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Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 10, 2003
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January 28, 1952
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CLASSIFICATION SECRET/SECURITY INFOmIAihION Approved For R~nlRACOIIV//q./LOL%-FCP~q047R000 00200002-5 INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY USS THIS DO CON[ NT CONTAINS INIORNAT{ON A'1PECTINS THE NATI OPAL D[![NS0 01 THE YNITLD STATES, ^IFNIS THE NLANINO OP TITLE IS, 10CT10N0 757 AND 704, OF THE O.L. COOF, AS AN[NOED. IT. TA SNILSION ON SETS. CATION 0! ITS CONTENTS TO OR NEf[IPT 1Y AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IL NN00ISIT[O NY LAW. THE P[PRODUfTION OP THIS TORN is PDONISIT[D. SUBJECT Soviet Army Communications PLACE ACQUIRE DATE ACQUIRE THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION .2 25 X1 1X 1. Q. What is the name of the Communications Establishment of the Soviet Arne? A. "Service of Communications" (C)FYXSA CBf 3 h )? Among troops of the Red Army, Artillery is referred to as the "God of War", the Staff as the "Brain", and Communications as the Nerve". 2. Q. Is the Service of Communications a career field, and are personnel specially trained'? A. The Serviai of Communications is a career branch. Personnel 'receive Germany (Soviet Zone) specialist training in this field and are not normally rotated to other branches. Describe the personnel selection method used for communications personnel. A. Officer candidates are selected on the basis of intelligence and aptitude and those having a junior high school education, plus any available technical ability are preferred. Enlisted technicians are likewise selected for intelligence, aptitude, and education, from available personnel. No selec- tion is made in the case of nontechnical enlisted personnel. 4'. Q. Describe the signal supply system used in the soviet Army. A. The issuance of supplies and equipment is based on Tables of Equipment and follows normal command channels, with written requisitions, etc. Al1 non- expendable material has a prescribed "term of exploitation", or service life; tables prescribe the expected service life for all items, and allowances are made for the condition at the time of issue. If the expected, service life is not met, an investigation is held to determine the reasons and to assign responsibility, with corrective action to follow; should it be exceeded, commendation is awarded. At the end of the expected service life, in the case of major units, a board of officers decides upon the disposition of the equipment. If it is still operable, it is continued in service or nec- essary repairs are made. Replacement of functioning equipment is never au- thorized automatically at the completion of expecta' service life. CLASSIFICATION SECRET/SECURITY INFO, IATION SECRET 'RN NO. Si-4D IN 1961 (TI 25X1ADATE DISTR. Jan NO. OF PAGES 5 NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) 25X1 C SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. Approved For Release 2003/08/06 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100200002-5 Approved For Releas(82003 D6TIIICII- FOI OZDW47,R00 '. D02-5 25X1A' 1111 5. Q. Describe signal maintenance procedures used in the Soviet Army? A. Minor ropai rs are nerfonaed by organic personnel in using units. Major repairs in- cluding the rr..i~l~=,cement of sub-assemblies are performed in shops at Division level. Repairs beyond the scope of Division shops are performed in the shops attached to Corps and Field Arraiec. To obtain repairs to a tank radio, for example, the radio operator rercrts the nature of the trouble to his tank :oram.ander; the tank com- xxrcader thert makes a verbal report to the company commander, who in turn makes a written report to the chief of communications of the next higher unit. The chief of ~oorrrrmnic? tiorr then makes a decision as to the manner in which the repairs .should be made. %fh.en ecmmunications equipment is placed in storage it is sealed to prevent its unauthorized use; this precaution is taken to prevent troops from listening to BBC', etc. 6. "t. Tell what you can about enlisted schools for communications personnel. A. Enlisted operator personnel and other nontechnical personnel are trained in line -;nits. This unit training has no special length; it runs through the first three- year enlistment. Technicians are trained in special schools in signal regiments, end then returned to their units. Training of personnel. is well-rounded, with approximately 1/3 of the time spent in specialist training and 2/3 of the time spent in general military and political training. Training received in the Red Army is very :important in that it also serves as a vocational training for personnel. when they are released from the service. 