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Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00130001-9 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 22 August 1958 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. Issued Semi-monthly. Price: Per year $28.00; Single issue $2.75. .? ..:: ?- - / ~`',' PB 131891T-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R00~~1~ 1W004-9h7oV ---' to WS Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from publications of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities in the USSR, in the Sino-Soviet Orbit countries, and in Yugoslavia, and is dis- seminated as an 'aid to United States Government research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents Page 1. Biology 1 II. Chemistry 4 III. Earth Sciences 30 IV. Electronics 32 V. Engineering 42. VI. Medicine 43 VII. Physics 82 VIII. NOTE: Miscellaneous Items in this report are numbered consecutively. 101 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 USC OMM-DC- 54748 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 1. X-Ray Induced Varieties of Yeast Yielding Increased Amounts of Ergosterol Obtained "X-Ray Induced Hereditarily Changed Forms of Yeast Organisms Which Form Increased Amounts of Ergosterol," by Ye. N. Sokurova, Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 2, 11 Mar `58, pp 265-266 Cultures of saccharomyces carlsbergensis Frohberg which normally possess high ergesterol content, i.e., 2% of dry weight of 2-day old cultures, were subjected to radiation doses varying between 100 to 500 r, and the following observations were made: 1. By irradiating yeast organisms with sublethal doses of X-rays,, and subsequently selecting appropriate yeast cultures, it was possible to obtain yeast cultures with hereditarily increased ergosterol content. 2. This hereditary characteristic is not sufficiently stable, since, after repeated cultivation without repeated irradiation, the high ergo- sterol content gradually decreases. 3. Radiostrain yeasts with increased ergosterol content do not dif- fer essentially in their radiosensitivity from the original forms of yeast although there are indications of a possible protective role of ergosterol in radiation sickness.. 2. Experimental Data Indicate Parallelism Between Disturbed Chromosome Apparatus and Radiation Dose'and its Deleterious Effects on Different Stages of Embryogenes s "Disturbances of Mitosia due to X-Irradiation of the Early Stages of Development of the Eggs of Groundling Fish," by IT. N. Belyayeva, and G. L. Pokrovskaya, Institute of Biolog- ical Sciences. of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademli Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 2, 11 Mar 58, pp 361-364 Tests were conducted on Misgurnus fossilis L. to determine the ef- fect of ionizing radiation on the process of fertilization and on the various stages of cell division of fish eggs. The fertilized eggs were irradiated at various stages of embr genesis (early and late blastula) and with various doses of radiation 100,250,500, 1,000, 10,000 and also 1,600, 3,L00, 6,hoo, 12,800, and-19,200 r). Experimental details and photomicrographs accompany the article. - 1 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Results indicate that the greater the dose of irradiation, the greater is the decrease of the rate of mitosis, and even irradiation by 100 r noticeably decreases mitotic rate. No mi' 'sis was noted following irradiation with 10,000 r. Rise in the percentage of disturbed mitosis was commensurate with the value of the dose. There was a parallelism between the degree of injury to the growing embryos and the injury to its chromosome apparatus. These results, furthermore, indicate that the greatest radiosensi- tivity occurs during the earliest stages of mitosis (at the stage of one blastomere), and the later the stage of embryonic development, the greater is the dose required to cause 50% death of the embryos. Parallelism was also noted following the irradiation of fish eggs during the late blastula stage between the degree of survival of the developing embryos, and the decree of injury to the nucleus with regard to dose of irradiation. Such a clear manifestation of the laws of the disturbance of chro- mosome apparatus in relation to the does and the state of development of the eggs, and such a clearly expressed parallelism between the data of cytology and embryology-make it possible for us to hope that further re - search along these lines may make it possible to explain a number of important problems connected with the effect of ionizing radiation on the processes of fertilization, cell division, and the development of fish. 3.' Radiation Studies of the Early Development of Fish Eggs Indicate Importance of Radiation Injuries of a Cell Nucleus "A Study of Ways in Which Injuries Caused by Radiation During the Early Development of Fish Occur.," by A. A. Neyfalth, and N. N. Rott, Institute of Animal Morphology of the Academy of Sciences USSR, and the Institute of Biological Physics of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 119, No 2', 11 Mar 58, pp 261-2;7- X-ray effects of various strengths (3,000 and 10,000 r) on the germ cells and gametes of fish (Misgurnus fossilis and Acipenser stellatus) during various periods of development, especially middle, and late blast- ula and early gastrula stages are discussed. Differences in normal de- velopment at the stage of two blastomeres, morula, early blastula, late 4 blastula, and early gastrula are sketched, and diagrams show changes in mitotic activity from the moment of irradiation up to 30 hours later. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The authors present two possible theories to explain changes and interruptions of development due to radiation: 1. That it is possible to assume that cell division is the inter- mediate link between the injury of the cell nucleus during irradiation and the dppearance of functional deficiencies during the beginning of the gastrula stage. 2. That the nucleus, due to its own activity during the early stages, guarantees the development of the cells up to certain later stages. Higher doses of radiation curtail its activity, and development after ir- radiation can proceed only to the stage which was preserved by the func- tion of the nucleus at the moment of irradiation. - 3 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Analytical Chemistry 4. A Spectrographic Method For the Determination of Germanium in Coal Ash "Spectrographic Determination of Germanium in Coal Ash," by N. V. Arnautov, West Siberian Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Novosibirsk, Izvestiya Vostochnykh F lialov Akademii Nauk SSSR, No 1, Feb 57, pp E9-52 A method for the spectrographic determination of germanium in coal ash is described which was found to be sufficiently precise and to give reproducible results. By using this method, more than 400 determinations of germanium were made on coal samples from different deposits, primarily deposits in West and East Siberia. [For additional information on analytical chemistry, see Item No 11.] Biochemistry 5. Ascorbase Inhibition by Complex-Forming Reagents Studied "The Inhibition of Ascorbase by Complex-Forming Reagents," by A. Jindra and V. Prochazka, Chem. Listy, 19,57, 51, No 2, 362-366 (Czech) (Moscow; from Referativn Zhurnal -- Khimi a Biologicheska IChimi , No 8, 25 Apr 5 , Abstract CPYRGHT No 9743) "Studies were conducted on the inhibition of ascorbase obtained from frozen cucumbers by complek-forming reagents which bind. copper (tetraetIVIthiuram disulfide (antabuse), cupferron, komplekscn III [disodium salt of ethylene- diaminetetraacetic acid], and CO). The effect of the inhibiting reagents was determined by decreased ascorbic acid content, with respect to time, in the presence of ascorbase both :rith inhibitors and without inhibitors. It was established that antabuse and cupferron are not rival inhibitors for ascorbic acid, for tetraethylthiuram disulfide exerts five times greater inhibition than cupferron (50% inhibition in a concentration of 8 x 10-6 moles). Komplexon III (disodium salt of ethylenediamine- tetraacetic acid) and CO do not affect the activity of ascorbase." -4 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Chemistry and Technology of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 6. A Review of "Atomnaya Energi5m" for 1956-1957 "0n the Pages of the Periodical Atomnaya Enereiya (1956- 1957)," by M. B. Yegiazarov and A. G. Zelenkov; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 137-143 The authors of the article review the papers published during 1956- 1957 in Atomnaya Energa, mentioning the papers which they consider most interesting and subjecting the contents of the periodical to a critical review. They discuss as follows the papers dealing with nuclear fuels C PYRGid reactor construction materials: "An important subdivision of the nuclear energy industry is that concerned with the production of fissionable materials. The problems pertaining to this production are very diverse and relate to the forms in which uranium is found in nature, methods for the detection of uranium deposits, the chemical separation of uranium and plutonium, the separa- tion of uranium isotopes, and other aspects of the production of fission- able materials. "Problems of the geology of uranium are discussed in detail in Sup- plement No 6, 1957. Issue No 12, 1957, contains a review article by V. I. Gerasimovskiy entitled "Concerning the Forms in Which Uranium Occurs in Rocks." The subject of this article is of primary importance for the clarification of the conditions under which uranium deposits are formed. An article by A. A. Chernikov, 0. V. Krutetskaya, and N. I. Organova (No 8, 1957) announces the discovery of sodium autunite (a new uranium mineral) and describes its properties. "The radioactivity of uranium and thorium ores makes it possible to determine the content of uranium and thorium in them directly under na- tural conditions without taking samples or conducting chemical analyses. Methods of the radiometric, assaying of radioactive ores on the basis of the gamma radiation emitted by them and a method for the quantitative interpretation of the results of gamma core testing of ore bore holes are discussed in articles by V. L. Shashkin published in No 1 and 2, 1957. Methods of analysis based on the gamma-radiation emitted by radioactive elements contained in ores are discussed in papers by G. R. Gol`bek, V. V. Matveyev, and R. S. Shlyapnikov (No 9, 1957); L. N. Posik and I. M. Tonenbaum (No 9, 1957); and others. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "A number of papers describing work on the chemical and physical properties of uranium and plutonium compounds attracts attention. In an informative article by A. M. Rozen (No 5) 1957) problems of the thermody- namics of equilibria formed during the extraction of uranyl nitrate are discussed. An article by S.N. Karpc,cheva and others (no 6, 1957) de- scribes novel designs of jet extraction columns. In the same general range of work is the subject matter of an article published by a large group of investigators, including L. A. Ar.tsimovich, G. Ya. Shchepkin, and V. V. 211ukov. This article describes an electromagnetic installa- tion with a high degree of resolution that has been used for the separa- tion of heavy elements (No 3.2, 1957). Some results obtained in the sepa- ration of isotopes of lead, uranium, and plutonium are reported in the article. "Technical materials used in the construction of nuclear reactors must satisfy special requirements. Materials of this type must have a low effective cross section of neutron capture, be very pure, and possess certain definite physical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics. The periodical contains a number of papers dealing with results obtained in the investigation of the properties of zirconium, niobium, tantalum, and alloys and compounds of these metals as well as of methods for their production. To give a few examples, an investigation of the properties of alloys of zirconium with niobium is reported in two papers by Yu. F. Bychkov, A. N. Rozanov, and D. M. Skorov (No 2) 1957) and a method for the production of ductile niobium is described in a paper by 0. P. Kolchin, N. V. Sumarokova, and N. P. Chuveleva (No 12, 1957)? "Graphite is one of the best materials for use as a moderator in nuclear reactors. A review article by 17. V. Goncharov entitled "Graphite in the Construction of Reactors" (No 12, 1957) discusses in detail prob- lems pertaining to the technology of the production of graphite articles, the application of graphite in reactors, and the changes which occur in graphite under the action of nuclear radiation. "A study of changes which take place under the action of irradiation and o'cyclic temperature changes in different materials is of particular importance for present=day nuclear power technology. Results obtained in investigations on this subject are reported in papers by I. V. Batenin and B. V. Sharov (No 9).1957) and A. A. Bochvar and G. I. Tomson (No 6, 1957)," (p 140) In regard to novel uses of nuclear energy, the fol].ot?Ting information is given: -6 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "Two articles which describe research on new methods for the utiliza- tion of the energy of nuclear particles are of great interest. A paper by B. M. Vul, V. S. Vavilov, and other (No 6, 1957) deals with problems of transformation of the energy of fast electrons into electric energy in germanium crystals with P-N transitions. It is demonstrated in the work described that the principal factor which lowers the efficiency of the transformation is an increase in the velocity of the recombination of electrons and holes which arises as a result of disturbances in the crys- tal structure produced by the action of the fast electrons. An article by S. Ya. Pshezhetskiy and N. T. Dmitriyev entitled "Fixation of Nitrogen Under the Action of Ionizing Radiation" (No 10, 1957) describes results obtained in the investigation of basic relationships pertaining to the reaction of the oxidation of nitrogen under the action of electrons and gamma-radiation. The direct oxidation of nitrogen under the action of radiation and high energy particles may become one of the ways in which nuclear energy will be utilized." (p 141) 7. Determination of Thorium With the Arsenazo Reagent "Photometric Determination of Thorium With the Arsenazo Reagent in the Presence of Zirconium, Titanium, and Rare Earth Elements," by F. V. Zaykovskiy and L. I. Gerkhardt, All-Union Institute of Mineral Raw Materials; Moscow, Zhurnal Anal iticheskoy Khimii, Vol 13, No 3, May-Jun 58, It has been established that the interference of zirconium. titanium, and rare-earth elements during the photometric determination of thorium with the arsenazo reagent [uranon or benzene -2-arsonic acid (1-azo-7) dioxynaphthalene-3,-6-disulfonic acid] can be eliminated by means of tartaric acid. A method has been developed for determining thorium with the arsenazo reagent in the presence of the above-mentioned elements. .Industrial Chemistry ti. Siloxanes Containing Metals "Metallosiloxanes," by S. B.; Moscow, Khimicheskaya Nauka i Promyahlennost', Vol 3, No 2, Mar-Apr 56; p 274 Metallosiloxanes are a new class of organosilicon compounds which contain alternating atoms of silicon, oxygen, and a metal. Similar com- pounds have been synthesized the principal chains of which consist of al- ternating atoms of silicon, oxygen, and a nonmetal. Polyorganometallo- siloxanes occupy an intermediate position between silicates and organic polymers, canbining the cba,racteristics of both. They surpass organosil- icon polymers as far as stability at high temperatures and chemical sta- bility are concerned. - 7.- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Tris-(trialkylsilyl) borates of the formula (R3SiO)3B are high-boiling oily liquids which are recommended for use. as catalysts in the alkylation of silicon halides and as plasticizers (M. G. Voronkov and V. N. Zgonnik, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 27, 1957, p 1476). By employing the reaction HgC12 R3SiOH 4 Al (R3Si0)3A1 + 112 crystalline tris-(triethylsiloxy)-aluminum was synthesized, the hydrolysis of which leads to the formation of heat-resistant polymers with the struc- ture R3SiO-Al -O-Al -OSIR3 (K. K. Andrianov and others, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR) Vol 112, 1957, p 1050). The reaction of the siloxanols -HO SiR2o xH with Al results in the formation of highly polymerized alumosiloxanes. Addition of aluminum powder as a pigment to polysiloxane liquids made it possible to obtain coatings which protect ordinary steel up to 5400 and stainless steel up to 760-8700. When halogenated organosilanes are hydrolyzed together with AJC13 according to the equation NaOH (Cli3)2SiCl2 + C6H5Sicl3 + Alcl3 HH [-(CH 3)2siosi(C6H5)o-]4of -, 2 b 0 products.with the consistency of a gel are obtained the thermal poly- merization of which yields resins which have a very high resistance to heat (K. A. Andrianov and others, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Ithimicheskikh Nauk, 1956, p 74). In an analogous manner polyorganometal- losiloxanes can be obtained which contain both aluminum and cobalt or nickel. By reacting trialkylsilanols (or their sodium salts) with T1C14, tetrakis-(trialkyisiloxy)-titanium compounds were obtained. In acidic media these compounds hydrolyze slowly, forming polymers which have the constitution (R 3Si0)2TiOTi(OSiR3 )2 I I - 8 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 By hydrolyzing alkylalkoxy(halotreno)silanes together with derivatives of orthotitanic acid, diverse polyorganot:it+nos iloxanes can be obtained (K. A. Andrianov'and others, Izvesti Akademli Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniyee Khimicheskikli Nauk, 1956, p 79d). Resins, varnish films, and enamels based on compounds of this class exhibit a high degree of heat resistance and great mechanical strength as well as favorable characteristics with respect to adhesion, suitability as insulating and waterproofing agents, and impermeability to ultraviolet radiation. Addition of aluminum as a pigment to this type of resins makes them heat-resistant at tempzratures above 6000. Some titanosiloxanes are effective as adhesives for cement- ing polysiloxane rubber and teflon to metals, as materials for the im- pregnation of textiles and footwear, and as catalysts of the polycondensa- tion of organic resins. Alkyl titanates accelerate the hardening of polysiloxane resins, sharply ] owering the temperature of solidification of films and increas- ing theie strength. These effects are explained by the formation of Si-O-Ti links. The methods for the synthesis of compounds with Si-O-P groupings are similar to those employed in the synthesis of boros iloxanes . The tris-(trialkylsilyl)-phosphates (R3Si03) (M. G. Voronkov and V. N. Zgonnik, Zhurnal Obshchey Kh3mii, Vol 2g, 19559 p 469; Vol 27, 1957, p 1I33) are viscous liquids which are stable up to 250-3000. These liquids are effective as antifoam agents and plasticizers. The introduc- tion of derivatives of phosphoric acid into liquid polysiloxanes stabilizes the latter, lends to them compatibility with mineral oils and :fire resist= ante, and also improves their lubricating properties. Polysiloxane resins and polysiloxane elastomers acquire a aegree of resistance to heat after phosphorus compounds have been added to them. Monomers obtained by the Clayton-[L. A.] Soborovskiy reaction for- mulated below Cl4-nSiRn + PC13 + 02 ..