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December 15, 2016
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September 18, 2002
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August 26, 1955
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Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 aK INFORMATION REPORT INFORMATION -REPORT .- CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY This material contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, U.S.C. Sees. 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. 25X1 C REPORT NO. DATE DISTR. NO. OF PAGES REQUIREMENT NO. REFERENCES COUNTRY Czechoslovakia SUBJECT Atomic Warfare Training 25X1X 25X1 26 August 1955 9' C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A L 25X1A 25X1A C-?-N-F-I-D-F-N-T-I-A-L AIR X. FBI AEC - --------- - - (Note: Washington distribution indicated by "X"; Field distribution by "#".) Approved For Release 2003/1`2108 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 25X1A Approved Far Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 COUNTRY Czechoslovakia 25X1 C SUBJECT Atomic Warfare Training 25X1A REPORT NO. DATE DISTR. 26 July 1955 NO. OF PAGES 8 REFERENCES: 25X1X THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 25X1X-~ -Organization and Training of Personnel 1. room instruction oonoirning individual and small unit defensive measures to be taken in the event of atomic attack. This in- struction was given to all members of his unit, which was divided into groups of perhaps 20 men per group for instructional purposes, since it was impossible to give such instructions to the entire battalion, approximately 150 EM, at one time without interrupting the_airbase operations. 25X1 25 1,X Lectures were conducted the Chief of Chemical W a ohemiaky 25X1X naoelnik) of the Upon 25X1X I arrival an 25X1 uniform for about three weeks. Thereafter n air force uniform but kept the' rank of lieutenant. 25~1X 25X1 r' 25X1 JGIONPTnF.NLL L Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3-3 CONFIDENTIAL - 2 - 25X1 XTra.ning Aid s the instructor had a series of about ten 1.5 x 1 m p -cures szowi ng in sequence the manner in which the aloud of an atomic blast took shape. They were hand-drawn, probably by a commercial artist, in black and red inks. Red ink was used to illustrate the explosion and heat radiation. One of the pictures depicted the final aspect of an explosion; the-other pictures 25X1Xdepicted the foregoing progressive stages of an explosion. These pictures were classified "Secret" ("Tajne"). 4, gave the lecture on atomic warfare utilizing an 'un- deni ie manual.: The manual had_gray soft covers, contained an estimated 100 pages, and was about 20 x 15 cm. in size. This manual was not registered in Secret Control and did, not have an opportunity to see its classification. Troups did not receive any training manuals on atomic warfare, nor were they required to take notes during classes. No examinations were held upon completion of the course. The o.ass was shown a small- clay or plastic model of an individual "t x ole", which, it was told, would offer protection to anyone Wiithi the area of an atomic blast. This-small model of a one ans elter measured approximately 25.x 13 x 15 cm. It was supposed te' "take six hours to dic this shelter in normal soil and lancer. 25X1 A 25X1X if the Boil were harder. Such an emplacement, according to lI .25X1X would afford protection as close as 50 m. from ground zero. D tion of U-_ha ed One-Man Anti-Atomic Shelter (See-memory e e c es, pages 7 and 0 e ) The bottom of the U-shaped one-man anti-atomic shelter was to slope gradually from a depth of about one meter at the gas cape, partition to about 1.5 m. at the end of the shelter where the soldier would assume a crouched position. The shelter was to be about 0.6 m. wide throughout, except that at the far end of the shelter, where a soldier was to assume a crouched position, it was to be about 0.8 in. wide. The wall of the shelter facing the direction of explosion was LO., m. wide, with the opposite and of the shelter having the me width'* The length of the shelter was to be approximately two meters. A soil parapet ofwell-packed soil was to encircle the entire shelter with an extension between the arms of the U (see page 7 ). The section of the parapet which was to face the expected dire- otion of the explosion was to be 1.8 m., long, 1.2 in. wide, approximately 0.8 in. high at the edge of the shelter, and gradu ally sloping out from the shelter toward the ground level. 9? The parapet surrounding the side and rear of the shelter was to be approximately 0.5 in. wide and 0.5 in. high, also gradually sloping out from the shelter toward ground level. 10. This shelter was divided into two compartments at the gas cape partition by a gas protective cape (plastenke), which was issued to-every soldier together with a regular chemical warfare gas mask, The entire shelter from the gas cape partition to the location where the soldier was to assume a crouched position was to, be covered by available logs, branches, and twits, and topped by soil. A thickness of 0.5 to 0.8 in. was recommended for this covering. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220 25X1 A CONFIDENTIAL -3 25X1X Practical Exercises never participated in Or heard of practical exercises to ` construct an 'atomic fox hole" or any other.foraa of tsctical . atomic warfare drills, 12. Instruction on atomic warfare first aid or decontamination was not 25X1X given However, the 25X1X instructor mentioned that a first aid point would be located some- where behind the company lines. The approximate distance behind the lines for the l-cation.of the first aid point was mentioned, At this location first aid would e a,ma n s.,ere to .those in need and individuals would be checked for radiation contamination. 