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imroved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001- CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 8 August 1958 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. ~~)/)i/ !~' Q2,r~ L ~`~'~CL~tU` / (KC~iu'n w /'?ic~i+rJ 1 PCOPI {-tJfIS? ??na U, / ll," Issued Semi-monthly. Price: Per year $28.00; Single issue $2.75. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 1. ASTRONOMY 1. iyuralcan A3trophysical Obsorvator "Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences Armenian SSE," by V. A. Ambartsumyan and L. V. Mirzoyan, Tr. in-ta lotoril yestestvozn, i telchn. AN SSSR (Works of the CPYRGH1 ? 11 "The Byurakan Observatory was founded in 1916 at a distance of 30 km from Yerevan on the south slope of Mt Aragats at an altitude of 1,500 meters above sea level. The observatory was equipped in 1916 with a 13-cm wide- angle double astrograph; in 191+8 with a 30-cm Schmidt reflector; in 1949 with a 25-cm mirror telescope spectrograph designed by 0. A. Melnikov and B. K. Ioannisiani; and with a 40-cm aberration-free reflector with Casse- grain and Schwarzschild focuses (constructed by D. D. Maksutov) and a 15-cm astrograph with an ultraviolet objective. In 1954, a 53-cm Schmidt teleL scope went into operation. Radioastronomical observations were started in 1951 using a parabolic radiotelescope 3 meters in diameter and three radio- interferometers with wavelengths of 0.5, 1.5, and 4.2 meters. The observa- tory has four laboratories -?- stellar astronomy, astrophysics, radio astro- nomy, and mechanics. Research is concentrated on the structure and physical characteristics of interstellar absorbing matter; the physical nature of stars, nebulae, and discrete sources of radio emission; and the structure, origin, and development of stars and stellar systems pertaining to the Galaxy. Institute of the History of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Academy of Sciences USSR), 1957, 17, 485-492 (from Referati- n Lhurnal -- Astronomy i Geodezi , No 2, Feb rZ, ,Abstract "Important achievements of the observatory are as follows: "1. Theory of brightness fluctuations in the Milky Way and in the visible star distribution as well as extragalactic nebulae on the sky. "2. Theory of stellar associations. "3. Research on scattered stellar clusters which led to a new classi- fication of clusters based on their morphological peculiarities and physical characteristics. "4. Research of physics of stellar atmospheres; on the basis of studies of spectrophotometric gradients and magnitudes of the Balmer shift of hot giants and supergiants and photoelectric color excesses of stars, the law of interstellar light absorption is derived, as well as the effect of selective interstellar absorption. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "5. Research in physics of nebulae. it is nhown that in the case of stars with a temperature exceeding 7,000? K the possibility of accretion is excluded due to radiative pressure. The application of methods of hydroacro- dynamics to planetary nebulae facilitated, the explanation of origin of double shells. The stability criterion of gaseous shells was obtained. A new classi- fication of planetary nebulae was developed. "6. Statistics of binaries. By means of derived formulas the probable number of binaries was obtained in the part of the Galaxy accessible to re- search. It is shown that the distribution in space of the directions of radii-vectors connecting the components of binaries appears to be uniform. It was established that Wolf-Rayet stars are in overwhelming majority bina- ries. "7. The interstellar light absorption. From colorimetric observations of long period Cepheids in the photographic and photovisual parts of the spectrum the magnitudes of the selective and the general light absorption in various directions of the Galaxy are established. "8. Radio astrophysics. The measuring of relative intensities of some sources of radio emission proved that the spectral energy distribution of radio emission of many sources appears to be equal. It was concluded that the mechanism of emission of these sources is also the same. In 1954, during the solar eclipse the radio diameter and the degree of radio eclipsing were determined for a wavelength of 1.5 and 4.2 meters. The method developed for observations of discrete sources by means of a phase inverter together with the method of signal accumulation facilitated the study of weak discrete sources of radio emission. "9. Sources of stellar energy. Observations show that in atmospheres of nonstationary stars, members of T-associations, and in others processes of energy release differing from thermal emission occur. These processes are due to the formation of new nuclei. This concept holds the key to the explanation of the origin of cometlike nebulae. "10. Clusters of galaxies. It was established that among clusters of galaxies dynamically nonstationary formations predominate of the Trapeze of Orion type. The inconsis+,'ncy of the statement that the radio emission of some galaxies is the result .)f collision of two galaxies is shown. "During the existence of the observatory 18 issues of Soobshcheni Byurakanskoy observatorii (Cc,.-ununications of the Byurakan Observatory) were published." Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 2. Star Catalog of Right Ascensions in the 113 System "Catalog of Right Ascensions of Stars FKSZ in the FK3 System, Compiled From Observations on the Kharr'kov Meridian Circle in 1953-1956" u_ch. za . Kharkovskogo un-ta, 19.7?, 86; Tr. Aatron. observ., 13, 13-61 (from Referativri-ri Zhurnal -- Astronomi i Geodeziya, No 2, Feb 58, Abstract No 9O0) The authors observed stars of the catalog by means of the meridian circle of the Kharkov observatory (F = 192 cm) D n 16 cm) from 1953 to 1956. During 221i nights 5,759 observations of stars were obtained, among them 2,816 reference stars. The observations were made on wide 400 zones. Investigation results of instrument errors are reported; variations of the value n; differences between observations made at circles east and west; personal errors among observers; accuracy of results; and comparison of the catalog obtained with GC and FK3. The obtained right ascensions of 645 stars, of the list FKSZ in the FK3 F,ystem are given, reduced to the equinox 1950.0, the mean time of observa- tions of each star and the number of observations. Also, separate positions of stars of the catalog are published for each date of observations.. 3. Catalog of Declinations in FK3 System "Catalog of Declinations of 585 Weak Stars in the FK3 System Observed by Means of the Meridian Circle of the Kiev Astro- nomical Observatory," 'by A. 'A. Gorynya, Tr. Kievsk. astron. observ., 1956, 1, 3-79 (from Referatiyn3ry Zhurnal -- Astro- nomiya i Geodeziya, No 2, Feb 58, Abstract No 901 The catalog is a part of the work on compilation of a catalog of weak stars. From January 1948 to April 1951, 5,300 observations were made, among them 2,657 observations of reference stars by means of the Repsold meridian circle. Data on the instrument are given (F = 148 cm. D = 12 cm, diameter of circles = 72 cm), on the meridian room of the observatory, on the constants of the instrument setting, and on the method of observations and their processing. The final reduction of declinations to the FK3 system (for each degree) was processed according to the Zimmerman method and is different for a different position of the instrument (circle eastward and circle westward) which may be explained by a change of the bending action. The declinations of the processed stars are reduced to the equinox 1950.0. The mean error of one observation equaled t 0".53. The comparison of the obtained catalog with GC was done by means of 139 general stars, with FK3, by means of the Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 differences FK3 - GC. The differences proved insignificant, but one sign predominates, indicating a not sufficiently accurate tie-in of the new catalog to FK3. After elimination of systematic differences K - GC, a satisfactory agreement of results of the comparison of the catalog being published with GC and FK3 was reached. In the appendix a catalog of declinations of 585 stars and the results of separate observations of declinations of stars are given. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 II. BIOLOGY Insect Control 4. Aerosol Generators "Aerosol Generators," by G. I,Korotkikh; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteni of Vreditele i Bolezne , CPYRGHTNo 5, Sep Oct 57, pp 50-51 "During 1956, in the Czechoslovak Republic the first consignment of portable pulsating aerosol generators, RAG-l, was released. Klavik, Pokorny, and Koula, members of the Institute of Plant Grpwing, took part in the development of the construction. The apparatus is designed for destroying harmful insects found on various trees and small field and garden crops, as well as for the disinfestation of grain storage and animal buildings. A jet pulsating engine is the basis of the generator. It is started by a hand pump after being connected to an ignition battery. After several seconds, a pressure of 1.2 atmospheres is attained in the gasoline and insecticide tanks. After passing through a series of disk valves, the gasoline enters the combustion chamber through a nozzle where it is mixed with air and then ignited by a spark plug. "The hot gases which are formed are directed through an exhaust pipe at the end of which is located a jet of insecticide solution. The insecti- cide is divided into drops by these gases, as a result of which a highly dispersed mist is forced out of the generator pipe. "After the gasoline is ignited, the battery is disconnected and the combustion chamber continues to function autamatlicatly at the rate of 60-80 impulses per second. The empty generator weighs 5.5 kg, has a gaso- line reserve for one hour's work (1.5 liters), an insecticide reserve for 20 minutes' work. (4.5 liters), and a gross weight of 11.5 kg. The insecti- cide is consumed at the rate of 0.2 liter per minute. "The dispersion of the mist can be altered by changing the level of the gasoline: slanting the nozzle downward increases the mist droplet size, and slanting the nozzle upward decreases the size of the droplets. "Some of the portable pulsating aerosol generators have been received by the Moscow Plant Protection Station. Preliminary tests indicate it is simple to handle, but it is very sensitive to the purity of the insecticide and gasoline used, as well as to shock, and external air temperature. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 gnld For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "It is believed that the portable pulsating generators will find many uses in the fight against pests in gardens, orchards, and agricultural plan- tations (primarily for treatingz protective ditches with DDT) as well as for the disinfestation of grain storage bins, hothouses, and animal buildings. "Due to the small capacity of the insecticide tank, it is expedient to use oil solutions of the pure gamma-isomer of hexachlorane. "During 1957 in the Czechoslovak Republic the first model of a tractor- mounted pulsating aerosol generator was constructed. "Electric light bulbs -- "Insekta" (patent 169836) -- containing an insecticide are being used in Austria, Sweden, France, and other countries in the fight against everyday parasites (flies, moths, bedbugs, and cock- roaches). The bulb, which can be screwed into a normal socket, has two apertures through which pressed tablets of the gamma-isomer of hexachlorane may be inserted -- one tablet, weighing 0.6 gram, for each 50 m3 of area to be treated. After the power is turned on, the heat from the filaments glow- ing in the bulb is passed on to the blackened lower portion of the bulb where the hexachlorane tablet is located. The hexachlorane is volatilized by the effect of heat and its crystals escape into the air, filling the room. The volatilization process is completed in 40 minutes. From 2 to 4 hours later the room is ventilated. The gamma-isomer tablets do not have the typical unpleasant smell of technical hexachlorane. "Thirty-five-candlepower bulbs, 120-130 and 220-240 volts, are produced. After the bulb is washed with alcohol, it can be either reused or used for ordinary lighting. In addition to treating living quarters, these bulbs can be used to disinfest grain storage and animal buildings." Radiobiology 5. Scientific Conference on Radiobiology Meets to Commemorate 250th Anniversary of Leningrad "Scientific Conference on Radiobiology, Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of Leningrad," by Prof S. Ya. Arbuzov and Prof V. P. Mikhaylov, Division of Radiobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of N;-dical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiologira, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58)pp 88-92 The Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR held. its scientific meeting from 28 to 31 May 1957 to celebrate the 250th anniversary of Leningrad. The conference was devoted to the problem of radio- biology. More than 300 people representing 4+5 scientific institutions partici- pated in the proceedings of this conference, and a total of 4+6 reports were heard. There were six sessions. -6- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Prof D. A. Biryukov, director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, opcncd the conference and tallied briefly on the historical development of radiobiology which was introduced in 1897, and which has branched out so that now research on radiobiology is conducted by the scientific branch of nearly every institute. The reporter also mentioned that with the discovery of atomic energy a new branch of radiobiology has been organized since 1956 to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The following are the important scientific reports of the six sessions of this conference. 1. Prof P. S. Kupalov reported on "The Influence of Penetrating Radi- ation on the Activity of the Central Nervous System." At first he elaborated on the effect of radium emanation on the brain of the frog. His data indi- cate that ionizing radiation exerts a direct effect on the central nervous system which leads to changes in the functional properties of nerve cells. The reporter said that as early as half' an hour after the irradiation of dogs by X rays the latter disturb the normal course of complex higher nervous ac- tivity. 2. 0. N. Voyevodina, an associate of P. S. Kupalov, demonstrated by motion pictures the effect of single and repeated general X-ray irradiation on situation-conditioned reflexes in dogs. 3. Prof P. G. Svetlov reported on "The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Embryogenesis of Manunalia," and he dwelt on the most important problems, including the interrelationships between embryology and genetics. His data distinguish two periods of maximum radiosensitivity of the fetus to radiation, i.e., the preimplantation period and the period of transition to placental circulation. The author considers that it is possible to transfer the re- sults of this research on rats to man and conclude that embryos may suffer severe consequences by doses that are harmless to their mothers. Further- more, one may suppose that maximum harm from irradiation may occur during the first week after conception (preimplantation period) and during the second to the ninth weeks of pregnancy. li.. Z. F. Isachenko reported on his experimental results connected with the transfer of the zygote 3 days after mating, first, from irradiated rabbits to healthy ones, and, second, from healthy animals to irradiated ones. 5. L. A. Kachur reported on the physicochemical processes in the initial biological effect of ionizing radiations. He stated that the presence of water and of large organic molecules in living organisms makes one suppose the possibility of the combined effect of both the direct and the indirect influences of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, a number of factors lead one to suppose that the fundamental physicochemical reaction determining the development of radiation injuries is a chain-reaction mechanism. -7- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 6. Prof I. A. Piontkovskiy demonstrated by motion pictures the loss of maternal instinct of albino rats which were :irradiated, by X rays during their pregnancy. 7. Prof V. G. Yeliseyev stressed the necessity of studying the hyal- uronic acid content of ova and of embryonic tissues after irradiation. The following reports were heard at the second session of the confer- ence which concentrated on the problems of vascular permeability and dis- turbances of cardiovascular functions anc:i of the respiratory system. 1. Prof A. V. Lebedinskiy reported on the topic of "The Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Permeability," and presented new data obtained at his laboratory. He described a specially interesting method of quanti- tative calculation of the permeability of the walls of blood vessels based on changes in the fluorescence of the fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye after the introduction of fluorescein into the blood. After irradia- tion, two periods of increased permeability are noted. The first is a reversible increased permeability, while the second period of increased permeability immediately precedes the death of the anima'.s. Before the onset of this second period, the grave outcome of irradiation is distin- guished by the coloring of the anterior chamber of the eye. 2. N. I. Arinchin reported on the dynamics of blood pressure level in radiation sickness in dogs and rats. His data confirm the compensatory nature of the changes in the cardiovascular system to maintain blood pres- sure level during radiation sickness. 3. Two reports, one by Prof N. A. Shevehenko on the topic of "Delayed Changes Due to Radiation in the Endothelial Layer of the Large Blood Vessels" and the second report by A. D. Smirnov and Z. P. Kovtun on the topic of "Changes in the Walls of Intraorganic Blood Vessels at Various Stages of Acute Radiation Sickness," analyzed the morphological changes in the walls of blood vessels during radiation sickness. 4. L. G. Terekhova reported on her research devoted to the influence of ionizing radiation on the functional condition of the respiratory center. An analysis of her material proves that general X-ray irradiation changes the functional condition of the respiratory center and may be considered one of the methods of desensitizing animals. 5. G. I. Medvedeva reported on the effect of radiation sickness on the course of traumatic shock and the effectiveness of certain recommended means for its therapy during radiation sickness. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The third session of this conference concentrated on a number of problems connected with the role of neurohumoral mechanisms in the develop- ment of radiation sickness. The following reports were presented. 1. Prof D. A. Biryukov presented a second report on the effect of penetrating radiation on the central nervous system of birds. A number of new factors were revealed. Data proved that acute motor disturbances in pigeons after their irradiation are connected with the injury of the lower divisions of the brain. The reporter explained that the effect of penetrating radiation in any given case is connected not with the higher divisions of the central nervous system, but with the lower ones. Biryu- kov suggests that his experimental data make one able to conclude that the effects of ionizing radiations offer a new procedure for physiological research and at the same time present a basis for studying the mechanism and the subject of radiation effects. 2. V. V. Petelina reported on the "Influence of Radiation Sickness on Reflexes of Vestibular Analysors'and cited facts which indicate that disturbances in the activity of vestibular analysors are connected with its cortical part which has a tendency toward quick compensation rather than the subcortical analysors which are distinguished by their great stability and constancy. 3. G. Z. Abdullin reported that the irradiation of the head of pi- geons by X rays with adequate protection of higher nervous activity leads to disturbances in the lower forms of coordination, i.e., clumsiness, etc. 4. M. G. Durmish'yan reported on the "Types and Mechanisms of Re- actions of an Organiem to the Effect of Small Doses of Radiation" and pre- sented a number of factors verifying pronounced changes in the function of various systems of an organism due to radiation by small doses. 5. P. I. Lomonos, in his report on changes of defense-conditioned reflexes in dogs following radiation sickness, explained the phasic nature and the fluctuation of the magnitude of conditioned reflexes. Parallel research on the peripheral blood of irradiated dogs indicates that changes in the blood precede disturbances of higher nervous activity. A number of reports were heard at this session on disturbances of certain endocrine glands due to radiation sickness. 6. Prof Ye. A. Moiseyev reported on the results of his research on the morphological changes in the anterior lobe of the hypophysis of guinea pigs after their irradiation by gamma rays. Changes were evident in the chromophil cells, suggesting that changes occur in the cytoplasmic granules and consequently lead to changes in the hormones which are elaborated by these cells. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 7. M. I. Yakovleva reported that research done on cats indicates changes in ';.he excitability of the cortical part of adrenals following radiation sickness. 8. Ye. I. Komarov, in his report entitled "Concerning the Neurohumoral Mechanisms of Leukocyte Reaction Following Local Irradiation of the Gut by Radioactive Strontium," proved, the possibility of reflex changes in the or- ganism following the irradiation of the gut due to the participation of the humoral chain which in this case is the adrenal glands. 9. A. D. Smirnov presented preparations which demonstrated histologi- cal changes in the neurons of the spinal ganglia, in the sympathetic nuclei of ',he spinal cord, and in the ganglia along the spinal column (autonomic nervous system) at various stages of acute radiation sickness. The fourth session concentrated on changes in the reactivity of tissues following irradiation, especially during the period of recovery and regener- ative processes in radiation sickness and included the following reports. 1. A joint report by Prof N. A. Krayevskiy and V.V. Shikhodyrov on "The Condition of Porous Connective `f. sue Following Radiation Sickness" demonstrated changes in the cells and in the intercellular substances aris- ing in animals due both to external irradiation and to the introduction into organisms of various radioactive substances. A number of symptoms of radi- ation sickness were connected with these changes in the connective tissue, i.e., disturbances of vascular and connective tissue permeability, changes in the mechanical strength of blood vessels and of tissues, changes in the regenerative capacity of injured organs, distortion of the course of in- flammatory reaction, decreased phagocytosis, and decreased immunity. 2. Prof L. N. Zhinkin reported on the morphological changes in skele- tal musculature under the influence of radioactive phosphorus. He observed that changes of an atrophic nature in muscle fibers were caused by disturbed circulation. 3. Prof V. G. Yeliseyev, and N. V. Militsyna reported on "The Influence of General X-Ray Irradiation of Foci of Aseptic Inflammation." 4. Prof V. P. Mikhaylov, Ye. A. Cheredeyeva, and K. M. Yaxoslavtseva presented material on regeneration of uterine tissue of young rats after traumatic injuries due to radiation sickness. Data indicate that regenera- tive processes in uterine tissue after irradiation by a dose of 550 r pro- ceed quite well. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 5. Prof B. P. Kalashnikov and Yu. S. Kaminskaya reported on the local and general irradiation effects on the retina of rabbits' eyes following radiation doses of 800 and 10,000 r. The theme of the fifth session was metabolic changes and infectious processes due to radiation sickness. The following reports were heard. 1. Prof A. M. Kuzin, and Ye. A. Ivanitska presented new data on "The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Sorption Properties of Cells." Changes in sorption properties were especially pronounced in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system. 2. V. S. Turovskiy reps:; ted on the effect of local X-ray irradiation on the content and metabolism of the acid-insoluble phosphorus fraction of bone marrow. 3. A joint report by B. P. Golovin and 0. K. Dokusov explained the hormonal secretion function of the adrenal cortex during radiation sickness, Results based on the elaboration of 17-ketosteroid hormones prove the phasic nature of radiation sickness. 4. Changes in the blood sugar level due to reflex mechanism following local irradiation of small intestines by radioactive strontium were explained in the report by R. Ya. Keylina and Ye. I. Komarov. The blood sugar level in irradiated animals was 20-30% higher than in controls, but no - increase in the blood sugar level was noted in animals with previously denervated intestines. 