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~c i ~~w~r rF t c -i r~~oRM~~r i ow REPORT NUMBER 6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 FDD N3 N 'Ja SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Number 6 5 May 1958 Prcpdred by Foreign Documents Division CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 2430 E. St., N. W., Washington 25, D.C. /~ ~Lun to ..~ tc1i.'crf & /~~LA7d0 il& / pp ~7%vam~isla.J / fj4p . ~1a .Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R00010006~", -7 'Cow 0V Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from publications of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities in the USSR, in the Sino-Soviet Orbit countries, and in Yugoslavia, and is d.s- sendnated as an aid to United States Government research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Page I. Biology 1 IT. Chemistry 4 III. Earth Sciences 42 IV. Electronics 43 V. Engineering 57 VI. Medicine 66 VII. Metallurgy 95 VIII. Physics 98 IX. Miscellaneous 114+ NOTE: Items in this report are numbered consecutively. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 1. New Type Animal Reflex Reported in Czechoslovak Press "New Type of Animal Reflex Discovered," unsigned article, ? Prague, Rude Pravo, 14 Feb 58, p 1 Prof L. Krushinskiy, physiologist and professor of Moscow University, has announced that in his studies of reflex activities of animals he has succeeded in discovering a new type of reflex. On the basis of scientific experiments he has arrived at the conclusion that animals, in addition to the conditioned and unconditioned reflexes discovered by Pavlov, have a third type of reflex, which he calls an "extrapolative" research. In his opinion this type of reflex is the basis for rational acts, i.e., the ability of highly organized living beings to form a picture of a whole process, to compare individual phenomena and to foretell future events on the basis of perceptions by the sense organs. Krushinskiy ex- presses the opinion that the recognition of these new reflexes makes pos- sible a more effective fight against nervous diseases. Nadezhda Ladyginova, doctor of biology, in a conversation with a TASS reporter, announced that Krushinskiy's research has great scientific and practical importance. Professor Krushinskiy, she stated, submits a new, very "witty" and very simple method of studying the behavior of ani- mals and provides a positive answer to the question of whether or not animals have ideas. 2. Czechoslovak Article on Soviet Observation of Extrapolated Reflexes "On the New Discovery of Extrapolated Reflexes," (unsigned article), Prague, Mlada Fronta, 22 Feb 58, p 1 After seeing a report on the discovery of extrapolated reflexes by Prof Leonid Krushinskiy of Moscow University in the press around 15 Feb- ruar-r, the daily newspaper of the Czechoslovak Federation of Youth tele'CPYRGHT h d K h p one rus inskiy for more information. He was reached at Moscow ni- versity, Laboratory No 8, telephone No V 92056. The three were: a of reflex is this ance?" e a r type o reflex come to you?" and "What is the scientific and practical signifi- CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Ir I PYRGHT CPYRGHT "Animals have the ability to react to a position where an impulse (stimulus) will occur in its ordered movement at a definite point in time. That is, they are able to predict where the moving impulse (per- haps another animal) will occur at a definite time. This ability is developed to a different degree among various animals -- for example, weakly in pigeons and ducks, and very weakly in rabbits. Conversely, it is very well developed in magpies and crows, and readily observable in horses and dogs. I am of the opinion that these extrapolated reflexes are the basis of a primitive intellect. Our tests confirm Engels' hy- othesis conce a appearance of the initial elements ac y in ai ma s, Krushinskiy stated. CPY RGHT Krushinskiy continued, "i first had this Idea In 1-945, Tin 19LA- 1-1 started o perform experiments in this direction. I considered this pos- C PYRG H sibility while I was observing animals under natural conditions. Then the idea of the existence of extrapolated reflexes among animals was pro- ven experimentally." CPYRGHT lb concluded, "',"he recognition of the third t'rn of raft AYOe us to study the laws o the extrapolative activity of animal nervous systems. Concerning man, this discovery can aid work in mental hygiene." CPYRGHT 3. Czechoslovak Parasitologists Meet "First Convention of Czechoslovak Parasitologists," by Dr Bohumir Rgsicky, Prague, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved, No 1/2, Jan/Feb 58, pp 1+5-53 The first convention of Czechoslovak parasitologists, was held in Prague on 6 to 9 October 1957. The partic{.pants included 200 from Czech-. oslovakia and others from foreign countries including: Academician Skrya- bin, and Professors Shults, Tiflov, Zasukhin, Spasskiy, Babyanskas, and Asadov from the USSR, Academician Stefanski, Professors Ziarnowski and Wisniewski, and Docents Gerwel and Kozar from Poland; Academician Kotlan, Docents Kobulej and Zoltai, and Dr Mihalyi from Hungary; Professors Borc- hert and Wildfuehr from East Germany; Professors Matov [Mateev?] and Pavlov from Bulgaria; Prof Feider from Rumania; Prof Simic from Yugoslavia; Prof DollfuG from France; Prof Biocca from Italy; Professors Enigk, Piekarski, Sprehn, and Westphal from West Germany; Dr Siim from Denmark; and Prof Van Thiel from the Netherlands. The resolution of the convention is included in the arcicle. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Biological Institute In Yugoslavia Develops Research Work "Sarajevo Biological Institute Exchanges Publications with over 30 Countries," (unsigned article), Sarajevo, Oslobodjenje, 25 Jan 58, p 4 During 1957, the Sarajevo Biological Institute (Bioloski institut u Sarajevu) developed experimental research in the fields of ecology, bio- geography, and other subjects. Most of the institute's work has been on an inventory of the flora and fauna in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The insti- tute has assisted the students of the Faculty of Philosophy (Filosofski fakultet) and the Upper Pedagogical, School (Visa pedagoska skola) in Sarajevo in the study of the classification of plants and animals. By means of short courses the institute has enabled the students to work in- dependently. The institute also determines the classification of plants and animals for other scientific: institutions. During 1957, the institute arranged an exchange of periodicals and books with approximately 30 scientific institutions throughout the world. Under this systenythe institute has received approximately 36 periodicals and over 50 scientific books. Cooperation with the academies of sciences of the USSR and of Poland has been especially successful. Specialists of the institute assisted the Zagreb biocenologist Doc- tor No Horvat and the classifier of plants, Dr Pavlovskiy of the USSR in their Investigations of vegetation on the Vranica mountain. Soviet Biologist in Czechoslovakia "Local News in Brief," (unsigned article), Prague, Rude Pravo, 11 Feb 58, p 2 Prof V. N. Stoletov, first deputy minister of Higher Education USSR, and Candidate of Biological Sciences, arrived in Prague on 9 February. The Soviet guest will remain in Czechoslovakia for about a week and will negotiate a concrete plan for mutual contacts between Czechoslovakia anO the Soviet Union in the area of advanced schools for 1958? He will negoti- ate with representatives of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education and Culture. 6. Czechoslovak Agriculture Specialist Has Birthday From the Day," (unsigned article), Prague, Prace, 14 Feb 58, p3 Academician Vaclav Nova_u" will be 70 years old today. During his almost 50 years of scientific and pedagogic activity he wrote several hun- dred technical treatises, published 22 books, trained thousands of agricul- ture and forestry workers and made Czechoslovak agrology and agricultural bioclimatology famous abroad. -3- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 1K Biochemistry 7. Desoxyribonucleoproteins as One of the Substrates of the Action of Ionizing Radiation "On Nucleoproteins as One of the Substrates of the Biological Action of Ionizing Radiation," by L. F. Larionov, V~o rosy Radiobiolo i (Problems of Radiobiologyr), Leningrad, 9 pp 268-279 from Referativnyy 2h-urnal?.-- Khimi a Biolo che- CPYRG ya Khimiya, No 1, 10 Jan 5b, Abstract No 87, p 10) "On the basis of his own and other data, the author reaches the con- clusion that desoxyribonucleoproteins are one of the substrates of the primary biological action of radiations. Possibly, as a result of their injury the synthesis of DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid), found. in large amounts in radiation-sensitive tissues, is also inhibited." 8. Shifts of Blood Plasma Protein Fractions Noted in Hypothermia "Blood Plasma Proteins in Experimental Hypothermia in Dogs," by Stanislaw Bober, Jan Nielubowicz, Mieczyslaw Justyna, Izabela Krzeminska-Lawkowiczowa, and Boleslaw Marzinek, Polska od. Lekar., Vol 12, No 15, p p 543-545 (Polish) (from Re a ativnyy 2hurnal -' Khimi a Biolo icheska a Khimi a, No 1, 10 Jan 58, CPYRGAtract No 851, p 95) "Shifts in different protein fractions of dogs were noted in experi- mental hypothermia. The total amount of protein and albumins increases slightly at a temperature of 280 and drops at a temperature of 200 . The alpha- and beta-globulin fractions noticeably increase in proportion to cooling, whereas the gamma globulins decrease." -4- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Industrial Chemistry Apparatus for Analysis of Oxygen-Nitrogen-Argon Mixtures "An Installation for the Analysis of Oxygen-Nitrogen-Argon Mix- tures," by L. I. Kazarnovskiy, N. M. Dykhno, and G. B. Narin- skiy, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Oxygen Machine Building; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1387-1388 An apparatus for the analysis of oxygen-nitrogen-argon mixtures is described. The unit was designed at the All-Union Scientific Research Insitiute of Oxygen Machine Building. In this apparatus the oxygen is taken up by copper and the nitrogen by calcium. Between the absorption of oxygen and that of nitrogen the pressure of the residual gas consist- ing of argon and introgen is measured. When the content of argon and ni- trogen in the mixture is lower than 3-5%, these gases can be determined by means of the apparatus with a precision reaching 0.02-0.05%. Oxygen- nitrogen-argon mixtures can be analyzed in a wide range of concentrations up to an 80% content of nitrogen and argon; however, the precision of the determinations becomes somewhat lower at these high concentrations. The time necessary for one determination of the composition of a mixture com- prises 1-2 hrs. 10. USSR Developments in Field of Chromatography "The Chromatographic Methpd and the Prospects of Its Develop- ment," by K. V. Chmutov; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 9, Sep 57, pp 10]9-1022 "The chromatographic method has been firmly introduced into physico- chemical research and is being arplied extensively in analytical chemis- try' CPYRGHT "Chromatography is usually associated with the movement of a gaseous or liquid medium containing a mixture )f the substances being separated. This movement proceeds through an imr~,;rable layer of an adsorbent which consists of individual particles or other discrete elements. The separa- tion of substances takes place hecausi of minute differences in the adsorbability or in the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the components of the mixture; ordinarily, differences in both adsorbability and the kinetics exist. The acts of adsorption and desorption are re- peated tens of thousands of times in ordinary laboratory chromatographic columns. They take place in every subdivided medium, whether it consists of grains of an adsorbent, paper fibers, particles of an emulsion, or other discrete elements. Not being associated with any definite mechanism of adsorption or restricted to any definite field of application, the chromatographic method is universal in this sense. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-R15F82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "The resolving power and the capacity of the method are unusually great when the method is applied for quantitative determination under appropriately selected conditions. This applies particularly to colored column and paper chromatograms when the spots or layers are examined visually, because the finest differences in coloration can be distinguished in this manner. In some cases, the chromatographic method matches spectro- graphic methods with respect to sensitivity, because chromatographic sep- aration makes 16 possible to accumulate perceptible quantities of substances present in trace quantities. In some cases, the sensitivity of the chroma- tographic method exceeds that of mass-Rpectrography, for instance, in the investigation of new elements of the periodic system. "The combination of rhvsicochemical methods of investigation with a chromatographic procedure of separation or concentration makes it possible to obtain quantitative results. This refers to colorimetric, refracto- metric, radiometric, and other methods of the analysis of eluates obtained from columns and to direct spectrometric and radiometric methods of measur- ing the distribution of components along the length of a column, the den- sity of spots on paper, etc. "The task of the theory of chromatography consists in the develop- ment of a system of equations which would make it possible to describe mathematically the process of the adsorption of molecules or ions under dynamic conditions, because the process of separation takes place only under these conditions. An adequate theory can and must yield as a final result the possibility of calculating at least the elementary processas involved in separations. "The dynamics of the process involved include elements of statics, kinetics, and hydrodynamics. In the case of the separation of vapor-air mixtures, I ngmuir's concepts in regard to molecular adsorption and' Henry's isotherm satisfy investigators in this field. However, much at- tention has been paid lately to the correlation of the process with the form of the adsorption isotherm, which may be linear, concave, or convex. The shape of .he isotherm determines whether washing out or sharpening of the boundaries of adsorption zones and zones of displacement takes place. These problems were studied in theoretical work done by A. A. Zhukhovitskiy, S. Ye. Bresler, 0. M. Todes, V. V. Rachinskiy, and others. Cases of molecular adsorption from solutions generally correspond to variants of adsorption from vapor-air mixtures which have been studied and can under the simplest conditions be described by the well-known Freundlich isotherm as far as statics are concerned and by Shivlov's equation as far as the dynamics of the process are concerned. The mecha- nism of ion exchange can be considered from different standpoints; on crys- talline substances, such as naturally occurring aluminosilicates, the ion exchange is analogous to that taking place. when solutions of electro- lytes are mixed. However, this analogy is very incomplete, because energy barriers and sterical hindrances which are characteristics for crystal lattices do not exist in solutions. -6- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "The classical theory of the Helmholtz layer is being applied to come colloidal systems, for instance, aluminum oxide or ferric hydroxide. Here, apparently, one must get away from concepts in regard to strictly stoictuiometric ratios between the ions being exchanged. The surface of the swollen resin is assumed to be a membrane and the usual Donnan equi- librium is regard to the distribution of ione on both sides of the mem- brane is then considered. The existence of a great number of ion ex- changers with diverse structures prevents the formulation of a universally applicable theory concerning the exchange mechanism. Experimental in- vestigation of the statics of adsorption and ion exchange leads only to a definition of the optimum conditions for adsorption and determination of the maximum capacity of the adsorbent with respect to an individual substance. Investigations of this type do not form a basis for general conclusions in regard to the possibility of separating substances the adsorbabilities of which differ only'by a small amount. Definite con- clusions in regard to this will be possible only on the basis of kinetic and dynamic experiments. "Independently of the mechanism which underlies the kinetics cf ad- sorption, these kinetics determine the dynamics of the process. At pres- ent the kinetics of adsorption and of ion exchange are treated by the majority of investigators as a diffusion process. This applies both to extracrystalline adsorption with diffusion taking place in the Nernst layer and intracrystalline adsorption, in connection with which the dif- fusion may take place in the: c,yatal lattice or in the gel structure of a resin. The possibilities of the occurrence of processes in diffusion regions as compared with kinetic regions are considered in work done by N. N. Tunitskiy, A. N. Kharin, I. A. Y4yasnikov, S. Yu. Yelovich, and others. In the case of ion-exchange resins the diffusion kinetics depend on the structure of the resin grains or particles. The structure of the resins is mobile; it depends on the number of cross links in the polymer which affect swelling in solutions. This introduces still greater dif- ficulties into the formulation of equations which describe the kinetics (G. V. Samsonov). The theory of the underlying process has progressed far since the semiempirical equations of the dynamics of adsorption for- mulated by Shilov. The principal method of research at present is inves- tigation of the deformation of zones in the column as these zones move or are washed out by the eluant. As an example of a useful application of theory, one may cite the chromathermographic method which has been developed by A. A. Zhukho?;ritskiy and N. M. Turkel'taub. In chromathermo- graphy a temperature field is employed Jhich moves along the column and promotes sharpening of the boundaries between the zones being separated. "At present the principal obstacle to the development of theories is formed by the fact that it is impossible to solve systems of differential equations. Mich can be done in this respect by using electronic computers, although these computers are not yet being used to an adequa~e extent. a Is of interest that the facility with which chromatographic experiments can -7- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT be conducted leads in the great majority of cases to the application of purely empirical methods. Practical workers in this field have for a long time been experimentally solving problems of this type pertaining to the dynamics of adsorption which cannot be approached by theoretical research. This facility of conducting experiments often makes prelimin- ary calculations impractical; one should rather construct a great number of nomography for rapid approximate computations. The first successful attempts to construct nomographs for cases involving the adsorption of monovalent and cUva ent ions were made by R. N. Rubinshteyn. "As far as meth-ds are concerned, chromatography is developing in several directions, which are ordinarily distinguished according to the mecharism of the formation of the chromatogram. One differentiates be- tween adsorption, ion-exchange, distribution, and precipitation chromato- graphy. "Lately, distribution chromatography with the application of an electric field, i.e., electrophoretic chromatography, has been applied to an increasing extent. The method on which emphasis is placed at in- dividual scientific research laboratories depends entirely on the special type of work being done at the laboratory in question. However, not all methods are being introduced to an equal extent into the industry. "Molecular and ion-exchange chromatography in columns have been applied in the industry most extensively. The processes of the recovery of vapors and of hypersorption and adsorption on fluidized solids are be- ing applied to an ever-increasing extent in industrial procedures that involve the employment of volatile solvents. As a result of research conducted for many years by F. G. Prokhorov, K. A. Yankovskiy, and Yu. M. Kostrikin, ion exchange in columns is being applied on a large,scale in the USSR in the treatment of water for high-pressure and high-temperature boilers. A promising application is also the use of selectively acting ion-exchange diaphragms for the electrolytic desalting of water N. A. Klyachko and Ye. B. Trostyanskaya). In view of the fact that the de- salting of industrial wastes can be done at a lower cost than the evapora- tion of these wastes, the method in question is of advantage when the sal"; content is not too high. "Paper distribution chromatography in the form of ordinary chromato- graphy in one or two dimensions or as an electrophoretic method is being applied as an analytical procedure of the highest precision, particularly inbiological work (G. S. Paskhina). It is assumed that paper chromato- graphy will replace chromatographic separation in columns for this type of application. Systematic work on the separation of inorganic ions by paper chromato.,,raphy has been conducted by G. D. Yeliseyeva and other investigators. The sensitivity of the electrophoretic method can be il- luatrated on the example of the separation of the isotopes Na 22 and Na from each other. - g - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "Distribution chromatography in columns, particularly the so-called gas-liquid chromatography, has been applied on an extensive scale lately in the technology of the separation of gas mixtures. An inert material, for instance, silica gel, is used ordinarily as a carrier when this method is applied. A stationary solvent consisting of a liquid with a high boi.l- ing point or even a low-melting hydrocarbon is deposited on this carrier; the process is conducted at a relatively high temperature. "Precipitation chromatography, which was used a short time ago suc- cessfully by K. 