-_) Cl.4-n i SiR Rn-1 form fire-resistant resins on hydrolysis and polycondensation. The synthesis of monomeric and polymeric organosilicon compounds has been reported which 'contain Si-O-M oi? Si-C-M groupings with M s Zn, Cd, Hg, Ce, Fe, Pb, Zr, Sb, As, etc. -9 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 9. Oroanouilicon Compounds as Iloat-Resistant Dielectrics Te lotto ki a Kremni or anicheuki e Dielcktriki (Icat- Reciutant Organooilicon Dielectrics)) by K. A. Andrianov, Gosenergoizeat (State Power Engineering Publishing Iloute), Moscow-Leningrad, 1957, 296 pp. This book reviews in detail. the characteristics of organosilicon polymers and of electrical insulation materials containing compounds of this class. The general principles pertaining to the synthesis of polyorganosiloxanes are outlined. Furthermore, the properties of organo- silicon resins, varnishes, elastomers, and other materials produced by the USSR industry are outlined. Their technical uses are discussed. According to the publisher's note on the back of the title page, the book is intended as a manual for engineers and industrial technologists, workers at laboratories and specialized branch institutes, and also spe- cialist: in the field of electrical insulation technology in general. The subject matter of the book is arranged in the following manner: Preface (p 3); carbon, silicon, and oxygen -- the basic elements of the polymer molecules composing organosilicon dielectrics (chapter 1) p 6); general principles of the formation of polyorganosiloxanes (chapter 2, p 19); the structure of linear polyorganosiloxanes and their properties (chapter 3, p 47); the structure of cross-linked and 3-dimensional poly- mers and the properties of these polymers (chapter 4, p 74); the deterio- ration of polyorganosiloxane resins under the effect of heat (chapter 5) p 86); liquid organosilicon dielectrics (chapter 6, p 1.10); organosilicon elastomers and dielectrics based on these elastomers (chapter 7, p 145); organosilicon resins, varnishes, and enamels (chapter 8, p 171); electri- cal insulating materials based on organosilicon resins and varnishes (chapter 9, page 208); applications of organosilicon polymers (chapter 10, p 252); subject index (p 292). The scope of the subject and the significance of organosilicon com- pounds from the standpoint of technological developments, particularly developments in the electrical industry, are reviewed by the author as CPYRGH 011ows in the preface: "The development of the production of electrical insulation mate- rials and of the theory of dielectrics are closely connected with the development of electrical engineering as a whole. During the initial period of the development of electrical engineering and technology, the demands put to electrical insulation materials were not very exacting and could be satisfied readily by multipurpose materials which were not designed for any specific application: e.g., natural. resins, rubber, vegetable oils, cellulose, and.some inorganic materials, as for instance porcelain, glass, and mica. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "As electrical engineering developed) the demands put; to electrical incaution materials became more stringent and diversified; types of insulating materials became necessary which could stand increased -thermal, electrical, and mechanical stresses and furthermore be water proof and possess a sufficient mechanical flexibility. For the reason stated, the use of synthetic high-molecular organic compounds such as phonolformal- dehydc, polyvinylacetal, and polyester resins was introduced on a large scale. High-voltage techniques and particularly high-frequency techniques require the application of dielectrics with a small dielectric loss. To satisfy the requirements imposed by high-frequency applications, the fol- lowing polymers were synthesized: polystyrene, polyd.ichlorostyrene, poly- isobutylene, polyethylene, and polytetrafluorethylene. Insulation mate- rials for electrical equipment designed for a long period of service must retain to a high extent their original properties even vender very severe qerational conditions. Of particular importance is stability of char- acteristics when the material is expose' to.the prolonged action of high temperatures. The insufficient heat resistance of organic fiber dielec- trics and of compounds used for impregnation hampered for a long time designers of electrical equipment, because the operating temperatures could not be raised for this reason. The development of electrical insulating materials containing glass fibers solved this problem only to a limited extent, because the use of organic compounds used for impregna- tion and cementing of the fibers reduced the heat resistance of glass- fiber insulating materials. Only the creation of a new type of material, i.e., organosilicon polymers (polyorganosiloxanes), which possess a high resistance to heat-and to moisture, made it possible to produce electrical insulating material-3 that would stand working temperatures as high as 180-2000 for prolonged periods of time. The first investigations dealing with methods for the production of organosiliconi polymers (polyorganosil- oxar-es) and their characteristics were begun in the USSR in 1935. The first description of-a method for the production of technically applicable products of the hydrolysis with water of organosiltcon monomers of the alkyl (aryl) halogenos ilanL: type or the alkyl (aryl) alkoxys ilane type followed by the condensation of these monomers into resins appeared in 1937. In 1939, different polyurganosiloxane resins were synthesized and their properties as heat-resistant dielectrics investigated. "Polyorganosiloxanes contain both organic and inorganic structural elements:. their unusual properties are, the result of a combination of the high heat resistance of quartz and the elasticity which is character- istic for organic polymers. For Instance, laminated materials consisting of polyorganosiloxanes and glass fibers can be exposed for a long time to an operating temperature of 2000 and for a short time to temperatures. up to 500?. Polydimethylsiloxane rubber resists prolonged exposure to a tem perature of 1800 and intermittent raising of the temperature to 260?. Polyorganosiloxanes exhibit an exceptionally high resistance to the action of moisture and low temperatures. They are, furthermore, chemically in- active, stable with'respect to oxidation, and capable of withstanding for a long time the harmful effects of sunlight and ozone. For the reasons statedp the period of useful service of polyorganosiloxanes is at least ten times longer than that of organic polymers. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "The dielectric properties of polyorganosiloxaneo arc exceptionally favorable and change very little within a wide temperature range. "A very important property of polyorganosiloxanes is the modifi- ability of their characteristics within very wide limits as a result of the introduction of different radicals into their composition. Technical polymers contain methyl, ethyl, or phenyl radicals, which affect the heat resistance, elasticity at low temperatures, rate of solidification, and hardness of the polymer. When polyorganosiloxanes are combined with or- ganic resins, the latter acquire a higher heat stability, improved elec- trical properties, a higher degree of resistance to moisture, and improved properties as far as aging at'elevated temperatures is concerned. On being combined with organic polyester resins, polyorganosiloxane resins form electrically insulating enamels which, are suitable for operation at 2000. "Polyorganosiloxane resins and varnishes derived from these resins made it possible to develop a new type of electrical insulation materials known at present as materials of the SV class. Insulating materials of this type made it possible to raise the temperature of operation by 500 above that at which materials of the class V can be used; i.e., the tempera- ture could be raised from 1300 to 1800. However, it is known at present that some insulating materials based on polyorganosiloxanec may withstand prolonged exposure to temperatures as high as 2000. "Heat-resistant electrical insulating materials of the SV type are of great importance for the solution of problems set by the 20th Congress of the CSPU to the electrical power industry and the industry of power machine building, because their use makes it possible to employ improved designs of electrical machines, transformers, and instruments, increasing the reliability of the operation, extending the period of their service, and in a number of cases reducing their dimensions to as little as IMP. Almost equally important, is the application of SV insulating materials for the production of new types of dry transformers. "Some polyorganosiloxanes are suitable for rendering hydrophobic and/or waterproof various materials such as glass, glass textiles, wool, cotton fibers, paper, ceramics, etc. They have acquired great importance for applications in the production of precise metal castings, heat-resistant anticorrosion coating enamels, heat-resistant lubricants, hydraulic and shock-absorber liquids, heat-resistant plastics, etc." The section on applications of organosilicon polymers (Chapter 10) lists numerous technical and military applications of such polymers on the basis of US and British publications and patents. The USSR work described in this chapter deals mainly with the application of organosil icon com- pounds as insulating materials and agents for hydrophobization and water- proofing. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The preceding chapters give considerable information on USSR work in the field of organosilicon compounds, including many references to Andrianov'u own work. 10. Development of a Petrochemical Raw Material. Basis for the USSR Synthetic Rubber Indust "Synthetic Elastomers and Alcohols," by V. Bibishev, Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Muucow, Prom hlenno- Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, Vol 3, No 32 (33214 Mar 58, p 14) columns 1- An extensive synthetic rubber industry was created in the USSR in the early 1930s. The?production method applied at the early synthetic rubber plants was based on the process developed by S. V. Lebedev. Lebetev's mPthoc1 consists substantially in the catalytic, conversion of ethyl alcohol to butadiene. The butadiene is then polymerized by means of metallic sodium. Although this method aided in the development of the industrial production of synthetic rubber on a large scale, it has major drawbacks. One of the drawbacks was the necess!ty of using food products such as grain, potatoes, etc. for the production of the alcohol which served as the initial raw material for rubber production. Chemists were faced with the task of finding a more readily acces- sible and cheaper raw material. Petroleum gases and gaseous by-products of the petroleum conversion industry proved to be a raw material which satisfies these requirements. The gases in question contain ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butylene, and butane. The available supplies of petroleum gases are very great. Particu'' larly large amounts of gas are available in the Bashkirskaya ASSR, the Tatarskaya ASSR, Kuybyslievskaya Oblast, the Azer?-?aydzhan SSR, and other petroleum-producing areas of the country. At present, in regions where a considerable supply of this raw mate- rial is available, several large plants are being erected at which syn- thetic rubber will be produced from butane and butylene. By the dehydrogenation of butylene and butane a synthetic rubber with superior characteristics can be produced, while the capital invest- ment required for plants applying this process is lower. According to calculations made by the Giprokauchuk (State Planning Institute of the Rubber Industry), the cost of a ton of synthetic rubber produced from butane and butylene will be one third and the capital investment required one half of the corresponding values applying to synthetic alcohol de- rived from crude materials that can be used as foodstuffs. - 13 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 At new industrial plants clastomers will be produced by the copoly- merization of butadiene with styrene or methylstyrone. These elastomers are superior to butadiene rubber as far as character istics of importance from the standpoint of the application of synthetic rubber are concerned. For instance, the tensile strength of elastomers of this type is almost twice as great as that of butadiene rubber. These grades of rubber are also superior with respect to tearing strength, residual elongation, and a number of other characteristics. At the new enterprises for the pro- duction of synthetic rubber, an improved polymerization process will be applied. Specifically, the method of low temperature polymerization will be used more extensively, with the result that elastomers of a better quality will be produced. Copolymerized elastomers can be combined during the process of pro- duction with approximately 20% of oil (Avtol 18). Oil-extended rubber is used successfully in the production of automobile tires and of other rubber articles. Oil extension does not lower the quality of the products made of the rubber, while the cost of the rubber is reduced considerably. A considerable amount of work has been done in connection with the development of isoprene rubber, which is close to natural rubber in its properties. The production of isoprene rubber on an industrial scale has not been organized as yet. However, trial lots of isoprene rubber that have been produced indicate that it is superior in many respects to other kinds of rubber. The development of the production of isoprene rubber on an extensive industrial scale will be of great advantage to the national economy. At present, particularly stringent requirements are put to rubber products as far as resistance to heat, chemical stability, resistance to gasoline and oil, and also impermeability to gases are concerned. As a rule, natural rubber does not satisfy these requirements; to give the necessary characteristics to finished rubber, special types of crude synthetic rubber are used. The most advanced type of synthetic elastomer for special applica- tions is butyl rubber. Butyl rubber exhibits a high chemical stability and superior impermeability to gases. These properties make it possible to use butyl rubber for the production of chemically resistant rubber products, equipment of various types, and inner tubes for automobile tires. Nitrile rubber has similar properties. This kind of rubber is very stable to the action of gasoline and oil. It can therefore be used suc- cessfully for the production of special rubber tubes, hoses, and other articles. -14 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Chloroprene rubber is of great value for the electrical engineering industry and for the production of conveyer belts and other technical rubber products. Silicon rubber, which has an exceptionally high resist- ance to heat (it withstands temperatures of 250-3000), is also of import- ance for industrial applications. In addition to rubber, synthetic ethyl alcohol derived from petroleum gases is of importance for technology. Its use is of great significance from the economic standpoint, because the cost of a ton of alcohol derived from petroleum gases is half that of a ton of alcohol produced from crude materials which may serve as foodstuffs. Plants which produce synthetic alcohol from petroleum gases are op- erating at Sumgait, Ufa, Orsk, Saratov, and Kuybyshev. Until recently hydration of ethylene with sulfuric acid was applied at these plants. The application of this method involves the use of a considerable quantity of sulfuric acid. At present a new method has been developed until the stage where- it can be applied on an extensive industrial scale, i.e., the method of direct hydration of ethylene. The application of this method eliminates' the use of sulfuric acid. Plants which have been constructed and other plants which are still in the process of construction have been planned on the basis of this process. The expansion of the industrial production of synthetic alcohol, combined with an increase of the output of alcohol at hydrolysis and sulfite liquor fermentation plants, will make it possible to satisfy completely within the next few years the demand of synthetic rubber pants for alcohol. By converting a ton of ethylene to alcohol, one achieves a saving of'more than 4 tons of grain. Other products besides alcohol and synthetic rubber will be produced from the hydrocarbons of petroleum gases.' For instance, ethane and ethylene will also be employed for the production of styrene, which is another crude material for the manufacture, of synthetic rubber. Starting with ethylene, polyethylene is produced, which is utilized as a material in the manufacture of electric cables aid of many consumer products. Ethylene is furthermore the starting material for the industrial synthesis of ethylene oxide, which is an intermediate product for the production of antifreezes, detergents, etc. Propylene is used for the production of phenol and acetone, i.e., of crude materials from which synthetic fibers, plastics, and lubricating oils are produced. In accomplishing the tasks with which workers- of the chemical in- dustry are faced in connection with the developments discussed above, the sovnarkhozes of the economic administrative regions in which extensive deposits of petroleum crude materials are available must play a consider- able role. This 'applies specifically to the sovnarkhozes of the Bashkir- ska;,,% ASSR, the Tatarskaya ASSR,, the Azerbaydzhan SSR, Kuybyshevskaya Oblst, Saratovskaya Oblast, Omskskaya Oblast, and Irkutskskaya Oblast. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The administrative obstacles which formerly hindered the production of synthetic materials from petroleum gases have been removed; in addi- tion to supplies of raw material, the sovnarkhozes have at their disposal large construction organizations which will build new plants. The pro- duction at existing plants can be increased: the Sumgait plant produces almost 1.5 times as much alcohol as the quantity corresponding to planned capacity and the Orsk plant has doubled its production as a result of the use of better crude materials. 11. USSR Developments in the Field of Chromatography "Resolution of the All-Union Conference on Chromatography, Moscow, 3-6 Feb 58," by K. V. Chmutov, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 32, No 5, May 58, pp 1184-115 - At the conference on chromatography held at the Department of Chem- ical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, 56 reports were presented. The attendance comprised 507 persons, representing 216 organizations located in 39 cities. Scientists from the People's Democracies attended the conference. a. The directives given by the 20th Congress of the CPSU indicate the necessity of expanding the production of pure and rare metals and of heat-resistant alloys. They furthermore indicate the necessity of expand- ing the prospecting for useful minerals and of introducing extensive auto- matization into production and the control of production processes. The methods of chromatographic analysis are applied in the separation and purification of rare metals and rare earth metals;, the production of especially pure reagents, and the separation, concentration, and determination of small quantities of admixtures. Chromatography and ion exchange techniques are used for the soft- ening of water; the desalting of water and of aqueous solutions of organic substances; the concentration and separation of valuable metals; the puri- fication, analysis, and separation of mineral oils and fuels; the purifi- cation and analysis of drugs, antibiotics, vitamins, and alkaloids; clinical analyses of fluids and tissues of the organism; and many other applications. Methods of gas chromatography and of gas -liquid chromatog- raphy are being used extensively in the petrochemical industry and other industrial fields for the separation and analysis of different mixtures. b. During recent years, definite success has been achieved in the USSR in the development of the theory and practical application of chroma- tography. There has been further progress in the development of the ? theory of nonequilibrium chromatography, chromathermography, and the thermodynamic method; in work on the determination of new relationships pertaining to the statics and dynamics of the adsorption'of complex and Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 multivalent ions; in research on the effect of the structure of cationites on processes of ion exchange; in the investigation of the stability of ion-exchange resins at high temperatures; in work on the effect of solvents on ion exchange; and in expanding applications of chromatography involving the formation of complex compounds as well as separation of mixtures of complex compounds. Many publications have appeared on the kinetics of ion exchange on grains of ion-exchange resins and at partitions (membranes) made of ion-exchange resins. Significant progress has been made in the synthesis of new types of ion-exchange resins and laboratory methods have been proposed for the preparation of ion-exchange partitions both with strongly acidic and weakly acidic and/or weakly basic groups. Automatic chroma- tographic gas analyzers and chromathermographs for the analysis of hydro- carbons and low-boiling gases have been developed and described. c. Research has been done on the separation of rare-earth'elements, titanium, zirconium., hafnium, niobium., and tantalum in the form of their complex compounds. An adsorption method involving the formation of com- plex compounds has been proposed for the separation of metal cations. Furthermore, methods have been proposed for the chromatographic quanti- tative analysis of cations and anions by means of ion exchange, precipita- tion, and oxidation-reduction chromatography. d. In the field of industrial applications of- chromatography inves- tigations have been conducted and trials made in regard to the operation of desalting installations under operational conditions encountered at thermal electric power stations where high-pressure steam and steam above the critical point are used and to applications pertaining to the purifi- cation of water. e. The technology of ion-exchange adsorption and desorption of alkaloids, antibiotics, and different organic compounds has been developed. Problems have been investigated pertaining to the application of ion- exchange resins in medicine, pharmacy, and the food industry. In the field of 7jartition chromatography., work has been done on the separation of higher fatty acids, drugs, protein antigens and antibodies, nucleotides, nitrogen bases, corticosterones, and other substances. The solution of USSR economic problems requires more extensive application of chromatog- raphic methods in various fields of industry as well as at research in- stitutes and higher educational institutions. (1) That research be expanded on the theory of chromatography with the aim of predicting the optimal conditions for the separation of mixtures and reducing the number of observations that have to be made for establishing the required parameters for calculations. -17 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 (2) That the theory and practice of the application of organic reagents in chromatography be expanded and the methods of distribution chromatography be applied more widely in the analysis of mixtures of organic and inorganic substances; and that work be expanded on the devel- opment and introduction into practice of industrially applied methods of gas chromatography. (3) That production of equipment for ion-exchange and distribu- tion chromatography be organized. Particular attention must be paid to the improvement and development of new devices for the determination of individual components, measuring devices, rate controllers, and other appliances used in gas chromatography. Furthermore, work must be developed on, the automatization of chromatographic separations and of the analysis of complex mixtures not only in the gas phase but also in solutions, and the production and supply of automatic appliances for distribution chroma- tography must be organized. (!F) The distribution and retail sale of an extensive selection of cationites and anionites, grades of activated carbon found to be ef- fective, silica gel, aluminum oxide, and natural adsorbents must be ex- panded. It should be recommended to the Commission on Chromatography that it, jointly with the Ministry of Electric Power Stations and the Ministry of Chemical Industry, request the Gosplan (State Plan) of the USSR to draw up an appropriate plan for 6-7 years pertaining to the or- ganization of an industrial production of the most important ion exchange resins and ion exchange partitions (membranes). The Gosplan should be requested to create a special industrial department for the production of pure ion-exchange materials to be used in scientific research work and to be applied in medicine, pharmacy, and the food industry. Furthermore, a special laboratory should be organized at which resins with a wide range of properties can be produced on the basis of individual orders. The Scientific-Technical Committee at the Council of Ministers USSR should take measures aimed at the most rapid introduction into industrial use of the chromatographic devices that have been developed. (5) Research should be expanded on the development of new grades of ion-exchange resins, new iorganic adsorbents, new grades of paper for chromatography and cellulose powders, new solvents and eluents, new reagents for detection (before separation), and new methods for the detection of substances that have been separated chromatographically. The Ministry of Chemical, Industry USSR should be requested to organize at the Institute of Chemical Reagents a special production of organic reagents and solvents that are to be used in chromatography and are suitable for this purpose. Extensive industrial production of high-quality chromatog- raphic paper and of an adequate selection of organic solvents and organic substances to be used in chromatography should be organized. - 18 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 (6) Work should be expanded on the investigation of the stabil- ity of ion-exchange resins at high temperatures and their stability toward different types of radiation emitted by radioactive substances. The Institute of Plastics should be entrusted with the compilation of GOST standards pertaining to methods for the testing of ion exchange materials and the revision of the TU standards in force. (7) Work should be expanded on the application of ion exchangers as catalysts in the synthesis of organic substances. Work should also be expanded on the investigation of the adsorption of complex compounds on ion exchangers and their separation in this manner, as well as of the complex-forming properties of ion exchangers. (8) Work should be expanded on the application of chromatog- raphy in biology, biochemistry, and medicine in the separation, identi- fication, and purification of biologically active substances. The President of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR should be requested to create a coordination commission on problems of the application of chromatography in medicine, pharmacology, biochemistry, and the food industry, so that the biological activity of ion exchangers can be investigated. (9) Suggestions sho?tld be formulated on a unified terminology of chromatographic concepts, definitions, and processes. The designa- tions pertaining to chromatography should be standardized in USSR litera- ture. This task should be entrusted to a specially selected group of members of the Commission on Chromatography. (10) The Commission on Chromatography should be requested to do preparatory work on the problem involved in the"organization of a single scientific center comprising a scientific research institute on chroma- tography within the system of the Academy of Sciences. The question should be considered as to whether it is advisable to organize a section on problems of gas chromatography and call a conference on gas chroma- tography in 1959. (11) The compilation and publication of monographs, reviews, and manuals on methods of chromatographic analysis should be organized as well as the production of synthetic ion-exchange materials, adsorbents, paper, and equipment used in chromatography. The publication of a biblio- graphy on chromatographic analysis is recommended. It is necessary to improve the technical information available on chromatography. The ? Department of Chemical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, should be requested to organize the publication of a periodical called Khromatog- rafiya (Chromatography). - 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 (12) A conference should be conducted on problems involved in the teaching of chromatography at both general chemical courses and special courses. Textbooks and manuals on chromatographic analysis must be pro- vided. (13) This resolution should be published in Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khbnii and also in the form of a separate booklet. (14) The Commission on Chromatography should put into effect a plan for carrying out the measures recommended in this solution, appoint- ing responsible individuals for carrying out each of its items. Approved For Release 1999/09/23- CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Isotope Chemistry 12. Theory of the Concentration of Isotopes3 "On the Calculation of Cascades Used for the Separation of Stable Isotopes," by V. K. Turkin, Chair of Higher Mathematics, Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly--Ihimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekh- nologiya, No 2, Apr-Jun 58, pp 229-232 Mathematical expressions describing the dependence between flow and degree of enrichment are derived for ordinary and triangular cascades serv- ing.. for the separation of stable isotopes. 13. Separation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Isotopes by the Distilla- tion of Methanol "Separation of Isotopes by Rectification; Rectification of Meth- anol," by Ya. D. Zel?venskiy, V. Ye. Sokolov, and V. A. Shaly- gin, Chair of the Technology of Separation and Application of Isotopes, Moscow, Chemicotechnological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly -Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya, No 2, Apr-Jun 5 6., pp 386-391 The efficiencies of the separation of deuterium, 018, C13, and C14 by distillation of methanol were determined. Mass-spectrometric measure- ments were used, for the determination of the isotope composition. A method is proposed for the determination of coefficients of separation (relative volatilities) of isotopes by measuring radiometrically the changes in the concentration of a radioactive tracer that has been added to the substance distilled. On the basis of the results obtained, the number of theoretical plates in the column can be calculated and this number used in figuring out the coefficients of separation of other (nonradioactive) isotopes that are present. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 ROOO1OO13OOO1-9 Organic Chemistry 14. Review of Work on Ferrocene and Derivatives of Ferrocene "New Aromatic Systems; Part 1 -- Ferrocene as an Aromatic Sys- tem," by Academician A. N. Nesmeyanov and E. G. Perevalova, Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Moscow, Khimiya i Khimicheska a Promyshlennost', Vol 3, No 2, Mar-Apr 58, pp 146-158 This article reviews the methods of preparation, structural charac- teristics, and physical and chemical properties of ferrocene under the subject headings of procedures for the preparation of ferrocene, physical properties and structure of ferrocene, chemical properties of ferrocene, properties of ferrocenes substituted in the nucleus, methods for proving the structure of ferrocene derivatives, and possibilities of the technical application of ferrocene. A bibliography consisting of 34 USSR references .and 90 non-USSR references is appended to the article. Nesmeyanov's own work on ferrocene and its derivatives is reviewed in considerable detail; there are 27 references to Nesmeyanov's work in the bibliography. In the section on the chemical properties of ferrocene, the authors note the great chemical stability of this substance, which is unusual for organometallic compounds. In the section on technical applications of ferrocene, it is stated that the patent literature mentions employment of this substance as an additive to oils, as an antiknock agent, and as a heat transfer agent that is stable at high temperatures. It is also stated that ferrocene can be used to bring about smokeless combustion of oils. [SIR Note: Ferrocene has been proposed for use as an additive to jet fuels and furnace oils to improve efficiency of combustion and elimi- nate smoke.] 15, Organophosphorus Research "Anomalous Reaction of Alpha -Haloketones With Esters of Phos- phorous Acids. VII. Reactions of Esters of Phosphorous Acids With Chlorine Derivatives of Beta-Diketones," by A. N. Pudovik and L. G. Biktimirova, Kazan State University; Moscow, Zhurnal ~Jbshchey Khimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1496-1500 Reports results of work on the reactions between esters of phosphorous acid and chloro- and dichloroacetylacetone, benzoylacetone, dibenzoyl- methane, and?5,5-dimethylcyclohexanedione-1,3 (dimedon). It was shown that none of these reactions take place according to the Arbuzov rearrangement. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 ROOO1OO13OOO1-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Instead, they proceed anomalously and lead to the formation of correspond- ing unsaturated esters of phosphoric acid. Some of the unsaturated esters of phosphoric acid, especially those containing a phenyl or cyclohexenyl group in the unsaturated radical, decompose under heating to form beta- dicarbonyl compounds. "Synthesis of Organophosphorus Compounds From Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives. VII. Oxidative Chlorophosphonationof Alkoxy and Dialkylemidodichlorophosphines," by Yu. M. Zinov'yev, V. N. Kulakova, and L. Z. Soborovskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimij, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1551-1553 Oxidative chlorophosphonation of hydrocarbons was accomplished with the use of compounds of the type RXPC12 where the hydrocarbon radical is bound to the phosphorus atom through another element. Cyclohexane was chiorophosphonated with ethoxydichlorophosphine, and vinyl chloride was chlorophosphonated with methoxydichiorophosphine and with dimethylamidodi- chiorophosphine; The acid chloride and ethyl ester of dimethylamidodi- chloroethane phosphonic acid, the dimethyl ester of dichloroethane phos- phonic acid., and the methyl ester of dichloroethane phosphonic acid was synthesized.. "The Reactions of Dialkyldithiophosphates With Ethylene Sul- fide," by T. A. Mastryukova, V. N. Odnoralova, and M. I. Kaba- chnik, Institute of Element-Organic Compounds Academy of Sci- ences USSR and the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Synthetic Fiber; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp. 1563-1568 The reaction of dialkyldithiophosphates with ethylene sulfide was investigated. It was found that the dialkyldithiophosphate combines with the ethylene sulfide to form dialkyl-S -beta -mercaptoethyldithiophosphate. The presence of the beta-mercapto group in these compounds was proved by acetylation and alkylation with diazomethane. - "Organophosphorus Insecticides, Certain Derivatives of Methyl- thiophosphonic and Methyldithiophosphonic Acids," by M. I. Kaba- chnik, N. N. Godovikov, D. M. Paykin, M. P. ? Shabanova, N. M. Gamper, and L. F. Yefimova; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Ihimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1568-1573 Acid chlorides of acid esters of methylthiophosphonic acid containing methoxy, ethoxy, and propoxy groups were prepared from the acid dichlorides of methylthiophosphonic acid. Several derivatives of methylthiophosphonic - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 and methyldithiophosphonic odds were synthesized having E3r.oupu un+liogous 'L u thiophos, ietaphos, carbophos, potazun, and Lystox, Thu inuc@ctic: idai. properties of these compounds were investigated under laborutory convfl.tions using insects (Euryguster integriceps Put. and Yseudococcuc maxltimu;, r;hrh.). It was shown that the majority of the compounds are innecticidcn whose activity exceeds that of the well-known thiophosphoric and dithio- phosphoric acid series. Thus, preparation Gd-18 (an anolog of metaphos) has a stronger contact activity than metaphos. "Anilids of Alkylaulfonamidophosphoric Acids," by A. V..Kirsanov and N. L. Yegorova, Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute; Mos- cow, Zhurnal Obshchey IQthnii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1587-1589 Dianilidochlorophosphazosulfonalkyl, trianilidophosphazosulfonalkyls, and dianilids of alkylsulfonamidophosphoric acids were prepared and their properties described.- "Acid Fluoride Salts of Arylsulfonamidophosphoric Acids," by A. V. Kirsanov and Ye. S. Levchenko, Institute of Organic Chem- istry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Ob- shchey Khimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1589-1594 Trichlorophosphazosul.fonaryls and the acid dichlorides of arylsul- fonamidophosphoric acids react with saturated aqueous solutions of potas- sium fluoride. Depending on the conditions of the reaction, potassium salts of arylsulfonamidophosphoric acid dichlorides, potassium salts of arylsulfonamidophosphoric acid difluorides, and dipotassium salts of aryl- sulfonamidophosphoric acid monofluorides formed. The structure of the potassium salts of the arylsulfonamidophosphoric acid difluorides was es- tablished by converting, them into the dimethyl esters of arylsulfonamido- phosphoric acids with sodium methylate. It was shown that the potassium salts of the arylsulfonamidophosphoric acid difluorides are more stable to hydrolysis than the potassium salts of the arylsulfonamidophosphoric acid dichlorides. "Trichlorophosphazocarbonic Acid Diphenylamide and Its Deriva- tives," by A. V. Kirsanov and Z. D. Nekrasova, Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute; 'Moscow., Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1595-1601 The reaction between phosphorus pezitachloride and N,N-diphenylurea ,,ras investigated. Trichlorophosphazocarbonic acid diphenylamide and all of the theoretically possible hydrolysis products were prepared. Triaroxy- phosphazocarbonic acid diphenylamides and diaryl esters of N,D-diphenyl- carbamide-N'-phosphoric acid were also prepared and their properties de- scribed. - 24 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "The Synthesis of Phoophorylaminopyrimidines," by Yu. P. Shva- chkin and M. A. Prokof'yev, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchoy IQtimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1617-1621 A method for the synthesis of 2-phosphorylaminopyrimidines is pro- posed which is based on the condensation of phosphorylated guanidinee with beta-dicarbonyl compounds. The following compounds have been prepared for the first time: 2-diphenylphosphorylamino-I.-oxy-6-methyl-pyrimidine, 2-diphenylphosphorylamido-J+,6-dioxypyrimidine, 2-diphenyl-phosphorylamino- 4,6-dioxy-5-methylpyrimidine, and 2 -diphenylphosphoryl -amino -4,6, dioxy- 5-ethylpyrimidine. The hydrolysis of the compounds was also investi- gated. "The Synthesis of Organophosphorus Compounds From Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives. VIII. Studying the Oxidation of Phos- phorus Trichloride With Oxygen," by M. K. Baranayev, Yu. M. Zinov'yev, T. K. Skripach, L. Z. Soborovskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Ihimii, Vol 28, No 6, Jun 58, pp 1628-1631 The initial stage of the oxidation of phosphorous trichioride with oxygen is a heterogenic process whose rate is determined by the rate of solution of oxygen. The rate of oxidation of phosphorus trichloride by gaseous oxygen is independent of the temperature. The activation energy of the process is very low. This is found to be in agreement with the assumption that this is a free radical type process., Physical Chemistry 16. Work on the Application of Ultrasound in the Investigation of the Structure of Matter "Sixth Scientific Conference on the Application of Ultrasound in the Investigation of Matter," by B. B. Kudryavtsev; Moscow, Akusticheskiy Zhurnal, Vol I+, No 2, Apr-Jun 58, p 207 The Sixth Scientific Conference on the Application of Ultrasound in the Investigation of Matter was held 3-7 February 1958. It has been or- ganized by the Ministry of Education RSFSR and the Moscow Oblast Peda- gogic Institute imeni N. K. Krupskaya. - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 About 80 reports were presented at the conference. A report on work in the field of molecular acoustics conducted in Poland was presented by the Polish scientist F. Kucera. A considerable part of the reports given at the conference dealt with theoretical problems of molecular acoustics. Papers in this field reported on work dealing with the investigation of critical state by an acoustic method.(V. F. Nozdrev); the microstructure of sound (M. I. Bhakhparonov, L. V. Lanshina); the effect of resonance phenomena on the propagation of sound (B. B. Kudryavtsev); the effects of inner electromagnetic fields on the propagation of sound in electro- lytes (A. S. Predvoditelev); the correlation between the structure of glasses and their adiabatic compressibility (V. V. Tarasov); the disper- sion of ultrasound in ferromagnetic materials (N. S. Akulov); the relaxa- tion theory of nonlinear effects (Ye. V. Stupochenko, I. P. Stakhanov); the absorption of ultrasound waves of finite amplitude (L. K. Zarembo); the effect of fluctuations on the diffraction image (L. A. Chernov); the theory of the ultrasound interferometer (S. N. Rzhevkin); the dispersion of ultrasound at low pressures (N. I, Perepechko); the calculation of ab- sorption in gases (A. A. Senkevich); the propagation of ultrasound in a Van der Waals gas (A. A. Kasparyants); the theory of dispersion and ab- sorption of sound in acetates (B. A. Belinskiy); etc. A number of reports dealt with experimental investigations of the characteristics of ultrasound propagation in various media such as re- acting mixtures (S. A. Balyan); solutions of electrolytes (R. F. Kanatova); suspensions (R. T. Temnikova); binary mixtures (T. V. Klevtsova); ter- nary mixtures (A. S. Shilyayev); and deuterium-substituted compounds (I. B. Rabinovich). Other papers in this field discussed the propaga- tion of ultrasound close to the region of solidification of liquids (N. F. Otpushchennikov); in nitrogen at pressures up to 1,000 kilograms per square centimeter (M. P. Valarovich, D. B. Balashov); in liquids at pressures up to 2,000 atmospheres (L. F. Vereshchagin, N. A. Luzefovich); in satu- rated water vapor (V. I. Avdonin); in barium titanate ceramics (I. V. Bushev); in coals (A, K. Matveyev, Ye. G. Martynov); in ethyl alcohol vapors (K. T. Akhmetzyanov, M. G. Shirkevich); etc. Lively discussions were held on the absorption of sound in acetates (I. G. Mikhaylov, N. I. Koshkin, V. S. Lutovinin, V. F. Nozdrev, 0. A. Starostina); in the critical region (B. I. Kal'yanov); in single crystals of quartz (L. G. Merkulov, Ye. S. Sokolova); in the region of transition from liquid to crystals (M. A. Gorbunov, N. I. Koshkin); etc. A number of papers was concerned with the investigation of phenomena accompanying the propagation of ultrasound and methods to be used in work in this field. The subjects discussed included the theory of the inter- ferometer (V. I. Ilgunas, E. P. Yaronis); the behavior of cavitation bub- bles (A. V. Kustova); the pulse method of measuring absorption (B. I. Kal'- yanov); application of multiple reflection in the investigation of liquids 26 Approved' For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 (A. V. Zipir, V. F. Yakovlev); interferometric measurements at high temperatures (Yu. S. Trelin); correlation of acoustic measurements of heat capacity with direct measurements (Kh. I. Amirkhanov, A. I. Kerimov) A. I. Alibekov); the application of ultrasound in the investigation of electric discharges during cavitation (V. I. Skorobogatov); the dispersion effect produced by cavitation (B. B. Kud:ryavtsev); methods for making ul- trasound fields visible (V. I. Makarov); come problems pertaining to de- fectoscopy (I. N. Yermolov); the effect of ultrasound on the ferromagnei;ic properties of matter (A. V. Kerenskiy, V. S. Che?kashin, A. I. Drokin); the transmission of centimeter-range electromagnetic waves through an ultra- sound grating (Ye. M. Gershenzon); etc. Great interest at the conference was elicited by reports concerned with practical application of ultrasound. The reports in question were concerned the elimination of the corrosion of metals (L. B. Pirozhnikov); acceler- ation of the dyeing of synthetic fibers (G. V. Goryachko, N. A Dmitriyeva, N. I. Larionov); the determination of the pressure of saturated petroleum crudes in strata (G. V. Cherchenko, V. M. Nikolayev, Ya. G. Bezrukov, V. I. Belousov); the determination of the initial temperature of the crystalliza- tion of paraffin wax A. V. Savinikhina); the effect of ultrasound on elect- rochemical processes (F. I. Kukoz); the effect of ultrasound in intensifying the process of absorption (B. I. Dal') N. N. Mal'tsev); the effect of ultra- sound on foodstuffs (A. I. Zolotova); application of ultrasound for improv- ing the quality of the seam in electric slag welding (L. F. Lependin); coagu- lation of aerosols by ultrasound (Ye. P. Mednikov); the use of ultrasound in the precipitation of suspensions (A. Ye. Barzhanova); the effect of ultra- sound on the distribution of the metal in electrolytic deposition (A. I. Trofimov); etc. A special session was devoted to the demonstration of experiments in acoustics (A. S. Mel'nikov) and the problem of teaching the fundamentals of nr sical acoustics at schools (K. Ye. Baranov). The animated discussions which took place at the conference made it possible to clarify many questions on which disputes arose and to indicate ways for the solution of these questions. A greater number of investiga- tions in the field of applied research was reported than at previous con- ferences. - 27 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 J.7. The Formation of a Layer of Suspended Eyplooivn and the Role Played. ,yThis Layer in t e Initiation of the Explosion Under Different Conditions "Concerning the Flashing of Some Explosive Substances and the ,.affect Exerted by Pressure on This Phenomenon," by K. K. .Andreyev and B. S. Samsonov, Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Nauchnyye Doklad Vysehey Shkoly -- Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya, No 2, Apr-Jun 5d, pp 229-232 It is assumed that formation of a layer of suspended particles leads to the explosion; the sharp rise in pressure initiating the detonation wave originates in this layer. The influence of pressure on explosions of liq- uid substances proceeding by this mechanism iE? discussed and the role played by the Landau effect considered. Under the assumption that a sus- pended layer of droplets of a liquid explosive can be formed not only be- cause of the Landau effect, but also as a result of slow heating of the explosive, experiments were carried out on the detonation of nitroglycerin by slow heating. The experimental results obtained are held to justify the assumptions in regard to the mechanism of explosion that have been ma6.e; the conditions under which explosions can be produced by slow heating are discussed. 18. Effect of High-Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves on Structure of Solutions "The Absorption of High Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves in Structured Solutions," by I. G. Mikhaylov and N. M. Fedorova, Leningrad State University; Moscow, Akusticheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 3, No 3, Jul- Sep 57, pp 239-242 . The absorption of ultrasonic waves in solutions of polyisobutylene in benzene (MB 20 000, 98 000 and 180 000) and of perbutane [?] toluene is investigated. The measurements were carried out by a pulse method at a 5 -Mc frequency. It was established that in polymer solutions, starting with a certain threshold intensity, a destruction of the structure of the solution occurs. The threshold intensity is determined by the nature of the dissolved polymer and solvent. - 28 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Radiation Chemistry 19. Free Radical 'Formation Investigated "On the Formation of Free Radicals and Atoms During the Radiolysis of Hydrocarbons at n, Temperature if 770K,'1 by N. Ya. Chernyak, N. N. Bubnov; V. V. Voyevodskiy, L. S. Polak, and Yu. D. Tsvetkov, Institute of Petroleum, Academy of Sciences USSR; Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Dokiady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 120, No 2, May 58, pp 346-348 The formation of free radicals and atoms at 770K was investigated. The sample was f o7,rn with liquid nitrogen in a Dewar flask and then ir- radiated with Coot' ey a:; dose of about 3.108 r. After irradiation, the frozen samples were ,laced in the resonator of an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), spectrometer where the formation of the free radicals, their identification, and measurement of their concentration took -place. An apparatus having a high frequency modulated magnetic field was used to establish the presence of free radicals and determine the siiperfine structure of the corresponding EPR spectra. With th9.s apparatus, the authors were able to photograph the screen of the electronic oscillo- graph which showed the spectra. The sensitivity oj0the apparatus, which operated at a wave length of 3 cm, was about 4.10 moles of diphecylpicryl- hydrazyl. It was also established that after removal of liquid nitrogen, the concentration of hydrogen atoms started to decrease only after 10-12 seconds, and the concentration of the radicals decreased after 30-35 seconds. It was therefore assumed that in the operation of i.:ansferring the frozen sample from the Dewar flask to the resonator, there was no loss of free radicals. Miscellaneous "Institute of Synthetic Fibers" (unsigned article); Moscow, Komsomol'skaya Pravda, 23 May 58, p 2 The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Synthetic Fibers (Vsesoyuznyy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut Sinteticheskogo Volokna) has recently been built in the city of Kalinin. The institute will work in close cooperation with the Kalinin Combine of Synthetic Fibers. The institute will have laboratories for experimental work and four pilot plants. - 29 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 21. Investigation of Aircraft Icing Fizicheskiye Osnovy Obledeneniya Samoletov (physical Bases of Aircraft Icing), by I. P. Maz n, G erne eoizdat, Moscow, 1957, 120 pp The work is published by the Central Aerological Observatory, Main Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service under the Council of Ministers USSR. Edited by A. M. Borovikov, the text is devoted to a theoretical and experimental investigation of aircraft icing in flight. An examination is made of the effect of microphytical parameters of clouds and of the flight pattern on icing intensity. Questions of flow around various bodies by cu.