5. N. I. Likhnitskaya, doing research on the influence of ionizing radiation on the regulatory mechanism of water metabolism, explained that after radiation sickness there is a spontaneous decrease of the diuretic reaction after the ingestion of smat:' amounts of water. Data reveal that radiation sickness causes retenticn of water in the extracellular and cellu- lar phases. 6. Prof B. G. Avetikyan and A. G. Artemova, in a joint report, ex- plained the influence of X-ray irradiation on "congealed" foci of auto- infection. It was established that the already established foci of experi- mental autoinfection (done by ligature of the caecum of albino mice) show no activation due to X-ray irradiation, contrary to foci of autoinfection that are in the process of formation. 7- Prof A. V. Ponomarev, in a report, entitled "The Influence of Ionizing Radiation on the Iaunological Condition of Organisms," proved that irradiation before the administration of antigens inhibits antibody formation. Therefore, for prophylactic and tborapeutic purposes during radiation sickness, immune serum must be used, in addition to antibiotics. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 3. B. N. Sofrunov reported on the in:fluerice of X-ray irradiation on experirncntu1. prieumoriia, proving that Irradiation significantly aggravates the course of infection and that the use of biomycin is advisable but th tt streptomycin is much more effective. The sixth and last session of the conference was devoted to the problem of prophylaxis and experimental therapy of radiation sickness. The following reports were given. i. Prof N. A. Kharauzov, V. B. Isachenko, and Yu. I. Lisunkin re- ported on results of their experiments on the influence of cholinolytic and anti cholinestcra,se substances used separately and in combination with thiourea on the course of radiation sickness. Results verify changes in the systems reactive to choline after irradiation and the distinct protec- tive effect of certain cholinolytic substances. Combining cholinolytic substances with thiocompounds exerted an unfavorable effect on the protec- tive properties of the latter. No decrease in the protective effects was noted by combining anticholinesterase preparations with thiourea.. 2. Prof S. Ya. Arbuzov presented a report entitled "The Protective Effect of Certain Pharmacological Agents in Radiation Injuries." This report included results of a number of scientists' experiments on the effect of a number of Soviet preparations, for example, the more active salts of mercamine, unithiol, sodium chlorophyllin, aminazine, and phosphorus-containing compounds, on the course and outcome of radiation injuries. Some sulfur-containing compounds also were discussed. It was established that mercamine exerts a pronounced effect on various segments of the reflex are, on vegetative innervation, and on higher nervous ac- tivity. In animals deprived of superior cervical sympathetic ganglia, the protective effect of mercamine and its combination with stimulators of the nervous system was greatly decreased. 3. A report by Ye. A. Mukhin treated the prophylactic use of iso- thiouronic compounds in injuries by radiation sickness. Compounds of this series exert a pronounced effect which is not inferior to that by mercamine and are less toxic. 4. P. F. Ganzha presented the results of his experimental observations on the protective effect of certain thiodiazole products in radiation in- juries. The author reported that it is possible to achieve a protective effect by using heterocyclic compounds. This view has provided a reason for searching for new compounds in this series. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 5. L. I. Tune reported on his studies of the protective effect of mercamine derivatives on the external effect of penetrating radiation. It was established that lengthening the carbon chain to C5 or changing its configuration does not deprive mercamine of its protective properties. 6. V. P. Korotkova reported on "The Influence of Mercamine and Its Combination With Certain Analeptics on the Course and Outcome of Radia- tion Injuries'! and noted that a combination of caffeine with mercamine administered before irradiation boosts the protective effect of mercamine. 7. The pharmacological analysis of the protective effect of cysteine- amine in radiation sickness was presented in a report by G. I. Smorodintseva. She established that cysteineamine increased cholinesterase activity in the brain, kidneys, and blood and changed the reflex reaction of blood pressure and of respiration and that it possesses gangliolytic properties. 8. I. Ya. Nekachalova reported on her observations on the effect of cy'steineamine on the secretory and motor functions of the intestines in radiation sickness. The administration of cysteineamine to irradiated dogs aids in the normalization of the process of digestion and increases the secretory function of the intestines as compared with that of controls. At the conclusion of this session, the following people participated in the discussions: L. F. Semenov, M. M. Lenkevich, Prof M. G. Durm sh'yan, Prof S. V. Anichkov, and Prof A. V. Lebedinskiy, all of whom stressed the special significance of cholinergic and adr energic structures in the reac- tions of living organisms to the effect of ionizing radiations. It was mentioned that research, in this direction, on various pharmacological agents has great future prospects, and it was furthermore noted that the analysis of the protective effect of the preparations that are being studied in radi- ation sickness is connected with the explanation of the mechanism of their physiological effect. Delegates to the conference participating in the discussions included the synthetic-organic chemists Prof F. Yu. Rachinskiy, Prof M. N. Shchukina, V. 0. Kul'bakh, and F. T. Solodkiy, who stressed the urgent necessity of speeding research in the medical industry on preparations possessing pro- tective and therapeutic effects in radiation injuries and of opening a wide front for research on the synthesis of new and more effective preparations. These projects will proceed under the combined direction of chemists, pharma- cologists, and radiobiologists. The conference adjourned after a word from Prof A. V. Lebedinskiy, who praised the great accomplishments of the conference, and said that the work reported in a number Cf papers not only clarified known information on the reactions of organisms to ionizing radiation, but also produced addi- tional information on some missing links. The reporter said that the confer- ence also proved the existence of certain shortcoriings: for instance, there were few reports on the incorporation of radioactive substances and there was evidence of insufficient study of radiation effects due to small doses. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 iEFA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 6. Correlated Changes in Plants Subjected to X-Ray Irradiation Studied "On the Correlated Changes in Plante Under the Effect of X Raya," by I. M. Vasil'yev, Institute of Biological Physics of the Acad- emy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklacy Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 116, No 1, Sep/Oct 1957, pp 49-51 Since X rays cause numerous changes of a different nature in plants, and some of these changes are due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation while others are consequences of the indirect effects and in their turn cause changes of a third order, etc., two series of tests on wheat were conduced to study X ray effects on plants. The author concludes that many changes in plants subjected to X ray effects arise according to the principle of correlation. The most important change in irradiated plants which leads to other changes is the inhibition of growth in the meristematic zones. De- creased growth in the root hairs results in the accumulation in the cells of osmotically active substances unused for growth, and an increase in auctorial strength of the cells, leading to the formation of vacules, etc. A darker coloring of leaves of irradiated plants is noted and this is di- rectly correlated with delayed leaf growth. The inhibited growth of plants irradiated by X rays in certain cases may be a positive factor, for example, in preserving the life of the plant for a longer periol under conditions of insufficient nutrition. - 114.- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 III. CHEMISTRY Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Propellants 7. Chemical Iathibitors of Exp".^sion of Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixtures "Is It Possible to Make Nonexplosive Mixtures of Hydrogen With Oxygen?" by A. B. Taubman, Doctor of Chemical Sciences; Moscow, CPYRGh gri=Aa. No 5, May 58, p 128 "Hydrogen-oxygen mixtures which have been thoroughly dried explode at a considerably higher tenksper:?,.ture than mixtures containing water. For a long time this effect was ascribed to the catalytic action of water vapor. However, it has been established that the inhibiting effect on the reaction and the increase in the ignition temperature are brought about by traces of phosphine derived from the phosphoric acid anhydride that is commonly used as a drying ager:c. "The ieperdence of the explosive properties of hydrogen on its content .In the mixture is determined by the existence of two concentration limits: the lower concentration limit, which is reached when the quantity of the com'oustible gao in the mixture becomes inadequate, and the upper concentra- tion limit, which exists when there is a lack of oxygen in the mixture, Y.e., when an excess of hydrogen is present. The upper limit is of particular interest from the practical standpoint. This limit corresponds to 72% of hydrogen and 28% of air for hydrogen-air mixtures (the lower limit for hydrogen-air mixtures corresponds to 5% of hydrogen and 95% of air). "The existence of these limits is due to the fact that the flame cannot propagate when the rate of transmission of heat from the burning mixture to the surrounding atmosphere becomes so large that the temperature drops below a certain critical value and the rate of propagation is reduced to only a few centimeters per second. Inhibition of the explosion of mixtures of hydro- gen with oxygen (as well as any other explosive gas mixtures) by the addition of various agents is based on this relationship. This inhibition is referred to as flegmatization of the explosive mixture. "According to present-day ideas on the subject, chain reactions play the principal role in combustion processes. Molecules of the inhibitor also enter into chain reactions, bringing about termination of chains, and thus considerably reduce or bring to zero the rate of combustion. "The most effective substances in this respect are halogens (chlorine or bromine) and their compounds, for instance, carbon tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, ethyl bromide, etc. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Cp / ed For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "According to experiments carried out by Tanaka and Nagai in 1927, the add.LtIon of 1% of ethyl bromide to a hydrogen-air mixture lowers the upper limit of ignition of the hydrogen-air mixture from 72% to 49% and the addi- tion of 3% of this inhibitor to 34%. When 6% of the inhibitor has been added, the upper limit of ignition is lowered to 12%. "Thus, one may say that there is an effective method of inhibiting the tendency of hydrogen to explode. However, depending on the conditions of the combustion of gas mixtures (the content of hydrogen in them, the cir- cumstance as to whether combustion takes place in an open or closed vessel, the type of the ignition source, etc.), one must select 'appropriate condi- tions under which the action of inhibitors will be most effective. "The theory of the inhibition of the combustion and explosion of gases forms a part of the general theory of combustion and explosions, which has been developed primarily by Soviet scientists," Chemistry and Technology of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 8. Solubility of Uranyl Nitrate in Dibutyl Ether "Investigation of the System Uranyl Nitrate-Water-Dibutyl Ether; Solubility Isotherm at 25?," by V. M. Vdovenko and I. G. Suglobova Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 3, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1403-1409 The solubility isotherm of the system uranyl nitrate-water-dibutyl ether at 250 has been investigated. It was established that water molecules which combine with anhydrous uranyl nitrate, forming coordination compounds (hydrates), increase the rather low solubility of the anhydrous salt in dibutyl ether and other ethers. 9. Carbonate Complexes of Plutonium "Carbonate and Carbonate-Oxalate Complex Compounds of Plutonium (IV); Part 1 -- Plutoniumcarbonates of Potassium," by A. D. Gell- man and L. M. Zaytsev; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 3, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1304-1311 A method has been developed for the isolation of complex carbonate compounds of plutonium (IV) in the form of solid substances of a sufficiently high degree of purity. Four potassium-carbonate complex compounds of pluto- nium have been isolated: K4[Pu(CO3R)4].nH20; K6[Pu(CO3)5].(3-4).H2O; K8[Pu- (C03)6].nH2O; and K12[Pu(CO )8J.n1l 0. It as established that the coordina- tion number as far as the nclusion of COe= ions in the inner sphere of the complex compound is concerned may be as high as eight. - 16 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 10. Migration of Radium and Thorium Isotopes Stuuied "On the Mechanism of Migration of Radium and Thorium Isoi;.opes," by V. I. Baranov, A. M. Babeshkin, K. B. Zaborenko, and S. V. Pirozhkov, Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 3, No 4, Apr 58, pp 1054-1059 The authors were interested in t.tudying the process of migration in simple systems for which the form in which radioactive isotopes occur would be known in advance and the number of radioactive "transformations" be small. For this purpose the leaching out of radium and thorium isotopes from com- pounds whose crystal lattice is isomorphous with radium and thorium compounds was investigated. Experiments were conducted using barium salts containing Ra-226 and Ra-228 and cerium salts containing Th-228. In these experiments, the degree of isotope transfer from the above compounds to the solution was studied. It was found that the degree of Ra-224 transfer into solution is greater than that of Ra-228 and Ra-226 which is in agreement with data obtained by using samples of naturally occurring compounds. The behavior of thorium isotopes is determined not so much by the crystalline form of the compounds in which they occur as by the chemistry and behavior of thorium. This should be taken into account when the migration of thorium isotopes in nature is estimated. 11. Luminescence Spectra of Uranyl Nitrate Coordination Compounds "Luminescence Spectra of Uranyl Nitrate Coordination Compounds," by G. I. Kobyshev and D. N. Suglobov, Physics Institute and Chemistry Institute of the Leningrad State University imeni A. A. Zhdanov; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 120, No 2, may 58, pp 330-332 The luminescence spectra of both anhydrous uranyl nitrate and sume of its coordination compounds with various additives was investigated to ascer- tain the effect of coordination and the properties of molecule-additives on the luminescence spectra. It was found that the structure of the luminescence spectra of uranyl compounds is conditioned by coordination of electron-donor molecules at the uranyl ion with the resultant formation of stable compounds. It was also observed that in the case of the coordination compounds there is a shifting in the maximum of luminescence intensity toward lower frequen- cies which is due to a strengthening of the donor properties of the molecules functioning as additives. - 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 12. Prospects for Production of Uranium and Germanium From Coal in Hungary and Eastern Germs _ "Uranium and Germanium From Coal" (unsigned article); Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, Vol 3, No 36 (336), CPYRGI-Mar 5,p ` "Workers at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Hungary found that coal mined in the Transdanubian regiin contains large quantities of uranium. The institute is conducting extensive research with the view of finding the cheapest method of recovering uranium from lignite. "Investigations conducted in the GDR (German Democratic Republic showed that lignite contains small quantities of germanium. Coal appears to be a better source of germanium than lignite. "Germanium can be recovered relatively easily as a by-product from the crud(material being treated. This is due to the chemical properties of germanium: first, the volatility of some of the compounds of this element, particularly of germanium chloride, and second, the capacity of germanium to form similarly to carbon and silicon diverse compounds of the same struc- ture as the organic compounds of carbon or the silanes derived from silicon. "Organization on a large scale of the recovery of volatile and organic by-products in connection with the conversion of coal (and of petroleum and peat) will make it possible to increase considerably the production of ger- manium." Industrial Chemistry 13. Progress in Subterranean Gasification of Coal "The Present State and Prospects of the Subterranean Gasification of Coal," by N. V. Iavrov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, and I. P. Kirichenko, Candidate of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 56-61 In a general review which outlines the specific characteristics of the process of subterranean gasification of coal and reports on progress in this field riade in the USSR, the following information is given and the following opinions are expressed: The technology of the subterranean gasification of lignite to generate gas for power production has been developed and experimental and developmental work is being done on the subterranean gasification of coal d~posits. Prog- ress in the subterranean gasification of coal has been less rapid than in the subterranean gasification of lignite. Exceptionally difficult conditions Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 were encountered as far as the gasification of coal at the Lisichansk Station is concerned. To generate power gas there, blowing with air that has been partly enriched with oxygen is used. This is not expedient from the economic standpoint. The principal object of the work being done at Lisichansk is development of a process for the generation of power gas with air blowing and of a process for the generation of technological gas (i.e., of a gas used in chemical syntheses) with the application of oxygen and steam. The Yuzhno-Abinsk Experimental Station in the Kuznetsk Basin has been operating for. 2 years. A steeply inclined coal laye:^ about 7 meters thick is subjected to gasification there. The thermal energy release capacity of the gas produced at this station, averaged over a year, amounts to 1,270 kilocalories per normal cubic meter, while the chemical efficiency of the process is higher than 70%, i.e., approaches that achieved in surface gas generators. The work in the field of subterranean gasification conducted in the USSR is considerably ahead of that done outside the USSR in regard to both scope and the technical methods used in it. However, a number of com- plex scientific and technological problems remains to be solved before large quantities of gas suitable for industrial applications can be produced. A theoretical basis for the electric joining together and/or cross- cutting of wells (sboyka skvazhin) with an alternating current of 760-800 volts has been developed in work done at the Power Institute imeni G. M. K:r,zhizhanovskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR, and at tlB All-Union Design and Planning Scientific Research Institute of the Underground Gasification of Coal (Vniipodzemgaz). This method was found to be of advantage in trials conducted on lignite. Semiconductor thermoelectrogenerators of the type developed by A. F. Ioffe and his collaborators ought to prove useful for the direct conversion into electric energy of the physical heat contained in gas produced by sub- terranean gasification. Employment of tracer atoms is one of the best methods of studying the flow of gas in subterranean gasification installations. Immediate prospects for the development of subterranean gasification of coal depend on the possibilities of the production of a tech:aological gas suitable for the synthesis of valuable chemical products. The Institute of Combustible Minerals together with Vniipodzemgaz has completed work on the principal theoretical aspects of the production of a technological gas by subterranean gasification with the application of oxygen and steam blowing. However, work on this subject is not proceeding rapidly enough. - 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 14. Solutions of Silicic Acid in Acetone as Substitute for Ethyl Silicate "A Substitute for Ethyl Silicate," by Ye. Yegorova, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, senior scientific associate, Institute of Sili- cate Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; and P. Sorokin, Obndidste of Technical Sciences, docent of the Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute imeni V. I. Lenin; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, Vol 3, No 76 (376), 27 Jun 58, p 3 Solutions of silicic acid in acetone have been found a satisfactory and cheap substitute in the treatment of molds for metal casting. By using such solutions the cost of cast metal can be considerably reduced. The Len- ingrad Sovnarkhoz (Council of National Economy) has decided to organize a ce9tralized production of the new ethyl silicate substitute. A method for its production is described. Isotopes 15. Statistical Method for Determination of Isotope Composition of Simple and Complex Substances "The Quantity and Concentration of Isotopic Molecules of Simple and Complex Substances,," by I. G. Petrenko; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 4, Apr 58, pp 377-380 A method has been developed for the statistical calculation of the number and concentration of isotopic molecules of simple and complex chemical compounds without considering the influence of the isotope effect. This method is described and illustrated by actual calculations for carbon monoxide carbon dioxide, and methane. It is pointed out that investigation of the molec- ular isotopic composition is of importance for mass-spectrometric measurements molecular spectroscopy, and the separation of isotopes. Furthermore, enrich- ment with an isotope due to the isotope effect can be determined after the concentration of isotopic molecules based on the statistical distribution of isotopes has been calculated. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Organic Chemistry 16. Work on New Synthetic Fibers at Moscow Textile Institute "Development of Methods for the Synthesis of New Types of Sync thetic Fibers" by Z. A. Rogovin and Z. A. Zazulina, Chair of Synthetic Fibers, Moscow Textile Institute; Ivanovo, Izvestiya V sshikh Uchebn kh Zavedeni Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekh- nologiya, No 1, Feb 5b,, pp 137.-1 During the past 5-6 years, research on new synthetic fibers of the carbon-carbon chain type has been conducted at the Chair of Synthetic Fibers of the Moscow Textile Institute, As a result of the research that has been done, several new types of synthetic fibers were developed., Two varieties of fibers that have been developed present considerable interest from the standpoint of technological applications. The industrial production of these fibers on an experimental scale will presumably begin soon. Research at the Moscow Textile Institute was conducted along the follow- ing two lines: 1." Synthesis and fabrication of modified polyacrylonitrile fibers and acrylonitrile copolymer fibers, including (a) a copolymer of acrylonitrile with vinylidene chloride (the "saniv" or MII-1 fiber) and (b) a polymetha- crylonitrile (the MTI-3 fiber). 2. Development of fibers which are more resistant to chemical action than the known natural and synthetic fibers (this phase of the work consisted in the development of the "ftorlon" or MU-2 fiber). On the basis of the results that are reported, the following conclusions were made: 1. Replacement of hydrogen with a methyl group in the acrylonitrile group of polyacrylonitrile sharply Powers the quality of the fiber, so that it is not advisable to employ polymethacrylonitrile for the production of synthetic fibers. 2. Ftorlon is superior to all known natural and synthetic fibers as far as resistance to chemical action is concerned. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 .17. Synthetic Fibers With Higher Resistance to Heat and Chemical Action "New Synthetic Fibers," by A. Bystrov; Moscow, Pro shlerno- CPYRGHtOnomicheskaya Gazeta, Vol 3, No 81 (381), 9 Jul 5 , p 2 "Extensive work on the development of a method for the synthesis of a fiber which is highly resistant to aggressive substances has been done at the Chair of Synthetic Fibers, Moscow Textile Institute (Prof Z. Rogovin; Z. Zazulina, Candidate of Technical Sciences; and Engr M. Marts inkovskaya). The initial material for the preparation of, the new fiber was a fluorine- containing copolymer that is soluble in acetone. This substance was syn- thesized at the Leningrad Institute of Polymerized Plastics (head, L. Chereshkevich). "The group of workers at the chair developed within a comparatively short period of time a method of fabricating the new fiber, which has been named ftorlon. "Ftorlon is distinguished by a high mechanical strength and the capacity to stretch 350-400% at room temperature. A still better mechanical strength of the fiber is achieved by treating it in glycerine. After this treatment the tensile strength .:f the fiber amounts to 115 kilograms per square milli- meter. The fiber surpasses in this respect all. kinds of natural and synthetic fibers; glass fiber is the only exception. The new fiber is very resistant to heat. As distinguidvd from khlorin [perchiorovinyl], the physico-chemical properties of which change as low as at 80-900, ftorlon can be safely used at a temperature of 1200. Ftorlon is only a little less fast to light than nitron [polyacrylonitrile] which has a fastness to light exceeding that of all other synthetic and natural fibers. "Ftorlon is very stable to chemical action exerted by various substances. While khlorin resists the action of concentrated nitric acid for only 5-6 hours, after which it deteriorates completely, the new fibers on being immersed in this acid, does not change its characteristics for 60 days. "Nitron derived from polyacrylonitrile will find extensive application in the national economy. However, its production involves the use of the solvent dimethylformamide, which is in short supply. The scientists of many countries have done persistent work with the aim for finding a substitute for polyacrylonitrile. "The group of workers at the Chair of Synthetic Fibers has successfully solved this problem as well. In cooperation with workers at other research organizations, they developed a method for the production of the new fiber saniv, which is a copolymer of acrylonitrile with vinylidene chloride. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 A P Release 1999.109.193 - CLAAR411289-00141 R.0001 00190001 -0 "The new synthetic fiber has characteristics superior to those of khlorin. Saniv dissolves readily in acetone and is resistant to the action of acids and alkalis. To increase its strength it is stretched 100-120% at an elevated temperature." 18. Polyethylene Prepared by Using New Catalyst "On the Possibility of Polymerizing Ethylene Into Polyethylene in the Presence of Lithium Hydride, Aluminum Halide, and Titanium Tetrachloride," by A. V. Topchiyev, I. V. Tolchinskiy, and B. A. Krentsel', Institute of Petroleum, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Ott. Khim. Nauk, No 3, Mar 58, pp 375 -37 In one of Ziegler's published works, it is stated that heating an ether solution of lithium aluminum hydride with ethylene at a temperature of 180-2000 under pressure results in a mixture of alpha-olefins and that no formation of high-molecular polymers of ethylene takes place. However, it is known that triethylaluminura, complexed with titanium tetrachloride, polymerizes ethylene even at atmospheric pressure. The authors therefore undertook to prepare triethylaluminum and polymerize ethylene into poly- ethylene in one stage. Two typical experiments are described using n octane and white spirit as solvents (carefully purified with all air removed). The catalyst consisted of LiH, AlCl , and TiC14 in a 1:6:4 ratio, and its concentration was about 5% by weight. In one experiment at 10 atm pressure and 850 temperature, the yield of the powdered polymer was 236 g/liter of solvent. The molecular weight was 87,000 and the melting point was 1400. Polymerization of propylene into polypropylene was also accomplished under analogous conditions. It is stated that the polyethylene prepared by these methods is a highly disperse product and samples of it have been successfully refined into high-quality foam polyethylene. 19. Synthesis of Alkylferrocenes "The Synthesis of Alkylferrocenes by the Friedel-Krafts Reaction," by A. N. Nesmeyanov and N. S. Kochetkova; Moscow, Dokladv Akademii Na ukSS , Vol ll4, No 4, Jun 57, pp 800-802 In 1956, the authors described the alkylation reaction of ferrocene with alkyl halides in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride. An excess of the alkyl halide was used as a solvent. In the present work, the authors succeeded in carrying out the same reaction by not using an excess of alkyl halide. An increase in the yield of the mono- and dialkyl derivatives of ferrocene was also achieved. n-heptane or absolute petroleum ether were used as solvents. Direct alkylation of ferrocene with alkyl halides (methyl chloride, isopropyl chloride) or unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene) resulted in the formation of the previously unknown alkylferrocenes: methylferrocene, dimethylferrocene, isopropylferrocenc, diisopropylferrocene, and isomeric - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 diethylferrocen6s in which both alkyl groups are located at the same cyclo- pentadiene ring. It was also established that introduction of the first alkyl group into the cyclopentadiene ring makes it easier for other alkyl groups to enter, as is the case with the aromatic series. When this occurs, a mixture is obtained with all substituents in one ring. 20. Oranophosphorus Polymers "Organophosphorus Polymers. Communication 3 -- Polycondensation of p-Chlorophenyldichlorophosphine With 1.2-Diphenylethane," by V. V. Korshak, G. S. Kolesnikov, and B. A. Zhubanov, Institute of 0rganoelemental Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleniyc Khimicheskikh Nauk, No 5, May 5g; PP 618-625 The polycondensation of p-chlorophenyldichlorophosphine with 1,2- diphenylethane in the presence of aluminum chloride was investigated and the basic parameters of the process determined. It was established that the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the benzene ring by a radical con- taining phosphorus with the subsequent formation of a phosphorus-carbon bond leads to the deactivation of the other hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring. The polycondensation of p-chlorophenyldichlorophosphine with diph- enylethane is complicated by processes which take place in a manner similar to that of rearylization reactions. 21. OrganophosDhorus Compounds "On Amides of Phosphorus Acids. Dialklyphosphoryl-N- phenyltriazines and Their Salts," by M. I. Kabachnik and V. A. Gilyarov, Institute of Organoelemental. Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademli Nauk SSSR, Vol 114, No 4, Jun 57, PP 781-78 It has been shown that complete esters of trivalent phosphorus acids react with phenylazide to form imidophosphates, and the reaction with - phenylazide may be considered as typical. The authors, further. investigated this reaction using salts of dialkylphosphites in which the phosphorus is trivalent. It was found that free dialkylphosphites do not react with phenylazide,while dialkylphosphite salts (those of trie4hylammonium and sodium) react smoothly to form salts of dialkyl-N-phenylphosphoryltriazines from which the free dialkylphosphoryl-N-phenyltriazines may be separated. The latter are a new class of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds. 24 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Physical Chemistry 22. Decom ositiort of Nitroglycerine Studied On the Decomposition of Nitroglycerine at High Temperatures," by K. K. Andreyev, Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute i,neni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khtmii, Vol 31, No 3, Mar 58, pp 484-493 The decomposition of iitroglycerine at high temperatures in the ab- sence of impurities is a complex homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction in the initial stage. When it takes place in the vapor phase, there is no acceleration in gas formation, while there is a slight acceleration in gas formation if the reaction takes place in the liquid phase. After a certain pressure of gaseous products if formed and a corresponding con- centration of the gases dissolved in the liquid is achieved, there is a drastic acceleration of gas formation. A similar acceleration in gas formation takes place if water, especially water combined with acids, is added to the nitroglycerine. It can therefore be concluded that in both cases accelerated gas formation is conditioned by a hydrolytic re- action and subsequent reaction between, the hydrolysis, products. The decomposition of glycol dinitrate and nitrocellulose is similar to that of nitroglycerine. 23. Heat of Explosion of Hexogen Measured "On the Explosive Decomposition of Hexogen," by A. Ya. Apin and Yu. A. Lebedev; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 114, No 4, Jun 57, pp 819-821 Changes in the heat of explosion and volume of gaseous explosion products have been established for trotyl, tetryl, picric acid, and a number of other explosives having a negative oxygen balance. However, until recently the heat of explosion of hexogen (cyclotrimethylene- trinitramine) [also known as RDX] was measured under the assumption that it was independent of the conditions of the explosion, expecially the density of the charge. Published data give different values for the heat oj' explosion of hexogen which apparently vary with the state of the ex- plosive and experimental conditions, i.e., liquid or vapor, powdered or close packed, size of charge, etc. However, there is no point to deter- mining the heat of explosion with great accuracy if conditions of the explosion are not held constant. The authors feel that the most important factor in studying complete explosion lies in maintaining constant charge density. It was established that the heat of explosion increases rapidly with increasing charge density. 25 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The heat of explosion of hexogene was measured in a 250-kg steel bomb calorimeter with the charge (30-50 g and 20-30 nun in diameter) placed in a copper shell suspended in the calorimeter. A table lists the heats of explosion in relation to the density of the charge. The relationship is linear in character. It was established that the heat of explosion is not constant for an explosive. The most important conclusion of the present work is that in a narrow detonation wave equilibrium processes in the explosion prod- ucts are established to a considerable degree, while over a longer period of time expansion of the explosion products that have reached a state of equilibrium does not have time to go in the opposite direction, i.e., there is an intense "freezing" of the equilibrium. Determination of the heat, of explosion and the composition of the explosion products of the charge, the diameter of which is close to the critical, permits one to judge the degree of pressure drop in the detonation wave and the magni- tude of pressure loss. Radiation Chemistry 24. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals "The Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals Under the Effect of Radia- tion," by A. V. Byalobzheskiy, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 3, May 58, pp 515-517. While ionizing radiation does not produce any corrosion of metals in dry air, experiments conducted in this instance in air the relative humidity 6-'which was 98% indicated that considerable corrosion of iron, copper, aluminum, and zinc takes place in humid air under the action of radiation. It was established that not only oxygen but also the nitrogen of the air has a corroding effect under the conditions studied. V. G. Khlopin established that ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrous acid an- hydride are formed in humid air as a result of the action of ultraviolet radiation. In the experiments conducted in this instance, in which a cathode ray tube, an X-ray tube, and CoOO were used as sources of radia- tion, it was found that ozone (O.u% in air and 0.5% in oxygen) and nitro- gen oxides were formed, but no measurable quantity of hydrogen peroxide. While these long-lived products of irradiation of the atmosphere promote the corrosion of metals, the short-lived products (OH and OH2 radicals, 0 atoms, compounds of the type of NO3) have a still greater effect, ac- cording to the results obtained. It was furthermore established that corrosion in pure oxygen is not significantly greater than in a mixture consisting of 80% of argon + 20% of oxygen. The fact that a passivating effect is exerted by the strongly acidic products formed in oxygen is advanced as an explanation for this. - 26 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 25 111diolycl.n of T3enrcryl P,,rcoxidc~ SolutLun Invrc;t,i~rLi;cd "Nru,r(,y 'i ran;:, 1't_-r? Dun l n !', the Ii-adi r .l.y : L ; of T3enznyl Pero:d de Sc) 11_1tiono," by V. A. Kronguuz raid Kh. S. 6i.Lsar'y112, S^icr.- '.ific: Rene;arcii Physlcochemical Inst;:itut,, irneni L. Ya. Karpova; Moscow, Dok.Lady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 1.111, No 4, Jun 57, pp 329?-832 When solutions of organic compounds are t;ubjected to ionizing radia- tion, the absorbed energy can be transferred from on component to another. To clarify the effect of the nature of the solvent on the transfer of energy, the authors investigated the rad.ioly;is of benzoyl peroxide in benzene, cyclohexane, and ethyl acetate. The differential dose was equal to 1.71l. X 1015 ev/ml?sec. The radiolysis was conducted with gamma rays from Co60 in a vacuum, and the initial rate of decomposition of the per- oxide was measured iodimetrically. Comparison of data on the radiolysis of benzene peroxide in various solvents indicates that the transfer of energy from, the solvent to the solute depends greatly on the nature of the solvent. The following processes occurring during the radiolysis of peroxide solutions in benzene were investigated: (a) the formation of excited benzene molecules during the absorption of radiation energy, (b) spontaneous deactivation of the excited benzene molecules, (c) the, transfer of energy from the excited benzene molecules to the peroxide molecules and the decomposition of the latter, and (d) decomposition of the peroxide as a result of absorption of gamma radiation energy by the peroxide itself. A formula is given which describes the rate of radioly- sis of benzene peroxide in benzene. This formula incorporates rate con- stants for the above four reactions. Miscellaneous 26. USSR Progress in Chemistry During 1957 "The Principal Results of the Scientific Activity of the Academy of Sciences USSR During 1957," by Academician A. V. Topchiyev, chief scientific secretary, Presidium of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 28, No 5, May 58, pp 9-28 In the report on the work done by the Academy of Sciences USSR during 1957, A. V. Topchiyev outlined as follows the results of chemical research clone during that year. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 9ffd&A For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "The results of research in the moat important theoretical subdivi- .iions of chemistry demonstrate that in a number of fields the Soviet Union occupies a prominent place in world science. Among these fields are the theory of chain reactions, many subdivisions of electrochemical kinetics and of the theory of surface phenomena, the chemistry of complex compounds, and the theory of conjugated bonds, tautomerism, and the dual capacity of organic compounds to enter into reactions. "Research in the field of organophosphorus compounde done by Acade- mician A. Ye. Arbuzov's school at Kazan' is developing successfully. New and interesting results have been obtained in work on free radicals. "Work on acetylene chemistry that has been conducted during recent yearn gave rise to original research on the chemistry of physiologic-.1y active substances, essential oils, and initial materials for the synthesis of elastomers,. "Some progress has been achieved in the chemistry and physics of high-molecular compounds. In work done at the Institute of High-Molecular Compounds, it has been shown that it is possible to produce glasslike polymers which possess a resistance to heat considerably exceeding that of plexiglass ("organic glass") produced continuously; a number of practi- cal procedures for the production of such compounds has been proposed and the theoretical possibility of increasing further the heat resistance of materials of this type demonstrated. "At the Institute of Organic Chemistry imeni N. D. Zelinskiy an in- dustrial method for the synthesis of isoprene has been proposed. Isoprene is of importance as an initial material for the production of synthetic rubber which resembles natural rubber in its characteristics. "At the Institute of Organoelemental Compounds directed by Academi- cian A. N. Nesmeyanov, a great number of new high-molecular substances has been synthesized, including heteroatomic compounds the principal chains of which consist of alternating atoms of metal and oxygen, silicon and oxygen, or oxygen. and phosphorus. Compounds with carbon-carbon chains which contain different elements such as phosphorus, boron, and germanium have also been synthesized. It was established tha' some of the neirly synthesized polymers are stable up to 350-4000. Starting with dicarbcx- ylic acids containing phosphorus and diamines, polyamides with high melt- ing points have been obtained. New methods for the preparation of high polymers were found. Work has been successfully completed on telomeriza- tion processes for the preparation of amonoenanthic, aminopelagonic, and aminoundecanic, acids to be used for the production of new and valuable types of synthetic fibers. New reactions have been developed for the - 28 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 A WPor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 telomerization of ethylene with silicon compounds. The products of these reactions are organosilicon compounds which are capable of polymerization. In the course of the investigation of the chemical behavior of tetra- chloroalkanes and their derivatives a new type of rearrangement was dis- covered, viz., the homolytic rearrangement. "New polymerization catalysts have been discovered which exhibit a more universal type of action than those known abroad, and work has also been done in other fields. However, our work in the field of high-molecular compounds still lags to a considerable extent. "The Communist Party and the government have set to Soviet science the task of advancing to a leading position in this field during the next few years. This task is particularly important in connection with the decision that has been made to create within the next few years a power- ful industry producing plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic elastomers, and other synthetic materials to satisfy the huge demand for products of +his type to be employed in the production of textiles of high quality, footwear, synthetic far, and an extensive range of building materials comprising boards for the construction of walls, floor-covering materials, and boards which are soundproof and have a heat-insulating effect. Many products to be used in different industries are also to be made from the new synthetic materials. "In the performance of the tasks involved particular attention must be paid to basic scientific work, the development of research, and co- operation between science and industry so that the results of research done at the institutes of the Academy of Sciences USSR on the synthesis of new polymers and the development of new, more economical methods of utilizing available raw materials will be transferred without delay to the stage of technological development and introduced into industrial application through the efforts made at industrial specialized branch in- stitutes and industrial enterprises. "With the use of ion exchange resins produced in the USSR, an effi- cient chromatographic method for the separation of rare earth elements has been developed at the Radium Institute imeni V. G. Khlopin. This method has yielded substantial results in the investigation of nuclear reactions. Closely related is work done by the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, the Institute of Metallurgy imeni A. A. Baykov, and other institutes on the production of rare elements in a state of high purity. These elements are required particularly in connection with the development of semiconductor technology, the production of heat- resistant alloys, and the production of structural materials for nuclear reactors. .. 29 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 APFpY 1dTor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "At the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry new complex compounds of plutonium, uranium, zirconium, cadmium, tuthenium, and other elements have been synthesized. The structure of these compounds was investigated. "In the field of the theory of solutions the formulation of a new and original theory of the hydration of ions in aqueous solutions has been completed. "In work done in the field of nuclear transformations and radio- chemistry, more than 100 radioactive isotopes have been investigated. At the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, new types of alpha- decay processes have been found in the cases of dysprosium and hafnium and also beta-decay processes in the case of thulium. It was established that the isotopes sodium-24 and phosphorus-32 are formed as a result of a strongly asymmetric splitting of the nuclei of lanthanum, gold, and other elements. The effect which the structure of the nucleua has on this proc- ess was clarified. At the Radium Institute, a method has been developed for the preparation of emulsions with an exceptionally fine grain size. These emulsions are sensitive to high-velocity particles and are of par- ticular importance for research in nuclear physics conducted with the aid of photosensitive layers. Work done at the Institute of Physical Chemis- try demonstrated that radiation-chemical oxidation may take place in or- ganic systems in the absence of molecular oxygen, the organic solvent acting as the oxidizing agent. "Substantial progress in work on the theory of chain reactions has been made at the Institute of Chemical Physics. "Experimental work on the kinetics of the oxidation of hydrogen at low pressures made it possible to determine the constant of the reaction of branching and the energy of activation of the process. The theory of the interaction of chains could also be formulated quantitatively. It was established that inert radioactive gases are very effective as initia- tors of oxidation processes. "At the Institute of Physical Chemistry, new electron types of cataly- sis by semiconductors have been discovered. The kinetics of catalysis of this type have been formulated. A number of theoretical problems in the field of electrochemical kinetics has been solved. Thus, a quantitative theory of hydrogen overvoltage have been developed for a complex set of conditions. In connection with this work, the criteria have been indi- cated which can be used in determining the mechanism of the reaction. It has been shown that a rotating disk-shaped electrode can be used in the investigation of the kinetics of reactions taking place in a volume. A general theory explaining the origin of fluctuations of potential and current in electrical systems has been proposed. - 30 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Aor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "A potential theory of the adsorption of gases and vapors on actual adsorbents with a surface inhomogenous in regard to energy distribution has been developed. This theory describes the adsorption equilibrium and the heat of adsorption in an extensive range of temperatures including the critical range. "At the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry work was continued on the relationship underlying the distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's crust. Work has also been done on the geochemis- try of isotopes and the isotopic composition of a number of elements con- tained in meteorites (e.g., sulfur, oxygen, carbon, lead, and the noble gases), as well as in different types of rocks and volcanic deposits. On the basis of the results obtained, conclusions were drawn in regard to the nature of processes which resulted in the formation of meteorites and of rocks composing the Earth's crust." 