width of the bra.q iameter, ' n direct ratio to the brique?~ta d. is diminish?d not a. t slaver pace (paragraph 32)? but at a samehwa ' efts llimensians u an tho Canlpresslon 3~~ 'the Ef:f'ect of ~r~.qu. D~.a.,. ~r-~- It with small brigUe~~teS, and we were 7n Chs,pter xV we dea e ressure losses and the non-unity in a position to disregard th P ? ? hey. ht and crass section xn this f armities of dens~.ty' along g ressure, r6SSUre was considered as the n.et p case, the compres s~.on p hens?, lusa.vely far uniform cansal.idation. which is used up exc to th? cra.tical stress ~~p the p _valu? was equal max ? briquettes, there are present, an Tn the case of larg and on ses of pressure to extsrnal frict:~on, ~ the one hand, los sti u~ uniform distribution of densa.tya p the other hand, the non also induces a certain amount o~ ~.ated by a.ntarnal f ra.atian, excess pressure. ~n th? case of large briquettes, than '~ ? is always greater Amax nsa.ons affect the compression diagrams The briquette dime in the f allaw~-ng manner e ..209- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ The ef~'eca; of the briqu?tte he~gh~ ' the increase ~,n th? reduced hea.~,h~ ~, the ~.osses Wa.~h ian a ainst the prass mold walls are ~,nareased~ of pressura to f'rir,~ ~ '~h this the compression pressure is also in- ~n connecta.on w~ ~ a ' e increase in pressure wa.th the increase in h~ creased. lh essed b the f ollawing formula (~?,~6): ee.n be expr Y is the pressure required for a predeter~a Heel degree where ph a].idation of a briquette with a reduced height ~~ pn of cans ressure required for the same degree of consoli= ~. s the net p bri uette with an infinitesimal height. zt foll.avrs elation of a q 3~ 1 that the effect of the briquett? height from formula ( ~ ) essiar~ diagrams is expressed in the increase of upon comer ' n ro ortion (with the proportion factor pressure ~.n a aertaa. p p de ree of density). In the case of lagarithma.c the same at any g 'thmic curves the abo~re effect must be manifested and senulogar~. dis lacement of the curve ordinates by a segment pro ~.n the p The slope of th? curves (and, cansequent7.y, port~onal to h~ lugs of m and L~ do not change as a result of this. the va ' urQ 58 shows that such a displacement with some in- Fa.g de artures is actually observed Such curve paths sifi;n~.ficant p with various heights also confirm the propar~ for briquettes ~ 1 lateral ressure and banality between the coef~'a.c~.en.t of p a bra: uette ~ (as e5tabla.shed in the relative dens~.ty of th q Paragraph 51). ~21~~ ,,; ^ f Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 f ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'i;ure 5~. The effect of the compression heights ].~ elec~roM ly~tic copper, pouring weight 1.9:~ grams per cubic centimeter, hk= 0, 6 millimeters; 2. same, but h~~ 4 ma,llimeters; 3. servo, but hk~, $ mi ll.imeters. It in to be Hated that maximum density, under the ef:fec~t of a given pressure, occurs when compressing not the very smallest batches, but when compressing a'briquette with same optimum reduced height valuo (~'i,gures 58 and 59). Figure 59, Density of tungsten briquottes in. relation to bri- quaffs height, with p a constant. The main cause for a reduction in the density of bri-~ queues with a reduced height h~ below its opti.rnurn value is the e.xceys pressure., stipulated by t~~.e non-uniform density of the charges with very small batches. The data compiled in 'Sable 28 confirm the abo~re~ A copper electrolytic powder was being compressed in a pres$ ma].d, ]~5 millimeters in diameter. The optimum height h~, in this case, was 2 millimeters. 'Nhen h~ equalled 0,8 milli- meter, the density was lower. As seen from 'Sable 28, with a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ - -_ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 2~5 ~i~,o~ra~ns per square m~,~.a.~.mater), the srrlal~. gyres sure ( p n densa.ty was aansiderab~.e (about 3 peraant), w~~~ ~~fference ~, 25 kilo~'rams per square mi1.limater), a consa.derable pressure (p fer?n,ae was ins~.~nificant (O,x percent). the dif in the first stages of camp.ression, the effect '~ hus , nifarmit of the charge was mani~'ested strongly of the nan u Y ' ' nution of the densi-ty of the briquette with a low in the d~ma. ' the u~.timate stages ai' co~lpression this effort h,.wva].ue. xn is less pranounced, since the lasses of pr?ssure 'ca Zi~a?u~y~a. he author, showed similar correlationships tested by t in the presence of small batches Other powders, are smaller 'rA}i L~ 2.8 An Example of ~~he ~~atio between Relative Dense. ~ ..,...~ 't and pressure with LaW Value of Reduced Heim ~~ ~~~ec~ro~.y~.~~ ~~rr~. _ - ~.~~ viameter Of press ing ~Neight 1.50 Grams~Cubic Centimeter, ...~.~- Mo1.d l5 Millimeters ..._....-.~-,-.- ~ Relative donsity percent at pec f~.c, pressure p ,~..~,. 8 millimeter O ~ 2 millimeters h~.~ in kg~sq ~ _ k r- 2 The effect of 'the briquette orass~~ i~ a...,~. e ' ncrease in the diameter of the press mold, `~'o Uri t h the ~. factors affec'r the compression cycler On the ane contradictory increase in the diameter of the end products, he,,n.~, w~.'~h the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 erna~. ~riat~.on are rvduaed~ These the losses of pressure to ext ratio to the diameter o~ the press losses xun in an inverse diminution r ~ ~) ~ This fatter leads to '~Y~v ~no~,d (formua.a (~ ~) ~ reduction, ' ~ d for a given dograe off' aamprass~.n~ ai' pressures requ~.re ' ncrease ix~ the brique~ta diametarf with an ~ the increase in the press mold On the other hand, w~,tb . of the pressure and donsitY dis~ diameter, the nan~un;rfarm~.tY verse sectiar~. off' the briquette is tribut~ion slang the trans .t increases with the degree a~ increased This non-~unif'arm~. y It ~ ressure" ~ (~~00t~ . wires some caxce~s p ...~....~. conso7.~i.dat~.an, and it req that the excess pressure is stipu~ note, ]:t is simple to prove ~~ ~ ~ der>sitY specificaJ.ly along the fated by the non-unif orm~.ty o dine/ section). Hance, with th.e and nab longitu tr~psverse, $ diameter, the compression da.agram increase in the br~,quett ' r,erease, which me.y result in a factors L and exponents m ~ ~ hi h degrees ette donsity in the pi'eSenae a. g diminution of brlqu of om ressing reduction (Figure 60 ~ ~ ~, a.. ~~ a.. r^"~ ~ -~ ~~~ ~ .~ t~~rJ ~~ .,.r? r~ tees mold, cross section ~electro- Fa. urea 60 a The effect of the p g ' ,ht 1 ~ 50 grams per tuba. c centime er l~,tic copper' ~ poura.ng welg wale 15 millimeters; 2? diameter ~., diameter of press mold eq tees mold equa~?s 10 m~.llimeters. o ~' p .213- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s,tara~a. ~?res;;ux'v and t nom. ~ ;~~ ~ Tha I~at~.o between, ~~ al ~~e c7so ~n No~s~;Q,~ ~owders Na Fux ,_.,~,..,..... ed a.nto a boy (F'~.gure ~~.), sustaa.n, Lvt a powder, pour wn wvl~h'b, ra sbrass pb~ The powder under ~bha o f i:'v ct of f t s? ~nr t;o the wa~.ls a Lateral pressure pra w.11 bs t.ransm~tt~. ~ ~ u11dar .the effQCt of pressure, the ha,ch equals ~ ~ ~:~', w ~ ~ pm7.n ~~q ~: shau~-~~ }r~e3.d, the pQwdex w~.1.~, b :deft wall. ?~' thQ bo o the V?r- nel.ined plane, at s,n a~~1~le ~1 t craep slang an ~. tics]. r~aa.n pressure :pbe ut:~n the rata.os between lateral. Fi~,ul"e 61. Da.~.~ram for comp ~ re and the ants of natural rt~pose pressu stresses acting c~uring the di splace- Let us analjr~e the al to the plane of shear C~/v meet rshear ~~ Th? stress norm k~~own ~'r om the tha se s on "fie si stanca anrn denary of s~xen~~hy ~ s~ren~ih pressure ina ,~na_ ?to ~,ran.~vexse in a ~an~ii~u~- , w 1 brique~~te verse d~ iso?~ropic ~ac~o.,.~ K~ r r / ~.n (~xo~ ~ dire c~~. o~ reC,_,.. ~.. ~-?r~ ~ a~-n"'""~......-~---,.._... k~~~s~ mgt ....,.....- 1~..3 1~- $o ~..3 ~.3 ~.~ G~ a.ao 2Z 0.3 ?.0. ~ oink and particulars-y .or the ~-~tim~,te y~-e~.d p ~r he v aloe s f on the shape of ~rhe sped."` strength depend ~reaatly for compressive to 1en~th~ xea'rer rat7.0 of dian~ete~' they increase with the men. . uz,in~ c~.ainte~ra~a.on is ictian of briquettca d 'T'he can.~t~' ssian pressure (~'o~note~, . nd depends little on compre insi~nif a?cant a -Chat . kind in.~o considera?~~ian undexstoad, when ~ '~hia i5 easily is in antic and res~-dua~~ ., total. deforma~,ian (el .tY~.e modulus of ,~ ratio to pressure) dsrec ? ~ u5ually many ,Mmes below timate ~~ensile s?~xen~th i'' ~l definite mensu? s?~ren~th9 but st~.ll has a ~~,lt3.mate compxess~-~"e ~.~cen~ of the attains the value of 3 P rable Value and at ~~?s stTen~th a b Bal~ke, the ?tensile re s5uxe. As 'per dat y compression p ed under a pressure of awder briquette, form of electrolytic iron p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 2Q~ k~.l.ograrns per square m~,l.l.im~ater, was X037 lt~.lograms per square m~,1.]~~.meter, ~.~e~, 3~a? perc~;nt a~' th~a compressa,an pres- sure, ~.n the case o~ lead powder?s, as p?r Wre~b~.ac~ and wu~.~~'a is shown a.n ~~i;ure '"rl below (~'oatnate. ~n accordance with the author ~ s terminology, shows the th~.rd stage off' the tensiJ.e strength ~ pressure curve) ....~ ,ri S ,~ "~ l,~c{~ V ~a tl^') ~' `~ ~~ ~ .S Illy 4 .?..?,,.m..,.~......~,.....,,~......,.?.....,,.~?...,..,.....,..,. Compression pressure, in k;/sq mr>~ :~~ure 71, Ratio between the tensile strength of lead briquettes and the compression pressure (as per Wretblad, and Wul.ff') ~lonhatian and shrinkage in tensile break equals zero. ~rud.~;ing by indirect data (shearing test and ob;~erva"Lion o~ the farmiation of lines of "creep" in campression), tensile strength (in contradistinction 'to compressive strength) is usually lower in th.P direction o:f compression than in a transverse direc"i~~ion~ The ratio between strengt~l and compression pressure can be explained as follows, 1'owde~? briquettes are bodies with non permanent cantac;ts bet~reen the particles, ~.t be~.ng the case that thy; value of the residual contact surface is approximately in direct ratio to the compression pressure? ~'he .strength a:E the briquettes is purely mechanical. or an engagement strength, stipulated by a mutual interlacing and engagement o? the powder articles. Using the terminolo b Gubkin(~~) such strength P ~ ~' Y ~ can be designated as wedging; strength, dome part ~ although a considerably Lesser one) may be played by the elactrastatic Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 stren~;t~h, c,r the st~~en~th a~' cnhae~.pn, st~.p~u~ated by the ef~'ect pf the electr~.c forces of cahes~.on between, the atoms of the contact secta.ons. both strenp~ths are a.n a da.rect xatia to the value of the canta.rt surface of a sa.n~;~.e layer of particles, and, therefore, thetotal strength of tha br~.c~uettes has to be in direct ratio to the compr~ssian pressure ? !+'act,ars earist, hawpver, wh~,ck~ Cause the departure of this ratio from praport~.onality~ One group of factors accelerates the rate of the rawth of strength with pressure. With pressure, it is nat only the con tact surface Q.f the particles that increases, but also the densit~r of th.e briquettes. The strength of the frame made up of the interlaced particles becomes increased not only thxau~h the inM croase in t~~e surface of mutual contact between the particles, in dircact ratio to the first power of pressure, but alsa with the growth in the depth of the interlacing and en~a~ement beM tween the particles, which becomes greater with 'the density of the briquette, this factor promotes the growth of strength at a mare rapid rate than with the first power of compression presw sure. Edith the increase in pressure and density, the coefficient I of lateral pressure ~ is also increased (see ~'aragraph ,31, ~~ Table 27). therefore, the lateral pressure ~ v ,which molds /" the briquette in a transverse direction, increases not in direct ratio to the first pawer of ca:mpression pressure p, but in direct ratio to the product of compression pressure by rela~- i.e., at a rate greater than with the first power of pressure With tie increase in the form-promoting lateral pressure, the wedging effect becomes increased (simi- r~6~r. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 'thus, this facta~' of an axe ~.n a lob) ~,ar~.y to the wed~;~.n~ ~~.cu~.ar~,~'~ as can be rowth of strength (part a~.so promotes the ~; a to campression) at in a direction nor~~ ~ saQn from 'fable 3? r xessure, f'ox' ~,~, the first power of p a more raped rate than C ~,~,~,) is he raphic data by barman ur oses of comparison, t ~ ,, ,th tests p p Tess~,ve stxen~ ,,, ,~ 2 ~ ~,~arman c anduc to d camp shaw11 in ~~~re xessure. ? use of add~.tional la?~eral p i marble cubelets w~.th the ure the comN ax ? the increase in lateral ~pres He showed that, w~.th th increased considerably. pressive stren~ _ ___~~ .. ,,.., G" l_' r--"""i" helativ~e compression "'~~ linde rs ressive strength of marble cy ~; mire ?2. Ratio between comp '~ (as per KarmanJ: and lateral pressure ~ - a~,.al campressiog strass, .. later. al hydraulic pressure. ~.. ?~ed to the increase in the tors ~.s ll and Meld point). to e of the curves indicating the first s g to e of low compression pressu ly during the s g the ultimate strength 'phis graup of fac ore maniFested predaminant- bri uette, and is thereF density aF the q res (see I{figure ~9 reduce the rate of the growl;,r~ tors inversely, erefore, the Factors wh~.ch niFicantly, th (see Figure 69, thir s ~ ~ accelerate the rate aF . d ta~'e) density ~.ncrea e of strength with pr ses rather insig" re. Under .high cornpre5s~-on p ssu ? Other Fac ~ ressures Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 tree th with pressure, play na perceptib~.e part the growth of s ~ tou hena.n~; is manif~ated to a cansiderab~.e da~;ree, pn the contrary, ~ of wY~.ch the contact surface ~.ncraasee at a rate a,, a result ith the first power off' pressure. Taughenin~ a~.sa Lower than w ~, 'ncrease in 'the e~.astic afteref:~ect (see Pati^a~raph promotes an ~- the third stage, a lesSex gxawth of strength than 37). Dur~rig with the first power of pressure is observed, ~~ ~;he medium compression pressures at the second Under ath the above groups of factors mutually compe~nsa~~e stage, b and there is a Linear" ratio between strength and themselves, pressures ressian external farces counteract the residua]., Ln camp r and decrease porosity, and in tension, an the contrary, stresses he residual stresses in the disrupting of the bri~ ,hey assist t s orosity~ Therefore, strength in compression queue and ~.ncrea e p greater than strength in tensions The xes~-dual stresses ~. s always ~, rater in the direction of compression, hence, in are always ~ 'on the strength in 'the direction of compression is compressi , 'dual. stresses counteract the external forces), greater (res. and in tension' an the contrary, lesser (residual stresses assist in the d~.srupting). assume that the yield paint in corr~pression approxi~ xf ~e als the sum of the residual stresses,. then..,the fraction mately equ residual. stresses in ~~.gh?;rade ~-ndustrial copper and o.f the dens can be assumed to be approximately 8Q percent o.~' .ran pow ssi.on ressuxe. In law-grade powders, this fraction is compre p + (138) ose to zero in .value, .Not long ago, ~Pl~-~ and ~ aoL~ el Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 'rection transverse to compression)' the f n~r~tacularly, zn a d~. the anisotropac factor, and the decrease in eXP~~I~~-~`y growth of ram the press mold -~ wi'th the increase in fallowing ejectaan f the plasticity of the initial metal. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,. a test~.ng that the residual tensile stresses eatabla.shed by ~ x Y ressure~ "t~ ~~,~.ograms per square rnalli~ a.n iron br~.c~uettes gross p 0 ercent of the ~~ for soft mete~h~ a,~,tained, the value of ~ p s teed.. . ~ he ~trenath of the ~3ra uette and the P'ro~ ~.~~. The Ra t~.a between t ties and Mate of the fetal i~n the Powder de acts the compressive strength of three Fable 3II below p ~ns com ressed under the same pressure from pow" series of speC~-mo p s Ta eliminate the possible effect of ders of different metal . rs comparisons were made in the c ase of pow- structural facto , , ' ~,i1ar methods and having approx-imately the dens obtained by s~.n he same relative densities of the poured same structures and t e First series, were the powders of tin, copper charge. Tn th ulvex~i~ation; in the second were powders a,nd Iran obtained by' p and iron obta~-ned e~-ect~'olytically; ~-n the of tin, copper of co erg aron~ and tungsten obtained by third were powders pp , s clearly the increase in strength reduction. ~'he Table a.nd~.cate Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~,~-~ 3s it1.J~ _.^~.' '?~een ~'~e vC;it!~reS~1Ve t'~a t,10 bct~ ,;, .,,, Pc~rlee~' serieL l~~ ~,e o_ ,., ~ e nip Dice metal crtaz dc~ _, :b~a~ nee by ~ul- C J I' in ,.e_ Ve~'IZ~fi~ vet -~ Go~~e~ n ~.ative deny i t~, o? ~ar~e ~U - 1U~ c ~, 1~ On t;btained bV elec- U j;' ~-n i tick ~siu -- re! a- .~' t1Ve ~eil~ltjr Q1 ~ c~1ar e l~ - ~~~;,, Cc~plcer TY~c n 4U i. o ~.,'~it~.ine~ bti'' I'e~~,~C U ~ cn - eiat~ive en- 't.. U 1J e T' lj'e ~l ~' 1 bay e 12-1~`a I.11~ ~'un~sten 1(} lt~~.~ Es `' 1 n` b3 x.1.!2 71 1 L- e L' J v.3b Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 -~' ~:r' i ~i~~ anC i,'11e ~~E uc' ' Ji `ta'le r0;~e3' uren~; ~n oz ~y ~q~.e ~ U?L ..___~____-- ~a .~ ~~ :~' ` ~~ t1 1 ire ~. "~~ar~~T,re_rfie in a ~ ~~ ~s stiac~~. a _ o m ~ Ci ~ rec.tic;n .~ ~ ?~-t ~ ~ Gi~2C~_cn ~ G ~ i rj N ~ 0 ! n ,~ ~- Y t' ~ ~I tiU it~tl V1 ~1 G~:~~-~~ the it ~.~ ~'lil I,;Sii V1 -Llti~i V v ~_;-., uo22 5 , E,~ 2~ 3 i c "o~~nreLsive strenr~~~ ~, ~ r , ~ ~, u. l ,- ,; l~. L v. G.2 b2. ~o ~ 51~ ~ C . 3L 1.3 3.~3 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 such a xata.o is duce to the followa.ng; (1) ~ With. the dxop in harc~.ness and, crx,ta~cal, stress ~~, o~f thQ metal, the contact surface of a se~.f-contained layer of par~- tic].es ~,s ~.ncreased, hence the same pressure sta.pulates a greatea^ degree of engagement and r~echanical strength in powders of plastic metals 'Footnote. ~~e grea~.~~~r strength of soft metal powder bri? queues confirms the opinion; 41c.cording to which strength is stipulated predominantly by engagement and not by cohesion. Were strength determined by cohesion, the reduction in the contact sur- face, in the case of metals, would be compensated by a corres- ponding increase in the strength. of cohesion per unit of con- tact area). ~2), With the increase in plasticity, the elastic after.. effect is rEd~~xced. (,3)~ With the increase in plasticity, the coefficient of lateral pressure ~, is usually increased. (1~.). With the increase in plasticity, the density of the briquettes is increasedm It must, however, be undersrored that the greater strength of soft metal. powder briq~uetteq cannot be explained by the differences in density only, Even with the same d~;nsity of briquettes, as demonstrated experimentally by the author, the strength of tungsten briquettes was considerably lower 'than the strength of` iron and copper briquettes (although the form promoting compression pressure was, on the contrary, considerably greater). Con~fozmantly w~.th the above, the cold hardening of the . ified in Part -Sanitized _.... _ .. Declass ~ Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The experiments conducted by the author with powder mzx~ tares of various metals have shown that the actual strength of the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 metal,! in ~,owe.n~' its pl,asti~ci.tY, reduces the st~ren~th and i,n~ creases bosh the expansi,an duri.n~ e~ecti.on from the press ma~.d and tha ani.5otrapi~c factor. The anneal~,n~ of the cold hardened rnatal, a,n raa.sin~; its p~,asticity, on the contrary, increases the stre~n~th and reduces both the an~,sotropi.c factor and the elastic aftereffect (see ~'i,~ure 73) ~~i.~ure 73. The effect of preliminary annealing of the powder upon the properties of the capper ore cancentxate slime briquettes: ~,@ campressive strength in a longitudinal direction; 2, the same, in a transverse direction; 3, anisotropic factor (ratio between strengths i.n different dirPCtions), In addition to the reduction in hardriess~ the favorable effect of annealing can also be explained by' the reduction of the oxides. Qf some importance dura,n~ a low temperature arlneal~ ink is the reduction in the pouring wei.~;ht of the powder, and during high-temperature annealing is the increase in the equi- axiala.ty of the particles and the formation of the intraparticle pores Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ma.xtu.re campre,sQd from va.r~.aus metals is frequently :l.awer (not too perceptib~.y) than e strength of br~,quet?tes computed by thc~ ru~,a of additiva~ty ~,n accordance witka the strengths off' bri~ queues from the mixture components. the elast~.c expansion during ejection from the press maid, on the contrary, is greater than the value computed by the rule of additiv~,ty~ Somet~.mes, mixtures will result in br~,quettes w~.th lame~,lar fissures, al- thau~h briquettes made from the initial materials showed no fissurin~~ Such an example (iranM~raphite mixtures) was already cited in Paragraph 10, Same examples of diminished strength as a result of mixing; are ci~~,ed in Table 39. The causes of this phenomenon are as follows. I~n places of contact of particles of different hardness, the specific pres~ sure upon the contact area always equals the critical stress of the softer metal, resul tin, in the deformation of the soft, meta]. particles only. When the coni~act is between the particles of one metal9 all particles are subject to deformation, as a result of which the stren;th of the briquettes will be greater. ~ numbez? of examples may be cited that will show the contact subject to unilateral deformation to be weaker than the one sub jest to two-way defo~~natian~ xf a nazi in being driven into a board would not be subject to defoxmation, it co?~~ld be pulled out of the board with much less effort than is actually required, It is easy to split a lad; with a hard steel axe, the blade of which does not become deformed, while it is not possible to do it with a wooden axe, which itself becomes deformed upon impact. In the compression of a briquette consisting of a mixture of powders of two metals, the harder particles act as non-deform-. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012]04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the can~ac~t between the par~~,c:~es and able wedges, spli~~n~ ~a,~,~,~.a.~a,~a.n~ d~sin~e~ra~a.on? '~A~L~ 39 he 5~trcn~~th o~ Mix~~ure~s a~ Powders a~ T Di~?erent Me~.ls ,.~.~,,,,r,,,..~......--~----- ..~.,..... ~~cpansion alan~ Initial pawder ~ v ~;a the diar~~eter, in ~ ?~ `~ ~~ 'ti ~ 's~ ~ ---- by rule ., :~~ ~ ..~.a #~ ~~ -~ Ua U] ~;l) Ua (ll ~j ~. Electx~olytic capper ~0 E~.ectroly~ic Iran ~0 Copper and iron 2 ~ ...? 16?~. ~~ ~0 16.2 mixed l:l. 2~ Elec~tralytic upper ~0 2,1. Reduced Tun~s~n ~0 Copper and '~un~sten ~p 8?3 m~.xed 20.7 0?23 0?2~ 0.26 0 ?~~-~ 0.23 13?~5 0.10 0?3~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~; must be remembered that, ~.n contra~?sta,nctian to s~.n~le metal. pawd,ers, arl annealed meta. ma.xture powder Ouch as cappQr and zinc, capper and. ta.na ar~d the Ii~CQ) almost ~,n- vaz~iably worsens compressibility and reduces the strarl~th of bra.quettes. This is due to the fact that the solid solutions and intermeta~.lic compounds that are farmed are cans~.de:~ably harder then the mixture of puxe metals. 1~6. The ''ffect of Admixtures and Addi~tians Upon the Siren t~ h, of tl~e Bricu~ettes ~,.__._M~ .,.~. In the presence of a considerab:te content of oxides, the s~tren~th of the briquette is considerably reduced. This is due ~ta the fallowing causes (1}. With a considerable content of oxides (~ to 10 per cent volumetrically acid higher), the contact area is determined by the critical stress ~~~ of the hard surface layer of oxides as a result of which (and. in a number of cases also due to poorer compressibility) the contact surface is reduced. (2)~ An increase in the elastic aftereffect (a greater hardness and a smaller strength of the surface layer). (.~}. .~, reduction in the mechanical strength of the surface layer (regardless of i~;s greater hard.ness). ~n insignificant amount of oxide affects the strength of the briquette to a much smaller extent. Additions introduced into the pawd,ers in order to reduce the friction against the walls of the press. mold (liquid and solid lubricants, glycerin, paraffin9 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and stear~.c ac~,d) usually attenuate ,the strength of the briquette to a small degree only (;~Q percent or less. This also confirms the opina,on that the strength of the bra~quettes a.s stipulated by the engagement of the part~.cx,es and not by cohesion, since the above enumerated additions reduce cohesion substantially (by several tames) ~.7. The Effect of the Vo~.umetric characteristic and th.e Structure bf the Particles upan the Strength of the Bra. uettes The strength of single meta], powder briquettes greatly depends on the structure and the vo].urnetric chap^actera.ata.c oaf the powderso A,s already indicated (Paragraphs 13 and 23), a.ight powders oi' low pouring weight always have greater strength than heavy powriers, Therefore, witk~ the same relative density of briquettes, compression pressure and, consequently, the contact surface o:[' a self-contained J~ayer of particles, is greater in the case of l~.~ht-'weight powders. Hence, liven the same porosity, the strength of light-:reigh~t powder briquettes is considerably greater than th~~t of: -the heavy powder briquettes (see Figure 71~.). k?~r~ 7L~. The effect of the pouring weight upan the strength of capper briquettes; 1, with relative density the same (6g percent), 2. with compression pressure the same (1~0 kilograms per square milli- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 meter. xt" strength ~.s expressed as a fraction of compression pres- sure (Fi~uxe ?!~), this faction w~.l~. also increase with thy: drop in the pour.~n;; weight of the powder. ~.'husF the ~reatex atrcn~th of light?powder briquettes cannot be due exl~usively to higher compression pressure. Seemin~ly~ a better inter~.acin~ and enw ~a~ement of the particles of the li~ht~wei;ht paved?rs, whiclX have a rougher surface, plays its part. ~"''ne non~reve:rs~.ble en- ~a~ement of the powder particles is sometimes faci:Lits.ted by their more pronounced ~~~ surfacefei C see f'ara~i^aph l3 } and intraM particle porosity. A considerable part is a.l sa played by the elastic aftexeffect~ the detrimental effect of which is less prot]oIII]Ced in the case of light-weight powders with tau~h mutual en~a~emen~t of the particles. The differences in strength as between light-~taei;ht and heavy~tirea.~ht powder briquettes are particularly ;teat at high poros~.ty+ ~'t law porositya these differences are reduced (in these cases, the net pressures are a~;~most the same and appra~amate the critical pressure ~~, ), yet they da not disappear completely. The structure of the ,particles exErts a considera'olP effect upon the stren~~th of 'the briquette. Minimum strength and .maximum eJ.astic aftereffect are manifested by briquettes with s~ooth equi~ axial and smooth flat particles. Maximum strCn~~th and minimum expansion upon ejection from the press mold is observed in bri- quettes with rou;~h dendritic and acicular paz^ticles, and also ih the presence of internal pores in the particles (see 'Fable 3~). ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'x'equently, th4 powders w~.~th a s?~xuc~~ure off' pay^ta.c~.s~ parta.cularly un~avora~ale to the stren,;th o,~ thQ br~.quet~,as are at the same t~rne ~~ha heavy-weight ppwdQ:rs~ ~'h~.s, however, eaz~not be construed as a r~u~.e~ ~'or a.nsta~ace, capper pow~.ers, pulvex~.~ed in a s ?p mill (c oppar ore ca,~c en Irate slime) ~ have a ~.aw poux~.n~ wei;;ht and at the sam? time a low stxen;~th (particularly, a.n a direction transversa to compression). /'his is due to the un. favorable orientation of the ps,rtic~,es, with their wide side normal ~to the. pressure, which promotea the format~.on oaf transverse lames ellar fiss~axes~ This de~'ect care be rectified by associating; the particles ~'ie ~, D~.a~ram explaining the effect of the assaci~ation off' particles into conglomerates: on the left, compression of non associated particles on the right, compression of associated particles. Such an association into conglomerates may be accomplished :for examples by the addition of gluing substances. ~~igure 76 (Micraphoto) shows that, upon the addition to the poured charge of a gluing substance (rubber in gasoline), the unfavorable ori- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ ~'he diagram in ~'i~ure 7~ shows how the association of the particles rota conglomerates cancels out the unfavorable arientar Lion o:f ?the particles (with their wide cross section perpendicular to the compression p~^essuxe). Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~;r are c ancentx'a to s1~e (se e entat~.an o~ the part~.cles ~.n the cape ~~ is lace appeare a hapha7aa~'d eddy. ~'ip~uxe 34~ d~,sappcaxed~ and a.n ~. p ~ to arta,clss ~.n uc~d ;l~i~mp~~ ~'he assoaia'tian of p ~.np, a~ pe,rticJ~es a.n ~~. it~.ons a~? millimeters in sire, under sand lwnps o~ about 0 ~ l t?~ ct has a st~.ll more favorable elf e ~,;h~ternpera'~ure anneal~n~;~ _.~ ~iicraphoto ,"~~ owdt~r a f co ~ er o~^e concentra'~e s~.a.me p ure 7b~ ~Pressinn a char~c. a Ap ... longitudinal section, in the d~.reC~~ containing a ~l'u~.ng substance Lion of compression ?~ ~ ~QO times 'the scientists assumed that xn the past, the ma~orn.ty of duce greater strength in briquettes, fine particles sho~~ld pra to the tact surface is in a~ inverse ratia since the total con 5auerwa~.d, 'cles. Such an opi~-?n was held by diameter of the part. Rakovskiy, and many a~therso l contact surface of all panicles However, althouh the Iota at:io to their diameter, the cantact sue'"" increases a.n an ~.nverse r a a h :lb), .~ .~ .. ained "Layer of particles (see Par ~' p Face o~ a self ~on~ ends nat an the strength of the bxiquettes~ dep T~rhich deter^mines ression ' on of the powder, but only on the comb the degree of d~.sper~. author proved that the sire of. the pressure. ~xpern.rnents by the ~, indirect effect upon the strength articles in most cases has onl~~ an ion p ree of da.spers , e I~', with a reduction in the d?~ of the brn.quett . as di~,nished. Hut weight became increaseds strength w the poT~rin~ w de ree of dispersion, the pouring if, with a reduction in th ~ .h on the or was also reduced, the stren~t , wei~h'~ remained the same, s from dine neater. for instance, briquette calltrary, became ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ __ __ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 arta.c~.es off' pu~,verized cast ~,ron had a lAwer strength khan p briquettes frr~m cast .iron chips. Fi ure ?? is a curva graph representing the s trength o~ ' ~ ttes from reduced iron grit in re~.dta.on to the size of the br~.~,ue ~raeso The pouring weight of a1.1 the ~'racta.ons of the grit was p.t.e salve ~].~~. ,;rams per cubic centimeter), and the density of the bra. ue~ttes tram the fractian> o:E various size, compressed 1,he q the same ressure (l~0 kilograms per square mil~.a:ineter ), under p ' fered onl wa.t~i.n the limits of measuring precision ('by ~' 3 da.f Y cent . It can be seen clearly that, with the exception of per ) the finest fracta.on (less than. 0.l millimeter) strength is increased with the size o.f the grit. Fraction size, in mi:llirneters Figure 77. ~,atio between the compressive strength of briquettes and the particle size off' iron grit The growth of strength with the magnitude o:f the particles ~ From a ure/ the author lon; ago }. p y was already ex:plaa.ned by eo,netrical viewpoint, large-size particles are conducive to g strong briquettes (see Figure 78}. The disintegration of bri- uettes is always accompanied by the formation of interparticle q fissures. In the presence of fine particles (see ~':igure 7~~}, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the ~'ormata.on of interparticle f~,ssur~s ~,s facil~.~ated~ ire the presence of coarse p~~rt~.c~.es C see Figure "~$~) -? a,t is ~reat~.y ~.nha.bited~ ~~~ure 7$, The efi'ect of ~eometrical~ factors upon the disin~ te~ra?L:ion of briq~~.ettes: A. fine powders, fissures form easily; I~~ coarse powders, geometrical factors inhibit the formation o:~ fissures ~~he higher stren~?th of :specimens from the very finest fractions of a powder i,~ due to the better mutual abutment between the very finest particles. ~ cable coiled from fine wire can easily be wound around a pillar, but the same cannot be accomplished with a thick rod. .any object can easily be wrapped in paper, but . not in cardboard, and the like. Publications on the subject contain contradictory state-~ meats rela~tin; to the eff~;ct of the rate of compression upon the strength of the briquette. ~~ardy~~g} and Rastarchuk are of the opinion that both the stren~,th and the density of briquettes in- crease with the rate of compression, ascribing the cause to ?the . ,, smaller volume of air entrapped Burin, a higher rate of compres- sion Ralke~7$~ and Greenwood, on the cant.rary, assume that with a higher rate of compression, both the strength and the density of the briquettes are decreased. Whey ascribe the cause to the same air, with the only difference that, in their opinion, it is the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 owders mani.~ested a lower expansion as a result of the elastic p after. effect (see Table L~0 below) . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s~.ow rate o~ campx'e5saan that entrapM a srna~,~.er cv:~ums of a~.r~ ~n thr~ op~na,on of the author, the effect a~' the rate oi' corapressaan is .made up of various factors. pn the one hand, a reduction in the rata of compression may result in a tighter disposit~.on of particles. A certain amount of time is required fo.r the shiftin; and deformation of the part~.c:les, Hence in some cases, with the diminution in the rate af' compression, d.ensit and strength wall increase samewhat. This is particularly Y noticeable when the temperature of compress't.on approximates the temperature of recrystallazation, under wha.ch conditions the phe'~ nomena of creep may be manifested (the pressing of lead and tin at room temperature, also hot-pressing). On the other hand, slaw compression disintegrates to .a greater de ree the oxidized surface contact layer o? the particles. This g should accelerate the elastic aftereffect and somewhat reduce the strength and density of the briquettes, as demonstrated by the folla~aing test conducted by the author. Copper pa~rders were com- ressed at different rates to a constant volume of 1 cubic cent~.- p meter. Upon ejection .from the press molds, the rapidly compressed Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 TA~~~ ~,Q The s~,on after Emotion and u,...~.the ~xpan ,~ E~,ea~tro~.ytic Copper powder ~favin 5tran~th,?o /Cubic Cent~.meter a Pourin weight of 1~~a0 Grams ,-..~.-' Volume tri c Relative n of density of Compressive expans~.o to after briquette strength, brique t ~.?~ in ~ Vin. ~sq mm of cam ression eJe,,,~;, ~0~ Sp~ e.., ~,w~, p (ln hydraulic press 69. ~ ~' ~ 0,8 (1 ma.nute (impact compression 11.3 o~~ 69,6 (in friction press thor's opl~-on a.s also con~~.rmed The coal^ectness off' the au ~ ~.ec- ertainiri~ to the measuring ox the e by the g~antorovieh data p lanation of the briquettes (.~ o~,:. `Ihe e~ tri eal conductivity ~ the ? thor' s' K~antorovich was not explain~.n~, that follows ~.s the au ' Danced increase obtained). Kantorovich observed a prop r,'su~,ts he see ? a time lad under pressure in electrical conductivity w~.th ox's opinion' th~.s result is due to a Table 31~~ ? In the au rah to the disintegration of the surface reduction in the strength and e tie la;? 13y the same tokens the layer of particles Burin; th duction in the Fate of compression compression time lad and the re ~ance during 'the discontinua'~ion ?f resulted in a hi;,her resist considerably reducing thereby the he ~ressuxe and recompressions ( t p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 strength of the surface con~~act layer of partic~,es}. Accard:~n; to Jones, an intens~.ve hea~~a.n~ of the contact layer of. part~,cles occurs ~.th rapi~~. compressions '~'h:is heating romotes the reciprocal weld,~.n~ o:f the particles and the ~ro~a~in~; p strength of the briquettes. Jones even allows the possibility of the liquifaction of the contact layer. However, a simple com? utation proves the Jones assumptions to be greatly exa~~erated~ p Let a briquette with a cross section area and a "reduced" volume, equal to unity, have, under the specific pressure p, a relative volume .'~ x'he increment in pressure from p to ~~ duce the relative volume by ~;~ e Then, the in- p +dp w~.ll re f the work involved ~~ ~ c~.~,~ ~ The work of com~ crement o P pression ind7zces an eglx~iva~-ent :Liberation of heat, which wi:Ll raise the temperature of the briquetteo Asswnin~ the speed of also of t' r volume of the briquette , :~ e h cor~pression to be infinitesimal, th~.s heat wit;l be consumed fox e en the heat~n~ of t the press mold and of the surx^oundin medium Assuma.n~ the speed of compression to be infinitely great, the libera~teed heat will only ra~.se the temperature of the deformed volume that a.s continuous to the contact sections. In the latter case, the specific work of compression per unit of deformed volwne ~?\~ 9 ~~ and the temperature :increment whey^e ~ JpeC is the 5peca.fic gravity in gams per cubic centimeter, c is the specific thermal capes ity, J is the mechanical eq~.~ivalen~t, of heat. Specif:i.cally, if we take th? m ression of a copper powder, for which ~ s p ~ ~.~3 case of the cop p c and c ~ 0.0911, then, under a specific pressure of X000 kilohrams Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 per square centimeter and an a.nfin~ta~.y ~xeat spend of campressl,on, t ~ 1l~1~a Centi~rade~ Under an infin~tss~.ma~, spend of aampres- sign, the en~tixe amount of heat is e~.~.m~.nated, and ~, ~ ~ 0~ PracM tica~.ly, however, the d~. f fErence ~,n the temperature of the can~~act sections, as between rapa.d and slow aompressian, hard~.y exceeds ~3p M Apo Centa.~rade~ Nevertheless, even this temperature may play a rea~ta~.n part in increasing the stren;th of the briquette at the expense of heating up the water~cantainin~~~argillaceaus~~ layer of oxides. Tn the pressing of mixtures consisting; of powders of various metals, slaw compression may worsen the properties of the briquettes by promatin~ the "liquation" of particles. a om nation of data by Shpa~in~~~} show- TablE )~l below ~s c p i.ln~ an increase in the density and; the strength of the briquette with the acceleration of compression. Generally speakinh, l~he speed of compression has no particM ularly percRptible effect upon strength. As will be shown further dawn in the text, rapid ejection Pram the press mold favorably af- fects the quality of briq~~zettes~ Thus, the acceleration of compression, in mast cases, has no negative effect upon the quality of the products, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~AF3~ !~. act of Cam ression speed a~ the ~,ualit ai' ?3ri ue~~es~?C? ?nM ~ ~'re~~ ' of 0 Percent Ca e c~ ~0 Percent Graph~.~e wa.~;h s~.sta~n~ _~ sure at 20 ~ilo~r ex Sauare Mi~,l~.mete~ tion of D Density ~Shar --_ Ultimate compressive ura compression ' cu cm ~n fir/ ~~~ hardness ~-.-~--- s~tren~;t~h ~.. /s-~, mm' 20 minutes 3.07 ~~ oea 0 ~ 8 minutes 307 13 . ~ minutes ~?0 8 ~ 13.3 0' ~' ~0 seconds 3,0~ 17 0'6 ~,~ seconds 3.10 ' 17 0'8 10 seconds 3.13 17 Oe~ Causes far ~'~.aws and h~ j e.~, ~'he most serious and widespread type of flaw in the com~ ressed semifinished products is the sorcalled exfoliation -- p earance of interparticle fissures in the specimen upon bew the app ink extracted from the press maid, n 'the ressin~ of products in non-detachable press molds I p he a earance of transverse lamellar Fissures is observed some- t pp ' es after the ejection of the briquette from the press mold. tzm a n cal~se of this exf oliatian, in the opinion of the author, ~'he m i ' ~f fact, of internal stresses (e~.astic aftereffects accumu- ~. s the d. Burin the process of compression. Since these stresses late ~ maximum value in the direction of compression, trans-~ attaa.n their verse fissures are fnrmedm ..~8 7.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,~ few wards about the factaxs wha.ch promnte exfo~.ia?t~.or~? (~,) ~ ~~,~, ~'actaxs attenuat~,n~ the siren ?th of the briquette, such as the presence of oxides, the presence in the powder charge of nan-meta;lla.c components (graphite), unfavorable structure (smooth particles, flat partic~.es), a high degree of hardness of the initial, powder particles, and the like, arecandueive to exfoliation (2). Excess~.ive fineness of pawd~rs may faci~.itai~e fa.ssura.n~; (see Paragraph ~7, r~i~ure 82) (3), Excessive pressure. Internal stresses, wh~.ch are con- ducive to fissuring, always grow in direct ratio to compression pres- sure, while strength, under high pressures, increases at a slower rate than pressure (la,;s beh~.nd] C see Paragraph 1~1~). ~~.}o The improper design and defects in the press mold, When the design of ?the press mold does not provide far the ;radual expansion of the briquette Burin; ejection, the appearance of shea.rin~ stresses will ~e conducive to the formation of transverse fissures during ejection. Figure 7g below shows the effect of such abrupt expansion upon the formation of fissures in an ex- aggerated manner It is imperative to provide for the widening of the egress end off' the press mold by a taper of 0.~ to 1 degree to the axis, The improper condit~.on of the press mold walls is also conducive to fissuring, ~~.g~~zre fig. The effect of -the press ma~.d design upon the formation Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 v~' fa.seures ~n the bra.c~uette (da.a~r~~a), (~} ~ S~.aw e~octa,on, ~a.~ure '~~ shows alear~.y that waxen the speed. of eaecta~on ~.,~ a.nfatrnitely ~rc~c~t, no fissuxes w~.l~L appear, whale an infina.tesima:l speed of ejecta.an, on the contrary, wall promote their fvrmata.on~ (6), An excessive/ low rate of compress on. (see ~ara- ~raph !~?~ ) When pressin; in detachable press molds, diagonal fissures are sometimes farmed, The usual cause of their appearance is the shift of a side wall (dus to improper wall bracing, ar defect in desi;n, or excessive pressure} and the disinte~ratian of the bri- que tte under prr~5 sure Bra. ute Hardness ,~ l'i~ure 80 below is a curve graph representing the ratio of the Bra.nell hardness a.f the briquette to the campressian pressure. .~4s indicated by the curves, in the presence of low 'pressures, hardw ness brows almost in direct ratio to the first power of pressure (sometimes even faster than with the first paver of pressure). Under hihh pressures, hardness ;raves considerably slower than with the first potiaer of pressure, Thus, there is a ratio of the same ty~7e that prevails in the case of the strength of the briquette (see Paragraph ~.) However, the growth of hardness depar~~s from the direct ratio to a greater degree and under lower pressures than does strength, The reasons far this phenomenon are as follows, Brinell hardness, as indicated by ~unin~3g~~ runs in an Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 appra~n"r~s,tt~ d~.a:~c~c~L r~~.t~,c~ ~t~a ~~.~~ ~~ark cacis~~r~cd fo~~ Milo non?re- 'u~~:rs~.~i~,e de~'ormation o.C th~~ meal in a una t of imprint volumes It may be assumed that the F~rinel~, hardness of the bra.quettes a.s approximately in direct ratio to the spec~.fic work of com~ p~^esa~.an~ ~'ha.s work, ~.n can~'orrr~,~y wi~Lh foxmu~.a (2~/~) ~ is theoretically proportional to the compression pressure How- ever, due to tou~hPnin~, the wark: brows not as rapidly as pressure (if farce p increases with tou~henin~, t.~he path, along which the force ~!`~ perfr~rms some work, decreases). In the can so~.idation of the briquette to a relata.ve density r~ ~ 1GQ er-~ p cent, p may draw infirLitely, while the incrFment of. the wark of plastic deformation equals zero, since the nan~~^eversible change in the height of the briquette ~1 h ~ 0. ~.'he direct ratio of stren~tl~ to compression pressure is also somewhat, disturbed due to the effect of coldwharden9n~ (see 1?'ara rah ` p L~5). Z`his departure is, however, compensated for to a considerable extent 'by the oppositely-directed effect of the in~ crease in density. On the contrary, there exists a series of factors intensifying; the reducin effect of tau~henin~ upon the growth of hardness with pressure, Let us ta1,e Hate of the most intpor~~ant of them, (1)~ Tn determining the Brinell hardness of a non~con~ solida,ted bra,quette, the work of penetration by the teat ball is consumed both for the displacement of the deformed volume of the .metal as well as far the additional consolidation and tou~h- enin~ of the powder particles, In the case of a, consali~dated bri~ .