-rents of air-suspended water drops and the role of heat- exchange processes which decrease aircraft icing are subjected to theoret- ical. consideration. Problems of icing at supersonic speeds are also examined. A foreword by A. Kh. Khrgian notes that Mazin's work answers a number of aviation engineering questions concerning intensity of icing, its re- Jationsbip with cloud structure, etc. The computations are likewise appli- cable to calculating glaze formation -- a serious problem in communications management. Khrgian notes further that some simple principles found with regard to icing at supersonic speeds are of special interest.. He concludes that Mazin's work is a great contribution to the development of atmosphere research by aircraft, "in which field the Soviet Union has already done a great deal and is pulling ahead of other countries." The Introduction, following the Foreword, covers briefly the problem of combating aircraft icing, states the conditions to be examined in the work and defines the symbols used in mathematical notation. The author then proceeds to discuss, respectively: aerodynamics of flow around bodies by a monodisperse aerosol stream; aerodynamics of flow around bodies by a polydisperse aerosol stream; role of heat exchange processes'in aircraft icing; experimental investigations on the icing of propeller-driven air- craft (a specially outfitted IL-14 aircraft was used); the icing of high- speed aircraft. C PYRG HT in the last-named section, Mazin makes the following statements: "From an examination of the mechanism of icing which leads to a very dangerous form of ice deposit on the surfaces of high-speed aircraft, a significant quantitative conclusion can be drawn. From figure 28 [graph plotting relationship of airspeed necessary to raise the temperature of a 30 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Appf6I6r Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT - wetted surface to 0?, to air temperature under different water-drop-size reduction factors; temperature range plotted is 00 to minus 11.00, speed range is 0 to 400 m/sec] and the speed and temperature values at which icing of this type can occur, it follows that a 30- to 40-meter per- second increase in airspeed should obviate the conditions conducive to such icing and eliminate further ice accumulation. Such a 'speed maneu- ver' in many cases is readily attainable for modern aircraft and can be an effective means of combating icing at high subsonic speeds. Unfortu- nately, the lack of experimental data at our disposal does not permit verification of these considerations." In his concluding paragraph Mazin states:I "...regardless of validity of the conclusions on the extremely low probability of aircraft icing during flights under actual conditions at speeds greater than the speed of sound, the question, of the fundamental possibility of icing under such conditions should be solved in special experimental flights." About two-thirds of the 80 references cited by the author are of US and British origin. 22. Accumulation of Germanium During the Formation of Coal Deposits "On Ways of the Accumulation of Germanium in Coals and Further Problems in Research on the Subject" by A. B. Travin, West- Siberian Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Novosibirsk, Izvestiya Vostochnykh Filialov Akademii Nauk SSSR, No 1, Feb 57, pp++-1. . Summarizes the results of an investigation in regard to primary and secondary accumulation of germanium in coal deposits and the content of germanium in coal as affected by oxidation and other processes which take place during the formation of deposits, the composition of the coal, and geological conditions. .Outlines further research to be done on the sub- ject, which would include investigations on the enrichment of germanium during the treatment of coal and correlation of data culminating in the compilation of maps and chaxts that would aid in prospecting for germanium contained in coal strata. - 31 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 IV. ELECTRONICS Instruments and Equipment 23. New Flickering-Light Meter "New Model of 39ipulse' Light Meter, " by B. V. Byshev and Yu?. M. Kutev, Moscow, Svetotekhnika, No 6, Jun 58, pp 14-16 The article describes construction and operation of a new series manufactured photometer known as ISM-57 flickering-light candle-power meter. The device was displayed at the Brussels Exposition. A vacuum antimony-cesium phototube connected to a capacitor acts as a measuring unit of the device. During the flash of flickering light source, the capacitor is charged with the photo-current in such a way that the potential difference' is proportional to flickering light in- tensity. The ISM-57 flickering light candle-power meter is built as a single unit, incorporating in it optical and photoelectric systems, power supply unit and control illuminator. The device can measure light pulses from sources up to 200 mm wide. The measuring range of the de- vice is from one candleettec up to 500,000 candle?sec for flash duration from 30 microsec to one 'sec. The device can be ordered through the Moscow Sovnarkhoz. Components 24. Noncontact Rotary Synebrotransformers "Noncontact Sine-Cosine Rotary Synchrotransformers," by Yu. M. Puler, Moscow, Elektrichestvo, No 1, Jan. 58, pp 5?-9-- The noncontact sine-cosine transformers should find wide application in remote control systems and computer automation, where the presence of sliding contacts may upset stability and reliability of controls. The problem of ' noncontact ' rotary synchrotransformer design cmatsts mainly in determining the most economic transformer unit and its' proper matching to machine unit. - 32 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The article discusses construction and operating characteristics of STB-l, STB-2T and STB-2P type noncontact synchrotransformers. The men- tioned types of synchrotransformers are recommended for applications re- quiring accuracy equal to that of contact type servosys,tems. Use of STB- 2T, STB-2P and STB-3 in conjunction with computer automation has the ad- vantage of high inductive decoupling between the input transformer and the machine unit. 25. New High-Frequency Induction.HG.cing Generator "New Series High-Frequency Electric Heating Generators," by A. V. Donskoy, A. M. Borok, G. V. Ivenskiy and A. A. Khanazvarcv, Moscow, Vestnik Elektro-Promyshlennosti, No 4, Apr 58, pp 42-47 The LPZ-67 high-frequency generator operates in the frequency range of 60 to 74 kc. The generator is intended for induction melting or heat- ing of metals. Power supply can be drawn from a 220- or 380-v ac line; the rated output power of the tube oscillator is 60 kw. This high-frequency generator comprises the following units: stabi- lized high-voltage anode rectifier, tube generator, oscillatory circuit, and control and protection circuits. Two type TP-1 6/15 thyratrons are incorporated in the stabilized high-voltage anode circuit. The tube gen- erator utilizes a GK-3A oscillator triode, which operates on half-wave principle. The generator was tested under various operating conditions and proved to be highly satisfactory. The efficiency of the generator tube is in the range from 72 to 78%. It is believed that the new series high-frequency generator should find a wide application in the field of induction heating and melting. 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 26. Czechoslovak Press Reports Soviet Work With Photocells "Photocells for the Study of Cosmic Phenomena," (unsigned article), Prague, Obrana Lidu, 3 Jun 58, p 2 The semiconductor laboratory at the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences has developed photocells with which it is possible to investigate in- frared rays penetrating through to the earth from outer space and to determine hitherto unknoim characteristics of celestial bodies. These photocells do not react to infrared rays under normal circumstances, but respond to their action only after cooling to a temperature of 190 de- grees below freezing point. 27. Soviet Television and Motion Picture Patents "USSR Authorship Certificates in the Field of Television and Motion Pictures," (unsigned article), Moscow, Tekpnika Kino i Televideniya, No 11, Nov 57, pp 88-92 "Single-Beam Color Television Receiving Tube" by Yu. F. Ivanov and S. I. Katayev, Class 21a1, 32311, No 104456, 13 Apr 55' "Television Transmitting Tube," G. V. Braude, Class 21a1, 3235' No 104424, 13 Jul 51 "Transmitting Cathode-Ray Tube," by K. A. Fedorov, Class 21a1, 3235' No 104426, 21 Jun 54 "A. Method for Compensating Aperture Distortions," G. V. Braude, Class 21a1, 3310, No 105090, 6 Aug 52 "Device for Compensating Aperture Distortions in Television Receivers," G. V. Braude, Class 21a1, 324o, No 105181 28 Jul 52 "Method for Combines Television Program Transmission," D. A. Taranets, Class 21a1, 34i1, No 104083, 9 Nov 54 "Capacitor Viewing Screen," G. V. Koval'skiy, Class 21a1, 34 ill No 105182, 16 Nov 53 "Screen for Television Receiver,." I. Ya. Lemichev, Class 21a1, 3412, No 104839, 17 Feb 55' - 34 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "Device for Reconstruction of Color TV Images," V. V. Odnol'ko, Class 21a1, 3431, No 104592, 15 Sep 52 "Method of Measuring Nonlinearity and Geometric Distortions in Trans- mitting TV Tube Scanning Devices," M. I. Krivosheyev, Class 21e, 3610, No 104685, 20 Mar 51 "DeElecting System for intensity Modulation of Electron Bean," A. V. Frishman, Class 21g, 1001, No 104340, 5 Mar' 54 "Optical Device for Densitometer," A. A. Lapauri, Class 42h, 1702, No 104299, 13 Dec 52 "Method of Manufacturing Colored Optical Measuring Wedges," S. M. Khazan, Class 42h, 1801, No 104420, 8 Sep 54 "Photoelectric Device for.Colorimetrie Measurement in Several Spec- tral Zones," Class 42h, 1802, No 105982, 23. May 56 "Optical Switch-Over for Motion. Picture Projectors," G. D. Tuchin, Class 57a, 61, No 104528, 26 May 55 "Magnetic Recording Head," N. G. Zagoruyko, Class 42g, 1001, No 104982, 19 Dec 55 28. Recent Soviet- Patents?in Electronics "Publication of Authorship Certificates Awards for Inventions Registered in The State Inventions Register of USSR, Class 21, ,Electrical Engineering," (unsigned. article), Moscow, Byulleten' Izobreteniy, No 2, 58, pp 25-48 Class 21a, 36, No 111244, A. M. Tseytlin, Device for Generating High-Voltage Trapezoidal Pulses. Class 21a1, 904, No 110847, 'V- 'I.' Ponomarev, Electromechanical Band- Pass Filter. Class 21a1, 1101, No 111449, B.. P. Terent'ev and Yu. V. Bogoslovskiy. A Method of Automatized Telegram Reception. Class 21a1, 3211; No 111258, V. A. Vatsenko, I. Ye. Goron and V. G. Patrunov. A Method of Ferrographic Recording of Stationary Images. Class 21a2,,.1808, No'1118461P I. A. Petrusenko, V. G. Baranovskiy and V. A. Dunayykin. Push-Pull Amplifier with AC Output. - 35 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Class 21a3, 6101, No 111456, P. N. Verevkin and A. V. Smirnova. DC Electromagnetic Relay, Class 21a4, 13. No 111720. G. I. Rukman. Parametric Generator. Class 21a4, 1401 No 109765. N. A. Zheleznov. A Method for In- creasing the Noise Immunity of a Pulse Modulated Radio Line. Class 21a4, 14o31 No 111116. A. A. Leonov. A Method for Obtaining a Single Band Signal. Class 21a4, 54. No 111439. A. S. Vinitskiy. Multichannel Communi- cation Method. Class 21a4, 73, No 111118. I. V. Chernetsova and V. V. Zateyeva. A Method of Manufacturing Printed Circuits. Class 21d2, 14 No 110804. D. A. Zavalishin, N. M. Krivonogov and A. S. Uyferev. 02 Device for Control-Pulse Forming In Frequency Con- verter. Class 21e, 35. No 111257. V. S. Voyutskiy. Correlation Method for Measuring Weak Signals. Class 21g, 1317, No 111802. L. G. Lisenko. Matching Device for Traveling Wave (or Backward Wave) Tube Class 21g, 13 , No 110729. B. V. Krusser and K. I. %ch. A Method for Increasing Ele ;on Beam Modulation in Superorthicon? Tubes.. Computers and Automation 29. Computer of the Gor'kiy Physicotechnical Research Institute "Certain Feature of Logic Structure of.GiF'TI Machine and Its Code Programming," by G. M. Gilman, Gor'kiy, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy? Radiofizika No 1.58, pp 141- 149- The article gives some information of the logic structure and coding of the Gor'kiy Research Institute computer GIFTI. It is pointed out that the main peculiarity of coding consists in a special method of changing the'addresses. - 36 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The GIFTI computer is intended for solution of engineering problems of medium complexity and logical problems arising in machine building. In the design of this computer, it was stipulated to keep the dimensions and number of tubes as low as possible. The GIFTI is a sequence-controlle d type of computer and has two kinds of internal storage units. The main storage unit is made of 1984 cells placed on 31 tracks of a magnetic drum and a special storage unit placed on recirculating registers of the same drum. Each cell can store a 32-digit "word." The average extraction time is equivalent to drum's half revolution for the main storage unit, and about 1./128 revolution for special storage unit, The main storage unit is single- address and the special storage unit is three-address.. The computer has a fixed point. Calculation can be carried out with 32 or 64 digit numbers. The GIFTI computer comprises the following units: command counter, current command register, unit for storing operational code, unit for pre- liminary estimation of nature of scan, register scanner, coincidence sys- tem, registering and reading initiating signal generator. 30. Magnetic Amplifier Simulating Circuit "Physical Modeling of Circuits With Choke-Coupled Magnetic Amp- lifier," by E. A. Yakubaytis and V. P. Glukhov, Riga, =zvestiya Akademii Nauk Latviyskoy SSR, No 4 (129), 58, pp 129-137 Methods of physical simulation, which are widely used in various fields of engineering can be readily applied to design of choke-coupled magnetic amplifiers. This method obviates the necessity of solution of complex differential equations, as-well as determination by analytical or graphical methods of the expressions for a magnetization curve. Two specific cases were analyzed for windings connected in series .and in parallel. With this method of simulation, both magnetic amplifier and measuring devices should be.-subjected to "analysis simultaneously. Simulation of a choke-coupled magnetic amplifier circuit is defined by eight criteria. - 37 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 31. Czechoslovak and Soviet Electronic Computers "Perspectives of Cybernetics in Military Technology," (un- signed article), Prague, Obrance Vlasti, 6 Jun 58, p 4 The Soviet electronic computer "BESM" can perform 250 million cal- culations on a system of 800 equations in 20 hours. Czechoslovakia also has an electronic computer called "SAPO" which was designed by Docent Dr A. Svoboda at the Institute of Mathematical Machines (Ustav matematickych stroju) of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenska akademie ved). "SAPO" can perform 10,000 cal- culating operations per hour. It will not be long before electronic computers are made using diodes and transitors, which will greatly reduce their size and weight. At the end of last year, the first completely transitorized electronic computer, which is half the size of a typewriter, was put in operation in the Soviet Union. 32. The Kiev Computer "Kiev Electronic Computer"', (unsigned article), Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, Moscow) No 32 (332) March 195b) p 1 The Kiev universal electronic computer was developed in the Mathe- matics Institute of the Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR. It was built by a group of scientific workers under the direction of Academician B. Gnedenko, Academy'of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, prof V. Glushkov, and L. Dashovskiy, Candidate' of ' Technical Sciences. The machine was designed for the solution of a wide scope of complicated mathematical problems and may also be utilized for the control of metallurgical, chemical, and pe- troleum processes at industrial enterprise, as well as for other purposes. The Kiev computer enables one, for example, to establish the most advantageous conditions for the operation of a blast furnace as a func- tion of the charge in ore, coke, and agglomerate. In the course of a blast furnace operation with the help of automatic components the ma- chine will maintain appropriate conditions and will signal when the pig iron is ready for tapping. - 38 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The utilization of electronic computer techniques in metallurgical plants gives the possibility to obtain more homogeneous metal, shorten the melting time, and reduce the personnel employed in operating the furnace. The Kiev computer conveniently performs no less than seven thousand operations per-second and possesses a number of characteristic features. All its units, the arithmetic, the memory, and other devices work inde- pendo~ntly, that is, on a different' frequency, which substantially facil- itates the adjustment of the calculator. The independence of the ?opatat n of the untts, as we11 as a more pattct electrical circuit and the application of semiconductors and other new elements in- crease the reliability of the entire electronic computer system. An area of 40 square meters is sufficient to house, and, service a Kiev computer. Acoustics and Audio Frequencies 33. Ultrasonic Frequency Oscillator "Oscillator for Driving' Powerful Magnetostrictive Transducers," by Yu. I. Kitaygorbdskiy and M. G. Kogan; Moscow', Elektrichestvo', No 2, Feb 58, pp 67-69 The recently detreloped UZG-10 oscillator can drive up to four dif- ferent types of magnetos tri c tive transducers simultaneously. Its operat- ing characteristics are as follows: power consumption up to 15 low, power output up to 8-kw, frequency range from 18-to 25 kc, output voltage range from 200 to 450 v, magne'Lizing current range from 0 to 60.a, operating from three-phase ac 220/380 v line, cooling water consumption 25 liters per min, over-all dimension 600 X 750 X 1,620 mm. The UZG-10 oscillator 'comprises the following units: power supply transformer, plate rectifying thyratron, phase inverter, oscillator tube, oscillatory circuit' inductors and capacitors, output trans;.''ormer, magne- tostrictive transducer. The UZG-10 oscillator can be. used .f or ultrasonic cleaning-of various parts, machining hard materials, treating of solidifying castings, cold welding, etc. - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Materials 31+. Movement of Fast Current Carriers in Polar Crystals "Nature of Motion of Fast Current Carriers in Polar Crystals," by Yu. I. Gorkun and K. B. Tolpygo; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 120) No 3, 21 May 58, pp 491-49 The motion of fast electrons in solids is responsible for such phenomena as electric 'breakdown, also secondary, photo- and field elec- tron emission in semiconductor and dielectric materials. The article discusses in some detail the behavior of major current carriers in ionic crystals, a phenomenon which has been insufficiently studied thus far. The calculated results were in poor agreement with the experimental data, probably due to diversity of major current car- rier velocity. The author concludes that actual crystals with distorted' lattice have a lower dielectric strength than the ideal crystals. For_ additional information 'on materials, see Items No 4, 9, 22 and 96] 35. New Soviet Periodical Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy -- Radiofizika (News of Higher Educational Institutions -Radiophysics . Publication data: organ of the Ministry of.Bigher Education USSR. A bimonthly periodical in the Russian language, published by' Typographical Office No 3 of Gosstroyizdat, 6/2 ICuybyshevskiy proyezd, Moscow. .It has a circulation of 5,000 copies. Its editorial board consists of V. L. Ginz- burg, chief editor; A. S. Alekseyev and A. N. Malakhov, deputy editors; G. V. Aronovich, N. N. Bautin, Ia L. Bernshteyn, S. Ya. Brande, A.'V. Gaponov, V. I. Gaponov, S. D. Gvozdarev, G. G. Getmantsev, N. G. Denison, N. A. Zheleztsov, V. A. Zverev,?V. I. Kalinin, M. I. Kuznetsov, Ye. A. Leontovich, M. A. Miller, L. L. Myasnikov, Yu. I..Neymark, S. P. Strelkov and V. S. Troitskiy. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Review of contents: The following divisions of radlophysics will be presented in the periodical. 1. Electrodynamics -- Radiation, channeling, and diffraction of elec- tromagnetic`waves. 2. Wave propagation -- Wave propagation along the earth's surface, in the troposphere, and in the ionosphere. Sound wave propagation. 3: Electronics -- Physical basis of high and ultrahigh frequencies. Methods of generating, amplifying, and converting, oscillations. Cathode electronics. Electric phenomena in gases. 4. Physics of ionosphere -- Ionosphere sti+ucture. Microprocesses and statistical phenomena in ionosphere: 5? Statistical Radiophysics -- Fluctuations and noises in various radio equipment. Wave propagation in statistically heterogeneous media. 6. Radioastronomy -- Cosmic radio emission. Radio emission from discrete sources, sun, moon and planets. Radioastronomical equipment and methods. Radar methods in astronomy. 7. Radiospectroscopy -- Radiospectroscopy'of gases, liquids, and solids. 8. Theory of oscillations -- Mathematical problems in theory of oscillations. Dynamics of oscillatory systems.' 9. Theory of Automatic Control -- Dynamics of controlled. systems. Systems of automatic regulation. 10. Mathematical Machines -- Synthesis of mathematical machines and its units. Dynamics of electronic mathematical machines of digital and analog type. Application of mathematical machines to investigation of dynamic systems. The periodical will publish-information on conferences and meetings relating to radiophysics and theory of oscillations. The periodical is intended for. professorial -- teaching personnel, scientific workers and engineers, as well as graduate and senior under- graduate students. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 V. ENGINEERING 36. Ferromagnetic Frequency Triple "Basic Characteristics of Ferromagnetic Frequency Triplers with R-C IAadjtl by N. A. Galochkin; Minsk, Izvesti a V sshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Energy, No 5, May 58) PP i.L3-53 An extensive use of electric equipment and instruments in operation with higher-frequency current (of the order 100 to 500 c) has resulted in increased efficiency of their, performance. A number of tube-welding mills have been converted for operation with higher-frequency current.. The author has conducted a series of theoretical and practical ex- periments with a Spinelli-type frequency tripler which displayed a high power output. The highest efficiency observed with this experimental frequency tripler was 73%, even for small cross-section of windings and incomplete filling of aperture. The maximum power output for the expeil-. mental unit was 1,700 w. 3'i. Conversion of Single-Phase Voltage to Three-Phase With Ferroresonance Regulators "Conversion of Single-Phase Voltage to Three-Phase With Aid of Ferroresonance Stabilizers," by V. V. Gubanov; Minsk, Izves- tiya Vysshikh Uchebnyykb Zavedeniy -- Energetika, No 3, Mar 58, pp 46-51 In 1955 A. G. Lur'ye suggested a static device for conversion of single-phase voltage to three-,phase voltage with the aid of three ferro- resonant voltage regulators. This device possesses high efficiency, high power factor, a fair stability, and a rather Low load unbalance. The experimental unit consisted of three identical ferroresonance voltage regulators of 3-kw capacity each. The primary winding was placed over the unsaturated core of the regulator and the compensating winding (secondary) over the saturated core. The secondary three-phase winding was delta connected. The experimental testing of this phase converter has shown its high efficiency and reliability. The device should find wide application in rural regions, in railway traction, etc. [For additional information, see Item No 21.] Approved For Release 1999/09/23,: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 VI. MEDICINE Bacteriology 38. Transformation of Brucella Variants "The Possibilities of Transformation of Brucella Variants," by Yu. Parnas, Chair of Microbiology, Lublin Medical Academy; Moscow? Zhurnal Mikrobiolo l., Epidemiologii i Imnninobiologii, Vol 29, No 5, May 5d; pp 123-12d This article discusses research on the occurrence of transformations among Brucella variants under natural conditions as a result of migration from one species of animal to another. In the author's opinion, certain facts definitely establish natural transformation; he cites the work of Zdrodovskiy and Yushkovich, who consider the melitensis'type' to be genet- ically connected with the bovis type and to originate as a result of passage from cattle to sheep and goats. Parnas states that he has en- countered melitensis strains which are in a formative stage but which retain some of the bovis characteristics. Data presented in Table 1 demonstrate the significance of migration of Brucella types in the epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis. In his own experiments (1945-1955), the author attempted to transform Brucella variants by metabolic hybridization. The bovis strain was cul- tured by prolonged passage on substrate containing Proteus OX19, and Pro-. teus was cultured in the presence of Brucella metabolite. As Y result., Brucella stains which agglutinated sera against Proteus OX19 were obtained and vice versa. Other, results of the. experiments are discussed in the text, and characteristics of strains obtained are presented in Table 2. Further experimentation with these strains are summarized in tables 3 and 4. The following conclusions drawn from examination of these results CPYRGHTare given: "l. Transformation of the biochemical and serological characteristics of Brucella melitensis, bovis, and suis variants was successfully produced by the metabolic hybridization method. Atypical and intermediate strains whose characteristics approximate sometimes one and sometimes the other standard variant were obtained by this process. -43- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "2. In biochemical investigations of the strains obtained, we observed a predominance of Br. Buis characteristics. Characteristics of serological intermediate strains were noted with the help of serolo- gical monospecific sera. "3. It can be supposed that the phenomena observed in the experi- ments described also occur in nature. It is possible that these phenomena occasion changes in variants in the biocentric media systems in which the variants develop. These facts indicate that Brucella variants are not stable but undergo various changes characteristic for Brucella." 39. Luminescent Microscopy for Study of Rickettsiae "Experimental Use of Luminescent M'croscopy for Studying Rickettsiae," by V. G. Nitereva, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gamaleya; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiolo*ii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 5, May 5b, pp l4-17 Interest in the possibilities offered by fluorescent microscopy for studying the biological (particularly morphological) characteristics of Rickettsiae motivated the experiments described in this article; the fol- lowing species were selected for investigation: R. prowazeki (Brownlee stain), R. mooseri (Masanov and Vel'mington strains) and R. burneti (Grita strain). Special optical apparatus was used for the experiments in con- junction with an MBI-1 microscope with dry and immersion apochromatic objectives and compensating oculars. 01-17 and 01-18 luminescent illumina- tors and UFS-3 and SZS-7 light filters were among other special equipment used to produce the effects desired. On the basis of the discovery that Rickettsiae have no luminescence themselves, a method of producing induced or secondary luminescence was devised by means of fluorochromes -- various chemically pure dyes which are selectively absorbed on microorganisms. It was found through experi- mentation with these dyes that the clearest contrast and most intensive luminescence were achieved by staining the pathogens with an aqueous solution of auramine or rivanol in a concentration of 1:1,000 to eliminate the undesirable phenomenon of nonspecific luminescence of the background which occurred after treatment of Rickettsiae with fluorochromes, the "defluorochromation" method, further explained in the text, was employed. Two alternative methods of preparing specimens to be examined are recommended and described in detail. In addition to the species enumerated above, live Rickettsiae were examined by infecting yolk sacs of 6-7-day chid{ embryos, making smear impressions, and treating them with fluorochromes. Material from guinea pigs and lice infected with Rickettsia was also treated for examination in vivo. Preparations from chick embryo yolk sacs, internal organs of guinea pigs, and excreta of lice not infected with Rickettsia were stained with fluorochromes as controls. Both live and killed Rickettsia fluoresced with green light. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The author states in conclusion that fine morphological structures of the Rickettsiae examined, by these methods could not be observed. Even though separate species could'nctbe differentiated, the procedure discussedi s considered valuable for investigation of materials containing small amounts of Rickettsia, since even a single cell can be detected. Contagious Diseases I1-0. Bacterial Antigen Observed in the Blood of Brucellosis Patients "The Observation of Bacterial Antigen in the Blood of Bru- cellosis Patients," by B. G. Khaykina, Institute of Experimental Medicine and'Orenburg Medical Institute; Moscow, 2hurnal Mikro- biolo ii E idemiolo ii i Immanobiolo ii, Vol 29, No 5, May 58, PP 56-60 The author presents results of research in which he investigated the significance of observing bacterial antigens in the blood of patients with infectious diseases for immunological purposes; the dynamics of the bacterial antigen curve in brucellosis patients and persons inoculated with live antibrucellosis vaccine was comparatively evaluated. Antigen determination was carried out using the complement', fixation reaction. Killed Brucella suspensions and high-titer rabbit immune sera were em- ployed. The following four tables summarize results, which are discussed in the text: (1) Frequency of Isolating Brucella in Relation to Obser- vation of Bacterial Antigen in the Blood; (2) Frequency of Observing Bacterial Antigens in the Blood and Isolation of Brucella at Different Stages of the Disease; (3) Dynamics of Observation of Brucella Antigen in the Blood of Persons Inoculated With Live Vaccine From Brucella Strain VA; (4) Resu7.ts of Comparative Serological Examination of Brucellosis Patients and Inoculated Persons. CPYRGHTConclusi~n~,s presented on the basis of these results are as follows: "l. Specific antigen is sucessfully observed in the majority of brucellosis patients in all stages of the disease. "2. Comparison of the bacterial antigen curve with data on bacteremia demonstrates the necessity of differentiating between fixation of microbial elements of the reticuloendothelial system and their disintegration in the organism. "3. The bacterial antigen curve in connection with microbiological data characterizes the course of the process and can have' prognostic significance. - 4+5- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 TFnr RPIPaCP 1 QQQ/nQ/7R - (In-RfPR7-M1 M Rnnni nnl ~nnni - "4. The appearance of bacterial antigen in the blood of inoculated persons during the 2-3 weeks following inoculation indicates active pro- liferation of the microorganisms introduced. At the same time, a rapid decrease in the antigenic curve is characteristic for the inoculation process in contrast to the disease itself." 41. Diphtheria in the Belorussian SSR "In the Scientific Society of :Acrobiologists, Epidemiolo gists, and Infectionists," by B. Rubinshteyn; Minsk, Zdravookh- raneniye Belorussii, No 4, Apr 58, p 80 The problem of diphtheria in the Belorussian SSR and measures for its control and clinical peculiarities during 1957 were discussed at a plenary session of the Belorussian Branch of the All-Union Society of Microbiologists, Epidemiologists, and Infectionists on 7 February 1958? It was disclosed that during 1957, diphtheria morbidity had decreased by 30.6 percent below 1956, but that the number of cases was still high, being 9.8 per 10,000 population. The greatest decrease was recorded for the cities of Minsk and, Brest and in Vitebskaya Oblast. The greatest number of cases was recorded in the city of Minsk and in cities of Mogilevskaya Oblast. It was pointed out that insufficient inoculation of children wa,a the principal cause for the high number of diphtheria cases. The session adopted a plan for reducing the number of diphtheria cases. Hematology 42. Blood Cholinesterase Activity Reflects Reaction of Organisms to Heterogenic Hemotransfusion;Tests Indicate "Deviations in the Activity of Cholinesterase of Blood of Experimental Animals After Heterogenic Hemotransfusion," by P. T. Corbunov, Nauch. Rabot. Minski Med. In-t. (Scientific Works Minsk Medical Institute), 1957, lb, 16-31 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Mindy a Biolo icheska a IShimi a No 8, CPYRGI Apr 51-, Abstract No 971 "Heparinized. blood of guinea pigs, dogs, or cats was introduced into the femoral artery or vein of rabbits, and after various periods deter- minations were made of the blood cholinesterase activity. The blood of guinea pigs and of dogs caused increased enzyme activity in the blood of recipients, but the blood of cats caused decreased activity. The effect 46 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Afor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 did not depend on the cholinesterase activity in the blood of donors, but it was the expression of the reaction of the organism tQ heterogenic hemotransfusion. The greatest change was evident at 10 minutes after the transfusion, but even at 24 hours enzyme activity differed from the original level in the majority of cases." Immunology and Therapeutics 43. Soviets Reveal Effectiveness of Vaccination Against Influenza and Norms "Soviets Reveal Effectiveness of Vaccination Against In- fluenza and Mumps", (unsigned article); Brussels, To Drapeau Rouge, 1 Jul' 58, p 4 Specialists in virus diseases from 20 countries attended the recent International Congress on Virology in Lyon. Among them were Smorodintsev of the USSR, who reported that the U',SR has had great success in prevent- ing influenza with a live vaccine which has reached a maximum degree of attenuation in successive passages from chick embryo to human. A total of 18 million persons have been vaccinated nasally with 'this product. A vaccine against mumps has also been perfected using a similar process. It has raised the natural immunity of the population from 10 to 75 percent. 44. Soviet Influenza Vaccine Tested by French Physician "Resumption of Antipolio' Vaccine Distribution Before End of Week," by Francois NMnnelet; Paris, Le Figaro, 30 Jun 58, p 2 During the debate at the International Congress on Virology in Lyon at the end of June, Dr Kopr-iwski of Philadelphia and Professor Smorodin- tsev of the USSR presented what they termed satisfying conclusions on vaccinations made with attenuated viruses. Dr Koprowski'e experiments were made in the Belgian Congo, and Professor Smorodintsev's in the USSR. On the subject of influenza, Professor Smorodintsev stated, "We vaccinate between 10 million and 15 million persons every year.". He admitted that -there is difficulty in finding a vaccine. which corresponds to the exact type of influenza virus. The article on the congress further stated that in Lyon, thanks to Soviet sources, Dr Charles Nhrieux used serum to immunize hospital and police personnel during the height of the influenza epidemic. The per- centage of cases resulting was clearly lower than that registered in other cities. -47- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Pharmacology and Toxicology 45. Biologically Active Organophosphorus Compounds "Biologically Active Alkylated Amidoesters and Mixed Esters of Alkylphosphinic Acids," by A. I. Razumov, Ye. A Markovich, and 0. A. Mukhacheva, Khin1ya i Primeneniye Fosfororganicheskikh So edineni (The Chemistry and Application of Organophosphorus Compounds ; Moscow, Academy of Sciences USSR, 57, pp 194-204; (from Referativni Zhurnal .