27. Current Trends in USSR Chemical Research "At the Department of Chemical Sciences" (unsigned article); Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 28, No 5, May 58, CPYRGHT pp 51-55 "A general meeting of the Department of Chemical Sciences was held under the chairmanship of Academician A. P. Vinogradov. At this meeting N. N. Semenov, academician-secretary of the department, presented a re- port which summarized the scientific work done at the department. In this report Semenov pointed out the most important work done by various institutes in their fields of activity. "Surface phenomena, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry were the principal fields in which research was done at the Institute of Physical Chemistry. Investigation of changes in the properties of metals including their mechanical strength and ductility brought about by the action of lubri- cants coating these metals demonstrated that interactions which apparently take place on the surface actually penetrate deeply into the metal and exert an effect on the mechanical properties of the material as a whole. On the basis of the relationships that were discovered, new effective lubricants were developed which are used extensively in the industry*. "Interesting results were obtained in the fields of catalysis, elec- trochemistry, and corrosion. New lines of research are being pursued, particularly in regard to the application of electrochemistry to problems of the theory of structure and those pertaining to semiconductors. A theory has been developed which describes the passage of currents through the boundary between semiconductors and electrolytes. 31 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 4k100(T For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "In the fields of electrochemistry and radiation chemistry, work was described on the isolation of weighable quantities of technetium from lithium irradiated 1.ith neutrons and the finding that radiation-chemical oxidation with the oxygen of the organic solvent is possible in organic systems. On the basis of general theoretical results, work that is of importance from the standpoint of practical applications was done. For instance, it has been found that it is possible to destroy and disperse warm clouds and fogs under natural conditions by using surface-active agents. Another instance is the development of a method for the separa- tion of concentrated radiocesium compounds from waste products of the radiochemical industry. "At the Institute of Chemical Physics) physical methods were applied in research on chemical kinetics and combustion and in work pertaining to the theory and development of a scientific basis for some technological work. A number of appliances has been developed for the observation of rapid processes. With the aid of these appliances, interesting research has been done on frozen free radicals and the formation of radicals from triphenyl lithium during the course of the reaction by which they are formed. The results of some research on processes which take a rapid course will be of importance from the standpoint of practical ap- plication in connection with explosions employed in mining and for the development of a theory of diverse phenomena occurring underground as a result of subterranean explosions. Progress has been made in the theory of chain reactions, shock waves, and thermal explosions. "Among the new methods developed in 1957, Semenov mentioned as very promising that of the oxidation of simple hydrocarbons in the liquid phase at temperatures and pressures approaching the critical. "The Laboratory of Anisotropic Structures has achieved good results in work on special plastics of the glass type. Pilot-plant installations for the production of such plastics have been erected. "Virk done at the Institute of High-Molecular Compounds was concerned to a significant extent with the synthesis of heat-resistant polymers. A number of new types of transparent high-polymer materials was developed. Some of the new polymers containing rings in the principal chain proved exceptionally stable at relatively high temperatures. "Important results were obtained in the field of catalytic polymeri- zation. The conditions were clarified under which amorphous and crys tl- line polymers of olefins and diolefins are obtained with the aid of complex compounds formed as a result of the interaction of titanium tetrachloride with alkylmagnesium halides and with organolithium compounds. It has been established that it is possible to obtain block polymers with different dimensions of the blocks and different numbers of these blocks in polymer molecules. This done by supplying the individual monomers separately and at definite intervals. - 32 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT Approvea or a ease "In the field of the study of mechanical properties of polymers, new data were obtained on correlations between rates of deterioration and those of creeping and on the theory of mechanical strength and deformation of oriented polymers. By measuring the dielectric loss and the electric polarization, the role played by intrrmolecular and intermolecular inter- actions in polymers both in solution and in the elastic state was clari- fied. "In the course of some theoretical investigations, ways were found for the practical utilization of the results obtained. Thus, research on ion exchange and on the chromatography of bipolar ions led to the syn- thesis of new adsorbents with a high selectivity toward a number of anti- biotics (albomycin, streptomycin, and collimycin) and to a method for the isolation of insulin in the crystalline state. Other instances are the synthesis of heat-resistant transparent materials leading to the develop- ment of new grades of transparent plastics and research on the polymeri- zation of methylmethacrylamide and its derivatives, which led to the development of polyelectrolytes the introduction of which into the soil in small quantities improves the structure of the soil and increases the yields of plants grown on it. "New equipment was developed, including appliances for the investi- gotion of the photoplastic effect, of reactions by the method of electro- magnetic resonance, of changes in the angle of dielectric loss and of dielectric permeability in the range of decimeter waves, etc. "At the Institute of Organoelemental Compounds, successful research was done on the theory of structure, reaction kinetics, and reactivity. New methods of synthesis were developed and new organoelemental compounds synthesized by these methods. Some of these compounds will possibly be of practical importance, particularly as catalysts. "The tendency to employ results of general theoretical research for the solution of practical problems is typical for the Institute of Organo- elemental Compounds, according to Semenov. For instance, the synthesis of amir,oenanthic acid developed at this institute was applied in the pro- duction of the enant fiber and the synthesis of thiodivaleric acid de- veloped there was employed in the synthesis of plasticizers, lubricants, and valuable by-products. New substances containing a high percentage of fluorine were synthesized which are of interest from the standpoint of the production of plasticizers and liquids that are heat-resistant and resistant to chemical action. A method for the synthesis of siloxanes containing different other elements was developed; on the basis of this method polyorganosiloxanes have already been synthesized the principal chains of which contain aluminum, titanium, tin, antimony, cobalt, iron, or other elements. Furthermore, high-molecular aluminophosphates have - 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT been synthesized which contain alkyl silicon groups in the side chains. Liquid high-molecular compounds distinguished by a high thermal stability were synthesized. The systematic investigation of organoelemental high- molecular compounds was continued with the purpose of finding among them substances which have a high thermal stability and a high mechanical strength. A great number of new organoelemental high-molecular compounds were obtained which contain phosphorus, silicon, germanium, tin, and other elements. The properties of these compounds were investigated. It is intended to subject to extensive investigation the possibilities of syn- thesizing monomers and polymers including organoelemental compounds by applying basically new methods and reactions, including the telemerization reaction. "At the Institute of Organic Chemistry imeni N. Z. Zelinskiy, re- search has been completed on the development of a dynamic method for the determination of the surface of catalysts and on the application of the method of ultrathin sections in the electron microscopy of catrlysts. The latter method is used at present extensively not only at the Insti- tute of Organic Che,uistry,, but also at a number of other scientific in- stitutions. A number of oxide catalysts was investigated thoroughly with the aid of an ultramicrotome. The structure and formation of a number of typical binary oxide catalysts and of a number of catalysts used in- dustrially were investigated in detail. "Progress was made in research in heterocyclic compounds, the deter- mination of the energy of bonds formed by elements of organic compounds with oxide and metal catalysts, and on methods of synthesis and properties of organoboron derivatives and functional organosilicon compounds. "Many investigations dealt with the solution of technological prob- lems: the results of these investigations are being introduced into practical application as far as the production of polymers of vinyl pyr- rolidone, the synthesis under semiplant conditions of a monomer for syn- thetic rubber, the synthesis of "tsigerol" and "deksirol," a method for the continuous production of cyclopentadiene by the decomposition of its dieter, and other industrial methods are concerned. "Considerable attention was paid in Semonov's report. to work done at the Division of Chemistry of Petroleum and Gas of the Petroleum In- stitute. At this institute extensive work was done on the processes of the production of polypropylene from the propylene fraction of natural as and the pyrolysis of kerosene in the presence of Ziegler catalysts triethyl aluminum and titanium tetrachloride). This work was done in cooperation with specialized branch institutes and chemical enterprises. - 34 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT "Among investigations carried out at the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, Semenov mentioned investigations of the physicochemical properties of compounds of rare elements and work that led to results being applied practically (for instance, the method of the group precipitation of platinum metals by means of thiourea, which makes it possible to separate almost completely all platinum metals from dilute solutions, a method for the production of anhydrous tin chloride, etc.) "The Institute of Silicate Chemistry proposed a fundamentally new method for the synthesis of polymethylchlorosilanes which contain alter- nating atoms of silicon and carbon in the principal chain. Methods for the production of insulating coatings which are resistant to moisture and to high temperatures are being introduced on an extensive scale. "At the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry imeni V. I. Vernadskiy, interesting results were obtained in research on nuclear chemistry and analytical chemistry. It was established that alpha-decay takes place in the cases of dysprosium and hafnium and beta-decay in the case of thulium. It was also established that as a result of the asym- metric splitting of lanthanum, gold, and several other complex nuclei the isotopes sodium-24 and phosphorus-32 are formed. The isotopic composition of a number of elements contained in meteorites of different types was investigated. The isotopic composition of volcanic rocks was also in- vestigated. The production of pure compounds of all rare-earth elements was organized on an experimental basis, and measures were taken to assure the production of these compounds on a pilot-plant scale. "Among results obtained at the Radium Institute imeni V. G. Khiopin, Semenov first of all mentioned the discovery of the cis-effect in the inner sphere of complex compounds. This effect is also apparent in iso- tope exchange reactions. It was established that a number of complex ions consisting of uranyl and organic bases are formed. The significance of the formation of these compounds for the distribution in liquid systems was clarified. A number of new peroxidic compounds of uranyl was obtained, and the equilibrium conditions pertaining to the solutions in question were investigated. Significant progress was made in work on gamma- spectroscopy, and beta-spectroscopy, investigations on interactions be- tween nuclei and high-energy particles as well as slow neutrons, and the production of new isotopes, and in the fields of dosimetry and radiometry. "Results obtained at the Hydrochemical Institute on hydrochemical conditions affecting bodies of water and conditions under which the chemi- cal composition of natural waters is established are of practical interest from the standpoint of hydraulic construction. - 35 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 App 'For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "Chemical research conducted at affiliates of the Academy of Sciences USSR is progressing satisfactorily. This includes work done at the Kazan? Aff'LLiate on new methods for the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds and orgarioarsenic compounds, as well as on the investigation of the physi- ~::ocht_? properties of petroleum crudes and natural gas found in the Tatarskaya ASSR; also work done at the Ural Affiliate on industrial meth- ods for the electrolytic refining of rare metals and of metals present in small quantities, particularly titanium and zirconium. "In completing the review of the activities at the institutes of the department, Semenov pointed out the raised level of experimentbal research at all institutes as far as methods are concerned. In fields such as organic synthesis, the theory of the structure and reactivity of organic compounds, the chemistry of petroleum, heavy organic synthesis, geochemis- try, the chemistry of rare elements, surface phenomena, and chemical ki- netics and catalysis, research done in the USSR is on a very high level, according to Semenov. On the other hand, in the fields of the chemistry of natural compounds, high polymers, inorganic synthesis, the theory of valency, and a number of other fields, it is definitely necessary to im- prove the work. "The second part of Semenov?s report dealt with organizational prob- lems and was concerned mainly with prospects for the development of work along the principal directions envisaged. Among these directions are the development of a scientific basis for the synthesis of high-molecular compounds as well as of monomers and auxiliary substances, research on the chemistry of natural compounds and substances of importance in biology, the use of isotopes and of radiation in chemistry, and work in the fields of the chemistry of rare elements, the chemistry of semiconductor ma- terials, electric (.presumably electrochemical] sources of current, and the chemistry of organoelemental compounds. At academic research insti- tutions, scientific branch institutes, and higher educational institutions, work will be conducted on the theory of structure, the theory of valency and of the chemical bond, reactivity, sterochemistry, the theory of cataly- sis and of the mechanisms of chemical reactions, chemical thermodynamics, the theory of combustion and explosions, problems of colloid chemistry and electrochemistry, adsorption, and several other subjects. "At the same time scientific problems of technological importance must: be solved which pertain, to give a few instances, to aerosols, physi- cochemLcal mechanics, the development of a scientific basis for chemical technology, petroleum chemistry, etc. Semenov pointed out that theoreti- cal work on the most important problems will not be dissociated from problems of practical application. He showed what; role is assigned to every institute of the department as far as the solution of problems which face the department as a whole is concerned. He also outlined a number of measures which will assure the completion of tasks with which the de- partment is confronted in connection with these problems. - 36 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 App pyg~ Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "Semenov reported on work relative to assistance that is to be ex- tended to the Siberian Branch and its chemical institutes. "The final part of the report dealt with scientific sessions, con- ferences, and meetings held in 1957 and with the participation of members of the Department of Chemical Sciences at international congresses. Seme- nov also discussed activities facilitating international scientific con- tacts and the publishing activity of the department. V. T. Bykov, S. I. Vol?fkovich, A. P. Vinogradov, K. M. Gorbunova,, S. N. Danilov, B. V. Deryagin, I. A. Kazarnovskiy, I. L. Knunyants, N. A. Krotova, N. P. Luch- naya, I. Ye. Starik, N. A. Toropov, and A. N. Frumkin participated in the discussion of Semenov''s report, "A considerable proportion of the statements made by these persons during the discussion supplemented the report. Thus, N. P. Luchnaya told about developments in the field of semiconductor chemistry at the Insti- :ute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, I. Ye. Starik about some achieve- menr..s at the Radium Institute in investigations pertaining to spectroscopy, and A. P. Vinogradov about progress made at the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry in work on relationships underlying the distri- bution of chemical elements in the Earthcs crust, on the geochemistry of isotopes, on the determination of biogeochemical areas, the application of blogeochemical methods in prospecting for useful minerals, and the chemistry of nuclear transformations. "A great amours, of a'; tention was given in the statements mentioned to future work on the principal chemical problems. The role to be played by individual institutes and laboratories in work on these problems was defined more precisely, the degree of importance of particular lines of investigation was evaluated, and the directions along which research must be pursued to an increasing extent were pointed out. Special attention was paid to the equipment of laboratories, wider use of new methods of in-rest:igation, improvement of the organization of conferences, and pub- lication activities. "The general meeting praised the work done by the Bureau of the De- par':ment of Chemical Sciences and recognized as correct the principal lines followed in the research that is being conducted. The Bureau of the department was urged to pay due attention in its future work to the suggestions made in connection with the discussion of the report." - 37 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 IV. ELECTRONICS Communications 28. Efforts of Soviet Amateurs to blaster VHF Range CPYRGHT "Let's Mark the Sports Summer With New Records," by L. Lomono- sov; Moscow, Radio, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1-2 Tbi article contains the following passages: "If the ;;orld's achievements in the field of long-range radio com- munications on the frequency band of 144-146 Mc is equal to 4,087 km, our best results thus far do not exceed several hundreds of kilometers. Still worse is the situation in mastering the 420-425-Mc frequency range; only individual radio amateurs are engaged in this field. "What is the cause of such backwardness? In the first place our radio clubs and Dosaaf committees do not give sufficient consideration to these frequency ranges. Besides, in the VHF competition rules insuffict.ent stress was laid on VHF competitions. "It is necessary to reconstruct radically all our operations in the VHF range, directing them toward further mastering of the 144-146 and 420- 425 Mc ranges. This shoul1. be accomplished without further delay, con- sidering the fact that summer is the beat time for conducting experiments in long-range radio communications on these frequencies. "In large cities with a variety of interferences it would be difficult to establish more-or-less distant radio contacts on 144-146 and 420-425 Mc. It would be considerably easier to accomplish such contacts if stations were located somewhere outside the towns. That is why our ultrashort-wave radio amateurs should conduct their experimental radio communication under field conditions." 29. Experiments With Waveguides for Long-Distance Communication "Some Problems of Long-Distance Waveguide Communication," by Yu. I, Kaznacheyev; Moscow; Radiotekhnika i Elektr o nika, No 6, Jun 58, pp 731-743 Results of experiments conducted by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences USSR on the propagation of H- mode waves' in circular waveguides are presented. Basic attention is - 38 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 devoted to the measurement of losses in waveguides and the study of the relationship of these losses to the nature of the current-carrying surface of the waveguide. A description is given of experiments with "serif -filtering" wave- guides, that is, waveguides having dielectric or absorptive films on their inner surfaces, and with periodic or variable-section waveguides. Wave- guides with absorptive films on all-metal walls have less filtration than those with variable sections. It was found possible to make variable- section waveguides having losses only 20-30% greater than the thermal losses of all-metal waveguides with ideal geometry. A comparison is made between frequency modulation and pulse-code modulation for multiplex telephony transmission in waveguides, Pulse-code Todulation with the use of line repeater points proved to be the most ad- vantagous type of modulation, providing a high quality of telephone and television signal transmission which was practically independent of the length of the waveguide line. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 30. Improved Method of P;.lse Demodulation "Method of Increasing the Accuracy of Pulse Demodulation," by B. N. Mityashev; Moscow, Radiotekhnika, No 5, May 58, pp 55-63 The article describes a new method of pulse demodulation developed by the author, which is claimed to be more accurate than the conventional method of demodulation. In this demodulation method, for each incoming signal pulse a response in the shape of an isosceles triangle is formed. The amplitude of these triangular pulses is proportional to the amplitude of signal pulses, and their duration is equal to two repetition periods. As a result of superposition of such responses, a signal is obtained in which the voltage from one amplitude value to another is changing along a straight (continuous) line. The output signal is delayed with respect to the modulating function by one repetition period. The accuracy of demodulation is thus increased; the improvement of accuracy is especially noticeable where the envelope curvature is small. Further improvement of accuracy of demodulation is obtained by introduc- tion of low-frequency filters. - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The new-type demodulator consists of as conventional (step) demodulator with two identical circuits, each having selecting, shaping, and summating stages and an integrator. Such a demodulator can find application for exact reproduction of fast oscillations in modulating processes: and for other processes having pulsing characteristics. 31. Computation of Noise Factor in Two-Beam Tube "Noise in a Two-Beam Tube Caused by Short Fluctuations in Cur- rent Flow," by V. I. Kanavets, G. A. Kuz'mina, and V. M. Lonu- khiri; Moscow, Radiotekhnika I Elektronika, No 6, Jun 58, PP 800-805 A study is made of the relationship between the noise factor of a two-beam tube and a number of its parameters. It is assumed that the 'tube has a resonant input and that the noise is caused by uncorrelated fluctuations in current density and velocity in the absence of a minimum potential. 32. Energy Propagation in Filled Waveguide "On the Mean Propagation Velocity of Electromagnetic Energy in Waveguides," by D. V. Sivukhin; Moscow; Radiotekhnika i Elektro- CPYRG ,. No 6, Jun 58, PP 744-749 "The author examines the propagation of electromagnetic waves in rectilinear waveguides with arbitrary cross section, assuming that the walls of the waveguide are ideal conductors and that the waveguide is filled with a dispersive medium with a specific inductive capacitance (W ) and magnetic inductivity,Lk ( W ). It is shown that the mean propagation velocity of electromagnetic energy in the waveguide coincides with the group velocity." 40 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Instruments and Equipment 33. Small Time Interval Measuring Device "Differential Time Analyzer for Measuring 10-8 to 10-10 Sec Time Intervals," by E. Ye. Berlovich, Physicotechnical Insti- tute, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 1, Jan-Feb 58, pp 68-72 The article describes a device for measuring small time intervals by the method of delayed coincidence, which permits selection of pulses according to their amplitude and exclusion of the effect of the differ- ence in the pulse edge. The time resolving capability of the circuit utilizing a FEU-1V photomultiplier can be raised to such a value as to permit the measurement of time intervals of the order of 10-10 sec. The device is intended for measurement of the lifetime of excited states of nuclei and neutron velocity spectra. The circuit of the device consists of three amplifiers, electron trap, two photomultipliers, two limiters, variable-delay line, three triggering devices, two amplitude analyzers, and a scaler. 