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December 22, 2016
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July 14, 2009
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August 30, 1952
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Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010--3 3N 1 i CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY USSR DATE DISTR. ly Aug 52-1 SUBJECT Machine Tool Building in the USSR PLACE ACQUIRED DATE ACQUIRED THIS 00 CUMENT C0N TAINS INTO RMATION AIPECTI NO THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, ?ITXIN THE MEAN I NO OF TITLE 18, SECTIONS 793 AND 794, OP THE C.N. CODE, AE AMENDED. ITS TRAMSM19910X OR NEAR. LATION OF ITS CON TENTS TO OR RECEIPT ^Y AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON 19 PROHIBITED BY LAM. THE REPRODUCTION CF THIS FORM 19 PROHIBITED. .NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION the name "Kramatorsky Heavy Machine Tool Plant" was the correct, name of "Stankostroi" after the plant had been put into operation. Ithe name of some Soviet leader or event, connected with the Soviet Re igned to the plant, since that procedure was followed, in 'all cases UNCODED for enterprises of that kind. Ithe plant was called either "Stankostroi", or the Krarnatorsky Heavy Machine Tool Plant. the construction of the plant was begun approximately in 1937. UNCODED re world ryar II, only preliminary construction of the plant was completed and put into operation. The designing division of the'plant started its work, with an incomplete staff, approximately from the beginning of 1939. The plant started production in 19I~0. It was a new plant. the plant operated under the Ministry of Machine Tool Building CLASSIFICATION SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION 1r T 1 DISTRIBUTION 97 JAI h1K X X B / X ORR EVI emu s p 25 YEAR RE-REVIEW) Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 25X1 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION In the autumn of 1941the plant was evacuated to the city of Novosib s its last "echelon left in the middle of October 1941. the lint was returned to its original site after the end of World Jar II. 25 a part of it remained in Novosibirsk where a new plant has been built on the base of this part. 'th ere was no used equipment at the plant at that time. 25 at least before evacuation the plant was Partly en2aged -i in manufacturing of military production the total number of people employed at the plant before 25 evacuation were on y 000-2500?. X1 Designing'and manufacturing of large metal-cutting machine tools was a task of the plant. The following machine tools were included in 7,mh7 tolls produced-by the plant: roll lathes, lathes, and boring machines. plant trade mark should be on machine tools produced by the plant. The following were some of the leading personalities at the plant: (a) Nik61di -Hehftkh6vidh Tevs ~ highly-qualified engineer- designer who, before World War II, was chief of the lathes division of "PKO" (Projecting - Designing Department) of the machine tool plant. (b) Platon Feoktistovich Bal ov the same but a somewhat 25X1 younger man Mr Balyunov was the head of researcn group at of the machine tool plant. SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION X1 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION The plant before evacuation had four' manufacturing shops: machine shop, assembly'shop; pattern shop; and foundry of non-ferrous and small cast iron castings. Moreover, the machine tool plant had a plant laboratory, and had to have a repair-machine shop-and apprentice shop or apprentice workshop. The plant got forgifigs and large cast iron castings from "NKMZ" (Novo-Kramatorsky Machine Building Plant). At the same time, patterns which the machine tool plant submitted for this purpose to "NKMZ", were used for molding the molds. "NKMZ" was situated at a distance of somewhat more than one kilometer from the Kramatorsky Heavy Machine Tool Plant. The plants were linked by a railroad line. The machine tool plant was connected with the main railroad line by the plant rail- road line of "NKMZ", the definition of the category of metal-cutting machine tools in the technical literature of the USSR is approximately as follows: "Machine tools for the machining of metals through the cutting off of shavings from metals by any method are called metal-cutting machine tools." A. The situation with the shortage of metal-cutting machine tools in the USSR has 25X1 changed - great deal-at the present time in comparison with the period before Woxl3.. dar II. Since--the end of World War II, the USSR has imported a large quantity of metal cutting machine tools from dismantled enterprises in the Soviet Zone of Germany. The USSR also got a rather large quantity of machine tools from German in the form of industrial supplies as reparations. Large German machine tool'plants were considerably destroyed by bombardments during World War II and for sometime completely discontinued production. Some machine tool firms of East Germany had a considerable number of finished and partly finished ' machine- tool-parts. Besides that, a large quantity of machine tools damaged by bombardments; burnt machine tools in particular, were at machine tool plants and at'many other machine enterprises. Some machine tool plants of East Germany, after their partial restoration, started to produce new machine tools (chiefly on the base-of old finished and partly finished parts of machine tools) and to repair damaged machine tools in 1.917-1918. The following firms are included in the above-mentioned firms: the "Niles" firm and series of small firms in the cityy'of Chemnitz; the "Pfauter" firm in the city of Leipzig, and others. 'A part of-a plant of the "Reinecker" firm in Chemnitz has been recon- structed. Thhe majority of the most valuable machine tools manufactured in the Soviet Zone of Germany, has been sent to the USSR as reparations which, in total, amounts to a''considerable number of machine tools. A number of machine building plants in-the-USSR began to receive dismantled equipment including dismantled machine tools, from Germany in large quantities shortly after the end of world machine too s, together with erman machine tools delivered as reparations, have relieved the acute shortage of machine tools which existed in the USSR for several postwar years, In the spring of 1919 there was still a 25X1 large quantity of machine tools, scheduled for the USSR, particularly at the railroad transfer base in Brest-Lit s . These have been gradually transported to plants in the USSR; in 1919, E= there was no longer an acu125X1 need for most types of metal-cutting machine tools at working plants of "MTM" (Ministry of Heavy Machine-Building) of the USSR and it is obvious that the output of machine tools by-Soviet plants has alleviated the shortage to a certain degree. A very important circumstance should be pointed out here, however, and that is thata considerable number ofmachine