25X1 Reports - on Training 13. -Content of.Instruction in General 14. Instruction consisted mainly of a description of the characteristics of an atomic explosion, how an atomic warhead could be theoretically delivered, and what precautions must be taken to protect the indi- vidual soldier. 15. The purpose of the atomic warfare training, according to the instructor's introductory statement, was to acquaint the soldier with a new weapon which could be used against him, to teach the 25X1X soldier how to recognize this new weapon, and to train the soldier in methods of self-protection against it. 16. mentioned that the United States had atomic bombs, and reference was made to those dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. No mention was made as to whether or not 25X1X the USSR or Czechoslovakia had such bombs or atomic weapons or whether or not either of these countries carried on experiments with atomic weapons. --""'Basic heoretical Instruction on Atomic Explosions 215Z7 1 had explained in some detail.the nce between an atomic bomb and an ordinary bomb explosion. pointed out that with an ordinary bomb the resulting rregu arly-shaped smoke vanished quickly, while On atomic ex- plosion was accompanied by an unusually brilliant light flash, then a very strong crushing blast and an intense heat wave of very short duration, and a slowly rising mushroom-shaped white cloud over the, spot of the explosion which' lingered for a considerable 25X1Xtime in the air. did not mention the duration of any of these stages of the explosion. CONFIDENTIAL 25X1X Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009 CONFIDENTIAL . 25X1X 18. the instructor described the, very destructive' effect of the heat wave., primarily on exposed parts of. the human body such as the face and hands. The heat wave also set fire to clothes and wooden stocks of weapons, within its range The class was told that a, by-product of the explosion was internal urr,? to the human body. 19.~ ;The most dangerous. area near the atomic bomb explosion recalled being told, was within a radius of approximately ?300 m. In order to cal o the most damage,, an atomic bomb would be exploded about 200 to 400 to above ground level. Theoreticalgtruction on Methods of Delivery of.Atomic Warheads 20. The instructor explained that there were three means by which. atomic weapons could be delivered against a potential enemy bombers, atomic artilleryp and guided missiles. 21.. It was expected that atomic bombs delivered by an airplane would be dropped attached to a. parachute, in order to give the airplane time to fly out of the blast area. being instructed that atomic bombs could explode in the air, upon contact with the ground, underneath the surface of water, and upon contact with #hq, surface of water. The higher above ground the atomic bomb expl?ded, the less destructive it became. Radioactivity produced' atomic bomb exploded underwater lasted longest. The weight And, size of an atomic bomb was quoted, [ 25X1X ' Ian atomic bomb contained. es ve power.equl va en o e er 40 tons or 40,000 tons of TNT and was much smaller than a non-atomic bomb.1 25X4R? explained that atomic weapons could be delivered by ar_ cry as well, with the same characteristics accompanying the.explosion but on a much smaller scale. The white, mushroom- .shaped cloud would-form., and it would not produce a 'very strong crushing blast but strong heat and radioactive waves.. The smoke reslI ultin from the explosion of atomic art.illeiy round, according 25X1X to would have a strong.irritating,.garlic-like odor. 23.6 No mention was made as to which nation had the potentiality of delivering artillery or guided missiles loaded with an atomic charge or of the manner of delivery. Omerely stated.that such potentialities existed. Ind vidual and Small Unit Defense Measures 2$X1A 25X1 25X1X 25X1X 25X1X 24. Concerning individual and small unit defense measures, the class 25X1X groups were told that only a shelter constructed like the. model should be dug. Special protective clothing would 25X1X also be issued. I Iwas unable to describe the protective clothing. The she er would be constructed only in the event of an advance notice of planned atomic attack. In the event of a sur- prise attack, each soldier was instructed to fall flat on the ground with his back turned to. the explosion and .to ..cover. himself . with his "gas protective cape" ("plastenka") from head to foot,. especially the head. Each soldier had been issued a "plastenka" along with his gas mask. If a ditch or a bomb or artillery crater were nearby, it was to be utilized, since the safest and most desirable position was beneath the ground so the radioactive waves would pass above the body. If possible, something substantial such as a hill, pile of soil, wall, house, or tree should be used for protection. Soldiers were told not to turn and took in the direction of the explosion but to remain in a flat position until a pre-arranged "all clear" signal was given by the members of the' company special .atomic patrol (atomo.vs hlidka). CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220 CONFIDENTIAL -5- 25. Special protective clothing was to be issued for covering the face and hands of each-individual soldier, and special protective clothing would also be issued to the members of the company atomic detection patr?ola. Samples of such clothing were not shown since they were not as yet available. For the time being, according to the instructor, a hand$rchief over the face would give some protection to a soldier a ainst the heat wave from the explosion. 