-.-Khimiya, Biol.;, iclieska a Khimiya, CPYRGHT No ll) 10 Jun 5d, Abstract No 14527) by A Travin) "Amidoesters, RPO(OR') (NR " R"') (I), and certain of their thio analogs, where R = CH31 C2H5 or. iso-C3H7; R'= CH3, C?H5, n-C. H7, iso- C3U7 n-CI1H , ISO-C4H9, n-C6H13, C6H11, C6H5CH2 or 1 O2NC6H4; R"_ HY CH3 or C2H5; "I... CH3, C H55, CH2CH2C1 or CH (C11.3) (CH2 )3N (C2H5 )2, as well as mixed esters, C2H5PO(OR~) (OR") ?(i), and certain of their thio analogs, where. E'= CH3, C2H5, n-C3H7 or iso-C3H7 and R' ' = o-, m- and P-02NC6H1i., o-and P-C]C6H4or CH3C0, were synthesizedby the interaction of unsaturated acid chlorides 01' alkylphosphinic acids, RPOC1(OR'), or their thio analogs with amides and alcohols. Amidoesters are slightly toxic, possess miotic action,?and are cholinesterase inhibitors. For example, (I) (R= R' =R1 = R"' =C2H5 ), (I) (R = R' 1= R1 r r = C2H5, .4'=. iso-C3H7 ), (I) (R= Ri"=Riii =C2H51 R'=iSo-C4H9), (I) (R=R'=R"=02H5, R"'-H) and (I) (R =.CH3, R' = R ' ' R"' = C2H5) produce pupilary contraction with the fol- lowing ni.nimum concentrations (in'%, in rabbits and cats, respectively): 2 and 3; 0.15 and 0.25; 0.25 and 1; 0.1 and 0.25;?3 and 10. The mdlecular concentration which causes 50% cholinesterase inhibition is expressed for the above-mentioned five preparations by the following figures (for 2ere- bral and serum cholinesterase, respectively): 5,10,5 and 2.5 -10-5 ; ,6'10_05 and 1.10-.; 5.10-6 and 1.510 6; 1'10 and 1.5 ; 2'10 and 2.5'10 . Among (II), all of which are highly active, the most effective is (R'= C2H5 and Rif = 4-O2NC6H4), used against glaucoma under the name of 'armin.' It possesses mitotic action in a concentration of 1:200,000 and an anti- cholinesterase action on frog muscles in a molecular concentration of 1.10-T. The toxicity of the preparation for mice is expressed in amounts ofO.54 mg/g (subcutaneously). and 0.4 mg/g (internally,)." - 48- Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 146. Organophosphorus Compounds and Their Biological Activity "The Esters 'of, Alkylphosphinous and Dialkylphosphinic Acids and Their Biological, Activity," by A. I. Razumov, 0. A. Mxkh- acheva, and I. V. Zaikonikova, Khin ya i Prin4eneni a Fmsforor- ag n. SMedineniy (The Chemistry and Application of Or x ophos- phorus Compounds Ty Moscow, Acadengr of Sciences USSR, 57, PP 205-212, Discussion 212-217; (from ReferativniyZhhuurnal - Khimiya Biolo cheska a Khimi a, No 11, 10 Jun 5B, Abstract CPYRGHTNo 14526, by A. Travin) "The esters of alkylphosphinous acids, RP(OR')2 (I), where R and R'=C2H5, n-C3H7, iso-C3H7, 'n-C4H9 or iso-C1i9, were obtained ' by the alkoxylation of alkyldichlorarsines.- The esters-or alkylthiophos- phinic acids, RPS(OR')2, where R and R'= C2H5, n-C3H7 or n-C H9, and their selenium analogs, RPSe(OR')2 with the same radicals, were synthe- sized by the interaction of (I) with sulfur and selenium. R2PO(OR') (III) esters, where R =C2H5, n-C3H7, iso.-C3H7, n-C)H9, or iso-C1H9 and R'= CH3, C2H5, n-C3H7, iso-C3H7, n-C2H9,iso-CH9,n-C6Hi3,nTC7H159 n-C8Hl7, C6H5CH2' C6H5'o- and. p-CH3C6H , o- and p-C1C6H4, o-, m- and p-O2NC6H4, were obtained by the isomerization of (I) or the interaction of the acid chlorides of dialkylphosph3 nic acids (II) with alcohols. R2PONR'R"amides (IV), where R = C05, n-C3H7 or n-C,H9, R'= H or C2H5 and RIO' =P 2H5 . were obtained by the interaction of (II) with amides. The synthesis of organ- ophosphorus compounds answering the formulas CH3PS(OR) (OR') (V), where R =CH3 or C2H5 and R' = CH2CH2SC2H5, 4-02NC6H4 or 1+-methylcoumarinil-'7, CH3PO(sC2H5J (sCH2CH2SC2H5) (t,i), CH3PS(OR)SCH2CH2SC2H5 (VII), where R SH3, C2H5 or C3H7, and mixed anhydrides of (C2H5)2P--0--P(OR)2 were also described (in* the discussion).. From a biological point of view, the most in. teresting compounds- are the at omatic esters ci'type (IIIJ fbr example, (III) where R= n-C3H7 and R'?=14-02NC6H14 is as powerful a cholinesterase inhibitor as armin, however, it is one twentieth as toxic. Many 'compounds of this series possess miotic action and lower intraocular pressure. Aliphatic esters of this type and amides of type (VI) are not very active. Certain compounds, of type (V), (VI), and '(VII) possess valuable insecticidal properties." -149- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 47. Local Anesthetic More Powerful Than Novocain "Concerning the Pharmacology of. the Stereoisomers of the Chlorine- Hydrate of the Benzoic 'Ester,. "of .? 2-Methyi-4- Oxydecahydroquinoline," by I. I. Chebekova,Izv. AN KazSSR, Ser. Med. A3.. Fiziologii No 1(8), 1957, PP 105n.UO; from Referat3y iurnal -- Khimi a Biolo icheska a Khimiya, NO 11, 10 Jun 58, CPYRGHT Abstract No 1452 4,, by A. Travin) "Stereoisomer alpha, beta, gamma, and delta forms of the chlorine hydrate of 2-methyl-4-benzoyloxydecahydroquinoline possess strong local anesthetic action, surpassing the action of novocain (in 0.25-0.5% con- cen-tratibns); by 3.6-5.7 times. The intensity of the local anesthetic action changes depending on the steric disposition of substituted radicals; the gamma form is the least effective. The minimum lethal dose of the gamma form, in quantitative terms, is equal to that of novocain (0.3 mg/kg); the rest of the preparations are more toxic than novocain. After the internal administration of 5-20 mg/kg to dogs, a decrease in blood pressure was .observed, accompanied by a marked decreac in the cont;'action amplitude of the heart, with an increase in rhythm along with an increase or decrease In respiration. Subcutaneous administration of;.arge doses (20-50 kVrrg) produce clonico-tonic spasms together with increased blood pressure and a marked increase in respiration. In experiments on the isolated ear of a -rabbit, vascular dilation was observed with concentra., tions of 1:1,000 1:5,000, and 1:10,000." 48. Adrenalin Antagonism "Adrenalin as an Antagonist of Ditiline and Other Curare- Like Preparations," by A. F. Danilov, Fiziol. Rol' Atset1ilkho- ling I Izyskaniye Novykh Iekarsty. Veshchesty (The Physiological Role tof Acetylcholine and the Search f New Medicines)., 57, 413-418 (from Referativnyy Ziurnal'-- Khimiya, Bi.ologicheskava CPYRG a No 11, 10 Jun 5 "The antagonistic action of adrenalin (in experiments on cats), appears with a dose of 0.005 mg/kg, becomes strongly expressed (ail 0.02- 0.03 mg/kg, and is observed if ditiline is administered in. the first 5-6 minutes after the administration of adrenalin." 50 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 49. Antishock Therapy Solution " A Heteroalbumose Antishock Solution," by G. A. Tsinman, Nauchn Tr. Kubansk. Med. In-ta. (Scientific Works of the Kubansk Medical Tnstitutef _5 (, 15 (28) 82.-86 (from Referatiiv y Zhurnal - Kh_ imiya, Biologicheskte Khimiya, No 11, 10 Jun CPYRGHT Abstractt 1o1X57 , by G. Vigdorovich, "The authors propose a solution called "Oval" -W a product produced from denatured egg albumin, miscible with alcohol in all proportions without coa.Julation. The proposed antishock solution consists of the following: 25 ml of alcohol, 15 g of glucose, 0.25 g of NaBr, 0.025 g of ephedrine, and 4% "Oval" to 250 ml. This preparation gave good results in traumatic shock therapy with animals." 50. Extracts of Vitamins C. P. E. and A Obtained From Fruits of the Dog Rose "Fruits of the Dog Rose," unsigned article; Moscow, Med?, itsinski Rabotnik, No 42, 27 Msy 58, p 4 CPYRGH`T"?~? "Until now, the vitamin industry has extracted from dry fruits of the dog rose only vitamin C concentrates in the form of syrups or nutritive pigments used for coloring margarine., "At the All-Union Scientific Rei earth Vitamin Institute of the Min- istry of Health USSR, a scientific method has been developed for using the fruit of the dog rose from which four preparations are obtained:' concentrates of vitamin C, P, E, and A, and also food coloring pigments,. "It has been established that, in addition to obtaining 2,163 liters of vitamin C concentrate from one ton of the dry fruit of the dog rose, it is possible to obtain 63.5 kg of vitamin P preparation and' 22.8 kg of concentrates of vitamins E, and A (carotin). "Tests indicate a high 'biological activity of vitamin P concentrates obtained from this raw material. Data from literature point to bacteri- cidal properties of dog rose oil which contains significant amounts of vitamins E and carotin. "Presently' the activity of vitamin P concentrates obtained from dog rose is being tested in therapeuatic and gynocological clinics of Moscow and Leningrad." 51 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Physiology 51. Physiology of Higher Nervous Activity " Some New Facts. on the Physiology of Higher Nervous Activ- ity)" by Prof P. Kupalov; Moscow Msditsinskiy Rabotnik, 4+ Mar 58, No 18 p 3 Physiology now has at its disposal a general concept of the activity of higher branches of the brain, an understanding of the basic physiological regularities of the 'behavior of animals, and is able to direct this behavior to attain desired results. The chief organ of higher nervous process is, of course, the cerebrum. By understanding the mechanism of neural processes, exhibited in the cerebral -cortex, it hA.s been possible to develop complicated behavior in a dog and'~o unify the more elementary conditioned reflexes and movements of the animal. Systematic experiments have been conducted continuously in the Insti- tute of Experimental Medicine to determine the mechanism of formation of a conditioned reflex and the characteristics and organization of integrated nervous.. processes that arise during the formation of a conditioned reflex. A conditioned reflex is a nervous and continued study of the actual neural mechanisms involved'iilthis phenomenon is a great problem for the future. Public Health and Sanitation 52. Bacterial Aerosol Experiments "A Hermetic Chamber for 'Experimental Work With Bacterial Aerosols," by A. Ye. Vershilova, Chair of Microbiology, Kiev Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiolo ii E idemiologii i .Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 6, CPYRGH n 58, pp 105-10 "Models of bacterial aerosols formed from pathogens of air-borne infections are used in hermetic chambers for resolving numerous problems connected with the mechanisms of dispersal of these infections. There are descriptions of various chambers for similar investigations in foreign literature, but they are very complex in construction. - 52 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CW%41ri For Release 1999/09/23 - CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "Experimental investigations with synthetic bacterial aerosols were first performed in the USSR by Rechmenskiy and his associates in an original chamber (l9)6). In 1955 he designed an apparatus consisting of a system of hermetic glass flasks for studying the kinetics and biological activity of bacterial and viral aerosols. In 1956, Baroyan and his as- sociates designed the I-]. apparatus, a metal chamber with a volume of 50 liters supplied by various devices and equipped for infecting animals and sterilizing air, for performing aerosol experiments. "We assigned ourselves the task of constructing a hermetic chamber which would be suitable for creating models of stable bacterial aerosols in a large space for studying the relationship of their kinetic properties to various fhctors -- air, temperature, humidity, state of aggregation, etc. With these models, we proposed to study the trapping capaeity of various apparatuses designed for separating microorganisms from the air. With this in mind, we developed the designs according to which this chamber was produced in April 1956 at the Kiev Factory of Nhtal Wares and Disin- fection Equipment. (Footnote: Working designs according to our sketch were drawn up by. engineers V. G. Vrublevskiy and K. M. Motuz.,) "The chamber itself'is a sheet-iron box with dimensions of 120 x 80 x 70 cm (F.(gure 1). .The walls are 3 mm thick. Inside the box are two partitions which divide it into three equal compartments each with a voluin of 200 liters.' On the anterior wall of the chamber there are three round windows 10 cm in diameter, through which it is possible to observe equipment or animals in the compartments. There, are connecting pipes for spraying bacteria in and taking air samples from the comnart- ments at a height of 15 cm above the windows (two per compartment). On the lateral walls are circular, ,ports (diameter, 25 cm) which are sealed hermetically by lids with screw clamps (Figure 2). Various equipment and animals are placed in the chamber through these ports. Small lids (diam eter, 11 cm) are located under the large ports. Rings are installed in the small ports. Rubber sleeves can be attached to these rings to permit manipulation with the hands inside the compartments during the performance of experiments. The large and small ports of the middle compartment are on the rear wall. (Figure 3). Each compartment contains. electric lights and sockets for plugging in electric apparatus; there is an opening on the slanting lower wall for draining the liquid with which the chamber is washed. The, top of the chamber is sealed on hermetically, with screw clamps, and there is a rubber gasket bet*.;een the walls and partitions of the body of the chamber and its top. he exterior and interior surfaces of the chamber are'painted with oil paint. - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "R#&Idd For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00130001-9 "The droplet phase of a bacterial aerosol is formed with a special 'troynik' (Figure it), the use of which creates an aerosol of uniform concentration simultaneously in all three compartments. The 'troynik' is a spherical glass container (5 cm in diameter); five tubes protrude from it, three of which are outlet tubes (0.5 cm in diameter and 6 cm long) on the anterior wall of the container, one is an intake tube (one cm in diameter and 2 cm long) on the rear wall; the last tube (0.5 cm in diameter, 3 cm long) is on the bottom. The intake tubes are for dis- persing a bacterial emulsion into the container of the 'troynik.' The smallest aerosol droplets are expelled through the outlet tubes in the form of a. stream of mist. Large droplets which are formed in the con- tainer flow out through the tube at the bottom of the container. "A study of the kinetic properties of bacterial aerosols in dust and droplet phases was carried out in the chamber described, and the trapping capacity of various apparatuses designed for catching microorgan- isms from the air was compared. "A convenient feature of work with our model chamber is the possibility of creating three equal volumes of aerosol with identical concentrations, whereby three parallel experiments can be performed simultaneously. "Due to the necessity of conducting experiments with pathogenic aerosols, the chamber can be easily equipped with an adapting device for c1isinfection of the air entering through the chamber (a muffle furnace) or with an aerosolizing apparatus inside the chamber." 53. Food Crops and Hexachlorane-Treated Soils "Hygienic Assessment of Food Crops Grown on Soil Treated With Hexachlorane," by N. M. Rusin, G. P. Andronova, I. N. Sapronova, and 0. I. Vasil'yeva, Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Sanitation and Hygiene imeni F. F. Erisman; Mos- cow Gigiyena i Sanitariya, No 6, Jun 58, pp?32-36 Food crops (wheat and potatoes) grown on soil which has been treated before sowing with large quantities of hexachlorane dust (up to 1+00 kg/ hectare) which has been enriched and unenriched with the gamma-isomer containing the so-called residual hexachiorane, i.e., organic substances containing chlorine, are nontoxic to animals. - 511. - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Potatoes grown in this soil, as a rule, acquire a foreign disagree- .tble taste which renders them unsuitable for food. However, starch pre- pared from the potatoes does not possess this strange disagreeable -taste. At the same time, wheat grown on soil treated with hexachlorane against the colorado beetle contains up to ten times as much residual hexachlorane as the potatoes, but it is not toxic for animals nor does it possess the foreign unpleasent taste' or smell. Therefore, it is recommended that for the first 3-4 years after the treatment of soil with hexachlorane only cereals be grown, and later potatoes. - 55 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 54. Fifth Congress of Medical Workers' Trade Union "Fifth Congress of Medical Workers? Trade Union" (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 44, 3 Jun 58, pp 1, 3 The Fifth Congress of the Medical Workers' Trade Union was held in Moscow, 29-31 May 1958. The first session was held in the evening on 29 May and was devoted to discussing the report of the central committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, A few delegates asked questions concerning reorganization of the work of trade union organizations. This reorganization is supposed to result in bringing those organizations closer to the needs of health service. The delegates also exchanged views and discussed the value of public participation in cultural activi- ties and in therapeutic and preventive medical work. V. G. Golovkova, chairman of the Leningrad Oblast Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, spoke on the work of a medical district physician. She said that the load of a medical district physician is so great that he has no time to organize properly whatever preventive medical work is necessary in his district. Proper planning and organization of preventive medical work, no doubt, could eliminate long lines of patients in outpatient clinics, which, in turn, could rectify other defects and inadequacies. N. F. Popov, chairman of the Voronezhskaya Oblast Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, spoke on