'LA. 0l'shanova for analytical reactions in the laboratory, is being introdreed into the industry. In this type of procedure the chromatographic one is formed in the column as a result of the formation of a difficultly soluble precipitate on an impregnated adsorbent. This method is being applL.i for the thorough purification on an industrial scale of some salts from impurities consisting of heavy metals. Because of its simplicity, this method is preferabl;; to the commonly used chemi- cal methods of purification and appears promising as far as applications in the nonferrous metal industry are concerned. Of great interest is the work by A. M. Gurvich and T. B. Gapon on the purification of salts used in the preparation of luminophores. "Finally, one must mention the type of column chromatography which involves the formation of complexes. This type of chromatography comprises the application of a complex-forming eluant which makes it possible to wash out successively at different values of the pR components that have been adsorbed in the upper part of the charge; the order in which the components are washed out depends on the dissociation constants of the complexes that are formed. This method is being used successfully in the industrial separation of rare-?2arth elements (M. M. Senyavin, D. I. Ryabchikov, and others), the laboratory analyr;.s of products of the fis- sion of uranium, the identification of artificial transuranium elements, etc. "The directions along which the chromatographic method develops have i:t:come stabilized luring the 50 years of the existence of chromato- graphy. Although the USSR is in the forefront of world science as far as theory and laboratory research are concerned, we lag considerably with respect to the introduction into the industry of our own discoveries and achievements. L:tck of publicity on behalf of the chromatographic method and shortcomings as far as coordination of work in this field is concerned, which existed during the early period of the development of chromatography, can no longer be regarded as an objective cause of back- wardness in this field. The present obstacles to the introduction of chromatography consist of a weakness of the material base, insufficient interest evinced by industrial organizations, lack of adaptability on the part of the commercial organization which supplies adsorbents, reagents, and equipment, and absence of a designing bureau which would plan indus- trial installations on a high scientific level under application of modern methods of automatic control. -9_ Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "These diffi.c:u.1ties , which in the majority of cases are temporary and of a departmental. origin, can be overcome by the mutual efforts of scientists and engineers r;o that tin extensive chromatographic technoloMr will develop in the 'USSR, where this method was discovered." 11. Classification of Chromatogra2hic Procedures "On the Nature of the Chromatographic Method," by S. G. Mokru- shin, Ural Polytechnic Institute imeni S. M. Kirov (Sverdlovsk); ,Moscow, Ko11oidnr Zhur, nal, Vol 19, Nov-Dec 57, pp 759-760 The chromatographic method is based on relative movement with refer- ence to each ether of phases consisting of the adsorbent on the one hand and of the liquid or gaseous mixture on the other hand. In the classical Tsvet method the li4uld or gaseous mixture flows through a solid adsor- bent, but in the inverted method, on the contrary, it is the dispersed adsorbent that moves (rises or settles) through a liquid or gaseous mix- ture. All chromatographic procedures accordingly may be divided into two groups: procedures in which the flow method (classical Tsvet method) is applied and procedures in which the sedimentation or rising adsorbent method (inverted Tsvet method) is applied. It follows from this that the following variants of chromatographic separation should be added to those generally recognized: suspension, emulsion, and foam chromatography. In suspension chromatography particles of a finely dispersed solid adsorbent move in a fixed direction (e.g., settle) through an immobile layer of liquid or gas. Suspension chromato- graphy has been applied by Shveykina and S. G. Mokrushin for the separa- tion of ferric chloride, copper nitrate, and cobalt nitrate dissolved in water by letting aluminum oxide settle in a tube containing the'solution. In emulsion chromatography droplets of liquid which rise through a solution serve as an adsorbent. This type of procedure has not yet been investigated adegniately, In foam chromatography small bubbles of air rise through a layer of liquid. The term foam chromatography has been suggested by A. F. Yermo- lenko. Separation of surface-active substances from solutions with the aid of foam was proposed by A. V. Dumanskiy, Wo. Ostwald and A. Siehr, and F,. Schuetz. S. G. Mok+nishin proposed that colloids be separated by this method. - 10 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 12. Transportable Installation for Desaltiigr, of Water P-redvizrinaya Opreonitel'naya Uatanovka VNIIGb (The Transport- able VNIIGS Installation for the Desalting of Water), by A. S. Moioeyev and I. V. Vol'f, Information on Scientific Research Work, Institute of Technicoeeonomie Information, Academy of Sciences USSR, Subject 25, No 1-56-71, Moscow, 1956, 16 pp The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Sanitary-Engineering Works (VNIIGS), Ministry of Construction USSR, has conducted research can the desalting of saline and bitter waters (with a salt content up to 7 grams per liter by ion-exchange procedures for the purpose of making the water drinkable. As a result of the work which has been done, a transportable installation of small capacity has been developed which is suitable for the treatment of water to be used for drinking and technical purposes. The installation consists of a duraluminum stand and housing (or a stand and housing made of some other material). Six filter tubes 700 mm high and 80 mm in diameter are arranged in parallel in the housing, which forms the bottom part of the assembly. They are connected in series dur- ing filtration, which proceeds by hydrostatic pressure flow. The filter tubes, which are made of glass or a transparent plastic, are filled with the following materials: sand (one tube), cation-exchange resin (3 tubes), anion-exchange resin (one tube), and activated carbon (one tube). The housing containing the filters has the dimensions 0.8 x 0.75 x 0.4 meters. The dismountable stand or rigging, which projects above the filter housing and supports vats for the water to be treated, treated water, and solutions for the regeneration of the ion-exchange filters, has a height of 2.1 meters above the ground without the vats and of 2.5 meters with the vats. The total weight of the installation including the vats comprises 100 kg; the weight of the housing containing the filters charged with air-dry filtration materials comprises 50-55 kg. The installation can be trans- ported by motor vehicle or plane. The cation-exchange resin KU-L [a product obtained by the condensa- tion of phenol sulfonic acid with phenol and formaldehyde] and the anion- exchange resin EDE-10 [a product of the condensation of polyethylenepola- mine with epichloroYydrin] are used. The amount of desalted water obtained by treatment in the installation is shown in the following table (of. Table 2, p 11): Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT Output, of Dcuc.ui:ed Water Depending on the Initial Salt Content Initial Salt Content Output During 24 Hours of Desalted Water in Liters Miligrar- Total Quantity Less Grams Equivalents Total Quantity Used for the per Liter per Liter Quantity Installation 3 50 615 574 14,5 75 525 446 6.o 100 480 372 10.0 165 360 216 Any degree of desalting can be obtained by treating the water with ion-exchange resins. In experiments on the treatment of saline water conducted in the central part of the Kara-Kum desert, it was found that when filtration is stopped after the passage of 45 liters of filtrate per cycle through the installation, water is obtained which is almost de- void of cations. However it is not desirable to desalt water to this extent, because it becomes ta2teless, so that filtration is continued until 65-70 liters of filtered water per cycle has been obtained. Ordi- narily, filtration at transportable VNIIGS installations is continued until the acidic reaction of the H-cationized water toward methyl orange ceases, i.e.. up to the point of complete passage of the salt through the cationite filters. When filtration has been continued to'this point, water results which has a content of approximately one gram of salts per liter. This salt content corresponds to the GOST 2761-41 and 2874-54 standards for drinkable water. The cationite is regenerated with a 5% solution of hydfiochloric acid and the anionite with a '+% solution of sodium hydroxide (or a 5% solution of calcined soda). When cationite KU-2 [a sulfonated styrene -diolefin copolymer] is used instead of the cationite KU-l, the er.'ficiency of the VNIIGS installa- tion is increased by a factor of approximately two. By using the cation- ite KU-2 and the anionite EDE-10, Caspian eea water could be desalted in a VNIIGS installation with a yield of 8-9 volumes of desalted water per volume of the ion-exchange resin charge. After the treatment, this water had a content of solids amounting to 840 milligrams per litter at 180 as compared with an original content of 13,400 milligrams per liter. The original hardness of 215? was reduced to 8? by the treatment. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 [SIR Note: Although the desalting of saline waters and sea water on it large scale by filtration through ion-exchange resins is not con- sidered economical and efficient in the USSR (cf. F. G. ProkhorSv, "Prin- cipal Schemes of the Chemical Demineralization of Water and Regi mss of Their Application " Teploenergetika, Vol It, No 10, October 1957, pp 3-9) and the method of electrodialysis with ion-exchange diaphragms in pre- ferred, desalting by the filtration method in transportable installations would obviously be expedient wherever electric power is not available and drinking water is required (i.e., in deserts under emergency conditions at sea, in and regions on the seashore, etc). Ion-exchange filters also ought to prove useful for the decontamination of water from radioactive substances.] - 13 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 13. Hungarians Develo Methane p Industrial Procedures For the Conversion of "Rumanian-Hungarian Joint Pilot Plant at Buciumeni," by Pal Benedek, Budapest, Flet es Tudomany, No 34, 25 Aug 57, pp 1059.-1062 The Hungarian Petroleum and Natural Gas Experimental Institute (Magyar Asvanyola,j os Foldgaz Kiserleti Intezet), Veazprem, has developed chemical procedures for obtaining acetylene from methane and for converting acetylene into acetone. The essence of the processes is an follows: Analysis has shown that when the proper mixture of methane and oxygen is burned in a tube, a certain narrow section of the flame contains a considerable quantity of acetylene. Therefore, a system has been evolved whereby the flame is cut off by a spray of atomized water at the point at which it contains the greatest amount of acetylene. The sudden re- duction in temperature keeps the acetylene from decomposing. Through the selections of a proper mixture of oxygen L;n$ methane and the establishment of the correct ratio between exothermic and endothermic conversion, a maximum amount of acetylene can be produced. The cold gas resulting from the partial combustion of methane, as discussed above, contains hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and unconverted methane, as well as acetylene. Usually the practice is to separate the synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) from the acetylene at this point before converting the acetylene to ace- tone. However, the Hungarian procedure consists of passing the entire foregoing mixture of gases plus steam through a reactor containing zinc oxide in tablet form which acts as a catalyst. During this process, the acetylene is converted into acetone at a temperature of 400-500 C while the synthesis gas remains unchanged. Subsequently, the acetone is washed out of the synthesis gas. The practice of putting the entire mixture through the reactor without first separating the acetylene from the syn- thesis gar eliminates an entire step. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 The processes described above are now being tested at the Rumanian- Hungarian Joint Pilot Plant (Roman-Magyar Kozos Kiserleti Uzem), Buciumeni, Rumania. The units built for carrying out these processes at Buciumeni are scaled for full plant production, but are temporarily being used for experimental purposes. These installations are actually prototypes. Hungary will utilize the experience gained at the pilot plant in processing Rumanian methane at the Tisza Region Chemical Combine(Tiszavi- deki Vegyi Kombinat). Rumania plans to enlarge the pilot plant and begin full-scale production. [SIR Note: According to the description given, the method used for the conversion of the methane-oxygen mixture to acetylene appears to be essentially the same as that applied at the Oppau plant of the I. G. Farbenindustrie during World War II.] 14. Hungarians0eveloping New Oil Refining Process "Experiments at Budapest Technical University," by Z. L.; Budapest, Muszaki Elet, 12 Dec 57, p 10 The Department of Chemical Technology, Budapest Technical University, in cooperation with the High Pressure Research Institute (Nagynyomasu Kiserleti Intezet) is evolving a process for extracting asphalt from petro- leum before the petroleum is subjected to hydrocracking. Assistant Professor Miklos Szabo of the same department is attempting to produce a highly effective domestic carbon catalyst to be used in the process mentioned above. These experiments are of long-range significance and will apply when hydrocracking is generally adopted in Hungary. As- sistant Professor Laszlo Akkermann of Budapest Technical University is in charge of the experiments. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Inorganic Chemistry 15. Determination of Traces of Low-Melting Metals in Refractory Alloys "Application of Coprecipitation for Obtaining in the Analysis of Alloys Concentrates of Cd, Pb, Bi, and Zn That Are Analyz- able," by A. K. Babko and P. V. Marchenko, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, Mos- cow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1278- 1283 Procedures have been developed for the preparation of analyzable concentrates of zinc, cadmium, bismuth, and lead when these metals are present as minute impurities (in quantities as low as 10-4%) in refrac- tory molybdenum-nickel and tungsten-nickel alloys. The impurities are coprecipitated as sulfides. To bring about complete precipitation of Pb, Cd, and Bi when large quantities of the principal components are present, pyridine (which acts as a complex-forming agent) and thioaceta- mide (which precipitates sulfides as a result of the formation of hydrogen sulfide from it, but acts much more slowly than gaseous hydrogen) were used. (For additional information on inorganic chemistry, see Item No 36.] Insecticides 16. Antidotes for Organophosphorus Insecticides "Scientific Conference on Hygiene and Toxicology of Insectofungi- cides," by 0. A. Aleshina, Moscow. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaystvennoy Nauki, No 9, 1957) pp 154 At a conference on insecticides held at Kiev, 25-29 June 1957, the health of workers connected with the production and use of poisonous chemi- cal was discussed. Therapeutic methods were developed for use in cases of intoxication of individual chemicals using such therapeutic agents as unitol and pentaphen. For eliminating the toxic action of organophosphorus - 16 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 insecticides on the surface of the skin, good results were obtained using either a 3-5% aqueous ammonia solution, a 2-5% solution of chloramine, or a suspension of chlorate of lime. 17. Aerosol Generators "The Fight Against Blood-Sucking Insects," by N. A. Shibayev; Moscow, Fel'dsher i Akusherka, No 2, Feb 58, p 48-49 In the summer of 1957, DDT and hexachlorane were sprayed by an AG-L6 aerosol generator on 50 Pioneer camps, 7 sovkhozes, b rest homes, 4 sani- tariums, and 17 hospitals in the Moskovskaya Oblast. The AG-L6 aerosol generator, mounted on a truck, can form a cloud in which the droplets are no larger than one micron in diameter. In one minute, the AG-L6 aerosol generator can spray 6 liters of insecticide which will cover 0.5 hectare of forest area. In addition to the AG-L6. other generators were used, for example, a light aerosol apparatus which works on a thermopneumatic principle and which was constructed by a group of workers of the Central Scientific Research Disinfection Institute. In 1955, a medical expedition set out from Moscow to Orekhovo-Zuyevo, where they experimented with a new spraying apparatus modified for the MI-4 helicopter. This progressive method, will increase the effectiveness of the fight agaidst'insects by lowering the dose of insecticide which is required to exterminate them. 18. Soviet Insecticides and Fungicides "Chemistry in the Service of Plant Protection," by N. N. Melni- kov; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteniy of Vrediteley i Bolezne , No 6, Nov/Dec 57, pp 1- After a brief discussion of the role of Soviet chemistry in agricul- ture before and after World War II, the author says: "A short while ago agriculture began receiving such preparations as concentrated emulsions of anthraceneoil and phenolate of dinitroorthocreosol; at present agri- culture is receiving a new group of very effective orgapophospborup tn?, secticides which have both contact and systemic (intraplant) action. Of - 17 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 these compounds, the most practical for field use are thiophos (0,0-diethyl- 0,4-nitrophenylthiophosphate), mercaptophos (0)0-diethyl-2-ethylmercapto-. ethylthiophosphate), and octamethyl (octame thyltetraamide pyrophosphoric acid). CPYRGHT "At the same time, work is being continued in many organophosphorous insecticides which are lens harmful to humans and domestic vnimals than the above-mentioned compounds. Now under investigation are methylmercapt- ophos (0,0-dimethyl-2-eth),lmercaptoethylthiophosphate), methylethylmercap- tophos (0-methyl-0-ethyl-2-ethylmercaptoethylthiophosphate), mathylethylth- iophos, preparation M-81 ('),0-dimethyl-2-ethylmercaptoethyldithiophosphate), and others. "Methylethylthiophos has received favorable evaluations from agri- culture and will be placed in production sometime within the next 5 years. This preparation does not excel thiophos as an insecticide, but it is less toxic to animals and will be 15-20% cheaper. Methylmercaptophos, which is much less toxic to humans and animals, may replace mercaptophos in the future. "The chemical industry has delivered the first consignment of such insecticides and acarasides as carbophos which, because of it3 compara- tively low toxicity to warm-blooded animals and humans, can be utilized in private gardens. "An interesting insecticide for the fight against the gadfly appears to be chlorophos. It is now being experimentally tested on tens of thousands of cattle. Undoubtedly, this preparation will eventually be used in the fight against punt pests." The author also discusses the use of various mordants (mercuran, ethylmercurochloride, the gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, tetram- ethylthiuramdisulfide, and 2,4,5 trichlorphenylate of copper, as well as the combination of the gamma isomer of hexachlordichlorhexane with aldrin, dialdrin, and heptachlor) and herbicides (the sodium salts of 2,4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid, the ammonium salts of 2,4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid, and the buty:,. ester of 2,4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid). In'iestigations, the author adds, are being continued on the esters of 2,4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid, sodium trichloracetate, dichioral urea, the isopropyl esters of 3-chlorophenylcarbami.c acid, and tetrachlorbenzol. - 18 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 19. Results of Using Various Insecticides in Forest Region in Uzbek "Effective Poisons for Forest Regions; by B. V. Romanevich, scientific worker in the Uzbek Affiliate of the Institute of Gardening and Wine Making; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteniy of CPYRGHT Vrediteley i Bolezney, Jul/Aug 57, No 4, p 16 "Experiments were conducted on forest areas in Uzbek using a 30% solution of methylethylthiophos, a 3-5% solution of thiophos and wofatoks, and a 10-15% suspension of thiophos. Best results against catapillers were obtained by the 3% solution of thiophos and methyletheithiophos. Although the experiments were conducted in June and August with a maximum temperature of 40 degrees, the insecticides retained their toxicity for 4 months and produced 100% effective results." Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 20. Dissociation Constants of Plutonium Oxalate Complexes "Determination by the Ion-Exchange Method of the Dissociation Constants of Complex Compounds of Pu3+," by A. D. Gellman, N. N. Matorina, and A. I. Moskvin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 1, Jan 57, pp 52-56 By using the method of ion exchange, the formation of complex Pu3+ ions in oxalate solutions was investigated in the pH range of 1.4-3.0. It was established that in this pH range the complex ions [Pu(C204)2]- and [Pu(HC204)41- are formed and that these ions have the dissociation constants KH' = 7.1 X 10-10 and Kg" = 1.1 X 10-11, respectively. The The value of the dissociation constant of the comples ion [Pu(C204)2]' found by the ion-exchange method agrees sat'.sfactorily with that deter- mined by the solubility method. The ion-exchange resin Ku-2 [a sulfon- ated styrene-diolefin copolymar] was used in the a periments described. - 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 21. Oxidation of Plutonium Ions Under Effect of Radiation "The Effect of Radiation on the Valency State of Plutonium in Nitric Acid Solutions," by N. I. Popov, V. I. Medvedovskiy, and N. A. Bakh; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 58, pp 151+-160 The effect of irradiation with X rays on the valency state of pluto- nium in 0.3-2.0 M nitric acid solutions was investigated. This effect was also investigated in 0.3 M nitric acid solution9 rr,ntaining different amounts of U02(NO3)2 and IC2Cr207. In nitric acid solutions that do not contain U02(NO 3)2 radiation brings about only oxidation of the plutonium. When plutonium is oxidized in this manner, the yield of the oxidation products drops with increased concentration of nitrate ions and increased acidity of the solution. It is assumed that oxidation takes place as a result of the action of OH radicals. When U02(NO3)2 is prevent, reduc- tion of the plutonium may occur under definite conditionp,. This reduction is apparently brought about by U02+ ions rather than atomic hydrogen. Although potassium bichromate has the effect of accelerating the radiation- chemical oxidation of plutonium, its presence under certa44n conditions does not prevent reduction of this element. 22. Oxalate Complexes of Plutonium "Polarographic Investigation of Complex Plutonium 0xal4tes," by V. V. Fomin, S. P. Vorob'yev, and M. A. Andreyeva; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 1, Jan 58, pp 57-62 The composition and stability of complex ions of trivalent and quadrivalent plutonium in oxalate solutions was investigated polarographi- c ally. It was established that the complex ions Pu(C2O4)4-4 (predominantly) and Pu(C204)4 (to a lesser extent) are formed in potassium oxalate solu- ti,msetPH = 3.5-6. Under these conditions Pu4+ yields a well-expressed reaction wave which is suitable for the quantitative polarographic de- termination of plutonium. The redox potential of this reaction in one M potassium oxalate equals - 0.205 volt with reference to a standard cal- omel electrode at 250. At pH = 6-8 two Pu4+ complexes are present simultaneously in the solution. - 20 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 On the basis of data in regard to the solubili y of Pu(C204)3, the dissociation constants of the complex ions Pu(C204)3 and Pu(C20 ~+)r,- 3 were found to be equal to 2.4 n 10-12 and 2.2 X 10-11, respectively. On the bass of polarographic data, the dissociation constant of the ion Pu(C204)4- was found to be equal to 3.3 X 10-28, Method for Spectrochemical Determination of Small Quantities of M .J II Uranium in Minerals and Ores "Spectrochemical Determination of Small Quantities of Uranium in Natural Objects," by T. M. Moroshkina, V. K. I'rokof'yev, and M. N. Smirnova, Leningrad State University; Moscow Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1324-1327 A spectrochemical method is described by which uranium that is pre- sent in ores and minerals is concentrationsof 10-4 - 10-3% can be deter- mined with a precision of ? 6%. 24. Review of Work on Analytical Chemist of Beryllium "The Present Status of the Analytical Chemistry of Beryllium)" by V. G. Goryushina; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1300-1307 Progress of work on the gravimetric, volumetric, and colorimetric analysis of beryllium is reviewed in considerable detail with particular attention to USSR research and practices. A bibliography consisting of 33 USSR references and 53 non-USSR references is appended. The use of complex-forming compounds (chelating agents) is stressed. The article in concluded with the statement that methods of physical analysis (emis- sion spectroscopy and radioactivation analysis) are acquiring increased importance in the analytical chemistry of beryllium. - 21 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 25. 5 ectrochemical Determination of Impurities in Beryllium The Spectral Analysis of Beryllium," by P. M. Polyakov, A. K. Rucanov, and I. M. Blokh, Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, N~,v 57, Pp 1320-1323 Spectroanalytical methods for the semiquantitative and quantitative determination of impurities in beryllium are described which were devel- oped in 1948-1951 and are now being applied extensively at laboratories and plants for the control of the production of beryllium and its compounds. 26. Method for Spectrcanal,?rtical Determination of Boron in Ores and Minerals "Spectral Semiquantitative Determination of Boron in Ores and Minerals," by B. M. Maslennikov and V. L. Romanova, State . Scientific Research Institute of Mineral Chemical Raw Materials; Moscow, Zavrodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23,, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1327-1326 The methods for the spectroanalytical determination of boron which were applied hitherto could not be used in the case of carbonate and sili- cate r-jcks or tourmalines. A procedure has been developed by means of which bon can be determined in these materials down to a content of 0.001% of B with an arc current of 5 amperes and down to 0.0001%,of B with a current of 8 amperes. 27. Procedure for Determination of Tantalum in Zirconium and Niobium "Analysis of Pure Metals; Determination of Tantalum Present in Zirconium and Niobium," by V. A. Nazarenko and M. B. Shustova; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1283-129- It was established that derivatives of 2,3,7-trioxy-6-fluorone are sensitive reagents for the determination of tantalum present in zirconium and niobium. Quantitative methods for the determination of titanium with the aid of reagents of this type are described. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 28. Procedure for Lpectrochemical Determination of Small Quantities of "Spectrochemical Determination of Small Quantities of Niobium in Ores and in Products of Their Treatment," by V. V. Nedler, Nigrizoloto Institute; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 23, No 11, Nov 57, pp 1336.1337 A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of niobium is described in which the sample is introduced into the arc by a special method which eliminates the shortcomings connected with the blowing of samples into the arc with a stream of air. Before analysis the samples are subjected to a chemical treatment which ensures uniformity. 29. Process for Sinterin-of Niobium Powder "Investigation of the Process of Sintering Niobium Powder," by 0. P. Kolchin and N. P. Chuveleva; Moscow, Tsvetnyye Metally, Vol 30, No 12, Dec 57, pp 65-70 Because of the advantageous characteristics possessed by it, niobium can be applied in metallurgy (for the production of refractory and other alloys), in the chemical industry (as a material for corrosion-proof equipment), in electronics, and in the nuclear energy industry (as a con- struction material). The production of pure ductile niobium has certain difficulties because of the high melting point of this metal (2,4700) and its consider- able reactivity at elevated temperatures. One of the methods by which pure ductile niobium can be prepared is pressing of niobium powder into rods followed by sintering. The method of sintering must be Much that a high density of the metal is achieved and the pores are closed; other- wise cavities may form as a result of the pressure exerted by gases and vapors of impurities contained in the metal. The process of sintering has been investigated in detail and the conditions which affect it studied. On the basis of the results obtained, single-stage sintering in vacuum is recommended as distinguished from the two-stage sintering advocated by W. G. O'Driscoll and G. L. Miller, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 85 (8), April 1957, pp 379-384, and L. R. Williams, Journal of the ? Institute of Metals, Vol 85 (8), April 1957, pp 385-392- - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 30. Constitution Diagram of Zr-Tu-Nb System "Investigates:m of the Zirconium Corner of the Zr-Ta-Nb Consti- tution Diagram," by V. S. Yemel'yanov, Yu. G. Godin, and A. I. Yevstyukhin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 58, pp 161-168 By using the methods of metallographic and thermal analysis and meas- uring the electric resistance, the zirconium corner of the ternary system Zr-Ta-Nb was investigated up to a content of 82% of zirconium and to the temperature of 1,200?. This system. exhibits a limited solubility of tantalum and niobium in alpha-zirconium (the gamma-phase), limited solu- bility of tantalum and complete solubility of niobium in beta-zirconium with an eutectoid breakdown of the beta solid solution, and a three-phase eutectoid equilibrium 6 = dk + P between alpha- and beta-zirconium. It was established that in the part of the ternary Zr-Ta-Nb constitution diagram subjected to investigation there are the following phase regions: (a) two single-phase regions Ol and g ; (b) three two-phase regions + P , +- X , and in + 'f ; and (c) one three-phase region -x + (' + 7' . When the temperature is reduced in the region below 1,2000, the beta-region narrows down. The solubility of tantalum and niobium in alpha;ziroonium in the system Zr-Ta-Nb comprises about 0.5%. In the direction from Zr-Ta to Zr-Nb the regions oc t 9 and 0 + _' are displaced toward lower temperatures and higher concentrations of niobium; the boundaries of the regions d + 0 and r! + P t e' drop from 790? for Zr-Ta to 6120 for Zr-Nb. Between the regions 0( + 9 and 1 t-?l passes a binary eutectoid.line, which is displaced in the direction from Zr-Ta to Zr-Nb toward lower temperatures and higher concentrations of niobium. The solubility of niobium in alpha-ziconium in the system Zr-Nb amounts to approximately 0.5% by weight. The eutectoid breakdown in the system Zr-Nb takes place at 612 = 13?. Addition of niobium to alloys of the system Zr-Ta displaces the maximum of a transformation of the martensite type to the left and leads to increased stability of the beta-phase at room temperature in quenched alloys. - 24+ - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 31. Iodide Method of Purifying Zirconium "Concerning the Iodide Method of Purifying Zirconium," by K. D. Sinel'nikov, F. 1. Busol, and G. I. Stepanova; Moscow Atomnaa Energiya, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 53, pp 169-1711 A method is proposed for the determination of the equilibrium con-? stants k and k' of the reactions Zr + 2 12 - ZrI4= 0 and 2 I - I2-4 0 which is based on determination of the quantities of zirconium or iodine formed at a heated surface during the process of the development of the equilib- rium. The decomposition of the teraiodide was carried out on a tungsten filament at 900-1,6000. The temperature gradient between the filament and the walls of the vessel was not considered. The dependence of the sum of the pressure of atomic and molecular iodine pI + PI on the zirconium tetraiodide pressure p at 1,11.300 2 Zr14 and on the temperature was determined at pZrl 50 mm Hg- On the basis of the results that were obtained, it was found that kki2 35 (mm Hg) 3 at 1,11.300 and the k c % 0.07 mm Hg at 11.000. These values differ consider- ably from those calculated on the basis of known thermodynamic data and assure good agreement with experimental data of the formulas developed by the authors of the article earlier (cf. G. I. Stepanova and F. I. Busol, Atomna a Energiya, Vol 3, No 10, October 1957, p 341+). 32. Chemical. Processing of Uranium-Bearing Rock in Hungary "Chemical Processing of Uranium-Bearing Rock," by Elek Szabo, Candidate of Technical Sc',ences, Department of Chemistry of the Experimental Atomic Reactor, Central Physics Research In- stitute; Budapest, Energia es Atomtechnika, No 11-12, Nov- Dec 57, pp 592-597 The author describes the methods used in the-chemical processing of uranium ores: acidic and alkaline digestion of the rock; and further processing of the resulting solutions by precipitation, ion-exchange, and extraction. - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Organic Chemistry 33. Diphenyldithiophosphoric Acid and Its Salts Synthesized "Dialkyl and Diaryldithio,phosphoric Acids as Analytical Reagents. Communication 2. Concerning Diphenyldithiophosphoric Acid and Certain of Its Salts," by A. I. Busev, M. I. Ivanyutin, and M. F. Turchinakiy, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, No 2, 1957, pp 177-182 Diphenyldithiophosphoric acid was synthesized from phenol and penta- valent phosphorus. The impure acid can be stored in a closed can for a rather long period of time without decomposition. It is readily soluble in water and most organic solvents. The aqueous solutions are completely stable and behave as strong acids causing the same type of burns as strong mineral acids. The pyridine and five metal salts of the acid were also prepared and their structure determined analytically. 34. Intermediate Product in Arbuzov Rearrangement Studied "Studying the Interaction of Esters of Phosphorous Acid with Alkyl Halides by Methods of Physicochemical Analysis," by Acad- emician B. A. Arbuzov and A. V. Fuzhenkova, Kazan State Univer- sity, Moscow, Doklady Ai'ademii Nauk SSR, Vol 113, No 6, 21 Apr CPYRG 11' pp 1269-1271 "Th: mechanism of Arbuzo''s rearrangement has served as a subject for investigation for over 50 yeas;. A. Ye. ArbuL2v [1] [refers to appended ' bibliography] believes that the rearrangex:nt of phosphites into esters of alkylphosphonic acids consists of a two-stage process with the formation of an intermediate product of the phosphonium type. He was able to prove the existence of such a mechanism experimentally for the case of aromatic phosphites. The idea exists that for the case of aliphatic phosphites, the intermediate product immediatly decomposes and as such is incapable of existing [2]. A number of investigators, however, believe that the rearrangement can take place by an ionic mecha- nism without the formation of an intermediate addition product of alkyl halide to phosphite [3, 4]. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "In the present report, we present data obtained from investigating Arbuzov's rearrangement using methods of physicochemical analysis. The basic purpose of the investigation was to clarify the possibility of using composition-property diagrams for studying the question of the formation of an intermediate product during the rearrangement of aliphatic phosphites into esters of phosphonic acids. "We studied the interaction of triethylphosphite with ethyl iodide ethyl bromide, and dibromodiethyl ether, as well as triphenyl phosphite with methyl and ethyl iodide at various temperatures. The constants were measured at 200 after preliminary heating in thermostats at the given temperature. The measuring temperature of 200 was selected because of the volatility of one of the components. "Figures 1 and 2 (below) contain data on measuring the constants for composition-property diagrams for the system triethyl phosphite - ethyl iodide at various temperatures. "The refractive index and density curves diverge near the composition axis, and therefore do not represent chemical interaction. "The isotherms for specific conductance K , spontaneous compression DH, and, especially, the viscosity )) attest to the interaction of the components. A shift to the left in the maximum for the isotherms DH, X with increasing temperature is characteristic. "The above isotherms, reflecting the chemical behavior between the components, does not make it possible to make a conclusion regarding the absence or the formation of an intermediate product. Apparently, the composition of the system is more complex, and the intermediate prod- uct, if it does form, partially decomposes to an alkyl halide and an ester of phosphonic acid. "The results of investigating the system triethylphosphite - alpha, beta -dibromodiethyl ether present significant interest. According to V. S. Abramov's [5] data, the interaction of components in this system begins at room temperature and leads to the formation of an intermediate product of Arbuzov's rearrangement. "As seen in Figures 3 and 4+, the isotherms, 20 and d20, as in the case of ethyl iodide, diverge near the composition axis, but the leaning from the additive linear is significantly less here, especially for the density isotherm where the bulging is insignificant. - 27 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "The specific vo.Lume isotherm A vsp and the spontaneous; compression, isotherm Difoalculated by Dyron'u method distinctly indicate a compression maximum for zv. mixture of a 7.:1 composition. The viscosity isotherm is distinguished by certain characteristics in its form. Its S-shape together with the precence of an inflection point of a singular type at the 1:1 component ratio attests not only to the interaction of the components, but also to the a,ssoc 1.ation of one of the components, apparently the alpha, beta -dibromodiethyl ether. "Thus, data from composition-property diagrams of the system triethyl phosphite-alpha, beta-dibromodiethyl ether corfirm the presence of chemi- cal interaction in the system and in conjuntion with V. S, Abramov's (5] data serve as a proof for the formation of an intermediate addition product in the rearrangement process of triethyl phosphite into an ester of ethoxybrozpnphosphonic acid. "That the composition-prcperty diagrams reflect the formation of an intermediate product in this case and not an end product of rearrange- ment is supported by the departure of the viscosity of the system from additivity, which for equimolecular mixtures is two times greater than the departure for the mixture triethyl phosphite,.ethyl iodide in a 1:1 ratio after heating at 500. - 28 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT Figure 1 29 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT - 30 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT Figure 4 - 31 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "Bibliography" "1. A. Ye, Arbuzov, On the Structure of Phosphorous Acid and Its Derivatives, Dissertation, 1905. "2. G. M. Kosolapoff, Organophosphorus Compounds, N. Y., 1950, p 122. "3. P. Rumpf, Bull. Soc. Chim., No 3-4, 128c (1951). "4. B. E. Smith, A. Burger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol 75, 5891 (1953). "5. V. S. Abramovt G. Karp DAN, Vol 91, 1090 (1953); Zhur Obshch Khim, Vol 24, 1823 (195+)." Radiochemistry 