7. Q. Describe the organization of officersr schools for communications personnel. A. The main Communications School, for officers of the Soviet Array is located in Leningrad. During the three-year course, students hold the rank of Cadet, and upon graduation they are commissioned as Junior Lieutenants or Lieutenants, de- pending on their standing in the class. In order to be commissioned, porsonnel. must be regarded as politically reliable. Commissions are in the Regular Army and officers remain on active duty until. they reach the age of 60 or have had 25 years of service. Enlisted personnel of the Regular Army who have attended specialist schools are subject to the same regulations. 8. Q. How do Soviet troops appraise their communications? A. Communications in the Soviet Army are considered adequate, and the Service of Co munications enjoys general respect among the troops. In addition, the m- portaroo of cornr.aun.icaticns within any organization is enhanced because they are the direct personal responsibility of the Chief of Staff of that organization. 'How are communications organized in the Soviet Army? A. In the Soviet Army, communications are considered as indisp?nsible to the proper functioning of a military unit as the Staff. In a tactical unit the Chief of. Communications functions directly under the Chief of Staff, the latter having responsibility for communications within his unit. The communications organi- zations normally found within tactical units of the Soviet Army are as followss Army Coaununica.t_i.ons Regiment Corps 2 or 3 Communications Battalions Division Connrnmioations Battalions Regiment Coimnun.ications Company (War-time basis) Communications Platoon (Peace-time basis) Battalion Corrmnuni ati p.n.s Platoon (War-time b,-.sic) Communications Squad (Peace-time basis) In peace-time, battalions and higher echelons use very little rad.ic :,acrd a ma;$imurn amount of civil, wire facilities. For this reason, the size of t e ooxrinurii- cations establishment is reduced. Heponsibility for communications is from the major unit to its subordinate and also to maintain liaison with the unit on its right. SECRET SECRET/SECURITY INF07 ATI ON Approved For Release 2003/08/06 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100200002-5 Approved For Release 24;O3/' OKC; ~ 91'~FEFWPPW'11~* 10. Q. Describe the employment of radio in armored divisions. W, VaIr t0fo 25X1A Radio nets for ca;:m nd purposes in armored divisions, regiments and battalions exist and are manned in standby conditions at all times. A strict radio silence is maintained exc-)t during actual or simulated combat conditions. Administra- tive radio nets are not found in Divisions and lower echelons of the Soviet Army. Comma d nets at company and platoon level in armored divisions are operated under eonddtions similar to nets in, the higher echelons although they are more often used because of the difficulty of maintaining wire contact with individual tanks and small elements. Reconnaissance and aircraft warning radio nets are not used, in the case of reconnaissance elements, strict radio silence is normally maintained although in case of emergency normal command channels may be utilized. 11. Q. Jiow!r does the employment of wire compare with radio? A. They bulk of electrical communications within a Soviet Armored Division is handled over wire lines, with teletype used from Divisions up. Maximum utilization is made of existing civil facilities. Communication by radio is authorized only dur- ing advances or emergencies, while communication by wire is used at other times in static and in combat situations and during planned withdrawals. The Soviet Army emphasizes the lack of security of wire communications and prohibits the transmission of messages in the clear; The destruction of telephone lines by vehicular traffic is recognized as a serious problem, but no special preventive means are taken other t;hnr+ the occasional burring of lines in critical areas. It should, be noted that the Sovie "s employ inductive tapping of telephone lines and that they expect the same means to be used against them. 12. Q. How are messengers and other non-electrical means of communication employed? A. Each headquarters has enlisted messenger service available 24 hours daily. Mess- erigers are occasionally used from small isolated positions in preference to radio when wire cannot be laid. Officer couriers are used to carry important messages. Electrical cryptographic equipment does not exist at division level; all encipher- ing is done manually by double transposition methods. Signal lights, colored flares, and panels are sometimes used to fill particular requirements. 13. Q. How is air-ground liaison accomplished? A. Liaison aircraft are used by the Soviet Army only in special situations. Air- ground liaison radio nets can be set up for artillery spotting and for attack bombing but are not generally used. The, main communication between aircraft and ground is by prearranged rocket and panel signals. pick-up and drop messages are not used. 14. Q. How is arm or-infantry liaison accomplished? A. Infantry troops maintain liaison with tanks by visual signals including tracer bullets. Connections for external telephones are probably not available on tanks. 