34. Investigation of Photomulti liar Characteristics by Coincidence Method "Investigation of Time Characteristics of Photomultipliers by the Method of Delayed Coincidences," by E. Ye. Berlovich and B. A. Shilyayev, Physicotechnical ;;a.stitute, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Pribory i Telthnika Eksperimenta, No 1, Jan-Feb 58, pp 62- 68 The article describes the application of the delayed coincidence method for evaluating the natural bui:i.d-up time of photomultipliers. in investigating the build-up characteristics of the Soviet photomultipliers FEU-1V and FEU-19, the following values were obtained correspondingly -- (1 tc 2)?10-9 sec and 4.5. 10-9 sec. The test circuit consisted of two limiting tubes, a variable time-delay line, a germanium diode, an amplifier, a discriminator, a scaler, and a recording device. It was shown that the build-up time of a photomultiplier depends on its construction, as well as on the voltage applied. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 35. Superhigh-Speed Camera "At the Leningrad Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics" (unsigned article); Moscow, Tekhnika Kino i Televideniya, No 5, May 58, p 96 Docent I. I. Kryzhanovskiy has developed a new superhigh-speed motion- picture camera SSKS-1 capable of taking 1,000-200,000 frames per second. The camera is intended for registering high-speed processes of 0.0005 to 0.5 sec duration. The camera can be loaded in direct light. It can take pictures of luminescent objects, as well as artifically illuminated objects. It is provided with three objective lenses of 73 mm, 150 mm, and 300 mm focal length having power of 1:1.9. The camera is ?rovided with a device for synchronizing the beginning of process with the beginning of photographing; a device for reprinting of recorded process from a wide negative to a standard 35-mm positive film; a remote control panel which permits taking pictures from a distance of 0.8 m up to infinity; and a time recorder. The camera is mounted on a stand and can be rotated 3600. The over-all dimensions and the weight of the camera are such that it can be used in mobile equipment. At present, a camera capable of taking up to 500,000 frames a second is in process of development at the Leningrad Institute of Precision Me- chanics and Optics. Components 36. High-Frequency Oscillator With Feedback Delay "Theory of High-Frequency Self-Oscillator With Feedback Delay," by I. S. Gonorovskiy, Moscow, Radiotekhnika, No 5, May 58, pp 19-30 The article discusses stable generation of equally spaced frequency spectrum, which depends on the nature of the oscillatory system frequency response and on the relation between transmission band and delay magni- tude. 42 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The self-oscillator is presented as u combination of resonance ampli- fier with amplitude clipper in its feedback circuit. The main feature of the described delay-feedback self-oscillator is its ability to generate various frequencies, and under certain favorable conditions even to gener- ate several frequencies simultaneously. In starting such an oscillator without external excitation, the generated frequency assumes a value in accordance with the conditions of-phase balance, i.e., nearest to the resonance frequency of the system. 37. Range of Existence of Electrodeless Ring Discharge "Investigations on the Existence Range of the Electrodeless Ring Discharge," by H. J. Strauss, Institute of Gas-Discharge Physics, Greifswald; Leipzig,, Annalen der Physik, Vol 1, No 415, 1958, pp 281-295 The dependence of the existence range of an electrodeless ring dis- charge on pressure and excitation frequency is indicated for the inert gases and mercury, nitrogen, oxygen, bromine, and iodine in the frequency range of 4-8 megacycles. The fields which produce the ignition of the discharge and which cause the transition into the ring discharge are de- termined in respect to their dependence on the coil potential. A de- scriptdon of the apparatus is also given. If the electrical field of the coil in the discharge vessel exceeds a certain value (ignition field intensity) which is determined by the type of gas, inflation pressure, and frequency of the applied field, the gaseous path will ignite. With suitable inflation pressure, a slightly luminous discharge takes place, which has scarcely any influence on the resonant circuit and which is called a "predischarge," and is identical with what is described in the literature as a discharge "of the electrostatic type." An increase of excitation, and the increase of the magnetic flux (and thus of the induced electrical field strength) associated with it, causes a transition at a certain value (transition field strength) which is char- acteristic for gas, pressure, and frequency. After this transition, the discharge has the same character as the ring discharge described in the literature. This transition is observed only within a certain pressure range, outside of which the ring discharge builds up very rapidly, and the pre- discharge, on ignition, cannot be kept stationary. The transition from a diffuse discharge directly into the form with a clearly recognizable ring shape takes place continuously. It thus seems justified to use the expression "electrodeless ring discharge" also for the diffuse form. 43 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The ignition field strength depends on the radius of the discharge veusel, the type of gas, and the frequency of the excitation field. In the frequency range investigated, the ignition field strength drops as the frequency increases. The existence ranges shift with increasing fre- quency toward lower field strengths and lower pressures. The transition field strength, on the other hand, is almost independent of frequency in the case of inert gases, but exhibits a clear frequency response in the case of the halides. When, for the inert gases, the pressures were plotted against the frequencies at which they appeared, five parallel curve segments were ob- tained for the five inert gases investigated; these curve segments could be approximated by five straight lines in the frequency range 4-8 mega- cycles. The diagram illustrates the regularity. If the ionization volt- age is taken as a measure in the setup, it is evident that the individual gases follow one another just as the ionization voltages do, disregarding the transpositioning of helium and neon. There is no such regularity in the case of molecular gases. Materials 38. Synthesis and Characteristics of Europium Hexaboride "Europium Hexaboride," by G. V. Sansonov, V. P. Dzeganovskiy, and I. A. Semashko, _institute of Cermets and Special Alloys, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 3, 21 Mar 58, pp 506-507 Europium hexaboride, which has not been. previously synthesized, was prepared by reducing pure europium oxide with boron carbide according to the following formula: Eu20. + 3 B4C = 2 EuB6 + 3C0 The lattice constants of europium hexaboride were determined and compared with those of other rare-earth metal hexaborides (DyB6, HoB61 and LuB6). It is pointed out that rare-earth metal hexaborides, because of their high thermal emissivity, are employed in electronics and have been investigated for that reason. - 44 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 39. Susceptibility of Lithium Ferrite "Dispersion of the Complex Transverse Susceptibility of Lithium Ferrite in the Frequency Range 10-10;000 Megacycles," by F. Voigt, Institute of Magnetic Materials, Jena; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vol 1, No 3/4, 1958, pp 86-101 To interpret the two areas of dispersion which occur in the case of lithium ferrite, measurements were made in a transverse magnetic field in the frequency range 10-8,645 megacycles. The first dispersion area decreases with increasing magnetic field and is forced into the dispersion area at 2,500 megacycles. Shortly before the disappearance of the first dispersion area there is a noticeable shift of the second absorption posi- tion toward shorter wavelengths. The process of magnetization and the experimentally determined demagnetization factors for lithium ferrite specimens are considered in the discussion of the measurements. The dispersion area at 50 megacycles is explained by means of rota- tional processes. The course of the reconstructed curve and the behavior of the transverse susceptibility at the lowest measured frequencies are cited as evidence of this. 40. Conductivity Studies on Lead Monoxide "On the Electrical Conductivity of Lead Monoxide With Additions of Neodymium Oxide," by H. Grunewald and W. Neumann, Institute of Experimental Physics, Advanced Pedagogical School, Potsdam; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vol 1, No 4/5, 1958, pp 198-200 The article deals with the dependence of the electrical conductivity of lead monoxide on the content of neodymium oxide in the temperature range of 200-500 deg C. The neodymium oxide content varied between 0 and 2.5 mol percent. It was found that, at a temperature of 200 deg C, the dependence of the electrical conductivity of the PbO on the Nd20 -content very slight tendency to increase, whereas it decreases steadily aE 300, 400, and 500 deg C. The work is being continued. [For additional information on electronics materials, see Item No 12.] - 45 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 41. Ivanovo Power Engineering Institute imeni V. I. Lenin "In the Power Engineering Institute imeni V. 1. Lenin," by S. Rozanov; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, No 49, 23 Apr 58, p 3 The Ivanovo Power Engineering Institute imeni V. I. Lenin (Ivanovskiy Energeticheskiy Institut imeni V. I. Lenina) was founded in August 1918 as the Ivanovo-Voznesenskiy Polytechnic Institute. Its present name was adopted several years later. The institute specializes in the training of engineers and scientific workers; during its existence the institute has graduated more than 6,oco engineers and scientific workers. The deputy director of the institute is Prof A. Sorokin, Doctor of Technical Sciences. The institute contains a number of fully equipped laboratories where research is conducted on various aspects of electrical power for the tex- tile industry and other industrial enterprises. Among the new equipment for the laboratories are oscillographs, calculating-computing machines, and other instruments. 42. Automation Program in USSR "Automation -- a Path to Rapid Increase of Labor Productivity" (unsigned article); Moscow, Priborostroyeniye, No 5, May 58, pp 1-2 CPYRGH 1e article contains the following passages: "The rate of increase of our labor productivity, at present, con,3id- erably trails the rate of growth of our industrial production in general. As a consequence of this, the Seven-Year Plan of 1958-1965 has to con- template a considerable increase in number of workers and experts for the basic industries. "It is evident that in the very near future proper measures should be taken to increase labor productivity sharply. 46 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Aw~gr Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "When we talk about the increase of labor productivity, we do not mean an increase of several percent or several tens of percent, we mean an ircrease of several hundred percent; this will require an introduction of radically new forms of manufacturing processes and new methods of con- trolling them. "However, on the basis of general indexes of labor productivity, the USSR still lags considerably behind the level of labor productivity in the US. "Considerable hindrance to the realization of complex mechanization and automation is the absence of a sufficient amount of new means of me- chanization." ' 13. High-Voltage Current Transformer "500,000-Volt Current Transformer" (unsigned article): Moscow, Tekhnika-Molodezhi, No 5, May 58, p 17 CPYRGI short article accompanying a photograph reads as follows: "At the Zaporozhye Transformer Plant a successful test was completed of a 500-kv experimental transformer. The new transformer has better electrical characteristics than the previously manufactured 400-kv trans- formers, and it weighs 3.5 tons less and is one meter shorter. Testing of the new 500-kv transformer was done under conditions of simulated rain at the High-Voltage Laboratory of the Zaporozhye Transformer Plant." 44. Extra-High-Capacity Thermal EJ,.ectric Stations "Superhigh-Capacity Thermal Electric Stations," by A. Kh. Lev- kopulo; Moscow, Teployenergetika, No 7, Jul 58, pp 48-55 The All-Union Heat Engineering Institute after studying the problem of largest practical turbogenerator unity has arrived at the conclusion that single 600,000-kw units are very adaptable to the modern technology of electric power generation. The Soviet turbine building industry be- lieves that the construction of two-shaft turbines of the indicated ca- pacity can be accomplished very soon. -47- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 On the basis of the above considerations, the Moscow Branch of the "Teploelektroproyekt" Institute has drawn up plans for an extra-high- capacity electric station. This station will have a capacity of 2,400,000 kw and will be able to supply the basic electric power needs of the rayon; thus it is planned to utilize it as the main electric station of the sys- tem. The limiting capacity of 2,400,000 kw was dictated by the limitations of water supply. All the electric power generated will be fed to the 220-, 400-, and 500-kv network. This station will operate on brown coal having a calorific value of 3,000 kcal/kg, moisture content of 35%,, and ash content of 16%. The planned station will have four 600,000-kw steam turbogenerators (SKK-600, 300 atm. 650 565/565?C) and four uniflow boilers (1,690 ton/hr, 320 atm, 655/570/570?C). Other variants for the equipment arrangement of the superhigh-capacity power plant are suggested. [For information on engineering materials, see Items No 76 and 77.1 - 48 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 VI. MATHEMATICS 45. Differential Equations "Generalization of Ordinary Differential Equations Having Dis- continuous Solutions," by J. Kurzweil, Prague, Moscow, Prik- ladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 22, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 27-45 The generalized differential equation dx, = DF(x,t) is analyzed. dt This equation is reduced to the ordinary equation dx/dt = f(x,c) if the derivative a F/ a t = f(x,t) is continuous. The existence of solutions for the general equation above and the continuous dependence of solutions on a parameter is proved, provided the function F(x,t) has a limited variation of t at a fixed x and it satisfies a certain continuity condi- tion in X. 46. Special Solution of Differential Equations "A Certain Method of Investigation of Stability of the Zero Solution in Dubious Cases," by V. T. Zubov, Leningrad, Prik- ladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika Vol 22, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 46-49 A certain method of investigation concerning the stability of the zero solution of a system of (n+ k) ordinary differential equations ap- plicable in dubious cases is analyzed. The method consists of the separate investigation of stability of the zero solution for k and for n equations, obtained from the initial system of equations dys - - fs(,xl, ...xn,Y1 ...yk,t) s = 1, ...,k dt axj dt = 9 (xl,...x n,Yl, ..., Yk,t) j = 1, This method was first applied by A. M. Lyapunov (Obshchaya zadacha ob ustoychivosti dvizheniya [General Problem of Stability of Motion], 1950) and later developed by I. G. Malkin (Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 6, No 6, 1942). Some of the latter's proofs were used in this art'.'-1e. .. 49 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 'VT Differential Difference Equations "Solution of Linear Differential Difference Equations Having Polynomial Coefficients," by A. A. Mirolyubov (Gor`kiy); Mos- cow, Matematicheskiy Sbornik, Vol 4+2 (81), No 1, Jan-Mar 58, pp 65 -78 This work borders closely on a former work of the author which ap- peared in Matematicheskiy Sbornik, Vol 34 (76), 1951+, pp 357-385. The problem considered in the present work is the finding of the general ana- lytical solution of the equation M[f (x) ) ? Pik (x) f (1) (x+ hk) = F(x) . (1) i = 0 k = 0 Here F(x) is a function regular in a certain region G; Pik(x) = T where the polynomials Pno(x) (a0n0 ` 0) of degree p and Pnm (x) have only prime zeros; hk (k = 0, 1, . . . , m) are differences satisfying the condition 0 = h0 Zh1 Z. . ./-h m , and h m is not a root of the equation a0 . (-1)pap ~( n= 0. Particular properties of the solution found are then discussed. 48. Approximations in the Mean for Complex-Valued Functions "An Approximation in the Mean 'of a Function on Rectifiable Curves," by G. Ts. Tumarkin (Moscow); Moscow, Matematicheskiy Sbornik, Vol 142 (84), No 1, Jan-Mar 58, PP 79-127 The work is devoted to an approximation in the mean of complex-valued functions. In the first section an approximation in the mean is considered for a complex-valued weighting function f(t) defined on the interval [0, 2 7f ] of the real axis by linear combinations of function of the system int e (n 0, 1, 2, . . . ). In the second section an approximation 50 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 In the mean is considered for weighting functions define" on a closed rec- tifiable curve by polynomials'T( (f~) ), and in the third section an approxi- mation in the mean is considered fora weighting function f(x) defined on the real axis by linear combinations of functions of the system eiax where a7 0 is any real number. These problems were the object of investigation by a series of schol- ars. In this region the investigations of the Soviet mathematicians A. N. Kolmogorov, V..1. Smirnov, M. V. Keldysh, M. A. Iavrent'yev, M. G. Kreyn, N. I. Akhiyezer, A. L. Shaginyan, M. M. Dzhpbashyan, S. N. Mergelyan, P. P. ? Korovkin, and Ya. L. Geronimus have fundamental importance. 49. Estimates for the Derivatives of Harmonic Polynomials "Estimates for the Derivatives of Harmonic Polynomials of Sev- eral Variables," by Ye. G. Gol'steyn, Doklady Akademii Nauk Az-myanskoy SSR, Vol 26, No 4, 1958, pp 193-200 In thin work estimates similar to the known estimates of Markov and Bernstein are given for the derivatives of harmonic polynomials in various kinds of regions. Converse theorems subsequently resulting from these estimates are formulated in the theory of best approximations by harmonic polynomials. Similarly, for polynomials in the complex space, the esti- mates obtained for the derivatives of harmonic polynomials lead to the investigation of the growth of polynomials outside the investigated set under the condition of their boundedness over the same set. 50. Differentiation of --L1+ g the Eigenfunction "Concerning Differentiation, of the Expansion According to Eigen- functions of the Operator d Q + q (x,y)," by I. S. Sargsyan, Doklady Akademii Nauk Armyanskoy SSR, Vol 26, No 11., 1958, pp 201-205 A real, continuous function defined in a simply connecteS finite region D of a two-dimensional Euclidean space E2 is denoted by q (x, y). The boundary of the re ion D is d t d b g eno y (. e The eigenvalues are considered for the following system: u-I-~-q(x,yJ u=0, (1) u/~ n = 0. (2) r 51 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 By hypothesis the function q (x, y) is continuous in the region D + r ; hence it is bounded, and for that reason it may be assumed that 'the spectrum of system (1) -. (2) is nonnegative without violating the generality of the argument. In fact, as is known, if the function q (x, y) is bounded, then the negative spectrum of the system (1) - (2) is bounded from below. For that reason, as it is easy to see, a number may be selected such that the spectrum of the system Du } --q(x,y)~ u = 0 'a UP n turns out to be nonnegative. The eigenvalues of the system (1) - ( 2 ) are denoted by / ( , ( 2 l i e 2 , ? ? ? , 2 and the corresponding orthonormalized eigen- l, 2 n functions of the system (1) --? (2) by ~1 (x,y) 2 (x'y)' . . . n ,y) Let f(x,y) C L2(D). We set r C n s ff f(x,y) (x,y) dx dy and consider the series (D) n (3) f ( x, y) n (1 n (x, y), the differentiation of which n - !! is considered in the present paper. The analogous question for equation (1) in the one-diiinensional case ++ 21 may i Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Matemat9cheskaya Vol 21 26 (1 3 7 ) , , , 9 957 . 3 . The three-dimensional case was investigated in the work by B. M. Levitan which will appear in Matematicheski. Sbor.nik (in printing). He also investi- gated the analogous question for the Laplace operator in spaces of arbi- trary dimension in his work which appeared in Matematicheskiy Sbornik, Vol 39 (81): i, 3-7 (1956). The fundamental result in all the enumerated cases was one and the same and hinges on the fact that each differentia- tion raises the order of summation according to M. Ries by unity. Never- theless, on increasing the dimensionality of the space by one, the order of summing according to M. Ries of the corresponding derivatives of the series (3) increases by one half. Hence, if the derivative of the series (3) in the one-dimensional case is summed according to the derivative of - 52 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 the expanded function according to M. Ries of the first order, then in the three-dimensional case it is necessary to sum the mean of the second order, in the two-dimensional case. As is proved in the work the'order of summing turned out to equal 3/2. 51. Simple Method of Obtaining Eigenvalues of the Schroedinger Equation "On a Simplification of the Sommerfeld Polynomial Method," by W. Nowak and T. Tietz, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vol 1, No 4/5,. 1958, pp 296-298 The article presents a simple method of determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation. First, a function f1 is sought, which satisfies the boundary condition R (00 ) and the boundary conditions R (co ); R('0) = 0 in the solution of the Schroedinger equation R = y .. f1 The function y in many cases satisfies a differential equation from which the eigenvalues can be obtained. It is further shown that this method is very easy to apply in practice and also can be used to obtain the cor- responding eigenfunctions. - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 VII. MEDICINE Contagious Diseases 52. Topical Administration of Antirabies Gamma Globulin "Topical Use of Antirabies Gamma Globulin for Prevention of Rabies," by V. D. Solov'yev, M. A. Selimov, and G. D. Kobrin- skiy, Viru%+ Division, Moscow Institute of Vaccines and Sera imeni I, J. Mechnikov; Moscow, Voprosy Virusologii, No 2, Mar/App 58, pp 115-116 On the basis of experimental and practical work, the authors of this article suggest that the best method for topical therapy of rabies is di-- rect application on the wound of a powdered form of antirabies gamma globu- lin containing specific antibodies, in conjunction with antiseptics or antibiotics ordinarily employed 1. surgical practice. It is recommended that this procedure be followed prior to inoculation with antirabies vac- cine. Results of the use of powder-form gamma globulin for topical therapy of wounds infected with rabies street virus are reported and are summarized in two tables; the experimental method is described in detail. The action of four preparations was compared: powder-form antirabies gamma globulin; the same, in suspension with norsulfazol, penicillin, and streptomycin; concentrated carbolic acid; and antitetanus gamma globulin. Data presented in the tables demonstrate the specific action of antirabies gamma globulin. In the author's opinion, it is possible to augment the effectiveness of this preparation by increasing the concentration of antibodies contained therein: further experimental work along these lines is recommended. Local application of antirabies gamma globulin no later that 15 min- utes after infection of guinea pigs with rabies street virus prevented the development of rabies in most of the animals. The effectiveness of the treatment was diminished when the preparation was applied later than 15 minutes following infection. - 54 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Pharmacology 53. Pharmacology of Pipe-idone Derivatives "The Action of Piperidone Derivatives on the Organism of Ani- mals," by A. G. Trotcenko, M. A. Rozenberg, and A. N. Borisenko, V Sb. Nekotoryye Voprosy Farmatsii (Certain Problems of Phar- macy),-Kiev, Gosmedizdat, 19-5-6;--2-89-294; (from Referativn Zhurnal--Khimiya, Biologicheskaya Khimiya, No 6, 25 Mar 58, No 8153, by R. I1'yuchenko ' "On frogs, white mice and rabbits, the pharmacological activity of triphenylpiperidone (1), a ate"-diphenyl- j3 -carboxyethyl-N-phenyl- V - iperidone (2), and ?