35,. USSR Papers Presented at UNESCO International Conference on Appli- cation of Radioactive Isotopes "Application of Radioactive Isotopes in Scientific Research," by P. Savitskiy, E. Finkel', V. Serenko, and N. Bulatova; Mos- cow, Atomnaya Ener ,iya. Vol 4. No 1, Jan 58, pp 92-96 An international conference on the application of radioactive iso- topes in scientific research was held under the auspices of UNESC0,,9-20 September 1957 at Paris. Forty-nine USSR papers were presented at this' conference. Thirty- eight papers were given by French scientists, 31 papers by US scientists, and 29 papers by British scientists. The total number of papers pre- sented at the conference was 206. In the section of physical sciences, reports were given on the pro- duction of isotopes, dosimetry, the production and use of powerful sources of gamma radiation, the application of isotopes in metal physics, the science of metals, metallurgy, chemical research, geophysics, etc. The following reports on work by USSR scientists were given in the section of physical sciences: M. S. Petrova, K. G. Shvebel'blit, D. M. Ziv, and others reported on new and original methods for the production of sources of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation by utilizing the high adsorptive capacity of alumi- num oxide films and introducing radioisotopes of strontiiz% and other - 32 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 ei merrtr; into en.:LuJo1.o that are applied to samples. The methods in ques- tion tats;;r? it poe:c.3.lble to produce sources of different shape which are reliable in operation and exhibit minimum losses as far as self-adsorption of radiation is concerned. The oxtruc,tion of Cs137 from solutions of fission products was discussed in a paper by V. I. Spitsyn (USSR) and also in a report by L)adington (England). While in England Cs137 is precipitated in the form of its sulfate with phosphotungstic acid, this isotope is concentrated in the USSR in the form of its chloride by the ferrocyanide method. By using the latter method, a Cs137 source with an activity of 1,000 curies was obtained. Great interest was shown in a report presented by A. Kh. Breger, V. L. Karpov, V. A. Belynskiy, and others in regard to the construction in the USSR of a powerful gamma installation with a Co60 source that has an activity equal to 21,003 gram equivalents of radium. This in- stallation is designed for radiation-chemical investigations and has a chamber with a volume o one cubic meter. The intensity of the doses achieved can be as high as 1,000 roentgens per second. The installation in question is the most powerful of all known to be in existence. In the fields of metal physics, metallurgy, the science of metals, thermophysics, research on the mechanism and kinetics of chemical reac- tions and plant metabolism, the greatest number of papers was presented by USSR participants in the conference. The application of radioactive isotopes for the solution of some problems of the theory of diffusion in metals made it possible to es- tablish a number of general relationships. For instance, it has been possible tc measure the thermodynamic and diffusion characteristics of solid solutions, to investigate the coefficient of self-diffusion of dissolved sliver at positive and negative deviations from Raoul's law, and to investigate diffusion in heterogeneous systems (A. A. Zhukhovit- .;kiy, M. Ye. Yanitskaya, and A. D. Sotskov). Investigation of the mobility of atoms and, of the interactions be- t~;een atoms in alloys by the method of radioactive tracers made it possible to explain a number of phenomena pertaining to the physical and chemical behavior of iron and nickel alloys. Thus, it has been shown that the structural factor has on effect on the diffusion of carbon in iron-nickel "alloys (.P. L. Gruzin and others). - 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Investigations by the autoradlography method of the effects which the composition and the structure of-metals have on the diffusion of components along grain boundaries established that small additions of various elements may significantly change the rate of diffusion along the grain boundaries; the rate of intercrystalline diffusion increases with the size of the, grains. It was furthermore established that there is a corrglation between the process of recrystallization and the local type of diffusion as well as some other conditions (S.,.Z. Bokshteyn, S. T. Kishkin,'and L. Mo Moroz). Deserved praise was given to a paper on electric transfer in solid solutions. In the investigation in question the radioisotopes C14, Fe59, Cr51, Mo99, and W185 were used. The method that has been developed makes it possible to determine the velocity and direction of the transfer of individual components of binary alloys under the effect'of.d direct cur- rent at different temperatures. New data have been found concerning the interaction between atoms in alloys (I. N. Frantsevich). Of great practical and scientific importance is.research that has been done on the solubility of nonvolatile'substances in high-pressure steam. The use. of radioisotopes made it possible',:to, detect very small, concentrations of dissolved substances (down to lb,-5.: jMilligrams per kilo gram). The investigation was conducted in an'extensive range of tempera- tures and p"esstires (M. A. Styrikovich). Great interest was elicited by a report on,the;action of cubstancep modifying flotation, and a lively discussion, followed the presentation of the report., The work described was dome- with -the~!,use,"of the isotopes S35, C14, P32, Cu', Fe59, Zn65, and Ca45. It was established that the nature of the interaction between flotation reagents and minerals differs and that only a partial activation of the surface (amounting to 20-40% of a monolayer) is required for the efficient flotation of minerals (0. S. Bogdanov, V. R. Kheynman, N. A. Yanis, and A. K. Podpek). Two papers dealing with the action of nuclear radiation on semi- conductors were very well received. One of them discussed defects in the structure of uingle crystals of germanium which arise under the action of beta particles and of fast 'neutrons (V. S. Vavilov,. L. S. Smirnov, A. V. Spitsyn, V. M. Patskevich, and M. V. Chukichev). The other dealt with the action of beta particles on crystals of germanium and silicon U. S. Vavilov, L. S. Smirnov, and V. M. Patskevich). -34- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Of interest from the practical standpoint is work on the measure- merit of the relative mobility of cations in mixtures of molten oxide U. I. Malkin and L. A. Shvartsman), on the thermodynamics of metallur- gical reactions (L. A. Shvartsman), and on processes of the migration of ions of the principal components and ions of impurities in crystals of silver, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal salts (A. N. Muria). Also of practical interest is work on the movement of materials com- posing the charge in blast furnaces. According to a paper presented at the conference by French investigators, the ore is tagged by moistening it with aqueous solutions of radioisotopes: this is different from the method used in the USSR. Of great importance for the selection of the conditions under which various materials should be dried are results of the investigation of phase transformations and of the movement of moisture within capillary-porous and colloidal materials. Work on this subject has been reported by A. I. Veynik. Of both theoretical and practical importance is work on the investi- gation of the order in which intermediate products are formed during the oxidation of hydrocarbons (A. V. Nalbandyan, M. B. Neyman, and N. M. Emanuel') and also on the exchange of sulfur isotopes and the mechanism of reactions undergone by sulfur compounds (A. I. Brodskiy and G. P. Miklukhin). Among papers in the field of analytical chemistry, one may mention the following: An investigation on the use of radioactive isotopes in spectral analysis was of interest (Ye. Ye. Vaynshteyn, L. I. Pavlenko, and Yu. I. Belyayev). Of great interest was a report on the application of organic reagents acting as coprecipitants in the separation of minute quantities of admix- tures. This method is of very great importance in connection with the development of methods for the control of the purity of semiconductors, alloys, and other materials. The method proposed in the report makes it possible to determine quantities of substance as low as 10-10 grams per liter of solution (V. I. Kuznetsov). At three meetings on the application of radioisotopes in physical chemistry, the following papers were presented. A paper by A. A. Balandin and others dealt with an application of the kinetic isotope method in an investigation of the mechanism of catalytic dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene. - 35 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 A paper by S. Z. Roginskiy discussed problems of catalysis and re- ported results of an investigation on the mechanism of catalytic proc- esses. The data obtained explain these processes and indicate that it is necessary to review the current ideas on the mechanism of a number of phenomena involved in catalysis. The paper in question reported the results of the application of isotopes in the investigation of the struc- ture of the surface of solid catalysts. New data on the application of isotopes in the investigation of the structure and properties of heteropolycompounds were presented-in a paper given by V. I. Spitsyn. Among papers on the dosimetry of ionizing radiation,. a report by K. K. Aglintsev, V. P. Kasatkin, and V.'V. Smirnov was of interest. This paper described an investigation of active electron spectra and of the spectral sensitivity of ionization chambers, counter tubes, and photo- sensitive films. The methods in question make it possible to devise efficient methods for the calibration of instruments used in the deter- mination of beta and gamma radiation. Among papers- in the field of geophysics great, 4nterost Ifag elicited by a report of A. P. Vinogradov on the isotopic cWbobition bt', ? eteorites and of the earth and on the ratio of S32 to S34 in them. This paper was followed by a productive discussion of the subject.- In the itivestigatj.on described, magmatic and volcanic rocks as well as stone and iron meteor- ites were investigated. Significant differences in the inotope ratios in these experimental objects :ere established, thus,isdicatin differences in origin. Another paper in the field of geochemistry was presented by.,V. I. Baranov and L. A. Kuz'mina, who determined the rate of the accumulation of sediments by subjecting deep-sea deposits to radiochemical analysis. At the combined meeting of the section on methods for the application of isotopes and of the section on procedures for measuring radioactivity, a report on the application in nuclear research of emulsions with a very fine grain size elicited the greatest amount of interest. While in com- monly used emulsions the grain size is approximately 0.28 micron, the newly developed emulsion contains microcrystals with dimensions from 0.04 to 0.08 micron. This considerably extends the possibility of using emulsions in this type of experimental work, (N..A. Perfilov, N. R. Novikova, and Ye. I. Prokof'yeva). -36- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 In tite oectiori of biological sciences reports on the applications of isotopes in medicine, agricultural engineering, and biology were presented. Among the work reported in this section, one may note research by the :soviet biochemists A. V. Palludin, Ye. M. Kreps, M. N. Prokhorova, and G. Ye. Viadimirova, who investigated with the aid isotopes the metabolism of proteins, nucleic acid, glycogen, and other compounds at different functional states of the brain. It was established in this work that the rate of metabolism is more rapid in organisms that are further ad- vanced on the scale of evolution. At meetings in the subdivision of phys- iology and biochemistry of plaits, those participating in the discussion agreed with the basic precept of A. L. Kursanov that in plants, in addi- tion to the circulation s~f organic substances, an uninterrupted circu- lation of phosphorus takes place. From 20 to 30 percent of the total content of phosphorus and 20-50% of the total amount of the products of photosynthesis participate in this circulation. The rate of the dis- placement of organic substances in plants is 80-100 centimeters per hour on the average. A lively discussion followed a paper by Z. N. Zhurbitskiy and D. V. Shtrausberg on the effect exerted by the temperature of the soil and of the air on the assimilation by plants of various fertilizers tagged with P32, S35, and Ca'S. The results of the investigation in question make it possible to select judiciously the conditions under which nourishment should be supplied to plants in different climates. The isotopes P32 and C14+ are used in the US, Japan, and other coun- tries for the investigation of phosphorylation processes connected with photosynthesis. By means of this method, the finest details of the mecha- nism by which light energy is captured at chemical bonds can be investi- ated,. A report on this problem was also given the by USSR investigator A.A. i\lichiporovich. Yu. I. Sorokin conducted original work on the determination with the aid of Ctl4 of the primary productivity of bodies of water with respect to photosynthesis and chemical synthesis and also on the processes of nutrition of aqueous invertebrates which serve as nourishment to fish. Of interest was a meeting dealing with the behavior c fission prod- ucts in the soil, plants, and animal organisms. At this meeting, V. M. Klechkovskiy and I. V. Gulyakin presented an extensive report iti which, among others, a new phenomenon was described, namely, that of the differ- ent distribution of yttrium in plants after introduction from the out- side as compared with the distribution after its formation inside the plant as a result of the decay of Sr90. The conference was officially closed on 17 September 1957. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RD 2-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 On 19 September 1957, the Soviet delegation conducted a press con- ference, at which the present status and prospects of the application of isotopes in the USSR were discussed. The head of the Soviet delegation announced the construction in the USSR of large enterprises for the pro'- dtuction of isotopes. During the conference, the members of the Soviet delegation had numerous contacts and conversations with scientists of other countries, in the course of which the possibilities of establishing closer rela- tions between Soviet scientists and American, British, French, and other scientists were discussed. During the conference, 12 public lectures were held by participants in the conference. Two of them were given by Soviet scientists, one by A. P. Vinogradov entitled "The Isotope Com- position of the Earth and of Meteorites" and one by A. A. Nichiporovich entitled "The Method of Tracer Atoms and the Problem, of Photosynthesis." The members of the Soviet delegation visited more than 20 scientific institutions and industrial organizations in France, thus establishing closer contacts with scientific and business circles and familiarizing themselves with the organization of scientific research and with the equipment and design of laboratories. 36. Determination of Constitution of Phosphotungstic Acid With Aid of Radioactive Tantnnec "Application of Radiometric Analysis in Chemical Research," by N. B. Mikheyev, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 1, No 2, Feb 58, p 213 At the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR, V. I. Spitsyn and N. B. Mikheyev developed a method of radiometric anal- ysis with the use of two radioactive tracers. This method is based on the following principle. The compound being investigated is prepared from substances which contain radioactive isotopes of two different elements. The half lives of the two isotopes must be :ifi'erent. The specific radioactivities of the initial substances and of the compound being investigated are determined. After most of the isotope with a shorter half life has decayed, the radioactivities of the same subsiances,are determined again. On the bas's of the data obtained in this manner, one can calculate the initial radioactivities of both isotopes in the compound by solving the following system of equations: I1 I2 I1 t 2, klllt k2 I2 i1 + 2, - 38 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 t''' I1 .end I,, ILru the activiLie to be dutusrmjr.ied tl,. eldc;t;;unt7 I in the uridyzud cumpc.~und at the time of thv first uieusUreuaent; I and I 1 the rudiuucLivitiuu 01' the couipuund ljuint~ invustij+.ated 1 ? ~? .LL the moineiito ul' Lhu first and uecund nmuuuurelr,eut; and F. J. and k, cc)- et't'icientu which indicate by what factor the rudiuactivitieu of the ele- i:i,-nits I and 2 have diminished between the first and the second measure- uuunL. Knowing I1., 12, arid the specific activities of elements 1 and 2, untie can calculute the ratio u.t the two elements in the compound by weight or by the number ul' atoms, Thus the method of radiometric analysis which tins been described makes it possible to determine the ration between two elemertu in u compound without separating these elements chemically. By using p32 and Wlc)(, the ratio between P and W in sodium phospho- t.urit;statc was determined. In this case the precision of the rtadicnuetric ariaL:lysis (t 2.5',x) proved to be superiur to that of the chemical analysis. The mc:thud of radiometric analysis that has been proposed was applied 1'ur the determination of the ratio betwee K and P in potassium phospho- Lun-:.tate precipitated from solutions of different acidity. It was es- tablished that there is formation of solid solutions of phosphotungstic acid with its potassium salt. For this reason, phosphotungstic acid be retarded as an oxoniun salt of the composition (H 30)3Pww12040.26H20. [:3112 Note: An unscheduled paper dealing with heteropolyacids of this type and related to the subject matter of this investigation was presented by V. 1. Spitsyn of 19 March 1958 at the Fourth Nuclear En- gineering and Science Conference in Chicago. J [Fur additional information on radiocheinistry, see Item No 10.) Safety Engineering Acoustical Method of Air Purit'icatiun "The Acoustical. Method of Purifying Dust-Bearing Gases", by N. V. Lavrov and Ye. P. Mednikov; Moscow, Gazovaya Proi:iyshlennost', No 7, Jul 57, pp 13-21 The pros and cons of the acoustical method of gas purification are c:iscussed. Contemporary dust-catching devices based on this principal are apparently incv.pable of coagulating particles of less than one micron. - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 however, the author feclu t at with more rccearch this method can be perfected to the point where an acoustical unit, including the cost of sound insulation, will be more economical than elect:eofilters and will ? be used in industrial metallurgical plants and other places requiring air purification. Airtightness of Material Determined by Formula "Airtightness of Cotton Fabrics," by N. S. Poroshin, Candidate of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Tekstil'naya Promyshlennost'. No 9, Sep 57, VP 39-1'1 Two formulas are proposed that can be used to determine the degree of airtightness of it large number of fabrics. a V : = on a V 0x v where V is degree of airtightness, On is volume of threads in fabric, 0v is volume of fibrous material in cm3. x and a are determined from the two equations simultaneously on the same fabric having a maximum and minimum degree of airtightness measured on an apparatus. This method for deter- mining the degree of air-tightness is used by the laboratory of special clothing of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Labor Protec- tion. On the basis of these formulas, requirements were developed for fabrics to be used in the manufacture of clothing to be worn by workers occupied in the'production and handling of poisonous dusts and in metal- lurgical plants. Miscellaneous 39. Problem Laboratory on Organic Catalysis Formed at .Kazakh State University "In the Laboratories of Scholars" (unsigned article), Alma-Ata, Kazakhskaya Pravda, 15 Jan 58 A Problem Laboratory on Organic Catalysis (Problemnaya Laboratorlya po Organicheskomy Katalizy) has been formed in the Chair of Catalysis and Technical Chemistry, Kazakh State University. The laboratory will be equipped with instruments from East Germany and Hungary, which in- clude an ultrathermostat, an autoclave, and other electronic instruments. - 4+0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 40. Reduction of Training Period for Chemical Workers "lieduction Proposed in Training Period of Skilled Chemical CPYRG~I` `eru" (unsigned article), Zagreb, Borba, 9 Feb 58, p 2 "At a conference begun today in Belgrade concerning the role and position of secondary-school trained technicians in the Serb-an chemical economy and their prospective status, the technical education of chemical technicians was discusued, and the possibility of their more rapid educa- tion was considered." It was proposed at the conference that, to train personnel more rapidly, the education of skilled chemical workers be reduced to 2 years. It was also proposed that faculty-trained chemists receive the title of graduate engineer. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 III. 1-;AfTII SCIENCE:.; 41. Unsteady Elec L'r()ma rnctic Field in Heterogeneous Media "Calculation of Unsteady Electromagnetic Fields in Heterogeneous I1cdia," by D. N. Chetayev; Trudy Geofizicheskogo Instituta, No 32(159), 1956, pp 3-25 This work considers the formation of an electromagnetic field, ex- cited by elements of a direct current in a two-layer medium, in a case when the conductivity of the layer and the base are sufficiently close, and in a case when the conductivity of the base is sufficiently small. In addition, the initial states of the formation of the vertical com- ponents of the magnetic field are calculated. lit. Rare-Element Minerals in Siberia CPYRGH-PP 9-14 CPYRGHT The article includes the following I ' ' ie rans ay ,al Chitinskaya Oblast] an unusual deposit of rare and dis - persoa elements which for a long period of time can serve as a base for the growing industry of rare metals was discovered." 1+3. New Light Pangefinder Exhibited "Precision Optical Rangefinder," (unsigned article); Bucharest, Pentru Apararea Patriei, Feb 58, p 24 At the Union Exposition [All-Union Industrial Exhibition] the Soviets have displayed a new light rangefinder which can measure distances up to 17 kilometers with an accuracy of plus-or-minus 8 centimeters. The device sends a flash of light at a distant object, measuring the distance to the object on a special scale on the projector according to the time interval between the launching of the light flash and the receipt of its reflection. "Mineral-Ore Base for USSR Nonferrous Metallurgy at the For- tieth Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution," by P. Ya. Antropov; Moscow, Tsvetnyye Metally, No 10, Oct 57, Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 IV . IZ ECTRONICS Communications 1M.. Automatic Phase Regulation of Scanning Generators "Investigationc(a Television Synchronization 'Flywheel' System," by Yu. N. Bakayev; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i CPYR1 tronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 227-23 'A system of automatic phase regulation of television scanning generators was examined. Equations for the process of synchroniza- tion by pulse signals are presented in a generalized form. The cases of sawtoothed and sinusoidal voltage generators are examined in de- tail. Also considered is the synchronization of sinusoidal generators by continuous signals. Methods of computation are suggested." The "flywheel" system of synchronization has considerably greater freedom from noise. The synchronizing signal is averaged (usually, for several tenths of the period), and due to their irregular nature, the noises are weakened. 45. Rrcent Soviet Patents in Field of Electronics "Authorship Certificates," (unsigned article); Moscow, Elek- trosvyaz', No 2, Feb 58, p 78 Class 21a1, 601. No 107611. B. Yu. Kravchenl:o and A. M. Kashcheeyv. A Method of Semiautomatic Accounting for the On-Hand Messages at the Telegraph Junctions With the Code Commutation of Channels. Class 21a1, 1304, No 107390. N. V. Dobrozhanskaya and D. Z. Kole- sova. Device for Synchronizing Facsimile Instruments with Variable Scanning Speed. Class 21a1, 36. No 107544. B. M. Yegorov. Device for Shaping Electric Pulses. Class 21a2, 3. No 107501. N. A. Denina. Unidirectional Capacitor Microphone. - 43 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Claus 21LL1F, 7. No 10'(543. M. M. Veysbeyn and E. M. Rubchinul:9.y. A Method of Ile( ; the Instantaneous Values of Frequency. Class 21a1[, 10. No 107493. P. G. Pozdnyakov. A Method of F're- quency Tuning of Piezoelectric Resonators. Class 21a1F, 10. No 107572. I. G. Vasin. A Method of Deposit- ing Silver Coatin? on the Surface of Quartz Plates. Class 21a1}, 10. Stabilization. No 107575. G. N. ~'a1iy. A Device for Frequency Class 21a", 1~80j . ing, the Phase Shift. No 107566. B. L. Burdo. A Method for Measur- Class 21a 4 , 53. No 107561+. A. A. Shenogin. Electronic Noise Generator. Class 21a 2F, 68. No 106803. V. A. Solov'ev and I. Ye. Prudnikov. Delay Line With Distributed Constants. Class 21a4, 68. No 107251. A. P. Borisov. A Method of Deter- min:Lng the Winding Nonuniformity of the Focusing Devices in Traveling Wave Tubes. Class 2la4, 71. No 107341+. I. A. Kovalenlco. A Method of Im- pedance Measurement in the Superhigh-Frequency Range. Class 21c, 5501, No 107573. Ye. A. Chekharev. Wide-band Loading; Resistance. Class 21e, 11 0 No 107435. G. V. Voyshvillo and V. S. Da\rydov. Low Frequency Spec rum Analyzer. Class 21e, 12. No 107366. D. D. Voyeykov. Device for Measure- ment of Magnetic Field Intensity. Class 21e, 12. No 107367. L. N. Gertsiger. Device for Measure- ment of Magnetic Field Intensity. Class 21e, 12. No 107533. P. K. Davidovich. Device for Deter- mining Operation and Release Time of Electromagnetic Relay. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Clash 21e, 36 , No 107.; 31~. , A. M. felik-Shal;hn a.zarov . Device for Mainlcnance of Steadiness of AC Current in Magnetic Circuits. Class 21f, i;4g. No 1075!36. M. A. Dubas. Device for Erin(, Gas-Diacliar;e E1ecc o-.Vacuuun Devices. Class Plc, 80 . No 107155. M. A. lQimov. Mobile or Manually r-ropclled Machine ~or Removing Ice Formations From tthc wires of 13racl:c L Suspended Overhead Conmiunication Line. Class 21c, .'0. No 100"70. D. V. Fetisov and A. N. Kabanov. A Method of Insulating IIigh-Voltage Cables With Rubber Insulation at the Arnored Inlets and Sp1J,ce Boxes, Class 21e, 2501. No 106172. N. K. Hiloslavskaya. A Shield for Protection of Measuring Instruments for the Extraneous Magnetic Pield. Class 21g, 1102. No 107170.. S. G. Ktl.ashnikov and N. A. Penin. 3o11cl Rectifier. Class 21g, 13177. No 106142. I. M. Vigdorchik. A Method of Millimeter and SubnLPllimiter Range Wave Generation. Class 21g, 1350. No 106625. V. A. Dvinskilch. A Method of I?rcaouring the Steepness of Plate-Grid Characteristics of Electron Class 21g, 1501. No 106419. N. S. Shestov, D. P. Shabrov and V. P. Pblyakov. Mechanical Rectifier of Electric Current. Class 21g, 15o,,. No 106417. S. A. Mayevskiy. Installation for Rectification of Multiphase Current Into DC' C Current. Class 21a, 36. No 106143. D. Ya Svet. A Method of Measuring l,hcc Voltaf;e Amplitude Ratio of Two or Several Pulses of Exponential or Bell Shape. Class 21a, 77. No 107054. Ye. K. Iordanishvilli, L. G. Malich and D. V. Shtepan. Thermostat for Quartz Generator Built With Semi- conductors. 2 Class 21a , 1803. No 107934. A. G. Pinchuk. A Converter of AC in-to DC or DC i n.[ o AC. - 1.5 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 I S. T. Ovoodovr:r and S. A. Akturuinov. . Ikvi: ?"c,z Ua?,L3.1.r~, c.~r ~:,,:~-.;?~. l.un W.ILh 1,ow Coeffic:L~~nt o Noi cse Modula- tton. Zi.o.11., ;35-; h. No 1.C79I1?0. Y.a. Ye.. Gorskiy. Stabilized Source IIiL;h Vol 1,a.;ca . e C1t+so '-'.alt 4~S04~. No 10t3009. L. L. Rarvinslciy. A Method of Auto- matic Fine `rani rng o Input C :r real. t ?rrriue_acy for the ?'Receiver of a Pu.ue Eadva Station. Wt,; ~e E>- 1-c~x:~~ut,t r,r.. fu1d A~.:t:~ru~.s 46. Ikn'r`rn r,i' T:'e~t~isuoz~Lc .~ln~tcr.e,.rzss "SeLect;ic~rr of Si:,:e .l f'.u for l'.diw or ?azd Iie_rad.ia:tor Aperture in Pe ? I .r epic `r;; s. ~;et:ma , " by A. M.. .okras; htor~cow, T~aektrosvyaz 1 _a No 2, 1teb P.l' 20-221. Thir:, &,xti;'le T~:?f.;zcrit:s infoz"nt_?.tio^ on a quantitative investigation of periscopic asitensint; ha.;rims "rove se r.'.tic"" (the radiator has greater di.- mensic.rL; than the ,i.ecie ? rvdf ator) v20. their ,som'parison with antennas having a " ::().=() :i ??s.ti r:" (the, re: n.ci_? a: rx)r [top r:- diator ,j has greater dimen- sions th.,-i the . ow it? It wxr.:1 :Iiown that a des:;-cane in rezadi.ator dimensions, when riot compensated by an l., c ?rr;;;e in the si:se: of the lower radiator, results in a decided reduction of antinim. ' l.n. Sysi-.~ems w4-11;h patribolic and ellipti- caJ. radiatca .; i .nd "??C!,t;J~.'t: 'N'' e r?r,Ql:,: ''ed. It wai ahouv_i th .t in ax.-eu s. ga.Ln with the pesabolip re- radiator is 11a.thc~? smJ.-I ar.d :I. s ; only for .r~:> : ~ .?.},Zxaa.?..~t; only .ativeZy sma1:.+. ciis?' . tance s be t?,.reen the .~a cl3.a ~ err. a xi;!. ;.?e:i^r. , t atcr . A substantiar: ent.ennr, gain an be ec eeted Only when the dimension of the re; e~.di.atu::? is rrr~ictc.r~it~'y, ,:?~v,ter than that of the radiator, and the distance betw^r en the two .. u re ra;ti vree:Ly 47. Eff e t of a, D rl ti r:?tle d Ie i? ~~'_ on Radio Wave Transmission "On the Sr ?ti.s t? ~:i~r. Nature of Scattering of Centimeter Waves on e. Di ytu 'bed ea Su ?:F'rzce , " by S. 'Ta. Braude, N. N. Komar. ov, and I. Ye. Cz tz?cvskiy, Institute- of Radiophysics and Elec- trcnic.s, kcadeirky of Sciences, Ukrfinian, SEEM, Krsr'Kov; Moscow, Ra.diotczkhnika i Y,Lektn:>n:Lka. No 2, Feb 58, pp 172-179 The prold ation of a sig cal raver a disturbed sea. surface is con- sidered a.a of the direct waive, the coherently reflected wave and the stun of the e;lnmentn,2, r~'i :'.ee ea waves with random phases and Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDPW2-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 amplitudes. Next, the authors determine the probable distribution of amplitudes and phases, the low-frequency spectrum envelope of signal fluctuation and the constant and RMS rate of movement of sections of a disturbed sea surface. In actual experiments a 3.2-cm wave was used. Measurements were made with the transmitter at a height of 6 meters and receiver at a height of one meter, and with the transmitter at 7.5 meters and re- ceiver at 16 meters. The transmission path was 750 meters long and located entirely over water.' A continuous photographic record of the signal was made at the receiver. Two photographs show signal amplitude compared with time C P d amplitude compared with height of receiver. "It is suggested that this method may be used in the study of a series of different problems concerning the propagation of radio waves in the troposphere, and in particular, for collecting data on the na- ture of heterogeneity caused by tropospheric dispersion." 48. Ferrite Cored Antennas "Selection of Optimum Size and Cal.euls.tlor of Ferrite Anten- nas," by B. I. Ryazanov; Moscow, Nlektrosvyaz', No 2, Feb 58, pp 25-?8 Formulas and charts for the calculation of effective height and inductance of ferrite antennas with round cores are given. The figure of merit of a ferrite antenna with a ferromagnetic core depends on the effective resistance of the coil and core. The effective resistance can be reduced by selection of proper diameter of the coil wire, by in- creasing the size of the coil or the "relative magnetic permeability" of the coil. A table permits the selection of correct size of the antenna, and formulas and curves permit calculation of the number of turns and ef- fective height for a given inductance. For long and medium waves the ferrite antennas give satisfactory performance when the relative ini- tial magnetic permeability is about 500 to 1,000, and for short waves about 100. For common radio receivers good reception is obtained with ferro- magnetic cores 150 mm long and 8 mm in diameter, and a figure of merit of about 100. -47- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Dielectric, Maxietic, Semiconductor Materials 1.9. New Semiconductor Laboratory in Tbilisi "Chronicle of Our Days," (unsigned); Moscow, Gudok, 7 Jan 53 A Scientific Research Laboratory for Semiconductors (Nauchno- Issledovatel'ukaya Laboratoriya Poluprovodnikov) was established in Tbilisi. It is being equipped with new instruments. New laboratories are also being equipped at some other schools. At the Tbilisi Insti- tute of Railroad Transport Engineers demonstration civil engineering, welding, forging and casting laboratories have begun functioning." Instruments and Equipment 50. Electromicrometer for Continuous Measurement "A Contactless Induction Electromicrometer," by N. Ya. Za- slavskaya; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 19-20 A contactless electromicrometer for continuous measurement of brass tapes 50-250 microns thick was developed in the Institute of Power Engineering of the Academy of Sciences Kazakh SSR in December 1954. ,.his instrument operates on the following principle: "The primary winding of an air core transformer is connected to a high-frequency voltage source. The metallic tape which is to be measured is inserted into the gap between the coils of the transformer. The magnetic flux of the primary coil induces eddy currents in the tape which create a magnetic flux, weakening the primary. As a result, the induced emf in the secondary coil of the transformer decreases inversely as the thick- ness of the tape." The instrument consists of a transmitting element composed of two brass cylinders connected to the stationary coils of the transformer, and a compensating and signaling circuit mounted in a box. A milliam- meter and controls are located on the face panel of this box. The voltage source is an audio frequency vacuum tube oscillator. -48- Approved For Release 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "'.Pests have shown that the electromicrometer is highly sensitive, permitting; measurements of deviations in thickness of tapes on the order of one to tiro microns. A curve of the sensitivity as a function of thickness maintains approximately the same magnitude in almost all ranges of variations in thickness (50-250 microns), so that uniform precision of measurement is achieved for thin as well as thick tapes." "Maximum variation in the chemical content of L62 tape (0.5% in copper and 0.003; in iron) produce errors in the measurement of deviation of 0.3 microns in 20 microns and in absolute thickness of tape - 1.5 microns in 160 microns." Increases in temperature of tapes by 10 degrees caused a dis rnent from zero of approximately 0.4 microns. Ret;.ings peated by calibration of the instrument for variLus temperatures. be corrected 51. Use of Optical Converters in Electronics "On Some Properties of Optical Converters in Radio Engineer- ing," by S. I. Borovitskiy, Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elek- tronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 237-243 The author notes the use of optical converters for performing simultaneous analyses of signals in radio engineering. Research on the statistics of television pictures "may be performed by means of ordinary radio equipment, but the procedure is complicated and the time consumed in making measurements is great. Simplification of the measuring pro- cedure by a new method is, apparently) , pparently, explained by the fact the e optical objects (in a given instance the picture frames) have a very great in- formation capacity, and optical methods make it comparatively easy to accomplish the operation of multiplication of two signals and averaging of the product obtained." The article also suggests the use of a converter with a horizontal mask for the codification of certain forms of generalized quantization of information. Optical methods may also be applied to television pro- jection on large screens. 52. New Ammeter for High-Prequency Current "Electrodynamic Ammeter for Measurement of High-Frequency Currents," by V. R. Lopan'; Moscow, Izmeritel' a Tekhnika, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 71-74 The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements has developed an electrodynamic ammeter for measuring current of 5 to 100 amperes at frequency levels of 1 to 100 mc. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RBPa-00141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Principle of operation: The current to be measured passes through a primary loop, inducing current in a short-circuited secondary loop. The forces of interaction which develop tend to rotate the secondary loop around its vertical axis. CPYRGHT C G Construction: !"The current-carrvina 'portion of the i nRlt.riirrin 200 mm, the diameter of the inner conductor is from 2 to 12vmm~and the diameter of the outer cylinder is 3 to 80 mm. The inner conductor is held in place by polystyrene discs." The oscillating or secondary coil of the ammeter is ring- shaped,.,CPYRGHT C PYRG HT having a diameter of 20 mm while the diameter of the conductor is 0.~ "Errors in reading are estimated to be f 0.1%,"' while errors in measuring current with this ammeter lie in the limits of 1%. "The electrodynamic ammeter is designed for conducting government and standardization tests of high-frequency ammeters. With the help of this instrument experiments were conducted on thermoammeters T-12, T-1, and T-5 and on frequency errors of high-frequency current tranr3- formers." 53. New Soviet Devices Displayed at the Brussels Exposition "Devices With Cold Cathode Tubes," (for the Brussels Exposi- tion), by V. Bezuglyy; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, 12 Mar 58 The Moscow "Fizpribor" plant is sending to the World's Fair at Brussels two unique devices: the GK-7 hodoscope device and the MSK-2 chronograph. These instruments were developed at the Physics Institute imeni P. N. Lebedev, Academy of Sc{,ences U3SR, by L. Korablev in co- operation with experts from the "Fizpribor" plant. . The main feature of both devices is that they are built with min- iature cold Cathode tubes. The GK-7 hodoscope registers the flight trajectories? of cosmic radiation particles, which pass through its 384+ counters of elementary particles. The GK-7 device has 384+ coin- cidence cells which permit registering ou.y certain kinds of particles. The process is carried out with the aid of a control pulse which en- gages the cells for a period of several microseconds. Such a hodoscope - 50 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 is useful for the study of cosmic rays. The GK-7 device permits the determination of space distribution, density, trajectory and the number of cosmic particles, as well as the picture of the shower development. The MSK-2 chronograph is designed for measurement of small in- tervals of time (from 0.1 millisecond to 10,000 seconds without dial switching), also for counting pulses or marking the time for each 0.1 milliscond or greater interval. 54. Nonlinear Equations for Oscillation in a Backward-Wave Tube "Preliminary Results of Nonlinear Theory of Oscillation in a Backward-Wave Tube With Longitudinal Field," by G. N. Rapaport; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 24+9-254+ The author presents a series of nonlinear equations for the "0"- type LOV (b--ckward-wave tube) for the case of small space charge and loss. An examination is made of electron bunching in the LOV and the reasons for decreased efficiency of the backward-wave oscillator com ? Bred with the ordinary traveling-wave tube. "The relationship of C PYRG Ijtput to oscillator parameters and maximum efficiency are computed." "Numerical integration of the equations for the LOV was carried out on the high-speed electronic computer (BESM) of the Academy of Sciences USSR by means of the computation of unknown functions in con- secutive intervals by the central difference method." 55. A Device for Increasing the Efficiency of a Backward-Wave Oscil- lator "Concerning the Mechanism of Increasing the Efficiency of a Backward-Wave Oscillator ('Carciotron-0') by Increasing the Space-Charge Parameter," by G. N. Rapaport; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 255-261 The article explains a device for increasing the efficiency of a type-0 backward-wave oscillator by means of increasing the space-charge parameter. The author uses a special model oscillator with adaptations for creating a higher field strength in the collector zone than in the Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDI5&2-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 power output zone. The retarding system consists of a longer section with a small coupling Impedance and a short section with a greater coupling impedance. Between the two sections is a phasing section which further retards the phase of the backward wave. Curves are provided showing the relation of electron efficiency to various lengths of the collector, the relation of first harmonic amplitude to the collector coefficient, and others. 