tools belonging to enterprises which were evacuated during-World War II, especially large heavy machine tools. which were dismantled for transportation, were damaged considerably by careless handling. Furthermore, the conditions under which they were used in new places during the war were, as a rule, worse than they had been before the evacuation. The SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 -iu.ttjj'/biuUK1T1 1NJ OENATION following factors were the causes of this: worse shops; large numbers of poorly qualified machine tool operators; low shop temperature; shortage of lubricants and wiping materials; shortage of"spare parts, necessary tools and devices; bad maintenance; and, in particular, repairs which were untimely and of`bad quality. All'this'was aggravated by the extreme overfatigue and ex- haustion of the majority of machine tool workers and administrative-technical personnel of the plants. In particular, at NKMZ in Electrostal, abnormally high wear, breakdowns of machine tools during operation, and the exploitation of machine tools which urgently needed overhauling became quite habitual during World War II. The majority of machine tools was very badly worn out by the end of the war. The following machine tools are included among the metal-cutting machine tools for which a great need has been felt in the USSR since world War III.- gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on gear wheels and on pinions with large modules by the rolling method; gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on bevel gears with helical teeth for high speed gearings (Gleason, Klingelnberg); precision'machines for cutting teeth on gears for high-speed gear reducers; large slot-broaching machines; some types of boring machines] and many very large machine tools and special machine tools, Machine shop mechanics and technologists told that the Soviet- made'metal-cutting machine tools were worse than American, English and German ones. insufficient preciseness and quick wearability are the main ae~ecs of he--Soviet-made machine tools, from the view point of shop engineers. Narrowness of'nomenclature of types of manufactured machine tools is also a great defect of the machine tool industry of the USSR as such. lat machine tool plants of the USSR, the intraplant normalization embraces a large nithber of'used machine parts and such members as threads; profiles of sections of machine -parts; diameters; and also tolerances and fits used'in machine tool building; materials of machine-parts and recommended and obligatory heat treatment, normal technological processes of manufacturing of machine parts and'so on. For'all this, plants of the Ministry of Machine Tool Building have intraministry standards, Plants worked out normal types of machine tools and have standardized units of machine tools, the following bottlenecks are the most noticeable in the Soviet machine tool building: Unsatisfactory supply of materials; the absence of a sufficiently-wide network of cooperating enterprises; lack of qualified workers and specialists; low quality of production; general weakness of research works lack of means for experimental work; and insufficient and weak perspective planning. SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION each-Soviet plant has so-called "Shtatnoye raspisaniye" staff sc.e u e- . A staff schedule is worked out by the ministry for each year for each plant of the ministry on the base of norms. Norms take into account: technical data of the plant, the nomenclature of articles manufactured by the plant, and the yearly plan of industrial production in tonnage and in. terms of price. The staff-schedule points out to the plant a total staff of workers and employees riecessar'y to the plant, and gives its division as to the number of workers and employees separately, showing their categories and functional wages. Limits for wages approved by the ministry are assigned in conformity with the staff schedule.-. These limits also take into account the so-called "tariff zone" of the enterprise,-determining the degree of tariff rates of workers and employees of the plant'in accordance with its geographic location. Plants have no right to violate the staff schedule and pass over limits of wages, Assuming,"that the'numbe'r of working hours per month is 200 on the average, that a yearly recreation leave is-100 hours, and that the total sick leave is also 100'hours per year, and not taking into account hours of overtime work and state"holidays,'we have approximately, 2200 hours working hours per year for the average productive worker. The chief mechanic's department - of NKMZ in Kramatorsk did most of the repairing of non-Soviet-made-'machine tools and manufactured a considerable number of spare parts for them. The chief mechanic of the plant had a large chief mechanic's department, a large and well-equipped machine-repair shop, and mechanic's divisions at shops at his -disposal. Supervision and-caring for equipment of the shop., ffidihte'hdnce_w6rk_an4 planned-preventive repair of equip- ment-were performed by mechanic's divisions of shops. Each manufacturing shop of the plaint _ had this- division. Overhauls of machine tools would be made by the 25X1 repair machine shop. SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 SECRET/SECURITY INFCIATION Ke number of skilled workers being trained corresponds approximately " a the' i umber' required` to' not enough engineers and technicians are being trained. The level of gcalifica- tion of trained workers, engineers and technicians, however, is undoubtedly lower than the level necessary for the industry. Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -7- 25X1 On manufacturing. herringbone gears and pinions, the presence or absence of a groove for relief of a cutting tool is determined by the type of machine tool on which the cutting 'of teeth is performed. At the machine building plants of the USSR the majority of gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on cylinder gearwheels were-made as gear milling machines for cutting with gear 25X1 cutters. Thus, only gears with a groove for relief of a gear cutter could be cut-on'them. In machine building plants of the USSR, however, there are also such gear cutting machines, as gear planers of the "Sykes" type, and gear milling machines for'dutting teeth with milling cutters--end mills. Herringbone gears of the continuous tooth type, having no grooves, are cut on these machines. 25X1 Speed in metal-cutting machine tools of the'USSR has been obtained mechanically ih"all._cases At the same time, depending on the machine tool, the process of shifting has been realized either by hand or electrically. 25X1 the controls have been electrical. up to the middle of the 19IO's at least, electronic controls were not used in the machine tool building of the USSR and in those machine tools of foreign firms SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Approved For Release 2009/07/14: CIA-RDP82-00047R000100500010-3