-diphenyl-N-p-carboxyphenylene- / -piperidone (3) was investigated. intoxication and fatal results against a background of strychnine-like convulsions were noted in frogs (after 2-3 days and later) with the administration of (1) in 0.001--0.01 g doses; (2) and (3) did not produce convulsions, however, the animals began to die with a dosage of 0.015--0.06 g. The use of (2) (0.025 g) after the administra- tion of chloralhydrate (0.006 g) prolongs the time for the onset of sleep and decreases its duration; and vice versa, the preliminary administration of (2) removes the inhibiting effect on the. central nervous system, blood pressure, and respiration subsequent to the administration of chloral hydrate. During the first 3-5 days after administration, it was noted that piperidone derivatives increase the number of leucocytes. 54. Ganglioblockers and Coronary Circulation "The Effect of Certain Ganglioblocking Substances on Coronary Blood Circulation," by N. V. Kaverina, Institute of Pharma- cology and Chemotherapy, Academy of Medical Sciences; Moscow, Byulleten' Eksperimental?noy Biologic i Meditsiny, No 10, Oct 57, Pp 68-71 The purpose of the tests wa,a to study the effect of ganglioblocking substances -- tetamon; hexonium, pentamine, and mecamine -- on coronary circulation. The tests were conducted on cats. As a result of the data collected it was determined that: Tetamon in doses of 2-3 mg/kg increases the blood flow from the coro- nary sinus by 8-10%. - 5r. - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 In cases of low and average initial values of blood flow volume, 7-8 ml/min, 2-3 mg/kg of hexonium increases the blood flow by 25-40%, however, the same dose given to animals with high initial blood flow vol- ume, 10-15 ml/min, decreases the blood flow 20-40%. Pentamine in doses of 2-5 mg/kg and mecamine in doses of 0.5-2.0 mg/kg decreased the blood flow from the coronary sinuses. 55. Pharmacology of Colchamine "The Pharmacology of Colchamine (Omaine)," by I. M. Sharapov, Khimiya i Meditsina (Chemistry and Medicine), Moscow, Medgiz, No 7, 1956, 32 (from Referativn Zhurnal--Khimiya, Biolo i- cheskaya Khimi a No 6, 25 Mar 5b, Abstract No 8150, by T. A. CPYRGHTBraytseva) "In experiments on white mice, rats, rabbits, and cats, the toxicity and general action on omaine were studied. It was determined that the action of omaine on an organism is similar to coichicine; however, it is less toxic. Leukopenia and anemia were observed in rats receiving doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, Seven to 10 days after the administration of omaine, the blood picture is restored." Physiology 56. Variation of Latent Period of Motor. Reaction to Auditory Stimuli "Variation in the Latent Period of a Motor Reaction to Auditory Stimuli," by 0. A. Konopkin; Moscow, 4oprosy Psikhoiogii, No 2, CPYRGH1/APr 58, pp 8-16 "A series of experiments was conducted by the Chair of Psychology of the Moscow State University to determine what changes take place during the latent period of a simple motor response to sound. stimuli presented in pairs at different time intervals. The experiments were conducted under the supervision of K. M. Gurevich. It was postulated that the simplest act of voluntary motion is a product of the function of the cortex of the brain as a whole and not of separate, isolated points or connections among points alone. On the basis of information obtained, it appears that the negative aftereffect, observed by A. 1. Bronsteyn in his experiments, is neither general nor inevitable. It disappears somewhat rapidly, depending on the time interval elapsing between presentation of paired stimuli, on preliminary instructions given by the person conducting the experiments, and on self-instruction of the person experimented with." - 56- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 57, Data on Reduction of the Latent Period of a Motor Reaction "Some Data on the Reduction of the Latent Period of a Motor Re- action," by M. P. ivanova, Department of Physiology of the Cen- tral Scientific-Research institute of Physical Culture; Moscow, CPYRGH~oprosy Psikhologii, No 2, Mar/ Apr 58, pp 1'(-22 "Decrease in the motor reaction latent period is considered to be an indication of increase in the level of excitation, In examining changes in neurodynamics, it must be taken into account that in quite a large num- ber of cases a decrease in the latent period of motor reaction is accom- pained by an increase in faulty reactions in the differentiation of stimuli in some cases and a decrease in others? This affords a basis for assuming that the physiological mechanisms underlying the decrease in the motor reaction latent period is different in different cases. Students 12-15 years of age, who were taking part in sports that require physical exer- tion, were used in this survey." 58. Eidetic Anomalies of Perception Investigated "Some Peculiar Anomalies of Perception," by I. M? Feygenberg, Electrophysiological Iabo:ratory of the Central Scientific Re- search Institute (TsNIi) of Legal Psychiatry imeni Professor Serbskiy; Moscow, tloprosy Psikholog1j, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 38- CPYRGI "Results of experiments on people revealed that intensification of interaction between analysors takes place in patients in whom sound . stimuli are apt to produce visual, images. Intensification of interaction between analysors also takes pla;;e in patients in whom visualized thoughts, auditory thoughts, or both types of hallucinations appear simultaneously. Stimulation of the olfactory analysor by thymol vapors caused an increase in optical chror.axy of 0,3-l,lmicrofarads in such patients; in healthy people the increase in optical chronaxy was 0.05-0.15 microfarads. As far as the physiological mechanism is concerned, these anomalies resemble synesthesia. However, the intensification of analysor interaction in these cases takes place at a higher level so that the second signal system is more active than in synes-thesias, The formation of visual images in re- sponse to sound sensations or visualized thoughts is different. from eidet- ism in cases like these. No intensification of analysor interaction is observed in eidetism; it can be assumed, however, that a pathological inertia occurs in the sphere of the corresponding ana ysor," _ 5 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 59. Oxyhemometri.c Studies of Hypothermia Show No Appreciable Decrease in Blood Saturation With Oxygen Oxyhemornetry in Hypothermia," by 0. V. Aleksandrov, Hospital of Surgical Clinic of the First Leningrad Medical Institute imeni 1. P. Pavlov (director, Prof F. G. Ugiov); Moscow, Ek- s erimental' na-a Khirur_ iya, No 3, May/Jun 57, PP 51-55 The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of sur- gical intervention under hypothermia on the oxygen saturation of the blood and the effect of hypothermia itself on blood saturation by oxygen. The CPYRGRTDllowing is an English abstract: "Oxyhemometry readings were made on 36 patients subjected to hypo- thermia.... "Cooling did not appreciably affect oxygen saturation of blood. In four cases with congenital heart lesions, blood saturation at the end of cooling was 4?-5% lower than the initial figure. "During the cooling phase, increase of muscular tonus, shivering, and clonus at times were observed. They were accompanied by oxyhemoglobin drop of 2-3%; in congenital heart patients the drop reached 4-6%. The decrease in oxygen saturation was brief and proportional to the duration of the above complications. An increase in the ether and oxygen dosage and the administration of ganglioplegics restored the original saturation level. "Operations under hypothermia without controlled respiration were ac- companied by low blood oxygen figures. Controlled respiration in opera- tions on the open thorax improves blood oxygen saturation and prevents abrupt changes in it." 60. Evolutionary Basis of Epileptiform Seizures Due to Hyperoxia Otrazheniye Evolyutsionnykh Zakonomernostey v Epileptiformnoy Reaktsii Zhivotnykh na Derstviye Vysokogo Partsialinogo Dav- leniya Kisloroda (Reflection of Evolutionary Regularities in Epileptiform Reactions of Animals to Effects of a High Partial Oxygen Pressure), by A. V. Voyno-Yasenetskiy, Academy of Sci- ences USSR, Institute of Evolutionary Physiology imeni I. M. Sechenov; Academician L. A. Orbel.i, responsible editor; fore- word by Academician L. A. Orbeli, Publication of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow-Leningrad, 1958, 168 pages, illus- trated, 9 rubles 30 kopeks The following is a review of the book. A. V. Voyno-Yasenetskiy has undertaken to deal with an important problem concerning the mechanism of disturbances in the motor functions caused by breathing oxygen under high partial pressure, i.e., during - 58 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 oxygen poisoning of a living organism. A biologist by training, but who worked for a long time with physicians, he made a great effort to clarify 'both the theoretical and practical significance of his undertaking. Pro- ceeding from theoretical premises of evolutionary theory and from accounts of integrated clinical experiences of physicians who have specialized in neuropathology, he thoroughly examined the question of the outward re- semblance between the picture of motor disturbances caused by oxygen and the picture of epileptic seizures. He tried to ascertain to what extent both of these motor phenomena are reflections of evolutionary regularities. He has also tried to trace the development of functions of the nervous system in the animal world. A. V. Voyno-Yasenetski.y?s research was extensive and multiform. He chose for subjects of his experiments :specific animal organisms, guided by the character of their motor activity. This comparative physiological method, based on a comparison of given functional data, made it possible for him to discover disturbances that are similar despite seemingly out- ward differences that may exist between them. Proof, collected as a result of laboratory tests and clinical ex- perience, leaves no doubt that the cortex is involved in the manifesta- tions of the epileptic symptom complex. But the problem is not yet completely solved even if it is recognized that the cortex is involved in epileptic seizures in highly organized, warm-blooded adult animals and humans. There are still discussions on the subject of the role and form of participation of the cortex in the manifestation of the entire epileptic symptom complex. However, there still exists uncertainty in the minds of many whether an epileptic seizure is due to excitation or to inhibition of the cortex. Both possibilites have a large number of adherents; in other words,, there exist two dia- metrically contradictory opinions. It would seem that the question con- cerning the condition of the cortex during an epileptic seizure may be resolved successfully with the aid of a greatly perfected method of con- ditioned reflexes. But even here the conclusions reached by researchers differ. From a diagrammatic explanation concerning the physiological mecha- nisms of epileptic convulsions, it may be concluded that at present there exists no unanimity of opinion and, consequently, no clear-cut picture can be drawn here. In the words of A. D. Speranskiy, "the reason for such a situation is the absence of guiding principles for evaluating the results of laboratory tests and clinical observations of convulsive seizures." - 59 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The experimental material, accumulated by A? V. Voyno-Yasenetskiy, does not attempt to support either of the existing theories on epilepsy. Facts collected by A. V. Voyno-Yasenetskiy forced him to seek an explana- tion for epileptif orm seizures, caused by a high partial oxygen pressure, not in the existing theories on epilepsy, but in the theory of the evolu- tion of functions. The theory of evolution of functions was developed and substantiated by L. A. Orbeli. This theory can be summarized in. the following manner: In the process of development of functions, the primary period is charac- terized by automatic activity of tissues and organs. This activity is defined exclusively by environmental influences. Establishment of bonds with the nervous system takes place during the next period. The first result of this is regulation of the interrelation between the organ and the environment due to which automatism acquires initial signs of con- formance by the nervous system. Subsequently, the bond between the organ and the nervous system acquires new characteristics. The innervational apparatus completely inhibits the automatic activity of the organ and displays the function of an actuating apparatus. Now the organ enters the state of being active only under the influence of nerve impluses. Then comes the period of complete subordination of the organ to the nerv- ous system with loss of automatism. But what is important in the given case is that during experimental dissociation of the organ and the nerv- ous system regression takes place which results in return of the organ to its original independent automatic activity. Denervation of the organ produces a process of functional return to more primitive levels which correspond to early stages of development. In the higher vertebrates and in humans, reconstruction of coordina- tion of the preceding stage of ontogenetic development is accomplised by activity of the cerebral. cortex. Data accumulated by the Orbeli school of thought show that a great role is also played by another part of the central nervous system -- the cerebellum? The cerebellum assists the cortex in the reconstruction cf the old coordinating relationships and in providing a pr dility for creating new coordinations. Orbeli constantly stressed that establishment of new coordinating relationships takes place not by means of complete eradication and complete elimination of the old coordinations, but by means of inhibition and re- construction. Summing up the results of Voyno- asenetskiy?s observations and anal- ypis of the process of oxygen poisoning, it .is possible to lay down the following six hypotheses. - 60 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 1. The symptom complex of oxygen poisoning occurs in worms, insects, Cyclostomatae, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Despite great differences in morphological and functional relationships in various rep- resentatives of the animal world, the manner of reacting to action of oxygen under pressure appears to be the same. 2. The complications that develop in the symptom complex of epilep- tiform motor disturbances are connected with the phylogenetic development of mechanisms of locomotor and adaptation reactions,. Evolutionary develop- ment of functions introduces into the reactionary process only those com- plications which take the form of external manifestations, without changing the process itself. 3. The entire symptom complex of oxygen epilepsy is the result of a regressive change in the activity of the central nervous system. Under the influence of compressed oxygen, in the first place, the functions of higher levels of the central nervous system break down, resulting in lib- eration of the subordinate functions. 4. Dissolution of functions of the central nervous system follow a course of regressive ontogenesis. Integration takes place at each level of regression and is typical thereby of the corresponding stage of onto- genesis. 5. All forms of motor disturbances, including tonic spasms and clonic spasms, are forms of movements performed by certain animals at a definite stage of ontogenesis and are subordinate to coordinated mechanisms that are typical of corresponding stages of ontogenesis. All five hypotheses 'together afford the possibility of determining whether the general regularities in the manifestation of symptoms of oxygen poisoning are based on regularities of the evolutionary process. Each symptom of an epileptifolm- reaction reflects the stages of history in the life of an organism. Therefore, it is possible to confirm that the physi- ological mech--nisms which are responsible for any symptoms of disturbance in the motor functions during oxygen poisoning are the mechanisms of ac- tivity of the central nervous system of definite, earlier stages of evolu- tion of functions during ontogenesis. The evolutionary theory also makes it possible to understand the reason for the periodicity of convulsive seizures which is the charac- teristic feature of every epileptic symptom complex. It is the perio- dicity that makes it possible 'to ascribe the reactions to the central nervous system of animals and the liberation of epileptic reactions to the destructive action of high partial oxygen pressure. - 61 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The opinions and facts expressed above make it possible to supple- ment the five hypotheses stated above, concerning evolutionary regularity of development of epileptiform reactions to compressed oxygen, with a sixth. 6. Paroxysm-like epileptiform seizures, expressing themselves in a recurrence of symptoms, periods. of immobility, and symptoms of remission, are reflections of a "struggle" that takes place in the process of onto- genic development., a new form of coordination wins out in the process of progressive evolution and, in the case of epileptic dissolution of functions, the nearest, older one wins out. In this way, analysis of the principal symptoms of oxygen poisoning indicates that the entire process of epileptic remission in the function of the central newous system can be explained in the theory of evolution. Returning to the questions of involvement of the cortex in the symptom complex of oxygen poisoning and its role in the formation of convulsions; Voyno-Yasenetskiy states that facts motivate him to a viewpoint which dI. - fers from the one now prevalent. It is likewise inadmissible to affirm that epileptic symptom complex is a result of diffused inhibition. In cases of oxygen `'epilepsy.," as in all other cases of epilepsy, one of the early symptoms that precede clonic spasms is excitation of the sympathetic nervous system. Consequently, it is proper to think that the significance of the entire.survey conducted by Voyno-Yasenetskiy goes beyond the limits of the study of physiological mechanisms of oxygen poisoning. It is possible to consider, with sufficient basis, that the pathological symptom complex of oxygen poisoning in animals and humans appears to be concealed. in the main mechanism of epileptic spasms. It is our understanding that "epileptic seizure" is a nonspecific method of reaction of the central nervous system to injuries, finding its expression in subsequent dissolution of its functions and in alter- nating liberation and restoration of those coordinating relationships which existed in the process of ontogenic evolution. Clinical examina- tions are necessary, of course to formulate a complete basis for such a conception of epileptic seizures. 62 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 On the basis of what has been said above, it can be concluded that the potential value of established facts are unlimited. These facts may be analyzed with the aid of the evolutionary theory only. Furthermore, these facts confirm the theory itself and make it possible to supplement its content. The above statements show that "rocking and shaking" of complicated functional relationships are necessary for the dissolution of functions of the central nervous system in adult animals. Consequently, certain changes take place during the life span of an individual organism. These changes strengthen the ability of coordinating mechanisms to direct the activity of lower, ontogenically earlier functional systems. This strengthening is attained by every organism, although not to the same extent. In some cases the subordination is strong and difficult to destroy; in others, it is weak and is easily canceled. From the viewpoint of well-being of an in- dividual organism, evidently, this is not quite enough. If ontogenically the latest coordinating mechanisms are to be perfected, as far as their adaptive reactions are concerned, it is also necessary that they be firm against any adverse influences. Furthermore, the higher coordinating mechanisms must be able "to cement" and strengthen the subordination to such an extent that even when higher mechanisms are weakened temporarily (which is possible when certain unfavorable or directly damaging factors are present), no immediate release would take place. The problem before evolutionary physiology is to find methods to aid this strengthening of subordination of coordinating mechanisms. Particular attention is called to that point because many preventive measures depend on it. When will those methods be found? Will it be possible to surmount individual de- fects in the nervous system which depend on fluctuations in subordination? Further study of this subordination and its mechanisms may result, no doubt, in substantial contribution to neuropathology and psychology. It must be considered that the strength of subordination is one of the principal properties of the nervous system. If that is true, new perspectives are open for further development of I. P. Pavlov?s theory concerning types of nervous systems (1926). In the meantime, a hypothe- sis can be drawn that the above-stated properties are inherent in the nervous system irrespective of what type that nervous system may be. Special research must be conducted to prove this. The words "dissolution", "concealment," "disguise," and others pres- ently used do not fully reflect the symptoms; but words are of secondary interest. More important is that more profound experimental research must be launched to probe into the essence of the process of reconstruction of functions. When a sufficient amount of factual material is accumulated, then proper words will be found; they, no doubt, will more correctly re- flect the situation before us. - 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Another question is, does oxygen poisoning actually revive the same, previously existing, functions of the nervous system which remained intact throughout all stages of ontogenesis, or is it that in the process of oxygen poisoning, the old, completely canceled functions are recreated? Both possibilities, of course, exist. The work in the future must con- sist of making clear in what cases reconstruction of lost functions take place and in what cases those same functions, that existed during the early stages of ontogenesis, manifest themselves. Whatever the answer is to those questions, we must adhere steadfastly to our hypothesis that in the reactions of an organism to effects of high partial oxygen pressure we can ordinarily find reflections. These re- flections are the principal stages of evolution of functions in the course of ontogenesis. All the facts discussed above, in the author?s opinion, show that the mechanism of a paroxysm, manifesting itself as a result of oxygen poisoning, cannot be understood if we do not consider the comprehensive interaction of various branches of the central nervous system. But it is perfectly evident that phylogenetically, the latest associations of the central nervous system are particularly sensitive to oxygen poisoning. All experiments conducted point to that. This book is considered useful to physiologists, biologists, and physicians. Table of Contents of the book follows: Foreword 3 Introduction 5 Methods and Objectives of Research 17 Effect of High Partial Oxygen Pressure on Animals Whose Locomotion Is Accomplished by Peristaltic Movements of the Body 23 Effect of High Partial Oxygen Pressure on Animals Whose Locomotion Is Accomplished by Body Flexure 41 Effect of High Partial Oxygen Pressure on Cold-Bloode:. Animals Whose Locomotion Is Accomplished by Articulated Extremities 67 -64- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Effect of High Partial Oxygen Pressure on Warm-Blooded Animals Whose Locomotion Is Accomplished by Articulated Extremities Conclusions for the Theory of Medicine and for the Theory of Evolution of Functions of the Nervous System 120 Bibliography -65_ 159 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Psychiatry 61. Relation of Phasic Excitability States of Cerebral Cortex to In- dividual Psychological Traits "Phasic Conditions of Excitability of the Cerebral Cortex as Related to Certain Individual Psychological Features of Stu- dents," by P. P. Raspopov, Chair of Pedagogy and Psychology of the Kirov State Pedagogical Institute imeni V. I. Lenin; Mos- CPYRGFffw' Voprosy Psikhologii, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 23-37 "The author made a thorough study of personal histories of 120 upper- classmen of a secondary school and kept them under observation for a long time. He found that every inhibitory and excitatory phase was character- ized by a peculiar psychological complex. Some temporary mental conditions are the result of certain educational influences and are brought about by phasic changes in the excitability of the cerebral cortex. Those tempo- rary mental conditions can be fixed and transformed into