~~a_ }a k " ` Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 lt~ ? SIT lair ~ '. '' .. ... .. ..... ..... ... Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 quatte, the w?rk p~' penetx~atian by the test ba~~. is consumed pn~.y for the disp~.acement of the cle~ormed vo~,~ne~ Hence, an T.n- crease ~.n density, wh~.~.~; a~ncreasin~; the grawfi.h of strength witZa pressure, may reduce the growth of hardness. (~) ~ A11 researchers were detex~min~,ng hardness (see ~~'igure aQ) at the s trongeat and densestupper surface of the specimen, which was nearest to the plunger. ~Jhile the values of strength are stipulated (~.r- relation to the direction oi' compression} by the mean strength, in the entire volume or by the strength of the weakest and. the non-consolidated cross section Hence, the effect of toughening will manif~,st itself to a greater extent upon hard- ness than upon strength. The hardness of briquettes is subject to the i'ol1.owing regularities. (~,}o Hardness grows with compression pressure, d.ens~.ty, and the strength of briquettes. Maximum hardness at maximum density corresponds approximately to the maximum critical stress ~, of the material, max (2}? 'T'he hardness of briquettes is to a considerable degree a contact interparticle property (particularly in the presence of low 'pressures and d.erisities}. When briquettes from different metal powders are compressed, under the same pressure, the softer metal powder w-ill~ in roost cases, result in th.e harder briquettes Even when comparing specimens compressed to the same density, the soft metal powder will frequently result in a briquette of greater hardness (regardless of the lower compression pressure}, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (3) ~ Hs.rdness ~.s ar~iaotropa.c; ~~ ~,s ~,ess in a transverse direction than ~.n a lon~itud:~na~, da.rect~.on~ 'his a.s part~.cu~.arJ.y naticeab~e when hardness is determ~.ned by the char method (see ~`a.~ure ~?). such anistropy a~s due to tha :fact ghat, in a ~,on~i~ tudinal direction, the shaping pressure is greater, whil? the crass section of particles and porosity, an the contrary are 1.ess~ (I~)~ Hardneas differs in various spots of the briquette, by height, in conformity with non-uniform density (see Figure ~'7). (,~)o The hardness of briquettes under the same compression pressures usually draws with the reduction in the pouring wei ~;ht of the powder (particular~.y during the First stages a? compression) This is due to the fact that the specific wank of compression, which is equal. to '..'?..,P~~''~~~ , is ureater in the case of light- ~~i ~ weight powders the magnitude of the compression index m, which is a part of the denomina?tar, decreases with the diminution in the paurina weight of the powder). ~l. ~:s There a qualitative Difference between Compressed nd Nom ~,~.~ Compressed ~'owder The nurr~erous published opinions of specialists relating to free~flowin,:~ bodies and the nature of their strength acid cohesion, may cause a serious disorientation in this field. Let us quote, as t ical the opinions by Professor Prokof'yev~~~)s yp ~ ttThere is na cohesion between particles of free-flowing bodies, as a result of whichy in contradistinction from solid bodies they cannot sustain tensile stresses, but there is fr~.ction between tl~e particles of a free-flawing body. As a result of this friction ~.; , , ~~f q ~~ ~,~ ~ ~` ~ .~ ~ ~~ Declassifi~~ed in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release~2012104120 : CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ ".~. ~ `~ ;~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~.~~, ~~,.~ ~. , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 stresses ~,~ can e ' n str, esses] ~ '"~~ ~~ sent and the tangent (shear. ~) C stresses are ab ~ ' ' ent of Friction. `.t'hE shape of free~flow- where 0~,~( is the coeF~'a.c~ ~okoF~ ev, is always lim~.ted by the ankles a.ng bodies, accord:~ng to Px Y a ma~.ntain oq~tuJ.a.br~.um w~.thin a ceal.n range, th.e part~~c~-es m y the ;~ra.ct'lon be'Lween a~nd~.v~.dua~. axt~.c~.?~ ta,l such t~.me as is disxupted~! (ProkoF~yev)~ ,; m~~ mains that only comprESSiVe naxrilal proka~ yev also st in Fxee-:~lawin~; bodies, while tensile ~} of natural repose, ~(-~ ? ? ~ e characteristic of alb. tha specialists pp~.ruons of th~.s tYp ~ From the days of Goulamb to the present, on Free flowing materials are badly in need of a basic revision. view of these specialists is accepted, I~ the print of to acknowledge that between :loose powders it becomes necessary Form of a heap at the angle of natural repose, which have the tensile stresses, and compressed powders, and do not sustain any ha e and do sustain tensile stresses, thex~e wl~i ch may have any s p ' ~ a tremendous r~ua].itative and basa.c diFFerenceo ~. u ssexti.on that Free-Flawing bathes do not ~#c tually, the a '' stresses, that being their characteristic, ustain any tens~.le s ost characteristic Feature of ~"ree?~lowing is utterly wrong. ~.'he m ' onstancy in the magnitude of the contact sur~ materials is the inc ' les which is a Function of the external ,Face bet~reen the part~.c s 'r mechanical properties, including tensile stresses, Hence, thei ion of the shaping pressure, which, in this strength, are a Fund t of its par~ticl.es. 't'he absence of cohesions case, is the weigh Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 as in the case of bra.~,uettes, cannot h~.nder ~,n phis case, as weld. ? defa.nite ten5a,le strength st~.pu~.ated~ by the the ex~.stenCe Of a a ement of the part~.cles ~ ~'h~.s s?~renr;th is e~- recipraca~. eng ~; pressed by the :formula: (~1~1) ~ ~ ~' ~ ~ he tensile strength, ~~ is the shaping; pressure where ~~ ~?s t .~ stress to whic,Y1 a unit off' the cross section (in tha.s case, thc, ~ wei ht of the particles, was subject), area, break~.n?; under the g ess constant .factor, always less than 'unity ~s a more or 1 ri uettes, 't,he value of ~ is usually ~- per- (in the case of b q cent and less). ,, alwa s cansiderab].y less than unity, it is ~~.zLCe ~" is y der usual eandi Lions, to measure the tensile impass~.ble, un . ,~~ owi~n materials, as shaped under the effect strength o~ free fl g ~h~~ But :Free-flowing materials shaped under of their o~rn we1.r, e reater than their own weight, can be made 'Lo assume pressure g s and they have a fully measurable tensile vara.ege Led form s N ~ s trerl~ th ~' But always ~ ~ ,.. b ? ~ T int advanced by the author, is accepted, i.eo, ff th~.s v~,e~po 9 .. rial is a body with an inconstant cor~tact be- a free-flow~.ng made bad being shaped under the effect of tween its ps,rt~.cles, the y ' 1 become clear that between briquettes, its own weight, it, w~.l ressure, and loose pawd,ers, there are only shaped under high p t ual~.tative differenCes? These quantitative quant.itata.ve, but no q a value of appr. ox7.mately the same order as the differences have een com ressian pressure and the weight of the difference betty p in comprESSion the pro'per'ties (strength, free?flo~ring body, ~ ~ e ~ ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 he articles already exists in the (~)s 'T'he arierltatl.on oft p acceler- ., lion pressure only somewhat ~ Dose powders, and the camprc,s aces its effect. ssion curves (pressure deformation 1 The study of compre hanical properties of the briquettes The curves for the me c Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ct~..v~.t , the contact s~,rfaaq area ~n haxdness, electr~,cal condu Y x,03 to 10~ times cxeaae from s confirm the corxectness of this, as ,~, se.ra.es of fact follows ? ;dace in bath compx'essed and base paw" (~~ ~ ~~'le Cor~taCt au se that the magnitude of crz.tical dexs is stressed, 1't being the ca u. hening is disregarded, is fully stress ~~'iw;,~ if the effect of to g the same in both cases s be in to sustain def a~at~-on al? (~) ~l'he powder partie.~e g ~ . shaking of their o~rm wea_ght. By slightly ready under the effect hoax its ' e co er powr.er over a period of one ~ '100 grams of a fa.n pp . from 0. ~;.0 to 0. ~~ grams per cubic oaring caeight was Increased ~ the p ,, ~ se in pol~ring weight was a result o ceritimeter, this Increa lactic deformation of the surface nan.xevex si.ble brittle and p ~, . res sure ~n this respec-~, the campresa~on p layer of the particle5e natively r'aw, but only accelerates does not introduce anyth~.ng qua/ at~.vel already existing phenomena, quantit y (`~) ? e which would e absence in them of any abrupt Chang curves) shows th hesive a nan-cohesive powder to a co indicate the transit~.on from ~s a h re e owest to the highest pressures t briquette, From the 1 i on. ' crease in pressure with deformat smooth and gradual ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sho~r a ~radua~. ~xowth of strength, apprax~mate~.y ~.n d~.rect ra,?~~,o ~~o the pressure aid ~r~,thout abrupt char~gea, ~'he extrapolata.on oa' these curves shows the caaraaadence of taro strength, with zero pressure ~'hus, t~o aa.:l. appearances, strength, ancludang tensa,le strength, also exa.sts ~.n loose powders. However, due to the lour value of the shaping pressure, it is thousands and millions of tames below the strength of briquettes. ~2. ~'he Cold-Fressin,g Process from the .~n~;le off' Energetics .-....,.,,.~,...........,..r.~.~ ~..~.~..~..,.,,...?...,, Tt would seem at first that a non?eansolx.da?~ed powder should be i.n a state of lesser equilibrium than a briquette reduced by compression to ful]. compactness. Tn the :loose powder, the farces of cohesion may perform the work of drawing the particles to~ ,gether, while in a compact body, this work has already been per- formed actually, however, a compressed powder is in less stable equilibrium and has a greater reserve of free enemy, as compared to a loose powder. This ~.s due to the fact that' in compression, there takes place work against the forces of cohesion, and not work by the forces of cohesions Some researchers assume erroneously ghat compression is 'linked with work performed by the forces of cohesion, and not againstthose farces. Sn the opinion of Pakavskiy~ ~~), it. takes less pressure ~to compress fine powders than coarse ones, since the cohesion farces promote to a greater extent the drawing to- gether of the fine particles with a better developed specific surface Actually, the phenomena usually observed show that the ~;everse is thecase..Already under the effect of their own weight, the f~.ne powders pra.cticall.y always occupy a more friable Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 between the a~tams of tunhsten is much ~rcater Cohes~.on ~' n ~l'he very Fact that in order to than between the atoms of ~. ? ? un sten powder it takes a considerably higher cansol~.date a t ~ 'mss the work, as compared to the case of tin pressure and many 1,a. ? ate/ convincing evidence that9 in compression, powder, ~.s ade~u Y d a ainst the :forces of cohesion. Zn order to work is perforate ~ ? ontact a relatively low number of surface stoats, l~rlna' a.nto c ? ~ -rear to deform a volume, ~rhich is occupied by a mucn ~.t ~.s necca ~' atoms or, which is the same, to disrupt the higher number of s ~~~~ between the forces of cohesion of these more numerau~ ec~u~.libr~.um ' in order 'to attain can,alidation, it is necessa~' ~.f,Ga1S r k~enC E ~ uill.br~.um between the forces of cohesion of both to disrupt the eq rs of the contact sections, a~ well as in the the surface lave 'th the result that the compressed powder is in .deeper volume, ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _._ _ _ _ se owdsrs, ands wa.th furthsr cons?~.idat~,ona volume than the ccaar p ssa.an ressures are rewired ;fox ~'inE powders h~,~ner carr~prs ,~ ~~~) 'ns that the absence off' spontaneous dra-~in~ to~ ~'onss ma,~nta~. owder particles at room temperature ~~, to a ~c~ther b?twssn the p ~' xtent due tv the presence of surface admixtures re- cexta~.n e , cohesion faress~ ~~ain9 'the reverse of ducin~ the eff set of the true During the reduction of surface oxl.d.es~ th~.5 7,S ac~iLla~-~~ orces of cohesion are increased, yet the volume the surf ace .f e awder becomes greater and not smaller. znw occup~.ed by' th p idation the cohr-~sion forces arE decreased, versely, dur~n~ ox ~ - e of the powder is reduced. 7:'he practical. men and the volum b introducing; into the powder charge, for do 'the smart think y r ~ acilitatin~; compression, additions that reduce the purpo,~e af. f cohesion. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 literal. meaning of the word, the forces of co.. farrnlty wa.th the ' ~ cald., ressin~, are forces that ~,perimpose chains heszon, dur~.n? p ' ~ain the established ,equilibrium (even ~thou~h and tend to ma~.nt , e uilibri~n may be less stable than the Final t.hi_s intermediate q '1"~e stronger these chains, th.e greater force and equilibra.um}. the arr~aunt of work are required to break them. the ;renter rk against the cahesion forces is perFormed specifically such wo ~, Other ossibilities for cansalidation consist, in cald.-presslnp;. p ~' the weakening of these for~in~ forces and in on the contrary, ~.n em suc~i conditions, under which they themselves creating for th the work of cansolidatian, such phenomena occur would perForm aF baking, when the interaction forces between durln~ the process attenuated and acquire dynamic character~sta.cs. the atoms are _ essinr the "reduced" wank ~, i. e., the work Zn cold pr ~~ Tess 1 cubic centimeter of compact material, is perf orrncd to comp ordance with formulas (28~~ ~ grid (2~3~9 } e~.pressed, in ace Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ . ~,~.a.bx~,um and has a ~reatex x?serve of figs exler' lesa sta~ale eq1~ ~n loose pa~idars (~.~ the presence of ad" than the .toosc~ powdex~ are d~,sre~arded), only the surface atoms, :i.~e. ~ con m~.xturea z~ ~, ereerrt of all atomsa are a.n a slate of sa,derab.ly J.~as~ tha p ' um. Tn a pawd.er compressed to full corrrpactness~ non~equ~.la.br~, rider one deformation, and is in a stressed the ei~ta.re volume ha,~ u ~ a non-stable er.~ui7.ibrium extends to the entixe state, hence,, the 1.QU percent a:~ the atams~ ? ave low mobility at room te11tperature, and. the 'lhe a tans h ween there can then be considered practically farces of cohesion bet ' rceS Of constant magnitude and direction. 1n con- as stat.~c Fo Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 >rrhere is the speci,f'ic compression pressures ~n is the compress~.o~ p index `~ is the re~,a~Live density off' the briquette. T~~e compuM a Cation off' this work, in the case o~ copper, under praGtica].ly in. ressures (1QOQ to 60CK~ k~.la~;rams per square centimeter), occurr ~; p relative densities (~0 to q0 percent), and compression indexes m 2~ to ?)~ results in values off' Wk dram 3.3 to ~~ kilogram-meters C~ er cubic centimeter. ~3y recorn~autin~ this work in terms off' heat, p we see that under the practica:lJ.y applied pressures the work o~ can, ressian corrfsponds to heating; the capper to from l0 to 130 p degrees Centigrade, i.e., many times less than the enemy imparted to the briquette in balcin~ (usual:Ly the baking temperature ~'or capper is 70Q to $00? Centi~rs,de). Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 STAT CI~~,PT~~ VAT 1NTRODUGTxON TQ TIC TI~ORY QI? ~1NG The Mobility of the Atoms and, ~Cts Change in the Process of Heat. n~ I/Iw.MMM~Mw~M+?+~."I~~MMlIMA1 M~wMY~w~.~~.w.MwwNwM~M.MM~M.W1~IwIM The force of reciprocal attraction and repulsion between two atoms (rrtolec~ules) at a constant temperature, in conformity with formula (,~/1), depends on the distance between them; P a b where P is the force of interaction; a, b~ m, n arc constants; r is the distance between the atoms; '~'~m is the force of gravity; b ~. ~ n is the repelling farce The atoms (molecules} are not immobz.le, but are in an oscil- lacing motion about the mean position of equilibrium.. ~'he range of these oscillations increases with temperature fences with a rise in temperature t~'ie interatomic ('molecular) forces progressively lose their static characteristics and became dynamic. During ?~he oscillations of the a~~oms, t;h~; distance r is alternately increased and decreased. ~on.~"ormantly, as follows from formula (~/1), the interatomic forces are altern~.tea.y decreased and increased, Generally speaking, th.e increase in the mobility of the atoms in heating :leads to the attenuation of the forces of cohesion, the increase in the volume of the body and the parameter of the lattice, and .the growth of the coefficient of thermal, expansion, as presented graphically in Figure ~l, in accordance with K ach and Dieterle and Koch and Danecker(11~). The diminution in cohesion growth of repulsion) with temperature .can be computed by deducting -~300M Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ o~~~~~r1':~ ~~ ~ Q .~,.,....._.~,,..~._,..~.w......~....~~,,.~~,4,.T...~,.~..~,,..,~ F~t;ure 81. ~~'he mechanical properties o1' a,l.uminum in relation to ~~~ temperature has per Koch aril Dieterle, Koch and Danecker) ~'he increase in the ~.obility of the atom, and the attenuation of cohesion between them produces an effect, by virtue of which the meta]. being heated, even prior to attaining; its melting point, loses to some degree the properties of a solid body and. acquires the row p parties of a liqu~.d. For, instances-its Poisson's ratio ~ se e Figure 81} cantinuouslygrows with temperature and convey es towar ~ d 1 ,, ~q. 7?Y !3ap 6i riY, ~. ,Y r9. , ~~ d1.4?ti ,.'9P,8 t~ ~ 4?d...exi ty, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 franc the re s u~.,tan~t ;for ce ~ ~.n f A~mu;~a ~ ~/~, ~ the team where c(T) is some funct~.on ~rawa.np wa.th temperature, cans tart; we then dera.ve ~'ormu:la (~/~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 `~ ~ 0 wha.ch is charaatera.~t-~,c ,Fox a l~.c~u~.d~ ~'hs the va~.ue V ?~ ~ e mefi~al in heating, ~5 ~reat~.y reduced Eby several Strength o.~ th s as can be seen Fxom the curve graph a,n k~i~ure E~2, as tames '~?~~ a (~~~2) 3.k o '~Q same ratio is true 1~~.th re~.ation tp h,~r egs~ per Ludy udwik who tested the h~~xdz~ess of metals by the a.mM A~ccox~da.n~; to ~ y mefi~a~. b a test cane, the hardness in heath pressa.ons ~.eFt ~.n the ~' changes as per Formula a.n~, ,,, wh.e'c~~ His the hardness at a liven tempexat~ur,e; Ho is th,e hardness at absolute zero; T is the absolute temperature of the test; e absal.ute me~.tin~; point. By For~nu~.a ~ 5317 T~~1 ~.s th he.rdlless becomes equal to zero a;~ready at a tempera" tune of about X31 percent within the rneltin~ point range. ~1~:timate tensile strength of alumin~~m in relation to Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ - - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~n r~aall.ty, ~.n contradist~.nation to ~.i.q~aa.ds, the s~~xength a~ad .hardness of wi~ich are zero, the above properties in a solid body, even tha~~gh Haar its me~.ting paa,n~~, b:~.ve a certain, 'aQw- ever smal'J,, yet a percepta.b~.e finito value. r~'hus, ice floating iz~ water at Ua Cer~tigrade h,as a percept:i.b~.e strength and hardness. Surface tens?ian in solid. bodies, a~a prosented hraphica;lly i~n ~ig~ ura ~i in accordance wit11 ~'an~nann and ~3oehme~ ~'~'7~, also decreases 3 with temperature, although at a slowF~r rate than strength Footnotes, The fact being; tha t~~ the strength of liquids equals zero, no deduct:i.on must be drawn to the effect that co? hPsion and the forces of cohesion bUtween its atoms are also equal to zero, Surface 'tension, stipulated by tangential farces of cohesion, has a considerable magnitude in liquids. It must be noted that Tammann and Baehme were not entirely ri;p~t in c~e~terrn~.ning the surface tension by the magnitude o.~ the farce required to prevent the warping; o:C ;old leaflats, without tilting into consideration their awn ~>tren,the ~Whe~l tha latter is accounted far, the di~'ferences in the changes of surface tension and strength with temperature are considerably reduced, but they still rema,ino Hence, with heating, the relative importance of surface ten lion in th.e Formation of solid bodies is increased, while the rela~ five importance of strength is decreased, xn this sense, a solid body, with the progressive increase in temperature, proressively approaches the state of a ;liquid, in which surface tension is of de~ cisive importance in the formation of drops. n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~.~ure ~3, aurf'ace tension in ~;o1c~ in relation to temperature the ~;las't~.c properties off' the metal, such as the moduli of elasticity, shears and vo~.~uine'tric compression, also ~.iminish with temperature, but at a cansiderab:ly slower rata than strength (see ~,i~;ure 8l), lf' the properties of the crystal thro~~;hout its Volume' with texnpera~-~ure, apps a~~imate the p.rope.r~ties off' a li~~ui.d, the same will be true to a ,;neater degree about the surface layers of the cr~rstal9 where the atoms have maximum mobility. ~'he atoms in the surface, as shown in Table ~2 below, are surrounded by a lesser amot~.t of nei~hborin~ atoms, attracting tllern, than they are deep within the crystal. The :less bound the atoms, -the more ma~i~.i~ty ,hey have. Hence, the atoms inside the crystal and inside the contact sections of the surl'C~ce have the lowest mobility. next, in order ~.f in.creas? ~ing mob~.lity, come the atoms in the abutments of several contact sections and in the apexes o:~ the internal ankles; the atoms at the bolznd.ar~ies of two contact sections and in the ribs of the internal an;les; the atoms in the dcpressians of the surface; the; a't~oms in the level sections of the surface; the atoms in the protuberances and elevations of the surface and in the ribs of external. angles (~it Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 See next pale .?or Tab1.e ~~~ ~ast column o~ the above table r~he numbexs in the ~- ~ ~ te? , tno ~ o...,..,,~. ion as the values off" the ener~l' accepted in ~irs'~ ap:Pxox~.mct can be nra~ h ~~~) ? cond~.tional units (See ~ara~ p o~ activation Q ~n ~~~?~~ ~'; pure 81~ ? ~"~~~ ~ollow~~ below: to ''able ~.3 ' rib l~eferrin? n 7 _ atom inside crysta:l.; 2? in apex o:f intez"nal an~.e3 3? a. t;he C~sts.l ~ux~dc~; ~r~-orr,;a1 ~,ns~~le~ ~4~ ~ ? in the rib of the 1~rle ? 6. in the apex of the extprnd.>+ aiih.~.~. external ai ,~ a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. _. _ _ _ an#~~.e~ 'the moxe mob~.le the ~l,he aria that the smaJ~~.er the bean,, ~~~als as ~,ndicated a.n Tab~c~ ze o~ the cz^~s a sa , ~' th tha ~row~?n~ .l. ~, d oX~." ? ~ ce atoms is diln~,nished ~ pp racta.on o:~ the mob~.le sur~a n 1a.3, the ~' the ~rac t~.o ~, o to J.~.near da.mens iorxs) . mate~.;T, a.n an 1nvexse ra t ~~ a.nea,r`t atoms) and a.n the bile atoms ~.n the ra.bs (~ , of the mast r~~o ? diminished even more rap~.d7.~r. e,xes ('"p~ctate't atoms) ~.s an~:1e ap uare (almost) s in an invPxSe ratio to the sq~ Th:~s :fr~~ction chan?~e sta1. e J.inear d~.mensions off' the cry and to the cube o~ th t ., ~- - ,rc c ~' ~~m~1ar~~ o_ ~e ~~ara::+_eter o f I Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' %S ~ ~ - n '.CiSifiS. ~~tirlai ~u ~.r,-~-~ ~ Y ~ era: 3n~ at`~:~., ~~~ c a:ibe ~ :;f ecual to ~::z ~ , F T Caty~~~? of ~%0?TiS ~,e q a?nG2 .t~ 1 1T'i.;i de C~';,r~. jai ~i + r fir, n a . U SlAI f ~~ C? C1 `t,~'Fe ~ 11- ~C~~~ C - r ' ~aieG Cr~TDtalL 1L rl`y o ~2n U~ ~ TiG.j1Ce ~~a%%1Cc~', Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 `~~ ~-3~ ~.~ ~ CG11t~Ttlieu~ _ t~ _ ' J_c~. _ 1 ~,TO. 1TI f r. secuerce Loca ~ ~ orf cr a mac? ;e _ ~ 1 a~ t~.e co^~~a.cU ~E.;.~?~ce 'coar_ca~~~ 01' ~ ,~~ ~ _~~, ~. , ,.1 iT iJ 1?.ieit~./.~~-,~ L~`^-.'~ li i~TC ~J C:'~t~. 111 ~li.`~l~ ~.-.Lull. C.:,~.L~; nn ~.he `~U.:[`1 ~: Cc of cr~~~ta? ,: In use ~i~~ y' el~tierna _ Cj 11 n, n. ~ t~ V Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~U.? aC~' ~? Gl ~;,tiG~1L 1GGJ00 ~.?r ac e ti.~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 O.i atU'~!5 ,T~amb~r ~..? c ~ r 0f ~ti "'` ~~ a~~ ~r?:C ? r; e ^~ ati~,::~. ire ~~?'j ~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The ,~racta.on v~' 'th? surface atoms, as related to tha entire he c stal and the n.wnbar o:~ l~.near atama (~.n 'the ribs), volume oft ~ , as related to the total number o:~ surface atoms, becomes insi~~ niflcan't when the rib a.s l,(~OU to 1pU,UQU a~Loms long, wh~,ch corres~ onds approximately 'to a 1en~th of 0.3 to 30 micrans~ [however, ~ p to numerous irregularities in the surface, the number of surface due and linear acorns is actual:l.y ~reat~.y in ?rcess of the number comM puted under the assump~.on of a re;ular geometrical shape, ' ,s of ~ henomena can be und~:rstaod .i.n 'the light of the ~ ser~.e p mobz.lity' of the atoms (molecules) o.f solid bodies. ov~~U' ~~) for instance, established that the melting; Pavl s ' nt of a matArial drops with the degree of dispersion of its poi. articles. ~,ccordin~; to Pavlov, particles having a diar~eter of p microns were melting at 7 degrees Cen~ti;rade below the particles 2 with a diameter o.f 0.~ to 2 millimeters in the case of phenyl sali- c~ late solo/), at ~ to 7 degrees below in the case oi' antipyra.ne, ~ C de tees below in the case of p~1enacetin. Tn all proba,bil.ity, a t !~ the tem era~ture of transition into a liq~~id state oz" the ~rea~ter p mobili ~ atoms in the surface and, particularly, in the ribs and :~n the an le apexes, drops even to a greater extent. The supercooling of li ~~ids in solidification also testifies to a lower melting ~. oint far surface atoms. It is long since known that evaporation p of the surface layers of a liquid sets in at a point considerably below the boiling point, only upon the attaining of whic~i the in~ ternal layers of the liquid begin to evaporate. To all appearw ances, the rneltinp, point of a solid body also corresponds to the tem erature of the transition of the internal sections of the p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' d state and tha trans~.ta.~an ~,nto a 7.~.~ua.d crystal ~.nto a ~.~~l~a. ~ mace sayers occurs at considerably sower tempara? s~Gate o:~ the su tures~ a o~ recrystalli7ation are also eas~.ly under- ~.he phenomen o~ the inability of the atoms (see paragraph stood i.~ the light ~~~~ and Saratovkin(3$~ were altoae'ther Correa a.n ~{u~netsov ' ntensit~ o:~ dissolution o~ dispersion c~^ys~~als ascribing the hither ~, ~ ber of atoms in the crystal ribs and in the to the considerab~.e Hain archers contend that with the increase in ankle apexesp many rese ' ~Pr si on not only the rate o ~ di s s ol:uti on, bu t the degree of d~,sZ ~ (103 ~ f the substance is increased. 'Thus Hulett even the s olubil.i ty o that the solubility of ~yps~ with particles over discovered . ' 11~m,oles pe~^ liter, and with the sire o~ 3 1 a.n s~.ze was 1~.3 ~- er ~.iter. :Cn the articles Oa3 ~~ it was 1$.2 m~-11imo.Les p p ,~ ' 1 sulfate with l,$ { -particles, solubility he Case o~ bdrlltl1 t ~~, and for l~l ,4 it was X015 ~~~-limoles. ~zmi was 2.3 millimoles, btained with different materials by Ostwald~ lar results were o and Partin~ton(14$)~ and many other Mass, Glov~hinskiy, Jone s, (~~) ~ the same token, the atoms in the ribs, researchers ~ y rotuberances of the crystal should. evaporate more apexes, and p intensively than the atoms in the depressions, in the mobility o:C the atoms (molecules} lo- The decr~,ase ? a de ressicans of bodies may be illustrated by ea~ted ~.n the surf ce p - ? ise in the boiling points off` liq~~ids enclosed the cons~.derable r n ve thin capillaries, the boiling point of in capillaries. I ~ water may be in excels of 2000 Centigrade. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'inal,ly, the clnan~es in mc;GhEGnical. prapexties with tempex~a? tore may also serve as proof of the variation in the mobi~.ity of atoms. ~'ho stran~th and hardness of metals at high ternperaturQs is determined by the properties of the surfar,e layers of the ~xains with the mast laa5ely bonded atoms having a maximum degree of mobility, since the strength of a chain is the strength of its weakest link While tho moduli of el~.tsticity are volumetric pro- pGrties and are determined by the more numerous and less mobile internal, atoms. Conformantl.y, as was already indicated, the s tren~;th and hardness in hr~ating are reduced by several tunes ten, and the moduli of elasticity by several times only (see ~~z.gl~res 81 and 82 ), 'the shifting of the atoms, in conformity with the second la~fr of thermodynamics, must occur predominantly in such directions as to reduce the free energy of the system, Fence, with a rise in ~tcmperatt~xe, the amount o!' the residua], stresses and the magniM tude of the specific surface .of the particles are diminished, and the contact between the particles grows. ~~'he mechanics o.f' this .phenomena will be analyzed in thiscchapter. ~,t abso~~:ute zero (~?73o Centigrade) the mobility a~' the atoms in all metals equals zero. CorreSpondin~;ly, when the melt ins; point is attained, the mobility of the atoms in all metals also attains a respectively similar level, at which the crystal lattice is disintegrated. i,udwik was the first to introduce the concept of the so~called respective temperatures far various metals, ioe,, temperatures that amount to the same fraction as related to the absolute melting paint xt is probable that equal Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 res octave temperatures are 1,~.nlced to equal. atoma.c mou~.l,ity and p 'T'hus ~ochvar~1~) es~b-~~shed that the rew state of metals. a cr stalla.~ation of different pure metals begins at raspectivel.~' Y e ual temperatures ~ 30 to l~0 percent From the a'asolute meJ,tin~ q point) . ~~,? Further Data on the Mobility of 'the Ato s, In most cases, the par'ticLes of metal powders and the ~arains of com act metals have linear dimensions on the order of 1.00,000 p atoms (about 30 macrons). Table 1.~3 above shows t~aat, in this case, there are only b surface atoms to 100000 atoms inside the cry"sta].. `.the number of linear and angular atoms is stall s~a~aller (L2 to LO 000,000,000; and 8 to 1.015) The fraction of the most mobile surface, linear., and angular atoms, is insignificant, even ~.f account is taken of the fact that, due to the irregularities of the article surfaces and ;rains, the actual nuar-ber of these moms p ' s tens and hundreds of times treater than indicated in `'able ~.3e Nevertheless, the behavior and the properties of metals at high temperatures are to a considerable extent determined speeific- all b these atoms with maximum mobility. This is due to the fact y Y their insignificant amount is compensated by mobility, which is tremendous by comparison with 'the mobility of atoms inside the crystal. With a rise in temperatuz~e, as already indicated in k'ara~raph ~3 the osciLla~tion cane of the atoms is increased. Hence, with a rise in temperature, the location of the atoms in the Lattice be- comes less stable, and the number of atoms shifting from one junc- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ..ice of the same or another crystal. ~s a measuro ta.an of the ~,atL e atom it is most convaniea1t to se~.ect the of the molaa.lity of th ~ acarnent from a predetermined point of eq1~? veloc~.ty o~ a.ts displ ;librium, remains in bond with the same point of equi- durin~ wh.~.ch the atom na to l~'renkel' ~ 6~) ~ tha mean period af' 'Lime ~ ~ , Accard~. ~, 1~ibrium, is expressed by formula where is the oscillation perior~ of the atom; ~ is the base of natural logarithms; ener of activation in calories per ore atom, re~ ~.,, the ~'' r ~ isite fo~^ the displacement oi' the atom from a p~"e. .~~z determined point of equilibrium; is the same enemy of activation in calor~.es per dram-atom; is col tzmann ? s constant; s the has constant (a]xnost equal to 2 calories per i dram-atom per degree}; is the absolute temperature ~~ ].ocit " (;mobility), at which thc~ atom abandons The mean ve y -... ~' t of e u.librium, will be expressed by formula: a predeterm~-ned porn q ~ ~~~~~ ) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 where /~ ~~ 1~ '~ /~. of a ~;a.ven cata~o~' (such as la.noar, ~'he number of moms ~1 stall abandon~.ng in a unit of time the or moms a.n: ~c~e th? cry ) ~ some volumE a.f metal, a.s determined, by ~pal.nt o.f eq~.11.1~-brium a.n f orrnula umber of all moms o:E the liven type in where Nis then the given meta]. volume; ac~tivatian for the atoms of tha ~ ~.s the energy o?~ given type oximately the same value for atoms o:E any (~, has appr type. nation ~ varies with th.e location of the 7.'he enemy of anti pined b the magnitude of the .~o~"Ces 0:~ metal atoms , l t i s de tern ~' ' ch must be brol~en in order to effect the bond with other atoms, why. m the iven point of equilibrium. Tn displacement of the atom fro ~ 'fable t~2, in Paragraph ;3, are given the .the last two caa.wnns off' of ' Tonal laazits) of the energ~,~ of the band c omputa~~i ons (in c ondxt s withtheir immediate neighbors (in the differently-located atom oms at a distance o.~' one parameter, and penulti~~.~te column, with at s at a distance of less than two parameters in the last column, atom from the J.attice). ssurned that the atomic bond enemy' runs in Footnote ~ It way a an inverse ratio to distance, -31~.~ Declassified in P` PY pp , . _. _ . art -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 contact ' aced , in the ribs of the contact surface des~.~n ~ ~ f~ ~.n the case of the an,,l~~ar ato~s~ th~.~ Tab7.a ~,2 shows t~lat, Imes Y~e~.aw that ;Cor the atQmS inside the e~~er ;y 1s two and throe t crystal.. '' e differences a.n the arnount of energy' for ~'ootr~?o,~, ~.hes f atoms increase with the iilcraase in the difi eren t eate,,ories o of the Forces oi' interaction between 'the compu~t,ation da.stance ossibl.e that the values o:E Q, computed atoms. :fit ~s~ trlere.Corc, p neater mobility a'tams, are somewhat hic;h. by 'able 1~2 ~. or the ?; for a rough computation of the enemy of li r om now on, atoms we will assume the values of act~.vat~.on for d~.fferent ~ ratio 'to the bond energy' ill the last colwnn Q as beinh ~.n d~.rect for atarns inside the crystal, Q = 100 per of 'fable I~2 (i.eo, in the internal. angle apexes, QBH = 97.7 per cent; for atoms . ~ ~ oms in the smooth free surface, Q I"l "` r~0~ per"' cent, for at 9~ percent; . t? for atoms, in the internal ante ribs, ~~~ Bl~i~ cen , ms in the extern~~.l ankle ribs, Q~ = I~9 per~? for the la.near ata ~~ ~oms iri .the exterzla:l ankle apexes, ~. = 33 cent; and for ~~he a t e atoms not in the free but in the contact sects percent). For th .~ ? surx'aces (and also at th? bo~xndaries of the bans oa. the par~~icl.e . a s in the presence of a different orienta. ~ra~.ns in compact met l ), . ? ~, seals the forces of bond are greater than ~ti.on of the ascula ti1n~, cry , less than inside the crystal ~Ience, if on the free surface, but Q,~y, then: surface ~.s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 La ~ us a~etn~. rye a c an ;~.amcra ~k~e a~ Cr;~a ta~.,s, itn wl~. G h there a~^~ N a~ams a~ :l.essez^ maba.~.a.~y wa,~;1a an aa~ra.va~,~,on er>,er~y ~~ and mob:~1,.~1~y er~er~y ~ ,and. mob~.l~.ty ~~~~. 2 ~''ha ra~ta~o o:~ the mabi:~ities in cor~.~'arrrlity with ~ormu:las (~~.~3~ and w~. th :~ortnula ~ ~~~f ~) ~ ' 1~. be assuming that ~` is th~+ same fa~~ bath cate,;aries a;~ moms) s ~n, ~ ~ " ~ . ~" ~' ~~I Let us d.esi~nate the number al' thy; lc;ss mobile atoms, d~.s tared in a ~~nit of time, by . ~' ,and the number o.~ atoms of .P h~.~;her mobility by ~~~, ~~.,. The ratio CS~~~~~)~ equalsa activat~.on MM ~ t ~ I~jy ~ I M'M can.~orm:l, ty ! (~ , '~~r _ f~1 ~. `~ ~~,~.~.. ~f thE>, rat:i.o ~'~~~,y ~- t , t'ne behavior and prn~e~?ta.es o:~ the metal are determined, principally, by the mare numerous ato~s off' ~~ z_ ~,rssar mob~a,l.ity. If the ratio "~~; ~,;ccordin . Ito Lan~muir~'120) ~~ , ~he enemy of ac~tivs. tian per ms,~;nitude of ~~~,. is adec~u, !Iti V +l ~ 4 t 7 r n t ~1)i 4! ri r ~ ~ h~r~ ~ t} ~'r ! s r r ! l,6R~d M , . ~ ~ d ~~4~t'iFY~jA~~ i~i~~~i rah l~Y7 ~ F R'ti4 4 "~ ~~ n~:'~}, ~~ k~~ ~~~~l~X 51 I ~~j''l~ }~ d~ f ',q~ d { i 1 ~`9 V ? r i {~` s.. ~',~ n h r was x,,000 tames less less than in the free surface. ' nation energy' of the metal atoms ~.nw `T'he values of the aet:~. heat ' ncide appro~i.mately with its Latent side the crystal muat coy. ~, nee with the data eontai.ned in the of evaparation. In ac,cor a of evapora_ tabulations (119), the Latent heat Ls,ndalt_~ernstein Let us accept er is 70,b00 calories per dram"atom. tion for coop of the a-~ as th.e value o:~ the activation enemy this amo~.lnt of he o~ the ' side the crystal. The s,c'tivation ener,;y copper atams ~.n durin ? contact surface (the activation enemy copper atoms ~n the d (g6~ s d ~ichar ans stallizatian of copper) as per Caolc the recry ? resence of little deformation and is 6b,000 calo~'les, ~.n the p etal and ~,~,000 calories in the 'presence coarse gain of them ~ ion and fine in:t.tial gain. 'T'he above of considerable deformat h at e nt ' s ener~'y d~-~~ers little from the late alue o~ tha. upper v from it t s .~ ~ ile the :lower value depar of evaporation far coppcx, wh n ti o d Mehl(? j) established the activa Anderson an bl y. nsidera co th of of activating; the ~~~:~~~ f alwninum atoms (the enemy ' o ergy en6 :] er" .. p to be 61,00 calories, at the gain of compact alum~.num) n ti o . pp calories at 24 percent elonga - -.~ ~. ?~~ ?ri~~ t.; on. and ~l, ~ rence in the ,~,eta.vatio~l e~~.~s.c~y, in the pxesel~u~ ~~ ~,,,,~, ~ ~1; f f e a es of deformation, is due to the fallowing;. ~.la d~.~f erent de,~re surface of the ~rain~ there are lower the contact surface Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-00039800020004001 9-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 . Aux f a ce) a s we~.l as ha.~her mobi:Li'~Y rnability atoms (tins~.d.e th.e ,~~ ~~ in ?hase on ?~hc~ aur~ace a~ voids). moms (anE;ular atoms and ~ ~, ~, mab~.'li.t~y. .r :formula (~1~~~) y ~t s,torns o.~ 1.es,~o a unit, o:~ ta.rr>c~, a.~ pe ~ ~x~eatcr mgbila.ty and W ~ moms a~ with an activa~laion erier~Y ~~,~ e ui~ ~~) ~ abandon ~~he paint of ~ activa'~ion ener~Y ~~ (~2 < 1 w~.th an ' ned by ~..ibriLUm, the observed formula activation (~l~/(~} e de ree of de:Corraati.on, ~~he number Uaith an increase a.n th ~ . , . ~ ) is increased, a.n the activa~ atoms off'. greater 7nob~.a.1 ty ( 2 a within the ere f orP, i s reduced (appxa~~.ima~tin~; ~ ti an r-.ne r ~;y, th esencr--, af' the u1?per J.ir~~.t, ~~l). :Limit, ~~, in The pr . ~ ^: of the copper" atants in the free sux va ~~.an enei k,Y `~h act~ . e n ~~he ra.?t;e off' shrin~~a~e o:~ the copper ~K~~ce, c~.am.pu~ted by ~~he ~;rawth .~ the baking ter~tpe;rature, ran;e5 ~`rom powder with th.e increase in ~ e og this = s er ~;rarn-~atom~ ~'he 1.esse~~ vat, z ~~,0aa to ~.a,00a c~.l.or~.e p ?~ 'des with the activatia~~l ener~Y o~ enemy range practically ~,o.t.nc~. t,ed in con:~orrr~.~~y with Table ~.2 ulaz atoms Qy, carnpu the and 33 alories). ~'he ul~E`}er va;lue of the ~ ~~ ~ gyp, 60o x ioo ~ ~ 3, Sao ~ a er than the activation enemy a ~ range (~O,aaa ~-a~lories) is ~;re t s ,. ~ bap calor~.e ) s 70, boa x ~.9/loa .- 3d~, the Linear atoms,. ~,~, (~,~ ?? ' an energy of the sur:~ace atoms ~ ~ but is less tYran,the aeti.vaGa. in 00~' 1~9,~a0 calar.ies). ~ubsta.tut~.n~ 7a,baa ~ (7~~~~~ ,, Oa? -~ . _~, ,, , ~,__ ~,,.d~,~n.+,~ve ex~erimen~~~- va~.ues iar ~ (~.~,p ~ ~~p, ooa ..tune 27~ enemy ~~ ;~ is deterrr~. d,e~^ve that, at 3aoo the, mabi~.ity of the coppex' ~f I M Centigrade ~; (room temperaM atoms in the free ~~~~ u~? ~d~Ari ~~n(k. Jl~r~l~dj~w'J f~;.~t~.~r~yr{ ~f~~~ ~~il~~ ~V~ini rl I ~ 6 h ~ r F i~~ ~~ t ~I ~ -' .'~i~lt~{'~~~E~i~t~it4~'i~S~i~AFl'~'~~~,~(~~1{~~I ~{io,e,~'~t~~~~?.~lS~+,~~?,, A~~u to 4a. ~ ' ,R ~ '~?ffi Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 6 ~ r o 2~~o Cen~~,~xade) l0'"~'~ sux~aca is 101 to ~,q~ t~,rnea, at X00 K ~ 22 at 1000? K (.,~2r~o Centigrade) it a.s lG m~.ll~on to to 10 tames, ear the m~;ltin; p?int at 130? K (10~7a 100 billion t~.rl~es, and n , ' s 80 000 to 100 m~,llion tames greater than tho Cent~.~rade) ~.~ ~- ~ e eo ei^ atoms inside the cr,~rstal~ moba.la.ty of th pp a e same powdered capper in the case of whack the Letusbk ? ' ~ atoms inside tre particles to th.e hi~hwmability ratio of low-mob~.~.~.ty !~ `"~ ~ 10 000 (such a ratio actually e,~.sts atoms an the free surface ~~ ~ of ve coarse powders, for dine powders it is only in the case ~ this ratio and the above lower . 5ubstatutin~ in. formula (~1~/~} ,~z ~~ ~..`_' at 727? ~"' we derive that ratio N I indicated lesser values ~/~ , 00 and at 1077? 'Centa~rac~e it equals ~. ~Ience, Centigrade equals ~ 9 dered capper in baking; is de~,ermined by the the behavior of pow d orl~. ~ in the case of very coarse copper, at term surface atoms, an , ~ meltin7 ~ oint, the mobi~.ity of the atoms inside peratures near ~,he ..~ ? es also has a perceptible effect upon th.e bal~in~ pro the par ta. cl , cosy. 1 ze the deformation a.t various t,empe~^atuxes of Let us ana y stalline copper. The atoms in the surface off' the compact polycry , act surface) have a higher activation energy' and a ~ra~.ns (cant than the atoms in the free surface of the particles. lower r~.ob~l~.ty ~~- becomes less than unity ~ Hence the ratio ~ ~ ir. formula (~1~~~) before the melting point is attained. At room temperaw long ~. ?~it of the atoms is so low that it has na si~nifieance. pure a the mob~.l y ? .he mobility of the atoms affects deformation, by in- In hea?~~.n~, ~ henamena of creep (see paragraph 59}? When the tempera- ducin~ the p Lures are not too high, ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 : CI RDP82-00039 A- 8000200040019-6 _ _ ___ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,~ atoms in the graa.n suxfaces~ With a furtY~ex x~.se prin~ax ~.~.y by the , hti,. ratio n may become Less ~L?han unity, and a.ra temperature, 'the ' ~, flaw in a rnans~er similar to the flow o:e viscous the metal wa.~. ? ~ alnor ?hous bodies (pitch, glass) la.qua.ds and p r ouch the number o,I' surface atoms is ne?;ligible~ Thin, alth ~, the behavior of metals at high te~>pcratu,res is ,heir effect upon ' s e.Ef'ec~t is Further increased as a result of re- very great, ~'ha. ' n Zf for instance in heating, the linear dimen- c~rystalla,~at~.o , ~ ain increased twice, it means that, in anneal.in~; s:>.ons of the gr S of tote metal (no leas than 87 percent;} during aln~st all the a. tom ' intel~ral were located a~, the boundarJ.es of the a certa~.n t~.me ' se in temperature, the relative mobility of tl7e Wa.tYi a ra. s at first very rapidly, then at a slawFr rate. metal atoms Lncrease , t' a tens e,rature rise by 100 degrees, From 300 to Tn the case o p o to 127? Centigrade}, the mobility of the anguJ-ar 400 K (from 27 . ~ ~ r is increased 16,000 times; the mobility of the atom of coppe 8 million ti mes; the mobility o:~ the surface atoms, Linear atoms, 1 ? the rrtobility of 'the atoms inside the crystal, ~~0 million times, - 21 ~ W'th a :100o rise from 1000 to 1100? I{ (from 727 to J.0 t~.mes. ~. the mobility of the anuJ-ar atoms is increased ~27? ~eTltl,~,rade} ~ ? the mobility of the linear atoms, ~..8 times the three times' ? ~ surface atoms, 9.~ t,J-Hies; and the mobi~.~.ty of the mob~.lity of tYt.e atoms inside the crystal, 2~ times. -~ 't'he mobility values are computed by the values of kootnote. energy activations as based. oar Fable 11.2. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 he mabi~~.ty of the surface :layer of stoma is sa ;teat T m ~,(1~3) cuns~.de~~s ~,t to be a semi~.iquid substance and that Vol. e ~ ~ ~'~) believes ~.~ is and adsorbed ~as~ The d~,f~'eren~ce in. ~renka~. a ion enex~' of ?~he a,tams disposed at different p~.aces in the ac tiv t ~Y and inside the copper' crystal lies ws,thin the rar~~e of the surface to i' 40Q calories per ~ram~atom, It is considerably 20,40 ~ , ea^ whicri .ex, than the amount of hest xequ~-~'ed to rne].~L copy great is 3200 calories). Let at same temperature `~' ~ the mobility of aYi angular ~ y ual to the mobility of an atom inside the crystal at the atom be eq .re of melting. This equality can be expressed by fo~u~-a: temperate ,,~ ~~~~~ ~~~ -re Q is the activation enemy of the atom inside the whc crystal; i s the activation enemy' of the an~~:~sr atom; T is the absolute melting; point of the me~~-; n.~ ~' i5 the temperature c'e~,uivalent~t to the me~ltin~; y paint for the angular atom, It follows from formula ~~~.~7) than ~, ~~ . ~"~,~ ~ ~ This formula ~~1~~4) and Table ~2 make it passible to com- the e uivalent temperatures of melting far the various atoms pate q they petal. Whey constitute 33 percent of the absolute melting of ~ oint in. the case of.' the angular atoms; 70.E percent in the case P : surface atoms these values are rather underestimates than oi' the ? ~ Z is ossible that, the temperature threshold of overest~.mate~). t p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ !'~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 din to B~Ghv'a~', i~ ~Q to ~.4 per c sta~,li~ation, wha.ch~ acco~ re ~y ~ uefacti,on~~ oi' the tin point, is duQ to the "l~q cent of thQ met ~ e ted baking tem~acraw ineax atoms ? 'rho ~;enexal~.y acc p angular and ~. awdex m.eM re of recrystall~.~,ation a:~ the p Lure (eq'ua~. to the temperatu r aa,nt) can also be exp;~ained ~.~ about ''ZO percent of the melta?n~ P tat. article s~ into a 1ic~uid i~1.on 0:~ the surface layer of .p by the trans state. Sti i~.ated bye ?b~.. C Deformation afp,,,.a.: t 1~I t "~."5 ?`~ ~,,,,,,,,~......~ ~, tam5 i.n in the process of h~,ating is 'the movement of atoms accurr ~ t e s t es of deformation. }3y the yP avoidably tied in with ~ariou yp i~,ded un atoms these deformations can be of the displacement of. the ~ sible ? By the volume of the s true into reversible and non-rover .n t'ney can hick the deformat~.ons are t~.ed ~ ~ tux?a.l element, W1 th w classified into three categories: be sta,lline lath. the growth. of (1) ?~ ~~ n o.f cr ~ ~.n and their diminution w7.th cool. ~, its parameters with heating, the ~~w.~,~ n of the lattice type (f'or instance, the reconstruct~.o of deformation, in the case of ? 2 h~. s type transformation in lron). le i?c~, aclically considered as revers~.b , r compact metal, ca.~ e p elal wi7.l revert to its initial that, in coaling, the heated, m stale, . slallites, which is manifests in (~,) ? De~al~.ar,.~.~.. ~. the cry -~ the atoms from some of the crYs'" non-reversible displacement of the ~ occur ' s onto others. the displacement mat t~1J.ine lattice junct~-on as well as from some crystallites ' nsid.e the individual crystallites, ositian 1 and the lisp is deformation is non-reversible, onto others. Th Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o,C' atoms, a~~a3,ned dur~,np~ tha haat~,ng process, rema~,ns afte~^ cooa.~.n~4 ~~'he remova'~. of ~.at~a:ce d~.start~,ons and resa.d~ual stressas, induced by the effect off' ca~.c~.-harden?~.n~, a,s a~,so 1,a.nked to the dei'armation of the crystal~.ites. (3) ~ ~eformatian o~'h,~ c~',~,ta~.~.~.te can~J,ornerat~~ `~h~ non?reversib7,e displacement of tllca atams is usual.~,y tied in not; only w:i.th the deformation of the er~rstallites, but a~,sa with their reciprocal displacement, res~a~.tinn ire the non?reversible deformation of the conP;lomerate of crystallites throukr;hout the entire volume change in porosity, buckling) The heatinn of metals to tcr~tperatures approximately 20 per- cent from their absolute r?elting pc~:i,nt is l.~nked only to the re- versible deformations of the lattid~; and the body subjected to heating (expansion in heating, shrinkage in cooling). At hi ;her temperatures, The increased mobility of the atoms, in addition to the reversible deformations of the :lattice and volume, results in non-~reversib~.e changes of properties (re- gression or repose}, af' magnitude and form of structural. elements caused by surface tension}, of the f.'orn't and volume of the entire body (bucklinf, a change in the state of the sur.~'ace, a change in density}. ~~, Regression and ~:e ~a:l.lizatian inctls The cold deformation in campact metals is tied in with the accumulation of excess ener~~ (er~ual to the work expended far non-revez?sibJ.e defarmatian), the formation of residual stz^esses, the increase in strength and hardness. With. regards to this~y compact Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ? ~ dual. gains. It is these disp~.acements tx~at re~ sa.de the ~,nda.vi ~ s aion in the removal off' lattice d~,stortions, s~u7.t, during refire , ' al stresses, in detouphen~,n~, a.n the in the absarpt~.on o~C resa.du . it and in the lib?:ration off' the enemy of increase of plastic Y~ game phenomena, l.n the apinian of the authox, call deformat~.on~ ~? an increase, during xe~ression, of the a.nte~^~ranu- alsa ~test~..ty to r~'he tem- increase in electrical randucta.vity). lar contact (the ins of re~ressi.on is diminished considerably perature of the be~~.nn r, r o~ de formation. xn the ap~.nion of with the growth in the de~,ree r is linked primarily to the increase in the the author, the lane ?-mobility' atoms as a result of the reduc~ian number of thc, max~.mum urin the cold. dei'armation (~;Para~raph ~3, in size a:E 'the ~ra~.n d ~; ' th,e gain is reduced in size ten times, the Table ~.3} ? Thus, ~f h e rriax~.mum-m~obilzty atoms ~.s increased; in the sur- number of th s~ in the ribs, 1Q0 times; and in the angle apexes, ;dace, 10 t~.me 4 a.ooo times. Bochvar(14'16) still hi ;her temperatures (as eSta,bla.shed by At ' ~h.in 3d --~ 1~~ percent of their absolute melting for pure metals wa.t :' the atoms is increased to such a degree that; po~,n~t,), the moba.l~.ty o~ ne cr stallite into another, 'I'h~.s process is they pa~;s from o y ~,ization. Recrystalli7~ation is linked to the know~~ as recrystal residual, stresses (final detoughening) and to f~,nal removal. of ~ ?n The laws of recrystallization of compact th,e growth of the ,,ray. . metals are basically reduced to the ~ollowingw m erature of the beP;in~-n~ of ~'ecr~'etaliizatian (l), The to p the increase in ~~,he degree of deformation. In is diminished with the author, this is primarily linked to the increase the oplna.on of Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' the number of rnob~,~,e moms as a result a~ the reducta.on a,n the ~,n site o~ the ~ra~.~n dux~,n~; the cald~ de~'armat~.on, ~ . ~ Cook and. R~.chards~ 86) is da.rni.nished wa.th the sa.ze o~ the ~raa.n, ~'hus~ ab~iahed that the recrysta.lla~zation o:~ pure copper witYi a ~raa.n est sa.ze a:Cter deformation oi' :less than 0,8 micron was be~innin~ al- read at room temperature equal to 22 pcrCent of. the absolute y melting, point, (3), The size of the gain after recrystalli2ation, a t pre' determined temperature and time~la~, is diminished with the degree off' deformation. (~,}o The rate of the isother~tic ~;rawth of the ~ra.in with. time is rapidly diminished and drops practically to zero already a~'ter a time-lad; of several hours, (~). With the increase in temperature9 the rate of growth and the ultimate size of the grain are increased. Let us analyze the contact bui~ween a small and a lame gain (Figure 8~), l~lthou~h the number of surface atoms in can- tact is exactly the same in both, the 1ar~e and the small gain, the number off' hiUher mobility atoms in 'the ribs and in the angle a exec, is much ~rFater in the small ~ra,in. '~'herefore~ a greater p number of atoms wall pass from the small gain into the lame one in a unit of Mime than the other way around, at the expense off' the difference in the number of the max~.mum-mobility linear and an~u- lar atoms and the differences in mobility as between these ac:~ive atoms and the remainder of the sur:~ace atoms. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for R py pp elease 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ The temperature off'' the be~a.nna.n~ of recrystal~.i~at~.on ~} Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'ha.a opinion can be substanta.ated by tha ~'indin~;~ off' ~'ammann~ 6C~) r ~n az'der to obtain confirmation of the correctness ' s thear an the braking ~~,~?ect of ad~~i.xtux~s, '~'am~nann studa.ed of ha. Y kinetics a:~ the growth of ~;ra?~.n~ His experiments showed that the he nui~tber o.~ ~xains h per area unit a:~ the: microslide was varya.n~; t ' th the tame of arinealin~ ~ , or canformantly with an equilatex~a~. wa. hyperbola; where k ~ constant, or canfarmantly with anon-equilateral. hyperbola Where k ~~, b are constants. The number of grains runs in an 'inverse ra pia to their cross ' the :Linear value ~ , so section, in othEr words, to the square of ~ ~. ~ P ~;`" ~ubstitutin~ into formulas Cab/1) and (5h/2 ,the th.a t ~ ~ I. ~ we ca.erive in the case of the equilatera]. hyper- above va,l.ue v~1 , 13y dif:Eerentiatin~ formu:La (;~/3), we derive: Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 heoretically, far 'the rate of growth of 2'hus, we derived t formula (~6~5 ), which Tammann corn~~uted em- the gain, the same pirically. ate of growth diminishes even more rapid~ In most cases, the r active atoms ~~ at a more raps-d rate than Lion in the number of Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 `~ ' ~.n ~ormu~.a (~~~~) is the momen~a~' ~'he Qxpress~.on ~~ ~,he ~raa.nw Thus, ~.n a number of cases, ~.a.near rake o~ growth o.~ '~,~ ~ runs a.n an inverse ratio to the mean the rake of ~raw~h .~ ~"" la.near sire of ~rs,ins .his dete~nined not by all the surface But the rate of prowl active ones -- linear and an,ul.a~', and, atoms, but, by the X~ost Ct numerous ..- the linear atoms, Tn the first of all, by the moo ' thE; linear growth of the ;rain runs in simplest case, the rate of ? root of a fraction, the numerator of direct rat~.o to the square is the ? ~ fiber of Linear atoms, and the denominator wha. ch ~. s the nun - . s xn oth.er~ words, the rake off` the linear number of al.L atom . . y in a direct rats-o to the number off' linear growth of the ~ra~.n Funs e surface Moms, and in an inverse ratio atoms w~.th relat~.on to th ~ able ? ,,~., see ~~arapraph ~3, `~ ~.inear dimensi.ans of the praa.n ~ to the ,~r ~; t~, time (paz'tly because of the may^e rapid decrease in the n~? ~,~r n~~ annular atoms, in an inverse ratio to the square, d~lu A1V w ower of the linear dimensions; partly because of ~~~G +,~ ~t~he f~.rst p he rou hness of the surface and the drop in the c~il- diminution in t ~ durin growth, which also induces a reduc- trast of the pra~.n sa.ze ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~ vwer of ~n th?se cases, the rate of growth w~.~,h the ,~a.rs ~, p can be aharacter~izQd by ~'armu.~.a is sorr~e function of tirrl,e increasing wa,th the tirrlewla~? where ~'(~ ) n differentiating the ~~nmann formula for a non~equi~ ~Tpo lateral hyperbola ~~~/~.~)~ we derive: ~ ~~ .~ f '~ ~r~ ~ ~;f ression of the type of formula (~~/~). Thus, even in i.e., an exp ' , ase the au~Lhor' s thf,ory is confirmed by the ~:~aramann data. th~.s c Footnote. 1}uring the initial stage off' recrystallization, few rains the so-called centers, or nuclei,, grow at the where the ~ ~ he balance of the mass of gain fragments, the rate of expense of t ~ 7 r(, 11~~) i s rac tic ally c on- growth, as shown by recent works a p ant ~.'he theoretical computation in this case, as based on st also results in a practically constant rate of growth. Fable ~~3, ~+'or exam 1e if, at the beginning, th.e nucleus was ten tirrles ~ p ~ .ar~er than the other ,gain fragments, and then grew in size ~- ,~ 0 times while the sire of the gain fragments remained the lao, oo , Tt follows from formula (~6/6) that, at some predetermined site al' the grain, the rate of its isothermic gro~~~th becomes very ame the rate of Growth of the nucleus is increased only lol s , tirr1es, i.e., retrtains practically unchanged. T article admixtures, ~Jith higher ternpel^at~zres, mobility, 1.p?~ p ' si~n~_ficant and practicall,~ is discontinued ~r-;gardless of inter J.n r, > ~,he rate of migration of active atoms, is increased. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Ln recrysta~.lizat~.on~ it is rat always the case th~~t the J.ar~er gains are increased in size at the expense o:~ the sma:L~.er ones, as prawth a.Lso depends on the orientatiorx of the crystall.itesr 1~i:f'ferences in orientation are, in the firlaL analysis, :reduced to da,:~fe~^enc;as a,n the mabi~.~,?ty of the atoms. ~,et the bot~nda:ry o.~' a cr~~ ?s?~al with a simple square Lattice pass at an ankle ~~ ~~ ~ ~~] ?to the sicJ.e o.i'.' the square. ~~ccordi:n~ to Jamada ~ ~.~h) artd ~~renkel ~ (~~ ), such a bo~~ndazy cara be visualized a;~ a :Ladder, with the heiF;ht as the runs equa:l 'Lo the parameter off' la~t~l~ice a, and its mean length equal ?to a cot ~ (~'iure ~~). ~~:L~;ure 86. :Bound,ary between di.ffer~ntly orientated c.rysta~;s `t'he ratio o.L' the number o,t' the hi,~her-mobility atoms in the external ankles of the rums to the Lower-mobility atorcls along the length of the rurl;s, for such a "oounda~~r, equals tan ~ , ~,et such a crystal A abut with a crystal B ,for which ?~he baundary line passes along the side of the square (the ante between the boundary and the side ' : ~ ). At the baundary, from the side of crystal B, therE are more low~mabi:Lity atoms, and From the side of crystal A, there are more high-mabiLity acorns, }{az1Ce, more atoms will rni~;rate from A to B, per unit of tune, thal,l in t'rle op~aosi?Le direction, and I3 will brow at the expense of A. Uurina this ~;row~~h, the value of the an,;le CQ does not r, emain concatant. Since ~ Loaes more hi ;h-mobility than slaw-mobility atarns, the ratio of the num- ber of high mobility to the number o' low-mobility atoms, which is equal to tan ~ , is rapidly diminished. On the contrary, in Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '~'~' w s~ al ~ ~~ha.s rata.o ~s ir~creased~ ~'heref'orQ~ a~n~~.a ~~ e c ~' ~ ~ hs s~.ds of the square of cr~rs~r,a:L A ~.s tween the ba~,ndaxy and ~ ? d an,~~e ~,~~~'~ betwaen the boundary and the ~s,pid~.y d~,m~.n~.shed~ a~a a ? s ~~.ncraased and the growth off' D at the exw side ai' crystal. B ~ ~ ~ growth at ~.s retarded ~'he f~,na1. discanta.nuation ox +,~ pence o.~ ~ ' ~ :. Aces in orientat~.on, wa.~-1 actor where ~~he the expense of d~,xi~;re ~ ~ ua1 to becoares established at a new a1. an+,~.e~ eq bo~,~,darf ~'' ore 86) e ~Y ~~,rther ~rowtl1 (B at the (the do ,~ ted line in ~. ~ ,a is only possible at the expense of eY,pense of .~ or v~.ce vets ) ~ d~.ff'erences in the size o:C the gain, gyred metals, the change in the orientat~.on Tn the case of powd~ ? een ~ the particles, as a rule, precedes the of the boundaries betty 99) ~ 'shed Har'cer and Parker ( es ~bl~ visible ~ro~~rth of tr1e ara~.n. -' n of compact metals, the ma~r~.W that, d~ur,ina the recdstall~.zat:i.o ween the grain facets clzan~es, approaching tude of the angles be t in its limit, the value of 120?e a ~ ss of growth, the balrndaries of the gains are In thF, grace ,ed~ Tn the process, the hiher~mobility continuously bey-n~; d~-splac ?- ~r ' ~ o the internal layers, ;Lase their mobility, surface atoms, ~ett~.n~, i.r..t t internal atoms, fir.ldin~ themselves at a new arld the low~?mobtil~. ~' attain hihher mobility, etc. Thus, all 'boundary, on the contrary, ss of ex.chane of mobility, exchange of the time there is thc~ prate ds as if there were ~rakin~ place a continuous fluidity. xn other wor , ' 'anon of same and liquefaction of other atoms. process of sol~.d~.f~.c C th e this rocess xesu~-~ts in a reduction o: Tri the .final ~alys~. s, p ' ~h-~mabila.ty sur~'ace ~~~oms with greater kinett.c enemy, number of h~r~ ' ever in the form of the "latent heat of any t?,o a libera'~~ion of ~ tion" ~ The liberation of enex~y during recrysta.lr- mabili ty d~.minu Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ato (~~a) a as established by S ~.~.7ata.on ~ atoms axe in .99 ~ercen~, ?~ the. ow temp~axatuxes~ 9~ ~ th.e L~xaaess o~ At ~? ~.nto anc~ ~the'Y axe teat drawn a exs' ~~~, a~ "inacts.ve fund"' the internal ~ ~' ~ o~ a spz change, playa.ng the pax ? ex ~ anon transf o~'ans t~?s ;~1u~.~-tY ~,ec~sta~.7.~,~ ~ncxease in terrrperature ~ ~~i th an dt' ~dti into ~,workina ~~ t-deaa ~ amen. increase in .the ;~~,near .t~.me nth a two Fox 7.ns~tance ~ ~ erCen?t of a~.l. the a~,~ p least ;x,04(1. ^ Z~) ~ . ? e in~ the g~`a~-n, at a thxee~ ~~-m sions af. exchange' with awn into the ~~1,ui chi ~~ ~, toms are drawn atoms are dr ercen~, of all the ? rain d~~-ame ter, 9 6. ~ ~' cxease ~.n ~; e in ? cf the Sux;~ac .~ o~ Moms ~?lo,.~n-..~..._.-----~--' nduced b~ the Mo,,.~e-n -----~~-".~.~-~.. ~.~ ~,~ a~oT~5 ~x?m e ~'?~-'-"mat---?~"'.~---~?"' to the displacement a~.1.i'~ation is ~.~-eked ~ of the Recr~'st dic~ul.ar to the surface .. ~ to 1,n~to ano.ther~ perpen the surface of the one c~,~ys~J-~1 a~.on~~ so became dieplaCed the atoms, can a1 the ~`oxrfl of the ~rai,n, change' in ich is connected ,pith cr~etal.l.ites: wh and the entire meta].. gains to the at tempex'aturE'S close than sates be- '~,aYCtmann established of burnished p ?aJ.li2atian~ the 5ur~'ace a in of recr~~'s t thoroughly seating the sl~~?ng of two (l~0) ich n ~ h. The ante, at wh `Tar~mann and ~al~e come roag _,~ ~ n~; Gated by ? increased considerab~-Y a~ U~y .-- an es are due to the non- ~.s mv,.~Gw ch ~ aces bed'>~?rl~~ ?~ - ro~.matelY to .the tem b~,xzr~.shed me?~'l ~~ _. ~.,,~~~,na alp r~ ~ e displacement of atom~a rever,~.b1. . e of recrystall~.~atlon. y~~~~~ alone the surface of perat,ur r in heating, the metal.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 c;om.i~at~.on off' ~;empc~ratuxe~ a~s wha,ch ~,he non~? Tab~.o ~~ ~. s a ~ raversib~.e d.a.splacement off' atoms occur. nature of 'the F~e~innin~ of Displacemen~~ a 7'he ~cmpe ex ~ammann in Dees Centi;xade A som5 a,,,I?,,,,,,..,.,..,,.......-- Cu F~_~ N. ~ . Tem erasure a,t which angle of slip between p burnished plates increases ~tn eratuxe at which tubexc~.es appear on bur- Te p niched surface 1~0 1~,0 200 200 220 220 T m erasure as which she displacement off' ep ~'ns 200 3~0 X30 the gain boundaries be~a 'f'able h~ s~ f ace defortn~~tion begins at lowc~i? ~s seen from s th off' the gain. Tamrnann cansiders this temperatures than the ,brow ~' el to the tow Sensitivity of the methods phenomel Lon to be due en t~.r y is ls,cement of the ;rain bo~~ndaries. How of determination of the d P 'the au~t,hor, the displacement of atoms along every in the opinion ?~ n tai begins at lower temperatures than the the free surface of the re ntact sections of the surface of displacement of atoras athwart the co ores in the open sections of the surface have the gains ~ since the a t - e contact sections t see ,paragraph ~~) ? greater mobility than ~n th ? leaves are heated the displacement of the When than metal ? ~ The rate o.f buckling is rapidly increased atoms causes bucklan,,. a the increased mobility of 'the atoms, with .temperature, due t Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ann and ~oek~me ~~"~~} s Th~.a phenamonan was ut~,l~.~ad by '~amn- (13~) the deter~ninatian of s~u~'faae tens~.on ann and alsa Sava, for the ' 1 load was s,ppla.ed ca the palate ~ ~~ch hard metals. ~ tansa.ox the sux~'ace cens~.on~ buok:la.n~ stU~aped. value of tha load egl,~al double a,ch buckling; sets in, increases ra~~.d~ The cemperacure, a t wh metal leaf. In tests with fold leaf- ly with the thickness of the T ann and ~avai, it was osci,llatin~ between lsts, conducted by amm o ~~' xade far a thickness o.~ 0.1 micron and somewhat aver 200 Cent~.~ a thickness of 00~ micron. aucll a drop 600 co s~UQo Cenci rade far ..in~ with a reduction in the leaf thickw in the tempera~~re of buck./ ?h in the number of the araater mobility surM ness is due co the ;rawt . al ex la,~r~ation off' this phenomenon is riven race acorns. ~ more ,dorm p cem era~ture, the scren~th of the metal by Tammann and Soehme. With p ' ~?s surface tension, The s?tren~th of the drops morn rapidly than ~.1~ thicker leaf, while the value of surface me cal is greater a.n the ence equilibritiun between strength and sur? tension is the sam.e~ H ~ 't higher ' he case o:~ a. thick leaf, is establa.shed a , Face tens~.on, ~n c temperatures. as the transition ~.n anneala.n~ of lamer-ar Such phenomena also due to an increase in the mobility perlice ~.nto granular, are atoms and co the effect of surface tem~~-on. of the he ,Annealing of Compact Metals fig, Volumetric Chan es Dur~.n~~,~,,....~.,.....~..... ~~ ~ baum and Sturm (~a Fable ~~ below cites the data b,~ Kul ric as a resu:~t of anneals-n~ platinum wire. on the chanf7e in den, ~' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Heretofore we discussed the deform3~tion of heated metals Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a diameter of 1 millimeter 21.x.:136 21.~,22b 21.1~2~3 Chan e a.n ,Der~s~~~al1.awa.n~ ~Y~e A~nnealin~ of nlatinuni Wire (as pe~ 1'baum and ~~u'.c ~. 2 ~. ~. platinum w~.re cold-drawn ~ta Same as above after anneal~- in7 for 3 rr,inutes 21~~~~-31~ ~ 21.x.323 2~.~I.~32~. Pla~t~.num wire cold-drawn to 21.E;~81 21.I.~1~7 a diameter of 0.7 mill.a me hers Same as above after anneal- a for 3 minutes ~. nr~ 21.1~3~?4 21.!t31~ platinum wire cold-drawn to a daimeter of 0. ~. millimeter 21.1,1x.2 21. ~ 117 21,1.332 21,1131 Same as above white-heated far 3 minutes 21,1.~3U8 21o1~31Q 21.1317 It follows from Table ~~ that the poro~~ity of co~r~7act metals i5 reduced in annealing. The diminution in porasa.ty as a result ?f ,~ 8 C~4 heating was also noted in the worka of Tamrnann and Bredemeyer and atherso . Deformation in Heatinun~er the Effect of Eternal Forces ~? ~9 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ? ~ ~ a ~.r~texs,tamic Fa~^ces~ i~owave~~, the andox tha e~~ect aF a?n~c.xr~ 1 thA atoms a.n heat~.n~ also maniF~sts growth in the mabil.it~' o.~ d,~~ormation a.nduced b~y e~ternaJ. Forces. i~tselF in ~~ mena observed in ci,eFo~ation (par" The a~~re~;ate o~. pheno ? ~ etals under the eFFect of e~,ternal ticularl~y' slow de;~ormata.an) ox m . ~~ nduca.ve to the percept~,ble mab~.l.ity stxesses, at temperatarG~ ca /lawn as creep (t~s paragraph dis~ aF the atoms, has came 'to be k ? rou h tension) ~ '~.he basic charactera.s- cusses only deformat~.on th, a~tion can 'be reduced to the following. tics of such deform . of redetermined external. load, the (~,) ~ Under the effect p . to elastic or elastic and plastic metal. at ~'~-rst susta~,ns a momen ~' ted continuous Flow (creep) of the de f arena ti an. Then, a pr o'tra c ^-e in the fa.rst s~~,ge ~s F~.rst diw metal sets in. ~.he rate eF cx a p fcr same time at a continuous minimum m~.nished~ then susta~.ned ma~ni- it ma increase. Given an adequate n level, and, Finally, ~ ter a rnoxe F creep, the :latter may result aF tude of lead and rate o eriod by the ruptu~'e of the metal. or 'less protracted p is ra idly increased with temp~~rat~xre (~) , The rate of creep p ' s ~ artic,~.arly pranolznced durinf; the and load. Th'1-s ac cel.era~tion ~. A temperature of recrystallization, a attain a prede terlnined degree ay (~) ~ The Force requ~.red t 'ncreased with the rate of deFormation, deFormation is i and law temperatures, the Forma- (4) ? kith rapid deFormat~.on ? able ,rain deFor~natian is observed, inn of planes of slide and consider ~ t ' h teen eratures, the absence of sib-~-n ~~or slow dc:Eormation and hi, p ~~ K6e Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 defoxmat~.on off' ~xa~.ns, and o~ pprcept~b~.e . ,~ ~,s cl7aracte~z'~st~,c, a1a. ~', intxa~ ~,on and l.o~~ temp~:'~'attixros~ W~.th raps-d de~ox~r~a~ h ~em? ~~) ~ ;~loW de~'orr~lat~.on at ha.?; . ~ actur~~ is observed ne ~racM cxysta.~l~ne ~r ed to a.ntexcrystal. la. the c ?n'trax'Y ~ i s lank n from one type of ~racw p~;ratuxss, ?n rat.~rF, ?~' the .~rans~.t~o ohes~.on~ The tempe erdture o~ e~ua1 c tux' ~-n ~ ~ a s the temp ' na to the other ~s known , . stren;th) ~ and ~~ turn- ~ . ry stal..~,~,ne ual infra. anc~. ~.ntex' `'ry stallizar~on. x.e., a~ eq erature ?:E recrY . e s ~ th the minim~~ temp u~ual~-y Co~.nc~.d ,. ~ ed metals at low tempera. de~orma~~~-on o~ ~~-ne.~xa~.n (~) ~ the ces as compared to the es requires greater for true ?~ dew tures?and at r~~pid rat 1etal.s. 'Zhe revexse is :Lon o:~ coarse-gained n de~ormat eratures and slow rates, poi^ma~ion at ~-~h 1~emp hlb~ted ~" a metal is stron~l~y ~n The cold de~oxrnation ? coJ.d~hardenin~; ~ (~)? the metal. Prep-r~-nary ink the to~a~henin~; ?~ ~tl~.l~, at tempera~~ure5 dur a very percel tra~~''y ~acilitates creep on the C?n ua1 rahesion, ve the temperature of eq abo ,creep, with the phenomena ?~ better familiarization ~ ~~,~ ter(].l2) ~ ~'or a .' c.Les by Hanson ,Kan hox recommends the arty. ma,~~(9~) ~ Green. the aut and Hare (a~) Becker, H~~sten~el ~~~ Clark a'~rd Wha.te 9 `the T (123)? Chalmers, ~dinh ? 'arner(9~), McYeo~n (61) has been woad and ~ tals? by ~epsel' t~~Creep in Me only available book re rettably outdated. ~ non-reversible archers believe that .the The majority of the re5e extent by the . la'~ed to a considerable creep is st~pu This phenom- de:~?rtnation ~n the temperature of xe ct ? . , of the atoms induced by mob:Li~-t~ ~~3~- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 encan of crec~~p i~ ~reat~.,y, though not cornp~.etely, sim~.lar to the deformation flow o,E amorphous substances, such as glass, pitch, which essentially are ~,i~,uids off' very h~.gh va.saosity~ Tf creep is induced by the mabili~ty off' the atoms, a very considerable fract~.on of deformation must be due to the d~,splace~? meat of the greatest mob~.lity atoms in the surface of the grains, W~.th constant ternpc~rature and, load, the number of surface atom; dis~ placed in a unit of time is obviously irl da.rect ratio to the total number o' atoms at the boundaries off' the grains ? 'the participation in creep of the lower mab.~lity internal atoms, in all probability, talces place as a result of the following processes; (1), Fluidity exchange with ?the ,~!xrface a~tams Burin, ?the displacement o:E the grain boundaries, The number of atoms taping part in this process, at constant temperature and load, is in direct ratia to the total number of atoms at the grain boundaries. (2)o Accelerated mobility oi' several atomic layers nearest to the surface of the graing see Paragraph ~6), 'I'he number of these atoms dis~alaced in a unit off' time must also be in direct ratio to the nlamber of atoms at the grain boundariesr , (3), The mobility of the internal atoms -- the number of these atoms is (precisely to w~.thin fractions of a percent) almost :100 per- cent of the total number of atoms Q see Paragraph 51~., Table ~3) . ~s a result of this process, the rate of deforrrlation, at predetermined ~.oad and tem ~rature, can be eonsid,ered practically constant and not p de endent u~inn the nu~ber of a'tdms at the boundaries o:~ the grains. p ~.~~~`~~Y~ ~ ~~. 1~' I~I'fl ail ~,'fi~ '' I i~~'M f I~ ~~', ~t 11 ri ~i' i": ~~, 1}i i.~i.~h ~~~'~~1 I ~ !~i ~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019- PY pP _.. 6 ; J~'~1~ f Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~~ wa,tYa the abo~Te~ at co?~stant temperature and ~~, conforma. tY :Load; where ~ ~.s the rate of creep, c and c are constant coefficients; ~, ~ n is the number of internal atoms; l n is the number of atoms at the ,rain surfaces 2 " ~ h a recision to fractions of a percent) is con- ~ince ni (w~. t p ' direct ratio to the size of the specific gain s font, and n~ ti s ~.n s formula (~9/1) may be wr~.tten down as follawse surface , C59/~) ~,, a ca~~stant equal to the creep velocity where ~ m~anent induced by the inherent mobility of the co 1 ' nal atoms or, which is the same, the rate of a.nter s creep in a monocxy'stal; k is a constant coefficient; s is the size of the specific ;rain surface. us anal ze the process o:~ creep under constant ternpera? Let y tore and load .h first stage of creep the size of the specific Dura.n~ t e s in connection with the phenomena of reCrystal-" gain surface , reduced at first rapidly then slowly ('see Para~- lizatian, must be ~ are in confarrnity with formula (~9~2), the rate graph ~6), ~'heref , of creep must also. be decreased. -339 Declassified n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 tx~ote~ ~~'he process of reducta.on in the size off' the ~'aa ? ~ r~"arse ,rcaeeeds evan in ~~he absence a~' the apparent, speca.f~c ~u p ~' the , raa.n. ~:~ the actual surface off' the ~raa?n becomes ~rc~w Lh o ~ ~tnin eometrical dimensa.ons, no ~r~owth wi~,l be dis- reduced to see ~; ~ ? ~ ~ ~he s e~a.fa.c surface may be reduced, by hundreds of cern~.ba.e, but ~ P tames. ' ~ the second stake of creep, the reduction in the size Dur;~n~, cific surface is discontinued, and a.ts marynitude becomes of the spe ns~,nt (see ~'ara~;raph fib) . ~~~he ref ore, the rate of practa.cal,ly co s its minimum value and becomes practically constant, creep a~,~Lain t with formula (~y/~) ~ During; this s take of creep, iii conforma. y deformation off' specirnen~ with various gain sizes in- the rate of ' th the magnitude of the spec~a.:~t-c surface (wht-ch creases l:~nearly w~ or. tional to the gain diameter). ~'i~;ure 87, which is inversely prop ve rah lotted. by the author in accordance with the ex- ~.s a cur ~ p p . 7(123) relating to Lead with a varying perimental data by Mc~eow~ ~ f rain at room temperature and a load of Q.3~ kilogram s~.ze o ~ , millimeter shows a linear relationship as per :formula per square ither McKeown himself nor other researchers took Hate (~9/2)? Ne relationship. 't'he rate of creep, extrapolated with of th~.s simple the ra h in ~~i~;ure ~~s to apply to a monocrystal, is the aid o.f ~ p ' tel~ 16 times below that of a polyc~^ystal with a gain approx~,ma y 1 millimeter. ~~~hus, the atoms at the gain boundaries s]. Ze ?.f ~ ? a a neater part in the phenomena of ereEp than the inM may pl ~' ~ oms Under very hi,h temperatures, the dif~'erences in ternal at ? ? ions ato7as, are leveled off (see ~'ara~raph mobili~', as between van ? ~ ~ case that the term ks in f orrnula (~9/2) may be ~3) ~ ~.t be~.n~ the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ;F de~ormat~?an wa.~.~. nca~,~ dQpend on the d~,sre~;arded, and the rate o l~r,~iaznc~ter o~ ~;raa.n~ a. n th.e rate of creep and the spea~.~ic kryi~ur~l?, 'Tkle rat~.o betwee the I~1cK eown data l ~ e wi t ~ur~'ace (plotted by the au'~hor ~.n ac,c ordanc ~, e the actual. cross section of the :During the tha.rd s ~ , ?sh a5 a result of both shrinkage in. cimen begins to dim~.rl~. spe ~, ' rmation of Fissures, which for some 1^eason def orrnatic~n as well a,~ ~ o ? enou h with mobile a~om.so ~'hese Fis_ or other are not Filled Fast ~ oun_ st link of the chain, at 'the ~ra.~n b cures develop in the weake f the this process progresses as a result o daries. Once stagy^ted, ~ ion o? the remaining pax't of the cross sect increased load upon e of creep is accelerated, and the process the specimen, the ra t sta?~~-~.ine disin~,e~ration of the spec~.men, rr~ay lEad to tY~e intercry ~he ra~~e of creep in preliminary coldw `the aCCeleration in ~ stood in the light of the increased hardened specimens is eas~.ly undez bl e result of tou~he~i~-n~~ xt i;~ proba obility of the atoms as a m d treatment pauses a consa.derable increase that the preliminary col in the specific surface of the ~rains~ substa.nt~ially from their state under ~.ow atomic mobility da.Ffers nted out ire the previous text that the Tt was already poi noes under temperatures of perceptible state of crystalline substa Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a11cJ. s~tant (at a liven tE~npez~ature) eoe~h'icient, where k is a ran . ..~ o.~ ?the material, a.t being ~~he case tha'~ e qua. t o ?~h.e f l.u~. da. Y ha5e. ~~'hc ~'].uht phase is comprised by only mobi7.i?l~y non-~'1i.~I.d p r~act:i.ons o:f a percent) of th,e mater~.al on the sur- a small. part ( ~ to where ~l,ho hither mobility moms are. 7 t dace o:~ the cr~rsta~.:Li , , ~ there is a con;bhnuaus exchange o:~ state between be~.n~ the cage ghat ' material. At 1.ow temperatures, the intensity the fluid and non-~lu~.d Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ;1.~,~.na bad~.c~s are eorl aiderG~.b~y d~.~'.~e~Qn~t tampQ~'ature s ~ FZeatQd orys ~ ~h as b~,~~unlen, as~ha~.t, al'ld ~~.ass, wha~o~~ ;Crum araarphotis bod~.es, ~u er~~;anta,a],~.y are ~.~.c~u~.d~~ off' 1~~.~;h v:i.scas~,?l~y, s subs?laances a1"e hor~o~Qnaus, a.nd ~hea.~~ atams~ ~,mor~hou .. ~ ?~te same mobi~.~.~tiy, ~,rrespecta.ve of ~.ocata.arl. the rna~.n, have ~ de.~a.n~.~L~h temperature, ?~.he rate o:C de~'ornlat~.on Therefore, at a number o.I' moms d.a.splr~,ced per unit o~ time, runs ~ ~ i.. o ~ , i~hQ ' direct rata.o 1',a the externa:~ str~;ss , h.e. ~ a.n .~ ~~ wY1ere hs the viscosity o:~' the subs~ance~ ~- adistincthon to amorphal:i.s bathes, crystalline Tn caner and cons~.st, theareticai-~y spealcin~, bodies are hetero~eneaus ~t. ases"" a hi~her~-mob~.li~;y ~'~.uid phase and a lower a:L' twa Ah ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 anc~, ~,he behavior a~ the metal is of th~.s process ~s ne~~.a.~~.b~.ea a~~t aompr.sa.n~; 9~?9 percent of the supu~.ated by its nonM,fl~t.id p tem eratures, the above process is entire substance? At h~.~,h p hav~.or o~ the metal is deter~'tined rather ~.ntens~ve, and. the be ~ the properties of its f~.ua.d frac" to a considerable extent y enM riscas ~.ess than 0?:~ percent of the lion which usua:~~-y comp bodies, at ~.~ may be said that, in crys'~alline lire raaterial? ne rli~ib~.e number of s,~~face atoms con.. low temperatures, the ~, rer~ain~o~^ the a sort of revolving fund, whale the stitutes ~d? At h~.~;Y~ temperatures, same in.. atoms is the ~-nacta.ve .~~ lion. ? inactive fund is drawn into cireula, de f ir~i'Le part o ~ the he entire fund is a revolving fund. In amorphous substances t eature of heated metals, in eontradisr A characterastac f f ibstanees, is the va~x~iable magnitude o unction to amorphous sl ~,he value . tats. At a predetermined temperature, flua.d~.ty an me Fluidity runs a.n relate-an to two factor^s: of .~ er-mobility The change ~.n the number of the ha- C l~ atoms at the grain bourada~'ies? n the intensity of draws-n~ in the 1ow~ ~) m 't'he ehan~e ~- ~~? atoms into the fluidity exchange processp r~obalaty ' ~ ized ourse~.ves with the First of these ~e have fiama,la.ar the highest-mobility surface atoms is facfory? The nwnber of . Hence in isothe~~al heats-n~, a diminu~ din~.nished wa.th tame. ' a h 6) and cr ~sta.llization see Para~;r p ~ lion in the rates.af re y creep is observed with atime-la~? of fluid~.~~~' eYChan~ea m~,~ ~ornnc~ factor, the intensity tliv uv.r ??~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 dQpends ~roatly orr the rate a~ creep, and cansequentlya on tht~ load ~,et us analyse in more detail. this dcapendence :~'Qr Greep~ under constant temperature and constant size oi' the specific rain surface (i,ee, with constant number off' atoms in tha ~raa.n surf.'ace) ~j'he process off' creep is primarily a result off' displacement of the r~ia~.mum?moba.~..i.ty atoms in the ~;urf'ace off' the gains. TYd,s diSp~,aCeltl.ent may bas~.cally ~'O11a4J two routes ~ ~n the first case, the surf'a.ce atoms are passim from ~ra~.n to grain, it being the case that some number off' the sur~'ace atoms penetrate inside the ~rainw,and lose their mobility, with exactly the same number of internal atoms find.in~ their way to the surface arrd a.ttairiin~ mo~ bility. ~'hus, the intensity of this mobility exchange runs in direct ratio to the rate of displacement a~' the atoms, i.~e., to the rate of creep '~ . Tn the second case, the con;~act between some number a~ atoms at the msculatin~ surfaces is disr~~pted, The moba.li ty of the a tams in the :free part of the surf a ce i s greater than in the contact sections of sarneo Hence, the dis~ ruptiot~ of contact will increase the mobility off.' the discon~ nected atoms, and contact between them will. be renewed, while mobility will again diminish. This results in a dynamic equi~ librium w- the disruption of the contact induces an increase in the mobility of the atoms; tae increase in the mobility of the atoms leads to a "healing~up'~ of the initial contact; the t~heal~ in wup" of the contact, in turn, is manifested in the reduction of the mobility of the atoms to its initial value, and sa an. ~ N M ui~111~; t hi s praCeWV; the mnr~ l .ty of the suxface atoms them selves is [furthers increased. `phis increase is in direct .ratio ,, " , ed in Part Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 , , '~ ~, ~~ ' ~ Declassifi _ _ _ _ ~,~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 to the numbex ~.f atoms, the contact between whacl~ as dasrupted an a unit of time a..e,, a~aan an direct ratio to the rate o~ creep ~. ~n both the far~st and the second cases, there as a d~.rect ratio betwean the nl~rtber of atoms, racaproca~.~y exchan~~,n~; mob~:~i~~y an a `unit of tame, and the rate of creep. ~,et a consent rate of creep ~ be establ~,shed in the pz^e- serlce of some external stress, l~ With an inc~^ease in stress by ~, C~~, the increment in the rate of creep ~~ equal,s the increment in the nt~~trer of atoms chanin~ mobility an a unit of tame. And this Latter increment as to be at the same tame directly prow portional to bath G~Q (campare with forar>ula (~q/i~) ), as wall as to the entire number of acorn's chan~an~; mobility an a unit o.f time9 z.. e., to the rate of creep ~ . Hence, where It w constant, By inte~ratir~~, we derive the Ludwik rule, where e is the base of natural loa.rithms; is the mobility of ato~~~s at zero load, or 4 (59/7 ) Q The Ludwik rule is effective at very low rates of creep, about l0"~ to 10"~ percent per hour. When rates of creep became higher, at becomes necessary to take anti account the effect of touhhenin~. The factor of tou~henin~ retards the rate of creep "'J Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ows h~.p~her, and ~.~ can 1a ~ ca;l~cu~.a to d when the value o~ ~ ~~ ~ .. art off' faxmu,~.s, (~9r/~'~ by b~ d~.va~d:~n~ the r~. ht hand ~ ~ne~ ~ ~ r~here ~ :constant rating formula ~`~9I9)~ we obtain: ~y ir7 tee (59/9) (59/:LO) ~ah,cre k ~ constant, of creep, on the contrary, it is necessa:r~y At very law rates izat~.on, and formula 0906) may need to take into account recrystaJ.l e, One such correction is the Kanter corrections o~ another tYP (l~.Z) formula ~ ~ ~I - .~ whence ~l ~ ~ f ~ ~ ~_ (~9/~~' ~""" ' s fl~u:idity at zero load? where k =constant, ~"~ ~- e;:~ lowest rates of creep, deformation ~~nally, at the v ~' at the e~'pense of only the atoms at the may take place entirely drawing rota circulation the internal gain boundaries. w~,thaut ~ of easing' in the process, of the mob~xl.~ty a;.toms, and w~.thaut ~.ncr ~a emselves. In such a case, the meta. the gain boundary atoms th ~ian in a manner sip-lar to.that of a homa- will sustaa.n defor~~at ~ oad w~.ll bstance and'..the rate of creep under 1 ~eneous amorphous su : Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ Da.~ormat~.c~n o:f sucks a ulas ~~9~3) and (~~/~) vary as per dorm e ?;~ a vary ;how rate o~ croe~p~ ?asa.b~.e on~.y in the ~pxesenc type ~s p rc~cese o:f moba.~.a.~y ea~- ~ ercept~.bly a.ncrea-~e the p which dons no p change betT~een tha atonlss ~~ one; th~.~,,,~, .n corr~n~on; and as ,9/~) and (;~/~~7 have ~'ormu~. ~,~ ,~ (a~nc~ the inverse '~o vara,able nature o~ f~1~d y ~ c reat~ that ~s the ~'lu~.d~.~'' ~.ncreasea ~ ,t ~ ). la~~ter ma,snitude of v~.scosa. y ~ the ~ ~.th increase in Load. Y :fluidity ~~i.th higher loads may Footnote The increase of -mobility erase in the number of h~.,;her a;1.so be expl.a~-ned by the' ~ncr tortin~ effect of the load as a result of the des surface atoms on th.e surface of the ~rai.n, up ~'~am :formula (~9/rl) " ~~ C~ ~ From formula (~9/l~) ~ .. ~ gram Formula (~9/12~~ ~ ~ . ~ ` f ,.,,..V ~ 4J /`} ~ ~, As ~ ( ~) ?n of data by Clark an,d White Table ~.6 below is a compilat~. . us temperatures, rates, and tin to creep in brasses at var~.o ~ rF~la ~ mina (~9I~-C) ~ ~ ~ ~ C x ~onen~ ~ in for loads. The value of e ~ the last corn ?f the table. uted by the author, are ~iv'en ~n camp to 2, decreas~.n~ with -^ were oscillating .:from 1l The values o:c r 1 era.tvxe, the di f fer- rature? wa~th the ~.~e in temp the rise in temps Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 . ~ twaen ?k~he int~~na7. and sur~aae tams ~.~ cnce ~.n 1~~~a mabl~.a.ty be ~ a yh ~ ~ ~~he~^e:~'a~e, the dot"Oxma~a.A~ a~ da.minished (see Pay air ~ ~~ dc~:~ormata.ar~ o~ an ~,mprphaus ~ubstar~ce, the metaa. appros.ch~s the ;1,0 is d~creased~ c;an~rer~~.n~,, in and ex anent ~ ~.n ;~o~~mula (~~~ ~ p . e meltan~; poin~~ to one, T.n tha.s ;~~.mit its l~.mi ~ va~.ue near ~h , s ~;ranst'armcd ~.nto ,formula (fig/3}, wYla.ch case ~ f prmula (~9~10~ ~- ., ~ ~ ~ ~ e:Earma~t~.an off' amorphous substances and is .the :t ormula .~o~ tna d viscous li p.~ilds tamed in 'fable 1~~, the intensity off' the ~y the data con exc;han~a between the atoms with tempera. ~row~l,h in the rnaba.la.ty ~'or ?7w22~l brass at ~~~? Centi~radef ture can be computed. .~. ercent axr~s er square millimeter, ~ ~ 10 p Q ~ 0~a1~ kilo~r p and the same :Load, the rate of per hour At 200? Centa.~zade ~ of ~orrnula ~ ~ ~ ~ } is lower creep, extrapolated by means a teal erature drop by 110o Centi- by billions of times ~ Honre, p intens~.ve drop in the mobility of grad in grade induces a very xcha,n~e between the atoms of the metals in the moba..L~-ty e . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~.r aae Ci '~r~SS 70-29-1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 :r?e~~ In ;~?'dSSe~ C - ~ ____._..--- ''I'E;r~Er Qt~1r c 1:~ of a~ per ~~G~k .. ~'C ~^ "1'LlU?1Gi Y- 1 mot, 's.p ra.F~1C~ lltr~~ - ~ I L~II.- ^n ~j =;~~i Ci iJZ1= G t~1 U reci:~ sUa_~~- 1 _'. =-~ ?C L, ~n ~.i r ~ ~ ~~u 1~~, o - r/sc ~~. "'~ l _- ~ ~.l ~4~~ J i~ L, U -~ - - r~er ugial~ li~~ ~~ ~J. ~~ ~OU ,r 31~ v. 1'~ V 3 ,~ u.l~~ ;~. 3~ ~~.Q t/ ? ~ ~1% L~ ., 3~ ~.I1~. ~~~~ ~1~G2 _,_ `f'C~1S1le llreutC..v~ y L ~ IJ r U r1.-~cy if lr C~~ Cr Pe~~ 10 Y ~ hoer uer riour per _r~o~~ ; ~e _______- 1,, ~.~.. 'v.~i~ ~ ~r i. ~.-' ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~; ~i ~~I j s < G~ _,_ ~' i ^ . G`'i',tr7i t; tJ ~ v tJ uc... .. ~, ~. _. v .,' .LO rrrc';i: ip n1r"'tll~e ~~v r- J- ~? n UG is ~i7~e:i G .. '`1 lo.ii~ l UG iJ1 ;~t~ c 1 E ~- ,~- L:.i111 _ _. ~ Lti .,-;:cc~ ~ -~~'~'~ nZ ter;;'" v.c~.i?l: ~. r. I T ~ ~'~ ~ ~TL, _f 'r~ -? I C Ill ~ ~ ~ `~ .~? Y C~?k e i;l~ U a.: .?J mac. 'vc 1"'~yLit,t cl ..~ ~. t ice, ~.,+1~i L11E FiG,.: E - ~-'- rr''1 ~ 1_~i_!~a~Ca'C~iL v' .. - _ _. - - - :_ n,._ ~_~ ,.. .. .x 1,.. vs.. ... +.. _.-~- :. . ~-_ .'.-rte ~~. ....T.., _ .._ mom. t.fx. ;.~ y.. ~~.... ... _. .. _. 6 .. ~ 'k .as _ ..r ... ~.. .... ,... . w:~ r .. .,. ._, 4 ... _ ... .....a rv .. ,., a .. ., +.. _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~, Bak~n ~~rawtY~ nd nu~~,,,?a,...~ ~;~ 6~. processes pccur~a.n ~ .-......?.~.-~ B aw~.n ~ ~a~ether and, the~l~xaw~.n~ o:~~' o~ ~Cantact aur~'acev The r ~ ....~ P.. ~.~~' of xocesses promotes thG growth of the ~n baking, ane gaup p xoGESSes ~ an the aantxaxy, ~.s i~- ? artic:~es, w~ii~.e another gaup of p p ? the dima.nution of the contact sections strumental gyn. .: ~ ? the ?rowth in the size of the The basic process ~.ea~~a.nr, to ~ ? 'n is the ma.~ration a~' the atoms to the contact surface ~.n bake, ~ ?~~~ of ' educed by the da.f ferences in the mab~.l~. y contact sect~.ons, i accom ?anied by ?the drawing together of the atoms. `phis process a.s p r rinka e. (~ see paragraph ~~ ~ the part~.cJ.e~, sh ~ ~ which seduce the size of the The opposite group of processe , ,~ ised of the absorption. of xesidual contact surface is primarily comer ed localization of shrinkage, and the in., utresses, the now-xeguJ..at ,~ tides ~ see Faracraphs 61~ .and b~) ? .his di.v~idua]. changes in the psr ~ d - ads to the d.rawin~; apart af. the partic.~.es an gaup of processes le the growth of d~mensians in ?baking. e are rocesses, which, depend.in~; on the can-? Fina~.].y, t~h.er p rawth of r 'r Flaw are, in some ca~3es, 1,inked. to th.c ~ dition~ of thei a -and the drawing to~~Cher of iJhe particles, the contact surface re .inked to the dim~.nution of 'the con- e while,. in other cases, they a he drawing apart of the particles.. tact surface and t ~ ,,,. the rowth or diminut.~on of ~he The end result of bakin,, ~ r o etheror apart of the. particles, contact surface, the drawing, t ~ rocesses that is predominant. depends on the group of p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 luaa, rocQSSSS~ conduc~.Ve ~a ~h~ growth each of the ~,nd~,v~.c p off' is a~,wa~'s ~.a,nked to the drawl.n~ to;ethez~ off' ?the contact surface' rse~. each af' the. inclividua7. processes cones "the part~.c~.e~~ Tnve ~', cvn~~aat sux~ace, always leads to duca,vs to the d~.m~,nu,tian of the tic~.es~ ~'IOW~'Ver, the ~~oint a.nterw the drawing apart of the par.. esu.1.t in a n~b~~1 o.f cases in action of all the processes maY r ~ ar- for instance; the drawing apart of the p such aphenomenon when, anied by some increase in contact, titles will nevertheless be accomp ~' bri uettes compressed from coarse powders, ~~~hus, in the baking; o~ ~ d reM dace between the particles may became increase , the contact ,~u Bless of ,the ~xowth of dimensions in bakin,;. far motion in powdered meta]. during the The processes of defor rou s and nat;by the result baking can be subdivided into .several. ~; p s -? ~ o ethez' or apart of t;l~:~e particles) m oftheir effect the drawing t ~ r ~ntiate def orrnations, induced: ~~;t is possible, for instance, to d~.~fe ~, a a great nurnber_ of par~ticlPS, from deforma.. by stresses e~.tend.