15. Q. What is the Soviet equivalent of Signal Operations Instructions? A. The name by vhich Signal Operations Instructions are known in the Soviet Army is Combat Communication Orders (C70EQbI E T7?VIKA3W Cr_5q , These are issued by the Chief of Staff and bear the security classification of SECR1T. 16. Q. Describe radio jamming and counter jamming activities in the Soviet Army. A. Attached to each communications regiment (one to each Field Army) is a unit charged with radio countermeasures. This unit is composer` of-rilitary personnel but operates under political direction. These units are equipped with transmitters to jam enemy radio transmissions and they also have radio direction-finding equip- ment to locate enemy transmitters and also the source of enemy jamming. Informa- tion obtained concerning the location of enemy jamming equipment is transmitted to artillery or aircraft units for suitable action. Defense against enemy jamming consists merely of refinement of operator techniques. No special procedures are used. The commanding officer of the jamming unit has a special code book issued. by Military District Headquarters; this code book is separate from that issued by the Division Security Section. On one occasion, the commanding officer of the jamming unit referred solely to this special code book when contacting by radio an airplane flying overhead. SECPJ3T/SEC(TRITY INFORMATION Approved For Release 2003/08/06 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100200002-5 Approved For Re1ease12 /W$f06S CGiA 6 89.'B -4- 17. Q. What type of radio equipment is used in T-34 and JS-3 tanks? 25X1A A. The radio equipment used in Type T-34 tanks is the Type R13-70. Plate voltage supply is from FAS-60 batteries, During the summer of 1951, this ega.ipment was replaced with new equipment. The details on the new equipment are not known. Radio equip- ment used in the Type JS-3 tank is not known. 18. Q. Are there any infrared night driving or gunnery devices in use at present? A. No night driving or night gunnery devices are known to exist. There are not even any rumors of their future appearance in tactical organizations in Eastern Germany. There are, however, rumors among Soviet personnel that Americans possess these items. Night movement by Soviet tanks is extremely limited. In cases of absolute necessity, tanks move short distances over prearranged routes or follow personnel on foot. 19. '. Where is radar found in armored units of the Soviet Army? A. The only radar found in armored units of the Soviet Army in Eastern Germany is a single, early warning type radar assigned each division in sensitive border areas; this radar is operated by military personnel but is under political control. Other divisions have no radar at all. No radar fire control devices for tanks are known to exist. 20. q. What unusual radio antennas are seen near division command posts? A. No unusual radio. antenna equipment was noted near division command positions, aside from the usual whip and flat-top antennas. 21. Q. Describe wire lines and equipment as used for Soviet Army communications. A. Soviet policy is to utilize civil wire communications to the greatest extent pos- sible. During peace-time, pole line construction is used as far down as regimen- tal headquarters, with field wire below. During war-time pole line construction is used when available. Light pike poles are used extensively for the construc- tion of temporary open wire telephone lines. Very little cable is used for telephones. Lead or jute-covered cable is used for telegraph and for telephone to connect switchboards to the open wire pole line. Military carrier telephone systems permit the transmission of 12 conversations on each pair of telephone lines. Each division headquarters uses three or four Type PK-30 switchboards. 22. Q. What signal equipment is in current use in the Soviet Army? A. The TAI-43 is the standard field telephone in use in the Soviet Army. In per- formance it is approximately the same as the American Type EE-8-A. Phonetic type telephones are in current use, as is the Type UNA--I-31. The Type FIN-6 switchboard is obsolete and is no longer used. in radio equipment, the RB-45, the RB-70 are in current use - these are both World War II pieces of equipment.. The Type 5AK-1-M, the CPR, erd the RRU radios are obsolete and no longer used. New sets to replace the RB-70 are in the hands of troops, but no information on them is available. 23. ,. What is the significance of the "ST" (CT) number found on nameplates? A. The significance of the ST number found on rnEsne plates is merely that it is a speicification or procurement number.. ST is the abbreviation of the Russian word for standard. In case parts for equipment are subcontracted they are identified only by the "ST" mnuh r thereby elerninating reference to the equipment type number. This is used for accounting convenience and also for security reasons. 