relatively stable psychological features that are typical of the particular individual. Data dealing with phasic conditions are important in the study of special psy- chological traits of individuals." Public Health and Sanitation 62. Electroprecipitator Designed to Trap Air-Borne Microorganisms "Electroprecipitator for Trapping Microorganisms From the Air," by A. Ye. Vershilova, Chair of Microbiology, Kiev Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians; Moscow, Gigiyena i 2ani- CPYRGFi iY-a' Vol 23, No 5, May 58, PP 79-80 "We attempted to construct an electroprecipitator for separating microorganisms from the air. "The apparatus consists of two parts: a high-voltage power unit (designed by radiotechnologist N. Ye. Plotskiy), which is the modified rectifier of an 'Avangard' televisor, and an ionization-precipitation chamber. The rectifier is supplied from an alternating current source of 127 and 220 V and is connected with the electric circuit through an autotransformer. "The rectified direct current at 12,000 V is supplied to the elec- trodes of the ionization-precipitation chamber. The strength of the cur- rent at the electrodes is 5 mA, which makes the apparatus harmless during use. - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 AppcFldir Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "The ionization-precipitation chamber is a hermetic cabinet made of organic glass wi?k,h dimensions of 250 x 150 x 150 nun; the wails are 12 mm thick. "Brass electrodes fastened on adjustable metal supports pass through the lateral walls inside the chamber. There are terminals on the supports or connection to the supply unit. The electrodes are fixed on the sup- ports in such a manner that their ends can be adjusted at different dis- tances from each other. One of the electrodes is a corona, and the other, a precipitator. "The corona electrode is a brass rod to which a polished metal (brass) pointed cone is attached. "The inside part of the corona electrode and the cone are enclosed in a cylindrical tube of organic glass, the end of which is cone-shaped. It is attached to the interior surface of the lateral wall of the chamber. At the tip of it there is an opening with a diameter of 2 mm, through which the rod of the brass cone enters into the chamber. "The precipitating electrode is a brass rod 30 cm long. On its end outside the chamber there is a rubber insulator which regulates the dis- tance between the electrodes when experiments are performed with the appa- ratus turned on. An aluminum dish with a cu1:ure medium is attached to the interior end of the precipitatir,~; electrode. The diameter of the dish is 80 mm. An intake pipe is soldered into the adjustable support of the precipitating electrode to allow air to enter the chamber. Its in- terior opening is inside a cone-shaped, tube made of organic glass. The outlet tube for exhausting air to the outside is in the opposite wall be- side the support of the precipitating electrode. "There is a circular opening with a diameter of 90 mm, sealed with a hermetic: threaded plug, on the anterior wall. The culture dish is In- serted into the chamber through -1-,his opening. "The air being tested enters the chamber through the intake tube, goes in the opening at the point of the cone-shaped tube (which has the rod electrode in the center), and is dra;an to the opposite surface of the culture medium in the dish and passes out through the outlet tube (see figure) . "Air is drawn through the chamber by means of an aspirator (a surgi- cal electric pump). The quantity of air aspirated is measured with gas meters. "A number of experiments with a bacterial aerosol created syntheti- cally in the hermetic chamber were performed to determine precisely the optimum conditions for trapping microorganisms. - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT "Oil the basin of the experiments performed, it was established that on aspiration of air through the apparatus without previous ionization, a certain nimaber of bacterial droplets and dust particles are caught in the apparatus au a result of the stream of air striking the culture medium. "In addition, the length of the free end of the ionizing electrode (the part of the point that protrudes into the chamber from the cone- shaped tube) affects the trapping capacity of the apparatus. When the point of the rod is introduced 5 mm, 2.0-2.5 times more microorganisms are separated than when the end of the point is flush with the edge of the cone-shaped tube. "The trapping capacity of the apparatus also depends on the distance between the electrodes. The greatest number of uii^roorganisms are trapped when the distance between the electrodes is 25 mm. The optimum rate for aspiration of air is in the range of 8-15 liters per minute. "The effectiveness of separation in the apparatus is equal with re- spect to both dust and droplet phases of a bacterial aerosol. "A series of experiments devoted to comparative evaluation of the trapping capacity of the electroprecipitator we dE:signed with that of the Yu. A. Krotov apparatus established that 30-, more microorganisms are trapped from the a9,r with the electroprecipitator than with the Krotov apparatus." Radiology 63. Analysis of Radiation Injuries to the Cornea Indicate Correlation Between Radios ens itivity and Rate of Metabolic Processes of Tissues "An Analysis of the Radiation Injuries to the Cornea of the Eye," by T. V. Krestinskaya, First Leningrad Medical Institute imeni I. P. Pavlov; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 116, No 1, Sep/Oct 57, pp 52-55 The aim of this research was to study the effect of various doses (3,600, 1,800, and 750 r) of X rays on the epithelial and underlying connective tissues of the cornea of the eye after varying periods (one to 90 days) of irradiation. A total of 85 albino rats were used. Photo- micrographs illustrating histological changes due to X rays at 5, 10, and 15 days after irradiation accompany the article. 68 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 in staining charackter:l.stics, in size, and in structure (both i n the peripheral and in the central, zones of the epithelium and in the underlying, connective tissue of -the cornea) tire described with respect to varying period3. Results indicate that the deleterious effects due to :Large doses were analogous to injurier; caused by smaller doses, but the latter were less pronounced and reparative changes started F:oon'~r. Changes in the perip- eral zone of the cornea were much more acute than in the central zone, both in the epithelium and in the underlying connective tissue. This greater radios ensitivity of the peripheral zone is because this zone is physiologically more active due greater mitotic activity than the central zone, and the peripheral. zone is where a large portion of nerve endings and blood vessels are located. The author presents a theory which points to the existence of a defi- nite correlation between radiosensitivity and the level of metabolic proc- esses in a tissue which, in turn, are dependent on its blood supply. 64. Importance of Primary Suturing of Wounds in Combined. Radiation Injuries "Primary Suturing of Wounds in Combined Radiation Injuries" (Review of Experimental Data), by S. A. Rusanov; Moscow, Ek- sperimen?ta.l?naya Khirurgiya, No 3, May/Jun 57, pp 55-59 One of the major disturbances caused by penetrating radiation is the disturbance of the reactivity of an organism to infections, for ionizing radiation leaves an organism defenseless against small amounts of patho- genic microorganisms., and any small wound combined with radiation injuries may become very dangerous. This fact is of major interest to surgeons, who must decide the- most appropriate time for surgical interventi.or_ to suture wounds, It is also known that this lack of resistance to pie-;ho- genic microorganisms is maximum at the time of the appearance of clear clinical symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome at. the peak of racizfl- tion sickness, During the latent period of radiation sickness, the re- sistance of an organism with combined injuries remains practically suf- ficient, and the wound process runs without any notie-eable deviation from its normal course. It is evident, therefore, that the latent period of radiation sickness before the onset of the peak of radiation sickness should be used for maximum active and radical. surgical. measures to get the maximum amount of. therapeutic effect, i.e., to arrive at complete healing or wounds during the latent period. The author?s personal observations have shown that the final o;.t- come of combin%-t injuries due to wounds accompanied by the effect of penetrating radiation is determined by the primary suturing of wounds. - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 In the author's opinion, an important research problem would be the ectabListunent of a simple, speedy and reliable test for d.ctermining the immunological utate of an organism. Such a test would materially aid the Burgeon in uolving the problem of wound suture in delayed treatment. 65. Measures Proposed to Expand and Speed Publication of Material Perti- nent to Medical Radiology "Editorial Repot on the Journal Meditsinskaya Radiologiya at the Meeting of the Scientific: Medical Council of the Ministry of Health USSR"; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiolo i a, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 86-8 On 25 March 1.958, a report by the editorial board of Meditsinskaya Radiologiya, presented at a meeting of the Scientific Medical Council of the Ministry of Health USSR, stated that of the enormous amount of re- search on radiobioloU. submitted in 1956 and 1957, less than a third of the material was published. It was suggested that a Scientific Society of Medical Radiologists be organized, and measures were proposed for expanding the publication of material in this field. Surgery 66. Equal Rate of Protein Synthesis in Transplanted Frozen and Vacuum- Dried Vascular Grafts Determines Normal Taking "Protein Synthesis in Transplanted Frozen and Vacuum-Dried Vascular Grafts," by K. I. Gavriiova (deceased), E. M. Khodi- yev, and A. S. Konikova, Institute of Surgery imeni A. V. Vish- nevskiy `director, Prof A. A. Vishnevskiy, Active Member of Academy of Medical Sciences USSR) of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Eksperimental'naya Khirurgiya, No 3, May/Jun 57, pp 40-?I+I+ The authors describe various factors and problems in tissue and CPYRGHI organ transplantation, an't present the following English abstract: "The authors investigated protein synthesis in transplanted frozen and vacuum-dried blood vessels with the aid of a `!.;agged amino acid con- taining radioactive sulfur. The authors presume that protein synthesis may serve as an index of-viability of transplanted vascular segments and in a certain measure reflect the influence of low temperature and drying on metabolic processes. 70 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 CPYRGHT "As shown by the data published, protein synthesis does take place in transplanted segments of vessels which were previously subjected to low temperatures ranging from -70 to -1960, and vacuum-drying and its activity could be recorded every time the grafts were examined between 3 days to 7 months after grafting. "By comparing the quantities of tagged amino acids in the proteins of the grafts and those of the blood vessels of the dog itself, it was :found that often the intensity of protein synthesis in the grafted tissue was equal to the synthesis in the homologous blood vessels of the experi- mental animal. Such similarity in the synthesis rate obtained only in those cases where the transplanted vessels were patent and free from in- flammatory and thrombic phenomena. "When transplanted segments developed an inflammatory reaction, their protein synthesis rate exceeded that of the vessels of the experimental animal. "In one experiment where partial necrosis of the graft occurred, the rate of protein synthesis decreased markedly. "The presence of protein synthesis in transplanted homografts of blood vessels subjected to previous freezing at -70 to -1960 C and vacuum+- drying proves that dogs' blood vessels preserve their viability and, after transplantation, behave like living tissue, taking part in metabolic proc- esses on a par with the tissues of the experimental animal. "The fact that the difference in the protein synthesis rate in trans- planted vessels was correlated to their condition after transplantation suggests that normal taking of the transplanted sector occurs when the protein synthesis rates in the graft and in the vessel of the experimental animal are equal." 67. Characteristics of Surgical Methods for Treating Burns Accompanied by Open Fractures Discussed "Certain Characteristics of Surgical Methods for Treating turns Which Are Accompanied by Open Fractures," by V. V. `J'lasov, Lt Col Med Serv; Ya. I. Lipskiy, Lt Col Med Serv; and A. A. Shafranov, Lt Col Med Serv; Moscow, Voyenno-Meditsinskiy Zhurnal, No 8, Aug 57, pp 20-25 The authors emphasize the seriousness of combined burns and open fractures by the fact that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings caused 60,. of the injured to suffer from injuri- combining burns and open frac- tures. - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The present research was conducted on rabbits which were subjected to third degree burns on 10-12% of their bodies and also to open fractures. The authors discuss the course of the injuries, histological, bac- teriological, hematological, and roentgenological studies, shock symptoms, effects of antibiotics, and the effects of surgical intervention by sutur- ing, wound drainage, removal of burned tissue, etc. ou speeding tissue and bone healing, and on the prevention of infectious complications. 68. Modern Ultrasonic Impulse Techniques Enable One to Create and Accu- rately Locate Lesions, Foreign Bodies, and Pathological Foci in Tissues and Organs "Ultrasonic Waves in Experimental. Surgery," by I. Ye. El?piner, Institute of Biological Physics (director, Prof A. M. Kuzin) of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Eksperimental?naya Khir- urgiya, No 3, May/Jun 57, PP 3-8 The author discusses the method, purpose, and advantages of using CPYRGHTultrasonic waves in surgery. The following is an English abstract: "It is possible to concentrate ultrasonic energy in any animal tissue and at any depth, in particular in the cerebral tissue. It was found that different elements of the tissues differ in their sensitivity to ultra- sound. Hence it is possible to create selected lesions of given cells in a particular area of the given tissue in conformity with th~~ object pur- sued. The modern ultrasonic impulse technique extended likewise the possi- bilities of studying the macrostructure of tissues. It enables location of foreign bodies and pathological foci in tissues and organs even in those cases where X-ray study proved ineffective." Miscellaneous 69. Planning and Coordination of Soviet Medical. Research "Planning and Coordinating Research," by Prof D. Zhdanov, Corresponding Member of Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, and M. Zhukovskiy, Candidate of Medical Sciences; Moscow, Meditsin- skiy Rabotnik, No 40, 20 May 58, p 2 The planning and coordination of scientific research on major prob- lems of medical science are the responsibility of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR. The presidium of' the academy has formed a special Scientific-Planning Commission, which makes possible the preparation of - 72 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 collated perspective and annual, prob:Lf,m-themat.c?al plans. The commission, together with the bureaus of the departments of the academy, guarantees the coordination of sclent;i Lc work both within the academy and within the scientific institutions of the ministries of health of the union republics. The commission is also responsible for the organization of the scientific- creative ties with medical institutions of the ll.oc countries. The scientific medical council of each of the union republics com- piles the prospective plan for medical research and directives for the annual plans. On these bases the scientific institutions end vuzes (higher educational institutions), of the republics develop their own annual and thematic plans. All of these plans are functionally related to the work of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR and the principal direction of scientific research necessary for the USSR. In coordinating scientific research, contact between scientific re- search institutions on the republic level, the problem commissions, and major research institutes must; be direct. This direct contact will tend to avoid bureaucratic delays? This will not, however, decrease the role of the scientific councils of the republic ministries of health. The planning, directing, and control. of scientific work; the distribution of cadres; and the determination of the structure of institutes are the re- sponsibilities of the councils. The Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR does not administer the scientific medical councils of the ministries of health and their subordinate institutes and v-uzes. The presidium only acts as a consultative body, assists in the determination of the most important research, and f'a,:d ite'wes the concentration of ef- forts and material resources , and the elimination of duplication. 70. Meeting of the Presidium,. Academy of Medical Sciences USSR "Medical Science and Practice." by M. Zhukovskiy, Candidate of Medical Sciences; Moscow, Meditslnski.y Rabritni.k. No 51., 27 Jun 58, p 3 The Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR recently held a meeting to decide, problems of medical science in. the light, of the de- cision of the May Plenum of the Central. Committee CPSU. Prof V. N. Orekhov reported -t ha'., the Institutes wii;hin the Depart- ment of Medical and Biological Sciences of the academy will test the vari- ous chemical compounds important in medical research. They will also give assistance in this field to the various chemical plants of the USSR. -, 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Prof B. G. Yegorov spoke on the use of plastics in surgery, neuro- surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, and orthopedics. Since 1957, the Insti- tute of Surgery imeni. A. V. Vishnevskiy has conducted experimental and clinical research on the possibility of substituting prosthetics made of "alloplastics" (a plastic nonirritating for tissues) for a part of the esophagus. Synthetic prosthesis are also being proposed as a substitute for defective blood vessels during the surgical treatment of aneurism, thrombosis, and endarteritis. In addition, it was decided to utilize ion- exchange resins for quantitative determination of the mineral content of tissues and fluids in the human organism. Prof V. L. Troitskiy reported that the development of the chemical industry presents new problems for the institutes of the academy's De- partment of Hygiene, Microbiology, and Epidemiology. He pointed out that it is imperative. at present, to solve the problem of preventing the pol- lution of air by the chemical industry's waste products. It is also necessary to study the hygienic aspects of soil pollution and to develop measures for its sanitary protection. The Institute of Nutrition will include ii: its project plan the study of prophylactic nutrition for workers of the chemical industry and will give a hygienic account of those synthetic substances which are to be utilized by the food industry. Prof D. A. Zhdanov reported that the chairmen of the Problem Commis- sions of the academy have analyzed the plan of scientific work for 1959 and the 7-year plan and have indicated a series of themes which must be investigated in the light of the decisions of the May Plenum of the Cen- tral Committee CPSU. 71. Sukhumi Medical and Biological Station Reorganized Into Institute "Brief News," by Ye. Vcinov,; Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 47, 13 Jun 58, p 2 The Sukhumi Medical and Biological Station, Academy of Medical Sci- ences USSR, has been reorganized into the Institute of Experimental Pa- thology and Therapy (Institut Eksperimental'noy Patologii i Terapii). No further information is given. - 74+- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 7,'2. Conference on Problemo:C Proteins "Conference on the Problems of Proteins," by L. A. Lokshina; Moscow, i/estnik Akademii Meditsinski.lch Nauk SSSR, No 5, May 58, pp 73 -'76 A conference on the arobl.e,nnLs of proteins, organized by the Institute of Biological and Medical. Chemistry, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, was held in Moscow from 20 to 24 January 1958. Over 500 persons, repre- senting 82 various 1nst;ittu-t;es of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Kharvkov, and other cities, as well as the B7..oc countries, part; i c ipated.. Twenty-six reports on the problem of protein chemistry were presented. A number of reports concerned the isolation of proteins and the study of their chemi- cal and physicochemical properties. Considerable attention was given to reports concerning he study of the micro structure of proteins, and the study of the proteins of various organs and tissues. The following gave reports: K. F. Firfarova, Ye. V. Goryachenkova, V. 0. Shpikhter, Prof V. A. Belitser, L. A. Loksh,ina, 0. V. Troitskaya, D. N. Shigorin, Prof S. Ya. Kaplanskiy, Academician V. A. Palladin, Prof G. Ye. Vladimirov, Prof V. A. Port:ugalov, Prof' I. I. Ivanov, V. M. Rodio- nov, V. V. Uspenskaya, R. V. Khesi.n, A. Ye. Gurvich, Prof I. B. Zbarskiy, T. S. Paskhina, and V. Tonavsek. 73. Conference on Problems of Regeneration and Cell Reproduction "Conference on Problems of Regeneration and Cel:. Reproduction," by L. D. Liozner and V. N. Dobrokho tov; Moscow, Vestnik Akad.e- mii Meditslnskikh Nauk SSSR, No 5, May 58, pp 66-73 The first, A.l.?-Union Conference on Problems of Regeneration and Cell Reproduction was held in Moscow at. the Institute of Experimental Biology, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, 28-31 January 1958. The conference was convened by the presidium, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; over 50 re- ports were given. The conference was attended by representatives of the Kharkov Uniirersity; the Khabarovsk, Riga, Voronezh, Crimean, Kursk, Stalinsk, Smolensk, and Kalinin Medical. ins*:itu+:es; the Sukhumi Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy; and Moscow and Leningrad vuzes. Most of the conference was devoted to the study of regeneration in mammals. Considerable at:tent::.on was given to the study of conditions in- fluencing the progress of the reSdnera.:i.on process In mammals. Numerous repor-!s concerned regeneration process in the nervous system, the endo- crine glands, and contrala:,;eral organs. -.75-, Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 The following gave reports: Prof V. N. Orekhovich, L. V. Liozner, Ye. Yu. Korytnyy, T. A. Grigor'yeva, Yu. N. Kopayev, L. N. Moralev, L. N. Kuleshova, L. N. Zhinkln, I. V. Markelova, Yu. K. Tonkonogova, G. S. St:reltn, G. V. Kho!nullo, A. I. Bukhonova, I. A. A1ov, B. P. Solopayev, Ye. F. Kotovskiy, V. F. Sidorova, L. V. Polezhayev, Ye. I. Pil'shchik, Ya. G. Erenpreis, I. K. Yesipova, V. P. Kudokotsev, V. N. Zamarayev, A. A. Voytkevich, G. V. Kharlova, N. S. Artem'yeva, D. G. Malkina, I. P. Shlykov, Ye. N. Voinova, N. P. Bochkov, N. M. Shestopalova, A. I. Alov, V. I. Soro- kin, K. A. Ryzhikova, V. IT, Kozlov?, :i. A. Utkin, S. Ya. Zalkind, L. P. Kosichenko, 0. T. Movchan, Ye. M. Veger, G. S. Uspenskaya, A. B. Kalene- niek, V. N. Dobrokhotov, N. V. Bogoyavlenskaya, A. K. Ryabukhi, V. G. Kryukova, Kh. Ya. Puzhak, L. I. Sazonov, A. N. Kulagin, Yu. I. Afanas'yev, Ye. F. Kotovskiy, I. I. Rampan, G. I. Gintsburg, P. P. Rumyantsev, V. I. Pil.ipenko, T. N. Radostina, Ye. B. Khaysman, and I. F. Ivanov. 74. Tenth All-Union Scientific Conference of Therapists "Yesterday in Moscow" unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 52, 1 Jul 58, p 1 The Tenth A1.1-Unicr.: Scientific Conference of Therapists was opened in Moscow on 30 June 1.958. The conference was convened by the All-Union Scientific Society of Therapists and. more than 3`Y) physicians and scholars are attending. Delegates to the conference will participate in the discussion of problems concerned with vitamins and the clinical manifestation of in- ternal diseases. Reports wil::. be given on the work of such periodicals as Klinicheskaya Meditsina (Clinical. Medicine), Terapeiicheski Arkhiv ,Therapeutic Archive), and Sovetskaya Meditsina (Soviet Medicine). Re- ports will. also be made on the past activity of the Board of the All-Union Scientific Society of Therapists. The conference will end on 2 July 1958. 