~.n~, t ,, 'lit of ~;he atoms and 1.ocali7,in~; within Lions stipul~~ted by the mob~.y articl.est The displacements and the change the range of or~~ or two p . , ~ ' les evolved with the defal'cnatio~n of the in the dorm o:E the pax,~.e , ? ~ 'n the same mat~Zer as in c~mp~'eSSion= first type, may be class~.fied a. :~c the diagram in ~`i?;ure 29. The d7.splace~ i~P,, in accordance wit " a volu~ie and the farm of the particles, menu and the thanes ~.n the oi' the atoms, da not .fit into the diaram i~~duced by .the mobility ,' al ` ~'i ure 29: and are to be so~~'r~~;ated into a spec,a. presented ~.n ~; e ~to atomic mobilit~~e This .type of de:~arma.. type of def orr~lat~.on du in its turn, can be subdividod into, t~.on, ? . ~ ~~ ox~ ,~l.ntel~nal" changes in particles, in (l) ~ ~~ind~.v~.dual. lace within the limits of i1ad~:~ id'?al which case the atoms chanhe p r 4 hg.w Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _. _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s,n~e a.,n the fax~l of ~h~ paxt~.clas) part.c~.es (ch ;; , ~L~.ve" changes ~.n paxt~.cles, i.n C~)~ u~~texnal" a~ c,al].ec n ars fxom some part~.c"les ^nta the athexs w~~ich case the atar~,a p and valulne of tine par~.cl.es) ~ changes in the f o1^m ,, 'ace and Shrinkage as a Result o~ Contact. ~uxf ,., ~?. Gxo o.C the ,A,~c Moba.~~it, a~rra }Z ~~ (Fable ~2} that the degree of x1; was shown ~.n Par ,, p atorr~s depends pl1 their locat~.on, ~~'he atoms rnobili'~~~' of the surface ~ 11it ,o In ?he cantac~, sections poJsess minimum. ,rtob. Y in the inside of t , it then fola.ows; the moms at the the oxder of growing mab~..L~. ~Y9 the atoms irl t~Le depxessa.ons axed bo~uadar:~.es o.C the contact seCt7.on~, .. atoms in the J.evel sections, the stoma hol:~.ows of the sur.Cac,e, the - an :Le;~ moat?ries, and'in the xib~ of external ~ ~ in the ~aro~tuberances, pro e a exe s a.C the external an;;le s the atoms yn th p -he ~ro~ath of the contact surface and the `['he mechan:t.cs oft }, tides in ba)~in~; resolves itsea..f to the drawing; together of the par 'gyration of the atoms and chans;es in their ma~ Same p>:'JCBSa 0~ the mfr, a ligation. 7.'he .difference between re~ bility as occur in ~ ecrys ~ ~- ? ~:r ~ lists only in that, duxin; tY~e first c~~ystall7.zation and baka.n,~ con atu.res the atoms are displaced phase of ~a~c;ing, at lower ~tempe.r s the individual particles, along; their surfaces, principally within are displaced from ome ;raininto while in rerrystallizata.on they contact sections, However, dur~n~; regres- the o~~h.er and athwaxt the cr st. ,, 3 to ~o Centigrade, ' - that .this eval.ua~tion is lo~c~ and the kinetic It is possa.ble ' ~ ~ s be~~ween the acorns are .equal to the difference energy d~.fierence ins enemies or" activation (..see paragraph `between the correspond }, k~rike ~.,orma~n and Wulff .discovered that the: amo1~~t .thus, , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ex po~d~x w~~ ~~ea'tex ~h~n contai~~d ~n a ~inA cgpp of nnex~~~? ,~QO ~s,~,oxa.QS pax ' d a.n a coarse poWc~cx ~~' ~ the same canta~ne ~ram~atomo , a,~ ?the contact sur,~aGe ~ c7~ , de of the ~roT'~t}1 a.n the ;~i~e , ~~anr1~~. C~,J~ U~~J+e~ ? ~~~ n o:~ ~th~ fxee surface of the ,~ ;here is a da.ma.nut:to of the ~xow~th of the .:lace not on~.y as a resu:l.t diminuta.on Aces p er extG~nt, as a res~~tilt a~' ?'ona but, to an even great contact sec~,a. ~, Aram the pramantories o;~ ~th~ hi~her.mobilitY atoms the mi~ra't:~on ~ of s acc~mpan'.~ed by the :levela-n~ into the depressionsy wh~.ch ~ yes taking As a result of these praeesa of the sur:lace pra~':~.le articles under~oe~ chan~es~ the form of the p place in h.ea~in#;~ o:?f o:E' an~,~ulax ~~ ance recard.ed the rounding ~ESCh`891 ~ ,far ~,nat ~ U~.anw dared. fold. ~ .'then-s of e~Cep" V ~,~rticles in the heatinh o:~ pow p kirskiy~~l~~ to the effect . was ubl~.shed recently ~y Lu al ~,n~,erest p stals were transf owned ~.nto at bal~l~ :boxed .out from salt cry ' ~ ~ ed to the th a It may seem that the hec~ ta.n~ polyhedrons by heat~.n~,? atams c:>ince the s~ux:Cace of r in the nuntbex of 'the mab~.le ' .,~st ~.ncL ease I t m han the surface of the ball. the polyhedron is ~Teatex t bex o.~ ma,~.m1~n-mobility linear emembered, however, that the num be r ran is less than in the bail. ~ ~ ~ ar atoms a n. such a poi-~Jhed and an~u~. . , . e surf a ce atoms has pxobably total kinetic energy o~ th and that the diir~.nished in heating ? -~ cted :Eros the above that the ot,natee It can al'? be dada ine ~~,,,o.,~.....,...._... ~ stab, t in an amorphalzs but in a cry hi.#~her-mobility atar~s are no states tam erature is below that far of bakin a, the p in ; the be ~inn toms A,t Since the a izat?~-on (see Para;raph ~`~) ~ the se ttin~ in of crys tall than dace are of hi~he~, mob~.7 ~-~y he non-can~a.ct Sections of the su rature~ ].T1 ~ ilex to{~ppe e s of coma cit. ~Und~r the hi ~ the al;oms in the lac Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a~ shxinl~a~e and racr~'sca~.:~a.~ata.an run off' b~~lj.nis'n.ed with the degree of compressive reductianT and is, to a considerable extent, liquidated. wa.th the compressive reduction of the briquette to full compactness. Th? residual stresses increase the mobility of the atoms in the contact sections. a~' the suxface, where their inherent mobil~.ty is la~aer than that of the atoms in the free sec?tians of the sur- face. Thus,. the stressed. condition o.f the contact sections sort of srrtoothens nut the differences between the mobility of the substance. in -t,he places of contact fanned in compressx.an and the mobility of the SubstallCe in the remaining sections of the surface In then~w Declassified in P ,, art -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sed carp?~act seata.a~s, f a~m~ad ~.n ~bak a.~~, ~h~.a da~~'ferenc;e nan sties ,~ Hence the process o~ absax~ptian array :~~^taaq,uen~ly ds~ ~.,~ area der, a a of subst~.tu~t~.o~~ o:~' the prav~.aus comprossa,on cones ve~.ap by thew y a:c~s off' coz2tact farmed ~,n bak~.n~a ~'he tact sec~ta.ons wa.~h new p~. ? ssas ~.n some case, may' even pxamot~e the pxasence a~ res~.dua1 stye , ntacts at the expense o:f the greater: t~.~hten~.n~ farmat~.on of new ca of the part~.cl.es a;ainst each other. Tt can be computed by Formula (1~3~~} th~~t the linear expan~ ? resence of pr.acta.cally complete absorption o:f residual lion, ~.n the A ~'he total. lines.r - under the effect of the enta.re Group of processes, which growth a 'n~ a ~rt'of the particles, rarely attains a value promote the dr wl ,, p ercent, However, when fissures occur, its in excess of ~ to 6 p value may b~; as h~.~h as ~.~ .percent. stresses, may attain a value of 5 to l0 percents 61~, The Nan?Re~ulated ~,ocaliz,a,t~.on of,~~ nka e The henamena of shrinkage havE been treated in the litera- p awder meta,llur~y, r~ri'th the exception of the previous pub- ture of p (2'7) the author of this book, without relation to licata.ons by structural principles,. ? eas there az~e commonly known cases when the processes When inka e i,e, the drawing toUether of partilles, induce the of shr ~ , ~ cal disru ~tions and fissures, ~.. e ? , a local drawa.n~ formation of to P Far instance, in tale desiccation. of: bread, apart of part. clc. s ro bstances shrin.ka~;e is frequently accompanied cheese, clay, a.nd l~.ke su ~ nt fissuring irl clay, they. frequent~.y add said, by fisgurin~, `~'a preve ? 'shin shrinkage, -also reduces. the tendar~cy to t,~~a whi rh, by dim~ni ,.,3 ~9 ?? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ sha~r~ ~,~rpica~, ~a.s~ux~~.n; ~C~urx~,~~ ~oxmata.ozl a~ ~~ssures~ ~.~ur~, q ~, ar ~.~.l.aceous ~~~~, p~l.a~~e~, .and during the shrinkage o:~ asph~l ' ~ ~ re e vide the 7nater~.a:~ ~,ntca a.ndiv~.dua~ ~.a fa the ~.ike. The :C~~ssuze~ subd~, tl.a.ne r~sembl.e drains o~ cast meta~.? xe~;ions (~onas), which, ~.n ou ~ a.ons c~,n anl.y be ex~~l.aa.ned b;~' the ~'he ~ormata.on o~ such. a.sol.a,ted red he d~irec'tiar~ of shrinkage' o~ the par ;fact that in each off' them t s in- aS halt ..w moiecul~es) was oxientated, a ta.cl.es (a.n tree case o~ p ~~ the 2orle, ws in ~~'i~;ure 89 ~ t~~ward .the inter~,or o d~,catecl by t~~e arro at the boundaxies . ~ ' ~, e~:~metri.cal Center. The i'a.5sures ~oxrn as ~.~ ~.~,~ ~ - ~ shrinkage because of the movement of of these regions off' ~.solai,c.d , . ~ c the continuous zones in apposa.te d~.xe w the boundary' party-cles off' dons. ~ihur.e 89.x. Bi~ o:~ :'zonal. isol~.tion CUTISCJ.UUS~-~ 2.VOld1.n~ the use of the terms The authox i s ~t ~1 are great ;~avarites in meta:llo~raphY~ n center" and "nucleus , wh~.c e off' .lace the concept of re ~.on (ion ) and is substituting ~in thew p "center" and "nucleus" are adequ~.tely isolated, shrir~ka~e. Zhe terms J.a.zat~.on of so~.:i.difyin~; metal, recise for the descra.ption a~ crysl,al p rimer c~tal- of row~~. ~ra~.ns equals the number of p ~ wh~:r>. the number he use of these terms carries ~-ess precis~.on l,i~zation centers, Butt tire/ n mPna o~ ~?ecrystalli~ationa and ~,s en ~' when apps-a.ed to th.e phe rinka reo 'I~,e number off' shrinkage inapplicable to the ~pracess o~ sh ~ ual to the numbex of contact points between centers is essentialJ.y erg shrin.lca~e is localised about all .the-boon- all the particles, s~.nce _370 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ ~NI t4} Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s~cfi~~.o~n~ ~ Tha number Qf ~ucl~ "centers a ~'a~ dara.es of the contact ' ons wile ?~here a~rc~ an~,y ~~vera~. r~~ ~~~,~ure 8g mad' run a.nta b~.~.la, , ~~,ons of iso~.atec~ shr~.nka~e~ ' ' , mare detail we shall begin with a ~,et us ana~.y~e this a.r~ en the .:body unc~sroin~ bakin~;f far instances mast simple case, wh s a aor~t, of sin,~u:~ar rQ~ion of shrinkaf;~~ a cubea.et~ aanst~,tute r sses in. the indivica~ua:l. places of contact ~'he def ormat~.ons and acre r bein apart from the displaceztlent anc~ cannot be contempla~Led as ~ . ~ ~ il'lio~~as of other contact sections, In stresses a.n m~.ll~ons and b s and eff or?rs off' the individual are de'~ermined a crowds the movernent~ ' Free choice as by the r~;eneral pressure and '~Y~e not as much by his ' ch ~thc crowd manes. By the saute tokens in the dixectian in why. d metal the shrinkage and stress a~t each ~.~- bakin~ of a powdexe s he eneral resultant forces and dis~? dividual point depend on t ~ an billions of pazyticlesa EveY~ in the placements relat~.n~ tam ~ re ion of shrinlca~e and a perf ectly.. hpmo~ presence off' a s~.r~~le ~ ' n densit shrinl~a ~e cannot be uniform in all ~;eneous compressa.a y~ -, F' ure Q . f~' in each ind.ividua~. shrinkage nucleus, p~,aces {see ~.~ 9 ) r dis lacement shrinkages a,re directed toward the the s tre ~ s and p re will be greater a.n the center of the cubelet center, the pressu ? des. Hence the shrinkage will be at itsmaxi- than along ~.ts e ~ cubelet and its flat facets will became mum in th.e centez of the , concave ~Jee ~'i~ure 9Q,b~? Shrinka. e and growth; a, cubelct prior to bake-n~3 F 9a. ~ ~~ ` elet after sYirinka~e; c ? cubelet after `~xowt~+i, b , cub Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 A reverse pher~amenon :~s observed when tahe ~~r~a.c~.e~ ax~~ ' ~ s rases a~n this ca~a, axe da.rected from ~ha drawn a,part~ ~hc ~ ~ ra~~ he and, a~ the centar, 'the max,~mum dxawin~ center 'to i~he pe A rY, ' es occurs .and the f~,at i'acets of the oube~ apaxt of the parta.c~. y let become convex ~ see ~'a.~u.re 9~,c) r now to the various causes of ~'armation of Let us pays sever. al or many re~;a.ons of isolated shrinkage, `I'he causes a.~' sucrl isolation are frequently constituted ' ntez^nal stresses of compressa.on. Let us irr~.a;ine ~ a.s by the a. 'n ~i re ~l) that in a briquette, under the effect of in? shown a. ~ c tc~ndir~ to elongate it in a vertical direction, tarnal stre~se~ 'c or even submit;roscopic transverse lamellax hidden m~.croscop~. d ~'hese fissures divide the briquette .into fissures were evolve . ? r verse sli,rhtly curved layers. ~.'he internal a ser~.ea of trans ~ break the .bond between these layers. In turn, stresses tend to s ram.ote the same tyke of orientation for the these stresse p hrink.a e stresses in each isolated la~rer (~~~iglu'e 9l) ? As a s ~ suit the rocess of shrinkage still :Further isolates the se- re , p 'vidual la ers, as can 'rye seen in the .fracture in the baked da. y . shown in Figure 37. T'heref'ore, in a number of cases, the mold~.n~ ' den exfoliation of the briquette, [which occurred under care- h~.d s to the. surface and becarnes visible during the pz ess~.on J, come ' r ~5. ure 92) ? ~'he Separation of soap into shrs.rkp process of bak~.n~, ( ~ ~-:. - ~~s due to similar curies. 'T'he boundaries dew ale zones ~~`~,~ur~. 93) ine fissures) are easily discernible, since the t~,reen the zotles (f chemical `reacts.ons took place therer ~37~~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~Iryw/IM+IMM,NRM11 MYIMNM shra.n~a,;e stipulated by compression. ~'i~ure 9i~, '~ona~. ~,aQ~,slta.an of ~~ ~~-.~'~1 the fa,ssurin~ in a copper cube? Fa.~ure 92~ Hidden ex~'olialtian ~~ con. """...~. articles. (capper ore t com ressed ,from a pawder w~.th flat p le p z.me -.. becarrtin;~ va."~.b~-e after baka.n~. centra~,e sl ~ .~..__~__,__~,,,,,_.,....M,.M._M..~.....~.r,.~- in ~,he shrinkage of soapm ~ 12 times :~.~ur~93? insulation zones. the briquette may be subdivi.r3ed into conW In other cases, ~h such can~larrierate, in ba.kin~~~ lorneratea of particles. Lac, .~ . ' sola~tlecl shrinl~a~e x?~ian, ar~d it fre- usually constitutes an ~- shrinkage ~" that regardless of the crnsiderable quent~.y occurs ' ' n.ka e of the art~.cle he in~,vidual con~lamerates, the shra. s~.de t :Lace n a rowth in size ta.lces p ~ as a whole is ne~l~. ~-b1.e (or eve ~ , s as a result of non-unifoxm heat" T s a1.a ti on s ome tame s occur t, in the center of which the tem- in~. F'i~ure ql~ shows a cubed-e , - alan~rtheed~eso As a resua.t of the can- p~rature wa,s lo~rer? tha~.l ~ all shrinlra~e inky e alon.~; the. hFated edges and th,e sm siderable shr ~ farmed .~.. a sn_called "care1?. It in the cold een~ter, a .defect was e tem- this .type of de:E'ect, s~.nc;e, w~ien th is impossible to eliminate -373? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~c~r~ature ~~ ~qu~l~.~ec~~ the a~.~^aa~y car~so~.~.c~ated peripher~~. sayer - ~.~ nor, sus~ept~,~~.o to de~'armat~.or~ ~hd thea^~by ~.nh~b~.~ts the shrank? age of the cord ww+MYNMN~NM'MAN14hMPWt ~'irure 91~. The formation o:f a core w- ~~ 1~. times Finally, the process o.~' isol,ataon array develop as followa~ In indavadual nuclei or groups o:f nuclei' the process of shrinkage may be more intens~.ve than in other groups of nuclei (the presence of finer ~paz^ticles, local overheating variations in density, and the like) . 7.'he latent heat. off' atomic mobility will ,be 'labera~ted morE intensively in these nuclei, as a result of which the neigh- baring articlFS will heat up to a point somewhat :above. the general ~p level `T'his will lead to the intensifica~tian of shranlcage in th,e particles closest to the nucleus, and, consequently, to a further increase in the liberationaf the Latent heat a.f mobil~.ty, that will warm the subsequent layers of particles anc~., in rte turn, .in~ crease their shrank~,gea Thus, the isolated region, in which the shrinkage runs an a ~:la.rection predominantly toward the nucleus, keeps on g~owing~ The paz?tic].es at the boundaries of two regions diverge in opposite directions, resl~.ting an the foxrnation of boundary voids. The same process can be explained in a different rnann~r. if a greater shrinkage .occurred in some section, the latter will occupy a smal~.er volume. 1t being the case that the extreme par tides a:l' the sectaan wall pull along the particles of the next Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ;l,s,yar, wh~.ch, ~.n turn, w~,~.:~ ~~~, a~on~ ar~othe~ ~,aye~, etc, ~f the Aa~treme parta.c~,es c~~ the nua~~u~ w~,~,l nat p~~.~, a~,an~ the next la' er off' pa~t~.clas, a rare~'acta.,ran w~.~,l be :armed around the,: y nuc~,eus, ~s wi~,~. be peen from ~~,~a~;x~a~h 7~, shrinkage ~~ a ;~ow~` dered meta. attains its maximum ~.ntensity ~.n the p~,~ces o:C ~,nw~ est density. Hence, shrinkage is orientated toward such nuclei, aa,so in tha.s case . It shou~.d be no~l,ed that the micraphotos show very ra,re~.y the ~ resence of isolated re~;ians~ These .become visible only ire A the case of the appearance of botiu~da~~y fissures, or in the case when various chemical reactions have taken place in the above men- tioned reions or at their .boundaries, xt should also be remembered that the zones of isolated, shrinkage will not necessarily have a closed island-like ou~tline~ 'f heir outl~.ne may also resemblethat of ~ ~ eninsula, in so~T~e place isolated from other re~ians, and in A other. places closely united with them, Zt follows from the above. that the drawing; together of par- titles in same places is accompanied by the drawing apart of the latter ~n other places ~ Moreover, althou,~,h at first it may seem corrtpletel,y incredible, the process of shrinkage, as a result of the formation of these isolated regions, may even lead to a total growth in the dimensions of the body as a who;Lee T~et there be I4~'i~ure 95) in a metal three regions of shrinkage, There is an intensive shy?inka,e in the. extreme. ref;ions .~l and ,A,2, while there is no shrinkage in the central region :~. The directions of the resultant, forces o.f shrinkage are indicated in Figure 9~ by arrows.. The shrinka:/,e ~,n the regions A~ and ~~ ca:n then Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 4.r.._~..-----?---?-~- owth in the presence of zonal Dia~rani explaln~-n~ ~r isolation off' shrinka;eo echnolo~ the~~e are also note .that in other ~~-Elds o~ t Let us in the presence o~ non-homogeneous aces of a diminution a.n density her of c to et ? ce the nonwhamo;eneoti~.s drawing; ~ shrinka ~,e ? For in s tall , .smelted metal. leads to the ob?~ s during; the sol~,difa.cattion a.~ atom ? 'n~ of porous non-compact castin~s? ta~.n~. h ,~han~es in th. ~ar~ Iles b~ o ~nd.L dual -~.,?.~=~.-.'_`" ~. a h 6 there takes places, in ~s already discussed. in Para,,r p ~ c s of the trans:~er o.~ atoms :from some baking, alongside of the proces~e - ~ cta.ve changes in particles), - s into others (external or c;olJ.e particJ.e articles,. once wtl~.in the individual p also the trans~'e~? of subst< ~ their volume a change in their :farm ~ but not, ~,n which is limed to For instance, the Form of the (internal oi? :~,ndi. ~ ~.~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 oraus m?taa. uncl~x tYia e~f'ect conce~Ved a~' as the crscp a~n a ~ a~ b a ~a an ~ a compr~ssivs) ~arae~w but re~a? a~' these (a.n Ghis case, der tie e:E'~:ect o~ ~,orces a~ e seen From ~'i~;ure y5, ~.s also ~ cara b with the on:~y ex~ . de as the regions ~l and A~, the same ma~n~.tu the poxous m~ ~a~ are tens~.le. that the ~'o~ce~ act~.n~ ~u~pon cepta.on th a~' porous ved in ~a~;ian ~e 't'he stren~ Hence, creep is a,1.so eval ,ak~l lower than in campressa.an, . ~ in tenaion a.s always consa.dex y mcta~. ma ex- tulle o:C tensa.an a.n region ~ y rj'here:~ore, 'the resuJ.ta.na maP,n~ id A and 'there of carnpression ~.n regions ~~. a 2' ceed the ~na.~;n~tude general volume of the metal.. ' ll be some total. araw?th in the r, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ect of surface ten~~,on, ~e~a.dua~. a.rta.c~,es ch~,n~es under the of f p r 'and the on of part~.Cle ~ubd.~.va.sians stresses, recxystal7.a.~zat~, es may be ~~bda,v~,ded a.nty changes like ~ such ~.ncla.va.dual, char~~ . ,ton off' e~, of contact ~ ~uah as the canstra,c ;Localized at tha plat ' nta chan~e~ ct sec?~ians of the ~ur~.'ace) and ~. atoms to the conk dl localized at other places non-~re~u~.a to y . , ~.nd~.va.dual changes in the The nonwre~ulatedly lacaa.~.zed arance of compressive fog^ces arrd particles are linked to the appe d the the powdered metal in some spots, an the consal~.datian of ~ .. ?ion a:~ ?~he . ' le stresses and, the de~-conaoJ.a.dat, evalut~.on of tensa. s It may seem at first tha~~~ since. owdered metal a.n othex ..spot - , , ~, ~ is p of the tensile arrd wompressive stz esJe the total ma~n~. tulle . an~e in the powdered metal shou~.d she same, the total valumetra.c ch ~ ~ b2 t era hs read indicated., however (in Parar, p equal zero, ~e hone al y , ive in the of e uilibriwm of Forces, effect arrd b1~~) 9 ?th?at the laws a ~ :Lied olid body, cannot always be apA mechal~.cs of an absolutely s a ether of n a owdered metal, 'Ghe ~;,~-rawin~ t ~ to a powdered metal. x p orasity) always requires a much the particles (diminu?tior~ of p ,h of in a a~^t of the particles (~ra~rt greater force than the .draw ~ p deter `' induced by a pre Hence, an increase in porosity ~paros~.ty}. than a reduction in porosity under minc;d tensile force9 i5 ~reatex ce of the same ma~nitud~e In cony the effect of a compressive for the effect of non-x'e?,'~.latcdl.y with this, the overaJ.l tata~. of r~ect7.on ~r s ~. the particles will be an increase localizedindividual chan,,e .._ tsindividual isolatian'4. ~.n poros~.ty dia ram of the rowth iri porosity ~,~i~~,re qb below is a rou?h ~ ' divid.ual a.soldtion of the particlese as a result of the ~n -377 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,,.,,,, ~....,......,...... w.. ~ ~..,.. ~..,..... initial, part~.c~.es; ~:I: o the ind~.vidua~. change in pax gb, I~ the partic~.es, ~ rbo:~s par. ~~~-cue bourldar~es; ~~ ~._.... particle s~ubdivisian ~, boundaries; pores 66, Thermal ~;xpansion and Compression ~ aao as eleven years the author pointed to th.e unw A s lan,, ~, ' l.e therroa~, er,Eaansion in the baking of portanc~ of the reversa.b La].s~ ,.~ ~. powder me - a:L ex~ansian of the particles in hea~tin~ reads in The therm Z s to 'the f il~.in~ of the pores and to the ~ro~wth in a number of case :F~.ce ~~'he contact new~.y est,ab].ished in compression -tile contact sur , nat become discontinued a.n coo7,in~;e A~s a result f're~c~uently does .~ 'b1e rowth in the contact surface anda di- therc is a nan revers. s~ This process is of partieula.x? ~.mportance zgiTllltlOn In por0~~.ty. the contact surface of medium and coarse particle in the growth of r cal times ten microns and above)? powders (from eve rural exps.nsion is 1inlced to the ~ro~rth Tn same otl~ex~ cases, 'the diminution in the ma~;ni tulle o f the contact in poros~.~;y and the the baking of briquettes consolidated to .surface (for instance, ~n fua.l compactness . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _._ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The procass ?~" c~ooz.a.n,~; rr~y ~.nduce an a.ncreaso ~n ~~xc~s~,ty a.n the casa o.f metals w~.th isolatod zones off' shl^a,n~Ca,~~e, ~'ar ther bs.ka.n~; ~Gerrlpe~^atur~s in practical. use, the nonM~~e? vers~.ble linear shrinkage at ~r,ha expense of the thermal expar~sian in heat?in~; Cann?i, exceed :~ to 2 ~ercen~~, of ~~he z.nitial leri~th, and th.e volum~atric shra.nka~e, Z~ to ~ percent o.~' the ini ~;ial volume of the briquette. 6"l, The 1{~:~'fect of .~dmixt~t~res 7.'he content of admixtures, particularly surfacer admixtures, ~.n metal powdErs sometimes attains the value of 5 to 10 percent volumetrically, The principal admixtures, are .metal orLi.des, water, adsorbed and dissolved ~ases~ ~'urel~ rnechanicalcontaminations are less irnportant, Most; of the admixtures a~^e elimina ~~ed in bak'in~; e The evaporation of water sets in close to room temperature and. is completed at 150 to 200? ~enti~rade (th.e boiling point for the water contained in the surface axa.de capillara.es attains the level of 200? Centigrade, .and the ea.imina,tion o{' cherrd.ca.:Lly carabined water some~;irnes; requires .even a hi,,her temperature} ~ '1'he principal part off' the. adsorbed uses is volatilized- at 100 to .200? Centa.~~;.=~de~ ~j~he final elimination of the dissolved and chemically combined uses in vacuum heating occurs at considerably higher temperatures -~-~ above .the.. temperature of crystalli~ation~ ~3aking in a protective a~~mas- phere "(hydrogen, coal falling, etc.) may at times cause an increase in some adarlixtures. ~'he oxygen is elar~inated from the oxides during tie reduction by the protective at~noshpere, or during vac cum r~ ( 9 ~H~ ~ b i ~MI I !~ IPu :11~~ t?P~~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 bak~,np~, as a result off' ttlca c~~.ssoc~.~~l~a.on v:~ ~Ghe vx:idca ~nta the has and ~~hn metals `l'~1e reduc~Livn temperature, depend~~1;~ on the 'hype v~' mr~taa. and the physa.cs.~. chara.ctera.s~t:~cs v~' the powder, vsv~.~.~.ates witht.n the w~.ri.e ran~v :~rvm 2a percent tv vvex~ 'j~ par- cen~~ af' the absa:l.ut;c~ ma~.tin~; point v:~' ~t~ha me?~a:l.~ Oxa.d~s off' soma Metals, such as a~.umir~wn, ~;ener.aJ.],,y, carlnvt bc> recl.uced by cvn- vvnr~iona7, balc:i.n~;. Thy opinion, ~.dvancc;d by '~~^zebiatowsky~~'~1) ~ ~~hat the growth off' parosa.ty x.n baking is due 'to ~Lhe expanision e.~'~'ect o:[' the :Liberated k:;ases, is widespread irl the :l.i~l,eratu,re on powder me talJ.ur~y, The au~l,hox, on the contrs.ry, con~:,idcrs it necessary to Emphasize that Frequently (bu~1; not always) the ~c~nuxtures of oxygen a.nd wager promote a diminution in the porosity and an increase in the con~ract Burin; ~~he bakine; process. The negative e.f.':E'ect os oxic~es and othe,t~ adrnix~~ures prin- cipa;;l.:1y consists in the dirninu~l,ion of ~l;hc~ strength o,~ the bri.que~~tes. This ~'acil-i.ta~~es the b.r~eakin~ off' the contact bF;tween ~l,he particles thereby ~.cceleratir~~ the ef:l'ect off' the processes which reduce the ma~rlitude of the contact sur~'ace in bakinp~, A~t?, times, however, the presence a~' oxides and mail sure, an ~Lhe ca ntr~~r~y, will even increase the strength. of the briquettes, as, ~'or instance, in the case o:C the powders o:~ tungsten and herd. ~l.loys. :Cn these cases, ?the sur:Cs,ce oxidation layer of the ~particlos, raactin~ with ~~he moisture ai' air, Farms a sort a~' cement an. the type of clay, which rein~'arces the briquette, This... specifical~:~ is the r~a~on :for the practice, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ?,~ ar~~.~'~~~a~.~.y 1~u~~~d~.~~'~n~ ~a~m~~ rp~oxted to abroad, , pion wh~.G~ ~,~ sane rad~~-c~~~ed ~,eve~.s 'the opa. ~,n~thepra~sroomuptoap the ~'~'~ o~~ta.le ~as~s ~,s ~xeatly de~,x~,menta~- e~~ect off' the v ~~ .he xe.~atin~ to 'the a~li off, ~' der bx~,r~uettes are usua:~~.y .xa erated. The pares a.n .paw e ~~ es is hardly ~n excels of anc~ the pressure o:~ the ~;as ensile open. type s fir, am~a.ra, s on wa. th the t arr>, er' square cent;~met~r~ ~ ~ ousand l k~.lo~r ~ n the order of several th ideal compression stxesses, o .~ ect of the re s ~, n out e~ f are centimetex', the bul~,i ?~ kilorarris pex squ whezl there only a~n same.. spec~.a~. cases, aces can be pVerlooked. ~ ore5 at very high n~,iderable number a:f cloaec p is Formation of a ca ect of the uses should be the detrimental eff baking temperatures ~ tsken into account. of oxides and moisture ~.s a.see the negative effect. :Cn many. c ~ , , ion shrinkage and t~1eir. pos=~~t~:vQ ef:~cc~~ u} mor. e than compensated by dat~.on .a in l'ara~raph 10 that oxi . roT,~~th. ~t was. znent~-oncd :When contact ~; ~ the metal. . . en .the par. ~Licles of incr?ases the contact betwe ~ ~'~u11y hez7aetic~. container, which are not wders are stormed in p~ t'fle praceSS of Sets in, at room temperature, ally sealed, there ' ~ is due to tree effect o:F mo~.s?- weep the particJ.es, Whig ca~~sion bet C a continuou] Some time, ~Lhe powder become luxe anal air, and, a.~ter `thout supporting -~cold bakin~~,s which Janes, wi lumpy 'Ihe terra ~ r~ would be mare e cohesion Burin, c;ald..pxess~.n~,a~ reason, applies to th which is similar . e races ~7ust described, in lade, if ap,Pl~-ed to th p water p In oxide's a5 in clays 'n .the desiccation of clay. to shrinkage ~- rti.cles, ~'arrr>in; colloidal ~~ th the surf ace layer of .the pa sub redct5 wa. s er and mobil~.ty of the surface 1-ay , solutiansa incrc;asin~; the a ord.tion of the water, to d.eformat~.on. With the ev p ~ect~_n~ the :/.alter .~ron~. . r~ of substance from the nan u.rs a considerable trdn,~fer there occ n+art shril~ka~e and growth of the ~Cx. ~~.: . pact sections, accompanj-ed by .38~.w n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '~' se moohanics o:~ shr:i.nkarae az^~ v~xy sa.m~~~~x t~o the area, he an the mob~.la~ty oi' the atoms `~'hus~ e:~i'ect of temperature up in the ~ rc;sencc~ o.~ an s,dequate time lad at .these adma.xturesy A e room tamperat~.~re, promote an inorease in contar;t area. mer . re r~sin~ evaporation of the water and W~.th the tempera to ay (~~} -scribed rocess are accelerated Grube and 5chlecht theabove de p the electrical resistance o' n.tck?l in a observed a ha.~;h drop. in the ~tem erat~ure of 30? Centigrade (see hydrogen atmosphere at p ~~ Sara rah 70). pbvio~usly, the diminution in resistance '1 able ~1, ~ p r ced b' the growth of the contact between the p~,rtic:les. wa~~ ~.ndu Y 'resista~1ce was ~aarticu~l.~~r1y great at 100? Cenci ;rode 'l; he drop a.n a.~~x, under normal conditions) and somewhat (the boiling; point of w (1~9 ~ observed the teln~~erat~axe at al~aove that ~ammann and Mansur. a~ita~tor stops Burin; the heat~.n>7 and iirixin~ of powders wh~.ch the. ,, ~, s, . the metal powders in Tab~.e 1~g, as we.lwl (~'ab~.e 1~~ beJ.ow) . ~ or 1~. ' s of non-metal, powders, the temperature of the a~;i~- as for a ser~.e tato,r stop, wa;7 abo~x~t 1.30 to 1~0? Centi~radee Grube and Schlecht selves consider this temperature as the one, at whickl crysw them However Jones (27) maintains, and with ~al.l.izatian sets in, s that the temp~r~ture of the be~innin~ of recr~rstal- good reasonA fal.1 within such a narrow temperature range for 1iza~tion can Hardly ' et of i~ietal's ,( and non?NS~tetals). xn the opinion. the above vara. y or o:C this book, the onl-~,Y common property ~x aii these of .the ouch boiling oint of water in the eapi~.J.a~'a.es of substances ~.s -the ~ p surface 1a er (130 - 1~0? Cen~ta~~;rade), the o,~.di~ed Y r3V4. rr Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .far ~'awders wi~.th x't???~,i,,,,G~a ~'k~e `~emperatura off: th~~,A.,~?~'.~,a~toz^ 'tap ~~~- . M a.11a.~m~~~ex ~ as p~~ '~~ammann and l'~an~u~~.) ~a,amr~ter o~ Q ~ 3 I, M ~~~ Metal Melting; poa.n~; ~ a ~ 0:~ metal at C Tempest;ure .cad o, a.fitator stop in C ~~~ n Ta 131 ~. 138 . i n Cadm~..u d Lea 321, 327 1~.9 ~ 1~2 138 ~ 7.11.1. l~~9 ~~ nc 1~1 ~ ~~~ . 126 w 13~ Antimony 632 ~ l~f~ .. 11.8 - Silver 9 Copper 1081.. 1 11.11. ~'~~ Cobalt 1 ~~ ~ 1.26' ~ 131 iron ~3 . med a~t suc~l low temperatures under the e~'~'ect The contact .for. ' rture is not purely metallic, but, is ef~ec~ted o.f o~c-ides and mo~,~ throl~;h a layer of admirt~ures. ' a rotective atmosphere under h~-;;her tem" W~. ~h baka.n?, ~.n ~ oxa.des be~ins~ Pryor. instance, metal pera~tures, the reduct~.on of the ' atmos here of. hydro5en, are reduced as per the re- o~t.des, ~.n an p action belaws Me0 * H2 ~ Me -~ H2Q e reduct~.an` off' the oxide powder is determined The rate o.~ th not as much by the rate o:~' -the above ~,-eaC tian LtsQ1 f~ as by the.: ' ed ~'or .the diffusion o.~ the hydro~e~n_ and the oxy~env t~.me ~equ~.~' , x.383.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 r ~ the rate a~' the xeduct~~.ai1 w~.17. a.narea~r~ ~reat'7.Y wa~th the 1~e zc , ra~.on and parasa~~ty off' the substance, and wa.th the de~rae o:~ d.~~pe ~l~.c;h true xeduct ion a,s a~carnplished~ Thus, ~,n ternperatu,>^e at w ante with Benton ~,nd White, ha.~l~~7,;y c~.spe~^sed cup~aor o;~ides accord ' ~ a, Ge o.~ 0 ~ ~, macron wexc x~dt~~ ed a.n hydrogen a~' with a part~.c.le s very hih purity a~t the :~ollown~ ra~t~; at 7.70? 0 ~,n l our at 1~0? C a.n ~.~ hours at :1300 ~ an 9 days at 11~? .~ in 10 da~,Ys Ve dine n~.c~el oxide p?wdexs were almost Fully reduced, ry as er ~ti.s~ and Steve/?, at 300?~% within 1~ houxs, p ac~tical. conditions, with a time ~l a~ o:~ about 3a Under pr . on :~^obabl exerts a perceptible e:f~'ec"t, d.ependin~ m~.nute s, re duc t~. p ~Y ' , owder already at bak~n~ temperatures on 'the order an the type of. p , a:G' 2 to 35 percent a:~ the abs?lute rneltin~ point of the metal. The elima.nati on of the :last remaining; oxygen usually takes at much. higher temperatures. -_ an the oxdex o:C ~ to `t~ pex~ place r ~ t~ melting point of th.e r~~etal, ~~'he reduction ?~' Cent 0~: the abaol z ~ nsol.idated iron oxides Yee 0 runs its complete couxse in a short co 3 ~~, .time ?nly at 7.100? Ceriti~xade (about 70 percent o:~ the absolute meltin;~ point) . Accordina to Leyter and Roberts, and also to Vant~i~7.ev, the ~~ ~n~ Can be eliminated rapidly only at 2000? o:x~.dati?n ~~,lm on tun;.,, ten Odr,+~, 7xadr~ ! s.t~out 60 pe,c'cen"t ofi the melt~.n~ point) . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The atoms in the r~,bs and an~~,ea ~ of the cry~ta~s] have hi Sher inherent mab~.~.:i~ty (see Para,~raph a~~) . The meta. atoms in the oxides are da.sposed .in a~?i entire~.y d.~.fferent ary~~ta~;la.ne :l.atta.cethan in the m??~~,~.. ~lence, th.e atoms of a me~ta~. Gust reM duced are a.n a par~ticular~.y nc~n~stablQ ,~ta~e, have a minimum acti- ~va,~tion ener~'y Q ,close to zero, and have maximum mobility, These atoms will have a .tendency for a transition rota a state of minit~tum molaility, to ?Lhe can?tact sections. r~'he number of such atarns with activated mobility is considerably in excess of the number of a].l the surface atoms and attains the value of several percent of the total number of atoms, 't'he mabila.ty o,f 1;,hese atoms is `activated only at the mare. of reduction ~~in sta?tu nascendi). However, the products of reduction (in the case of reduction in a hydrogen a~nasphere, it is water) are not immediately eliminated from the baltin~; atmosphereo ac t:a.on of reduction rfhe rew Me0 ~ H~ ~ Me ?~ H24 is reversible, In moisture~can~tainin~ hydro en there exist local supersatura~tians of water vapors, '..for whic~l thr react:i.on runs f~oxn ri~h?t to left 't'his is particularly p~~onounced at the surface of the particles, since the ;rletal is more permeable to hydrogen than i~t is to water. Therefore, the metal acts as a semipermeable parti- tion, and, at the surface of the particles, the atmosphP:re is en- riched by water vapors, With the thermal motion of the molecules of the water and the hydrogen, the supersaturation spots are cones stantly shiYt~.na, ~~iore;~c~~?~:, ~~~~ sur~.~ce a~olna are ~U.UJGVtGd v ai,~= tinuously ?ta intermittent oxidation and: reduction, with repeat ..~g5_ _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 acta.vata.an of mobi~.a.?ty at the moment of oa~ida?~a,an and at the r~oment of r~duct~.on, which procoss promotes the fal~ow~.n~;; (1.~, ~,n a.ncrc~as~ ~.n tha rage of shxinka,~e and of the growth a~' contact a't the pr~d,et~rminec~ baking t~mpe~a?~ure, or a roducta.on in the baking temperature requ~,red for the attainment of the prey determined rate of sh?rt.nkage and of can?tact ~~^ow~th at the expense of the activation of the moba.lity of the surface atoms, (?_), An increase in the contact surface at the expense o:L' 'the increase in the volume oi' the matera.al at the momant of oxidation; with reduction, the, degree of con'tac~t attained is preserved, The successive oxidation and r~duct~.on increase the: spe- cific surface of tho particles, contributing thereby to the increase in the rate of s~lrinkage (see ~'aragraph r13~ Thus, the presence a~' some o:xy7en or any other oxidat~.on gas in the metal, in the protective a~t~nosl,~~~ere, or in specially introduced additions to 'the ~~awder (Thd2, I~~a, 1~a~0, KCl), acti~ votes the mobility of the atoms and~the process of shrinkage in baking.. Tt is common knowledge that when reduction takes place in an atmosphere of rnois?t hydrogen, the pa~~der is baked mate intensively than in dry hydrogen, 'T'ammann observed that, in the process of anW nealin g ~.n thoroughly desiccated hydrogen, burnished nickel pJ.ata retained its luster up to a temperature of ~.QO? Centigrade, while in hydrogen, containing traces of o~~ygen the luster of the nickel plate was lost has a result of activated atom~,c mobility) already at ;~GUy Centigrade X38 6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and I~s~~a~~~ ~,;1~.) canes 'a,'h,e rec~n?t~,y ~ub~.ished da'l,~ by Vanes ? ~~t the no;ative ef~ec't a~' ox~.des~ wh~.ch f ixm the a,uthox' ~ op~.n~.an the - ~ ~ esul?ts in tha dima.r~~hed s?tren~?th of bx~,- are xeduca.b~,e in b~ka.n,,, x xa.dation off' ~.ron po~rdexs na~t ~ara,or ~tb, bu't quet?tes. With the o one houx a~'tex, by means a:~ an a~.x cux~~^en?t after press~.nh (about the detximen~;a~. effect of a;xa,dation at 1.00 to X00? Cent~.~;rade~ ~ 7 - 'the briquettes was elima,nated~ ,Af tex baking; upan the stren~,th of atmas here of hydrogen, it was established the briquettes ~.n an p . ima:na o;~,da~tian imparted hi~hex mechanical. pro that such pre/ ~' perties to the baked iron. ? 'des as in aluminum, exert a ne~;a?tive e~'fect Non~rcduc~.ble ox~ , ~, ~ ~ ~ baka.n~' aluminum are still inadequately in baking. lh~; mechan~.c~ o.f to ~.t hi~'h temperatures, the aluminl~ known. ~~~ is posse-ble that, the axides are shj,.f ~ted, accumulating atoms at the boundary of 1 ~ he contact section] a~1d r~educin,~ the sux~ at the baundar~.ea of ,...~ the metal and the oxides. It is also :face of separat.~on between 'ace oxides axe fathered up .f'rorn the films a.nto possible that the aurf that 'the continuous film covers are disrupted a granular farmata.on, 'nta other. aeCtlOnsy and the like. `t'he answer to and forced. off ~. is still in trle .future.. Ha~.~ever, as a result all these qur3st~.ons C diana and others, the passibility of of research by Kremer and or 9 1locerama.c products from alwninusn po~rders has manufac tur~.n?~ meta islet Company in 'the United Stites has been established. 'the Kre .,~ i'or several years, `t'hus, non-reducible been manufactu.l ~.np .these e not insurmountable obstacles in baking. oxides, at any rate, ar ~. Rem llization in is rodueed by the shifting of the Shrinka c ~.n bale ~; p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _. .. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 face Exam thy: Free a~~as to the contact. areas. atoms a,~o~-1~ the sur , .. ~,~~ of the s,toms is incxea5ed ~W~ thtempera Cure; 'the moba.~ ~' but s,lso in the cantac~t sections nat o~n1.y in the free sec~,:t.ons, '' ess of the growth of The p~~r~;icles ~n of the surface, the proc r of the atams From some particles baking eons~.sts of the t~ransfe .. art the can~,aet sections of the surface. into a~thers - athw contact Sections have lower rnobi~.ity' than 7'he atoms in the sections of the suxfaceo ~l'herefore, the 'the atoms ~.n the free be .in at, somewhat ha.~her temperatures than ,rowth of the ~r~ain must ' ~ in shrinka e, d~t~r. in; an infinitesirr~~. shrinkae~ However, ~.~, near-the perimeter of the contact moment of time, on:Ly the .atoms .. atoms in the contact surface,... too,. sections take part, all the other rocess of recrystal-lizat~.on. Hence, it may. will part. ci.pate :~n the p ~ n the tempcratlzrea:at which the above seem 'that the dzfxer~nc~s ~- dnot be particularly prono~anced~ Zn two processes set in, rhaul eratures are far apart 't'he causes of realty, these two tcmp this phenomenon will be analyzed later. ' ation .the shif'tin~ of the contact Sections xn xecrysta~.l~.z , ~ ces a reduction in the number o:~' pax"' in a normal direct~.an pro~u . c ~ to size ?f the contact sect:tons, It being tides and ~.n the abaoJ.u uctur.al element passes from a state the case that a part of the str . om]lete union,.-accompanied by the disw of contact into a state o.C c I appearance of bo~~nd~ries. ^~ ence of str7a,ctura]. subdivisions within the In the p~ ~s ,..~;:,i^na~. rec~rys~,l~-iza~ion, iA~., the particles, ~.n adc~it~.on ~o e~~, also occurs an internal (individu~ growth of the party-cles, there i ea tlae growth of the subdivisions of the al} recrystal~.~.zat~.on, 4 , -~3~8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ": Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 re uen~~1~ a.nternal. ~r.ecxys?ta~.1~,~a?~~.on s?ts ~,n ~?~ paxta.:c.~es~ Ve~'Y ~ ~ y ar?~a.cu,lax~.~y when the s~ructurs,l subd~.vx,s~.ons ~.o~a~er temperatures, p are submicrosco~aa,c ~,n ms,~n~.tude. . . ,~ . rowth of contact and of recrystal~a.~ata.on AS a reau..~t o.~ the a- ~.,s transformed fxom a cnn;,lomerate of in bak~.n~;, the pc~wdex ed met .l ' nto a con~;lome~'ate o,k' crysta.~~-rtes (~;ra~ns . particles ~. rec stallizatian, directly in itse:Lf, does the process of ~" change '~.n Porosity. 't'he atorr~s cannot ,jump across not produce a ~> rin~~ the oscillations, athwart the surface. The the pores, du .., .takes lace nod by the way of a frontal jump of fil.lina a~ vo~.ds p s the ores, but bbl the way o% a flank drawin,; up the atoms acros ,p ~~e sections of the surface to the contact of the atoms f ror~ the fz , of tree under the effect of internal sections, or as a result p stresses However the indirect e:f'fect of the processes of recrys- s ' ernal as well as external) upon the change taliization {both ~.nt durin~7 ba~~.n; is very great (see Para;raph r(l) ? ~.n poros~.ty f, allization intensifies the process o;~ mobility exchange ~,ecryst ~. .crates the rate of creepo I~anlsten~el. and by the a~toma and ae ce1 ~9~) ~ 'shed. that with the same temperature in ten- Hanemann establ~. ~ c?~ee~ in the presence of recryst~~l.ization, was lion, the rate. of p, han in non-recrystallized specimens. Hence 10 to 20 times greater t . , ?e of the be~~nnin~ of ~ro1~rth is linked to a con- the tE~mpe ra tux 'n the xate of the effect of processes which siderable ~.ncrease ~. 'n to ether as well as the pulling apart pror-lote both the draw, off' the p~.rticleso ~~~q Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ? he; re u:~ara.t~.es ~.n ~~he xea~'st~~;l,~,~.~a~~~.or~ p~. ~as:~va~.ly, ~ ~ mQts~l.s are reduced tv tha :~v1.1aw~~~ pQyrdex~ed he ~~rta.cles off' powdexecl meta'~.s sets ~n (~,~, one ~rvwth o,~ t p a ~ s .than the ~rawth o~ the ~ra~.ns ~,n compact a~t ,rtuah h:~~her t~mpcrature ald(l~l~ the temporature off' the beha~nna.n~ 7 metals, l~ccaxdin~; to ~auerw s ? wdt?red ~~etals ~.s 6~ to r~~ percent o~ the ~;rawth o:~ the parta.cles o~ po 'na oa,nt o:~ the ametal.. ~'he recrya'l~lli7~atian o~ the aosal~ute melta. ,, p da.n r to Dochvar~ begins at ~~empex~atures o~ compact r~ie tai. s, ac c,or ~, d ercent off:" the melti.n~, point of the metal. o~n the order o.f ~. p r ~ r~rnal r?ecry~stal~.ization of the s~tr~uct7zrv,1 subw ? ~ articularl;J' the submicrascapi~c ones) divisions of the parta.cles (p ch lower temperatures than exl,~rnal re- frequen tly sets ~.n at mu crystallizations . F of the be srinn~in of growth of the Aar":. (~) o ~'he ~,emperatur d with the incz~ease in the degree o~ dis- ticles is usually reduce ith the presence in then a~' internal pension of the pe,r~~~-clew and w subdivi.sians~ owders the tca7ipers,ture a~ the be~;inn.in~; of (~~) ~ ~~or mast p s ~' ~ es and the ultimate size. of the gain do not growth of the paxt~-cl ~.a.erwald(1~1), on the compression pressure, depend., as establ.~.shed by Sa ' des in the initial powders s.nd (~) ~ 7:~e presence a~ ox~ ~~ , ~ahere with a small. admix~~~ure of o~,y~;en, bak~.n in a reduc~.n~, a Imo ~ at ~wha.c,h recry's1~a~.lin~a~Lion se us in, and reduce the temperature accelerate the growth a~ the grain. thetemperature of the be~innin o~ ~6}, Far. fine powders, ~,390.~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ ._ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 extprna~. re~rys~ta~.].a.za~aion a.s samc~~~i~nes reduaad w~i~~h: ca~~re~~~.on sa the rc~c stall~.z,ata.an temperature and sire of pxessura~ ill , r'Y ' samet~,mes a.n strand; relation ~a tha treatment a~' the ~xaa.n are pa'wder pr~.ar to ca;~~pressian, In the presence of defaz~mata.an, the re~ulari.ties a:~ ~) sta~.:~i~at~.an in baked metaJ.s are the same as ~,n cast metals, retry auses :for the particular manriex~ a.n wrtich recrystal- ~.he c iza?tion man~.:~ests itself in powdered metals, were treated basic .L ' ati.ons of the author~~' ~}. ".they are ally in the preva.ol.ls publ~.c reduced 'to the follocJin~;. 1)~ The degree a:f individual apartness of the ;rains in a roximates zero. In com~?ct me?talsy the strength .compact metals pp d between ?the crystaJ_lites ~.s great, anal porosity is - o~ .the bon " ' ibl~ Hence any.. indiva.d.ual change within a separate ;rain ne~J.x.~ ~ as for instance, a change in form,. raay manifest itself only as a 9 art of the ~;enera.l process of the external ;rowth of some crystal-~ p liter at the expense of others, Tn cantrad~.st~.ncta.on, powders bath non pressed as weJ.1 as pressed) are con~lamer~ates of individ,- f uall? isola,?~ed part~.cl.es, Zn non-baked powdered metals the 'bond Y en the articles is so weak than even with pores fully cam- betwe p ressed, it is easily disrupted under the ef':fect of internal stresses p s ne Zn bri uettes, the purely. metallic con,?Laet, as shown by the ala q electrical conductivity (Pa~ra~;raph 39, Table 3~), is study o ~' ~.t s ' 'ble sometimes only a percenta:~;e of, or even a fraction of a nepli,~~. o~C the total surface.) Hence, dynamic change and approach percent. to a stag of equilibrium in 'the baking of powders, in contradistic ' n .Pram the arinealinkr of compact metals, may proceed not by ore, c t~. a ~39~-~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,~ but b save~al. co~~~ses, of wha.c~h ~,he bas~.o .pees ~'p~.l.caw b?l.oW, (~~), ~'~ ~c~.p~ ~ ~~a,~~~s~.oca~a.on of pa,x~a~~;~es, (b), The ~,ndividual (ar internal) changes, occurring withM ~.n the ba~,i.ndara.es off' individu~;,~ par~icl?es and riot connected wa.th a ' n their sire (change a i.n faxm, the growth: o.