25X1X 11, 26. it was planned that each oommanding officer 25X1X 25X1X x uld have a, special atomic patrol organized in addition to the ehemoal warfare squad. Members of this atomic patrol were to be selected from members. of each unit and were to receive special protective clothing and radiation detection instruments. The number of patrol members or material used for their protective clothing were not mentioned. Atomic patrol duties were to be per- formed in addition to their regular duties. No mention was made as to the strength or organization of these patrols, nor was the sppecial equipment described. II did appoint one man out of ~Ndr'' 'roup of 20 attending the lectures to be a member of the Patrol which was to be formed. 27. Is praotioal,, atomic defense demonstration would be hold outdoors at some future date, a on the arrival of expacted protective clothin and detector such class was 25X1X held Instruction at Pilot Officers at Training: Center 25X1X 28, 25X1 25X1A 25X1X it was given' Czech?alova Army, branch unknown who had the title 25X1X of doctor of technical science from a tary Experimental Institute (Vyzkumny vojensky ustav) in Prague. This lecture was theoretical in nature and the lecturer went into minute details .on 'the current oonstruotion of atomic bombs, the nature of a chain reeotion, and causes of'an atomic explosion. The only detail 0 25X1X would recall from this lecture was that an atomic bomb contained some heavy water, plutonium, and uranium'. The clash of these sub- stances caused the explosion, according to the lecturer,. Figures and progressive steps causing such an explosion were given and .ehow.n through about 20 sketcheey called "diapositives" 1 ::1 25X1 .:They were shown through a lantern slide type projector. e c assi- 'fication of these sketches was not indicated. I Inot 25X1 recall any additional information. 25X1X 29. about five different types of radiation-detection devices were shown. Each device could detect radioactivity under one specific set of conditions or circumstances. He could remember only vague information about three of the devices. One of these could detect radioactivity only in the water, one only in the air, and one only in "solid ground" (sic). Some of these devices, he remembered, had. graph faces on which the Intensity of radiation would be indicated by a needle. Other devices produced sounds. With respect to sizes, source stated that some were approximately 30 cm. long and 30 cm, high. only the front of 25X1 these devices from where he sat, he could not estimate their width. These devices could each be carried in a strap-type carrier. II 25X1 had no opportunity to examine them closely since they were displayed on the podium from which the instructor delivered It=-&-pure and source was seated some distance away. other types 25X1X of radiation detectors, such as film badges or dosimeters, were not mentioned in any lecture he attended.. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12108 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220 309-3 CONFIDENTIAL 6 25X1X Special Courses on Atomic Warfare 30. 25X1X Other Atomic Warfare Man 31. two copies each of two 2.5X1 A 25X1X manuals. These two manuals were of the same general size type, and color as those during 25X1X classroom instruction. These two manuals had the following titles: Atomic W are (Atomovs' valka) and ?Prrootect on Against Apt .c W ( proti atomove valve). ey were olassi- ie . op Secret r (Prisne tajne). 32. These manuals were translations of Soviet military manuals.- On the upper right-hand corner of their covers, the title of the original Soviet manual was printed in Cyrillic type. The name .of the translator was indicated under the titlev ll was 25X1X. unable to remember the original. titles in Russian or the names of the translators. Dates of publication of the Czech translations 25X1X were also indicated, but was unable to remember them. He assumed, however, that they were probably published sometime in April 154 because manuals of this type were usually received E 25X1X 25X1X approximately two months after publication. 25X1X ears casually through these manuals, but he remembered UniLy r, at drawings, not photographs, of atomic explosions were included. He did not notice any of his unit officers borrowing these manuals for study. 25X1A 1' commonCommeat: ly referred hto in?they'trwas 40,000 or 40 KT'as it is ade". Atomic explosives of as low a quantity as 40 tons.are not believed possible. 25X1A 2. C_ : An aspirant was an airman serving compulsory miaicary service who had graduated from an NCO school which he was selected to attend upon completion of his basic train- ing. Such aspirants were usually commissioned after a certain period of time, depending upon their efficiency and political activity and reliability, without attending a Military Academy. Men of political reliability were selected as aspirants and were urged to remain in the service at the completion of their compulsory service term, if by this time they were not com- missioned. Those aspirants who were commissioned prior to the completion of their compulsory service had to remain auto- matically in the service for five years. After these five years they were either released from active duty or kept on ,active duty indefinitely. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R0005002 009-3 25X1 CONFIDENTIAL 25X1 Not to Scale) Direction of expected explosion 1.8 M. Earthen Parap Plan View of U-Shaped One-Man Anti-Atomic-She lter 4- owl .~- r ,..r. .w.^' ate' ?r..i +.. 'n`. .rte. '.` ..~' r.. ,..... .,.. y. n..` ,. ..r r~ s- :r? M r. .r r .rte Open Trench 0.5 - r, t m:P Top of Completed Shelter gas ro- teet ~*e cape _'F 1.2. m. Branch and soil covering of closed portion of trench Partition formed by Earthen Parapet CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 Approved For Release 2003/12/08 CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3 CONFIDENTIAL - 8 Plan View.of t?-Shaped One-Man A nti; Atomic . Sh elter Bottom of Shelter Not to Scale) Wall of Shelter. Open 066'M* Trench Partition forte 2 in. by gas protective cape 0.6 m. 0.8 Closed Trench 0.6 m. i I ~.-~ 1.5 m . -71 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/12/08 : CIA-RDP82-00046R000500220009-3