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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 23, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 15, 2013
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Publication Date: 
February 26, 1952
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PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00047R000100250004-8.pdf311.98 KB
r-.., , n ~ I12, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/04/15 :CIA-RDP82-000478000100250004-8 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, INFORMATION REPORT 50X1 50X1 COUNTRY USSR SUBJECT Railroad Facilities 50X1 PLACE ACQUIRED DATE ACQUIRED BY SOURCE ~,~~ a~ ORI~aTZO~ TNIB DOCUMENT CON TRIM! INFORYRTION AFFEOTIN6 tNE NRTIOMAL D[FENBE OF THE UNITED lTA TElr YITN IN TNf YEANINB OF TITLE IBr !lCTI ON! 799 RND 794r OF TNf U.4. DODEr ?! RYfMDEO. IT! TRAM BYI l910M D REY!? LATI ON OF IT! CONTENTS fD OR AECf IPT BV RN VMAV TXDRIIED Pf RlOY IB PRONI BI TEO BY LAY. THE REPRODUCTION Cp TNI! /DRY I! PRONI BI T[D. N0. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT N0. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 1, The Soviet Union had railroad tranasport difficulties throughout the per=50X1ove~ed because of a l~.ck of freight cars and locomotive a, poc... _rpai~ o roc , an n?s fast, tl1at the rails were too light (30 kgs~meter~, ~e Hopper cars for bulk coTrmodities wer? scarceo This meant that much hand unloading `. of bulk com;nodities had to be done, Sometime+e oven engineers in plants were called out to h~-1p in this manual labor, There wore also not enough tank cars; many of the vary old two-axle ~typc ware used. Flat cars and gondola cars for carrying hesavy load., had to be reseax-~ed many months in advance of the shipping dates Tanl~ ca~:?s were apparently always load.r,d to capacity. VPe lcnevl of no cases where tank cars wire returned from an unlc~.ding point still containing large >arnountR of POLO If, for. ex~,e the train docurnerit showed. that ~. car had 20 toms of pOL, anal it had more, tl~e4~m~i;~s~~ could bl" sold on the black market, As ?vi.den.ce of full loading- of tanl{' c~r~; ~ fresh oil on the sides, of a tank ear which had come from Bacu, indicating that -train motion enroutc h~.d coaxed some liquid to spill outs Tf an individual arras unloading for a plant, when he was re' spon$ib1? for the job, all POL would be unloaded. But if he did it 'for a Miniwntry wh~sre responsibility was not aS direct, ho might not be a:s caresful to drain every drop of pOLo -The only. unur.ed freight cars vre saw were danced cars, Wes doubt whether the ~o-viets have any pos~.ibility of building uyo frai ght car r~serv~ss as it would not conform to their theory of making full u:se of capital goods. Frv~50X1 carrQ wore often in bad r~*pair, and sometim^s the cargo had to be transferred tc50X1 oth~-r cars o Hotivevvr, train brea.kdovTns were not too ~frequo-~nt, ~.nd freight train wrecks occurred only occasianallyo DATE DISTR. ,2G Fib 1,9~~. N0. OF PAGES 3 SCR`' 341 The railroads did not have ?nough crane. for loading and unloading heavy shipm?ntss Wry b~alieve that there was little mechanical equilament for tr~.nsloading at Brest becauses of the slowness with which freight moves from Sovzona~ ~rex~n.any to USSRa This conclusion is based on an experi?nc~s in shipping some winches from Sovzone Germany to the USSRo This was an important shipment, and its delay in Brest causmd one of the ministers probably the Ministor for PJtachinexy) to go to investigat? CLASSIFICATION SECRETfS~' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/04/15 :CIA-RDP82-000478000100250004-8 - nti~+~ ar~er~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/04/15 :CIA-RDP82-000478000100250004-8 S,~CRET~SECURITY I~IFOI~~ATION ~, To g:Mt.,per~onal attmntion by train personnel on freight shipmontss and tc~'assur? reasonably prompt d?livery of freight shipmeantss admini.strativc personnel ~of pla~it~; csfte*n bri,b?d: rL~.ilroad personnel. Brib?