~ -the stxuctur~l change a. diva,sions o ~ ch~a.nge in the arientatinn a,t' the boundaries between sub ) the articles may occur prior. to the growth of the grain. in a r~ew p ' shed thesis b: Hamer and J'arkerC~y) it is sho~rr~ that centl.y publa.~ Y the form of the particles, in the baking of powdered metal., approaches tkle most equiponderant, even in the absence of grain gr'awth. (c) ? The collective (external) changes, whicY~ da rrot fit ..r.._........w. within the boundaries off' individual pa.~ticles and wr~.ch are linked in their magnitude (the growth of ~;he particles } e to a change Thus- the rowl;h of the particles is only one o:~ several caurs~s 9 ' the chan~~e of state o:E' the syst;em~ arad because al' that alone, it' in ~ , may be~,in at higher temperatures than recrystal].izatian in compact metals. (2 } A Let us analyze the contact between a lar ger and a smaller grain in a r.,ompact rnetal (~'ar~agra,ph ~~s Figure 8~) a `t'he fatal number of atoms in reciprocal. contact, is exactly the salve far each of the crystallites! I~owever, the number o.f:' atoms of rnaxa.mum rrtab~.lit~ in the angles and in the .ribs, is greater in the I~ contact section of the small. grain. ~~'his specifically is the reason for the transfer of a greater number of a~ams ..from the small into he lame rain than the other way around, ~l'he situation i5 differ- t r, g errt for the same canta.ct between a .large and. a small particle in non-baked owder' Figure 97}. In this case,; the contact is ~:E'fected p ..3g2.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __. _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sm~~.l fraction of the sur~'ace a.~ each of the par aver a very ' ~ e uality no1~ only bct~reen the total. number ta,c~.esr .and .there ~ ~ . , .. ~ ci racal conkt, but a~.sa ~.n the~.r disw of atoms th~~ ~ are a.n re P rye of rnoba.l~,'ty'~ ~I~nc;e, al'thau~h the transfer tr~.bu,t~,on by the deb ' le to the ath~r relay occux even at 1,ow of atoms Pram one parta.c ?~exenae as tao the d.irectian of the transfer temperatures, thF d.~.~: at such high 'temperature5y when shra.nk~ will only become pronounced ?? a.minaria. ' increase the aroa of contact 'ta such an exw a~;e wtill pr~'~- ~ action of higher mobil-ity atom. in 'the contact ten?t that the ~'~" come smaller for the 1ar~~ particle than far the sect:>.on will be hen the hrowth of .the gain be;insw `t'he ~rawth small one d ~ Only t recedin; shz'inl.e try. c a.sian intheir deter~~.nata.on. Usually, 'the ~ro~~;~tY~ pf den- and prec alc:in~ is linked to an increase in all mechanical px^opert~,e~. si.ty in b a, ~.'he magnitude and state of the contact surface and the eorn~ ' ~' n of mechanical properties arc characteristic of the bond b~.na t:>. o aural elements of the powdered metal. `./'his comes between the stx"uc ~~titnes desa.~nated by theterm "cohesion" plea of properties x.s soma .Find a more precise de:~inition}. ~. concept (i~ is d~,ff~,cul~ to ad fre uently on ~ the basis of such qualitative of cohes:>.on may be h q Sts as t~~le absence of crumblingparticles when sc-ratchin~ .the to metal the external appearance a.l' a fracture, and the like. s The bak~.n~; process is usually a~.rr~ed at an :i.ncrease in the ' on of the pawdcW^ed met,al up to a predetermined Limit (not cohesx. always the maximum lir~.t). n baka.n~ the properties of powdered metals chan!;e in re? l r~~ a factors, :fin order to sere~ate the effec-~ of one ldt~.on to very m ny s the ro ernes o,E' the metal in relata.on to this of thESe.factor , p p "r ,actors bei.n; equal, is analyzed. 't'hus, in factor alone, all oche ffect of the degree of dispersion of a powder upon ~nalyz~.n~ the e .~ n r~~~s. onl~ dis ersion is considered as the variable uhe bakx.nr, pro~.,~...- y p r factors such as the compo~~ition of the metal, while .all the. oche and the time o~ baking, the pratective atmosphere, t}1e tei~lpex'ature ~~~3' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 and the ~.a.ke, are ions?~.dered constants, ~r~ so chin ~, cext~~in dif':~~.cu1?ties appear, as ta, speca,fa~c~- aa.~.y, ~wh~.ch charac?tera.s~t~.c is ?~o ~e se~,ected as the.. measure of ?the same degree of consal9.dat:~on o:~ the powdar. A comparison o,~' paww dears compressed under the same pressure ~isola~~~s), as ~GCe;~ted by 'the rna~ora.ty oi~ f'orei~;n specialists, is tied a.n with substantial a.nconven~iences. The corrGpressaon pressti~re is ~ "~ross'~~-pressure (see ~ara~raph :t8), made up of the pressure losses to t'riction plus the ''nett'-pressure, which alone effects the consolidation o:~ the product, :~`iure qa is a diaararn depicting the resu:~ts of the author's experiments with small copper cylinders of various hei,,hts, comM pressed ?t'rom the same powder. under the same pxes~aure and baked. under the same conditians~ ~iowever, the net pressures were not the same in connection with which the lowest briquetteshad a porosity of q percen?t~ and the 1;allest 'briquettes, a porosity of 23 percent. Tn bakin,, the ta~_lest briquettes showed a volumetric shranlcae o.f: ,~07 percent, whale the lowest briquettes, on the contrary, showed a growth in valwne of 5,q percent. 2`his example illustrates the inconvenience entailed in ?the use o:C the above mentioned isobars :for the bakan~; analysis ~ precise determination a.f' net pressures comes up against a series of pract:~cal dif'ficu:lties~ ~~,h.e experience of the author with specimens of various dimensions, com~aressed to the same de;ree of conso~.id.atioaa, have shown that, a.n this case, shrinkage does not depend. on the dimendons and the shape of tho pxaducts, In adda~,ion, ?the correla~tionshap between density (porosp ity) of the briquettos and shrinka~;o (see Paragraph 7~},.the con tact surface, and other properties of baked .products is usual~.y ,.4p~.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 pxanaunaer~ with more ragu~,ar~a.t~r than the oax,x~e~.at~.onsr~.p lantwQen the abava cha.xacte.ris~;a.cs an~a compressa,an px~ssuxe~ I~enGa ~.~ `is mane convenient to ana~.y~e the ef~'ect of the; various factors a.n bal~in,; not; wa.th ~Lhe aic~ a;~' the isobaric, but with the aid of the isapycnic diagram M.. for specimens compxes~ad to ~thn same d~n- sity~ f ,~ ~~~-~a~;~,VF~ VO.~I~11e fi~ W ~~ .~.~ ~~ e 9~ ~ ~., Change in dimensions, of ~;er baki~ , in a ~.ari;;itu- dinal direction; 2. same a.n a transverse dx.roction 3, hk a~" the briquettes ~ pressure of X750 kilogr~xrns pear. square cezl~tirnetea~, baking for l_hour a~; 80~? Centigrade), 70, ~'h Ef.fAct off' the Baking Temperature upon Cont;aC~ty ~hrinka~e, .-.W...._....._..,._.._.___._., and Mechanical Properties 'I'he effect of the baking temperature can be divided a.nto severa]. s~l;aF;es, The first stage is characterized by the non-metallic con tact between the particles? :Curing; this- stage,. the iricl~ease a.n contact, the gro~ath of strength, and negligible shrinkage are due mai:n~.y to the evaporation of water :from the surface layer of oxides. In this case, the shra.rika~e and the growth of contact are the sarrre as in the desiccation of clay `see paragraphs 12 and 6(~, At this.' sta,~o, shrinkage ma.y ..occur. also at thca expense o.f the n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' n o~ the part~.c~.eao ~ sh~~,nlca~e v;~ this t~pea ~n thermal, expansa.o e ra~i.sed by x.00 de~r~es, may attain the ;~resance ox a tempe.~atur ercent :~~.neaxly, anc~ 0~ 3 to 0, b per~Gent the va1.ue of 0.1 to 0,~ p volumetrically ,r' the shr~a,nka~;~ and tk~e ,~;x~owth oz~ con~t~aet in 5eema.nr,.ly, r~ have been ~rc;ater, a..~' th? e~.on~atin~ heata.n~, at tha.s sta~ea woul , stresses a~ compression were absent. ~.h~.s e.~:Eect of the res~.dua1 . ed b the experiments conducted by Kantoro- is adequately con~'xrrn y ~~'~~) and b;{ the au~th.or of this book, v~.ch M -Opo Cent:i~r~de a tunhsten powder When heating up to 80 1 sed under a pres sure of Z~,~00 kilograms per square 1,hat was cam~res ~~loadin~, Kantorovich observed a centimeters a~ter,pressln and al resistance, In the opinion o:~ the hih :i.ncrease a.n electr~.c was due ~to the: disruption off' the contacts author, this increase ex ~.n5;an o:f' the partcJ.es, 'under disp1.aced durin; the therrna.l. p residual stresses. If the heatin took p:Lace tht~ ef~'ect of the ut be~'ore unloading, the resistance, on the con. a~ ter prc,ssa.n~;, b rrtore than by one third). Obviously, trar~,~, dropped can~iderably c d in the heating as a result a:C thermal ex- the contact ~.ncrea.~e an off' water, cou.lc~ not, in this case,. be dis- pansion and evaporate. - resses since the,Y were hindered by the ex~ rupted by internal st s ternal load that was not removed ~s book baked briquettes from. iron powders ~.he author o.f the. o nti rade~ `1'he internal tensile stresses mixed with soad a~ 1100 Ce 'n~ but the. presence cif' soda in the pares were absorbed ~.n the bake ~~, r inky e. After the soda was washed out hindered the proces,~ of shr ~ at l 0? Centigrade was conducted for o.~' the ..pons, a .repeat .bakiz1~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o~c?nt val~ hra.nka~e o:G about 2 or 3 p? . ans hoax, resu~.tan ~ a,n a ~ o Cent~.~xade ,~ ~e o;~ a,ron at l~Q `. .the shx~~~~ar, um~txics~la?y. ~ox~na.~.~y, of the ~,r excent~ ~,'husy the elim~.nata.an ~~ doe no's exceed a~~ to Q~3 p ~ `r ,. stxesse~s of cpmpres s:~.on lec~ to a s `4 l~sile e~'~'ect of tha xesa~d.ua:L ,, ~e exatuxes? in shxinlca~s at low b~kin~ temp considerable xzss ith Grube and ~ehlect, dew. T~l~le ~l, compiled a.n accorance w ~ a nickel brique~t~te w~.~t;h the ,,~~ts the change in the xesistar~ce o~ o ~ ade a pa ~? ~r ~o by Cen~ti~-fir ~ ' the temper^aturo of annealing. p change ~n Seema.n~lY~ . ical resistance was observed. considexaUly rise in e~.ectr ? , ,~ettes is ~. lectrical resistance of the bra., prior to hea~~~-n~~ the e ro.a h the watex main ~~~tent ~Y tlae contact th ~ stipulated ~,o a ce tic conduc~Libil:~ty) ? the articles (ea.ectrol,~ films surrounda.n~~ p .oa as a result. of m eratures, this resis~nce drol A.t .low heata.n~; to p . ~ ~.t ~d. 11er temperatures, in con the evaporation of these fa.lm,~. s of the of water from the capilla.rl.e rlection with the eva~porata.or~ conts.ct surfaco begins (as the growth oI' the non-metalla.c o~.des, a 'therefore, resistance droppe ? n~ the desiccation o~ cl ~~ ' ~ in data. ~, and a t 100 o C en~ti grade (the boa. ~ erceptibly at ~~o Centigrade, p the drop in resistance was ater under noz-anal can~.tions) paa.nt of w ' em era~ture, approximately, the icularly pronounced. At tl~a,s t .~ part of bakin,~ .was comple~ted? :~a.rst stake (2) as was shown by' the author y Zn .the :First s~ta~e ot: bak;i.n~;, ma bocome sarneTahat increased. cific surface of the parta.cle5 Y the spe ri uettes, eithera small.. shri t~ nd:in on the strerl ;th of the b q Depe ~ rowth an the linear?ly), or a ne~lipible ~ ale (about O,l pexcent served during the first sta~eo e order of magnitude maY be ob sam bonne in dimensions reiste~'ed. Sometimes, there is n0 c '' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 I~tes~,s'tazace Af Carban ~. N:~.clce~. Compxeas~d under a Pressura off` 6(Jt~ ~il,o~ p~.~?g1~a~1~... w~heated ax ~oo~.eda_n fd'~o, a~ ~ ~r Grubs and ~Gh~l.e ch~;~ 9~.) ? ~'em~aera l0~ ahrrtsc l~es:i.stanca, rfert'~ eraM ~ hes~.s'~ance 106 ohms ~ tune in ?C~ Zleatin~; Cao:~.~.np; furs in ?C 1~{e~~t.n~ ~ Coo:la.n~; 20 lol.do x.1,3 Sao Z,.G.o 33.E ~,o lo~.~ ~M la.aa 5'i'.7 ~~~?o bo la~,o ~- 50o bl..o t~~.,..~ ~0 9o,a ~~ 6oa biro ~.~.3 laa ~~~'J ~rlOa ~Iaa ~v.~ /~~~ :a.2a ~1.~.a _~ nao 6'~.~~ ~~.o l~0 33 ?o ~... 9oa 67. ~ ~9? ~ l6a 33?a .,~ laaa G~3,o b3al~ ~~0 33.2 _~ l~ao 6~.0 67.0 2aa 3~.h 2l~,.b 1~~.~a b8~a 6~,0 2'he secan;l ste.cc o;t' br~.kin; :i.s cl~~a~rG~ct;:r~i~cd Ly~ ~~~~; rrduct ~ an of the oxides, ~..e, ~ by the c~~a.al9.~~a.tive charr~;e in th.e cantact. ~~'his sta?,e, w'i.tr~.n a certain terrrperature range, may run a.n conjunction. wi~l~,h the :eir5t stage, It be~.nry the cane that th,e contact is trans` formed from a ~?n-~ne~a~:lia'into a mets.l.lia can~tac't, in canr~c~tian with which the resistance of the metal, after caalir~~, drops can s~.derably, While in a h~;ated State, resistaz7.ce becomes even somewhat greater, since ~;he -pure metal. has a considerably hi~;hex thermal, coefficient as comparad to ~~he oxid:es. ~'h.is stake, life the pr~ced~.n~ ~~,,08~? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ane, ~,s not aocarnpana.ed by' consa.de~~ab~.e ~hr~.nl~a~~. `t'he speca.~~,c surface of thq parta.cles, toQ, ~s somet~.raea a.ncrF.a~~;d pra.or to ?t;h~ be~~,nna.n~; of the th~,rd stage, '1'hc thia~d st~,~e a,n baka.n~; is charact~x:~,zed by a consa.deraba.e quant~.tative ~;r~wth i,n the: met;ala~.c contact at thy: expense o:~ the mobility off' the metal a~k;oms, by .the chan~,e z.n ~Lhe shape of the pa~,w tides and by iyacliva.dual recrys'~alliZatian. AJ.~nost in. the ent~.re ternper~ature range, it runs jointly with the second stake ~ the rc~duc- Lion of oxides}, the importance off' w~uch by now is, however, not sa ~rea~t. The tha.rd sta>~es depend].n~; on 'the degree o~ dispersion off' the powder, be;ins a'~ a ternperatur~ equal to 20 to 4U percent of the mel.tin point of the m~ta:~ invalvedA :fin the case of fine pow- . ders, this stake is characterized by a cansiderable rate of shrink- ale wha_ch cannot be expla~.ned by thermal expansion al one. :fin the ~ 9 ..case of coarse and highly compressed .powders, on the contrary, there. is the ~;rawth of the ane~t~al due to the absarptian of residual stresses. ~'he absorption of the residual stresses and the removal of the cold- h~~rd.enin~; effect are probably complete by The be7inna_n; of the fo~.~rth sta.~;e of balcin~;. Mo,~at of the temperatures a' 'the bc;~~innin~; of baking, as dew te~rmined by various specialists, pez~tain to the be~innin~; of the third stave, It is difficl~.t, however, ~k~o specify with precision the temperature off' ~~.e exact be~;inni.n~; of the baking of the metal roper, since .both skirinka~e ar~d the growth. of contact are observed p already in the First and second stages. ~Ience, ~~he determinat~.ons of adequately significant shrinkage and ~;row~;h of contact are to a o Smi~thells~l~~} the tem- Certain ex~vent ar~bitrary~ .~ccord~.ng t , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a which, erceptib~,e ~~hrinkage bagins, a,s d~mir~,shad perature, ~ p (91.x) . e~ while according to Gr~ube and ach~.e~cht ~ ~~ w~.th pres~u~c~, ~ does noia depend an pressl~xe~ e third, stage, there ~.s a dinlinutian in the specf,:~ic In th ~. ut no ~rowtl~ of the par~a.cl.ea a.s observed.. surface of the parta.c.~e~~, b ~, ~~ re is characterized by the comp~.ete dis~ 1 Yee fourth s ~ ~~ he oxides ancf the growth a;~' the particles. vew appearance of t r he d.e ree of da.sperai.on of the powders, it begins at perid~n ~, on t ~ natures e..ual to about 50 to 7~ percent of the absolute tempe q oint of the rnc~tals involved and continues until. the melting p ' attained During this. stage, in connection melting..temperature a.s the rate of creep is ;neatly increased. wz.th recrystall~,~a-ta.on, rocesses promoting the. drawing tage~ther Hence9 the effect of ...the p y a art o;E' ~ articles, is f.~ncr~ased. Figure' a,s ~welJ. as the drawa.ng p p r 'nka e-tempe.Cat~zre curve, depicts, at the tern- 99: which i, a ~~hr~. .~ ~ature of the graw~th. of the grain (800? Centigrade}, a con pez reduction in volume f ox a copper powder of low and s~.derably ourin weir~;ht, and, on the contrary, a consider~le in- ure d~.um p ~; r volume :E'or a coarser copper powder of a Y~i~;her pouring creme ~.n ' ~ aus rocess of Lanaa. isolation in sh.rinkw weight. A very consp~.cu P 1eindividual isolation" pM nan~regu~.a~tedly localized changes .age and. e uen~tl ~ characteristic for this stage of in the part~.cles, are. fr q ~' ins rocess (see Paragraphs. ~1~ and (~~} . the bak ~, p ~~~o~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,M,,,...,...""'"w'"'.~"'..~. p , ~:'emperatur~, in 0 e curve ~ 7~. Fine electral.yt~C ~hrinka~?wtemperatur ~~hure 99? er cubic Centimeter; 2. me .~,um er pourinP wei ~;ht 0 ? ~~ ~raras p cope y - ~0 ~raras per cl~b~.c Centimeter" ~ .weL~,ht 1. electrolytic cop~pex", pour~.n?; ~a7ns cr cubic Centin~:etex; lG. lectrolytic copper9 ~?~.? ~z ~ ~, coarse e ams ~ er cubic c~nl~~imcter. coarse, 301- ~r ~' . cue.l;~Lea at, ,.j~0o ` Cents baked coarse copper pawdcr br1~ -The a c~thor articles was -h case the arowtri o~ the p tisrr~de for one hoax, a.n wh~.C o Gen- gain at a~Q the specimens were .baked a,, abser~red? Upon caol~.n~, ~~ volume was increased.by a per" ' ~ra.de with the result shat thc,~.r ~l'he re~ ti,, the results of ~~he f~.rst bak~.n? cent as compared with abaorbed in the first bakin~? stras: es, probab-~~', were iull.y sidual nine out e f fec ~~, due of in this ca.sP, have a bul? The uses could n y rxas ~ ermea" es and to the considerable ,, p to the absence of closed por volume can only res. ~~cn.ce, the growth in the bilit~r of th.e speC~.lne l.solation of shrinkage and. nonwre~ ascribed to t'ne processes of be ar~i.Cles. Tn ~~ of individual changes in ~~he p ~ulaxi2ed local.izat:~on ~ derab].e shrinkage) ~ articularly' in powders with consi some Cases (p :)vocal.. isolation of shz^ini.{ane is r verb' high temperatures, the .uncle ~ .ere is (sere ~~i~ure 91, ~,he Copper -~ nsid.erablc .that, at .f ir,~t, th sa ~,o accompanied by a drop in flow pouring Wei~ht~ Yaucklin~; powder o surin~ (averheatinp;) ? density, then f.~.s "'~+"1 ~ ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 The c~.r~ar ~ubcia.v~,~a.on oil:' the.. proc;e~~ off' balc~a,n~ a.n~~o foux ~~ ~ a.s observed on~.y in .the oa~~ ?~' fine powdexse ~n tho cage ~~~e dens tha stakes axr~ considerably cancec~a.ed~ '~'hus~ of. Ga~~r se pow , wshrinka~re of coarse ;~owd~rs ~.~ f~~~~~~n'~a.y observed on~.~' tree vz.sa.b.~e when heated. almost to the melti,71~; poa.ni; of tl~G me~l~l~ T~~e chari~;e in mc~c,hanica~. pro~per~ticas M- stz~ength, hardness, abilit ~ t;o sustain. deg"o~'ma~t~.on (~dGf~.ec~ian), and e1ec~~ra.caJ. cote ductiva.ty, wi l,h the terrtpexature o:t baking is depicted in the curve ~, ra~.ahs Shown a.n Fi,;ur~ 1.00a ~'he charl~,es in streil gt~t and electrical. canduc~a.vity dura.ng the proceas o:E d.:rinking run pa.z~all.cl with 'l~hey increaae with. hiphei^ baka.n~; temperatuxe:~, a.nd decrease with 'lowex ones '1'rle indexes of the ability of baked metal. to sustain deformation (elongata.on, de~lecta.on) usually be~ ' reacted with higher temperai~ures, even though density and come ~.nc strength are decxc;used., changes in densityo CSee Figure 100 on next pa;,e] Hardness and deforrrlation moduli drop with temperature under the e:k'fect of de~toughel~i.ng and the reduction of oxide, and rase in connection with a dirrd.nution in. porosityo 7.'herel:'ot~e, in speci~ rnens conrpr~ssed t,o a "ha.gh ox medium degree, hardness fa.rst drops, then rises. `(de toughening a.s predo~rainant), wh~.le in. nuldly com~ s eca.mens -~- it rises (inc~eas~ in densa.ty is predominant) .pressed p The effect off' temperature upon shrinkage can be explained as follaws~ ,The pxacesses of the drawa.ng together and-~Lhe c~rdwing apart of the particles in baking can be conceived of as creep; induced Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~x/cu cm I.~U00 lca/sc1 cn~ 2()UG k~/s~ cm B x.000 k;/ sq cra 2000 k~~sq~cm B00 k~/~~, cm s MME 11II1 .~~~~~~ 1~0UU k ~/a~~ Gm 2UU0 k~/s~l cm ~E3QU ks;/~~,I cm \~'~ ~ ~po~ ~~ ~o Curves depictiz1~ the mechanica]. properties ~irure 100. ~~~ lation to the 1;emperature of bakinh: bony/ nickel in re rinellhardness; ~ ~,.timate tensile strength, ~, ~ ~A ~t as er Grube and Schlecht). conductive y ( p of car- as density, electrical Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 CIA-RDP82-0003980002000 40019 6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 xces~ ~'.zb~.e ~~ slaws that the capa~lla~y pressure, ray a.nter~raa~. fa . ~ ~.n the pry;;sence a:~ a ha.~;h degree ~.nduGed by surfacre ~;atlsa.a ~ . arta.c~.es, may atta~,n a value of off' ci.ispers:~.an o.f the powder p s,l k~.la~rams per sr~uare mil~.~.meter. sever articles of Various Da.azr~e~~ers a5 Coned Gapi~.la ~~^ossu,iox la ~. "~ Sri ~t ~. ~. l ~r m b~~ ~orrllu p ~~ e ca ~illary p~^essurc, for particles of a liven In real~.tYa th ~ renter than ind~.cated in 'T'able ~2, since the dia~cneter shol~ld be articles is co.r~siderabLy ;x`eater than actual specific surface ax' the p - surface on account of the numerous rou~h~ the apparent ~e ame tri ca.l. nesses, increases with. tbmpers,ture~ stress, and The rate of creep atams~ Zn hi,,h~dispersion pawders, the: number of mobile surface 'treat: therefore the rate of creep will capillary' pressure ~s very. ~ ~ at which shrinkage ,:~i~-1 be~;a.n at a tem~ attain consp~,cuous ,:values, . e~rcen~ off' the melting point o:~ the peratu~r,e, ;equal.,: to 2Q to; 3D p ~e~ ~ the' surface off'-.the pax' of c p metal. ' Ho~rever~ ~n ,the process ., 9 . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '~ es wa.~,~, ba da.m~.n~.shod as a re~u.~t a~' ~.ts smoothan~.n~. ~:~on~,? ti.c1. ~, . as the ca a.l:l.ax~r prassure and the number a~ side a.~ this prose , p ce atoms wi~.:~. deGreaae~ '1'~~err?;~are, the rate a~' creep mab~,l.e surFa ~ature wi~.l a~'ter a certain 1~ime, drop to d~,~ at a t;.i,v~an temper ~ at which shr:~nka~e wa.a.l practica:Ll~' be discanta.nued~ mensians erature the treater the ra~~e o:t' creep, and the ha.~;her the temp , the lower the value of the specifa,c surface, s.t~ which shrinka~;e ~,~,~, be discontinued, until ~l,he temperature o:~ the external w growth of the pa,r~t~.c].es is attained the ms.~ni'L~ude of the surface an~Je s,t the expense of the smoothening of its profile? '~`here- may c,h ,, ,F~ ~' acre is small since only several percent of the atoms yore, shr ~.nk r, s face take part in `the txanslocation of the subM lying.near the sur W' th the attainment of ~;he terrtperature of external re~ ..stance. ~. a ion .with the ~r~oothenin~ off' the pr~o~'ile of the sux~ cZ"y'Std~.117 t , effect; of the farces, inducing a visible creep, as not face, the et exhausted, ThereFore, the phenomenon of creep may continue Y ven with the Further diminution in the surface of the p~artac~.es, e at the expense of the gain ~rowth~ After a cer~~in tame the C' f the rain wi1.l affair/ a Certain value, at which the specific ~i~e o ~ ~~ 'nish that both the visibxe creep and the :Further surface wa..ll sa d~.m~. ' n wil]. be discontinued. (Fao1;z ~ Z'he .tame of growth of the ~ra~. ' a~ ion of shrinka,e ar~d the t~.t~~e of the discan~inuation the da.scant~.nu t ' a zon must not neces~aril~r coincide} o Both shrank-~ of rec,ry~tall~.~ t rowth of the ~raan. will be resumed aain with a rise ale ar~d the ~ ?~Jith the ~rawth of -Lhe ~raa.n, the number of an ter-tperature only. ' o` the ~ rocess of substance translocation ~.s greatly a tam s drawn ~.n t p the shrinkages, at the temperatures of external. ancreased~.,hence, -izataan become greater. `fie above analyzed mechanism recrys~ll ~ . , r ~ ~ , ~; ' ,' ,. ;; .; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 u 1 .,, ~ " ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o.~' shr~irli~a~e and rc~crysta~.~a,lata.on at the ea~panse off' creep makes it possib~.e to understand a series o.~' detaa.~.e a#' these Tacos P ses, such ~s the decxease in temperatuxc~ at the be~innin~ o:~ visible shx~inka~e and" recrystal:~i~ation wa.th tl?~e eh,an,~e :i.n the c~.e roe ~ 0~' the da.spersian a~' t;he powder, the reduct~.on in the rate off' shrink- a~e and grain ~rawth with tkte time o:f bak~.n~~ the independence a~' ~~he set~Lin~; irl o.~ recrystalli~ata.an .~'ran~ cornpres s~.on ressure~ ,~ , e1,c~ ~~'he z^at;e of sl?irxnka~;e at the p.z^evaa.lin~ baka,n.~; ten"~ eratures p attains ~~he va1uF~ o:~ Ool and even ~, percent per' minute. The ei'~'ect of th.e processes, cr~unteractinr~, the drawing; to- ethe~? off' the particles, also increases wit~~ ter?poratur~;, Hence, reduction in shr~inka~;e may be observed wi~tl~ a rise in fern eratur p e, The carre:Ls,ti.anship between shxinka~e and terr~~~erature a~nay also be explained in a dif'~erent manner, The. process o:~` shrx.nk- ale s.s the translocatian of the :E'luid surface layer a.f the par tides into the contact intervals and into the Minute ~oores? The hif7;her 'the ternpera.t;ure, the ,;Teeter the :f.'lu:i.dity, and the smaller the viscosity o.~ the substance, Hence, with temperature, the canstrict:Lan o.~ the substance to the contact sections and ~ ~ consequently, the rate of shrnka;e, is increased. The quantitative ra t:i, o between the rl7abili ty a:C the a tams .and. temperature was discussers in Paragraph ,~I, The relative in- crease in atomic z~lobili.ty with the rise. in temperature is much greater at low than it is at_ high temperatures, while .the ab- . salute increase in mobility is always greater at high tempera- tares. ':Tri the presence o:~ dif~'exent temperatures but with all Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 S. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 yams ~,n~~.ta.al ~aowdexs and poxosa.~,y nda.t~.ons bea.n~ tY~.e same othex co . tal at the mor~ent off' baking, ~. uettes`, same por~asa.ty o~ the pie of bx q the xate off' shxa.nlc~ o~ shxinl~a~;e a.s computed) ~ :fox wha.ch the ~ a to b~.li~. off' the sux-~ f, ~ in d~,~ect ratia to the mo y ale ~.s s,ppxo~amate y as which sti,~ula~,e the shrinka~e? Face ator ions ar>,d rneasurcaments off' ~~~ off' the c~.latametr~c exan~inat Mo ~~ .. a~, there is no visible shrinl~a~e a.n lectrica~~- conduct~.vity show ~h e ~~ r ~z~inkane in coal.i.n~ is due to ~W0 the absence off' va.sab.~e ,,h coal~.n~? i~her baking temperatures, the si~ae ~Caatoxs. 4n .the one h~~nd, at h r, articJ-es may b~ so reduced. tha~r a:~' the speca.fic sur~'ace of the p actually the rate o~ creep becomes pr when the-tempexa~;ure drops, o~~ h~ata,n~ is x, in those rases when the rate ne~l~.~a.ble, Howeve , ow a practically visibly ' ~ e the rate of cool.in~ is l ~ h~.~h, wh~..l- d This :occurred in on.e of the:.. shrinka~~ in cooling may be observe . oolin~' of a copper' powder' ' ~x eriments, when, during the c H~tt1~~.~ p 'sable shrinka;e was registered. a v~. ;structural Changes "" the ~ ~ r ~~'he ~f'~'ec `~'en~a sure upon ll ? ,.,~,.,.,..~.---~..... n Ctructural Chan~eS and Shri...~----k-~~ relation to bakih.~ temperature are true tura7. ehan ~;e s in electrolytic capAer brlq~uettes sh~~wn ~-n k'i~~'~ .~Ol~ (mic~aphotos ~~~i - re 102 (mi.crophotos o~ nonw rom the author's data,)and- i~~ ~ ~ d and :E ~chubar , iY'on Exam the data by Schlecht, compressed-carbonyl. on had spherical. Tl~e in~.t~-a.~ powders. o~ caxbonyl ~-r Duf tschmia) ? o is structural elements, ':,O.p Ol subdivided into subm~-cross p partl.c.~.es, of a,mic~on in si~e~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _._---- -- --- I .,,,,x....?...x....n.,.~~x...,x. 1Cro' ho'~OS) C~ee text, pa~E 21a r~ .E{ i~'ure 10~. C M p ~~~~ ~ ~ a balcira.~ oc' copier powders (~~.n,7~?Lial Ch~.n~e ~?n struc'~ure dur.i.n,, thc. ..~ Pickled iri ~INO~ w~ ~~, X00 '~im`'s? parasity 40 pe~cc,nl,) rw.w~..+..~?'P1"""'?wr".nxw.nwn.?nw+nrwn~.rx+.rmw.w.~.x...++'."~w...wwW~Mx/M.?r. W..xrnh.^?nxv~MMM.xWM6~IW ~YWYIIIYMAM yw1i;M~tIWnM.a+wMA.eMM?4JWN~'nxM}+~M ^~~~..,...+,.wn.~nx.~""~"w^'^'?wr.nwMi+n.wMmPwwMMM+~uMwM+nnlulnrwMwwWMwnfM.Mw.M'T nMR4NM?V .,? ' cro hotos) ~ fee 1~ex~~~, pale ~~~ ~ N7.pure 1.02 (~~~- p o~ Carbonyl ~.ror~ ~'~ ~ the ba~cin?; L an~e in s~ructu.re and density dur~"nr~ h ~, Schubard, and Du~'tschms.d) ~ 1000 t~.rnes, paWd.erS ~~ChleChty . n the third, stake of baking ~ see :fin the case o:C carbonyl ~.ro , o , . tirade and ended ap~~roximately at Pa.ra~raph '70) bean at ).~00 Gen ~, ~~ loWin~ is characteristic of this stage. 6~Oa f~ent,:~~rarle. 'the ~'ol r~ al:l.i~ation. ~t x.00? Cen- :individual (internal) recry~~t (l)? their original spherical shape, ti~'x?a,de the par~icl.es departed From s.rticles bc~;an, ].ices w'Lthin the individual. p ancl. the growth of .crystal r ending at 6~0? Cer>.tirade, pract~.ca11~ ' ` e "s~iootheriir~~; af' the profile of the pars ~ 2) , ,~ consa.derabl o ure rise from x.00 Centigrade ' les is notic~abl,e .wish `the temperat t~.C tic sur.~ace a~' the.. purtic~les, which to ~ 6~0? Centigrade. `~'1~e sped ow reduced as a result o:~ the smoothy was previaus~y increased, ~ ~xs n ening~~ of~; the profi~.e ~~ iN ~ 0 t i l~ i4~4?4~~5 ~KA~b~Art~llh,? d1 ~ a`,~n iT4~4Cf JaV~~ ~r~ ttti 5~a~ luf S aA~'~" i'~~~h~ll ~11 ~ ph7 n,,bb it ty15,Gi j,~A~4~~~~(~~l.~.i ~lP.'!r ";her degree of shrirllta ;e can be obtained. Hence, the passive ef':Eect o:C the uses u1,)oi1 shrinkage in bakinh, in all probability, is nreater than their active burl{;:in out effect, ~l'he effect o1' structural chan~~s in bakin, upon shrink ' s ver~ teat. The rate of recrystaJ.liza~tion s.s deterrained ale a. y b the ~ roduct of the number of atoms p4~rticipatin~ in this Y p .process (the atoms in the .contact sur~'ace) by some mean difference in their mobility. 't'he rate off' shrinlcape is a:J.so deterrr~i.ned by the product o:E' the number of atoms ,particip^ th t rather steady, leve:L~ ~~or instance, localized oxi- low, bu ' ns of articles do not substantially chanhe lotions and. reduct~.o p with the time~la~,e whet/ the rate of compression is equalized with the rate P ,ion the resul.tinh rate of shrinlca~e drops to zero. of t~r15 , ' h a further time-lad, the rates of .tension and compression .C,~, w~.t ?~1~33- t~~i ~~' ~~~ ~~ '' ,: ~~ ~ , ~, ~'~, , . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ` - ~ ~~, PY pp ~ ~ ~~~ 0~,,b ,~.. Baki:n j time, in houxs nsi;.Le stxen~;th ~ s ~a +i~ure I:L;L~ ratio between density , to ~' n U ors the one hand., and the time-lay in ~bakin~;, and e1.on~atLO s -- in the. case of 1E3 ~ 8 stainless steel ari the othe~^ .hand ., 7 centi rade ~accoxdin~ to ~Wul~~'). baked at 150 d.~~xees ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ma..n:~shc~d. thc~ ~a~~e off' shxinka~;c~ ~emaa.ns at ohs axe ~~~~ua~.~.y d~. ~ ,~ com re ~ ~~, on d~r~.tin~. she s moxe rap~;dly ~exo ~o~vo:k,, ~:f t,hc xate o .C~ ,~ n the xa~k;e o:~ shrinka~~, w~a.~th ~k;hE~ ta.mew 'than the xa~te a:~' tensa.o , ~ comas ne~a~tive, and. poxos~.ty be~a.ns 'to ~;xaw. 1aF.,, be sdexs con~Lainins~, da~:~~'icu:L~tly-reducab~.e Tn the bak~.n~; o.~ pati e o~ the park;a.c~.es, visa.bl.~ shrin'~ca~e inay o~~ir~es on the sumac ave been reduced ox otherwise e].i.minated~ be~~.n only aster they ~a ho~m in ~'i~ure J.1~~ accard:in~; 'to wu1.:Cf, in Such f~Ience, as s .. o~~:' shxinka;~e w~.~-i ~;xow, and. nat da.raa,nish, with cases, the ra t,e t;he time~la~o Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a relat:~.ve c~,ens~.tyMbaka.n tame curve graph ~~.~ure 1?~2 ~.s n shra,nka~e and the d,1~~^a~a.?n off' ?~h~a showa.n~ the ra'~;~.a betwee a ha:~h bal{and tempe~G~e,ture~ .fit hash time-lad ~'or a meda.um axed ~a ,. r : nka e rapaclly at'~az~s its ma~.mu~~ value, te;r~pera ~u.>^~.s~ ~hr~. ~ ~~'has s the prace5s as conaade~ryabJ.y' slawer~ at lower t~~empc.ra~,ure , . ~ d c.}~.r~linutaan an t}Ze speca.fic surface ~.s due to the more r~~pa. of ~r,he particles with the rase an, te~~ripera~tux^e. d Baking time . ~ -' o between shrinka?e anal the durataan of the ~' 1.h111^e ~..~.2 e hata. ' at various temperatures (as per Kae:~fer ar~d tame-la.~ an balc~.n~ 1, medium temperature; 2 ~ hx.~;h temperature Hatop)t s of a owdered. metal change with the mechanical praperta.a p a roxima?l,ely in the s~.me ,manner as 5hrank~- the time-lad ~.n bclk~.n,., pp n th of po~adered metal. (~'i~ure 11.3) a e and density. The .~ tz e ~ ' ~ 4, maxi.murn level. rather ra,~adly, .With th,e usually attains ~.. t~ .. ~ t re~riains at the level at~h~~.ned, or is even. further .tame lads -~ e ro ertie~,_charactera~in~ plasticity, samewhat d~ma.nished. '~h p p n rr~ost of the time brow over a much as, for inetance, el,an~ata.a , Fi ure 11.3). `I'h~.s is due to the fact that 1on~er period (see Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,~, ~~.,ii~a.n~~ta.on orb axy~en, as ~aa.nted out a.n tY~~ U~'f'exmann the; ~'u ;1.~~} ~ a~ ~, rather ~on~ ~er~.od off' ~~m? (~e~ 1~a~~u~^e ?the ~~. s ~ , re c~ua. ra ,a ~.~,~~) ~3al~.in~; time, in minute .~ s patio betw~enr ultimate tensile strength (~~ and h~.~ure J.13, on the ane handy a.nd tl~~ ,time-la.~ in balm, e~.on~at~.on ~ , r hand -~ in the case o:E' varticityMmill irony nn the a the , ~ ~~Trees centigrade (iri accorc~arlce with ~il~nde~~ b ~~cm , 800 d~r, az~d Schwalbe} , wwWr.IM~YML~fNUMwM~M~'1M~wWyMVPNnNwr*~wn'r'ww~wruMrr~w~w~+wr++w^ 4 1 f ?AAAMnY ~fy~~y~r~r `VS ^'~ `Jx,~ j . 1 Eakin time, in hours Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 k{'a ure ~.11~~ ~,ata.a between the ,ox~'aeT~ ca~tent and the balcan~ ~~~e in thc: Caa~ o:~ carbonyl ~.ron (in accordance with Q~'~'er-~ mane} M The ratia, ac which the temperature ri se a, as reflected perceptibly in the mechanical propert~i.es~ A rapid. rase a.s iric;vi~tably linked to locaJ.azed differences in tem er~~tti~e, which may result in tt~e local isolation of shrink p a e and increase tree nonwrc~ulari~~ed local:i~a'taan of indavad.ua:l han yes in the particles. ~~here~'ore~ density and other tr~echanical c ~, ~' are lower in s;pecam~n~ that were hea~Led rapid.ly~ propor~~.es ' rr~ eratuxe build up may sometimes e~ren result ire flaws, A rapid. to p ckl.in o~verhea~n~, non~la.ni~:'arm shrinkage, and the such- as bu ?;, like As alreacay indicated in Parc~~;raph '11, the :race a~" cao~.ang if no phase trans~'armataons occur} rr~.y be o:E some importance on.lY ( an the case off` a, short i:ime-lad in the ntaxamum baking temperature. In ..this case,. a slaw race af. cooling may some~~.rnes result an a somewhat ha~;hcr density and ocher mechanical proper~a.esQ i3. 't'he Ef':Eect of the Size~hapand~~t~ off' ~he ~'artic he s ecifac surface of the powder particles and. the number: T p ' ~~orl~tact ~oants between there d~.ar.inish with thee.. site of the of c, 1 articles. '1'hercfore, with the drop an the degree of d~.spersion p of the owc~,ers, the effect of the processes, promoting th.e p awin together of the particles and the ~rawth of can tact, , dr ~ ~, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a.s con~~a,dea?~~~b~.y xc~ducod, r ,. ~ bra, uett~s (see ~'ara~~x~~~Zah ~ I ), w~.'LY~ 'the si~rength of the ~ ,he arta,aa.es, a.s ea,tr~e~ ~ed.uced the incx~ease a.n ~l,h.e s~.~ae of ~ ~ an e ~'hcz1ef ox~e, in a number o:~' cages, or rema~.ns wa.thout ch ~ the d.e tee off' da.spaxsa.on, the c;~'fect off' the pro wa.~th a drop ~,n ~ e can~act, rer~a,a.ns the sa~~~ea or a.s even cesses, d~.,~zupt~ng th ~~,T~acxoscopa.ca.ty" of t~~e ?.~ndivic~.ual somewhat enhanced. 'the . ' tease trte d:~sruption of the contact, changes ,mar at t~,rnes a.nc 100 de tees centigrade, the thermal e~~pansion rn heata.ng up to g amaunt~~ 'to about, 0.1 per. cent, .N'or particles of the particles ' deformation :in this case amounts to 1 of 1-millimeter s~.ze, the disruption of thc~ contact. ~~or micron, anc~ it may affect a . . , size the, absolute def orraation amounts part~.cles 1.-rrt~.eron ~zl , n and it mad' c~vEn be conducive: to an :in- to O~OOI of a micro , ase in the contact b~;tween pas-~~.~.~;J.es, cre ~' of the articles, the ef:~'ect of the 't'hus, witrl 'the ,,~.ze p c ' n the d.ra,wing 'to ether o:~' the particles, is processe~~, promat~. ~; the effect of th.e processes, promotin, the attenua,tcd, wh21.e rt of the pa.rtic~les, remains the same, ar is even dra~~.n~., spa ' efare as a rule, shrink~,es are dimina.shed increased 'I her , 'the initial powder particles. ~~ a with greater Sues a.E fined size of the pu~rticles, shra.nl~age ber.orries certain predetez`~- after which it begins to increase Flo r~gsid,e equal to zeros mechanical prop~rta-es are attenuated. ~'he of this,. all th.e hich visible shrinkage Sets in is also some tempP,ra,tllre at w ' ncrease in the degree of dispe~'sion of what reduced with the a. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~;ho ~,ni~ial powders ' ~~ e~~sed awders, the Contact surface ~n thF. baka.rtF, o:C da.~p p a~nsider~;~ly'~ In the case o~ coarse paws of tha ~pa,x~tic;les grows in ressa.ng~ a.s fro~,uently' sor~lewha~, d.ers, the canta~:'t,, Formed p Tn this ease, tb.e part played by~ lcaki~ decrPaaed in baltin~~ fi he la.ta~.ve cham~;e in c one c t ((tY~~ ~,s reduced pr~.mar~.ly' to a . ed to anon-stressed, and from a metal~~-c trans~t~.~n 'ram a stress to a non-metai~-~-c state) ' th a diminuf,zon ~?n the degree of di seer ,ion ~,~t times, ~ nth of the briquettes is increased, in the powders, the siren,, ~he effect of the local isalata.an of ~~; being the case that t ' shed.:.. If .the ef':Cect of the processes shrinkage may al.sa be d~.~~.ni a art with a :reduction ~-r~ dispersion,. of drawing the pa.rt:LCles p ~ a~ ~,c~.l than the effect of the ~aracesses is diminished more r p y .~ticles together, which occurs in relatively. drawing the par 'crease in density and in the contact surface, rare cases, an in ' n the othel~~ properties of articles ~riac~e ,from and aa.so a rzse i the .coarser powders, resu.ltd ra.n 1 weigh~~ of the powdex's In mast The increase ~,n the you f, and mechanical. propertiese The increase cases reduces shr~.nka~,e re uently cainc~-des with an ~.ncrease in the in pouring weight ~' ~ arld with. a dinunution of the specific sire of the part~.cles .~. , - r a_nde endently of other factors, the pourl.ng sur.~ace~ But ~~l~o p ~s the results of baking 't'he pouring weight weight affect ~1~.~9" ~~~.~.a Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 chaxa~cter~.7es the stxuctura,l stx~~n~th off' the pawdaxs? wa.th ?the .increase ~,n pa~xrin~ weight a~" the powders, the sty"en~th of the briquettes is diminished, a~s a result of wh~.ch the e;~~'eat off' the processes, pramatin~; the drawin,~~ apart of the particles, is increased,while density and ?the contact spa^:~ace Q~' ~,he pax titles, and, also the mechanical properta.es o:f' ?~he articles, axe diminished. A considerable ef:~ect is exerted. Uy ?the structure a~` ?the ,particles, Tree rougher par?~icles have a ~.reater speci~'ic surface, and they produce stranher briquettes, which p.ramotes the abtainin.~ off' products o f higher ,:atxen~;th and density in baking;, By the 'same token, angular particles axe pre~'erable to spherical ones (when ba.~,:in~ briquettes, but nat loosely pour"Ed powders), F'articul~.rl~~ un.~?avor~ab~.e results ensue fx?am the baking o:C briq~,~ettes prepared 'ram powders with flat par 1~.icles, since such substances are easily disintegrated Burin,, the absorp~,ion o:f res~.dual stresses ~ ~!'he presence o:C~internal subd.ivisians in t~~e powder party ~~icles (carbony~.ic, elec~tralytic) i,s linkdd ?i;o tale .accelerated mobility a~' the atoms at the boundaries off' these subditi~~isians and to internal xecx^ystalli~at~.an, '~h.~.s increases the rate of crEep and stimulates ?~he .processes .both of -Lhe drawing to- ,;ether and off" the drawing; apart of the ,par?t.icles (~aith the emphasis usually on the drawing together), The presence o.~ associations of particles is conducive ~' ~ " ~ `.:~ ~ ' ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~.nka~re (wa.lah~n the :l~.rna.ts o~ thc~sc to ~,he ~.so~~t~an a~ shr ~ ~ ~ and ex~~axe, ;~om~~what reducea der~sa.ty aseoc^at~.ons), ar>,d, ~~h aked art~.cl,es~ Howevera ~Lhv the other pxoper, ta.~s o~ tY~~ ~ .~ . eagg7.atiAns o:~ parta.cJ~ea upon th,~ f'avorab~.e ef'f'ect o.~ these a he above ue~~tes may sorlia~^mes autwea.~h ~~ p~~op~;rtie,~ a~' the bra., ' ncl~.cated ne~ata.v~ ef~e~ct~ a. heir volumes, also their' ~, baka.n~; mixtures off' powder,,, t ar,~c addi~t~ivss of ~hc properties volumetra.c and linear change ~. mix- ~~~ Con~'orma.ntly, the volume of of the a.ni~ial companen Luxe is de~e~r~?.ned as follows: V ~ is the vol.~tune o~ ..the mixture where. h~ vo~.umes of the baked cal~clponents. V1 and V~ aye ~' ed mixture is detern~.rsed The relative volume o.~ the bak r~~~ h by Z' armula : ~ ~' f ,a It~'I ~I ~-~~ ~'1~ ~ ! aw. _,,, ~ riu~ (rr 3/ ~ ) ~~~?`~~. ~~ ' s the relative volume off' the mixture; where ~ ~. ~~~ are the volume of the components; ~ and `~ - e weight ratios of the campanent5? ~,~ t and ~l ~ are th e'mixture..vary in accord- `~he voll~metric shrinkages o~ th a.nce with formula: ~ C~~~ ~~, (73/3 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~~ ~ V ~ ,ss chaanG~e ~n ~h~ c~amens~,ans whoa M.~ `% ~.s the p~~ c~nta~'e w a~' the mixture actor baking, etG? e~~ties a~' the mixtures dapart fi'ram tho The mochana.ca~. prop add~.tiv~.ty~~)? rude a.f ~' ~ urve graph in whicY1 the attenual~,ian o~ ~'~. ur e ~.~. ,~ ~. 5 a c -~ ~~~ ' ~ atian to the. growth a.n the sire of meckian~.cal properl,~.e~ ~.n xe:l. ' itia:l awders i.s p1a~~ted, according to the paz~tic].es of th.e ~,n p J~ilender and ~chwa;.lbe? k~;~sq rr~ k~~sq nom 9 atio between thernechanical properties af' baked Fiw,ure ll5- ~~-w article Sizes 0~' the initial pow- varticity mill Iran and the ,A ?s in accordance with Eilcnder and ~chwal.be} ; dez ~ Or J millimeter; Tl. paz~ticles equal to ~. parta.cl.es ~ Om t5 ~~ ~~er ~ ~Sx? parta.cles equal to Ooi ' Q? ~ Qo~ ~~ "'"` Qm.~.. nU.ll~.nle 9 ' ex. lV. particles less than Qm'; rrd.ll:imeter? m~.ll~.met , rrv e ra~ h depic tiny the diminu ti an in ~'i~;ure llb ~.s a cl ~; A ry? ].l"t is a curve graph d.epictin, the attenu- shrinka;e, and k~.~.tre 'cal )ra~ ernes in relatian ~Lo the increases in anon o~ the mecharr~. ~ p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 PY _pp Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the pouxin,; weight of tae ~.na~tial powders po~tzrin~; weight, a.n ~r/cu crn .~.`~ sure 1.16,. Ratio between the chan~;Ea .in ~.inear dimensions o:~ k.. ~.r,._...~.......,,.- ' owder briquettes and the pouring weight of the powder. .ran p (initial poi^osity 36 percent, bs,kin~; time tem ora,ture 1.1.OCl de,~;rees centi;rade} ; P ~.~ in a l.on~itudnal direction; 2, in a tran,]verse direction? w ~.~ o~ minutes, baking pouring wei~h.t, in ~r/cu cm ~'i ~^e 1,1,'7 Ratio between the u:ltimal~e bendin stx~en~;th and. the ~~~ ~ "'Y'"F'^Y w ,. ~, .. :' ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-0003980 .; ~ , ., 00200040019-6 ,,. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 owdsrs (paros~.ty of the br~~~~tt~s !~0 pQUra~n~ wQ:~ght of cappsr p utes bak~n.~ tsmpers,ture ~QQ ds~ress percent, bak~.ng tams !~~ min ~ csnti~rada); :l~ ~,n a long-~,uc~a.nal c~~.rection; ~,~ 7.n s, ~ranaverse d~.raction~ rah plotted, in ~~a.7ure 116, ~y analy~,~.ng the curve g ~ ~ n~ituda.na~. and ~transverss shrinka~;es~ deduct~.ans, relata.n~; to 10 ,, ,case a~' powders with :lower pouring weights c .n be made o Tn. the over degrees of consolid.atian} ~ ~~,he shrinka des tat and rage, w~ lh 1 . ~ 'on of compr~~ssian are greater than in a transverse in trre d~.rect~. the curve of the lon~;itud~.nal shrinkages lies c1.1.rect:~an, and f' the transverse shrinkages ~ ~4~ith~.n the below t~.le curve o off' high pouring weights, a reverse ratio is range o f, powders ~~ d~:pic tiny; the lon ;i tud.inal .true. `the paths of .the curves, r -s~mble scissors see 1{i~uxe 118). and transverse shr~.nk~. ;es, rc o l)i.spersion ~~'- U `' d ~, ' ..~ -~ a~ ~ pouring weiUht Compression density. ~~ ~.18s Dia~;rarn of 'the change in linear dimensions in k ~.gure baking; l~ in a ~.ongitudinal direction, ~~ in a transvwrsedirection, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~ henomenan ~.s d~a,e to the :~o~.~,owinc~~ The greater Thy. p a ~ts ~,s d~.sposec~ its tha dl.recta.on of cor?~ n~~nber of sur,~~.ce cant c. ~to the number of contacts dispasecj a.n a press~.on, as compared ~~ ~n robe case of `the f~,ne pay?~~c~,~s, `thy transverse da.rec~t.~on. to ether m~~r~ifestin~; ?themse~.v~es in the processes of dxaw~.n? ~ ~ ~,.. ,fiction of the ~:~~,rl~iclea ~ to the surface of contact, pz`ew Cana tZ the maximum increase in density will. occ;ur don~~.nate. Ylence, . - ~' cation. ~n the case of coarse powders, the :i.n lon~~.tud~.ria~, dare rocesses are the processes of drawing the par~,icles predoma.nant p ' h in their turn, rt,~n in a direction normal ~to the apax t, who. c , ..acts. As a result, this case wild. show ~,ess shrinkage con t arawth in the direction of r;ornpression. (ar area tEr ,, ) ar]: rear increase in longitudinal dimensions ~, pa r ti c,ul y ?n~~ of bri u.ettes from i~owders with .flat ~.s observed in the ba~~- r, q a e of the..particles facilitates the dis?~ particles (the .flat sh p ,~ , during the absorption of the residual ruption of the c,antact conrpressian stresses) r~ ~;~'~'ect o:f the Size and Shape of th ~z'ts upon the r ~. The .....