56. Relative Fxl iency Stability of Molecular Amplifiers "Concerning the Relative Frequency Stability of Molecular Amplifiers," by N. G. Basov and A. P. Petrov, Physics In- stitute imeni P. N. L.bedev, Academy of Sciences USSR; Mos- cow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 298-299 The results of a comparison of the frequencies of two molecular amplifiers are given. The article provides a block diagram of the system, showing three molecular amplifiers, a quadrupole capacitor, hybrid rings, balancing miscer, etc. The 3-cm long amplifer cavities, made of invar, were ther- mica:lly isolated from the amplifier bodies and were not, therefore, provided with special thermostatic controls. Liquid nitrogen was used for cooling. A curve shows the changes in the difference between frequencies CPYRGHTof the first and third amplifiers as a fi.lnction of time. "The natural frequency of the cavities was first tuned to the minimum variation of oscillation frequency in relation to change in potential difference of the quadrupole capacitors (at 'chayuges in po_ tential difference from 16 kv to 211 kv the frequency of each ampli-. fier did not change more than 10 cps). "The frequency differential was determined by the number of oscillations per 5 seconds. As shown by the curve, the absolute value of frequency differential for a period of approximately 16 minutes did not change more than t 0.11 cps, that is the relative frequenyy`stability of the amplifiers for the given time had a value of To- " 2 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP 2-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 57. Periodic Pulse Train for the Synchronization of Oscillators "On the Synchronization of Oscillators by Periodic Sequence of Pulses;" by P. N. Zanadvorov, Leningrad State University imeni A. A. 2hdanov; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 202-213 The author explains a system for studying the synchronization of oscillators by periodic sequence of pulses. The method used is that of functions of phasing. Synchronization of low amplitude radio pulses by polyharmonic pulsing is shown to be possible. The ranges for stable synchronization and establishment of a steady-state process are given. An arrangement is mentioned which permits direct observation of phasing functions for a given action and .,he measurement of its para- meters. "A description of this system, as well as the results of several measurements, may serve as material for another article." 58. Regenerative Frequency Divider "Investigation of Steady Operation of a Regenerative Fre- quency Divider," by V. S. Andreyev; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 2, Feb 58, pp 214-236 By means of a series of equations the author develops a circuit for a regenerative frequency divider with a ring converter. Various correlations and characteristics which are derived make possible the use of a transformer with or without a core. The unusualness of fre- quency characteristics is explained. In one circuit a greater selec- tivity is obtained and in another -- high phase stability. In the regenerative frequency divider (RDCha) the output signal occurs only in the presence of an input signal, so that there is (always a fixed relationship between the frequency of the output signal and the frequency of the input signal. Circus c diagrams are given for the frequency divider and the ring converter. The article comperes the solid-core transformer of the plate circuit with an air-core transformer. In the former the frequency characteristic passband of the frequency divider is twice as wide as the passband of the plate circuit with by-pass modulator. In the latter, near-harmonic vibration is )btained at the output and the width of the frequency divider passband may be equal to or less than the width of the plate circuit passband. - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 `! icc the uscloctivity may be obtained with an air-core transformer, whale a high let;'ee of phase :stability is obtained with an air-core tran;jformrue:r. Some of the problems not discussed in this article -- self-excitation and operation of the frequency divider for frequency division by greater numbers -- wrii_l. be considered by the author in subsequent articles. 59. New East G,1 n Sma.1_1 Electron Mitcronc2pe "Report On the New 8mal]. Electron Microscope of VEB Werk fuer Fernmeldeweneri, Berlin," by B. Schramm; Berlin, }bcpcrimentelle Teehnik.der Ph. ysik, Vol 5, No 5, 1957, p 236 This Berlin p:,.nnt has developed a small electromagnetic electron microsccre su-table for most electron optical studies and designed for wide usage. The column is arranged at an angle on a desk-like frame containii,K the electronic stabilizer for the lens currents and high voltage, the vacutun installation with controls and oil diffusion pump, as well as the high-frequency high-voltage equignent. The high voltage is supplied to the instrument in three adjustable stages: 1+0, 50, and 60 kv . All the electrical operations can be carried out, and monitored, from the switch panel. Program switches prevent incorrect operation. The prevacuum pump is the only accessory attachment required. The instrument operates with a three-lens system, with the middle lens used for both enlargement and reduction. The electron optical magnification is a.djuctable in eight stages from 1,000 to one to 30,000 to one, -whereby the 100-mm translucent screen remains fully il- luminated, A telescope lens, 10: 1 or 20: 1, is used for sharp focus. The revolution is about 5 millimierons. In addition to the transil- lumination method in the bright field, dark-field, stereo, and refrac- tion photographs can also be produced. Microfilm is used, on which ~O photographs can be made at 1/3 final en argement on a 24 x 24 mm format. During operation, a choice of three contrast shutters can be in- serted into the been by means of controls outside the instrument. The illuminating device consists of condenser, magnetic beam centering and triode system. The instrument weighs about 250 kg and has a power in- put of about I.5 kva. - 54 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 .-0. Colon;e.r-'i'ibc Device for Recording X-Ray Diffraction Diagrams "A Counter-Tube Device for Recording X-Ray Diffraction Pat- terns," by G. Becherer and G. Lennig, Institute of Experi- mental Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg; Berlin, Ex erimentel_le Technik der Physik, Vol 5, No 5, 1957, pp 20 -217 A photograph, block diagram, and description is given of an apparatus which employs the integrator method to produce diffraction patterns using an ink recording mechanism. For nonstabilized X-ray devices, the monitor method can be used, whereby the patterns are produced as a series of points. Components 61. East German Printed Circuits CPYRGHT "Printed Circuits," Berlin, Radio and Fernsehen, No It-, Feb 58, p 102 "Research work at VEB Elektrogeraetewerk Gronsdorf on the pro- duction of copper-coated base material for printed circuits has pro- gressed to the point where all the conditions have been established which are required for series production. The voltage# and current stability of this base material is extraordinarily favorable. The material was given a rating of [Class] "1" by Testing Station 331 of the DAMW (German Office for Material and Commodity Testing) at Dresden. VEB Elektrogeneraetewerk Gronsdorf will exhibit samples of its printed circuits in Leipzig [Spring Fair]." Computers and Automation 62. Electronic Computer Used by Soviets in Weather Forecasts "Experience in Using the Electronic Computer "Pogoda' in Forecasting Mean-Monthly Air Temperature Anomalies," by Sh. A. Musayelyan and Ya. M. ICieyfets; Moscow, Meteoro- logiya i Gidrologiya, No 2, Feb 58, pp 3-9 One of the smaller, specialized computers designed for the solu- tion of a definite range of problems arising in meteorology is the Phan, .. This electronic computer, recently rlaced in overation at Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA R84-2-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 the Central Institute of Forecasting, is simpler in design and opera- tion than the larger universal electronic computers, and is alnost as efficient in the solution of the specified range of problems. The Pogoda is designed for the calculation of products of ams having the form I Z P , ?, "', Y? in n n The instructions for the calculation of the mean-monthly temper- ature anomaly on the Pogoda are given. A forecast map based on the results of the calculations and a map shoving the actual temperature anomaly for June 1957 are given. The forecast was compiled according to initial data for 19-21 April 1957. - 56 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 63. New-Type Computer Planned and Built by Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences "New-Type Calculating Machine" (unsigned article); Bratislava, Lud, 21 Dec 57, p 3 The Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Czecho- slovak Academy of Sciences has worked successfully on analog computers, and was one of the first to publish basic notes on them. Afterward, on the basis of these notes, Engineers J. Havel, R. Hrabanek, F. Jelinek, and L. Kubat constructed a high performance specialized machine on the plan of Dr Z. Koutsky. The machine solves a binomial statistical process which is further processed digitally. Roughly speaking, the machine's process resembles tossing a coin and recording heads and tails. The sta- tistical processes are obtained physically from the fact that the radia- tion of radioactive materials is detected by a Geiger counter and the subsequently emanated pulses are further processed in electronic circuits. Other components of the machine extract memory numbers from these pulses, calculate them, and subtract, and the totals are remembered and compared with given limits. The machine, operating on a double circuit, has about 50 electron tubes and 3.50 relays for this purpose. The machine has two memory systems: a relay memory in combination with a telephone type selector serves for the retention of input values, and a relay memory retaining partial results. The results are obtained with a telephonic computer. The machine solves problems connected with the so-called transit probability. 64. Photoelectric Torsion Meter "A Photoelectric Torsion Meter," by V. I. Zelenskiy; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 1, Jan-Feb 58, pp 37-38 The article describes the design and operation of a photoelectric torsion meter having an axial clearance of 200 mm, developed for measuring torque on a shaft rotating at 600-].0,000 rpm. To the clutch plates between the driving and driven shafts are at- tached two disks with narrow radial slots; there are 90 slots per disk. Torque iF transmitted through a steel axle with squared ends which is connected to the two plates by a key-slot arrangement. On one side of a stationary aluminum frame are arranged eight automobile-type bulbs, and on the other side, eight phototubes. Twisting of the torsion axle causes a displacement of one disk in relation to the other which, in turn, varies the amount of light falling on thz phototubes. - 57 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 The torsiometer circuit includes a voltage regulator, variable resis- tor and load resistance, and a galvanometer for measuring photocurrent. C PYRG AIloop oscilloscope is used for recording the magnitude of photocurrent. "The sensitivity of the instrument is changed within broad limits -- from 0.1 kgm and higher -- by the selection of an axle of appropriate diameter and length, the change in size of the slots, illumination of the phototubes, and the relative position of the disks." Experiments with the photoelectric torsion meter have shown certain advantages over other types o'l torsion meters: a high degree of sensi- tivity, visual observation and recording on an oscilloscope without ampli- fication, the absence of slip-ring devices, and a narrow axial clearance. Due to the sensitivity of the phototubes the accuracy of the torsio- meter is easily affected by changes in temperature. A rise in temperature as a result of the proximity of the instrument to the hot bearings' of the tested machine and air friction with the disk slots was observed after a short period of operation (5-7 minutes). 65. Principle of German World War II Bombsight G 'osco a Recommended "A Special Type of Gyroscope Horizon," by H. Kortum, Jena; Berlin, Feingeraetetechnik, No 2, Feb 58, pp 63-71 The article discusses the theory, development, and performance of a special type of gyroscope instrument developed in 1939-40 by the author and associates for use in stabilizing the sight xeti Mle of the Lotfe'7 bombsight. The peculiar feature of this gyroscope is the fact that its bearing seat rests on a sphere, the center of which coincides with the, center of the gyro. The sphere itself is the upper end of an axis around which it can be rotated by means of a motor. The friction produced when the sphere is rotated when in contact with the bearing seat produces a tutning moment which accelerates the gyro until the point is reached where the external braking moment produced by the resistance of the air on the surface of the gyro is equal to the driving moment. The directions of the driving axis and the axis of spin remain the same as long as the direction of the driving axis is not changed. If it is changed, a torque, a so-called "thrust moment," perpendicular to the driving moment is produced at the point of contact between the bearing seat and the sphere. This torque produces a precession whereby the gyro axis lags behind the changilLg driving axis. On the other hand, if the driving axis is rigidly oriented, the thrust moments hold the gyro in a fixed position. - 58 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 A pilot series of 30 gyros was px'odLiced at the end of 1940, and several hunched per month were produced, according to the author, in sub- sequent series production. The speed with which the gyro was developed during wartime is used as an example of the author's suggestion for streamlining the organization cf development work in East Germany. 66. Ball Bearings Spin for Strength Tests "Obtaining High-Magnitude Centrifugal Fields," by V. M. Poni- zovskiy, Molotov State University imeni A. M. Gorkiy; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 4, Jul/Aug 57, pp 69-72 The author notes briefly the work of L. E. MacHattie (Rev Sci Instr., 9, 429, 1941), Beams, Jonn , and Moore (J. A 1. Ph s. 17) 886, 19116), Walker, Turner, and Beams (Ph ss. Rev. 86, , 597, 1952), and E. V. Shpol- skiy (UFN) 32, 134, 1947; 41, 241) 1950) in obtaining high centrifugal speeds by rotation of small steel balls. CPYRGHT "In connection with the possible use of such a method for testing the strengf.h of steel balls and various coatings, the apparatus described by Beams, Jonng, and Moore was reproduced with certain modifications. How- ever, since the work of Beams and others did not give complete data on the circuit elements (which were put together using American tubes anyhow), the author, in fact, had to create new circuits." Ponizovskiy then describes his apparatus, including circuits and the method used to measure the rate of revolution. He briefly describes tests for rupture made on balls from the First Moscow Bearing Plant. Bearing diameters were 2.5-4.75 mm. Tables showing results of the tests give a maximum revolution rate for a 2.5-mm bearing of 106,000 rps prior to rupture (120-minute run-up period). "In comparing these results with the data of Beams and others for American balls of like diameter, it is apparent that those from the First Moscow Bearing Plant rupture at speeds and maximum stresses lower [than those for the American product] by about 15%." CPYRGHT - 59 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 67. Hunting Regimes in Servo Systems "Determining the Parameters of Hunting in Certain Servo Systems With a Tripositional Symmetrical Characteristic of the Non- linear Element," by B. A. Ryabov, Moscow Aviation Institute imeni Sergo Ordzhonikidze; Kiev, Avtomatika, No 3, Jul-Sep 57, pp 49-55 This paper presents a method which permits establishing the existence of a hunting regime in servo systems possessing a nonlinear element with certain indicated parameters of hunting, and finding the relationship characterizing the ;,Mange in any coordinate of the given 'system in hunting,, The bibliography comprises three original Soviet sources. "Approximate Methods for Determining the Frequency and Ampli- tude of Hunting in Improvir,',g the Performa?:ce of Controllers," by V. M. Kuntsevich, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, and P. I. Akinin, Kiev Polytechnic Institute; Kier, Avtomatika, No 3, Jul-Sep 57, pp 56-69 This article deals with sensitivity signal input improving the per- formance of controllers. The phase-plane diagram of the logical element is given, and the condition of existence of hunting in the system is defined. Two approximate methods for determining the frequency and amplitude of hunting are proposed. The first method, "by sectors," establishes a connection between phase shifts in the elements of the system and the period of hunting. The second, frequency, method is based on the appli- cation of the transfer function for elements of the system. Both methods apply the fundamental harmonic of Fourier series. 68. Interruption Circuits for Servo Systems "On the Design and Switching Diagrams of Interruption Circuits for Fast Response Off-On Servo Systems," by P. I. Dekhtyarenko, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Academy of Sciences Uk- rainian SSR; Kiev, Avtomatika, No 3, Jul-Sep 57, pp 70-83 The application of interruption circuits for fast response off-on servo systems, in particular for systems with an off-on reversing clutch are discussed. A design of the interruption circuits is proposed, and Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 the effect of constant lag in the servo element is considered. Results are given of experimental investigation of a servo system with an inter- ruption circuit. 69. Equations of Invariance Applied in Control Systems "Equations of Invariance for Linear Control Systems Under Ran- dom Disturbances," by A. G. Ivakhnenko, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Kiev, Avtomat- ika, No 3, Jul-Sep 57, pp 32-38 Practical ways of eliminating transient and static errors of control systems can be found through equations of invariance, The possibility of applying these equations in, the case of random disturbances is considered. Equations of invariance are shown to be valid in this case. 70. Thermal Design Problems of Nuclear Power Plants "Some Thermal Design Problems of Nuclear Power Plants," by St. Erdelyi, Budakest; Berlin, Energietechnik, No 2, Feb 58, pp 83-86 The first part of the study presents a procedure for the determina- tion of the initial state of the steam. With the aid of this procedure, the initial steam pressure at which expansion ceases(up to condenser pres- sure at the admissible steam moisture) can be determined for any initial steam temperature. The method was worked out because, in the case of nuclear power plants, this initial steam state is difficult to establish as a result of the often limited initial steam temperature, and has been determined heretofore by means of iteration. The second part of the study seeks to establish the conditions for efficient use of economizers. By means of an equation containing the temperature and heat transfer values of the boiler and economizer heated with the cooling liquid of reactors and the terms for the investment costs, a limiting case is established, beyond which the installation of the economizer offers economic advantage. The study also makes possible the calculation of the equivalent of the often very expensive cooling medium, which can be a determinative factor in the choice among various systems. No numerical values can be introduced into the general equation, be- cause such values vary too greatly in the case of nuclear power plants. The reduction of several cases, however, shows that such values lie on both sides of the limiting case, so that the determination o:s" the limiting case is of importance. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 7-1. Largest Hydroelectric Power Station in the USSR and the World "Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Station (according to information of the project assignment of the Leningrad Branch of the In- stitute 'Gidroenergoproyekt')," by Engr N. A. Filimonov; Mos- cow, Gidrotekhnicheskoye Stroitel'stvo, No 11, Nov 57, PP 56-61 CPYRGHT "The resolution of the 20th Congress of the CPSU to convert the Cen- tral Region of Siberia into a large industrial base contemplates the con- struction of the first hydroelectric station on the Yenisey River, the largest river in the Soviet Union. The total capacity for the large hydroelectric stations planned along the Yenisey River will be about 20 million kw, and they will generate about 120 billion kw,-, "In 1951-1953 the Moscow Branch of the Institute "Gidroenergoproyekt" worked out a scheme for utilizing the middle part of the Yenisey, i.e'e,, from the town of Minusinsk to the town of Krasnoyarsk. The feasibility of utilizing the water head between these two towns in a single stage was proved. ' "The site for the Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Station, located 36 km above Krasnoyarsk, was selected on the basis of the geological formations and the economic engineering considerations. The normal rise of the water reservoir level was based on the assumption that it would note flood the towns of Abakan and Chernogorsk with their coal deposits, located at the end of the reservoir (380 km from the dam). The total volumetric capacity of the reservoir will be 77 billion m3, and the available capacity 32 bil- lion m3; the reservoir area will be 2,130 km2. "The climate in the region of the construction is highly cont~nental. The mean annual temperature of the air is -0.1+?C, the minimum -54?C, the mean for January is -20.20 and for July is 18,8?C. The ice cover of the river in the region of the dam reaches a thickness of 1-1.65 m; on some sections spring ice jams cause the water level to rise up to 5.4 m.. "The geological formations are favorable for the erection of a high dam: the foundation for the hydroengineering construction will be granite (long-time test compressive strength is on average 1,3000 kg/cm2), The narrow valley with steep banks at the dam site at, its bottom part is 750 m wide, and at the crest of the construction is 1,11+8 m wide. "Under natural conditions, the Yenisey at the dam site has a mean summer flow of about 2,800 1113/sec; the winter flow decreases to 300m3/sec; the maximum observed flood flow was aLout 23,900m3/sec. "For the normal level the he-.,: is 101 m, and the effective head for the generators is 86 m." Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 The installed capacity at the Krasnoyarsk Station will be 4 million kur, as compared with the Bratsk [USSR] 3,600,000 kw, Grand Coulee [US] 2,314,000 kw, and Boulder Dam [US] 1,385,000 kw. The annual electric power generation of the Krasnoyarsk Station will be 19,140,000,000 kwh. The capacity of each of the 14 generators will be 286,000 kw or 360,000 kw at 100 rpm. Two 400,000-v power lines will con- nect the station with the Kuzbas and the Bratsk station. 72. East German Welding Technologist Honored "Awarding of the Gold Honor Pin and of Honorary Membership in the Chamber of Technology to Deserving Colleagues" (unsigned article), Berlin, Schweisstcchnik, No 1, Jan 58, p 5 Dr Engr Georg Becker, chief of the Central Institute for Welding Technology of East Germany, Finsterwalde Branch, member of the "Welding Techniques" Technical Committee, first chairman of the "Additive Materi- als" Technical Committee, and colleague of the "Automatic Welding" and "Training" Technical Committees [Chaiubev of Technology], was awarded the Gold Honor Medal and honorary membership in the Chamber of Technology. Becker was one of the cofounders of the "Welding Technology" Technical Committee and participated influentially in the work of this committee. He headed the "Additive Materials" Committee, which has done excellent work in standardizing welding electrodes. He personally helped overcome difficulties in producing welding powder for the flux welding process. 73. East German Glass Technologist Honored "Awarding of the Gold Honor Pin and of Honorary Membership in the Chamber of Technology to Deserving Colleagues" (unsigned article), Berlin, Schweisstechnik, No 1, Jan 58, p 5 Dr Engr Paul Beyersdorfer, chief of the Institute for Glass Tech- nology of the Main Department for the Glass Industry, Ministry of Light Industry, first chairman of the Bezirk Cottbus Committee of the Chamber of Technology, chairman of the "Glass" Specialist Committee an. colleague in the "Additive Materials" (Zusatzwerkstoffe) and "Automatic Welding" Technical Committees of the Chamber of Technology, was awarded the Gold Honor Medal and honorary membership in the Chamber of Technology. Beyersdorfer has been an active member of the Chamber of Technology since October 1947. He is known for his scientific work in the field of colored and special glass and for his work in the physical properties of - b3 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 glass. He is also known for having done basic research and for furthering the development in producing welding powder for the flux welding process and electric slag welding. In 1952, he was awarded the honorary title of "Meritorious Inventor of the People." 71+. East German Industry Personnel Honored "News From the Society of German Miners and Metallurgists" (un- si,.ned article), Berlin, Neue Iluette, No 1, Jan 58, p 51+ Engr Kurt Toeppler of Meissen was awarded the honora,. ,' title of "Meritorious Technician of the People" by Fritz Selbmann, deputy chair- mau of the East German Council of Ministers, on 30 November 1957. Toep- pler was honored for his services in developing the refractory materials industry in East Germany. He was especially influential in the develop- ment of ceramics machine building, in the production of crushing and mix- ing mills and clay treating machines, and in improving the quality of ceramic materials. Dr Hans-Joachim Mueller of Leipzig was awarded the honorary title of "Meritorious Technician of the People" by Fritz Selbmann, deputy chairman of the East German Council of Ministers, on 30 November 1957. Mueller was honored for taking a leading role in the development of the motor industry in East Germany. He expanded the development of the Alfer proc- ess and took a large part in introducing centrifugal casting in heavy metal foundries and in the production of copper alloys low in scarce ma- terials. Pr Engr Werner Monzer of Berlin-Niederschoeneweide Was awarded the honorary title of "Meritorious Technician of the People" by Fritz Selb- mann, deputy chairman of the East German Council of Ministet-s, on 30 Novem- ber 1957. Monzer was honored for taking a leading role in developing new methods for the production of red brass and aluminum-silicon key alloys with a scrap metal base, in the processing of saline slag, and in the.-pro- duction of lead from lead-containing intermediate products. Chief Engineer Werner Lott of Rackwitz was awarded the honorary title of "Meritorious Technician of the People" by Fritz Selbmann, deputy chair- man o:i the East German Council of Ministers, on 30 November 1957. Lott won special recognition for his work in improving the quality of light metal semifinished products and in increasing metal output. His annealing process made possible the production of good workable sheets from a scrap metal base during a shortage of blast-furnace metal. His initiative made it possible to produce hypereutectic piston alloys without special devices and to essentially improve the quality so that imports of light metal. pistons could be stopped. -61+- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00060001-7 Senior Engineer Otto Troeger of Leipzig was awarded the honorary title of "Meritorious Technician of the People" by Fritz Selbmann, deputy chairman of the East German Council of Ministers, on 30 November 3.957. Troeger helped increase furnace production through more economical heat- ing. He also deserves special honoro for improving the low shaft blast- furnaces in VEB isenwer-k West (People-Owned West Ironworks), Calbe-Saale, by making changes in the flue (Leitung), in the spraying of the washing units, and in the operational method of the disintegrators, thereby avoid- ing considerable gas loss and improving the quality of the gas. He also built a gas purification unit with a work group (Kollektiv) in the VEB Eisenwerk West. - a,r, - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Bacteriology CPYRG 75. Research on B. pestis "Utilization of the Carbon From Acetic Acid by B. pestis," by I. V. Domaradskiy and A. F. Semenushkina, State Scientific Re- search Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology of the South- eastern USSR; Moscow, Voprosy Meditsinskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 21-25 The r.lationship of B. pestis to acetic acid was explored in the re- search described in this article. Attempts were made to explain the ca- pability of B. pe.tis L,) assimilate acetic acid and to clarify the role of this pathogen in cellular biosynthetic processes. Experimental methods are described in detail. Results of the experiments are discussed in the text and presented in three tables and a graph. The tables are entitled: The Inclusion of C14 in Fractions of B. pestis Cultured on Hottinger's Bouillon With Labe4ed Acet e; The Effect of Glucose and .A monia on the Distribution of Cl in B. pestis Fractions. A chromatogram obtained by the ionophoresis method is included .:o demonstrate the distribution of radioactivity following separation of the protein bydrolysate of B. pestle cultured on a medium containing C14 acetate. The following conclusions derived from the results of these experi- ments are given: "l. Live B. pestis cells dried with acetone; are capable of fixing radioactive carbon from acetic acid. "2. The presence of C14 was established. in all fractiors of B. .estis. The highest radiation intensity was'discerned in the lipid fraction. "3- Glucose increased the radioactivity of the lipid fraction and decreased that of the nucleic acid fraction. "k:. . The penetration of C14 into all fractions of B. pestis was inte.isified by the presence of ammonia salts. "5. B. pestis utilized labeled acetate for the synthesis of a num- ber of amino acids of which glutaminic and asparaginic acids have been identified. `6. Forty-five percent of radioactivity was found in the monoaminodi- carboxylic acid fraction; 37% of the C14 was bonded to the monoaminomono- carboxylic acids, and only 16% to the basic amino acids." Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP8800141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 '(u. C'hirieuc Study Induced Traiiuformation of Atypical Dysentery Bacilli "Induced Transformation of Atypical Dysentery Bacilli," I;- Cheng Wu-fci ( `i? I /r`S ), Ch'en Tau- ch'ing and 1Iiu Wci-chcn (,', -?!rf!. j~ ), Department of Microbiology., Tientsin Medical College; Peiping, Wel-sheng-wu Iisueh-pao, (Acts Microbiological Sinica), Vol. 5, No ., 1957, PP 390-396 `i'hiu item reports research on the induced transformation of dysentery baci.l:!i. In controlled experiments, each of six strains of atypical dys- ertery bacilli were subjected to 30 serial passages in a sterile basic me- dium of 75 percent peptone water :Ln which a "feeder" strain had been cul- tured and .subsequently killed by heating. Simultaneously, one strain of known Shigella flexner and three strains of nondysenteric enteric ba- c:Llli were given the same treatment for comparative data. Every third generation of each subject bacillus was transferred to a Ch,na blue plate and then to a double sugar medium. The culture 'was then tested biochemically and serologically for indication of transforma- tion. In the course of the entire experiment, only one strain, the "82 Chung," was fully transformed, as indicated by its acquired ability to agglutinate Flexner antiserum after, 30 serial passages in media contain- ing killed Sh. dysenteriae and Sh. flexner, respectively, as feeders. (The agglutinating titers wert- 1:640 and 1:320, respectively.) However, under tue influence of feeders, all ten strains of the subject bacilli showed varying degrees of change in biochemical activity, indicating some degree of induced transformation had taken place. The authors pointed out that the atypical strain which was success- fully transformed had at one time existed in symbiosis with a typical strain of Sh. flexner. Therefore, its acquiring the characteristics of CPYRGHT Sh. flcxcncr while under the influence of the latter as feeder is under- standable. The problem they are confronted with is How lc was originally similar to Sh. flexner, acquire the biologic and serologic characteristics of the latter in a medium containing not Sh. flexner, but Sh. dysenteriae as feeder?" They surmised that dysentery bacilli are related to one another to CPYRGHT some definite degree and that, in the induced transformation of microor- ganisms, an a~typical strain can acquire characteristics of its closest "kin" by virtue of certain factors which it has in common wit:.i a feeder of its own genus, even if it belongs to a different species. - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 This hypothesis, in their opinion, does not preclude the possibility that the same subject strain of atypical bacillus eventually would have acquired the characteristics of Sh. sonnei and Sh. schmidtz feeders. Nor does it mean that those feeders would eventually also induce in th- aty- picLl strain the characteristics of Sh. flexnier. They say that the whole hypothesis merits further study; fcr it offers dynamic evidence for the origin and evolution of species. The authors also pointed out that most scholars on variations due to the use of antibiotics have approached the problem from the standpoint of the drug resistance of pathogenic strains. They propose the initiation of studies on atypical strains and their induced transformation in con- nection with drug resistance. Soviet theories on the origin of atypical strains, which find sup- port in the zesults of the authors' experiments, are discussed. Communicable Diseases 77. Pathogenesis of Experimental Tularemia "Study of the Pathogenesis of Tularemia in Experimental Ani- mals. Report 3: The D.rnamics of Proliferation of tbePtWagggn an4 Morphological Changes in the Organs of White Rats Follow- ing Subcutaneous Introduction of B. tularense," by A. B. Maah- kov and A. F. Taranenko, Moscow Institute of Vaccines and Sera imeni Mechinkiv; Moscow Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 28, No 8, Aug 57, pp 122-125 This article reports a study of pathogen proliferation and devel- opment of morphological changes in internal organs following infection of rats with 10 million microbial cells of a virulent culture and. one billion microbial cells of a Gayskiy culture of B. tularense. One series of rats was treated with a killed culture. The experimental method of administering the vaccine was the same as that employed in experiments reported in Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii I Ixxmznobiologii, No 6, 1950. Pathological-anatomical investigations are described in detail and are summarized comparatively in tabular form. The following conclusions are presented on the bas-'_ of results obtained. -68- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "1. In experimental in white: rats, the pathogen invaded the internal organs within a short time after subcutaneous introduction and caused the formation of B. tularenae granules in them. However, the granule-formation process in white rats was limited., proceeded with weakly expressed dystrophic changes, and underwent reverse development early. Only residual phenomena were in evidence at the end of the second week. "2. The vaccine process which developed following subcutaneous admin- Latration of the Gayskly culture was accompanied in white rats by the formation of typical B. tttlarense granules without clearly expressed dystropic changes in the internal organs. The granule-formation process was terminated toward the 10th-11th day. "3. Following subcutaneous administration, B. tularense antigen in the form of a boiled bacterial suspension occasioned the formation of typical granules in the internal organs of white rats; reverse develop- ment of these granules ended by the 10th-11th day." r Czechoslovak Report on Orbit Coordination of Activities in Virology "On the Possibilities of Coordination of Scientific Activity in Virology Among the Socialist Countries," by Dr Bohumil Styk, Prague, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved, No 1/2, Jan/Feb 58, pp 43-15 The article reports activities of the first official meeting of the members of the International editorial board of the periodical Acts, viro- l.ogica, held in Prague on 17 and 18 September 1957. Those present in- cluded Prof A. A. Smorodintsev and Prof V. M. Zhdanov, Corresponding Mem- bers of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Prof Dr C. H. Huang and, Prof Dr. Gaw H. Zanyin [sic] from the People's Republic of China; Prof Dr H. Roehrer and Prof Dr H. Urbach from East Germany; Prof Dr F. Przesmycki from Poland; Academician St. S. Nicolau from Rumania; and Academician D. Blaskovic and Dr B. Styk from Czechoslovakia. Also present were the Yugo- slav representatives Prof Dr A. L. Terzin; Academician S. Prat, represent- ing the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences; and Dr Petrik, representing the publishing house of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. The members of the editorial board pledged to obtain more reports from improved experimental efforts and increase the periodical's periodicity to six times yearly in 1958. - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 On 18 September, the conference held an unofficial discussion on the possib.ilit:Les of coordinating scientific research activity in virology and expansion of scientific contacts among the socialist countries. The assembly discussed the introductory reports of Academician D. Blaskovic and Prof V. M. Zhdanov on the most recent tasks and ways of expanding scientific contacts. After a comprehensive discussion of the various details of implementing the coordination program, first suggested in the June 1956 symposium in Leningrad (article states the broad cat- egories), the board reccmmnended the following provisions for improving the scientific contacts in virology among the socialist countries. 1. To organize lecture courses in virology with the participation of leading specialists from socialist and Western countries, in Moscow and Leningrad in 1958. A commission composed of V. M. Zhdanov as chair- man, D. Blaskovic, St. S. Nicolau, and A. A. Smorodintsev will work out the program of courses, the list of participants, and, organizational tasks. 2. To organize permanent scientific centers for directing the fol- lowing important questions in the area of virology: Influenza -- Institute of Virology imeni D. I. Ivanovskiy of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow; V. M. Zhdanov, head of program Neuro-virus infection with natural focal area (with the excep- tion of Japanese encephalitis) -- Institute of Virology of the Czecho- slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava; H. Libikova, head of program. Japanese encephalitis -- Department of Virology of the Academia Sinica, Peiping; C. H. Huang, head of program. Poliomyelitis -- Institute for Poliomyelitis Research of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow; M. P. Chumakov, head of program. Epidemic hepatitis -- Institute of Infrar; robiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Rumanian People's Repo?.. Bucharest; St. S. Nicolau, head of program. Other virus infections -- Institute of Virology of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow; R. M. Shen, head of program General virology -- Institute of Virology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava; D. Blaskovic, head of program Antivirus immunity -- Division of Virology, Institute of Experi- mental Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Leningrad; A. A. Smorodintsev, head of program - 70 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 3. To organize international symposiums on the following questions in 1958: Influenza Poliomyelitis Pathogenesis and immunology of virus diseases. The chairman of the problems commission was given the task of preparing a program for these assemblies and related organizational prob- lems, so that the first two symposiums should be held in one place and at one time. 4. To request all participants of the meeting to clarify ways for possible expansion of mutual exchange of virologists among socialist countries in 1958. 5. To organize a future conference of the editorial board of Acta virolo ica concerning the course of international symposiums or courses in 195 [For additional information on communicable diseases see Item 105.1 Epidemiology 79. Hemorrhagic Fever in Stavropol'skiy Kray "Concerning Hemorrhagic Fever in Stavropol 'skiy Kray," by Do- cent L. V. Yarovoy, Chair of Infectious Diseases (director, Docent L. V. Yarovoy), Stavropol Medical Institute; Moscow, Supplement to Vrachebnoye Delo, 1957, p 74 The author describes the history of three cases of hemorrhagic fever in Stavropol'skiy Kray. These cases are interesting from an epidemiolog- ical and clinical point of view, the author explains, because up to now there has been no history of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever in this kray. As a result of the three cases, the problem arose as to whether hemorrhagic fever was endemic to the kray or whether it had been in- troduced from the Crimea by the annual migration of birds. Since the Hyalonma Plumbeum, a hemorrhagic fever vector, is widely dispersed in this Kray and since the disease did not occur until the first of June when the mass migration of the birds had not yet begun, the author con- cludes that hemorrhagic fever is endemic in the kray. - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 50. Sarcosporidiosis in Ul'yanovskaya Oblast "The Epizootology of Sareosporidiosis," by S. A. Lubyanetskiy, Tr. Ullyanovskiy S.