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Document Creation Date: 
December 27, 2016
Document Release Date: 
May 6, 2013
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Publication Date: 
May 26, 1952
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0 ,CLASSIFICATION SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION L"'111402 11 --~ CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT 50X1 COUNTRY Poland/USSR SUBJECT The City of Brest 50X1 PLACE ACQUIRED DATE ACQUIRED BY SOURCE THIS OGCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES. NITHIN THE MEANING OF TITLE IS, SECTIONS 793 D 794, OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMEHOEO. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REV1. LRTION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAN. THE REPRODUCTION CF TH IS FORM IS PROHIBITED. GENERAL (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO.;' THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 1. The city of Brest-Litovsk (5206N-2343E) is an important railroad center of some 50 thousand inhabitants. It lies on the east bank of the Bug River where it forms the boundary between the USSR and Poland. To the south of the city the Mukhovets River flows into the Bug in the vicinity of the old fort. At the northern end of Brest is the suburb Arayevka and the village Adamkovo, at the eastern end the railroad station Brest-East (Brest-Vosto- chnyi). The area covered by the city is about six by six km square in a flat region where there are practically no forests. The city completely lacks any architectural or natural beauty. The streets are straight and divide the city into regular squares, like a chess board. Brick and stone buildings alternate with wooden houses, all of them rather shabby. The typical. official building is a three to four story brick constructio ` painted grey and covered with a tin roof. There is only one park in the, city and few trees along the streets. Only the principal streets are lighted by electricity at night. BUILDINGS 2. The main buildings are the following: (a) The Oblast Soviet, on Lenin Street, is a square, barracks type building, four stories high, painted grey and covered with a tin roof. (b) The Oblast Party Headquarters, a three-story brick building, is located near the Oblast Soviet. (c) The Oblast Hospital is next to the Party Headquarters, a four-story brick building, tin-roofed. (d) The Oblast Branch of the State Bank is a beautiful two-story brick building, painted grey, tin-roofed, and surrounded by a wire fence. RtFCr l allmy IxI Ail ICJ r-B I L DISTRI UTION ORR Fv 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -2- 50X1 (e) Oblast MGB Headquarters, at the corner of Lenin and Levanevskiy Streets is a three-story brick building painted a light color. (f) The Headquarters Building of the 128th Rifle Corps, 28th Army, is a three-story building with a tile roof. On the rear it borders on the city park "First of May". (g) The City Soviet on Sovietskaya Street is a three-story building painted red. (h) The Post Office Building on Moskovskova Street is a two-story building painted grey. (1) (j) The Oblast MVD Headquarters on Ostrovskiy Street is a grey, three-story building covered with a tin roof. City Communist Party Headquarters, on Pushkinskaya Street. (k) The City Power Plant, on Moskovskaya Street, is a red brick building, built in 1948 and lies behind the city park near the fort. (1) (m) (n) The Radio Broadcasting Station, on the corner of Karl Marx and Mitskevicha Streets is in a two-story brick building covered with a tin roof. Oblast Prosecutor's Office on Karl Marx Street. The City Jail is on Moskovskaya Street, close to the Mukha vets river. (o) The Border Troops Barracks are located at the corner of Karl Marx and Moskovskaya Streets, inside the fort. Border troops headquarters are located on 17 September Street. STREETS. PARKS AND MONUMENTS 3. The main street of the city is Lenin Street which runs from the bridge near the main railroad station all the way south to the Mukhovets River. There is no street to the West of it but on the east, and parallel to Lenin Street, is Karl Marx Street. These two streets are crossed at right angles-by the following streets: Mitskevich, Levan- eskiy, Pushkinskaya, Mayakovskaya, Gogol, Budyennyi, Dzherzhinskii and Moskovskaya. Along Lenin Street there are two rows of trees; new ones, planted in 1947-49, alter- nate with older ones. The street is paved with octagonal asphalt bricks mixed with cement and crushed stone. Sovietskaya Street and others are paved with cobble stones. 