75. Ma j Gen Med Sere A. V. Mel.' niko d, Soviet Surgeon, Dies "In Memory of A. V. Mel' niko v," by A. Bakulev, V. Parin, B. Yegorov, Ye. Smirnov, A. Vishnevskiy,, N. Petrov, P. Kupriyanov, B. Petrovskiy, A. Serebrov, V. Shamov, A. Snmirnov, S. Kholdin, A. Rakov, and Ye. Prazdn.ikova; Moscow, Medi?;.sinskiy Rabotnik, No 46, 10 Jun 58, p 4 After a long and serious illness, Maj Gen Med Serv Aleksandr Vasil'- yevich Mel'nikov, Active Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Honored Worker of Science, and chief of the Chair of Faculty - 76 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Surgery of the Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov, died. r.el'- nikov graduated from the St Petersburg Military Medical Academy in 1914 and in 1920 received his Doctor of Medical Sciences degree. From 1940 to 1956 Mel'nikov -was chief of the Chair of Faculty Sur- gery, Naval Medical Academy. From 1956 to his death he was chief of the Chair of Faculty Surgery, Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov. He was the author of numerous articles and monographs and the founder of the study of pathological conditions preceding cancer. 77 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 76. Review of progress in Development of Methods for Treatment of Heat- Resistant Alloys "Problems of the Treatment of Heat-Resistant A]JW ," by A. A. Bat' and L. I. Gladshteyn; Moscow, Vestnik Academii Nauk SSSR, Vol 28, No 3, Mar 58,, PP 113-115 In a report on a special meeting held 18-23. December 1957 at the Institute of Machine Science and organized by th- institute jointly with the Commission on the Technology of Machine Bui:tding, Academy of Science USSR it is pointed out that the application of heat-resistant alloys is increas- ing at a fast rate; such alloys are used in steam and gas turbines of electric power stations, in the construction of planes, in rocket technology, and in high-power generation technology. The conference discussed different aspects of problems pertaining to the treatment of heat-resistant alloys. Four plenary meetings were held and four sectional meetings, viz., on casting, treatment by the application of pressure, cutting, and welding. It was brought out in papers presented in the sectional meeting on casting (conducted by L. I. Fantalov, Doctor of Technical Sciences) that a number of heat-resistant alloys which have high melting temperatures are distinguished by the chemical reactivity of their components when the alloys are in the liquid state. Under the circumstances, the alloys must be melted in high vacuum, using the latest methods to assure the required degree of heating. The formation of an extensive zone ,-)f columnar crystallization ac- companied by the generation of considerable internal strains is the cause of a heightened tendency toward the formation of hot cracks exhibited by ingots of heat-resistant alloys. In connection with this, methods for breaking down the structure of cast machine parts (for instance, by sub- jecting the molten metal to elastic vibrations), which have been developed in the USSR, have acquired considerable importance. Information on tech- niques of this type was given at the conference. In reports presented at the sectional meeting on treatment by the r application of pressure (conducted by A. I. Tselikov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Scienc-s USSR), it was pointed out that one of the specific characteristic of heat-resistant alloys, namely, increased strength at high temperatures, requires a precise knowledge and control of the thermomechanical conditions under which treatment by the application of pressure is given. Successful work on the subject is being done by USSR scientists. Furthermore, the strength of the alloys is being increased by the application of mechanical methods. Work is being done on the development of the newest type of equip- ment by means of which high specific pressures can be achieved. -78- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 At the sectional meeting on welding (conducted by G. A. Nikolayev, Corre-iponding Member of the Academy of Sciences USSR), the specific char- acteristics of the weldi.-4g of heat resistant alloys were discussed. Among the new methods described were automatic welding in a carbon-dioxide atmos- phere and electric slag welding with the aid of plate electrodes rather than wLre electrodes. The method of electric slag welding has been simplified recently as a result of the development of fluxes which exhibit a high elec- trical conductivity at room temperature. When such fluxes are used it is not necessary to stimulate the formation of the electric arc in the initial stage of the process. In addition to the methods mentioned above, welding with a nonnielting electrode in an aragon atmosphere., point and roller con- tact welding, and welding under a layer of flux are still being applied. In papers presented at the sectional meeting on cutting (conducted by A. I. Isayev), it was emphasized that the lowered heat conductivity of heat resistant alloys and their high mechanical strength require cutting under special. conditions as well as the development of special tools for cutting. It was brought out in papers given at the meeting that this problem has been successfully solved by USSR scientists. Liquid carbon dioxide has been used lately as a cooling medium during cutting. In the treatment of heat-resistant alloys,, problems pertaining to the saving of the metal acquired exceptional it;ortance because the chemical elements which enter into the composition of heat-resistant alloys (nickel, chromium, niobium, titanium, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, boron, etc.) are expensive and in short supply. Methods aimed at the saving of i:~:_tal in connection with welding and other processes for the treatment of heat- resistant alloys were discussed. The conference recommended that work be done on the following subjects: improvement of methods for obtaining clean surfaces, development of new vacuum installations, the design of mechanized high-temperature furnaces, development of grades of steel suitable for die punching, the creation of new types of (..lectrodes, the development of methods of welding which would not result in cracking, and the improvement of cutting techniques. The con- ference pointed out that it is necessary to create at the Institute of Machine Science, Academy of Sciences USSR, a center which would coordinate research on the treatment of heat-resistant alloys. An exhibition of literature arranged in connection with the conference gave to the participants an opportunity to examine not only USSR publications, but also foreign periodical publications on the subject discussed at the con- ference; which were carefully selected for that purpose. -79-. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 77. Powder Metallur y "Powder Metallurgy," by Engineers V,. Kuz?min and V. Myuyr; Moscow C PYRG H romyshlenno Ekonomichesktaya Gazeta No 40 (340), 2 Apr 58, p 4 The production of machine parts from metal powders opens up entirely new possibilities as far as technological processes and construction are concerned. By using powder metallurgy methods, materials are obtained which exhibit properties that older materials obtained by any other methods did not possess. "For these rcasane the increasing interest in problems of powder . metallurgy outside the USSR is understandable. At a conference conducted in the GDR (German Democratic Republic which dealt with problems pertain- ing to further development of powder metallurgy, many interesting considera- tions were presented. This conference was attended by representatives of the USSR., GDR, the German Federal Republic, England, France., Poland, Czecho- slovakia, Bulgaria., Finland, Sweden, and Austria. Some of the papers presented dealt with problems which have a bearing on the sintering of metal powders and methods for improving this initial process of powder metallurgy. "Research was discussed at the conference which is conducted with the aim of developing and producing cermet alloys with special physical character- istics, i.e., cermets which have the desired magnetic, contact, and other properties., and furthermore are heat-resistant and resistant to scaling. "The production of cermet magnetic material was discussed at the con- ference in detail. Possibilities of inducing the formation of desired structures during the process of production were broached. To give an instance, it was established that by selecting the appropriate composition of the metal powder mixture one may produce cores with positive, negative, or zero temperature coefficients of magnetic permeability. "Much that is new was reported as far as the production of articles from iron powders is concerned. Processes involving a double pressing and double sintering have acquired importance. In treatment of this type, the article is pressed at a low pressure (no higher than 1.5 tons per square centimeter) and then, after a preliminary sintering at 850-9000, pressed again by applying 5-6 tons of pressure per square centimeter. Finally, the article is subjected to a second sintering at 1;050-1,1000. "In the GDR and a number of other countries., copper-iron materials are now used extensively which are distinguished by a high mechanical strength that is no lower than the strength of many alloy steels. 80 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Act?e1or Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "As a result of the application of vacuum sintering and high pressure, it has become possible to develop technological processes for the production of iron-graphite materials containing, 12.5% graphite or 20% graphite. Porous bearing materials and friction materials (brake linings) are prepared from these materials. "Great importance is being attached at present in many countries to the development of powder metallurgy. 't'hus, two powder metallurgy enterprises have beer created in the GDR. In accordance witha decision made by the government of the GDR, the Institute of Special Materials has been organized at Dresden. Problems of powder metal- lurgy play a considerable part in the work of this institute, which has at its disposal the latest type of equipment, Work on as many as 30 subjects, each representing an independent scientific problem, is being conducted at the Dresden institute. "Powder metallurgy is developing rapidly in Poland, where a combine for the production of cermet articles has been created recently. This combine is equipped with automatic presses manufactured by the Zimetag Co [a Western German concern], furnaces with automatic heating of the articles being manu- factured and automatic control of the temperature, vibrating screens, mills of different types, and vacuum equipment. "A special institute of powder metallurgy has been created in Czecho- slovakia. Furthermore, large laboratories at which work is done in the field of powder metallurgy exist at eight other research institutes. "The production of cermet articles in Czechoslovakia is done at special departments of six machine-building plants. At these departments porous bearings, contacts, magnets, filters,, articles made of heavy alloys, friction materials [brake linings], machine parts, and instruments are produced. "Powder metallurgy has developed rapidly during recent years in the US and in Western Europe. The development of powder metallurgy in the US is based primarily on extensive research in which, in addition to metallurgists, crystallographers, physicists, and physical chemists participate actively. "The non-USSR press announced recently the development of a material with a fiber structure. The fiber structure of the initial material enhances the possibilities of improving the characteristics of the machine parts pro- duced from it as far as mechanical strength and other physicomechanical qualitative properties are concerned. It has been pointed out, for instance, that it is possible to manufacture machine parts with oriented metal fibers. This can be done by rolling the material. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 ~mrpFor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 "Such machine parts are dLstint,uished by a high impact viscosity. The Lnterrelutionship between the porosity of the metal and its mechanical strength is more advantageous in the case of machine parts made of metal fibers than for those made of metal powder. "It is also pointed out that,, in addition to a high mechanical strength, machine parts made of metal fibers possess a high degree of resistance to heat . "The production of powders of different metals is of importance for the development of powder metallurgy. Definite progress has been made as far as this is concerned. One may point out., for instance, that a s:..ntered aluminum powder has been developed which is designated in the USSR as SAP. Heating to a temperature as high as 500? of articles made of this powder does not lower their mechanical strength. "Investigators working outside the USSR are at present paying consider- able attention to problems pertaining to the production of cermet articles for special applications. This includes heat-resistant complex mi:rtares containing carbides, borides, silicides, and oxides as well as materials possessing novel magnetic properties., etc." [S.c Note: Part of the article which deals with progress of powder metallurgy in the US2 West Germar.;I, and Austria has been omitted.] 82 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 DC. PHYSICS Nuclear Physics 78. Conversion Spectra of Tb Isotopes Determined "Conversion Spectra of Certain Neutron Deficient Tb Isotopes," by N. M. Anton?yeva; B. S. Dzhelepov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences USSR;A. A. Vashilov; and B. K. Preobra- zhenskiy, Leningrad State Universi.y imeni A. A. Zhdanov; Moscow Doklady Akademii Nauk ",SSR, Vol 119, No 2, 11 Mar 58, pp 241-243 A study of the conversion spectra of neutron deficient Tb isotopes is made in this work. The preparation of samples and the experimental setup were described in earlier works (Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheskaya, 22 No 2, 1958). The de.ay curves were constructed on the basis of change in the height of the conversion peaks with time. They show that the Tb samples contain several isotopes. The conve?--aon spectra of Tb for half lives of 8 ? 1 hour, 18 t 1 hours 2.3 ? 0 days, 5 ? 1 days, 10 days, 120 days, and 200 days are analyzed. 79. Statistical Method for ,Modeling Electron-Photon Cascade Proposed "Calcula't-on of an Electron-Photon Cascade in Lead by the Monte Carlo Method," by V. V. Chavc',inidze,, R. S. Shaduri, and V. A. Kumsishvili, Institute of rhydics, Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR; Moscow, Zhurna]. Eksperimental?noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 34, No ',, Apr 58s pp 912-c915 A statistical probability method for modeling a;i electron-photon cas- cade initiated by a gamma quantum in lead :Ls proposed. It is based on the method of random tests, a modification-of the Monte Carlo method. Some typical curves obtained from the calculation are given. Two methods of applying existing computers to solve.a problem of this type are indicated. -.83- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 8u. Theory of Bubble Chamber Discussed "Contribution to the Theory of the Bubble Chamber," by Yu. Kagin; Moscow, Dokludy Akr.tdemii Nauk SSSR, Vo] 119,, No 2, 11 Mar 58, pp 247-250 A theoretical explanation of the observed relationship between particle velocity and bubble density in bubble chambers is attempted. It is noted that, while recent works have presented the first quantitative data on he relationship betwe.en the number of bubbles per unit track length g and s v/c and the parameters of the liquid p and. T, there is as yet no satisfactory theory explaining the bubbling phenomenon itself and the relationships observed. It is assumed that the formation of visible bubbles along the track is the result of the hitting of subcritical nuclei in a region of' substantial localization of energy given up by the charged particles. A consequence of this is the growth of the radius of the nucleus to a dimension exceeding the critical radius/Rcrit? The region of localization is determined for the case of fast, heavy particles and a liquid whose molecules are composed of light atoms. An expression is derived for the energy localized in a unit volume at a distance R from the track. It is concluded from this expression that the dimensions of the region of localization are inversely proportional to 15' . It is noted that consequently all processes will occur within a cylinder around the track whose radius changes as1/~. An expression is also given for the number of particles per unit track length. 81, Reactions on Be9 "An Investigation of (n,, (;A ) and (n,,t) Reactions on Be9," by S. S. Vasilyev, V. V, Komarov., and A. M. Popova. Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University imeni Lomo- nosov; Moscow, Dori.lady Akademii Nauk SSSR,, Vol 119,, No 5, 11 Apr 58, pp 914...917 ..r.__ Reactions Be9(n,,( )H 6 and ? 9(n,t)Li7 under action of fast neutrons of 1 to 19 Mev energy were observed on specially prepared nuclear emulsion layers in which finely dispersed, spectrally pure beryllium was contained (same authors, Zh.ETF, 33, 527, 1957.). The neutron source was a lithium target irradiated' with deuterons accelerated to 4 Mev on the 72-cm cyclotron of the Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics. Tie developed photoplates were studied under a microscope. Special attention was paid to the reaction (n,.t) on which no data are available. The correlations between Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 path and energy, taken from the book by E. Segre (Experimental Nuclear Ph~cics) and from W. II. Barkas (hys. Rev. 89, 1019. 1953) were used for computation. The dependence of the cross section on the energy of the .incident neutrons was plotted for the reaction Be9(n, ~)He6. The values obtained for the cross section are in good agreement with those found by P.H. 9Stelnen and E. C. Camphell (Phys. Rev. 106 1252, is considered as a "pickup" r y ' and the 9 absence of The a reaction at 00 in the angular distribution may beexplained onthe basis ofthepcon- servation law of angular momenta in reactions of direct interaction (S. T. Butler, Phys. Rev. 106, 272, 1957). 82. Activities at Dubna Joint Institute for Nuclear Research "Nuclear Affairs" (unsigned news item); Frankfurt/Oder, Neuer Tag, 11 May 58 In the Dubna Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, assembly work on a large, propane-filled bubble chamber (Blasenkammer) is nearing completion in the building housing the synchrophasotron. This new installation, which constitutes a further development of the Wilson chamber, is used for the tracing of elementary particles. Chinese scientist Wang Kang-chang was in charge of the assembly work on this installation. At present, a group of Czechoslovak physicists and engineers headed by Professor Petukhov is developing a novel electron accelerator. Bogolyubov, Lenin Prize winner and director of the laboratory for Theoretical Physics in Dubna, is directing work of young scientists the purpose of which is discovery of laws by which new elementary particles can be predicted. So far, about 30 elementary particles are known. The research work is aimed at finding a principle for classifying these elementary particles, similar to the periodic system of the elements by Mendeleyev. -- 85 -. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Spectroscopy 83. Cd; at 20?K "The Structure of the Absorption and Photoelectric Conductance Spectra of CdS Crystals at 200K," by V L. Broud.e, V. V. Yere- menko, and N. N. Chikovani. Physics Institute, Academy of Sci- ences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 5, 11 Apr 58, pp 911-913 The coefficient of light absorption by CdS crystals in the short-wave range were measured and the variations of line intensity connected with lattice distortions were quantitatively evaluated. The measurements were made at 20?K using a metallic cryostat with flat, windows (V. L. Broude, V,. S. Medbedev, and. A. F. Prikhotko. Optika i Spektroskopiya, 2, 317, 1957) in which the sample was cooled by the vapor of boiling hydrogen. A Leitz glass monochromator was used for measuring photo conductance. The photocur- rent was read on a mirror galvanometer with a response to 2.10-9 amp. The absorption coefficient was evaluated on the basis of determinations made with a MF-2 microphotometer. No unique correlation between the stationary photocurrent and the absorption coefficient was found. This points to com- plicating factors affecting the dependence of the photocurrent on the wave- length of the absorbed light, which should be taken under consideration in establishing the mechanism of photo conductance in CdS single crystals. Theoretical Physics 84. New Approximation Method in Many-Body Problem Formulated "Concerning a Variation Principle in the Many-Body Problem." by AcadenLiciaxi N. N. Bogol;nzbov; Moscow, Do~klady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 2, 11 Mar 58, pp 2LP+-246 A new approximation method in the many-body problem is formulated. A dynamic system of Fermi particles is considered with Hamiltonian of the form x = ~, { T(~., f ') -A f, ja a.,, 1'2'2 ~ afi a a- a where - is the chemical 'potential; a,, at are Fermi amplitudes; f is the set of indices the state'of a single partic.l'e. ; 86 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 We will make the following linear transformation of the Fermi amplitudes + o f U~ y'X y + v (2) Scy y/. In order that the transformation be canonical and not destroy the commutative properties of the Fermi amplitudes the c - functions u, v must satisfy orthogonality conditions. By substituting (2) in (1) and finding an average value of H for a vacuum state Co ,, C0 = o for new Fermi amplitudes, we obtain H=~{TF, + T(~;~ , *(f fz) fz) + ;4 (^f >f,')F (')) _ ; (U;4 where We determine u and v from the condition for the minimum of the form E (u,v) under the additional conditions of orthogonality. The corresponding steady-state equation will be d (~t.,v) = n (5) ~~:t,Y;= (cc,v)+Z 14 {A(~.~'> S (,f'>+rtCt-f)~~t,f'>+~*Cf~f2 f~~~~ where tl are the Euler factors. The variations and Sy * are here assumed to be independent. We come now to the formulation of a new approximation method in the many-body problem. In this method we will take those u,v which satisfy the steady-state equations and which give a minimum value to the form (u,v). 0 - 87 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 We will. a,stune the respective Co to be the wave function of the ground state and lv (u,v), the energy of t':e ground state. `Pho question of the method's t'oundatiori and its limits of applicability are rather complex. We will limit ourselves here, therefore, to a number of remarks. We can state on the basis of the results of the previous work (N. N. Doglyubov, Doklady Akademii Nauk, 119, No 1, 1958) that the method proposed here gives an exact solution of the problem for the case when only the inter- action of pairs of particles with opposite momentum are considered in the Hamiltonian. We shall show, on the other hand, that there is always a solu- tion among the solutions of the steady-state equation which exactly corre- sponds to the well-known Fok (Fock) method. We will take the system of functions Q'.v , which have been normalized in the usual sense JK- 1 fY IT (6) and will divide the whole set of indices )/ into two parts, F and G. We will take as F ("the Fermi sphere") the finite set of indices '/ , consist- ing of N elements, where N is the number of particles. The remaining V we shall put into the other set G. We obtain ofY= ?> /fy= 0, (7) Obviously, then, all the orthogonality conditions '.rill be satisfied. If these u,v are put: into the form the in this form disappears and it will depend only on Fl, or in other words only on 7f for FT We will designate ~ E F by the letter a) . We will determine from the condition for the minimum of the form,.(,)under the additional condi- tions (6). The corresponding steady-st,ar cjuation will be ? (8) fc, It is easy to see that we have formulated none other than the ordinary Fok method. The wave function of the system is valid under the assumption that the individual particles occupy a)1 the states T 0 ; the remaining states, Apr , are empty. On the other hand, we see ?rom equation (5) that they alwaysyhave a solution of the type (7), in which the are chosen according to the Fok method as solutions of equation (8). Thus our method can be considered a generalization; of the Fok method and consequently its limits of applicability will not bc narr~ --- r in any event. The author suggests that this method can be used to obtain criteria for superconductivity in metallic crystals. 88 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 C)~ ~ f Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100120001-0 :35. Gravitational and Electromagnetic Fields Independent of Time "On Periodic Gravitational and Electromagnetic Fields in the General Theory of Relativity," by A. Papapetrou, Berlin, Re- search institute for Mathematics, German. Academy of Sciences; Leipzic? Annalen der PhyRik, Vol 1, No 4/5, 1958, pp 186-197 A gravitational field gf)i is considered with the properties: (a) It depends periodically on time; (b) it satisfies the usual boundary condition in infinity, g-#'' _,-VA-0 for r --).. axn, , and thus, within the region r -~ ro, permits the series development g f