-x. In-ta (Works of the Ul'yanovskiy Agri- cultural Institute)) No E, 1956, pp 367-~82 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biolo i , No 18, 25 Sep 57, Abstract No 79014) by CPYRGAHTI' Shchurenkova "Prom 1944 to 2 35:mare than 6, 000 animals from different rayons of U1'yanovskaya Qblast were investigated by means of macroscopic examina- tion and macroscopy of muscle tissue. The following organs were examined in all the animals: esophagus, heart, superficial muscles of the neck, spine, and cruppers, diaphragm, and deep shoulder muscles. Results of the investigations are presented in the table. Macrosarco-Sporidia (Bal- bianids) were observed in 3.46 of the sheep (3,773 were examined), and in 18.1i% of the goats (out of 33). .Females were more highly infected among agricultural animals. Sarcosporidia were encountered very frequently in malnourished animals and in animals suffering from chronic or postnatal diseases. One-2-Year-old animals slaughtered for meat were found to be most highly infected. Isolated cases of sarcosporidiosis were noted in 5-16-day-old calves, which evidently can be explained by4intrsuterine infection. Sareosporidiosis was rare in animals under 2 months or age to odI "Two seasonal peaks in the incidence curve were noted in herbivores -- in July and November-December. In the author's opinion, the first peak is connected with the beginning of the outpastu.Lring period in April when the infection begins; and the second,..with the transfer of cattle to stall maintenance and with a decrease in the resistance of the organism. The author rejects the possibility of insect participation in the dissemination of snrcosporidiosis and is of the opinion that infection occurs per os from the environment,. vrhich contains i:vasion stage 8arcosporidiae; .the incuba- tion period is approximately 3 months. The frequency 9f sarcosporidiosis. in animals was found to differ even in localities with identical topography; but if it was high in a certain place in one opecies of animals., it was the same in other species. Sarcosporidia increase indications for isola- tion and enforced slaughter of cattle. Data concerning dissemination of this invasion among domestic animals should be made more precise, and car- casses should be subjected to more careful sarcosporidioscopy." The table below gives the number of animals examined and the percent infected with Sarcosporidia: CPYRGHT No of Animals Examined % Infected With Sarcosporidia.. Cattle 1,1+65 51+.2 Sheep 2,452 36.2 Goats 81 61.7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RD'2=00141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT No of Animals 'A Infected With Examined Sarcosporidia Swine 2, 204 17.4 Iiorues 118 49.2 White mice 115 6.9 Rats 95 12.6 Dogs 41 0.0 Chickens 60 1.9 Chinese Report Experimental Infection of Mosquitoes With Japanese B Encephalitis "Studies on the Insect Vec ors of B Encephalitis in Canon," by Tsai Shang-ta ( I ), Ko Hsia-lin (4. Q j .. ) Jung Kuan ( 1. ), and di. Tzu-i ( ,j. /) Parasitology., , Department of gy, Chung- Shan Medical College, Canton; Peiping, Wei- she -wu Hsueh-pao (Acta Microbiologica Sinica), Vol 5, Not, 71- Nov 57, pp 369-378 This paper summarizes the authors' studies which were undertaken during 1953-1955 on certain mosquitoes found in Canton, and their rela- tionship to the epidemiology of Japanese B encephalitis. The su mnaiy, .rhich includes tabulated experimental data, is developed in four sections: 1. A survey of the important species found in Canton and their seasonal distribution as influenced by climatic conditions -- Four are mentioned: Culex fatigans, Aeries albopictus, Anopheles hyrcanus sinesis, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. All except Culex fatigans have been found elsewhere in China to be vectors of B type encephalitis. 2. Experimental infection of mosquitoes by artificial feeding with the virus and by sucking infected mice -- The adult mosquitoes used in the experiments were grown from larvae found in Canton. It was found that experimentally infected Aeries albopictus could harbor the virus for as long as 19 days and could transmit the disease successfully up to 14 days. Experimentally infected Culex fatigans could transmit the disease successfully up to 27 days. 3. Isolation of the virus naturally occurring in Culex fatigans, "the mosquito found in greatest abundance in Cantoli" -- From 7,741 mosquitoes of this species collected during the period January 1955-January 1956, - 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 three strains with characteristics identical to the Ching-wei-ycn2 [possibly an abbreviation for Pei-ehing WPi-sheng Yen-chiu-yuan (National Institutes of Health, Peiping)] StraLns wore :isolated. Each was passed through mice for several generations by .intracerebral inoculation. The infectivity of the vL.rus after each passage was tested. The authors state that their suc- cessful isolation of the virus in nature during January and November seems to support the Soviet theory that :infected mosquitoes harbor the virus through the winter and are ready to infect man and animals in the spring. They also note that their report constitutes the first known record of C. fatigans having been found as a vector of B encephalitis in China. I+. A study of Culex fatigans' preference for human blood or that of domestic animals -- Results indicated that this species liked both almost equally well. It was found by'the serum precipitation technique that 87 percent of the C. fatigans mosquitoes caught in human dwellings had taken blood from man, 40 percent of those from cowsheds were engorged with bo- vine blood, and 89 percent from hogpens were engorged with blood from hogs. Further study on this subject to elucidate the relationship between man and domestic animals in the epidemiology of B encephalitis is indicated. According to footnotes, this paper is a condensation of a longer report presented at the July 1956 scientific conference of Hua-nau Medical Col- lege, "which has been renamed Chung-shan Medical College," and at the Third Conference of the Korean Medical Association in 0ctob-r t:56. The research was performed by the persons listed above, but this paper and its published English abstract were written by Chen Hsin-t'ao their supervisor. [SIR Note: "Culex fatigans" is used in this item for the Chinese "0' ~ 4 ? '. (shou-lieh k'u-wen). This literally means "gaming Culex mosq to or 'Culex venaticus" in Latin, but does not appear in any other current Chinese literature or English-Chinese lexicons on hand. These consistently use either a trau.literation or a direct transl& ion for the Latin term "fat Lgans."] Immunology and Therapeutics 82. Specificity of Anticholera Serum Tested "The Problem of the Specificity of Cholera 0-Serum," by I. V. Shantarenko and I. A. Siroko; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiolo ii, idemiole :I:L I Iznunobiologii, Vol 29, No 1, Jan 5 8., pp 40-43 The following discovery formed the basis for the research described in this article: on investigating feces and liquid washings from the stomachs of patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis with repeated -74- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 vomiting and convulsions, an extremely motile, gramnegative Bacillus was isolated; this organism formed a fragile film oi, the surface of peptone water and was agglutinated by cholera 0-serum. The biochemical properties of the microorganism isolated were determined (decomposition of sugars with formation of acid and gas of the B. coli communior type), which completely ruled out the suspicion of cholera which had arisen earlier in the investi- gattons. Results of this preliminatry research warranted testing the specificity of the cholera 0-serum available in the laboratory. It was first established that the B, cola culture isolated earlier (culture No 254) was completely agglutinated by the dry cholera 0-serum from the Saratov Institute "Mikrob" (series No 3/2, titer 1:1,600, prepared 8 July 1953) and by liquid 0-serum series No 2, Irkutsk Antiplague Institute (titer 1:3,200, prepared 13 Au- guat 1955). Tw,. series of experiments were preformed: a study of the spectrum of nonspecific properties of cholera 0-serum, and use of the Castellani reac- tion for the study of cultures which appear to be antigenically related. Standard cultures of Flexner Bacillus (types 1 and f), typhoid Bacillus, and Proteus X 19, freshly isolated culture of Flexner Bacillus type c, and strain No 254 were selected for the agglutination reaction with cholera 0-serum. Two tables are included to show results. The following conclusions are presented on the basis of these experi- ments: CPYRGHT "1. Antibodieoo against microorganisms of the intestinal group appeared In dry cholera sera series No 3/2 and No 2 from the Saratov Instituto 'Mik- rob'; and in liquid cholera 0-serum series No 2, Irkutsk Antipidgue Institute- Several of them (Flexne Bacillus type c and intestinal Bacillus strain No 254) were completely agglutinated by these sera. "2. It was established by the use of the exhaustion and Kravchenko- Sokolov reactions that the strains of B. coli and dysentry Bacilli studied did not have common antigens with the cholera diagnosticum. The capability of cholera 0-serum to agglutinate the aforementioned microorganisms depends on antibodies, either contained in the normal serum of the producer or ap- pearing as a result of previous i mization with other antigens. "3. The results obtained demonstrate the'possibility of purifying cholera 0-serum by adsorption of heterogenous antibodies by Flexner type c dysentery bacillus antigen. "4. The presence of agglutinins against foreign microorganisms in cholera 0-serum can lead to hyperdiagnosis of cholera when accelerated in- vestigation methods are employed. Practicing laboratories must be provided, with adsorbed cholera sera." - 75 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 3. 'itularcuni.a Vaccine Characterized "Characteristics of `.i`culareznia Vaccine Strains According to Laboratory Indexes," by 0. S. Yemel'yanova, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology .imeni Gamaleya; Moscow Zhurnal Mikrobiolog:ii, Ep[.derniologi:i i Immunobiologii, Vol 28, Tom, Aug 57, pp 125-129 The characteristics of vaccine strains employed for prophylaxis of tularemta which were described by Gayskiy, Elbert and FF.ybich are am- plified and supplemented by laboratory indexes presente6 in this article. It is stc,ed that development of these indexes was auuo,Mplished under the gMwal direction of Prof N. G. 0lsus''yev and provided the basis for [of- fici.a]] inst. ctions concerning the production, control, and administra- tion of cutaneous live L.-y tularemia vaccine. The characteristics of vaccine strains and virulent strains are analyzed with regard to strain- ing, dissociation in culture, suitability of various culture media, and. preservation of virulence; effects of varying the number of mice in the experiments were also dote-,mined. The author corroborates the opinions of former investigat:Luns who consider vaccine strains harmless for guinea pigs. It was further established that the survival rate of guinea pigs following cutaneous administration of a vaccine can serve as an index of the quality of the vaccine strain. Inoculation reactions were care- fully observed. The observation that viability of vaccine prepared from Gayskiy strain No 15 is increased to almost 100% after passage through animal organisms highly susceptible to tularemia is discussed; the resultant. variant is known as "restored" Gayskiy strain No 15. It is mentioned that other indexes simultaneously became higher. Two tables are included to show, respectively, the characteristics of Gayskiy strain No 15 and .its restored variant, and the number of immunogenic microorganisms in series of vaccines prepared from Gayskiy strain No 15 and its restored variant. CPYRGHIConclusions drawn as a resalt of these experiments are as follows: "1. Vaccine strains administered for the prophylaxis of tularemia possess morphological, tinctorial, and. culture characteristics which are typical for D. tularense, and are agglutinated by specific S-serum of the Vi-agglutinat-Lon ;ype. "2. The quality of vaccine strains depends on a high content of .immunogeni.c, mocrobial cells having lasting virulence, which are char- acterized by growth on blood agar in the form of white (cloudy) colonies. Dissociated strains which contain a higher quantity of avirulent non- Lnnituiogenic cells growing in the form of gray (transparent) colonies and strains which decompose easily during the vaccine production process are not suitable for use as vaccines. - 76 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 CPYRGHT "3. Vaccine strains are harm less to guinea pigs and have lasting virulence for white mice -- 30-50% of the mice died from tularemia vac- cine following the subcutaneous introduction of 100 to one million micro- bial cells. "4. The vaccine strains protected mice and guinea pigs from 1,000 lethal. doses of a virulent culture of B. tularense and brought about a skin inoculation reaction in guinea pigs." [For additional information on immunology and therapeutics, see Item No 87.] Oncology 84. Chinese Investigate Influence of Disturbance of Higher Nervous Activ- ity on Experimental Tumors "Studies on the Effect of Disturbances of Higher Nervous Activ- ity on the incidence and Development of Experimental Tumors in Mice," by Wang Heng-wen ( ), Chen Miao-lan U - rfj ), Department of Pathology, Chinese Academy of Me cal sciences, Peiping; and Yang Chien , ), Laboratory of Pathology, Institute of Epidetiology; Peiping, Chung-Hua Ping- li-hsueh Tsa-chih (Chinese Journal of Pathology), -Vol3, No 4, Oct 57, PP 159-162 This article presents the details of experiments undertaken during the past 2 years to determine the influence of disturbance of higher nervous activity on experimental tumors in mice and to supplement previous experiments of certain Soviet medical scientists. From the results of their experiments, the authors conclude the fol- lowing: 1. Disturbances in higher nervous activity will ac.elerate the growth of sarcomas transplanted in mice and promote sarcomagenesis induced by meth ylcholanthrene. 2. Appropriate conditioned reflexes appear to inhibit the growth of transplanted sarcomas. This view merits further '.nvestigation. 3. The experimental method used to investigate the effect of higher nervous activity on the process of tumors has certain definite limitations. All data must be analyzed, in the light of the characteristics of the ma- terials and methods. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-Rt 82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Ph a.rmacolcgy and Toxicology 85. The Effect of Small Doses of Vipera lebetina Venom on Blood Morphology "Experimental Data Concerr;ing the Effect of Small Doses of Vipera lebet:ina Venom on Blood Morphology," by A. A. Pisnova, Trudy Stalinabadskogo Medsitsinskogo Institute (Works of the Stn,linabadok Medical Institute), 195 , No 18,-Pp 25-34 (from Referativny Zhurnal--Biolo i a, No 22, 25 rov 57, Abstract CPYRGI T 9111, by T. P. Veseloua) "Experiments were conducted on healthy rabbits as well as on rabbite in which allergy processes (Artyus-Sakharov phenomenon) were experimentally induced. A 1:2,000 solution of Vipera lebetina venom was introduced sub- cutaneously in gradually incrccasing doses, from 0.4 to 3 ml, over a pe- riod of 1-2 weeks. The introduction of the venom into healthy rabbits did not change their hemoglobin or erythrocyte content. Also, the venom did not effect the leukocyte or eosinophil count rroduced at the height of the Artyus phenomen. The ,subcutaneous administration of ?'he venom did not produce local inflamation." 86. The Stability of Preserves: Vipera lebetina Venom "The Stability of the Coagulation Property of Preserved Vipera lebetina Venom," by Z. S. Barkagan, Trudy Stalinabadskogo Med- itsinskogo Institute. (Works of the Stalinabadsk Medical Insti- tute)., 195, No 1T,-pp 19-24 (frorr Referativniy Zhurnal - - Biologiya, No 22, 25 ';ov 57) Abstract No 96063 , by T. P. CPYRGYelova "Vipera lebetina venom which has reen preserved in liquid form loses 20-25% of its coagulation capacity every rnont.;h regardless of its concentration. Dried Vipera lebatina venom in hydroscopic and decom- poses rather quickly." - 78 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 87. Vacc i.ricu and Sera for "lake Bite "A Method for Obtaining Anti Snake Bite Vaccines and Sera," by Ye. Nauryzbayev, Trudy A1ma-Atinskogo Zoovet, Instituta (Works of the Alma-Ata Zooveterinary Institute), - 1955, No 8, p 150-157 (from Referativny Zhurnal Biologiya, No 22, 25 Nov CPYR(31+TAbstract No 96065, by T. P. Veselova) "To obtain the most active and economical antisnake bite vaccine, the author established an antigen depot in an organism, utilizing alumi- num hydroxide, lanolin, and gypsophila to which the anatoxin of the antis- trodon had been added. It was determined, in rabbits, that the sapo:an vaccine possesses high immunogenic properties. After a one ml dose or two 0.5 ml doses, immunity begins in one month and last for 6-8 months. The saponin vaccine can be used to hyperimmunize horses and to obtain antitox, n erum." 88. Utilization of Ditilin for Facilitating Electroshock Therapy and the Prevention of Complications "The Utilization of a Domestic Preparation, Ditilin, for Facili- tating Electroshock Therapy and the Prevention of Complica- tions," by B. A. Lebedev, Thi'd psychiatric Clinic (director, Prof Ye. S. Averbukh) Leningrad Psychoneurological Institute imeni V. M. BekP.terev; Moscow, Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhi- atrii imeni S. S. Korsakov, Dec 57, No 12, pp 1467-1493) The author describes two cases in which ditilin was utilized for facilitating electroshock therapy and the prevention or complications. Ditilin is the diiodmethylate of the dimethyl aminoethyl ester of succinic acid, i.e., a complex ester formed by succinic acid'and two molecules of choline. Its action is similar to that of choline, ac- cumulating in the neurc, 1cc-1lar synapse. Disrupting the transmission of neuromuscular excitti,tirn, ditilin weakens the skeletal muscles. The preparation hydrolizes slightly and is, destroyed by the cholinesterase of the blood, thereby making its action temporary. Prozerin, a?cholines- terase inhibitor, increases the action of ditilin; however, it is an- tagonistic to other curare-like substances. The author concludes that ditilin prevents complications during electroshock therapy and is quite safe since it is quickly destroyed by cho"Linesterase and has minimum action on the diaphragm muscles- Approved For Release 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP78Q2-a0141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Public Health, Hygiene, and Sanitation 89. New Dust Meters "New Instruments for Measuring Dust in Air," by M. I. Volokhov, L. K. Misyunas and 0. P. Leont'yef; i`Mosccw, Priborstroyeniye, No !i., Apr 57, pp 18-20 With the aid of three diagrams, the authors describe in detail the components and operating principles used in three dust measuring instru- ments. The instruments described include the TVK-3 dust mete;, the EK-4 electronic konimeter, and an instrument developed by 0. P. Leont'ye' which operates on a principle utilizing the electrical properties of the dust, i. e., by measuring the electrical charge of the dust particles. 90. Study of the Microflora in Air With the Aid of an Aerocentrifuge "Study of the Microflora in the Air of a Lying-In Home With the Aid of an Aerocentrifuge," by L. P. Perlina, Chair of Microbiology (scientific director, Prof S. S. Rechmenskiy), Kishinev Medical Institute; Moscow, Supplement to Vrache- bnoye Delo, 1957, P 105 The purpose of the investigation, the author explains, was to com- paratively evaluate the petri dish method of collecting microbes from the air and the Rechmenskiy aerocentrifuge method. Samples of air were collected in lying-in homes and the data evaluated. As a result of data collected, the author concludes that the aerocentrifuge method was very effective and permitted the collection of samples in 3-5 min- utes, as compared with the'petri dish method which would require 50-60 minutes. The number ..if microbes collected with the aerocentrifuge method was greater tha;.with the petri dish method. In addition, the aerocentrifuge is of simpic. construction and can be constructed by any laboratory. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP-00141R000100060001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100060001-7 Radiology 91. Ea