~ wire also necea~sary to obtain. pa~cean~~r tickets; thosea who did not giv? Brib?s would com~timeas hav? to wait f~sr wr.:eks to get tic;keats, In v~intcrs traffic was often de~laymd bescaus~ of the Lack of cnovr plowso This often 13e1d up train mov?ment for days. In s~nmer trains opeara~ tcd protty much on scheadulee, In the spring anal autumns trucks could nei~hmr ~.~~ liver freight tos nor recsiv? traffic from minor ~tationc (called punkts~ because roads weres too muddy, 5a Thm origin. and destination of a freight shipm?nt is not shotivn on then outside of thea Soviet freight cars, UQea .are sure of Chic because wm did notices that it was shovrn on freight cars in Germany. One reeason for nit putting this inform?ztion on th? outsides of Sovieat cars was that p~aople would st?al the pap~x? bmcaa.se them was suc~z a chortagv of v~riting paper, We saw some Soviet freight,earc on which tre original _ - --- -~-' - _ _ n a __ . _..vL _ .... rrt7....- waa don? to fors*ign freight carse fi, From 36 to 48 hour. time. was usually permitted far then unloading of freight care~Q . Ilowev~r~ norms w~cre cat for loading and unloading tim?as9 depeanding an, the facilit~~ss ` had avai:l~.ble at 'th~~ shipping- and recariving point~o Thus if a coal. loadi~a;g-poirs.t bunl:~er?a from`-which coal:' could bes: dropped into cares its norm. for loading times was much less than :if Ioadin~ f'aclit?a-wesr~s n:ot as f~.vor?able for rapid loading{ I~"' ~hipmont reeports were bald beyond tY? tim? p~rmitt?eI by an organizations th?y would be Be*nt to the; T,Tinistry which governead they organization;: Breakage was I~eS~:vy `I?his waA often dues to ovear@economy in us? of .paekin~ materialse zn adci~..tionD 3.oadng and unloading was not don ea carefully;: and cau.sQd much daTCi~.ge to cam,~oditisso In parts this breakagA was dues to lack of`intear~st by workerso 7o Freight cRx?s were nav:~r loaded b?yond the mark~at capacityg because thcr~ was a 1.~.kel:iliood that the individual'-who clid so would b? called to account for ito N~ith~r was there uri.d.erloe,dings caxcept where neceas?arye For ?xampleg :t,f 1.5?ton .. n~~.:hines wire boring loadeod in a 50~ton box carse-the or~ari:ization would load- threes m? ^l~in:ma~ fora total of 45 tones but would not load four machines f'or? si tota:f of 6G ~onsa Th?~ he,*aviest load carr.iead by a railroad car which was kno~v'r~. to us was a. 12F~toza. steam hydraulic prea3o It was probably carried on a 16=a~1.~_flat ears The Sovi-t$ have published hdndbooks for heavy indu.strie~ which b~:v~ axles 1.e,~ad:ing and typ~$ -?f cars used for various types of heavy load:s 'It also gives instructions on b.ow to load -and secure the cargo, V~lhean a freight c~ir is lradedg the ~1ant turns it ovasr to a ra:ilraad r?presentativi in then plant area.e The ray lros;d 'inspects then ~ontentss signs the documents for then cars and sdals the Dana Freight c~ rs mu s+ b~ s~ale~Cl. in USSRs becausas if they were Hots the c?nteants would bee stolen.; 8o P=~r:odicallys vrhmels and. axles would- have to be put in a latki~ to reistor~e they aamoc~'trb. surface..: Ngw ,axles had a diameter of 17.0-1:20 mm at the= paint where they be>:~r. irxgs toucl-~eed but after successiv? turnings on the lathee the- dimension; mig'ri:t b~ r~du.ce? to as littlea as `85 mm~ This lovra~red tho p~rmissibl? maximum nxlea load~ige which. was shown by painting a, n-~w tonnage capacity on they tide of then carte, Standards were sit up to indic