~ Structure of the Baked_ Produ is r'he struc~t~~re of a baked ,powdered r~etal (secondary struc- 1. r~ the structure of the briquette (primary tore} depends t7;reat,.Ly o structure)v followina re ularities in the chance of structure in The ' lotion to the structure of the initial powdex~s, bakina~ in re ~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~' ~` ~,; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ire to be nated~ ~, re a~~ which the ~;rawth off' particles ~,) ~ the temperate the rain sa.ze of the baked rneta~. is be~a.ns a,s reduced., and ' ~ rie den'ree of da.spersa.on of the inita.a~. powdars~ a.r~creased wa. th t in ac;cardanc;e witki the data b~ A~axkava and '~'a~,le ~~, compiled relation between the ~;ra~.n size ~~~' Korol' kov ~ ~, shawl- the d the article size of the initia]. powders baked mol.ybd.enum an p Csee next pa~e~ 'I'bis re~ul.arity is ~:~ue to the followin~~ . ~ase of compact metals (see I'ara~raph (a). Asa.rrthec h o;f? rain is increased a.n a direct ~~,), .the rate of the ~;rowt ven a hir;her power of the de~r~e of ratio to the f~.rst or e Therefore, with the carne ~tirnepla~;, the visible d~.spersian~ -h oi' the fine particles w~.ll accur~ at a rower tempera ~rowt - th,e same temperature and time-lad, Fine .particles tureo With wall draw to larger dimensions, r ~ ntent of oxici.es and a low perr~teabil.ity' fib), A h~?,her ca ,rticle bra.quettes are of .some importance (see I'ara_ of f'ine~,pa graph ~~~ sses of shrin'.:ta~e promote the Growth of ( ~,) ~ 'Ihe grace ' le the processes of d,rawin~ the particles apart the partyc , Fine -owders show considerable shrinkage, coarse h~.nder same ~ P .. ~; ~''~~~' ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 7~ ~ ThB-~ Gh.ange ^ `col r~~,enum ~akin~ 0z 1 n ; n in tn.. - ~' t,~le Ctl ay she clue o. In ~ ----- ~ oz~ ~ orol k and K ^ ~ axkoj a ~s per ~ _1 i Ze Of dean s- . 'metal of ~akea . gxa~.ns 1 o~~~.ex ~' ir_1~~1d_ ~' xticles o_ a ~~~0 rains m~Ex ~- g ~~~ean nu. ex ~- sq ~' F 2oeo n 2CUU 22.0 1.00 19=~ 3oco oti. ex to P . - ~~r~ens~-cns _-~ p}c n ~ra~n _ - balt~.n~ r ral5ed -n 26.E 11eG 3600 1(.0 15?~ 2.10 5~{ .~'?c:'s. _,-., 'w =~?".~~s+' ..:?~-- xe .?rte _'.'..~,..- +~."' _.a:- ~r ~ ,~,,a ; ss.~: . . , `. '~ ,,.. ~-... -.+,c .~.....~-; ~ _ , 3 ~:__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ ~: -- .:d -. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 powders show vo:l.w"aetxa.c ~rawth~ i~a of the pores is :i.n proportion to ( d.) a ..The s s The 1ar~;e pores a~' the coarsa powders the sire of the parta.c~.e . a~.l ~ ores off' the :Fine powders cans. 'be dosed cannot, and the sm p r included in the Grain during; the growth of up ~,n shr:~nka~e, o the latter (sea i'ara~;raph ~~-) ~~ n the case o.~' fine powders, the tempel~at?~~?c~ at (~) ~ ~ wth off' the grain bE~;ins Son1etirttes depends an the which the fro r compression pressure (see .Par~~a,;raph Il ? ~~ ~ era~ture a.~ the be~inn7.n~; of the ~ra~rth acid ~ 3a ~ 'lhe ten p n the shape. off' the initial. par~;icles th.e size of the gain depend o -_ colla sed flat particles show only of the powder. for ir>,stance, p . rawtho ~'he ~;r awth of gain in briquetees a ne~;li~ible 1;endency to ' h flat particles begins anl~r at lOC~O from copper powders w~.t +~ This is due to the disrupl;ion of the can de~r~es Cen~~~rade. the flat particles during the absorption of the tact between .~~sseS, Tn articles made :tram such. powders, the residual st. e . s.tion of the particles is frec~uentl.y presFrved. ;pr~arY or~.ent ncc of submicroscopic subdi~.sions of .the ~~~ . the prose ' e in most cases pron~totes ,rain ?rawth, particl , used in p ar'a~raph r(~-s the ch.ant;e ~.n (~~ ~ .~s already d~.sc in the baking process.--,the formation the nature of porasity'dur - . . ticl.e ores, is characteristic of fine pow- of closed and intrapar p - ~ arse awders retain the characteristics dots. Artxc.~es made from co p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 c~n~~a^ac~~i.s~~,nc~~i,on ~a fa.rte powdora, oo~~'so o.i',' thea~x ,~orasa~~t~'? ~n c 1 , ~ n ~theix^ pr,1.m~~x~Y ,.tructur~ (~I;~~e sa.~e pawdo~^s ~rc;r~~~~;n~G1,,y' rota. ~' ~~he . , ~ ;articles anal paresb 'the p~~'casc~rvat! an o a11~1 S~1c~pG Q:~ ~,h~ ,~ Cai~fl rUSsiaZ1 QriCnta't:1.a11, ~ p 1 a annat c,omp:l.o~,c,~.~' dcstr~oy the ~ 6) o k3a1~'~.n~r, a`~ a rulc,, c ~' cs romot~d by the p2~eceda.n~~ opera'tion~ s t~cuct~~r, al ch~~ rs,cte:ra.s t~. ~ n r r. essing) (see paxagr. aph rr~) ? (Srreenl ~~~ ~ `the Bffec~t of Corn~p,~~. 1 ~ A ..~.~.,..,.....,..~,~._...,_....,...... ~~ r "the. growth o.E contact and the drawing the processes o~ 'ma:ri~l'~ induced by the canstr~.c~ to ether. o.~ the particles are pry ,~ he ~ free sect7.ans of the surface to its Lion of t'cte atoms from t ~'ara~rrap~l h2 ), and _~to same extent, by contact sections (see p ansian (see ~Paraf;raph bb). th.ermal..,xp . ~ e resen~tion of the. contact ~':i.gure 11;~ ~.s a diag~ ama~t,~.c r p a~^~ticl.es o:f a briquette. I.n p:ressl.n~;~ canditians between twa p d Zn fete cantact clang s~~.rface AA is atta~.ne . 0111,y an inc omp - t along' surface ~,A may be attained heating, a camp.Le~te contac a ~. ex ansian? `T'his process maylead to a as a result o~ therms l p ontact but wi11 practically' very considera,b~.~ growth of the c ~ ~-nce there is only a ne?l?itle trans- nat a.~ fect th.e dens:>_ty, a~- mas s ~ On the other hand,. the c onw location in the bas~.c me tal 'rom the free surface BA and ~~ s~urictian of the atoms ~ . , cable translocation of the me~land to a.~,nked to a cons~.de admitted, `t'hus na substantial error will be great shrinl~cagPS? ~ ~ but not the changes in contact) if, in computing the shr~.nlca;~e Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 sac;es AA are da.sx~e~ax^dc~c~, ~nct on~.y ~~ha ,~'z~ee secta.ons o~ the .~ur~ e ire ts,~er~ ~~.nta~ acco~~nt. tl~e free sur~s,ce~ A~3 1 n 4.~.n~~~F~ ~/ ~LM1'i.?' aa. V1.~G N'.Jn~~t.L~~tJ,Vn ~S a resu~.t a~ ,~h. a 9 ? ~ atoms ~~^am the ~xee secta.ons ~to the of the ha.~,;harMmob~il.a.ty race the number a~~: these atoms is contact secta.ons of the. sur ~ iricreased~ T t is da.minished, while the contact surface a.s assumpta.on that the dl.minutian ?f natura]. to malce the fix s t ? at~,~ms in shrinks,,~E ~ or, which :~s the the Taumber o~ moba.le ort;i.an to ' inution of the Free surface) is in pro. same, .the dam r the ini.t:i.al rria rii~ude of the .:free sur their initial. numb e ( , a than as was already indicated, an face} o xt being the caaF~ s ' the magnitude of the .surface is approau.mate determl.na~ta.on o.f suf ~'i cient,~ ,~ am of candl-tl-ons of contact between twa k~~e ~--i~ ~ A d~a~r particle a in bakin~n two similar wei~h~d batches of 7,w~, us compress powder to different denrees of porosi~~~. 'I'he volume of t~.e po~?~~ uy Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _. _ . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 br~.que~,te~s vara~ew ~.n proport~t.on to ~Gha cor;f:~ic~.ent o,~ poi^osa.~y ~. (see Paragraph ~.~) ~ ~omca authors ara ~reat~.y a.n error, when they canc~;ive of the pores as c~.osed spheres, thc~ surface o.f ~wha.ch is in proportion to the squs.re, .and the vol~u~ne .,.? n.n proporti,an to 'the c~zbe o.~ the; radius ~n rea:l.ity, tiff= volume?, the surface area, and the ~.inear d.irraensians off' co~rtr~unicatin~; pores, all chdn,~e in ~~he; same' pro~~artion, (see 1'':i~ure ; ~.) "Indi~ridual" pores are r~cstricte~d from dj.fferen~h, sides by the free surface of the particles (t:he solid ~.ines in ~i'i,;ure 120) The entire surface o:f' such pores, incl~~din~ the "enlpty't dattedw line surfacPS, is in proportion ~o ~ ..The free. surface of the; particles: C solid J.ines a.n Fi ure 1.~0), which is of ' ~~ ~ is the interest to us a.s ~.n pro orta. on ~o wl exe I n 9 v~ d rlsi~t- o;f' the bri uette, The ex cession ~ ~ in rely ti ., e ~ q p , conformity with :~"ormuJ.a (1~./6), equa).s the initial poras~.~~,y of the briquette In connectionwi~h this proportion- ality, the initial Free surface may be substituted by an~~, its diminution throuh the diminution of porosity ~~ by in the presence of shrinka e (ar, which i s the lama, by 'the increase i:n relative density ~ Tram: where k is a con ~tant coe:fi'icier~t. ~~1~ ^ w ;Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Fi,~;ure 12Q, pa.a 3ram .~'or the eampu~tatian a:f the sur~'ac~a off' the pares Figure x.21 is a curve ~rdph depicting; the relation between ~1~~ and ~~ :far some po~rrders, 't'he analysis off' the curve shows ~t~7,at, w~.thin a certain rar~ae o.f,' paz~osities, it approac~~es a straight line ~xtendin :the. rectil~.near section o:f the. curve until it intersects wa.tl~, t11e coordinate axes, we see that the st:cai~;ht :Line intersects the.. lat~ternot at the zero point' but -,in accordance with 'the egl~ation; where G equals the diminution in density (increase in poros~ i~tY), with ~ ~ w Q, Such tra:nslocatian is stipulated by processes conducive to the drawing apart o_f the particles, 'lhe departures from rectilinearity in the area o:f low porosities are, seemi:n~ly, caused by the acceleration of the processes o:f drawing the particles apart. `1'he shary~ decrease in the ;ro~rth of density. and the inflexion off' the curves.. at ha.~h porosities (on the order o:f ~0 percent) cannot be expJ.ained by the drawing apart o:f the ~~.53? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,. ~ ? ~,ri ~,he ~prc~sence o;~' ~.aw dens~.tYy articles a>,~ly. ~'a be~:i.n w~.t~, P er ~.n prapar?~ian to densitY~ .but the ,free surface ~~ows na ,~an~ a 'vet ne~~.~?~~-bl~ extent ,~ I ~ .~~? ~ ~ .:~ ~~ r-~ Initial porasi~~y ~ s i.n wu.?w`".wnuaw..w . .w.een the ini~a-a1. po~'~~si.t~' and its Figure 121. The relation bet in baking; ? ~ ~ ' ncr. ease in relative dens~.t,~7 d;~m~.nut~. on (~- 0 gams par r awder, ~pourin;; weihht :~.~ .1? electrolytic Coppe p ~~ mutes. ~~er SOU de,rees centigrade, ~~ m s cubic cent~.me ~ er cubic x o~~arin~ weight Q,hr~ ~ra~ns p 2a reduced iron powde , p 0 de~reee centinrade, ~~ rna.nutes- centimeter', 11a .~ "' the existence a:E a direct In acaditian, the assumpt~.on o.c 'ree s~urfac~ and its initial ' between the d7.mi.nution o~ the ~ 1at~.a ~ a first appraximation? Actually lna~nitude, i s only on the order a ' ion to the ini Lial ma nitude ri:nka~+~ depends greatly, a.n add~,t sh n Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ` ~~ ` ~ i , , ~, '~ F~~`?~r~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,, , ., ~~ sur;~ace on the a.na.t~.a~. nl~n~aer o~ cc~n~ac~ts a,n o~ tns a.na.t~. ~. ~ a. unit oT' vo~.ume? ~ om late abaence o;~ contact, ;~'or exa~~ap:L~, during W.t. tl l a p ^, ~,oosea:~ poured upon a ~~.ate, no shrink the bak.i.rr,; ai pa.rt~.~les, y he increase in the number o:~ atoms, which age can oe~ur? Wa.th t to baking, the rate oi' growth off' new cca~n~ We;rE in contact pr~.or r ~o;rriiina b the cons~r?a.ct~ion off' the atoms to the tact sec~t,~.~~na, ~ ~ Y 'stingy sections, must increase. 'T'hus, powders, some alread;~ exa. sha~ting practical~.y always show a some~hat what consol~.dated.~ by ~ 7 x.n baking than freely .poured powders? 'I~he greater shrinka~,e is always area~~er in a lon itudinal density of the briquette ransverse di.rectionm ~~~.gui^e 1.22 direc~~ion than it, is in a t ' inlca~es ill the.. presence off' :Low den shows that -longa. tuda.nal s nr ,~, ~ are are=titer thafl transverse. shrink- sitips of the bra.quettes, aces shrinkage grows not with a dimity ages, Fence, ~n these c , '~ usual/ does, but with an increase in briquette nut~.on, as ~. t Y dens:i.tys Relative .density ~~ ~ Ratio between linear shrinkae of elcctxolytic .C'~.gure 122. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ^ams , ?~' cu~~.c cent~,mat~~'~ cop~~ex po~d.ex (~? ~ ~xada) and l~x~.q~ s at 8QQ de~xe~s cent~~~ bak~n~ time 1.~~ rrta,nute , dGn a"l t~ t .. on~;~~.tud~.na;~ d~,xe c t~ on ~ J, ~ ~n a ~. ,~,x~,navexse d;~xect~,on~ 2 , a.n ~ .1zmps txans~'e:rx7.n~ moms o ~ c on?~~,c ~~ ac's :1.a,1te the p~.aCes su ose f'oxe na~~uxa1 to pp ~~ sects-ons~ Tt .s, thr~xe ~ ~xom the .fir ~ ~) is a,n direc'~ ~~ n .the Free sux~;ace .~hs,?~ the di.jn'~nut~on ?~ ~ ~) 9 but a],so to the .. e yn~t~,~.l ma~;ni'tud ( to ~h ' xn ~khe ~ixst appxoxa... xat~.o nod, on~ 1 ntacts in a ~una.t of vol.urne. numUer off, co a unit o.~ vo?~-moo ~s ~"n o~ the contacts in ma t~. on, the den s~.t~ e ~hcns p.~,opo~t~.an to ox' ~hexe ~e expxession ~. ~~~ ~ ~ti ~~ww~?~pW.1lMIWN J~. c~ cta.on ~.n Vo~.ume ~.n bak~.n~~ V a.e the ,re ~u is the in~.tia~- volume ~ Vo /~~ , ~~ .the voti~umet~'ic shxinkae ~,ndped ~~ .... ~"r~/6) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 k~~i 7~u~^e J.23 ~.s a curve graph d~p~.c~~.n ~h~e rela?~a.on ba?t~w~en to ~r ~~ and ~;he in:i?~a.a1 porosa,~y ,~'or some powders. shr:~nka,~e "'" ~a n ~"a.~llre 123 haves ~, :lar e~ ~ect~ on off' rc~c~il~.neara.~y curves :~ ?he curves in 1{i~ure 121 ~U'ue to the same causes, the ?~han ~ ? nsiorl of the s?Lrai~ht line in~ersec?~s ~,he coox~d~ina~e axes exte a?~ ?~he zero poin?t~ bu1~ :i.n accordance wi?~h equa'~ionr no?~ v~ where C is ~~hFa ;raw~,h in volume a~t ~,ero poro si?ty. The xn~.~~.al porosi~t?~s in - ~~~, ~tela?tion between volume~Lric shr~.nka~e ~ and ~.n~.t Fi ~uroM 1 ~ a ri ~ze~~~es (electrolytic copper,. pouring wei~h~t paros:~ty of the b q Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 7 ~ ~ er cub:i.c c~r~t~,moter, ,~QQ de~;re~s centa.~rade, ~~ ~..~0 ~rsan p m~.nutes) ~,et us ~,i~ve an appraximate eva:l.uation of the processes a irl.~ a art of the particles, The order o:~ c Ur~duca,ve to the d.r w p , nt C in .f arnrulas (7~/~) and (r~~~~) u~uall'Y mapnituc~e of cons to canes ands to appro~a.ma~tely a ~ percr~n~t growth in valwne? p r ~ amn~itud.e o:E the same order as the a.ncrease in volulrre ~Y~~.,7 a.s a m ~, a.nducec~. by the fu11 absorption of the corrlpression stresses. Thus it is rather probable th~~t, i.n a number o.f' cases, the growth is to a cons.i.d.erable extent, in~.uced s:peci:t'ically by r~ 7' ~~ resses, /'his ~ro~~th ~ see ~k'ara~raph LG3) depends the re s a.d~~al ,~ ~ ' tle an density, anr~ is, probable', samewha~~ increased in the 11t the rtraxim?n, and ;possible .also of the mi,tli.nlum pres~ presence of ~~ - must a:Lthouh :f'or d:~.f'ferent ;r~asans) be rrlalli-~ sores. ~onal~.ty (. at its maximum in the presence o.{' the h~.;ryhest and the f e s ted est densities. '~~he negative effect of the individual. chanP;eS low articles and, possibly, also of thermal. expansion} a.ntllep ( lost erce title at hi~;l1 densi.ties? ~:'he bul~:in~; out e:~'fect 1 s rr p p the ..aces in the opinion of the author, is insi~nif'icant? o f ~; ~ a c~n'ectura:L ratio between the effect of 'the l~~ure 12~~ sclows J va.riaus processes upon shrin'~ca ae and density? rl?ne character ofthis ratio may chans;e cans:iderably i'ar different powders ' erent bakin; candit~_ons? `t'he intensi:~ication in and for diff of the roc~sses, cand.ucive 'to the drawing; apart the effect p r~ticles in t;he presence of very smal:~ ar very h7.~h of 'the pa , ' 'es is linked to a certain extent to the correspandin~ poros~.t~. , ~~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .,." an a.n the r~~~a~l,a.ve ~~;renp~;h U.~ the ba^a,~,~~a~~~es, Qa~p~~essad x~duc La. rcQn~;a?e off' carnpress~~.on pr~~5sure (secs 1~'a,~;ure ~9, .n te;rtns a;~ pe ~.~ ~~itrve ll.). n ow~~~er:~ man;i.~'c;st~i.np ha.~h ah.rinka~;es, ~~he pracess off' x p o,~'L consi.de;rablY ~,he d.=L~'~'ere;nces in parasa.~;l ba,lca.n~ levels ~~ yen ~~h.e roduc'ts camprc;s red ~lo di.:t':~eren~t densi~a.es as we1.~. ba ~wG p as be~Lw?en 'the s}~ots o;~ di~'~'erc~n~~ densi.~ties a.n 'the same bri.w e~~~te see k'i.~l~r~e 12~) ~ '1'l~.is ;/eve~.a.n}, e1':fcac~ ~.s increased ~u ( ' th ~l~,he increase .n ~;empera~Lures acid iri snrinka~;es. '1`h~ s~.me e~':Cec~t of c~eilsi'~~ le~vE.l.in irl~:uce a da.s~t;orl,ians in the sha ~a o:C briclue~l~tes wi~~h d~.:~'~'~r~en~~ dcnsi~~ies in di:t'~'erent; places, ~;, ~~oras~.~~~' off' bri~.~ue~~~l~es (can,jectura:Lly, ~~) ~'i~cure ~121~p l~iaararrt o.E' i~he e~'1"eG~ af" the various processes upon Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~' ~; a~(,' ~;he b,r~~,~:luettes~ 1'a:ros~~~Y shrinltaaG ~.n .r, e~a~t~.on to the den,~a~ y , ~, ~ uent red~a,cta.an o~~ the ax~.des a.n is coz'~,~ectura~., w~.tl~ ~~he ;~ubseq , r~'na ~~'heref are, a:L1. ~Lhe curves or~.~,a. bak~,n~ take~r~ ~.n~o accoun'~~ ~ ~ ave the . ~ r ~ o;rosi~~y, but, at ~:~ome po:~nfi, ab not at ~Lh.e po~.nt o.~ zero p orosity of the non~z'~ed~uced br~.~ latter ~ corresponcla.n~; to Coro p ~~uettes) .., ~ t~ sYtr.i.nkape d.ue to atom~i.c raob~.i'~y3 1 ~ "c on l,ra~ t esses o~ zonal. i~;olati.on, a~' the 2e the e~':fect a:~' resa.dual str ~ o.L . 1c,~, off' the c;om~por~er~t a~:' the e:C.f~ect 1~beration o? uses, ~z e bri u~ttes h attenuates 'the strength o~ th, ~. the oxides, wha.c and o.~ the baked proc~uc~s; . ~ e;rmal e~,~~ansi.on o:~ the. ps,rticles; 3~ the effect a.e 1,h~ th tivates f the eff'ec~ of the ox~.des wh:LCh ac ~` the .component o balcinP; ~ the re5u,ltin,a curve. _...~-.- ~~c~.ative densi ry prior to bakinp sit and density after bak7.n~, ~.elat~~-on between porn Y F'i pure 12 ~ p r~ ...and density prior to baking, on on the one hand, and pora~~i~ty owder, pourin we~.pht lo~~ the other hand. ~leCtro:Ly~tic copper p -~60- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ __ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 yams peg cuba.c centimeter` ~~ wders in the mer~.uz7t ranges a:~ com~ ;fin the case a~ many po ., e ~'a.na1 paroa.~~y a;~~er baka.n~a is s,pprox~- press~.an densa,i~~.es' th ' n~.tia:l. ' ora~i~y ~ :fin ~~17e ~balcin~; a~ matelY in proporta.on to the :~ p a es rather, numerati~.s departures 'ram pocaders w~.th ha.h ~hr~.nk ~; , - ~ ~ - abserveda .fin i~hat case, the f:'inal tha. s proporti onaJ.a. ty arE not d.e~endent upon the initial. density densi~ky is prat t~?cal.~.y gyres ~.n thy: case of hi~h~.y?oxidized powders, 't`he ratio o:f shrt.nka~~ " other cases, a~.so depa~r''~s :from the usual. grid in a number o.r type (sec ~'i~;ure 12~} S ~cific gravity' o;' bri~,~.~~tte, ~r/cu cm p r , in co ~~er briquettes ~bakin~ ~'or 1 hour at .~'i~ure J,~64 ~hrinlca~e p r~~a degrees centi~ra,de} . ~c~ ~~ ~; :percent o:E oxygen} p ~.. ax~.d~.zed pp ( ercent o:f oxygen} o owder prior ~o n~,dation (~?~ p ~,..samecapper p 61 y x Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~n ~.gure :l?2' the path a.~ shrink~,~;es in a :~angitudina~. and transverse directions was a~.ready ana~.yzed., `l'he densa.ty a~' the contact or~,ent~t~.on is greater in the direction off' com- press,ia~n than in a transverse directa.or~, In the p~~sence a~' l,ow densities the increase ire ~~k~he area o.C pz"evious e,ontac~~s a.s predo~iu.rlant~ '~herc~fore, shrinkage in a longi~tu,dinal direc- Lion ~'i.e,, in the d;irec'~ia.n of the maximum number o:f contacts) wil]~ be o.f a smaller ms.gni tude ~ xI1 the presence o.F higrl densities, on the ca:tltrary, there is a greater disruption 0~ COI1taC'ts and a treater growth in dimensions iI1 the a'oove ~irectioll, :fit is particular~:y necessary to false inAi;o acco~~nt the Fact that. the absorption o:~ rr~sid.ual stresses induces the maximum expansion in a di,rec~tion per~~ndicizl.ar ~,o' tho contacts, i..ee, a.n a Lon- itudinaL direction. The mean shrinkae value in briquettes oi' the same mean d~nsityr depends considerably on the distribution of the Latter, T'o:r instance, in the presence o.f high density in the center, and ,low density at the periphery of the briquette, shrinkage will be hither, than _n an inverse distribution off' density, 7'he mechanical. properties o:f the products are enhanced with' the d.ellsity of compression ~ F'igu.re 127}, Tn powders with high sl?Irinkage values, the :Levelin e:E.fect of baking results in the Leve:Ling of density and other mechanical .properties iri a progression with temp~raturo, (see Figure 100}, Tn some cases, even an attenuation off' ;1~echanical properties with. compression density is observed ('particul,ar:ly when excessive pressl~res re~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '` __ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~oW~vQr ~,n ,. , r ' n f~.aws dura.n~ the presa.na opera~a~on) ? ~ sub ~a ,l a, ~~.na,ca~. pr~~~aert~.es a~' ha.,~;h~:yMcor~~pxesed most cases, i.~he meth a ven thc~l~!~h t~,he ~aroduets, a~'ter 1~ak~nP;, `~rod:~cts are h~.~~,h~r e ~~.~ ~.ower dens~.ty than the produces not so ma,~ have a s ornew ps,rticul.~~r.1~y h~.~ h ~.s the ~rowthy wa.th ha. ,~h~.y_compressec~ act surface, of the densa.ty, a,nd of the pre;~sure, o~ the cant erta.es in the case of powders which other m~chanica]. ~.E~rop ' ' ble voJ.umetric chan?~ea as a result of balca.n~~ show nel~,~;a. Compressa.on pressure in k~;/s~ mm k~.~ure~~.Z7 ~ ~,a~ti.o between dens~.t~y ultimate strength (~~ ~ yie~.d points and e].orl~ation ~ , on the one hind,, s a.nd compression pressure the other hand, in the case of ba~~:ed on ' ~on x;00 de ;tees centi~r~.de, 30 ,minutes) in vorti.c~.ty m~./1. ~.~ accordance with th.e data by ~~-~-ender and ~chwalbe. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~" '~ ,~ ~. ~.~ PY pp_ @ '~~ ~~ ~.~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Tt raus~L be a~nphasa.~aod par~a.~,u~.ar~l.~ ~~ha~ ~Lhe s~rua~ura~. ef:~`~~ct, a.nd~.tced by camprass.c~n, Gan Haver be con~plete~.y ba~.a,nced a~'f in ba~tin~~ (~ampress~i,on da.sinte~rates the associat~.on of pa.rtic~.es (whan such exi at) and fi1,~.s the 1.ar~e pares. Cam- pression resolves the ske~.etcan strenth a:t' th,e material, as caused by the en~a~ement and in~terlacinp.; of the particle ~. f.~onsolid.atian as a result of shrir~ka~;e in ba.kin~; primarily. increases the cohesion. bettilacn, but Hat the e,nha~emerrt of, the par?~ic].es, arxd fills the fine, but not the lame pores. ~ience, the px^aCess of baking; care never ful.l.y cornperrsate for the ~'avora,bl.e strl~.ctural changes, induced by high compression, Tt follows from, this, that the obtaininh o.C briquettes o.f' the hiF;hest possible density should be` aimed at. 'his possibility z.s restricted,. on the one hand, by tYie wear in the .press molds, and, ora the other hazld, p~.rticularly irr the cage of sine powders' by unfavorable structural chaises resultir~r, from excessive.. pressure, such as larnslla,r fissures, which cannot be recti.f'ied in baking, and the e:~cessive orientation o.e flat particles 7~, The ~f'.t'ect of the Preliminary Trea~rr!ent of Powders ~.'he mir,~n~; of powders irl ball rni1./s is accompanied by tote :~'ollowin,~ changes; (l). .As a result of the trea~rlent, there occuz?s the breaking up of associations of particles, of the parti.clcs there- selves, particularly in the case of brittle and. hard metals, and of the surface layer of oxides an the particles, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (~). ~~.on,~sa.de of the red,u,ct~.on s~~~aa oecux~s thQ reM verse prr~ce~s of the diminution off' the speca.fa~c surfaces of the partic:J.es, c~u~ to the colla~asa.n~ and the rol~.~i.n~; up ?:~' ro~~,ahw nesses and protuberances, par~a.cu.~.ax^:1.~ ~.n the case off' sa~'~ and ductile rC14 tal ~ r (~)~ ~I'~~,o surz^are oya.dat;ion off' pa,r~;~.c1ea is ~~~ass~.ble. ( ~~) ~ ~'reatment in the ball mills induces a coldMhard- enin~ effect in the pati^i~~.cles, (~) ~ The flattcninU out of th.e particles, pa,rt~.cularly in the case of soft and duc~;ile z~~tetalsg is possibls~o (b), The disintegration of tho surface layer and the col.lapsin~; of the particles reduce the st~rer~~;th of the powders and of the briquettes, a,s is indicated by the cantinua~us in~ crease in the pouring; wei~;h.t of mo~~;t of ...'the powders treatc;d. in ball miJ..:l..s. 't'he call-hardening; of the m~;ta,l also reduces the stren,th of briquettes. ~orae of the above faetars, such as the reduction in siz,o of the; surface layer of the particles, the bre the metal, and, ~. same. In coarse.. powders, the changes in pour? percent of the wei~?ht are ~eneral.ly little perceptible, an#~ ~ s ~aoint of in:i:'lexion is displaced in the directs (~~} ~ the .E. -he lower ternpera.tures, with the fineness of the powder t:~an of t the effect o:[' the precedin; cold-treatrrtento ~'or and under per of a pouring wE~i~ht of 1my0 gams instances electrolytic cop/ ' c~ eentimc~te~ attained ~.ts point o:f' inflexion at X00 per cub~.~ ti ride ? after pressa.n~ at 2~ ki:lo~rams .per square degrees cen ~ s ,~er and crushin~~ its point of inflexion was attained at m~.ll~.met care mallarneter and. crushing, its point of ~.0 k~.la~rams .per sq . lexion was attained at 300 degrees centigrade. inf lifter the paint of inflexion has been attaan~d, C~~ 'n~ weight of the powder beans to increase the ,~ourM the DOUrl r, ., Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 volume 1~e~ins 'to d,a.rn~.~ish) m rl'his range of temperatures a.n~ ~ can be d~.vided a.nto t~~ra parts. a ~'he temperature ~z~an~e wa.tha~n whicYl the pouacin~ ( ~~ not exceed. (ar exceeds only to a ne~J~i~;ible weight still claw 7.nitial value prior to anneal.in,~ ~"or a.nsta~~ca, in extent) ~. is ' ~ er wa.th a pouring w~i~;ht of to ~0 th,e case a~ electrolyt~.c Copp s er cubic centimeter, the temperatia.re of 60Q degrees cen- ~?ram p above the paint of inflexion, belt the paur~.n~ weight t,~,~rad.e l~,es t et attained its in~.tial value ~ Tn ~lal~is case, the has no y ' n Wex.r~~ht~time ratio curve shows a continuous drop izr pours ith the time..l.~a,~ at -600 d,e~,rees centi.~;rade poura.n~; wea.~ht w C {' 1 ? should read ~~ see ~~i~ure 1.32 ? (gee la.~;ure 3 ~ G nr eratur~ range, wt~ain which the pou~'~-r~~ (b), the to p ' ~ht exceeds its initial value and increases corltinua7.].y wei.,., ti~1e~,l.arf of annealin. ~~{or electrolytic copper with wa. th the rin wei ht of 1~;0 ,rams per cubic centimeter, this tem~ a you ~; ~ ature rare e begins at 70~ degrees centi;rade (about 70 .per ~ ereent of the melting; point), see Figure 1320 p be~irinin~ of 'the ternpe~rature ranee, in which (6). the h 'n. wei ht exceeds its initial value and cantiriuously the pour: ~ ~ ' ncr~:ases with a~lnealin~, loos not, depend an the preceding ca].d-~troatmerrt. 7 .Under law annealing temperatures, approxima~~ely on () 0 0 ercent of the melting; pa~.nt o:~ the mEt~a1., 'the order of 30 t h p -173- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 r ~ G, ,meats ~ ~ ~ thG~ speca~ ~'~,o sur~'aae as shar~n ~y. ad,ao.rpt~on moa~ure a ' ~ .ater than its a~n.ita~a~. ma,~na.tude ~~oth ~'or rn~~~~:~~.a..c powM :~~ gre d.ers an~..~ar oxides), ~l:'ime off' annealing, in minutes .~~. ure 132. ~.'he change in the vol.~arnetric characteristics o~ ...._ ~ ...__..-..w.- powders in reJ.a~l,iori to the dura~,ion of annealing; I. electrolytic coppers pouring weight of 1.~~ gams per. ubic centimeter, anneala~ng at 700 degrees centi~xade; c 2, electrolytic copper, pouring weight of 1m58 gams per cub~.c centimeter, annealing at ba0 degrees centigrac~.e. Th.e above; results .are due. to the following. A.11 the powder paz?1;icles are ~1.i.ke p1.ax~ets in r~iniature. Their upper layer is .covered. with mois~L ,fra~;rnents o:L' oxid.es, ich are in a sort o.f' argil~laceous state, At the temperature wh of about 1~0 de,~;rees centigrade, the water boa.ls out from the .fine capill.a~~ies, with an accompanyinf; shrinkage of the type Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 s~.c;catian p~' c~~,ay, ~:t being the case that, ac c;uxra.n~; ~,n the de ..the aa~ta.,c~.~a 'becomes to~x~haned, as a the sur~'ace Layer a~' p ~r we~i ht of the powder~i.s reducedo resu~.t of which the pour~.n~ ~ the wate~^ ca.ases the pares; a.n ~n the moist ~,sye~^ off' ax.~.des, . ~ water boa.~.a aut :From the capa.~.~.a~~s, the desa.ccated layer, the . e access~.b~.e to the substance bea.n~ ad-" whic~>, thus become mor ' ncrease ire ~1~he pourx.n~; Weight and sorbed, This e~cla:~ains the ~. ace of the me~ta~.s and oxides at the tEm~ in the spec~.~'~-c s~.rf G' de. reel centigrade ~correspondin~ to perature of about 1,,0 h,e firs?t stave of ba'~ing, see 1'ar'agraph 70). t ' a~.a.n~ o:c meta]. powders above 20U? centigrade, :tn the he G -, . ~ ed b the rPd.uction of o~~.desr A5 an important part is play y ace 1a_er b~com~s t~u~her, and the pouring a restuLt, the surf Y ?, iminishedr ' ~.dsorptian measurement, waifht is mare. ar~d rao~e d ~~ his stake, an increase a.n adsorption may soraetirrtes show., at t clue to the f'o~.~.owinr; causes, ~ have area ter adsorption capacity than their (1,) , Meta1.4 axid.es r ' s ecif~:~c sur.f'ace can actually increases It (fi)r `.[he p a~, successive oxidation and reduction 1s common knawled,,e th considerably er~la~rges the surface o:~ a at low temperatures powder, xn ar~.d.itian, the surface of the party-c~-es may { 3) r mewhat increased in heating, even apart from the become so - i.an. `t'his, by no means, contradicts the process Of redact Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 second ~,aw a~' thc~rr~odyr~am~.cs~ 'thus, the surface off' a bux~na.shed motaa. p~.ate becomes an~s,x~ged and. raugla an annea:l,in~,, but ~~he enta.re surface of the pa.ate, inc~ucl~,ng the intGrnaJ, su.x~'acs o:~' the ~;ra~.ns, a~a thereby d~creasad, This s~rage corresponds to the second and, possib~.y, to 'the third stage of baking, The appearance of a point oi' in~'lexion (at L~Q ~~0 60 percent oi' the melting temperature, in the case o:E' fine powders), the increase in the pouring wcairrht, ~whic.h, as yet, is nat attain? irlg its initial values, and the decrease, at thin stage, of the specific surface is d.ue to ~t,he followin;. With a rase in temperature, ~t~he process of the reduction of oxides pro presses, ar~d the ~ur.~ace l4~rotuberances, al.thouh having became toughened (they do not. frat;t~~re under brittle deformation), y~.cld ~~ore easily to plastic deformation, 'Wherefore, the paur~ ing weight is great~;r than the minimum, even though npt yet in excess of` i~;s initial vall.te, With the tame-lag the baking of the fra~mnents and. protubcz~ances ta;.es effect, and the sur- face layer becomes less porous and gains strength. The rise in the strength of ~f;ha.,s layer .results in the diminution of the pou:rizxg weight with the time-lag duration in ann.eaa.ing, At the follo-~i.n,c; stage (about '10 percent o.~' the melting point), ~t,he making e:(':l'ect is increased to the point where it levels out the large protuberarxces a~~d depressions in the surface of the particles, In addition, the surface layexn is softened as a result of the complete cli.rninataon of the oxides9 The Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 dim~,nuta,on off' roughness and h~~x~dness ~xow~ w:~th the t~rn~erature ta,me~~.a~;, and the pou~~.n~; wei~~h~ ;;rows continuaus~.y w~.tl~ tl~e durat~,~n off' anr~ealin~, This stage is a~.so charactex~a~zed by a consicl.erab~.e cia.rna.r~uta.on o.f, the s~acc~.:~'ic surface o.I? ~Ghe parts tic~.es, These phenomena cox~r~~spond to the end a~' the tr~.rd and. the be~;innin of the fol.t,rth sta,~e o.~' the baking process, 79 ? The ~:L'f'ect of the ]~altin~; Atmosphere ~aulcloh and .l-Ienkel ~ ~~~ experimented with the baking off' ., thr--, burnished sur~,t'aces off' compact rnEta~,s in vacuum and in an atmosphere off' hydro;er~, They cut the tensile stren,yth. test specimens into two halves, burnished the sur:~aces o,~' the cut, clamed the two halves to;c~t,hex ~.n a s~aecial clamp, and baked .them, `l'he results are liven in 'fable ~5, [sec next p~ e f'or' ''able ~y ~ ~:t cart ~?e seen :E'rom Table ~5' that, in most cases, bakin in vacuum be~,an at lower ternpet:~atur~as and resulted in stronf~;er contacts, f'':i.~;uro 133, in accordance with I~etzel, depicts 'the den- sity and L.he shrinkage :Cot copper powder specmens, compressed under the same conditions and baked in vs.ruum and in hydro~en~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~~ T~_b . - i C ~e ~, nnzn ~ o~ ature at ~h -, _ on the Temper ~ tyros here un , rl~ ~ ~, ~ u ~ ~- o the Bak_ ~C ~, ~ `~Sle ~z ~ . - ~ ~ Ba.clr. ' ~. ~- S rEr, ~h A~ta.~ne~a ~~laxs-mtim t ~ ar~d u on ti!~e P ., r on aril _lenk e3 Bau~I. ~.s ~ ams er ? '- .~ned In k~~o~r p stren~t~? a ~ ~a , - e- I~axl~!um ~atu? ? or tie b Tempe_ _ ~ - n~ of bang Zn girir ~, ; G sCUa o C r - n uum n va In ii dro~en ., m u , n rlyci~?ogen In ure of bakln~ to . erat ~ I a- Me ~,als . lI1 VaCU. 0 ~ 0 2~ 000 e ~ - .~ ~,~ - ~1 ou - cu ~ 31~, o0 ~ ~G 600 900 ~ j: ~ ?~?+t b i ~ /~ .,,~ e V ~- s 900 r Ssi 10.0 . hll-~1 ~0 ~10 l ~ t, iron :Steel ~ 60G looa ~ ,,, g0 ~ , c~ -900 ~ 0 l;. i; .C Cu -- Fe ~ ~0 1 ~.1G ~ 1000 2C~0 2;?~ S~ceel 0 000 100G 2C,~ Z~.O Fg - ~'e a ~, 6u0 ,- 1000 ~ 1~e0 2~.0 . ~' Fe I1~ 0 600 . j- ~l ~~ o 600 loon { ~ z ,c J , s9,0 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ressian pressl~'e, in k~~sq tin Comp ~, oaf' copper and. the baking '? ure x.33 ? ~,atio betcaeen 'the aen,~~. Y atsnospYler. e ~ as per I~et'~el} ; shrinkaf~e in h~rdra~en; 2. :1.. shra.nka~e in vacuum; r7 ~ in hydrogen-_ vacu~~n; ).~. specific ~rati _~~ 3? specific gravity ~.z~ beaked far ~,6 hours at 'Z~C de~~?ees centi~rad.e. ns these results in the} f'o1.:Lawin~ Theau~har expla~- manner. e formation of the new contact ~~~. _The process of-th d~ ~,~ a cart o:~' irnpre~nation, urfar:e and shrinkage maY b~ conceiVe s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 of the p~are,s by the mo~a~i~.e serr~.~.~,quid sur:~ace :layer off' par t~.cles (soe ~~aragraph 7~.) ? 'line prwsence af' air makes the impr~;,,natian di~'~'a,cu.:lt, a vacu~~m i'aci~.it~a~fi~es the ~'a.1.':l.ing off' the di~'fa.cuZ.t].y accessible capa.:l,J,aries- ~y thc~ carne token, the gasMcontainin~; intraparl,icle pores, as indica~;ed by .L+ren~ ' ~ - (6~) cannot lae fi'illed comp~.etely with rrtetonents are r~ca.procall,~~ so~.Lul~le under -the ' ~tions o:f .baking, with na .farma,tian oaf a ligt:ta.d phaser cond. e com onents are reciproca1_ly soltiiele ~~~nder (3)~ ~h p aka.n~J with the ~'orrna~i,i.an oi' a .~~-quid phase. the cand:~~~~.ons oi' b ~s an exam le a~ the :first case, copper graphite and ~s p ..~~ '.te com~ ositians call be painted. to (Footnote, :fn bronze ,,raph~ ~? ~~ ' ~? c ansidered as a grouping of corrlponents this case, bi orize ~.~ ich are inert with relation to graphite}a (copper' tin}: wh ' akinr~ in -solid phase, in ~~he prew~e1Ce off' reciproca:L he b com orients, is exemplified by .~hP baking solub~.lity off' the p ,. iron nickel, and other alloys. '~hP balrin; o:C capper n~.ckel, ~' n off' a li uid phase, in the presence o~ re? with the :forma ta.a q o:~' ~t;he components, can be exernplif'ied by ciprocal ~OlLlb~_~.:Lty alla s WC + TiC ~ ~Co, and others), the baking of the hard Y ~ so'acalled heavy allay (W ~ N ~ Cu)~ etc. of the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~, ~'~a,~t within the ,~ra~neworlc o~" thaw dome cases do no the combination ironM,;rapha~tc classi:fiaata.on~ ~'o~r inst~~nce, ,~~se off' rec:~proca~. non~solubilit,~r o:~ may be considered as a c r~,~hitc~ noes not r~,ac~t under i~he thc, components, when t~~c ~; 1. ~.ron. Very irequentl',y', ~.o~~" c~.c7nditions o:f.' b~,kint~r wi~t.f.7 the . c during ~,he baki:n~ o:~ i~'on.~x~aphate ever, cementite ~s .~orr~e~ . s stem, then, must be considered as a briq~.lettes, and the y The same is true o:l the sys'te~m case o.~ reciprocal solubilityo s the coppc,r. reacts w.'>.th the lead, coppexWlead? Tn same case , . m to al.], pr.~,c;~La.cal purposes, can in other cases, the syste , case off' reciprocal: nonws~lub~,li.t~y~ be considered as a 810 a~l ~] oz~~-;~o].ubiJ.i~ty_ of the C. ?~one- The C ash ~ _~e~.? c?~-_--~-?-~--~-"~."_"" . ~ ~ ~~ a owder metal. with :Full reciprocal 7;~he proper ties o~ ~? ` ' ]. detern~tined by the component en.. non- oa.ubility is ;Prlmara. y }a.m~~un valu~netr~ic quantity. ~~Ience, terin~ into the charge in a7~ar and density in con~'ox~mity wa.'~h the the meCh,anica]. properties will i~np1^o~re with the deree o~ data ana:Ly2ed in Chapter ~C, ~, to ~~ ~ me~t~al? ~ tYp~-cal Pxamp~'e o~ camp7.e dispers:~on o~ the ba,~~.c ' ~ he s stern copper~~raphite ? ~~'he reciprocal non~solubi? i~ty :t.s t y om~onent, enterins~ in~l~o the c;ha.c~e ~n a e~i'oct n:~ the a.nert c 1 sel? to in this case, ~rap'nite~, reduces ~.t smaller quan~t~-ty owin, ~ see Figure 1.3~) ? the doll ~ 2 M: ~, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 graphite F,iguxe :1.3~.m I~elaLion be~l~ween shrinkage and the r~~.~chanica:l. e:rties o~' cop.~er-~gr~,pl.~,t~ compositions and their ,~raphitc prop ' __ s crrees Gent~~rade ~,r7 m~.n~ content (baltin~; cond~.tians ,3n0 de;,, ~ ~ utes, 3~ percent porosity); 1, change in dimensions in a lon;itudinal da.rection (electxow lytic capper powdex, pouxin~; weight J..~O prams per cuba.c centimeter; 2. same as above, except in a transverse direction; bending de~'1ec;~~ion, .dine capper :.powder;. bending d~f'lecLion, medium. copper powder; bending deilectio~, ca~rse copper powder^. ultimate bending strength, :Cine copper pawcler, pouring weigll~t 0.6~. gram per cubic centimeter; ultimate bending strength, rned~.i~m copper powder, pouring ..weight 1.~0 grams per cubic centimeter; ultimate binding strength, coarse copper powder, pouring Weight 2.17 grams per. cubic cent~.m~ter; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a cer~,aa.n e~.t,:~,n~,~ tie ,~~ , ~~,~ a~~ao~.ates ~ t4 .~.} the ~ ~ ~ ,the ~;pnS'tx~Qtl.Qn ( ha.nr~ex {'ram mutual c ?n~'a c~'' ?ta], pa,t;~t~.c~es 'n st~r~~nk~3,~e, and thus me .the placea of COntac ~ f~,~''t1C~.G'~ a `~.'h~ Sallle a~ 'thy, atoms to the p ,F ?the dxs,wa.n~; to~e'the ~' o hana.,cc,~. ;~txen~th o~ co~antez'ac%t5 .des the incc on a,~ cont~.ct a"Ltenuo? ' r ,~~. ,,.c ~' the .pxaCesSes W11ic 1 ~.,~ola e:~.~e~,t a ~~,:~ and enhances the ~ between them the powdex mc. t th~ c,t~ . and disrl~p. ~ conk' the part~,c:~es apaxt ~s a ,educed shx~-nk" dxaw , a.n?trod~uc~"n ~ ~xa ~,,ha.te u1t the result o~ as a xes ~Ience ~ a Urowth ~..n dirnensj-ons ?ce 1en.~~~ there :i.s even ~ ~;cted ~ see a?;e ~ ~ q as was to be e~.P ..~eyn~ .the .case tha?t~ a o~ ba~,cin~;} m ~~' ales dim~.n1sh to ~,on~:i.tud~~-nab shx~'nk ,~ ~a.~,~ ~xdph ~~) ~ the ransverse shxinkaaesd ~r extent tha.rt the t . heat ~~xom mu~ua~- emetal pa~,.t~c~,es `the isal.a~~on o.ti th (2) ee o:~' d:i.spcxs~.0n o.~ de r the ama,~nt and the ~ xowa with 47e . x~r~~resses con~tac~t ~ ~.nut~-on of sh~`inka,, p y h~.~e, I1enCe, the d.~.m rs~,on off, the ~raph~.~te. the crap a~ di.spe e ?mol~nt and the deaxee ~W~.th th ~ atteX~u" . xesence off' ~~.dphite In ~71ost Cases, the A ~ the (3}~ it be~.n~ ert~.es and pl,ast~lclt~~ the meChana.cal. ~~'?p ro~ext~-es incxPases aces the p . e off' attenua~tlon ?~ case that the de~re o,.~nt off' graphite. with the ~ raphit? (in ~,ntrod~a.ctian o:~' ~ Zn some cases, the p o~ dis.. (~~} A adequate d?~r~e in ~,he Presence o~ ~ 1Lan~~-t~~ side o~ the daminua a sma~-~- q a;~or~~ he bas3.c metal} induces' ersion of ~ ~l paradofcical Increase ~ a'~ s e em~.n,~ ~ shr~-~a~e and densitly .' n o.~ , . ,. '~~his is due to the ?La.o th ...and de ~ax~riab~-i~?ty ~n mechanical ~ren~ .. ,. . ~k'~ f `~ ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ' ~ rease~. homy enaa.?~y of the densa.t~' distr~~bu'ton in the 1a~a.- a?nG ~ ? tc~ wa.th the in,~;rodlzcta.on off' ,~;rapha.,te (~ see ~'~.gure ~~ ), a 7 suet , ? ~wha.ch the d:i.star~ta,ons a,n shape, buckla.ng, and a result o~ internal strasses axe da,ma.~la,shed after baking.. ~~ ta.mes, ~x?a(~hi.te also exerts a ~~VO~'ab.~e depX].d~.71n~ ~.~~eC'~. ra . ~J~:>wt'rl the diminution o:~' ttae d.egxee of da.spers:i.on ~) '' the basic metal, 'the ~-;~olatin effect ox graph:i.te upon the o~ surface of the ~ particles and its negative effect upon 'the i chan:i.cal ro~erties grows. ~t is for '~h~-s :rea aon that ~,he ne ~ :~ are of ra hid: a.nto .coax^se metalloceramic charges ~.ntroduct~ ~ p is avaidec:~, ~~ ~ ~~he rat~.o between 'the mechanical properties and ~) the deree of the graphite dispersion is a very complex one. Fine owders o:f the basic metal, best results .fin 'the case of p are usually obtained by introducing a graphite of greater dis- ex?sion even thau~;h it reduces shrinkage to a greater degree. .~ s 'he diagram in Figure 13>) explains such behavior on the part I' . ~, ~ ra~~hite. ~''ine graphite, disposing itssJ.f in the pores o~ the g ~ ween individual particles. does na~t obstruct the contact bet while coarse raphi~te creates a considerable between the .Latter, lion off' a series of particles, Tn the case o.fcoarser local ~,sola n the .contrary, a coarser ;raph~.te, which in this..case powders,.. o = tself in th:e interparticle pares, .produces better d~.sposes a.~ W. ile fine raphite isolates completely the surface. results... h ~ a titles' which his an ex~Lreme7.y negative effect, upon. of the., p r s 'rr~e mechanical p~'ope~?ties~ ~~~~hus, ~ certain commensurability Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .. arta~c~es, srs be;tweer~ the ~rap'rLa.'~e i.n the rlla n~tude o.L Ghe p and the a.ron, a.s necss~s,ry~ ~pia~ra.m off:' the d~spa,,ition of 1{i~ ~3~? ~~ e ra hi.~e; b~ coarse arapha.te a. t~,n ~ aY~4~.~Jh7.te; as no subs~Lantl.a7. e~F1'ect upon the tem- ~'~) ?~~he ~ra~ph~.te h . of shr~.n]ca~e and the be ;innin, of pera~Lures of the be ~~-nn:in~; s when the_int.roduction o~ particle growth. Tn those case , ' 7 the b;~ltin,; process, in a consider- ~raphi.te resulted, dura.nf.~ some cL~minution of Grain size was able growth off' porosity, observed? ~~ra hite burns out in ba~.in~a ~~'he ~ ~) ? ~ part o ~' the ~, ~ = h ' creases with general porosa.ty and wit rate o~ burn:~n~ out ~.n the size o:~' individ7~al poresA chs,r~es sho ~~1d be mixed in ..drums ~ ~ 9) ? Copper-~;z aph~. t~ oid the complete isolation ef.tect. and nat. in ball. ma.la.s, to av '.th reference to coppex~r;~'aph~-~t~ The deductions drawn w~ :tso to other. systems. ~'or in~ composite-ons may be extended a ir. on-graphite materials has shown that, stance, the study o~ acts with iron, w~,th the :~orrrtat~.on even when the ~rap~-fie re this system is subject 'to the sarr~.e of perl~.te and cemen't~.te, hat more ~~omplex) as a res~~lt off' the ,re~;ulaxities ~ on..tY somew 6- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 carburiza?t~.c~n a:~ the ~,rcan). e results abtai~n.ed :i.n the s tucly a:~ l o same extent, th . ,?` ns caz~ be e;~tendod to the ba~~-n~ a~` coplaex~-gxapha.te cor~pas.t.t~.a ntainiri~ inert adm~.xtl~res dis}aosed ~.n the surw metal powders Ca a or constituting ~enex?a~. mechanical. a.mM face of the ~aar?t:icles, purl ~~~. e s. -spl.ulale components which are J.igtiie:~ied in baking, ~, he non at different ef'f'ect. ~t 1.ow briquette densities, exert a somewh m anent may be coinplete~.y transferred. f'ror~ the the l~.quefled ca p .r ~ into the lar. ~;~' pores w7.thout hindering the COIl'taCt duel tL1reS the artic;l~s of the refractory z~etal~ Sn some contact of p be an increase in shrirllca ges, due to cases, ~th.ere w~.ll even.. orasit at 'the expense of the val~une the increase ~.n actual p Y ~onen~t the greater theparosa.ty, thE~ greater of the liquefied comE ~ ~ ayes or a?t the ex~?ense of same su:dace tension, the S~1rlnk >., ~ y p li uid phase. In the presence of considerable created by th~ q ~? ~ t~te densities, the liqu:i.d ccornpax~ent i.salates the con- read reduces shrinkage. rax instance, ane of facts and g y a:inin~ iron sealing compoua~.ds of high pass- the methods of obt ~, tight cornpressa.on of a mixture of pawde~?s of i~~;y consists ~.n the bse cent bakin,, at a temperature of 1000 iron; and soda, w~,th su q .;? ~ ode. The J.iquefied soda retards the to 1100 degrees cent~.r;,r iron articles. after baking, the drawi.n, 'together of the p orn the or~5, The temperature of the soda'is washed out fr p icle rowth remains the same,. but the beginn:>rng oaf the past g ' ' 'les is considerably a;tt~nuated, 1?figure grow~tll of ,the party .~1~87- ~. ,... ,... , ,.,, ~ ., r .:~,... .,~, r 1 A ... .. .Y,,J uaM,...r ~ .., t . Ye,{ f ., I I ~ S :v.l., ~ ~ .~ J':.: ,,.., ,~. , . .. ~ .:... ,;:, ~; ~.M .:.: ::,,. , .,,. v ,n., ^~ a 14.1 . m. a t ;,. .. r i 4. i ,..cr. o,. e { .,-:.,~ ri .. :,.:.,~ ,, i ., o.., ,. ... ~~ .F .+I ..., .. ,., ..t. ,. t,. ;.. ..r. ~,t,,rr , i 4 riJ~ t .., ,. ~, I. ., ,. ~. ~ ~,~. ,... r ..,. . ., 1. ., ~.,. 7 _?1 h:~7 i..~,.,, ~ t. .,,. .., .. r~ _,J4.~.. r. _,,., ,. ,. s M .. t ! .. , , ~ ., . .. r .r ~a~. ,. fil. ~r !p u ~, ,.~: .,.,, ,._. ~,.... .,,._ d.,..., i.,., . r ~ cl r ~li,..,.. .ter . ~ r ~ t: ,., t.. .. .. ,. .. ,. .,.~ ;: .. .. ; ?v .. ,r,,. ~ ., , .,~. 1. ....: .. i ,,, 1, ~.! ...,,r..,el~. r!$fd~J a..r... ~..t,S,.N , r~ntl:,,r...f.~.u .r,+ f..,,..,.?.. ~..., , Ivd .,ali.. ~1 r v,a,,n.._....aifP~i ..r.'rar.i .,,ea.nr. r ..2..4nw ~ er)I?,,,,,ba1, it I~.r ,l...,.,...,, ,,::~.., ~,. ,... ,.:d.,c rN. ~f 1 l 1 ~: .',' !~ ~~ I t ~~ i i~+ 1 y ra ... . . ._r ,, s ., ~ ~ !. ~, ~~, r r;'~. j x ,,~,~~,. , , ~.. ~ ; ; ,; , .? ,; ~; ? dlrl~{~' .Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A _roved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ! , . , r ~i 'r .. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~6 ~,s ~ curve ;;r~:~ph dep~.a~;i.n,a thc~ cor~s~.c~.~~~ab~e .increase off' shr.~.rlka~~s at :how br~,c~ue~tte dcns~.~y, ax~~~, ~.nvc~rse:l.y, thc~ con s~.derab].e re~.lzc~:l.oal o.l' shz~~~nlca;~es at h~.~,h br~.que lr~e densa.ty, in the case o:l" thE~ sys'~err~ capraer-:lead, by conips,rison wa.~h the in~.~Lial copper^. ~lowevex, a.~~ is no~l cc~r~ip:le ~~~,y clew as to what extent th.e sysl;om ea.~~zaer~J.ead may 'b~ consir~~:,xed, under the COX~ditiaXl> ox' Uak~.n~, as xec,a.praca:lly non-~olub].e ~;o a:l.~. practical purposes, The accelerated ,~row~t;h and the charar,- teristic sha~~e a~' the gain (,:ice ~~`i~ures 8~~ ar~d 11:3), which were observed in come CB.ses, can be explained orll~y 'by some d.e~;ree af' salub~.:l~~y ot~ 'the copper i~~~ the lic~ue:~'ied lead., ',1'he balca.n~ o:~ such systems is also ~rtad.e mare complex by thE~ phenomena of. liqua~tion off' the fused cornpanents. ti N,elative dr~nsity Figure 136Q 1~atia between the shrinkae o.f: cbpper-lead .specimens and compression density; :l, in a :Lan;itudinal direction; 2. in a transverse direction (Z,~ percent :Tread, 75;~ cop~aer, balci.n~ ~f,emperature at X300 degrees cen- -1~aa- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a. im'~nar, ' ~t~ is nc~~,essa~' 'to cl.ara.:~y the' bas7.c r' r ~~com c-nen,t and mult:t~coa77~~an:en~t dif.~'erences between the a.l.n~a~. ~ ase o.~' ,rec'i~arocal sol.ub:t:a.ity z.~n b4:~k~.n~, pp~Wde.~~' lQE~tala 7. C1 the C iia the absence a i? a .t:L~Ll;l.d phase. ~~ ~~~ owder ~r~ix~t,~zres, th.e visa.ble ~'orrn~~tiozi ,fin the hakl.n,:, ?~ ~ . ~. c~ ern::~c;a.l co,n~,ound.s 'tar:~;;ins at a ~o:i.nt of s.:a.lid so].~~t~~.on~ or ..h ^ai~urr.-~ o:E' ~;he :i.ni.t:i.al com:C~oncnts, ar below the mel.t:in tr~mpe~ ' r solutions. Sch~rin? already i..n- ~their cornc:~ound;:> and. X011. ~ .~.c r bser~ed between ~th~ solid corn~onen~s~ di.f~'usion processe.~ are o xcssure ~romot~s di.~':~usion. 't'his i~t be~.n;s; the case that ~' 'firmed on 'the basis 0~' ~r1:LCrOwr ese,~rch, deduction was :later rea~..~ d. e1.ectri.ca.1- conductivity measurements, therrna:t ana:l.ys~..s f an C rk was abstx'acted :tnto the huss~.an 1an~uahe by Ma~~in , ~wha,~e wo ((~0 } ' 1 the boalc by Tammann "~~Ieta:tlo~Tra~h~l" tiz di.~fusion for two non-homoeneous The rate o~ rec~.proca~. ~,~~ er t~.an ~'or "auto-dif fus~.o~nu me~~als ~~ always considerabl~,y ~-~,h -~ ~ e metal., ~'hr?refore, an erroneous imM of the atoms o:t the sam dura.n~; .the b~a~kin~; cox" corrt~aressed ~'il~.n;s d' aced that, t` be created 'that, i~, dur~ina ~~he bak~n ~~,ESSion; may. at firs metals -"atomic mobility is ~n4;:Ceased, o~ powders o~ var:~ous a h'o~,the contact surface ater, s~arinka~e and ~;rowt much ~~e, '.` ? ruca~l ~a'~.uba.l~.~t ?~..~~ ~'ox cnt~~? E~o~Jders w~.~h I~ec~.p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 si1.0~la~.d be e~p~Gt~d than in the case of pure meta~.sa I~awever, ~acaerwaa.d (~~~') establ~.shc~d that, in rea~.ity, shr~.nkages and. mech~an~.ca:L properties of specimens baked .from ma.xturps o~ owders CuwNi, ~'e~N~., and Gu~~'e, wdre always la~wer in value p than the came computed in accordance witlc the rule oi' add.i~ ta,vi~~ b~ 1~~he s~~rinlca~;es ar~d the mec,hazaa.cal properties of Y~ Y the in~,~aial components. 'fhere a:>^e two basic reasons for these :Lower val.ues~ (a.) ~ ~f mobility, in the presence o.f the diffusion o:~ the atoms o:f two reciprocally-so].ub1e metal. s is greater than the mobila.ty of the atoms of one and the same metal, a reverie ratio is observed for the products of. this reciprocal action, the soa.d, solutions and the chemical compounds, Usually .the .addition of even a negli Bible amount o:C coraponen?ts, entering into a solid solution or :forming cher~lical compounds, rc;duces the value ai' the surface tension of ?the basic components Already by this al.ane, the ass~nption may be m~:lc~.e about the diminution of the sh,rinka;e-~pramatin interatoin~.c Farces during the forma~tiai~ of soi].d solL~tions, A considerable drop in the melon point, with the addition off' ad~~nixtures entering into.. ?the solid solution, also ..points in tho same direction. It would be erroneous, by proceeding from ~t~~e increase in strength in the- formation of solid solutions, to conclude that. the forces of cohesion were enhanced.. 'I'he growth in the strength of the solid solutions is stipulated pr;i.marily by the redud- ?tion in the mobility ~of the atoms in the formation of the. w.z- w'i.eldy structural: complexes and the complications in the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 '~'hc~ xeducti.o11 i~ mabi~.a.ty a.s re:~;~ected :~~~tta.ce structure ,. ~ ~~em erature of reGrtl's~talli~a~~a.on, a.n a subs ta.n~ta,a~. ra. se a.n ~h ~ p - ardzn~.xtures into. tho ~o~.id solutions with the ent,era.n~; a:C the ~ the drop in the me.~ta?na pa~.rit) . The s~rme re- (re~ardless o. ". ~ ., ses a da.rn:~nutian a:~ the ~^ate a:~' creap duction a,n moba.~.a.tJ' cau ~tion, as cor~t~>ar~ed to pure metaa.s~ a.n mast of the so.l.:~d solu ~ ~,I ~ a in of powders, in which sola.d sol~uta.ons were 1 n.us, ~.n tk~e b k ~; akin shrinkar;es and grain ~;row~Lh skiot~.d formed even prior to b ~, ure metals, in canrrection with the di~rinu- , be smaller than a.n p ? 5L1rfaCe :Forces (surface tension) and the increase t:>won of ~hc cr~-.e as compared with pure me~ral.s. W~kLile in the stability ~o p~ i' . owder inixtux'~s, in which the reac~a-on be- in the ba4c a.n~ o p et compJ.ete, the rate o,f' shrinka:e twe e n ~~he me dal s was not y ~han the rates o.f.' shrinkage in the will rapidly become less t the more active atoms in the surface case o,f pure metals, sa.nce " d solutions even at the be~innin~ of of the pt:~rticles fa~^m cola. the bakin process. ocess off' isolated shrinkae is no less, if (~)~ The pr Cant in the case of mul~tip~.e~companent powd~;rs4 not more, a.mpor r r the bakr~~ pz`ocese for a briquette made Pram :Let us consa.de and nickel powders, Practically, with a mixture of copped' er and nickel powders not be~.n~ tea the intermixi.n~ of Copp " owin cembinatinn~ take p;Lace at various perfect, the foil ~ places in 'the article m ~l) o ;the. con~Lact copper-~toacopper' the: contact nickel.~?tb-niclt~~~. ~ ~~.. fqy ~l, ~It4. Iqr f u ~rl{!a~ i~t~~ y`dy ~I h~M1~ ~"'+,'Iti tit+1[[1~ _.__.. ~B+W ~ a~~r~',Jt ~~ I r7ra~iv r~~ ,.url ~ a ~~~F[,r f[' `w ~t ejp~ .~4'~'}' ~rl tGYI 1r(' 119r n r' ~, t ri= ! i J i 1` r ;aril era i t ,:,, ~ , , iM1~~A,rfl r ~' ?kti (r~~l {~l, Yia 1....... 1 .,,i ;;~N`{ N d r~4~~' 1'b~l~ i"rr?,~~^,II Y } k i~4l~hJr;~a~'rlu It IJ'r r :e 15 Jd ri .~ r 4I r ~I i I i 61~z~~I'~F }I ~~~~~VrC ~'~ jial n t!! ~ ~ ?~~f ~r~hl {J~,"P ~~i t { ~~ ~'p~h'1 ~ i r7y W~~"W,~~`~Jr rW~~r?~ 1~~4 ittr 49(,~~t~i~i>.Vw~4I E tart } r 1 ~ii't i) ~ ~ !..4Y t { irr r . i. GhY"~77.4.!G r U i li 9f ry~P4'xkltt!ItN ~~ -~:ui'f S .ud~~t'u~.lVr t~.t y~9JUM~J~dr4},~~?a ~'u i,~f ~1.,~1r~~t u 4 ~'~ I ~ } ,r t t 1 ~: IriA~1?rI4~rr'~r~ fti ~r+,,~1~';, 4r(~fr~I1 ~~?8KpY1T1 Ta i~reov 'Wu' f~ Syr ~n'~ aEM7R.i7,. Iw avryu x3n t .x' 4 i ~ I r>i f!i7 .i r~tla,~}) ~.I~rS vh, ~r! l (~' ~ !I.h1 'k+R y 'Pj~i ~gp,.i6 ~,.~,~1~11. "~'~{'~~t'k, ~, r~u t 71t ~ i~r~1~r7 ~ Fi ,?F~ ,h ~,1P rP 41t~r i I;~,' 1 1 r r ~ I },I 1 r n -;;, r J;"j$ ~~,1 r~S it dJ' Yr ~) u~1 y fink F r r ~ a ,r~j Nyk ~~f r ~ 4, ?? ~ Ifi~r'i Gv ir~fr~ 1~ rG r r ~ 1 r H 4Y~Jl+{l r1fi l17r s.,;nli 'v ,~.P,S `~r~i '~ Y~I,V,'t51' ~'~, '~~~~e~i'likl M1{~~~1~y~1~~ 1`~nl~l,~,~'r~.~r}G'~~r ~bn~ji~n16`j'~, ~I+!r~J rir4Ylr~l4 ; r( ~J ~r r .Srj ~fi 4,1'r r i II rti r t 1~ 9 f. 9,:a 1 u ~~ r ~ Sr 4 ~,~.1} !.~ I ~W+' p J ~ A d~ n'?~ )'~ c r 4 r r r ~ r r r i .'~ ~a^,'fiJSy~tf~11{is~i~~~~~i1~1',7~~~yr~~~I~~a~~;;F~~ ~`I~)t`;~ ~~,~`14i1hp~~~~?7~~~'ih$'Wtdl{ ~tRt'" ~'~41G~' rip'l~~~t14~r i1' i I ~' ~ i1 1.i 1 ,~,: .}~Vii: Wj t1 }k iPF~ i yy11,,i {~.~1. i~,) ~'Ix~}~ry~. .Ili~r~t~~ RUf 1~y,Y~41~~~pr~fQ i8 ~1iA~ A ~~~.~ Ir~~E'~~i~~'~u 1 r ~~y~,k rl~,'~ ~ Ir, ~ .: r I r r 3;4 ~1' r i I~Ir uPPSr~~ ~ e~f~?srrl~`N1~~~,,~~s1:4er,lirr7~t}~'~rh~k.~,141'~{ylc~n~.~4^ ~~,~ilir~u~',kY~~~~Jr11i.U4~~S~4'~~'J~~11~1rG7,.'ti~n~Js~~~lm5~rt'1~IY.+r$G~'.rJ~~~~i kki~~r~r,?'.F:a~~r~.fF 1.. n~ r~ ~?~rilr ~1"u ctW~ r ?>fi,,:li ;c', r+'. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copv Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 'the contact coppax-to~na.clcal the Gor~~l:~act hard saluta.on~ta~h~~r~3. ~o~.uta~p~ the GpntaGt har~~ sol~lta.Gn~'t0~ca~per th.e contact hard salu~ta.on~to~n~.clte:l We ca~.led a:C~' on~.y six types o:(' va,ra.ous carilrac'ts, but there are ~' r ~abl ~~ mare o:~' them, ss.nc~ the sa~.'a.d so~.uta.ons have consa..lex y ~ntra~tians ~ ~Al~. th~;~~e 'types off' corttart result var~.ous concE 'n different d.e~rees o:~' shrirlka~e< Account mus'L aJ..so be taken fact, that not only is the chern:i.ca~, composition reflected of the ' he shrinkage, but, vice?verss., the shri.nkahe a.s reflected ~.n t ' the chemical composita.or~. Ze'L us su~pa7e that at a certain ~n s of ~,n t~i~ pro~~.~xc'1~, an acce:le~^ated s~irinka,;e and ~rawt~~ oi' Gonw p articles of copper and nicic~l are setting; in. tc~.ct between the p - ad ;ta an accele~~at].on ai' diffusian` at ..this spat, ~h~.s will le r' . '' Sian can onl~l proceed th,rou~h the contact sections ,tince da.f ~u ~} anon o:C' a sola.d solution, in its turn, will thane the Form th.e Further rate of shrinl~aF;e. ~~'he d.ifference in shra.nka~;e at individual spots resl~lts not only in the formation of sec tz.oris oi' different density, but also to a total diminution of densit throufhaut the volume of the metal (see ~'ara~raph y V ~;) p It foll.aws from. the above that the non-~ur~ifarmi'ty of ' a e is more de~trimen~~al in the case. of powder alloys shr~.nk ' ~ ' s in the case aF .pure metal pa~~ders, particularly than ~t a- the intern~.xin~ is poor 'phis speci~'ically is the. reason when -are sometimes nd.xed in ball .mills over a ~~?day the powdexs Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 per~ad. ,. ,~ .tp wYl~.ch a.s the mare e~'f':~c~-~;nt A ~aaaa.c ques~,l.an axa.ses as tYie ~n~.xture o~ the several method ..., whethex 'to hamo~enl~,e a ~ ~ and then camp~~ess and er mc;~ ~~ls by prel~.rrta.n,a.ry ann~,a7.a.n;~,, p?wd z?ess and homo~;eni~ed pr~~ryt:~c~.es, air to camp b4~ke the a.Lxeady ~?he ure me~taJ. powders as a.s. bake the m~-xture a~ ~ ~ aut~lar, each. o~ these methods has Tn the opin~.on a~ the .c ~ rtcomin~;s, and one off` ~thetn is to ~.ts advantaes and its sho b~ tak~.n~, ~.nto . on ~leneral pr~.nc~.ple, but on~..y ~l be px~e:ferred. not ,. , actcaris~tics off' each indiv~.dual account the parti.cutar c~rar case, sink an already homo~en~-'red chaz';e The advan~~e a~' u ~ ~ ds- sYrrinka#7e and compos:i.tion, the is the homo};enea.ty of e the di~fa,culties irl abtain~-n~ advan.~~;es o f' th:~s method ar , d so- hardness o,E' tale hornatenized Sala. s~tron~ briquettes the . r s o.~' the ird.tial com;porrcnts) ~ ].ution ~-s ~~~eater than the h~~.rd.ne~ r ~ ~ able art of the atomic mobility ~ d ~Lhe exhaustion of a cana~-deg' p ~n C a resul~t~ o:C pre~.imirrary c~:iffus~~-on, a ~, a rat:ner porous alloys ~.~t if it is necessary to obtaa-n r ~ non-annea'_led mixture a~' powders. ma ~~ be advanta?e0us 'to uae .the ~2) o the data by .the author 'the Far instance, according, t ar e made up o~ Cu_T1i arld Cu-Fe r. elirr~ina~ annealing; of ~ ch p rinka~;es a,nd attenuated mechan~-- o~Jders, resulted in sma.tJ.er sh p ., ~~o -l~,he products :made .from the non- cal properties, as compared t o~ bz'ique~Lte 30 per cent.) ~ When annealed char~eS ~porosa.~:y ?1~/ ^~w~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~.mc~st compao~t mater~.a~.s (W~,th nv ~clda,t~.vn~ necessary to obtal.n nn the. use o:~ the hQmo~aen~,~ed charge a~. treatment s,~.ter balsa. r,) ~ ... ab~.~ ~ Thus, ~.n the pr~eparata.on off' tllYl~;St~lI1~ a.s samet~.me a prefer the ro:l.~,ma.na:r~ az~nealin~ o~ the mixture ta.taniwn hard allays, la ~~itana.um Garb~.de is ~'xequ~zlt:~y reso~tFd o~ twn~sten carbide and ta. w~.th Keca.proc~~l~ ~olubil.ity off' Camponen~Ls --^ ~3~ ~o~ lure?. ~'?u,rther ~ ~ ~~~ critics in th,e balcin~; off' rnul'ti-companent 7:'he bcLSic re~;ul -~ re5 ~~,n the absence oi:' a 1iqu,:i.d phaae, are as :~oc~cler ma.~.tu , folla~as. anr~e in ~Lhe c ontac ~; sur:~a ce, and ~ ~-) ~ ahx~nlca e, the ch :, es o f, the mi~l~,iMcompc~nent powders are the mechanical. properta. ~~ame re~ul-ax's-ties as were discaver~;d. usually sub, ec t to the . ~? ~~ ~- ~am onent mixtures, i.ca, they also in the case of ,,a.n~,le c~ p spree off' ~.spersian of the; powders off' each than ~e w1th the d,e,, ~~ wi.th compression density, with ~,empe~~ature, a~' the com~~onenta, ~ a d the :Like. x:C prelima.nary hamo~;eni~Pd with the tarae~! a~,, n sed balt~.n~ can be cons~.dcred, in pr~.nci~ple, as powder aye u , a case o:L' a sin~leMcomponent system. c the completeness af' the ~'ormatian ~ ~ ~ The rate an ~ ' ~i~,ermetallic compounds increase; w.l.th o~ sala.d sol.uta.ons ar~d a. ~ ersion a~' each o:C the companentso the dep~ree of d~. p ' ixin the charge is very important.. (~}a :The muthad a~ m a~q ~,. rr. a,;. .t ,.r,.n ; :.~. ~?~r.n :;....:.~, ,~ .rt. .u~;tirv ~.t, r.~ i. ::.r . .. ,..,,. i . :n?,;: r ,rai,~ ?,+~,.~;. ,.~rEy ~ ~ De:,, ,: , ~ ,: ~., . ~,,. ;.; "~ ~~~ r , 1 /ossified in Part - anitized o A roved for '` , . ,, ?, ~:, ~ ~, c py pp elease 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ ~ , .. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ;~nterraixin;~ in b~,~.l ma.~.ls ~aronia~~ea closer contact bet-wean the particles and i s conduca.v~ to the di~'fuaion pracesses to a ~res,ter degree ~~han mix:in~; in drta;ms (1~} ~ ~l'he .increase irl the density of the brique?~tc in~ creases The contact surface of the paz~ticles and a,ecel,c~rates the flow off' the diffusa.on ,pz~ocesseso a ~5hrinka,,~re and the chan;e in the contact surface ("~ ) in bakin.~; exert an effect upon the dit':fusiorl processes, :Cn the shrinkage of l~.r~e articles during; the process of baking, the ma,~.mum s~~rinka~e stresses, and also the. maximum density. ar~d contact surface d,imensionsoccur in the central gone, in which, ?therefare, the :formation o.f sols.d solutions and intermeta:llic compounds occur C~ith maximum completeness At times the maximum comp~.eteness of reca_pracal action between the components is alsa observed in the central. zane with the expansion of 'the prad.ucts as a result of baking, when the ma,xi.ml~n value of the tensile str~-;sses are concentrated in t~'iis 7one~ Tt is possible that, in this case, diff'~tzs~.on is accelerated. due to the ..presence o:f stresses and the considerable d:~spl.acement of the contact pJ_aces in bak?in~. (b}, ~'he number of components that.. have reacted brows with the temperature ,and the duration of baking. (r~}/ :Certain admixtures ~.nhib~t diffusion. `t'hus, according to the author, the carburizing` off' irari begins only. at the temperature of 1000 to 1.100 degrees centi~rade~ '~y,, ,, .f? .i ;?.,.. r n ~-.: ?. ~~:r: ~.~~:, ~ r: c.. t;:~ ~ ,? r n a,r,r f u. ~.uv a ,., 'g?z ?, "r )?~ bl'r ~ ~ ... r ,:fl;. .~~ ,.. ..~,. :yr , Sk ,j, 4' rY Mr,. L '+ ~.~~ ~;~ ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2 ., ~ ~~~~~ ~ } ~ ~~~~RDP82-00039800020004 ~; ? ,, , ~ :, ~. ~~; ~,~, ~ ,t,,;''~~,'`,~ 012J04/20 CIA- 0019-6 ` , ,,: ., , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ar~,c~ s,~'ter a r~.?~rter compl.etc~ reduGta.an of the a~.des cantaincd in the initial. powders, ~l'he rapid, rc~duct;i.an of the remaining a~i.des occurs at a pol.nt twawtl~irds to three fourths Q.1, the absai.ut.e mea.ting ~Gemperature ai' the rn~;~t;al, '.I`hus,this tern-~ perature is na~?, ana.y thetemperature at which the .visible growth af' thra grain begins, buts in some cases, ?tl~e temperature of the beginning of visible c~.iffusiari, (8), Ger~tain ~tidma.x?t~.tres eonsid.erably acce:Lerate diffusiari~ .~ccard.inF~ to Of:E'ermann ~ ~'~~), negJ.inible admixtures of sulfur and phosphorous promote the interar..tion between .carbon and iron in the prod.ucta.on of ,carbonyl. steel, In a1.1. probabilityy ?this effect is due to the forrna~tion of eutectaa.d.s, which, ire srne1?tin,~ at the bs.icing temperature, increase 'the con~Lact between t;he particles and accelerate the .mobility of the sur-~ face atoms a:f' iron enterin into solution, aas a result of which dif'ft~sion is inten;~ified, lf' the di:E'fusior~ ,processes are e~'.f'ected through a gaseous phaase, the composition of the latter is impor~~ant, ~'or ins?tance, iron-graphite products, when baked in an atrrtas- phere of dry hydroen, are more strongly carburl.zed than in ari atmospher, e of moist hydra~en, Of great importance is the ,,aas-permeability which increases with total porosity ar~d with the size a.f ind~.vidual pores. The has cementation a:~ products made from coarse powders with greater~parosity is effected more ,rapidly and completely than in ,.the case of,fine powders. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~ out o:f.' carbon ~,s s,~,so mo~~e ax~os:t.~~y~ ~.he burna, 1nY~.t~ 1,~a9 ~ pWd~TS. ,. bra. uet'~es made :~rorn coarse p ~r~,pa.d a~n the bak~n~ o~ ~ ? ma be th~~ ~d,erlyin~ causes .above described fac~tars Y , ,the co~m~pasa. W ?~he cl,ensi ty a ~" the s trua t,ure, of nonphomo~ene:~.ty in resence a~' 'zn~." 3.cal pz'opez"t,ies even a.n the p Lion and mechan ' n actual pradu,ction' ' mixing and conrpres5a.a71. .C f orrni ty :>_n an 1.mpox~tant ~Li.xin~ and. compression play i~:'orml.tias in non paxYt. es of non~urliformity? k'i;;urc s examl.ne some exampl et u In (.1,26) ) ~ wh~.ch ~5 a camp in accordance with Q f fe~mar . n ma.cro~ l3~ C d1.a;~"~ ~d a coz^res~ond~ bination of a curve graph ., n density,:.. ices the chemicsl, composltlo a ~~hota of zonality, dep nes of an ingot .baked in an and structure in the va~'~aus zo " ~ Iran ~cam.res5ed powders. of caxbony enclosed bax dram non .~ respectiVe?~ ~, ercent o{' carbon and axY~en, con~La~-n~n~ about p 'lie macs-~ of 1. ~ percent of aas soot lye ~.th the add~.t~.an ? n showed the presence of four d micro structural examinata.o ' rd w~auh. an ones:. the Lust and the t ~ concentrica~.ly disposed z and and the fourth with hyper~ o~,eutectoidal, and the sec nn ascribes this zUnal~t~. to pYp eutectoidal structure. Qiferma tmos hers ~,~n the ~bakinprocess, the e:Efect of the ~;as a p oint is a ccep?r,ed, the ~aWever, if Offermann' s v~,ewp d more of the. cherr~.cally comb~.ne ~,hird zone should conta,a.n ~ since the ~ree carbon than the fourth zon a and less of the f ;favorable conditions with i~~d gone is disposed ~n ~hemare ~Lh ..x,97- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 n ~to aye?us e~;:chanae ~ ~,c;tua~~Y the t~a,rd gone con- re~.a,~La.o ~ r, ~ ~ ~ , hem~.c~~~.~, c:ombinc~d and more free carbon.. ~,aa~n~ 1.e~~ c Y .......~?~a,r~..rM~~.,...~M,..,.r........rM...r..._.rrM~.....,.~~.,,_w.r...~.~M~.M,.,.........r_.M.,.r.w...r~.._....~...~.............r_._T. ~M ^ _...-~ s ~ X '~ .ryrr ~ ~ ~ ?~ .~ ~ ~ a s ..w~ w.. X ..... ~.r.~..~...._~.. z, one ~- 0 ~ one ~. Zone ~ Zone 2 Zone ~ ...~.........r-..-...-w.Mw- ~,,, ....__.,,.~...M.~..,~..._. ~, ZonaJ.it~ in carbon~rl. steel. baked with the acldi~ion ~a.~ure 13?~ ~= w....~.~....-..~....r~..~ ~MVLM~?MMMMMM ~MrM~nwYrr~~wM.ww~MM.M.M~M.wwNMwwM.+xww~.M W ~ oxygen conrtent Mai.cvaMm+..r.wrw.w+~...w.+...ww.+..++.r.+M? wn.r..w.,..M.~.~r.rwiwrwrw..r...rr.r.Mw.?wirn.~vMr+~~..~^'n....M.wwsrr ~Ota.~ C~.xbOn uba.~.it a.n acid s off. Y ~ ~' ~` ~~ ~ ,_.w.,~.r.,...w~._....,M~......~.r..~..r~..~...w~r..r...w,..r.w.....,~.....~ ~ .r., ... .._,.._..~,._._...~......w.-r-.~-,~, ~ , ~ ry ~. ee carbon fr ~`~ ~~.. . ~?~M.w.M.~M....~Mk,. ~,..~...Mr,-.~.-~..--.~ww,.rwM, ,M ......w~,~a.,...~.r,,,M~.A.....r..r_.,r.r~r......,~~~.~,r,MM~,~~~.,.~M ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ }~` ~~ ~,w~Mr?~~?r.rn~wrNMWMVWtEM~M'MrrrnrMrWMwvrMIV~MUMYUrun .? .~.rr...r.......,~~..M.....w...~.......w...........w.___...~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for a:k~ ~., ~ p~;rcent s oat (as per Q~; f ermann} . . ~, ~ ~,aina tha.s tonality a,.~~ the fo~.~.awin~ The autha xp - ~irst external zone,-which is da.sposed zn marlnex ~ ~n the f . ~ rrlast a~n ~.~ circulation off' atraasphere ar~d corlcla.ta.ons of the p ' m ressure, pramotcd by the shrinls~1~e in. baking, th.e ra~.na.rnu p nine out of carbon took p~.ace. 'T'Ylerefare, a consa.dez a~~le bur ,, on is completea.y absent: whi7.e there is campa.rative~.y free cab ' ....~ chemically combined. carbon. :fin the second zone, the li ~I,le a ~ian of the gaseous atmosphe~?e is somewhat ~.nhiba.ted, c,~rcul t nnection with .which tree burning out of carbon is dir~in- ~.n c o ntent of both chemically combined and free fished, and the co ' ased. In the third zone, the gas circulation carbon is a.ncre ' iced and there is .the.. maximum amount of is strongly ~.nha.b , n the f'a~i~r~,h 'zone, the conda.~ioz~s of 1,he ;as free carban. I circulation a.re even worse, but the shri.nkaae prc;~~.. atnto,~,phere sure (as a result of baking, the density of the ingot was increased appraximatel,y from 3~1 to ~.2 ~t^ams per cubic ce~l- timeter is rs,ther cansiderable, wha.ch stimulates contact ' ~ 'union, Therefore:, this. zone, in the presence of the. max~.~ dl~'f ~licall combined carbon, contains very little morn amount of 4-he y free carbon. `T'hin-walled iron-graphite bush bearings, cc~rrlpressed to sit f'rorr! a .charge of ~~' percent .iron. and 2 30 percent poro y ara hite and baked at 1]_00 degrees centigrade, with percent ,, p ~ minutes in a current of hydrogen, ...contained a t:~meplar, of ~.0 ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~;STAT nt Q:~ ch~iiia.ca:~~.y~~omb~.nec~, .carbon C about 0. ~ th.~ max~.m~~m amou 'r central. partsa and the mina,xr~~~r~ amount ~~~~ percont} ~.n ~he~. xternal and a.rtternal ed~ea (see ~'`a.~ure prrcont) a.n t.hea.r e n thick~wal:l.ed hush bear~.n~s (~Fi~;ure ~.38~ ~~)~ ~,,~ 8, ;~) ~ I ' ~ ~o~~lnt off' chemicaJ..~y~combined carbon ~ 0,(~ tv the rnaxa.mti~m a r r~ was to be found a.n the ~ntGrnal eclas, the rnaximla~i p~ ~ percent} l ercent), in th~~ ex.terna]. edge. such a dispos~.tion amount ~d. p the cherrtically~c.omba.ned carbon is due 'Lo the fact ~,Yxat, of ' n thin walled bush 'oear~.nas, the maximum shrinkage stresses a. in a astern similar to a band see Figure 138, are d~.sposed p Fick-walled bush bearings, ~~hey are disposed Ia) , wh11.e in ~,n . ricaa. attern (sPe _.F'iaure 138, :CIa). ~.n a cylind p IT :~Za ~' ~ re 1 8, Diagrannnatic representation o:L' zonaa.ity in the. _.~ ' tribution of carburization ar~d stresses in iranw~raph~-te di s the .one of.' maximum ca.z~burization and, stress con- products centration is marked in black}? ~.'he briquettes have their maximum density and rrtaxi.mum ~~OQ~- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ax~~l,a.c~.~s in thea.x upper' paxt~ wh~.ch contac'~ su~~,~aca off' the p ex, Hance, a,n a nurnbex of cases, a.s c~.o5es to the press. pl~~ bea~'a.n?;a have ~,hea.r maximum ca~~ban the iron~~raphite bush 'consent in their upper parts ~ - . ~ a h d~pictin~ the ~xowth. a:E F'j.,?urE ~.~~ is ~ CurVE ,,~ p .~~; ~ ite b~xsh bearings in r~~,e,tion to carburi7~ation o~ a.r an ,,ra,ph in ~?ea..a~L~.on to ~~,he p;~?owtah off' eampression density, i?e~~ . . ~ T n the artic;l.ea. These results perma.t 1;he contact a~ ea bet~ee p t ~,he carburi~at~-on a:L'' powde:red ixan is the ass~t,axrt~~]~t,a.on tha ,r , ~ ct" cementa~Lion [case-~ha~,~denin~], and deter~r~.ned by c,on~ os here o:t' bakin,.;. I~" cemen~l,a- not through the ~aseo~zs at~rn p determa.ned by has xeac~,ions, proccedin~; Sian were primarily C' the ores, it wo~.lld be reasonable throughout the valurne e. ~ .. -' n oi' ccmen~La~tiori with the reduction in ~t,o expecl~ d r~~.17~:rnut~.o com an i.n intensity oI' the burn- porasity, inasmuch as the a.c p y ink, out of the ~raph~i.te is lessenedb . .~ ~ ' cta_an to the opinions off' most special- '~h~.s .~s ~.n cantrad~. . ' s ~'i elc~.. Thus ~ ac cording; to Minkeva.ch, fists who labored In thl~ ' ' ona~.l e~t,abl.ished that the carburizat~-on it has been ~~uncond~.t:~ y w ,ard.enin~ process with the aid of o~ iron during the case h . ~ou~h the gaseous phase". It must, however, carbon proceeds ~hr n 'n the case o~ compact me~l;als, the be taken into account that, ~- . , between th,e 7.ron and the carbon in the area of direct contact " utes only less than 0.0001. of the cementation box, cans~.~-t ' n articles. chile in the case o:~' com_ ~~otal surf ale o:~' the ~.ro .. a bite powders, the con~,act s~ur~ace pressed. and baked a.ron ~r p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 - __ _ _ _ _ - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .a ~,ron and the ~;rapha.te attaa.n:., the vaa,ue o:~' 0~1. between the f' the metal, E~ence, the phenomena off' con- af to't~~a, surface a ~ase~haxd~ena,n~~ are of considers.hle~,mpor~ tact cemen~;ata.on C G Lance in the; case of meta], powders I ~~. . tw~en the content of chemically-combined.. Figure 139. Rat:~o be ~osit of iron-graphite briquettes (~ baking carbon and the p0z Y our at 11.40 degrees Cent~.gracl.e, ini~ti.al graphite con- f or 1 h tent of 2.~ percents ' ~f f IvlultipJ.e-Gomponen~ Mixtures with the formation o~.~ ~iq- ~a ~ ave seen before that, iri bakin;, a solid single-com-~ ale h in a manner similar to a two-phase system, ponent metal behaves -ti~uted by the less mobile atoms of the in~ Qne phase is cons The sECOnd., sort of "liquid phase`", tPrna:1 layers of ,part~.cles, ace bb~.tr1dary layer of the most mobile i n f o rmE d by the sur f Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a1.so noted that tY~e processes of balcin and moms We have . rocGSSes a~' tha e~charif;e off' atoms and recrystall~.~at~on are p ' bilit~.es betweQn tha cart off' a solid and the exchange o.~ mo ? - , n ase" and 'the soz~t of a :la.qua.d and ha.~;her~mo~? low~moba..La.ty ph bil~.~ty ~tphase". ~ off' a solid homogenous metal powder, at tore lower than the melta.ng paint of the metal, cones a tem pe l a a sort off' an ultimate case of the baking off' a two- s ta. tote s r at a temperature above the melting point of the pha, ~ e system ' sible ~ hose (under the condition of the solu- more easa.ly ~~. P ? off' the solid phase in the: liquid phase). bila.ty of :E'ul'J. contact be~t~ween the par~tic~.es for the atta~.rarnen~, h ma.~t,erial, this ultimate case cannon. and ful]. conrpartness oft e be a~ lied. ~ryirst of all, the "liquid. phase" is so favorably pp he amount of substance enternin~; into it, ne ;.l:i. ;~.ble, by t ?aus doubts are evolved as to ~ahether it can be at that sera a ~s base", In addition, the 'number of "liquid.", a,).l called p ' ~ 'her-mobility atoms is gxeatly reduced during the process o~ h~.,, ' re the rate of creep and, consequently, of baking. 1`heref o , aye and. particle growth during the baking the rates of ~hr~nk ~, are ne~'l~.gible, Secondly, tree fluidity of this in sol~.d state tt is relatively small (or, which is the same, its ~~l.iqu~.d. phase w rest Bence, such a 'R:liquid phase" viscosity is relatively g )? ~, ~? l -accessible. capillary pores very .slowly :Eil~.s the d~,f f~.cult y ~ see Paragraph 71}, part~.cularl.y when the and not completely ( Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 b~,!~a,n~ a.~ dona not :Ln vacuum ~~'h~~i.rd~y, 7 n the ~l.ast .stake;] a~' ba':ca.n~;, ~hc ~roceas o:~ partic:~e ~:rowth is moa^e a^a~aid than the proccwss o.E shra.n~ca;;e, and 'the a,nterna~. c~,osed pores, beiza~ in~? cl.udr~d :i.n the gains, their ~'ua^thc~r ~'i~.lin,~; becomes exceptiona;L~.y dii'~'icul.t~ ~''a~.lr~~a~, -,y the .i:niti~,;l. area oaf the contact sections between the p~~.rt7,c.~es is small., It is a.rr;possa.b;le to obtain a nonporous ~~tructure at ~~he expense oi' a denser coldMpressin~;, since with the growth in the density a~' the briquettes, the residual. stresses are i.ncx~eased, A:a a result o' this, with the arow~l;h, o:~ d.ensity in the briquettes, shrinkages are rc~ c~uced, and fi,here 'a~ ;ins a growth which increases thF~ initial porosity. These disadvan,~~age5 are eliminated 'to a c onsiderable extent T,~}a.en baling a m~~x~~ure of .powder consisting off' two o>" several. components, it being the case that a certain :Lesser part, wrlich 'becomes lique~'ied, dissolves a part o.C the solid material, This case, i~rl its turn, can be subdivided into two; (1) , 't'he solubility of the l.Lgi.aid phase in the solid phase is relatively low, hei~cc, ~?ega.rdless of the time-la; at the given ~tempenatuxe, the system remains hetero;~;eneous, ~ ~) a The solubili~~y o:L the ligia.id pYiase in the solid phase at the. temperature oi' bal~in~; is so ne ligible that, ~i'ter a certain time,, the;, system becomes homogeneous. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a.ant, ~e't us bake a powder et us ana~.y'~e the ~'a.rst var ~ L refract?r;Y basa.a comZaonenl~ mi.xt~~re ~ ~ twa rrl~~ ta:l. s ~. ~ a more .~nta t~ an c a~rr~anent ~ ~ ~' ~' :tens rc~ra~tary sa,.ca;iled ce7~lc and a .. , a.nt off' the salu~.~~x,an oi' ~' .. m erature above 'the me~.'ta.n~a ~? haL ,s da.~sal,va.nu par ur>.a.t of ~~a.me ;i.s x~?,a,ter, and the nu~rlbe~r of at?ins ~,a,bexdt~d from ~Lhe sal~utt.an er una.t o:~' ta.m~; is sma,~.~.er than in the cass of coarse p~r~l~,.~.c1~es. Hance, there is continuous ~;row~~h of caar~e paxt~.cles ~~~ the expense of Fine particles (E'aotno. The expl~~na.tion of the aliechanics of the gain nrowth as the reault of the c1~. L'f.'eronces a,z7 s~:,~.~ubility, has bee.ri borrowed t'rom the thesis b ~ra.ce, Srnithel.ls, and wil~liams (~.2~) ~ However, they y failed 'to explain the mechanics o. shrin.~ca;e and of the rowth oi' the con~ract surface a~t the expanse o.f' those da.ffex~enees). I~t bein the cafe that a ver~,~ :La.rF,e ~;raa.n ~r~owth i:n. the basic companen~t ~. occurs even at very low ~~emperatures, ..sometimes less than ~t0 pe.rcent o.f.' the absolute melting point, `l'he shape of ~,he crys~tal].ites in such recrystalli~ation, .which can be qu~~li.fied as recrystalli~a,tion throu~,h the liquid phase, is the same as in the initial crystalJ.i.~ation ,i'rorn ~Lhe metallurgical smelt or' 1,he primary crystals of cast a1.J.oys, Borhvar (l~) notes two basic shapos of the primary crystals of cast al:l.oys w.. faceted (.F'i;su-re 1~.0a, primaryy crystals of` Sb in the Sb-Pb alloy) and oval (~'iaure l~.l, primary crys_ tals of A~ i~1 tho A;~Cu a:ll.oy) 4 Accardi.n; ~to Bochvar, the various shapes are daze to the :differences i.n the surface te.r~sion of the compact metals, which, in the rounded crystals is relatively great, in the faceted crystals _~ rela~ti~~~r-;ly ne~;litrible- In powder alloys, baked. a_n the presence o:~' a liquid, phase, the .same two shapes of gains of the basic com~- ponent are observed (and probably .due to the same causesj. -; ob- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~'i,~,ux~e .~~a ~.~ a an.~e~a~~h~~r~o a~' the faceted cry~~l~~.~.a,t~s ~,rr0 a ~,a s WG ~ ~'a~C ~ Oo) ~ ~':i.pu~e :l.l~:~b shows ~~he Qva;~ X11 hay. d ~. y ~ M~ C~ZGT'HO'T'Q M:L LT~OI'I~I07.'0 hi,~ures :t,J.~Oa and, a~Ob T~'i~ur. es 1L~Oa anc~Ob (`T'ext' tae 293} ? fa cet~ed rimary crystallite s Sb in .the SbMPb ca a t a. p ~ b ~ oval primary cxy5 ~ta1.li Les A~ in the ~,h ~ Gu' .all Ys cast allay (as pex Borhva~}. Fi urc~ :l.?~.. Faceted crystallites WC in a baked a1.~.oy ~--~ 86 ... ~ ...~,._...M.r..-- ercen~t WC y ~ pe~?c~nt TiC' 9 percent Ca ~ 1000 times (as p MI CTzOT'HU~'0 per ~ie~.~er and Hoto~ Declassified 1~IIGhOi'H0~'0 oval crystallites Fe in the n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~b~ked .alloy F'e~wCu ~ `aQQ ta.rnc~s acid wa.1.:~~.ams) . pez^ ~r~.cQ, ~ma,the:l~1.~, ,to shrinkage, the growth of thy: contact sur;Face Tn ~o , the . row~th o1:' thc~ g;~ai.Y~ in baking, a.n a~' the partica.es, and . ,~~ d base amount to the sima.~l.ar growth the p1^esence of a .~~.c~,:,~. ,p ~ . less mobile atoms a~t the expense off' the o~ ~,he Number a.f the ' le atoms as ~.n Lhe bak~,n, o.C pure meta~.s. Tlowevery morf~ rnob7, ~ t'~e farztl~a~tior~ off' a ligl~id. phase greater contact in ba,lcing ~;~i.~th articles pl^act~.cally theoretical densi't,Y, and between the p s nth can x.11 be attained, as d.7~e to the following; grc,ater stye ~; , ;~ , `.the number af' the mobile atoms ire the basic cax~7- O greaterthan. in fi,he case oz iJhe bau.ng r.~~nent is c,on~~.derably .~ ~n urc, metaJ.s, the nurr~ber ~af' -the higher-mom of pure me gals, l p atoms at its maximur~, attains a value of bility (surface) : rcent 'T'able L~3 in Paragraph: 53) s and throtzh the process l pe ~ ' ~ becomes rapidly diminished to rre :Li~;~-bl.e fract~.ons of bakin,, ~7rcentq ~~owever, in baling with the :~o,~r~a~t.i.on of a of a .~ ase~ the number of the higher mobility atoms (sur~ l~.glra.d ph , ., d canstit~utes several percent and is dimin?? far e and. d:>.ssolve ) h slower rate with the time logo Therefore9 fished ataa muc shrinkage.) is greatly increased in 'oaking, the rate of creep ( t~ o:~ the liq~~id phase (and .consequently, (~), 'the fh~.di f issolved atoms) 7.s much grr~ater than the .-the mabila.ty ~f the d semi.-li ui.d laye~^ off' p~a.re metal (co~~~- :~lu~.d~.ty o~ the sur.Eace q mobilit of the respective atoms) ~ Fence, se~uently,...than the 'Y r ,, ~ t ,z r , . r r s it r,la n i..,i r o E ,, it.,-,..,ut, ,? M :. ~ ....:. ,... r.. .,, .. ~,: ,. .~. F, vi.. .:ca .,. ., art ,, I, .~, ~.. f, {,. .:1 ., ..{ ,. i. , 1, .... r4 .. ., r..~ :'a r r ... F~. ~~.. . .,. r I sr a .~.. 1 ,... .. J.J.. A.. V ~ . :: ,:..::: :.. ..,;, , .r..,;:. : ,:. :, ,, r.....:. ., ~. .,.~,,, _ ,. ..,:.t !. r./ I.,, ~fr Ix w v ,~ t ..,. ,.. ..r, :~.,...,. I :.:. - ~t.:...h..t,,, ntI ... .. t . ~ 1 4 , . .u~ r ., .. -~ . ,I ~, ,: , , , .!, h 1. . t r ~ _ ,_ } rJ ~ . ,l ,. :, , ..: 1 .,:: ,a.,. ,1~ ~a. II ~ . 1 ~ xr1''r? a r a. vZ~ ,,, { ~ r $ 1. r ~r ,, r i.~ :~. ~ ,;r ..~:, . ,,, ,. , ,:;,;i. , ,,,..,.ile.r,h.:n....... i ,..4.....j .t... .., .},.4_.a,~..I .A @.. Ct`S.E,.. al.n.r:_.,.1.. ,rin~:,.,p.,1t,?tl ..r.. ~,.t..i ...k.,.rr, ~.ulnnaJu,. h., nt .i,: r, 1 .gr kt~;l ,,~~~ , `; , . ,'~ ~~, ;; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-00039800 ~ ~~ ~ ' t r Ir . 0200040019-6 ; .r.' . " '':~ r ~ ~ r r, ~~, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 the d~.~':~a.cu~~t~.y~aGCessible capa.~,~.ary pores are ea aa,ly end rapidly ~'i~.~,ed, (3) ~ ~.'he a r,^aa a~` i.na. ta,a~. c on~;ac ~ between the ps,:rt~a. c~.e s o.C a mixt~.~.re is ~rea?t,ly increased at the expense off' th.e liquid phase spil:la.n~ aver the sur~'ace (contac?t ?th~^auGh ?the :l.a,~~ua.d phase). (~~) . ~hrinka~es are ~xlcrs~ased with the increase in 'reff ec?tivet~ porosi~;~?, I?Ience, in a,n alloy wa.~;h a porosity of? 3() percent ar~d a Liquid phase of. ?_0 percent~vol~rnetrically, ~tlxe voll~n~ o.f the solid ph~~se is the same as in a solid .metal J .with a ~0 p~rcerzt-porosit~r see Pararaph 7~). ~l'he ~'illin~ o:~' the 1ar~e int~rpart7.cle pores is facilitated by the "centri:F.u~inpt~ a:~ the liquid. phase into these pores during the shrinka;;e~ (6)~ Dura.n~ ~,he ~rawth of the ,rain, there is no such a.~'~'ini~ty to the fo,r.nation of dif.~icultly-fil..lin~ intraparticle pores, as bakin,; without the .formata.on of a liquid phase,. since r~cr~ys~tia~.lization ta;l~es palace through the cementation phase, and not thraa;.;h direct contact. 'his spec~.i'ically is the circlarnstance that f'acil:ltates the attaininf~; oi;' pl^[~.c- ~ti ally theare ~tical dens:/ ty in ba.kin,;, (7 )~ :Pe:rmeab.i.li ty (s ~e Paragraphs l2, 1~U, and. 7l } in powder allo;~s baked in the presence o.~ a liquid phase, is much t7reater than in powd.ex metals baked in the absence o:C Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 i ~~-~.d hale (~at t11s same. deree of poi^?~~.~y) ~ r~h~s a.s a~.q A ~^ea~ex smoo~henaTn~ o~ the p~~Q~'a,:le o:~ ?the .~a~'~ aue to 'the ~ sa to the po;~sibilit~,Y o.~~ ~tl1e trans:)"ocat:i.on of ~t~.c~.ea, and a.l. ' .Zane fz~arn some pores into o?lJher pares. ~'nhanced the l~.qua.d pk ' ~'acilita?tes the fi~..l.in ' of the capil:~ary pores permeabil.a.~;y ? sections w~.~th metal during the process of near the C011taG~ shrinkage and is a:Lso conducive to the rapid anc~. complete ,~ a elimination o:~ uses in bak~.z1~;. ~:'he bakins; with the formation of a ;liquid cementation ma be considered as an example of "activa~ted's ba,:cin~; phase y ' ac~iva~ed. by .way of an, increase in the .mobility (~, ~ p, , balca.n~ ~#nother example of activater~. baking (at the of the atorrrs) . ~~~ ~ ~tiid,es was already pa~.rited out in ~~ara raph expense o 1. the a. } 67, In coolin~ay 'tile hetero,;eneity of the structl~,re is pre? served. wit11 dirr~.nished solubil i~t~;Y, a parti~.~l :liberation of:' the basic component fror~ the cet~r~entatiorr phase, with the reci itatiotl of ~th:~s com~ponen.t uparl the undisaolved gains, p p rl'h:i.s rocess may J.ead to the further ~r~~c~th becomes possible. p ' n and risibly, to increased shrinkage in coaling, of the ~ra~- , p (x-15} are in ~~?rar when they assert ief fear and ~latop 'ri bakin with the formation. of a liquid phase, t11e tha t, a. ~; nth of alto s is determined by the strength of the ce- s ~,ren,, y ~' n base and that the contact between .the p~.r~ticles m~,nta~L~.a p , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o.f;' the basic component a,s ~~';L'ected not d,irect~.y, but th~~ou~h the cernentat~.on phase Thcay say; n~~he bal~ldaz~ies betw~;en the cementation ph~~se an~~ the undissolved ~aas~.c meta: ,prac~ .t,~ cally cot^rr;s~aarrc~ to the bour~daa~a.es o:L' the drains in cast:. metallt, l+Jh.ereas, as pc~x the above outl.~.ned o~aina,on o:f. the author^, in the process of 'bakin;;, thexe must take place the ~'armation off' a direct contact between the gains of the basic rnetal~ The ernpirica:l prom' of the correctness a:~ this thesis Lies ' ~ awihi. and I~innubor ~ ) . They eliminated ~.n the work of ll from the 'oa}ced-hard alloys (WG - Co) :the cementation phase,.. -b' d.ssolvin,; 1;he cobalt in. solvents, which did not react Y u an the basic canlponent ~-~ tw.l~;sten carbide, `l'he st~enth p (rr~sistr~nce to bending) al' the und:issolv~~d carbide sl~eleton (~ see Table ~6) constitutes, to a cextain extent, a ~a~e of 'the de;ree af' the c~.ix~ect contact between tl~e gains af' 'the basl,c component, [ sPe next pale for Talale ~6~ Thl~s, at any rate, in the ypresence of not too high a content of the cementation metal, t~~,e contact and the strength are determined, ~ta a considerable de};ree, directly by the.,..basic cornpol~ent~ The reduced s~trenth resulta,na from dissolving the.cabalt is due to the de-~rimental effect of porosity, . , , ,. . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approv e ed for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 z~B~ 56 1 ~` r Skele won in .~! le Ts ~r.~th j~ari.us Gobal The Stren ~h of she .~a_b~de ~ g +P = i T_nmrera ~~are l~! 0 Be tees CenTrade Bak- Con u..n ~ Bak_ng ~. g ~ , ' ~ 1 Hour Zn Time r o Bawihl an+~ Hinnubor acco_ ding t r ink s~m~n 1 ~on~ent Benin s~rer_g~ch g Coba z , ~ g 1 ~ f ~- of ~ ion i n ini~i,i al allo~r ir~ skele ~on n lnlt~al a.~lo ~.~ ,,er doss ut ,, Y 3.0 0.0~ 125 54 600 0.0~ 165 45 l~.p o.a3 185 c j~olu~?e}roc `~ Of the cemen',ation ~hasQ 6.1 12 2? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 robab~e that the direct con~~act between ~~ o~~ever, a. ~ a, e q~.t~,te p ant ~,~ rather cons~.dera~~.e a~.so ?tl~>.a ~;raa.ns o:E' the ba~~.c co>~7iponM ,, .h contc~~'+t v.~' the cementata.on me~a~~-? a,n the presence v:~ a ha,~; c rxrains o,~' rarba.de, two are ~.a.nked ~au~p~aosa.n;, out o~ ?~hre ,~ . ~.he th:~.;rd one :i.s in contact through 'the 'by' c~irec`L contact, wha.~.e ~ . is case, ..the a1.7.oy wa.).~. d~~.sin?te~z^a~,e Cernentat~-on ,phase. .Cn th ? ~ ?the coba~.t, i.eo, its stren;;th wa,l:~ upon the dis5o].u?u.~on o ,~ i.s no p~'oo,f a~" the abence o , equ~,1. zero. ~ih~.s, however, ? between ~,he carb ode p~rains ? ~n adda.tion, d~.rect contact ])awih~. and Ninn'ubor have demonstrated ?the exper~en'ts by :~ ' n the duration o.e tl~.e baka.n,; at ~~~~ ?th~.t, with the incr~~a5e :~ to J.20 hours, the stren;;l~h, u~~aan the. de;~;rees centzarade up, ~.' the cpbal.t, inc~Eased to ~-~~ kilo~;f'~~m5 per dissol.u~t~.on o ,.. contact b~~~ween the .carbide ` sgtiLare mi.7~).imetc~ra i?ed, d~.rec,G hrains was consid~rableq added in the amount oa ~ to The cemcntat~.on phase is 7 all more ~requcntly l~ to 20 percen~t? 3~ perCent~?volumetr..~cy, . ~ - ants a: the eementatioza phase activate ~X:Ce55~-VC~-y s~na.l_1 ama ' ade~ uate de,ree, ex,cessive:ly lame ac~.di-~ the bakin to an ~n ~. ' atio71 shape d.istoxtion, and .other derv .bons wi11 cause l~qu s ~'ects? action these allays are us ua.l.'1~~~' baked xn actual prod ~ .. above the melting point off' .the ce- at a temperature somPwha ti above .the mc:Lt~-n~ paint, the coarser mentat~.on metal ~ the hzhher r s off' the basic corn~panent). the ~.nn.t~.a~. paa'der. rlti~~ns Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~x,amp~,es of tha.s type o~ ai~~y a,re the sorca~,lec~ haxa s WC ~ C,a w~ ~ ~1i., WC ~ ~'a.C ~ Ca), heavy' a1.~.ays a1.~oy ( ~ .. ~, .. Cu iron~cop,Easr a1.~.oys (k~e ? Cu), capper_a ,aver (~ N )~ u .~ A,~7 a se~i,es of a~.~.oys with the admixture o:~ a1.~.ays (~ ~)3 s an a co der and iron baskand the like. Somew phospho~rau p ~' mes on1~ a rie ;~.i~;a.l~1e de Tree aI' salubia.:i,ty of the basic t~. , Y corn orient in the cementat~.on phase is quite adequate for ~ (~~ obtainina a~.:lays of this ~~ype~ ~~or instance, in same cases in the author obtained/copperw~.ead powder al.~.o;~s a characteristic row~~h of the grain thrau,,h the 1i~~~~id phase, re~;ard:Les s of 'the :J.ow ~olub:i.J.ity o:E coplae:r in lead at the ternper~ature o:l' ba~lcin; {see ~'i~ure ~.l~?. } . As practical examples of the second. version o.~' bald-n~ formafi,ion of a ligl~.id phase, the systems Cu - an, wit~~ the Fe _ Al - Ni, - Ca (a:lnico), and others. In this c~~.se, the li ui.d phase is after a certain time diffused into the basic q corr~ponent, with the for-n.ati.on of a homogeneous solid solution, `I'h:us, the first stave af' bakin; can be considered as a case ' ~ in the resPnce of a Liquid s~l,a~e, a.nd the second o t bake n,~ p s~l,a~e as a case of.' baking in the absence of a liquid phases ~~ In this case, 'too, it is sometimes possible to attain con-~ siderable etren~th and almosttheoreti_cal density. ure 1l~2: one structure of eoppex-lead specimens with 2~ ~~.,_ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 percent Pb (8Q(~ de~x^e?s ~enta.~;rade ~U ma. ~ nute~} ,~ app ~;~~~~, p~.ak:led wa.th HNO 3' The rata.a between the Az'o,~~ert~.es o:f the powder a~.loys~ n~,lted w:i, th the :~'a.rmat~.on a~ the la,quid phasQ, and tha various ~'actars, such as the c~e~;ree a:f da.s 7e~^ , ? ~ ~ s~o.~~ off' the powders, the campressa.on pressure, the tem ~r~i ,p ` ~Lua^o, and the ta.ma-~~,a~ o#' balcln~s is basica~.:Ly the sane as a.n the case off' pure metal pow~:~ers, 8;. Asti ~kY?wz.~ t~; ~~ha F'orm~~t.~. ----_.......~~1 of a L~.q~.~d Phase xt .was po:i.nted out in the re , ~ ~. P ceda,n~ ~r,e x~t (r'ar . a~raphs 82 and. 83) :that, iz^ a.ri i~he bak.' tn~ of.' powder allots there ~.s na .f'orrnatian of a la.quid base P , the baking is usually accom~ ponied. by ~;rea~ter d~.fficulties than iri - the case of pure met,a:l. powd.ers~ ~hr:~nka~,es~ the growth in s~, tren~,th and in the s~, ze o;f the can tact sur:~'ace, the ~'rowth o ' ~ , ~ thF, particles, all b e,rfin ~ r in ,such oases, a.~; correspond:i.n~;l~Y hi hel ~ . ~ " ~ternpf nature,, It is b~~sically due to the reduced mob:~l~. ty o.f the atoms during the .fo.t?m~ation o:i;' solid solo t~.ons and compounds. D~arin~ the dissolution o.f t he atoms o.~' solid metal in the liquid phase, their m ob~.l~.tY9 o.n the contrary, ~.s in~ .creased, Here is the basic caul e far the .activation o,~' the balcinra process with the a ~ . ~d~.t~.on o,f the so-called cementatia components, fusible at the baking ~ n ,~, tempora,ture, ~hr:i.nka~es a,nd strength are increased. cons~.d erably, the at~ainrnent o.f:' almost theoretical densi ty becomes possible, .the. tern eat P ore ~~`ils `Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 : CIA-RD py pp P82-000398000200040019-6 ,~ ~-~ ~.,.., Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,~, xade, 3~ m~-nu~te s) ' ~ ~Q~ ~~.m~~, ~~~~^cen~t ~'~ (8Q(~ de~reas cen p~.ck1.~d with: H~1Q3~ erta.es o~ 'the pawdex~ a1.lo~''s~ ~~he rati.a between the prop i s oi' the liq~~id phase, and ,the vaa^LO ~ nal~ed with the ;~'ormat~an wdexs the as 'the de;ree o:~ di.spe~.csion off' the pa s ~actorsy ,such ~~-m~eratuxe, and the tame-~la~ o:~ compression pressure, the to 1 ame as in the case a:~' pure metal. balcin~;, is basically the s r pow;~.ers ' hou~t 'the Form~~~~or,?~ ?~,. a. L~-q~'c~ ~'hase 8~ ~ ~,ct:i.va,ted Bak.a.n~ wit ,~.. ,~..w..._..-,.