24. Q. Has any new signal or other equipment been issued? A. All equipment used in the particular armored division in East Germany, about which I have any information, was of World War II vintage with the exception of the radio equipment previously mentioned. In general, no now equipment has been seen, nor are there any rumors that troops are to be provided with any equipment in the near future. SECRET SLCRET,/S CURI7 Y INFO1 4ATION Approved For Release 2003/08/06 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100200002-5 Approved For Release 2 . G ,i'C -RDF82601[04'dRm00100 25X1 A 25. Q. Are underground telephone cables used in the USSR? Underground telephone cables are used in the USSR both in larger cities and on i;runk lines between large cities. One such cable is under construction between Moscow and Khabarovsk, Siberia. There is considerable construction activity in the USSR in the installation of additional underground telephone cable. Ceramic tiles are used. to protect cables when laid underground. 26. Q. Describe telephone exchange facilities and service found in the USSR. A. C-c dial telephones and exchanges are found only in metropolitan areas. Smaller cities use common battery switchboards. There are a few local battery switchboards remaining but these are being converted to common battery operation. Open wire telephone lines employ copper wire. Carrier is used on long distance civil telephone circuits and can transmit up to 18 conversations per circuit. The quality of long distance conversations between major cities is variable although generally very good. To outlying areas and to Satellite countries, the quality is sometimes very poor and is, in general, not good. Long distance telephone calls may be placed from public long distance telephone stations; certain important individuals may place long distance telephone calls from their homes. 27. Q. Give the location of as many major military radio stations as possible. Important military radio stations are located in Fhe following places.- 15 kilometers south of Leningrad, at Sosnovaya Polyana (COCiHO$f_~,l 110.E HA it may be reached by taking car --129 directly in front of the Kazan Cathedral and riding to the end of the line. This radio station is guarded by 16 men on a three-shift basis. Another major station is located seven kilometers from Minsk. Another one is located near the city of Kiev opposite the Dnieper Riier. A fourth 1ar-e radio station is located in Brest-Litovsk at the corner of Karl Marx ana fl erijinsky. The only antennas seen in the vicinity of these radio stations have uoen conventional rhombic and flat top antennas. 28. Q. -low are communications facilities guarded? A. All communications facilities, railroads, bridges, tunnels, factories, etc. are guarded in the USSR. Radio stations, because of their extreme importance, are generally guarded by cadets from military schools. Cadets are used because they are considered the most reliable of all personnel. Telephone exchanges are guarded by militia and ordinary watchmen. Guarding of important installations is con- sidered a part of cadet training, and all cadets serve some time at this work. 29. Q. Describe civil radio reception in the USSR. A.. Any person in. the USSR may own a radio receiver; all such receivers, however, must be registered with the Post Office. Most officers own a radio receiver; not all do, however, because they are relatively quite expensive. An estimated 15-20% of the population of the USSR owns radio receivers and nearly all of these people at some time or another listen to Voice of America or BBC broadcasts. Any music programs maybe listened to without penalty, but severe penalties are given to those people caught listening to other types of programs. In general, trans- mi:'ions in languages other than Russian are not jamaed, although jamming occurs on English language programs given at dictation speed. The system of wired loudspeakers is widely used. throughout the USSR; an. estimated 70% of the popu- lation are exposed to them in the course of their normal daily activities. They are located on the streets, in homes, stores, factories, etc. The programs pre- sented over the loudspeaker systems are mostly music and political indoctrination and are always at a high volume level. A major percentage of the Russian people are tired of the constant propaganda pounding, and resent the presence of these speakers even though nothing can be clone about it. A system of wired loudspeakers is also present in the Armywwith receivers operating at division headquarters and loudspeakers down to company areas. 30. Q. Do members of the Soviet Army hear the voice of America? A. The listening to broadcasts of the Voice of merica and BBC by Soviet communications personnel constitutes a definite security problem in the Soviet Army. Apparently the practice is almost universal, and it continues despite strenuous efforts to stop it. Soviet field and tank radio sets can tune frequencies used by, VOA and BBC, and. operators often turn their s- is to listen to these programs. Reception is generally fairly good a?d the c:onterzt of these broadcasts is widely disseminated.ep u- SmssElr, 1:;1- f~~y'/ECb'P ~I~ TI~QORM ~y~RA1. .8.T~k I~fION Approved For Release 2003/08/06 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100200002-5