4. There is only one park, called "First of May". It is separated from Lenin Street by an ikon fence and surrounded on the other three sides by a board fence. About 20 meters from the main park entrance there is a common grave of soldiers killed in the last war witha memorial bearing their names. Inside the park there are: an open air theatre for movies and regular plays, a dancing floor, a restaurant, and a number of booths selling beverages and cold foods. Brest does not have any historical monuments. In 1948, however, a three meter high Stalin monument was erected at the corner of Lenin and Kitskevich Streets and the same year a Lenin Monument was set up in the childrens' playground on Svoboda Square. The creation of a new natural park on Moskovskaya Street is under way. TRANSPORTATION 5. Brest is an. important railroad center and has the following stations: Brest-Main, Brest Poleskiy, Brest-East, Brest-West, Brest-North.and Mukhovety Military. All these '..,stations., located on the periphery of the city, are connected. Main railroad lines from Brest are: Brest-Kiev, Brest-Moscow, Brest-Kovel and Brent-Warsaw. In- side the city there are no street cars or trolley cars, only busses of the GAZ-2a type. Bus lines also go to the suburbs: Kobrin, Kamenets, Shereshur, Pruzhany. There are also quite a number of taxis, recognized by "Taxi" written across the windshield and a checker-board stripe around the body. The most common make of cabs is "Pobeda". Civilian vehicles have two capital letters and two groups of two-digit numbers, for example: BM-13-42. Military vehicles have three sets of two-digits numbers, such as: G-13-16-72. POPULATION AND HOUSING 6. The city population of some 50 thousaid has increased somewhat after the war with the grrival of military personnel and their dependents stationed in and near Brest. The Poles who lived in Brest before have gone to Poland for fear of deportation. The majority of inhabitants are now Belorussians and Russians, with some 10-15 % SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -3- of minority groups such as Jews, Tartars, Uzbeks, Georgians and Armenians. They lead the same life as the majority and there is no discrimination against minorities, nor any bad feelings among the various groupsl As far as I know there are no foreigners living in Brest. 7. During World War II the city was heavily damaged. Aerial bombings and artillery fire destroyed 25% of all buildings completely and damaged 50% of all houses. In the post war period some 25-30% of these buildings were repaired or reconstructed. The re- building is still going on but with poor results. It is very difficult to obtain an apartment or even a room in Brest. In most cases newcomers live as sub-tenants, sharing a room with some other people. For these reasons the people have had to be content with three or four square meters per person instead of the nine square meters granted by Soviet law and it is very difficult to obtain from the City Billeting Office a permit to move (Prupysk na zhitelstvo) to Brest. There are two hotels in the city, used mostly by short-term visitors, such as traveling artists and theater groups, government inspectors and party functionaries. There are only two regular restaurants and three tea-rooms serving hot meals but a number of snack bars selling various beverages and cold food, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL LIFE ~.r 8. The managers of enterprises and plants are authorized to hire the workers they need without any restrictions. The workers accepting employment, however, are bound to the enterprise and cannot leave it without proper authorization. Leaving a job without permission is considered desertion and guilty individuals are subject to prosecution and punishment. Workers wages are low in relation to the cost of living. The main occupations of the city population are work on the railroad, in government offices and enterprises, and in the local industrial cooperatives (Artel). 9e Basic commodities are unrationed and sold free on and in the stores. There are two markets in Brest which sell goods supplied by the collective and private farms. A market stand costs three rubles per person. Milk, meat, and other perishable foods cannot be sold without a sanitation certificate. In spite of all government efforts to eliminate It, the black market exists and even flourishes. Regulations prescribe that all consumers goods produced locally must be sold through cooperative and collective stores. This is considered disadvantageous by the producers who prefer a quick sale for cash on the black market to the lengthy procedure of turning their goods over to the collective stores. Black marketeers caught by the militia are usually fined. A second violation of the same kind normally results in several months of forced labor. 10. The only newspaper published in Brest is "Zarya" (The Dawn). It is printed in Belo- rusian and Russian. No periodicals or magazines are published in Brest. About 20- 25% of t3.?ie population own radio receivers capable of receiving foreign broadcasts. VOA and 'BBC programs are jammed. However, as these propaganda broadcasts have very little gelation with the hardships and realties of Soviet life;, they do not make any impressions, not even on those listeners who can hear them. As a rule, private tele- phones are limited to government and high party officials. Apartments with installed telephones represent some 10-15% of the available living quarters. SPECIAL INSTITUTIONS 11. There are a series of health institutions in Brest, among them: the Oblast Hospital on Lenin Street, the City Polyclinic on Pushkin Street, the Children Polyclinic on Svoboda Square, the Maternity Hospital on Perets Street, the Railroad hospital in the suburb or Grayevka, the Army Hospital on Pushkin Street and two Public Health offices, one in the Oblast Soviet and another in the City Soviet. There are no scientific institutions or laboratories in Brest, only a preparatory school for tea.chers, an Apprentice school and a Railroad Institute. SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr2013/05/07 : CIA-RDP82-00047R000100420003-0