------ . he receda:n~; text (I~ara~raphs ~~, was pointed out ~,n t p . ' -he b~kin~ of powder alloys there: is 82 .and 83) 'that, ~1. ~.n ~ ase the baking is usually accom- no ~'orrnation o~ a :Liquid. ph ~ 1 ties than in the case of pure mew ponied by treater di~~'~-cul e ~row~Lh in s tren~~th and in the size powders. Shrinkages: th. ~, .l the s~rowth off' 'the particles, aJ off' the contact surface, eratures. at corres~?andin~;ly hi';her temp bruin, in such cases, to 'the reduced mobility off' the atoms yt is basicalJ.y due n off' solid. solutions and con~lpounds. during the .~o~'m~at~-o f .the atoms of solid. metal :Durin~~ the dissolut10n o ' r mobili ty, on the contrary, i s in~? in the liqu~-d phase, they. se for the act~.vation of the. creased, Here is the bas~.c c~u ' ' on o.f the so-called cement~.tion bakir~; process w~.th the ad.d1t~- Shr:i.nka~es sible at the bakin temperature, components, fu ' derably, the attainment o:~ and stren~;~h ire increased consx becomes possible, t~.e temperature almost t,hearetical dens~.ty r~ ~ ~ ;' ;; ~ __ ~~~ i ,~,r~ ~ ~ ~ ~' '~ ~~ ' , ~' ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ? ~. . , ~~ ~ ~ ~ . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 .. and off' the atta,i.nment a~' the n~cos~a~r~y vf, the ~ra~ ~~ ow t,h erta.es is reduced cana`i~dorab1.y~ mechana.cal prop . ~; in princip.~s) question arises a~ A very a.m~aor ~n ~ 'oil 0~ aal'lle Co'ifl~aanerits, non-~~'usa.bl.e a~ ~ta whether the ad da, fi,a. rature es,l1 perceptibly acta.vate .the ~~he ~~.Ven ba~~n ~ tempe ~ saver i s in the a~~'irmative, if' process o,~' be,~~-n;? the an or>;ly by anal,o?~' with cast allo~rs. ~~ 'tined until 110W that alloys are always Ness l1; was a,~s~ in:i.tiaJ. com,Ponent,s, ors a 1:, any rate, than plasta.c than the~.r 19} ever Boy.;hear recently da.scavered an Orle 0:~ them s ~ aw y namenon which he called klyp~~'plasticity. important phe a o s _~urned .out to have. at, certain C~;rtaa.n a1u~~irn,~m~-za.rlc a1.1 y ~ ' er lasticity ~~;han each of the in- ha.~lle~^ temperatures -,reat p s Z t is obvious 'that, in this case, the itia~. component . .~ atoms has increased dlxrin~ the f'orrlation rraao~.lity al the .~ . id solut~_ons o `Z'he addition o.~' compone~~ts, en~ o~ the sol c la.d solution, reduces the mobil~.ty o:i~ the term; into the ~o r'' c metal in the .Presence of not too hi;h atoms ofthe ba~~. ~ ~'mul~taneoasly ~.~~ lo~aers the melt~_n~ point, ~tentpera,tures o but ~~- s the mobility o~ the atoms at same pre- . i, eo ~ ~.t a.ncrease erature and, probably, also wi~thir~ determined very h~, ah temp ~ ertain range below this ternperature? ac a ma occur in the.-baking o~ po~rder the same phenomen y metalsm Smithells and ~WiZliams, in baking a tun~;s~n prase, ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 rn eratureS` o:~ allays ~ ' Cu ~ ~~' ~,~r~ll3. Melt~.n; to p ice Smthells y .and Willa.ams) (accor~~.in~ to ~r y Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~r ~?th the adc~itian off' about deg' at ;~~pQ da~rees c,en'~;~,~r~,~e, pow ~ ~ ~.? ~- ) ~~,~ and rlicke~ (' -~ thra prapor'~~.on z ~ ~.0 percen't a~' ao~p ~r ~, p;~^onauncec~ araw'~h off' ained a cornpac~' a~.~,ay .with a sly p y abt ascribed this effec'~ to the ~orma~ the '~~un,sten ~raa.n~ They er,.nickelwphase s ]3y using ta.an of a ~,~.q:~id ;;emen'~,t~.on Copp shat the cernentata.on phase con" X ,~ r~~ys, they estab7.xshed n'r of w, and the melting; point ta~.ned in solution 1~ pe,rce r . ~+' ure ~.1~3) is above ll~.2Q degrees cen.? of such a syatem (see ~ ~-~ 'l2~) Fore correc'~~.y painted a~ut ~~he ~u~al ( y there ~ ti trade . r co,ald have been present 1n the fact that the ~~?iq~.~~.d pha~~e err~.nnin a~' the latter, with t e baka.n~; process only: ~.n the b ox the cementation phase. Hawevery subsequen'~ solidification d. a~'ter ~ ain and recrJ'stal.lization continue the ~rowl~h o~ the ~~,~' .the liquid phase is nat a grew that, ~~hus, 'the presence of oreovery the allay W " Cu ~" '~ l~isite for activated ba,kti~n~. M req cen~ti,~rad.~, i.?. bclaw the melt~.n~ Na, y baked at J.3~0 decrees ~~ -a~.loyy in ~rhich no ~.iq~~~-d ~, off.' the copperMnirke7. (1., ~~ porn showed consi~erab~.e Growth of the phase coulc~.:~'orm, stall ~nded e ;f'orma~tion of the chs,racterist~.c rou particles and th ' r re 1.?~.h) also considerable shrinkage. structure (see Fa.~,u ~~~r,,,,,,,,..,...w..?w?~..a ~~~ ~~~~sten, in Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 e o:f the alloy W - Cu ~ .~1i baked ~+`,~~~re ll~ll.s M~-cro~tructur ~,th enti rade, ~ COQ times ~ (in accordance w a~t 13~p degrees c ~ ~mithelJ.s, and Wa.l~.a.ams } . bra. Ce ~ e cementa~t:ian phase is not ~'hus, the li.que~'action a~ th ~eemin~;~-y, the cementa~~~.on rere uisite :for activated bak~.n;o ap ~ tiny' tertiperature is reached, is in phase, even be~'are ~,he mel ~-, e c state, that its enterin; ~.nto th s~.~ch a mobile and p.ias t~. ' ncreases the mob~..l.~-ty off' the solid solution con5iderabl,J i com~onent, and activates the baking atoms off' the re:E'ractary p t~he~ menon is :important not on:Ly ;for ~,ts process. Tha.s pheno great practical value as well.., s~:~~ce aretical value9 but has r, .:, . - ~ r.;s o~rewha~t below the mel.~tin~ pointy in ba~cin~_at toinl~~,ro.~l,u.r ~l~c 5e~7re~ation of the- liquid defects a.nd :laws, li.r~ked. tot a.nd the like, ca.n be avoided, phase, buckl.>~nr,, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 IJA~h~~~ry~t';~ 1~~~ ~3asic Data c " o~.ntec~ out treat, as vie.wcd dram a scienti..fic ~, wa,~ p . - ns~.dered as an increase i.n the contact angle, press~.n~; can be co o~~rder particles at the expense of deformal~,:i.on between the p . ~ ces and balcira~;, same as above, e~rcep't at 'the by e~.~,ernal far ~ w, ~thez~rrial mobility o.f the atoms. ~~ot- expense of the ~nhe~ent -rr1ese two ape~'atians into one, and, conse- ` preaSl.X1 11n1tC;S on?taet is attained as a result off: quently, the ~r~owth a.C c ~, ?iohed rocesses. Hence, when hatapressin~ the two. abovE ment p ? ~ ,o attain a l0a~percent;density of is employed., ~.t ~.s easy t the final product. ? ~ - ~ s eaki.ra~; h,ot~pressin~ should. be d.].f :der. ent7.a? ~ tra. c. t;J_~ ,~ ~ ' na under pressure. The di f fey^ence b tween these ted from baka. ~, ~he foll.owin~? The teen hot-~pressin; shot~.d be is reduced ~o t ,~ case when hi;;h rates of cansolida-~ applied pri~naz~.ly to the . ,.. ~r '~h ressuresare employed. Zn the Lion and rel.at~.ve1.,, h~~~ p henomena of creep manifest themsel~res pretence o.t these, .the p while diffusion arld recrystal~-ization do relatively little, com leti.on? Bak.in~; under pressure, on the not proceed to p a rocess of low pressures and. low rates of de? contrary, ~.s p ,:~19.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 w . ~ d~ ~ta ava:i.~,ab~.e i s s ta.,l:l~ ~,nac~e ~ua~,~,a Formation, Tie exper:~man~~~~. u~,~. c~eve~.oped th~ax~' o~ hotMpre~si~~~ F'or the c~rcat~.ol~ off' a ~ ,`~ ba asic .re~;ul.arit~e a o:~' tha,s prace~s ca,xi The preae~it~y ~c~:nown b reduced, to l,hE ,f'ol~.o~Tir~~. .~ : s~.n~ ~.~, i~ ~~os~ilale to ob'La~.n a (;~,), with hot pre ~~: a,. roxa.mately the theorpticzl, ~'ina]. product wa,~th a dens~.'ty~ pp .ties no'~~, belaw 1;hose o,L' caat materi~ and with mechan:LCal. proper alstreated under pressure, ~= ~ tike rna~;niw WitY~ tl~.e temperature of hot-pxesw>~,nh.~s ~~')~ ressure which. 4 and o:~ the p tude of the critical pressure ~ ,, , nsol~.dation off' the powder to a predeter~ is;requ~.rc,d iox the c,o Tablca ~l~) a Gyre dizr~in.ish~d, minod degree (see ~'ara~x'a.Ph ~2., ra~tia ray be d:ue to phase ~trans:~orraaM dome exceptions to this s wYls.ch were analyzed :i.n Para~;ra~'h Lions or to cons~..d,e at~.on 'Ven ressure, with the rise in prwssin~ (~)~ ~,~a~i p of strength (tensile stren~t'n, com- tempero,tu:re, the e~cpanents end~.n~' stren~~th) draw and attaintheir pressive stren~;l,h, b terInined `temperature, above ~Lhis maximlun value at some prede ~th does riot change any longer, ors at temperature, streng reaseda For instance, as can be seen t1.I1le", 1S Sal1lewhat dec ~.n accordance with t;he data. by from Table ~~ below, comp:l.led (~.al) ~,he tensilF strength o~ iron, cam ~lenry and Cordiana ! ~- kila~rams per s~ua,r~ mil:l.imeter prossed under..a pressure a~ ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 TABLE 57 _ . r nano ner Henn a_rjd ..ora . , ~ S care r~ulilme~cer as F ,7a1 to j gl_ourams e_ q ..1 lA ~: G Sion anion, n ;r~ ~enslie ?~rengtn ~ ecl~ZC ~ra,lty Sp a 'me-tea s ~he Pressure t a,tureS an,~ Tl ~ , n yea sander tTar~ ous 1e:nper ~- en~ th of Iron ~ res., ~2echan~.cai S ~r ~ The [1] 500 600 50 ~.,.~ . lip 6.3~ 22.8 0 51 28.0 ~.0 63 ~+5~ 6.?z 5p 6.70 25Q9 ~5p 6.89 23.F~ 45~ 7.05 34.? 1.0 77 2.0 80 in ~ Brines-~- ~araness in kg sa, mm o _~ ~ zn seconds ~ n gI c a cm e ; n ~ T~.me _a~ Tem era cur _ :- 1 ~ J - V ~~ o ~ Z8.~~ b ~ _ ,~.. __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 T.~.~L~ ~Oontin~~.~d 57 ~ [27 50 700 150 450 50 780 150 N N t i~5o [3] C~] [57 [bl 7.32 33.5 s.~ ?0 7.52 4o.z 12,0 95 7.58 10.3 2..o ioo 7.59 37.9 22.0 3oz 7,71 3b.7 32.0 93 7.75 37.0 37.0 9b Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 at 7~0 degrees cent:~t~rac~e ana~' ~ , ~ a.n~a~,ned far :~,~0 and .was somewhat decreas X50 secands)s ed as comparQd to a.ran cam r~~ de~x'ees cen'~a~,~;rade, .~ ssed at 700 ~'h~,s r1atio :~s due to ?~he ,~ , o~.a,owa.n,~` ~tren~th deperzdu on three-factors. densit. .Y o:~ the matez~ia~.~ the va:1u~ a .~ . ca~.c?_h~trderia,n~ ~ ~ the ~, ef:~.e~ct, a.nd the canten~G of a , ~~'he increase Ind dril:txtures ar~d oxides. ensi ty wi ~t,h the rise in tem~ er, . d.uc.~v'e to the a A ature ~.s con ~,rawth. o.f' s~t,ren~th, However off:' the hat.? , , ., . 'the rESidua.l, stresses prc,ss~.n,~ and the canten?~ o:~' ox:i in a reduc~.nn des when pxe:ssin~; ~, a~xnoupl~ere} are simultaneous on the contx?a ly d~nlznished, which,. ~~ da.ma.n,ishes s tren,~fth~ 'I'hercf prc~de~~ermined ter~lperatu orem at, come re, thez~e bef;ins a decrease in s as promoted by the two ab tren~th, ove mentioned fac'~o~s; `:Ct .x'01.10 '~ha.t the temperature o~ ~ ws ~' ~,nflexa.on is the Lower the content of ~ the ~'reater oxides a,nd 'the greater the c , . ol~.pression pres- sure" xn the prosenro off' a neG?- ~ . ~,.1.~.~zble eon~~,ent of oxides and a net'-~i fible compres,si on. ~ r pr es~ur~~, the point of ~nflGxio. may ~~;neral.ly be absent` n ~fhe presence of the point, o.f' infleyicn is ,prono~~n particular sharpness in .t,h cad with e hardness temperature curve , the prescnco of a in ~'reat campression pressures below),.. (see. ~'ryi~.ire ~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 _ _ _ __ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ned ~'or :~~Q and 1~~~ seconds) ~ at ~iQ degrees aenti~;rada (maa.n~:~ 7 om ared to a.ran compressed at "~~~ was' somewha`~ d?ecr~;aser~ as c p d.e~rees centigrade, oa.lowing? ~tren~;th deperida 'phis x~ata.o is due to 'Lhe ~ a:~ the material, 'the value a:L' the on three ~'actars: der1sa.ty oxx.des. . ~ ~, ~ a?nd the co~t.?tent o:~ admzx,tures ar~d cold-har. dexia.nh e~'.-.c.?ct, ' t wi~t,h the rise in temperature is con.? ~'~he increase a,n densa. y -sidual. stresses growth. o:~' strength. E~owever, the re cluca,ve to the ~, rE;ssing n~ and the content o~ a"~~-des (when p " o~ the hot.pressa. t~ dim~rlished, which, ? ins a ~o phere) are simu~.t~ne ously in a recluc ,, . ? sties strength. ~hexe~orem at some an the contrary, d.a.ma.n.a. ve~rins a decreaae in strength, redetermined temperature, three ~a p ~ve r~en~ianed :~ac~~ars, xt ~'o~.~.aws as promoted by the two abo inflexa.on is ~L-he ~,owery the ;realer ?~hat the temperature a.~ r - the greater the compression .pres~' the content ai oxa.de ~ a?nd e of a neglig~?b~-e content o~ axa.des sure. In the presenc '~ora ressure, the point o:~ in~'lcx..ion and a negli~~ible campressa. p may ~;eneral.ly be absent. ` , in~'lexian is ~prana~~~nced with Zhe presence o~ the poa.nt of ' n ~,he Yrardness?~tenrperature curve, in par. ticu:~ar sharpness a. scion pressures (see :~~'i~;ure 11~~ t;he presence a:f great comps e belaw)o ~, ., ` ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~~~ . ~ ~.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ 8~ k~/sq mm ...-- ~~0 k;/ s ~ mra ~r ~1'ernpes~ature, i,n oG +" : ,e J.I Itiatio between the hardrlesa o:? coppe~~ and the 1 a, c. ux ~~ ~~ compression temperature (as per Goet7e~.) - The eX" onrzits af' de~'ormabil.ity (~e~.on;;ation, reduction. p ansve,rse section .under compression) in area, ~,nc,rease a.n tr with the corapressian temper^ature (see con.tinuo~usly a.ncre_~.se ...,. oyT since, in their case, the -char/ ;e in a11. .E~,,ure .~1~6 bel. ), above mentioned fs.ctors exerts an e:f:~'ect in ~~~e ;.,~.rec? three ' n of im~ roving; the mechanical. propert~.es. tzo p ~._..~ Temperature, ?C ~~ ~ '~ ~ 8 k~f s~ ~ ~~ tr) 80 k~7~ s~ rnrrt ~ ~' ~p k~;/sc~ mm ~~ ~~, 8o k~/sq ~ 7~.0 k a/s ~l mm 8 k~~sa mm Temperature oC N, i ,~ ~~ .~ ~~'~~ ~ Declassified~in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/2~0 . CIA~RDP82-00039R000200040019f 6 __ _... __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~Q k~/~~, mm ~p k~~ s~, rr~m 8 kg/s~ mrn 7'enlperature, in ?C e 116. ~hatio between the expansa.on of tb.e crosswsect~.on ~_,~-... the .reduction in height, and, the compressive stren;th area, n the one hand, ar~c~, the temperature of hot~press-~ of copper', o ' on the other. hand (as per.GaEtzeJ.). ~.ng, m chanical ropertie5 are improved with th.e ( ~.~) , X111 e p 'ncrease in compression pressure, but anly up ~a a certain UU~ ercen~~-der~sit~r is attained. With the f"ur- l~.mzt, when 1 p r increase in pressure, 'the mechanical properties prac- the ..~ all remain constant, particu~.~-sly at higher pressing tem- 1,.>~c y s The ~ ressure, at which the constancy of mechanical perature . p 'es is attained. (which in small-height specimens corres- propert~. `tical ressure) ].S the lower, the hs.gher the ponds to the cra. p temperature. " ~7 ~ The duratio~1 of th,e Yiot-pressing process is a ~) factor since, at high temperatures, the phe- very smpor~,ant , la an im artant par~t? The snore protracted nomena off' creep p y p s the /awes the .pressure that is required the press~.ng prods ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ cca,~'~.ed donsa,ty and ~raachanica~. pxo~ ~'ox the at~,a~.nrnent of p , r ~ ~ aril the. ~hax woxds~ ~~he ~xeatex the d.en,~a.ty p~rt:l.es, 4r, ~.~ p~ ~x111~.;ned CGm" attaa.nab~.e ~.~ndex a pxedet mecY~anical. properta.e~, xn adda.t~.orr to the phenomena ~ss~.on pxessure (see `~ab~.ea'~i') ? Ax e d hot..pressa.n~; ~.s linked to a. more com~ of creep, protxa.ate ~c stallization, .and de~Lou~hen? Mete redueta.on off' o}4ides, ~' ~ ~ s a to ha.~her pla,,tica.ty and, a.n most cage , inf. ill th:~s /cads xo ernes, wi~k~h the duxa~tion o:~ pres- to improved mec,hana.cal p p o{' hardness and strength at h~~-hex ain~ (w~-~;h the exce~~~~.on ecome somewhat dima.nished thx'o~z~;h tempera,ture5 ~ wha.ch may b ses indicated. in point 3 above) ? eau taJ.lizat,iorl are observed ( F~) a `t'he .phenomena of ;recrys - ~ Gaet2el (y1~ observed visibJ.e in- n hotJw~~ressin~. , Thin, ~.~ n in hot~pressin~; at a tempera- dications oz recrysta.l.l~.7aaL~.o ade .about h0 percent o~ the melt e off' X00 deG;rees cerLt~.~r ~ tur r - a.cteri~tic that recrystallization was ina point) ~ ~It ~.~ char ' the caaxJe, and not in the f.'ine, par' visibly pronounced .Ln ' :/.inked to a sma:lJ.er content of tirles? Obv~.ously, ~Lha.s a.s to a moxe rapid z~eduction in the oxides, and, con~'ormant"ly, a, ti~'el short duration off' .the hot~- coar5e particles at a rela y pressing operation, ~~ bri uettes is connected (rr) M The anneal~.n~ of ha q a;i~,i~ation, -leveling; o:F the structure, with ~'urth~r recryst (9~) According to Goe~tzel ~ .some and chan~ea in density. '.le ted in la~r~density briquettes, why sh~a.nka~;e is rnan~..~es Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,~, bxa.gti~e~~'L'~s a~ ha.~~ ~~ 'rnsns~,ans ~.~ ma~n~.~ee~ed ~ ~xaw'th o~ da. axawfih, of amen" mer~a o~ sh~~ .nka~e .and '~ dene~.~,y'? ~'hQ ~,heno . ca~sea ~~ ~n ,.~~ axe d~~e ~,a the same sa.ans a~n hofi~ Ux~.que~~ ' s~,a,Y~ce, ~~he ~;xaw~th ~n ~~ cald br. ~.q~ue~~Les ? Fox ~n the case o ~,~;~~ du~'a,n~ . d b ~,he 1a.bExa~;~.pn off: ~; r~s:i.ons can Yae c;x,~~~.a.:t.ne ~ dame absaxp~ian o,~ xes~.~.ua1 uc~;a.on off' ox~-des, ~~ ~'hc ~,he pxexed ar~d ~by z anal a. s ola t~i on. s~;xesaes9 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~i~~~~,~~~ ~~~.~ ~ F~ PKQPr.~ ~7 ~ The propert~?es af' ~'orousa ls~ a ed oraus metals, in cantradist~~-notion ~ohesa.an a.n b k A ' uettes is ba;;icaa.ly det~;rmined by mole to baked pawner ra.q ~ not b eT~~a~,emen~t between the ;;rains cular cahes:~o~t, and Y .lest s in the case of briquettes, th,e sma] At the same t~.me, a ~~ ~~ section is ..the "can~taci 't crass section and the wea?est crow ? ,h asses cornplctely through the con- h J.6 wha.c p .(see ~'ara~~"ap ~ the ~ra:ins and throuh the poresa Very tact boundar~.ES of r., ?r? ra~~ion of baked porous metals, frequently during; the c~.~.~~-nte~ ., ~ . ~hc same line as in the _case o:t' briquettes, a Fracture J:o1.Lows 'L ? ~ not ~thrauf;h the grains, as in th.e between the ~ra~.i7.~, and.. case of most corrtpact rnE~;ta:l.s. ~~ ' Ctirrct:LOn to briquettes, the '~cor~tactu B1z~,, in contr acli aked orous m~;tals is nat a7.ways he~.d to crass sect:~on ~.n b p ., s. Ce if the pares, as a result minimum dimensa.ons, For a-n ~, ~ armed From intercrYsta~-line into intra~ a~' baking, wire trans. act crass section is already not ~t its crystalline, the cant tal ~ orasity is neFl~-~~~-ble, the contact minirr~um value ~ If t? ~ are hen the p s~of the open. ~Ly'pe, will not ore cross sections even w .. . ~ va.lue .since shrinkage in baking always be at its m~,na.mum s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ,; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 o~,ums of ~r,ha pores closest to tY~e first a~' a~.;l xec~uces the v ontact sur:~ace o,L' the. gains has p;l,acas o~ contae,t. ~ha c ? s not a~.wa~rs pass pex~pen~l,i.GU~.ax are. 'uneven outline, and, doe ,~ ~? ? . asses ~ ~'edorm~Ltion by wa'y off' ~,ntra~ to the de~arcna'L'a.on ,,?Lr xes 1a,st~.c meta~.s, as is known, xequ~, crystaa,~.ine a:l.ida.n; a.n p .~ ~ dara.es ax' ses than disin~Le;ration a1.an~; ~,he bo..~n srrt~ll~r stres ' ~ ach othez?~ as is the case in baked the ;mina, ta.~;d ~.n w~.th e ~radist;inc~l,:l.on to bx~iquek~tes) s ~~y th,e porous metals (~.n c ont erefore, the "cantact" cross section forces of cohes1c~n. ~m ~~,ini~r~u.rn d~mens ions, ~~ d metals, even tho~t;h it may be of a~ bake e o:(:' minimum strength. ~.'h~-s is the must no?~ necessary-ly b ~ metals /unbar off' cases, a Fracture in plasi~a.c reason why, y.n a n ? ~ C snot a7.on~; the contact cross sec- with low pa~r'osity.es pa,~se tian, but thx~av.gh the pores. metals by their lneChanical pr?"' ':Ch,us, baked porous s transita.on step between powder per~?ties, constitute a sort o~ mcta7.s. The greater the p1.a~tica.ty briquettes and compact IlpSer the orosity of the baked meta., the c and the smaller p . mecharLics.~_ properties, the compact it ap~pr. oximates, a.n ;>_1~s 'ttlene55 and porosa.ty of the baked me?tr~l. `t'he greater the bry, ' s;l xa gel^t~.es to those of meta. the closer are its ntec,haria.c p 1'+ briquettes. ' deforrna?Lian, tl~e size of the In the presence of elasta.c ? ns racticall;r constant. Hence, the contact cross section remay- p de- arous metals, which depend on elasta.c properties of baked p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 axm~t;~.on are ~.a?nked to the sage a~:' the contact crass f ~ ~hanical xapexta.es of carripact mata.ls secta.on and to the raec. P . ~ ~ ~ annex. ~'a~^ instance, i~he yie~.d points in a rather s~.mplc m r ~ ~ ~esaion ~'or baked porous rlietals axe to a.n tens:~on ~aald :t.n campy ~~ 'nC~ a.eld points fox compact metals (approxi- the corresponcaa, }, y .~ ~ ~ f the contaact cross, secta.an AH is to ma~tely) a,s the s~~e a ' ae of the ~transvexse section oa' the specimen A s the norna.nal. s~.~ Q~> ~ r s~~r l~I l ~ is the yield point in tension for' the porous where ~ metal; ~c is the yield point; of the cam~aac~t rnet;al; ~~ ".: the z?ata.o of t;hP area of the contact crass ~, i s ~tion tathenominal area of the transverse section, see (allows from f'oz~~ula (~~il~-) that the ~Lrue yieJ.d It ' the oz?aus metala i.e., the stress, as :~.~elated to po~.nt ~ or p , ~ ~ ~ on '~"" pis ecTua,l to the yie1.d point; the conlaact cross seen. ~ ~ of the corresponding compact m.etaJ., Usually, the yield points r,~etals in campressian are somew~~~at hi ,her than they. of uorous ~~ ~ r ,e 'T'able ~~) . But in .the case of very porous are in ten~ian (~e and hard bakec~l metals F the yic,~.d poa-nt in cam or very br~.ttle ' ~ a5 also in the c~.se of bri.q~,rettes, be ~,~resc~ion msy at ~time,~, ater than the yie~-d pp~~.Y~b a-n tension, ~l'he conslderabl.y ire ' f elasticity for baked porous metals, in ~~he preser~.c;'e moduli. o Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 a:k' a ne~la,~;ible can~,act cr~as~ sec;ta.an va~.ue, are rather class to the modu~.i of eJ.astica.ty :fo~~ bra~quettes. ~~' the sa.~e of the con~~act crass section ~.s increased a,n bs.ka.n~, the n~od~alus :for the .baked meta.]. is ;renter ~k;han ~'ar ~l,he a.nit~ial brie~uet~~ea ~~' the size of the contact Crows aection ~s diw minished :gin baking, then, an the contrary, the rnod~t~lus for th.e baked metal .may even loe d:i~ninished, In the pT~esence of a consic~.erable contact crass section, the va7.ue of the moc~i.L~li of elast~.city fi'or the baked metals approaches th.e correspandin~; ~lalues for cast rnetalam Tn the presence of plastic (or ~;enel:~aJ.ly non-rever- sable} cle:cormation, the size a.E' the con~l~,act cross :section chan~;~s, Therefore, the r, atio between the ri~echanical pro- per ties o.f porous metals, .which are determinable by the: non- reversible deformation a~~d the contact section, and also between the correspond.7.n properties of compact metals, is more complex than in the presence of elastic de~'armation, In the presence of tension beyond the yield point, there ocears a nonreversible diminution of the .contact .cross sects.on, It may be expressed by way of a breakoff of the contact surfaces (~~articularl.y in the presence of high poros~ ity and in. the case o.f: brittle. metals}, as well as by way of the result of plastic defoz~Ttation (partic~~larly in the prep Bence of a considerable init~.al size of the contact cross section}. The true ultimate tensile stren~th'of a porous Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 tua~ ~;i~e off' the contact su,r.~ace mei;al., Gornp~~tet~ .for the ac ue ?i.el,~ breal~ is pcasaa~lal.y above the ~,r ~ at th.e moment of 'the ~ true ~-~ s ~;~i~1eta~. ('bltit ~poss'~-b~.y bca.ow the paint of the po~'ou com act metal.). I~o~weVer, in conned tima~;e s~Lren~~rth o:~' the p the contact, sur~'aces, 'the ?~' on with the. rapid. b~reako~.~ off' La. ~.~ ~:'or metals a~' cons~.dcrable r'roma.nal. u1'tirr~ate s trerr~th ~ is to 'the nomina:~ transverse ,~ect:~.on~ pox~osl.ty, as related ~ see ~l'able ~~) s nornina:l y:i.eld point ~, almost equal, to a.t the ' tension, at the rnornent precedin?; It is possible 'that, a.n ? ~ ~ ' an of ~t'ne correspgnd.n~; contact bre~k~, a certain da.rrs,nuta. ~' the: breaking; ;rains takes ss secti0z1-.and an elon~ata.on o~ cx o orosit~ys resence o.l' considerable p place. However, a.n th p thernselve s upon the nominal.. these changes Wi,l.l not mani:~E~s~~ ' en, ~ryherefore, in 'the Gate ?~ dimensions o.~ the ,,peca.rrr _' naation and reduci;ion in area met,als~ o~ high pox'osa.ty, G.~o ,, ero, ~3y the sar~te token, impact are practiral.l;y' equal. to 7~ With orous rne'~.ls, is insini~'icant. ductility, toa, a-n p an intercrystalline ~z"ac~Lure is a cliinirlution o~ poros~.ty~ ~ acr stalli.ne one, ~t,he ratio ~~ ~ ~ trans~c~rmed into an ~.ntr ;~ C a. roach lion in area are all increased, pp el.on~;ation, and r educ the corres(~ondin~ values i'or ink, in their ult:rm.ate values, compact metals. ~. ? n in contr~.d~-stinction 'to tension, (Jnd,er campres,~a-o , on the contraz`y~ is increased` the .contact cross section, teen th to ~' o o:[.' the ultimate. cornpressa.ve s ~ 7'~,.erefore, the rata ase not less, but cansW..derabl~~ the yield point i a~ a.n th.a. s G a ondina compact metals. ~ ;Porous ~~reater 'cha.n :for ~t~he carresp ~.~~2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ma~k,aJ.s era vary "t~xa.tt~.e" a.n tar~s~.c~n, :Grp corapr~ssian, an tha cc~ntxaz~y, parous rlleta~.s ~.~re chaz~ac'tiar~,~zacl by px:cepta.or~~ a~.~.y ha,h ~.e~'o:rma~ai~.~.ty ~ undo much ~.a~wer p~^~;ssu~as ~hax~ a.s the. case in case metals, sa,nce ~the;ir yield point, is cansidexw a'I~ly ~. c~we r~) . tw~a xespects; rI'his h~.h dc~:Eormab~.:l.ity is .very a.mportant in ~ ~.) as a res~..l~.~t off' it, porous metals have r;reat?~? machir~aba.lit~,y under pressure than case, metal; ~~) ,porous pa:i.~ts, operat~.n~ a.~~ f'ra.etion, due 'to their high c~e:t'ormabil,a.~ty, .have excep~tiana~.ly ood run-in c~u~.la.~ies and cons~.derabJ.e re~ sis~tance to ,wear, 2'he ratio bei,wcen de~'armation and .load., in th.e Case off' bared paro~us metals, as well as in the case off' non~balsed powders, is e~~pressed by the dii'~'erential equation. ~~-9/2) where p is the load., ~, e is the size of the can~Lact cross section; I~ k is a constant coe~':~icient; h is the hei:;ht ~~a.enhth.) o.f the Final product; the plus si.r;ri pertains 'Lo tension, the minus sign pertains to carnpressiono Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~ the ratia_betweex~ the contact :~nthe baked produc , ,ssed not by ~"ormula (1~/.~)~ cross aect~.on and tha 1.aad~ is expxe b the f o~.low ins; e~,ua~i ~~'y' but y = ~ the iail;ia:l. si~~e of the cor~ltact cross Where ~p 1,~ the application of the load) ~ section (~~~ra.or to l;' ~, s the Load ~ ..value of the load, prior to the po tis the ultima~~e ~"~,ctically does not change a~L.tainin~ o~ wh~.eh Ao p . orr-la~ta.on of the cnrltac t} ; ( the e.~dst1c de.C contact, strength) of ,,~ is the crit7.ca1 stress ~~ _, mina ~ b j /2) i s true only for the the me tat ? .~ or ( case Where P ~ ~ ? a and p may be expressed in The ratio between Ao 0 appro~ima~~.on. by Formula where: ~~ ~' ~~ ~~, r-~ ~( "TII~ P Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 case W~1frn P ~ Po .the ~'o~.lpwa~n~ ~'vrmu~.a ~ hl~~, gar the can be w.ra.~~~en do~~rrl~ a~^ ~ ~/ i NI I....r ~:rom thz.s ~h~~, :fin the ~~,pressive reduces ;~~ fol,lows ,. ~ a cala.bration prESs ntoa.d, the r~a~ia ta.on o:f a baked rttetal ~n wall n the pressure p and ~th.e rE~.~,'tive vo~.ume betwee ' the case o:~ nan~baked powdEZ~s, by ,formula be Expressed, as ~,n (when p ~ po) lob p pk r ~ ressure corr~spandin~ to the conso:l.:~.d~~ti~-an where pk ~.~ the p ~he case... of a net pressure equal to 1~o a con;pact stai;e (in t :Cram the c~~libra~~ion diagram f'ox' baked copper :indeed, r~ ~ ~ ~ ercent), shawr~ in Pzra~rdpl~ 2~_ (Pi~;ure (initial poz oJ:>wty ~.3 p . ors tha~L fo~~ ca;~ibration prs,ssur~~s withi;z ~t,he ~~3, b) ~ ~t :Co1.lo~ ,:~rarns er square millimeter, the ~~ -value range 10 - 3d k7.:l.c.,, P rams er square mi.ll:~me~er (the har~~ness attained was 7~ kila~ ~ af' to~.;.hened copp~x') ~~' n with tt~e di:~fereY~~L charactexis~,ics in the 1n corinecl,~.o .. ~ coon in the case of porous me~r~,ls, change of the cantdci~ cross se n the rnechan7.ca1 prope:r~ties in tens~.on correlationships bete axe un~xsual in the case off' compact and. in compressa.an, ,wh~.ch .he case o.f porous metals (see 'f'able metals, arE observed ~n t ~?a ~beZaw) . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ __ __ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~s,l~,e~ f ar0u,;a ,~~'onoxos ~'he Mechem c ~ ~'~'ap ~ ~ .w.,.~~~~ .: ~ ~"?' ne ~~awc~er Medal, ~'..~~w ':L'onsa.le s~ren~;~'n, ~.n k~,~sq nun y:~e1d. point 9.n tons:i.on~ ~~~~ sq mm ~crldin~ s~ren?;~hy k~/sq'~ Campress:i.ve s~~ren~,th, k~s~, tam ya.eJ.d point a.n col~~- prass~.on, k ~sq mm ~lan~;a~tian :~n tcnsion, ~.n ~} w :~~. ~ - J.0 8 - 10 up to .L2 5hra.n~ca~o in compres aa.an, ~~~~pact ductil.it~, :i~n k ~-cm~ q cm Brinell hardness, in ~C~~sq ~ about ~0 ~oo..bo '~~,pa~ weer up to 1.~ up to ~ 30 ~ ~.~ aaau.~ ~~~ about 3d up to ~ up to 3~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~,ot us point out additiona~,:~y ~omc a;~ the :~eatux~es apt' the rai~a.ca between the nlech,ar~ieal prope:~~ta,es off' porous meta~,s anct their porosity and carr~pas:i.tion. (~) ~ ~'~xe mec~xa~n~,ca:~ (and othe;>^) properties a{` a ~oraus metal are determined ~xot by porosity direct~,y~ but by the sine ox~' the cant~c~t cross section. xn the presence of ~th,e same de,;ree o:~' porosity, the rna~nitud~a off' 'the contact crass Section mar OSClI~,a'te considers,bl;~r in rela~t;i,on to 'the physical characteristics oi' the initial powders their chemical cdmposition, condit:~ans o.~ pressin, b~~lt:in~;, and, the i'urther trea~anen~t of the prod~uets, -the correlationships ~e-~ tween the in~tra~ and inter-crys~tall.i~te pox^osa.~ty, aa~d the :1ik~o ~~~~ere:~ox~e, the properties o.t' metals with the sane d.e~ree off' porosity may di.ffez^ in varioi~~s ~ma.rxners :From the properties oaf' the corrESpondin~; compar,~l; materials, (2) , ~'he ~~ ~tudy a%' the p~lenornena o.i~' pr~essin,~ revea~.ed that the contact; cross sectian ,rows at a much higher rate than with 'the :L'iz^st paver o.~' densi.ty, `.Phis also pertains, Ito a certai,.n ~exten~t, 'Lo baked pradu.cts. ~'here;~'ore, rnechani- c,a~l ,properties us~lrally increase more rapidly thr~.n with the :First power ai' density, and the curves density (por,osity) ~-~ mech~.nical properties, have, in most cases, their co~xvex- i~ties do~~snward (see ~'~.~~,xre :1}~7} e However, 'the ra~tia between the carltact cross. s~eta.on and poxo~:ity in batted me-ta,3. is con- sic~erably more cnrtipl.ex than in briquettes, ~'or instance, ..~~3 ~.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 rye aarasi~L~~' rQducp a ~~ae mechana,ca;J, prap~r~a.es sser demo than ~,n,tercr~'stal:l.~~~,e paa^os? ~a a cansa~derG~b:l.y' ~.e . ~~ ~ ., spree cases, the mecha~~~ca:l praper~:i.es, ~. ~y o ~ hey ~~.t are, a.n .., a~^asi.'~~ may ,rcaw ~.~ a di.:~~'a:cen~~ mat~nar w~.~th the da.ma.nl~t~.on a~ p ~~' ' 1~awn a.n ~~~.~;ure ~.1.4.~t, ~, namely In accord~.nce than what ~.,s s ~,, ~ ~ as ~~.~ure :1.~.a depa.c~s the rai~a.a w:;t.th ~~.~urea 1~~, b a~~d J~ ~ er a~ mec'clanica]. pcopc;r~~.as, an ~;he one Yla,nd, bF~~twe;en a nw'nb ~~~~} ' ara the other hand, :i.n accar dance U~:~th Lenel , and paros~.ty, .;~~ de ir,ts the same as rtibc~ve, ~.n accordance with ~,tld 1 ~.aure ll.~9 p ~~~ dal ~ shin :end K orol.en~~a Mechac~~.cal p~roper~ties of compact m~~~,l ..~.....,~.._.,,,.~, ..,.....~..,,.,~~w~?.?.? . 1t~0 percent ~ kela~t~.~~e dens~.ty '~' f t;he ra~~.o between the mechanical proper~~-es ~1 amram 0 11 ~.~;urF :L~.7 0 }a o~? baked met~~ls and porosity. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 k~~~~ nun nellSl.~y, i11 ~r% Cll CC(l Y~pY~~r'tieS O:C~ iTOTI ~. .~tit~~~..o be'~~wPen the raechanira:l p ~ l~L~.aure .L~C~. ~t ~w oro Ji~~~ (accordin to Lene1} and ~ ~-~ ry 1'r .I ~ l /+ ( i }~ M" _~... 'L~,,,,,.y i~ ~~ 4 0 } rr"- (J~ r~~` '" C4 ~1 `~ ~ f porosity', in mechanical p:z~opert~.es off' iron, Fi r~ 1.~~. Ratio between .the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 with a ~ percent adr~ixtuxea o:~ ~xaph.tc~, and ~aoxos~:ty ,Lll e,ccordancG w:~~~h ~3a1 ~ sh~.n a'Cld ~ axo.lenko) ( .I?1 ~~ry~.~,e~~ hC~,~~1~4is~ ~. belld~,n,; :~Ox'Ce j ~, impZCt dLlCtil.l.'~y~ ~~, bend~.n~ def:l,ectian. (,3), The contact Cross 5ectian off' briquettes, with -the din~tinution of parosit~r by l percent, fir. ows by ~ to 1.0 percent, mast frequently by ~ t,o ~ pez^centw ~l'he r~echanical. pt^opert~i.es of bailed r~aterials change approxima~~ely in the sa:~le n~~a~~ner, i.e., with th.e change of porosity by l percent, 'trley cha~~~ae by ~ ~to 10 percent, in roost cases, by 3 to ~ percent. (~.} ? With ~~h.e same de ree of poi^o5a.ty, rna~;e:~iaJ.s bayed f~'orn coarse powders, usually have a sm~~.ller cantact crosxs sect`~on, a ;r~~ater number of interparticle pares, and larger pores than materials abtai~aed frorra, Fine pa~wd~;rs. ~l'herefare, the mechanical. properties of articles made 3'rom coarse powders (see T~~,ble 5~), in the p~^esence ay .the same degree of porosity, usually az~e o:~' la~~er. values and incr. ease, with the dirr~.nution of porosity maze rap~.dly, as compared with the properties of brig7~e rtes o Where are some exceptiana ~L-a this vale, when ma~tez~ial.s, rnad.e 'from f~x~e powders, an the caritrar ~ .have mechanical. properties of a lower value, most ~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 these exc,ept~~ons to tho ru1,e are dl~e to a~~ a.n~- ~re~uenG~,y, c~"caaSC~d c;orl'~an'l~ a~' O~a.des, 1~n 'the presence o.~ the same poz"a5a.~~y, har ~a~ d more b~^.'~~l,:~e ma~teria.ls have a sYna~.~.er con~Lac~ cross aec~ ~~,n a.nd mare plastic, ma~~era.a:l.s. ~~here:~orc;, not tion that ~,o.ft~r . ~ indexes a.t' c~,e:E'ormabi:Lity, ~L?he strenF;th az' hard to rnen ~,ian ~,ht~ a s constitutes a smaller 'part off' the strength off: porous met 1 ateria:L than the strength of so~'~t r~aterials o~ ~~he compact m arosi.t . In connection with ~~h.a.s, 't,he meehanica:L same p Y ..~ s oi' orous rnet~ls of. various chemical compasitian., proper L~.e p ~~ - a smaller d.e,~ree than in the case a~ the carresw dii fer to At times there is even an inverted par~din co~npac t m~,ta.Ls. s nr orison with cor?pact me,~;als, ~+or instance, ra ~t, o, by co p dc,. roe off' porosity, porous steel y have a with the same g er strength value than porous iron, and porous Iran may .Low a,Ve a lower s~trcngth value than porou a copper (car~rpare h ro~,~erties of b:cic~i.~ettes) a Tt 1.S also to be Hated w:7.~th the p i. he ro ernes a.f' hard. mr.;l,als, with a di~~inutian of th,a ~ t p p ~~,t ~'raW more; rapid.lj~ ~h.a.n .the properties o:~ so~'t por. o,~ y, ~ rne-ta].s o . 6 , Porous alloys, baked with the f orma~ta.on off' a ~~ ~~ t~tion h.ase, have a higher degree a:C con~tac~t l~.c~ua.d c~men p between the ~ra:ins a .greater nl~nber ox intercrystall:i.te aces and relatively higher raechan.ca~. propex?tJ-esp as coma p ~ other ~7reta~-s and .alloys Navin; the same porosity's r,.~,,^ed ~Lo ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 __ __ _ _ _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 "1 ~ PU~ous a:l.l~ay~, ~;ar~~.~,n~n,; aartr~aanw~?~s, ~h~ a~i.~~~s ~) ' are d~.:C~'~.cu1~t~,y~rec~~~c:f.b~.e, ax components wl~ch decr~a~e o,~ wha, c h n . dalaa.la,t b~.lcec~. w:~thout _?~he ~'ozma~t:i.ax1 a~' a ~.a.c~u~.d phase, have wal ~', an?laa:]~ ~ xa ~,i~ta.es (:%ox ~ins~tar~ce, ca.~.a.ceous c~~st axons low mach P p with a s'~lacon cor~~ten~t off' ovex ~ pexcca~?t). tlsua~.1-y, ~ha mec;han:~ca1, propax~~-es o:1' poxous ( )~ a~,1.a s axe the :I.owc;x, 'the ;;xeatax ~thc~ n~urnbpx a:E' con~r}?onents Y an theax composa~taon (see ~ara~~~'apll ~2), p.ealir~;, at ~~he ~~~eripera.tu.res of re rc~ ' ~~~ ~ ~~: s~.on (re~~ose), a the' .tnca^ease ~.n r::~.~:ctri.cal, cc~ncl~.~ ~~ ~ ; ct,~.v._ty and plasticity, are ~ta a certa.ir.~ extent connec~,c;c~. not only with uhe reduction a.n rer~a.dua.~. stresses, but alsa r~ri~th growth a:L' catltaci~ between the stx~~.a.c~Lura~. e1.erlents of the metal, ~l'his ~~contG.ct~' shrinkage in deformed cast m.etal,s as we' , s l.i. a?s powder me~tal.s, ~%:r'oceeds ever mar.~e intcrlsive~l~, a~t anrzeal~ ~~ a.n~, ternl~era,tures, ~ahich a.re somewhat higher th~~1 the .. . ~empcra.tux^e of the beQ~?a.nna,nc of z'ecrystc~.l:l_i,aationh In a,r~di~tion, the ~;rawth of intex?hra.nular contact, a.n the resence ~ of recrys~~,a,~..kz.2~ation, is ~a~lso inte.nsi f~.ed as a result of tyre t anunsit:~.o.n. of ~.z1tercr~rsta~l.:l.:i.~tc pons unto intracrystallit,e ones, In addi~~ian to :the ~~contac~~~ shrinkage in the a rzne~:lin~~ of deformed cast metalu, a:s pointed. 'ou~~ ~1~.} ~ by ~oalavar ,same impor~ Lance is ~,~Gtached to the i,r~crease in d.e. s' a ~.ty anc~ :Lnter;ranul.~,r can- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ;en ~L`hG ~r:~~.:~ns lae:~.n~ :~ i.:1.a.ed by' . ~ ~~ ~;~esu~.~ ~~' tl:~~ s~~,ces betty ts,ct a noted that thez~,tna~. contraat~.an ~ rn 1.~0 .n Y~ de~x~e~s Centigrade), ~rhen adding U.~9 percent, sil~.con to the iron, ~~ ws,s dimina_shed 1~~0 ta.mes, ~a1~.en ac1c~~.ng (~?11 percent m.oly~bclenum ~-- 1f~0 times, when add:i,n{~ O.:I~S percent chror~:'~_ura -- lC,Q00 t~.rrtes~ ~n~tcrcrystalli~tc adir~irLures ar.e s,~.so oi' greclt importance :i-n case r~letals. `l'he ind..s~outahle contribu~~io~r~ made by ':['~lrrv~~lann. is 1'~.a_s empirical proof of ~~~Ze t,xia~LP.nce of c;ont:~nltous i'7.lms of e,dmixtuxe s (~I :irrtercel:l_uls.r sul~st~:~~ce") in cast metals e ~1~he se continu.ou.s :~'i.~_rns a~~~Lenua.te ~L-he mechanical pro~~er~ties ~~a.1d hinder the r~crys~ta:Lli~aton in the case of non~cl,eforrned cast metals. '~}~:,re is a.deq,ll.ate empirical data, confirming; ~th~is thesis by rl'a.-~rmann no`t only.. in ,the case of cast met~:ls, but also in the case of powder met~.ls, tine of the prr~e:l.paJ, .causes of the r::tsc in the tr~;~:~pera- ..lure of the be~in~ung o:F recryst~lli~ation in powder .metals (+56 - '~~ percent of 'the mel~t~r~g point); as compared to' deformed Declassified _. __ _. n Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 F ~ ~s the Y7xesc.n~ae Q~' the eht Q~' me;l~ta.n~ po.>"n ) a cat meta,. (1~~ perc , a , ~ n xa h Ica) ? a ..QW~,cr paxt~.cles (ac,c ~k'a,~af; ~ ..~nuous ax~.de ~'a?~,.rns ~,n ~'h`~ ~' ~ he ax~.des ~~ cond. ~.xt o~ ~ duc~Ga.on o~ a cons~.dex~~b'~e p Qn:~y a:f to x ~,he xe ~; ~a .nt the w r~ ~ pcxcer~rt a~ tY~e tne~.ta.r~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ m exat~~.xes a~ abcau~ 66 ~.e er rnE;~r,a1.s w~.th d~~?~;fa.cu~.ti;Ly-~ xa.in be~7.ns, :~~~, powd ~sro'~th o.f ~~he ~ ~rawtY~ o~ the.. ~'px ~,netr~nce, a,;l,uma.nurn) the ~~ reduca.b7.e ox:~de5 (asp ~ to ~Lhe mc:Lt~.ra~; Cux e'v'en ~~~ '~efn~Jexa~tilT'ea C~.osc, ~t~~~1.j.n does 110' Oc amoun~r~ o:[.' oxa-Yes ca~L~.ses he xe;~ence o:f a consxdez'a'aa.e po~~,nt ? `~ n ' rn~r.t .on o~ ~.xnn caxba.de :a.n Mahe ' :f f:us~.o n o f carbon and the fox the da. Sher tem era.tux~.s r o;f :ixan ~l~o accux' at ~"17-~ p ' rneta~.l.ocexani~c a1.~.o~ the cementa~a.on o~ :, ~ent o ~' mel~cing point) than dura.n~ (about l ~ pcxc '/here axe e~ren nurn~xous examples c. steel. (See 1'axa~x~~~ph ~3) ? cap t ~ on ..the . , , ct o~ the n on~xec~.ucible ox~.dea up of the detxa.mcntal e.~ f e ..F, Ps ~~ baked pawd~x rnetuls mecha,n~.cal pxopexL.~ texcxys~Lal.l7.te aurn,! xtures axe The cant~:rnlous Sa.lms of tin l~.~ation of smc;~.ted r~retal.s ? `Whey may :formed du.xin~; i~he c,x'ystal xeci~ nation o.f the admixtu.xes :I'.ror~ b~; ~'oxmed as a, result off' the p bo~unda.rie s o i the ~;xa7.la.s dur. a.n?; thE., ~Lhe solid solut~.an at the n . o:f the metals Ac:coxtYin~, ~~o the cooZ.~.n~ ~~hat fall.o~~s the a~~neala. ~ is a,xe ~.'oxmed not r' mrnann h:i.mscl~, these continuous .Ca.ln opl.nion o~ l a so d.uriti~; the anrLealinh off' the de~ only duxin~; ~~he cooling, bud al ~, ~: ~ es that, a.n recxysta,l7.i~at~.a~1, -che f'oxrned metal. lam~na.n a,~~um ves a.n the adm~x~ures, in xed~.stx~but~.ng themsel -~:ntex-cxystall~.te n ~ ~ isolate a. part o~ the su.r~'ace, d~.minisha.n~ surface off' the g~aa.ns, r~x~owth of ~Lhe ~ ra:a.n, end fin~.lly, wh~.rh becor~les reduced wi'~h the ~, r ~ "rns -. This process, accord~.n~; to ~,'a~mmarirr, fnrrn the conta.nuou~ f.~1. . ~ ~ he xetarda~tion' a,nd the cessation of s the sp~ca.f2c cause fob ~ rain w~a.~h the ~iimP, ?lad. of annealing. the ~r~wth of ~,he_ ~ , 3` Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 ~:~lc~ r~s,~ by ~ti~~na.shes adG~uate theoret;i,ca~. s;ncl ~'awdcr met A ~I~ ~a~?r~~a~a.on off' ..the cot~'tJ,a~uous .t'i.1~1s du:~~:i.n~; em.Caa~r~~.ca~. proc~~ .that ~11e ' n.' bu~L not dura,n~; the process a~' coo~,:i.n~.;) 'the pracesa off' annes.~,s~. f~ ~ Ire~~ ~~s ~ria~.,y`~e~ the case,. when the interw a.s not mlxch probai~le o . , ~~ ~ ca ab~.e o~ d~.ssolv~:~n~, a. small amatlrrt a~' cs;ys~~s,ll7. to suha ~a~~ce i.s p tlls,t i~t;, a,s :~ic~l~:i.:G'~.ed a.n ~~,na~eal~.n~`r (see the basic mcta~., and .~, a . 1:n ~~,his Case, the ba.s].c rneta:L ~a~7.7. be d:~s~- l+a.~;ure 1~2, ) ra~i.dl :(:'ux~t~~,c,r a,wa;~r From the ~lGticcs o:C inte~~~;:ranulax~ salved mare I Y s.nd wi~>.l ~e precipi~~s'~~ed more ra.p:i.c~ly !'rom the solution crf ntac ~, daces off' con'Lact, ~1.s a restitlt ,the isolation o:f the near she r '~ y mixtures becomes dimini:shec~ (Fi~;uxe 152 co ntac~t s~ur~ acE, by the a ~ the i.n~t,ercr.,ystal.:L:t.~~e admixtures a.rc not lic~ui:F~.ed i.n ar~~~- b) . ~ o~ ~~h~i.s process, but na~L its direct~.arl wi~.l ~r~,cal~.n.~;, on1.y ~Lhc rate ~, ~.. e~ etc 7~riments 'by Dawil~.l ~.nd Hinni~bor change (see ~'~ ah:l.en,. ?.: t ~Iex~~~.d ~ s~a.n M~ Xu~, 1l~s~na.k m ,...~ ' the Me~~~. Incl~s~~r~'), IVa ~, ~a~e ~, o~ ? o ~omyshlennas~~. CHexald ~,~ sh~.n, M. ~u~, ~~a~,.~~'a~.l.-p (~-~)? B~ No ~~, ~pa~e ~~~ J.9~8` o~ ~,he Me~a,1. Indus`~~') ~ me~.a;l,lux~;~yu e v poros~vuw..~..~-~-'-~- ~I~) ~ gayetsa, V., Vv ds.... ~.~............_..~.. der Me1;,al.lu.x'~'), Me~al~'un'~'zda.~, (In~x~oduc~:ian to Bow ~,9 Llrl ~ s.kra~'ep1e'Lri.y~ver. ~a.~.,. (13) o ]~ ele ~,slc~.y, ~ ? G ? ~ T~.,... iri e ~'Iicra~eomet~'y off' 1~he Su~~~'acc ~r okarn oy ob rab a tk t `~' micYl~skoy obxabo~ Sp..~_ov J. Bochvar', ~? A. ; Osnovy~e~ ..._._ ~ ~) .he l~eat~..Irea~tment off' ~,J.~.oys) ~ (Furidamen~als o~ ~ -aJ.l.oveden~-~'e (Me~~a.:LJ.a~~'aphY) a (15) , Bochvar. , A. ~ ? , M, ~......r.~.--------- Me ta].1.ur~izda~, ~.9L~5. Bochvar, ~. ~?, Zh~"~~' ~~~~ t .Lh) Bochvar, ~~, A?, and1,hadaye ~ (~-~)? (Th.e Foundry '~1 .~r~r ~~SR, Igo 9, .~9~.2. ~ ~- ) a a ~, ~,, Izvest~ya U7.~1 Bochvar, ~.. ~. and Sv~.dersk y , ~.Lq} m AN SS~R_, No 1, :~9~~ ? '! ` ' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Co A roved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 , , . ~; ;, , ~', ,' `;`r~`~ , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for ~, 6. A,NSSaF~,Na~~ 9~ ~,r A ? ~. a,~,~ s.,... ~~~ 0~,,..~_,.,...~ (20) ~ }~acYav , arid. Gx a~rl av sl~a.y, ~ . ~ ~ , A, !~. , ~elov, ,~ ? (2:~) ~ ~achva~', X10 3 ~ '~a~e ~~'' N on~'er~'a~~s ~~le ta~~) ~ ~sve~~n e . ~~a... ~ ( '~,~;36~ ~ th.e ~7etta:l~ax~~-st~ ~ ~l~o~ ~; Uv A, ~. , Meta~.lur'a c (~ ~ } ~ ~ryt,~khaSl , page ~.~, 19.3 ( " r ~~ o ~., ~a ~e ~.0, 19 ~-, t ? ~1. , ~r~,rodd (Natuxe) ~ (23)? Vertner, V? ar~al~-z (~~-s~ersa.on Ans,lysa.s s ( ~) , Gary, a .~..... Ctoskh.imi~,dat, 19~~~? no d~.r~ami~k~r. ~~?v?y~ ~ ., ar~ics o.f' th.e ~o:rl Mass), ~~~damPntals o:~ .the llyn ( Gosstroyl~dat, 193rf . de.f.ormats ~~a me~~a~. 1~?v f'rubkln, ~? -~? a p~ ~~.c;hes.......k ~~'......_-----~----- f ? . ~ ~ Dei'oa~rnation in T'letal.s) y l ~~ ~, d S ~,~, C metal] u.r~~J?- (~~~~ V ? ,~ ~ y Gsn ~ po~a hkovoy~~._,.,~ awd~x ~I~le~Laa.lurs;Y) ~ i~e~'1.1u~''' damental~ o~ P 19 ~GQ ? (2u all Nan~exrous Metals)9 Tavetn~..e~ --~ ( 6 a~,c ~~g ,1~~-~~'? Na ~ p tb.e ~eax"in~)~ No ~~ ko p? E?, Pow ~'...-n...- ~ (~ 9) ? D' bra chen , pae 10, 1939?. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 C 30 ~n.o uch~na.ya a,n,,..os, ~ n~ta~.s a:~ ~;ho Thom'' a;F' k~'r~c~~.an, s~ yak a ~h~~~ ~ ~'ur~c~a~ a r ~' on o:~' ~'Iach~.nes) ~ Mashy .~, .~.91.G 1. wear, and ~ub,ra.ca~La. ~s'k ~,, 1~1., ~'~'a~.7V0~d~~Lv, a.~u,,,. p~ ~~.rub~.n, N. M ~, and K op~~ a. , ._..,...-.-- ~~ duc~,a.an off' ~,e:~'rac~ary Me~;aa.s) ~ lavkaie~,al_.~ ~ ~~ ra 7v1e~,l;lur, 1.91.,.x.. r ekhi :~i.ziche.akikh rlauk The ~ra~;ress ~ 3Z,) ~ Kan~tarava, '1'. A. , Js~ ~ .L ''j. Voa.lune 18, 1~0 3, ,page 31~(y 93 a:f I'hysicc~.~. 5ca.ences) ~ "avadskaya ~-ab? ?~~'o~riYa (The ~:Lant t~ 3 3) o K oral' kov, ~ ~ M ~ ~ ~'-~---.~-~--.-'--" r ~,~boratory) ~ ~~ -~~ 1.91. (. nk o A . M . , Z hurnal. ~;e c h- Kostenc~,s, fir. T., .and, lvanche ~ ~~~)~ ~ sics ? ~ ournal. off.' `I'echn~-cal 1 by ) ~ niche~akaY f~s~.k~. (the J ~.6 Ida ~, pn.~e X39, 1936. V al.ume a , ? T~~.e Beari.n~)~ AIo 8, pale 28, I~uf;e1.~ , V. ~K., ~~'..,~~ ~ (3~)? 1.939 ? Fizlka tverdovo~~ ,The physl.cs ~ 36) o ~u~,netsov, V. D. , ?~...__--.~-_-~~~ . , r `i~ol.ume 1, Red Wanner, ~,'an;sk, 1937 of Sola.d~), 01. ~ sha.ni,na, .l? ~ z,ik___~.. ~verd-ovo 3?r~ , ~,~.lzne~sov, V, .~. , ~.nd B ~ Red Danner, sits o:C ~o1.:i.ds}, Volume ~:C, ~,yela (The. i'hy ~~ X38). Tamsk, ~191~1-? ~a es ~5-~~-~~ etsov V. ~D, and ~ara~ovka.n, l~. ~. , ~ Kuzn ~ he physics o:C' Sol~.ds), ~ro1-~ume ~-, 1.n the book by ~u~,ne~Lsov (T 1.937 ?.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000200040019-6 (3~), Kuna.n, N. ~+'~, ~a~~ a ~,9~-~;3~ ~.n the book by ~{u~ne~sov (~'he ~hysa.os off' SoJ.a.c~s), Vp~.~ume ~., :~93'7~ Cabman 'N. M. Tavetnyye meta~l~y ~~lonferrous ~'Ietals) s N o .~, .933 ? :Luka.rak~.y, P. ~. ~.9~~~. Nlak~-den, Dzho ~T. JAN,Volume ~~~~ No 7, pain 3U~~ tiorptsa.ya ..~'? ardymi tela~~~i (,0z~pt~.on of Gases and. Vapors by Sali.ds) Gos- l