results of merging rayon hospitals with sanitary-epidemiological stations. The reorganization proved bene- ficial in rural areas. Proper distribution of the work load among phy- sicians still remains unsolved under the new setup. L. P. Baranovskaya, the chairman of the Belorussian SSR Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, and a number of other delegates were critical of health agencies and of the Ministry of Health USSR. They claimed that little attention has been paid to the health and safety of medical workers. They claimed that the Ministry of Health USSR issues too many directives, but exercises very little supervision over their proper execution. Violators of regulations dealing with the health and safety of medical workers have remained unpunished. K. A. Suchkova, the chairman of the Moscow Oblast Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, stated that the scientific research insti- tutes should re-examine the system of medical aid to employed women, find out the causes for illness among them, and come up with an idea of how to prevent those illnesses. Medical research workers must keep their eyes open for practical requirements of the medical, profession and for the needs of the health service in general. Frequent and thorough investiga- tions of the activities of research workers must be conducted by the Minis- try of Health USSR in conjunction with the Central Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union and with the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sci- ences USSR. - 56 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 K. A. Suchkova criticized the members of the Central Commnittee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union because, she claimed, they made no at- tempts to familiarize themselves with the most advanced achievements in medical science or to publicize the experiences of the leading medical establishments. Greetings from the Ministry of Health of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, from the General Secretary of the Federation of Hos- pital Workers of West Bengal, from the Council of the Medical Workers' Trade Union of Peiping, and from the Central Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union of Czechoslovakia were read at this session. M. D. Kovrigina, Minister of Health USSR, spoke at the 30 May morning session on the long-range draft plan for development of health service in the USSR, 1959-1965. She stated that the Soviet government each year allocates enormous sums of money for improvements in health service, for protection of the health of medical workers, and for safety devices. The Communist Party and the government are interested also in reducing the incidence of various diseases and the mortality rate and in improving the therapeutic and sanitary service throughout the Soviet Union, she said. M. D. Kovrigina stressed that defects in the operation and management of medical establishments and health agencies must be pointed out. One of the most important defects is the absence of efficient medical service to industrial workers. Many outpatient clinics and outpatient departments of hospitals are often crowded into small buildings and are not supplied well enough with necessary equipment. Waiting lines in outpatient clinics have not been entirely eliminated, and in a number of places, no arrange- ments have been made to treat people in the evenings or on their. day off from work. She continued her comments as followse - There are 350,000 physicians now practicing in the USSR: one phy- sician per 600 people. The solution to this problem lies in strengthening the outpatient clinics. For many years the Ministry of Health USSR has been trying to call to the attention of the local health agencies the fact that an outpatient clinic is the principal link in the of medical establishments. All medical districts, including the industrial medical districts, must be broken up into smaller units. This can be done by increasing the number of positions for physicians even at the expense of auxiliary branches of health service. Medical documentation must be abridged and overhauled in such a manner as to enable physicians to utilize their time in a more rational manner. The Ministry of Health USSR has cooperated with health agencies in their effort to promote rational utilization of professional medical personnel: the ministry gave permission to the heads of therapeutic and preventive medical establishments to shift their pro- fessional medical personnel from one department to another, from hospital to outpatient clinic, and vice versa. - 57 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The dispensary method of serving the population has found wide ac- ceptance throughout the country, but this method of treatment has em- braced only certain morbid conditions and the quality of supervision over people who are in need of this type of service still remains inadequate. Little effort has yet been made to capture the interest of.the general public in health protection. The most effective form of public partici- pation results when the medical workers, trade unions, and administrative personnel of industrial establishments cooperate with each other and with "activists" to educate the public. The decree issued by the February Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, "Concerning Further Development of the Collective Farm System and Reorganization of Machine-Tractor Sta- tions," was issued to further improve the rural economy and to raise the cultural level of the rural population. Improvement in medical service to the rural population consists of extensive construction projects to house hospitals, feldsher-midwife posts, maternity homes, creches, and homes for medical personnel. The collective farms of the Ukrainian SSR have had 7,000 maternity homes built by using their own resources. The collective farms of the Moldavian SSR have built 400 maternity homes and, during 1956-1957, the number of rural hospitals in this republic increased by 76. The collective farms of Tyumenskaya, Voronezhskaya, Ryazan'skaya, Irkutskaya, and Chkalovskaya oblasts and of Krasnodarskiy Kray have all launched construction projects to house medical establishments. It is a well-established fact that improvement in general health de- pends on steady improvement in the living conditions of the population, higher cultural level of the workers, good working conditions, better housing facilities, well-organized populated communities, a high level of medical science in general, constant improvement in the quality of thera- peutic and preventive medical care, I public eating places, the opera- tion of which is based on scientifi jrinciples. Realistic improvement in medical service must consist of sharp reduction in the incidence of those communicable and parasitic diseases whose incidence has been per- sistently high. Child mortality must be reduced, greater stress must be placed on the health and physical development of adolescents, and loss of man-hours from work by industrial and service personnel must also be drastically reduced. Soviet medical science has made sufficiently great progress to be able to cope with cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, and tubercu- losis. Ontological dispensaries of various republics, oblasts, krays, and cities must be required to have radiological units and must have at least 75 beds available. Cities that do not have ontological hospitals or - 58 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 001 30001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 dispensaries must have special oncological units in their general hospi- tals, provided, of course, that these establishments are large enough. These units must have special gamma- and roentgenotherapeutic devices available. Treatment must encompass the majority of people with malignant tumors during the next 2 years. Efforts in tuberculosis control, improvement in living standards and in the cultural level of the population, and proper sanitary conditions are building a foundation for the complete eradication of tuberculosis within the next 15-20 years. There is room for improvement in health service to the rural popula- tion. Specialized medical care must be expanded in rural hospitals and the capacity in each one of these hospitals must be increased to 75 beds in some of them and to 100 and 150 beds in others. These hospitals must have X-ray machines, laboratories, and physiotherapeutic devices. Hospi- tals on the oblast level must become the genuine centers of highly quali- fied medical aid. The rural medical district must be strengthened. In organizing the rural medical district it is necessary to foresee any eco- nomic dislocation that may take place such as: misplacement of state farms or misplacement of collective farms. The number of beds in arty rural medical district must be increased to 25 and more. Medical aid to women and children is one of the.most important branches of medicine. Infant mortality and childbirth deaths have been gradually declining. Women are employed in almost all branches of industry; about 45% of all industrial workers are women. In some industries women constitute 900 of the working force. This makes it imperative that all kinds of organized qualified medical service be brought closer to industrial estab- lishments. Midwives, obstetrical, and gynecological workers have demonstrated the importance of psychological preparation of pregnant women for child- birth. All scientific and practical medical workers must strive to im- prove this method further. One way to help all employed women is to give proper care to their children; this can be done by expanding the network of creches. New types of creches began to be organized in 1956. Up to 32% of creches are now able to take care of children 24 hours a day. Since annual plans for con- struction of more buildings to house creches were never fulfilled, short- age of space exists everywhere. . - 59 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The Minister of Health USSR then turned to scientific research. "The Academy of Medical Sciences USSR," she said, "is the chief organizing and coordinating center of scientific medical research in the country. The Fifth Congress of the Medical Workers' Trade Union has a right to demand from the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR all the assistance they need." The Minister of Health USSR continued, the long-range draft plan for development of health service during 1959-1965 will provide for an increase in bed capacity by 550,000 or by 37.7% over the number of beds available by the end of 1958 throughout the USSR. This will bring the total bed ca- pacity in hospitals, maternity homes, and outpatient clinics to over 2 million. Consequently there will be 8.8 beds per 1,000 people by the end of 1965 against 7 beds per 1,000 people as of the end of 1958. The number of beds available in hospitals at the end of 1965, in vari- ous republics, will show the following percentage increase over the number expected to be available at the end of 1958: the increase in the Kirghiz SSR will be by about 71.%; in the Tadzhik SSR, by 600; in the Belorussian SSR, by 55%; in the Azerbaydzhan SSR, by 50%; in the Uzbek SSR, by 46%; and in the Kazakh SSR, by irT%. It is desirable that each city hospital have a capacity of about 1100- 500 beds, depending, of course, on regional peculiarities'. The feldsher-midwife posts must be re-enforced. They are the van- guard of the Soviet health service in rural areas, particularly as far as calls on and other preventive medical services for infants and pregnant women are concerned. The long-range draft plan for 1959-1965 will provide for an increase in the number of maternity homes and maternity wards in hospitals. The number of beds for pregnant women in confinement and for mothers will be brought to 205,000 by 1965. It is expected that there will be 128,000 beds for gynecological patients by 1965. The total number of beds in the felds her -midwife posts and in the maternity homes of collective will reach 52,000 by 1965. The work load of medical district obstetrician-gynecologists must be reduced and two positions must be set up for nurses for'each posi- tion of obstetrician-gynecologist. The children's consultation clinic is the main the therapeutic- preventive service to children and the medical district pediatrician plays an important role in it. By 1965 there should be one pediatrician for 900-1,000 children and there should be two positions set up for visiting nurses for each position of pediatrician. It is expected that by 1965 there will be over 75,000 pediatricians practicing in the USSR, which will be an increase of 27,000 over the number practicing in 1957. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 In 1965 there should be 1,520,000 spaces available in creches, for an increase of 6011,000 over 1957? The long-range Seven-Year Plan (1959-1965) will also contain pro- visions for further expansion of the network of sanitary-epidemiological establishments. Sanatoriums and health resorts have been concentrated mainly in the southern parts of the USSR. No new resorts have been organized in the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, Kazakhstan, Belorussia, and Central Asia. The same is true of rest homes. The ministries of health of the union republics and the republic committees of trade unions must rectify the situation. In concluding her report, the Minister of Health USSR assured her listeners that all remarks dealing with the long-range planned project will be carefully examined by the ministries of health of the union re- publics and necessary action will be taken. Ya. M. Kasymov, chairman of the Turkmen SSR Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, said that particular attention must be given to eradication of diseases of the eyes, helminthiasis, and brucellosis in the next few years. A foundation has been laid for eradication of these diseases. What is needed is a combined effort of both the health agencies and the agricultural establishments. Greater assistance from the Ministry of Health USSR is also needed. A congratulatory telegram from the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union of the Polish People's Republic was read at this session. Ye. R. Yushchenko, chairman of the Kiev Oblast Committee of the Medi- cal Workers' Trade Union, at the 30 May evening session, said that rural hospitals are short of professional medical personnel. This, she said, has created a situation whereby many beds in rural hospitals remain un- occupied because patients have to be sent to hospitals in cities and to oblast hospitals where trained personnel are available. Prof. G. A. Miterev, chairman of the Executive Committee of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies USSR, spoke next. Members of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies can be found everywhere. They can be found in industrial establishments, construction projects, state farms, collective farms, and transportation. There are more than 500,000 medical deputies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies who are helping to carry on a campaign of health education. All segments of the medical service must cooperate with the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in their effort to spread medical information among the Soviet population, the professor said. - 61 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT The deputy chairman of the All-Union Council of Trade Unions, L. N. Solov'yev, said that everyone must help to make outpatient; clinics a strongly entrenched institution. The Ministry of Health USSR and the ministries of health of the union republics must strive to establish in all city outpatient clinics a procedure whereby people can be treated on their days off or during the evening hours. He said that he was in favor of placing the existing network of pharmacies under the jurisdiction of health departments. A resolution was adopted by the delegates at the concluding session. The resolution stated that the 3 million members of the Medical Workers' Trade Union approve the decision of the World Peace Council to call a world peace congress to be held in Stockholm to discuss disarmament and peaceful coexistence. The resolution stated the following: "A large number of people belonging to various national groups and different political opinions and religious convictions favor suspension of nuclear tests. "The Soviet medical workers endorse the decision of the Soviet govern- ment in its unilateral decision to suspend nuclear tests. They hope that medical workers of the West will urge their governments also to suspend such tests. "The Fifth Congress of the Medical Workers' Trade Union of the USSR is appealing to all medical workers on all five continents of the world to support this noble decision. "Humane principles can flourish in times of peace only. Medical workers the world over are members of the most humane profession in the world. They cannot stand indifferently on the sidelines and see the future of humanity endangered." The delegates to the congress elected a 62-member central committee and 21 candidates to membership in the central committee, as well as a 7-member revisory committee. Twenty-four delegates were chosen to the 12th Congress of Trade Unions, The First Plenum of the Central Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union, which chose an 11-member presidium of the Central Committee of the union, was held the same day. D. V. Pokrovskiy was chosen chair- man of the Central Committee of the Medical Workers' Trade Union. K. P. Sakharova was elected secretary. - 62 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Radiology 55. Changes in Respiratory Properties of the Blood During Acute Radiation Sickness Evident During the Third Period of Disease "Change in the Respiratory Properties of Blood During Acute Radiation Sickness," by V. V. Merenov, Tr. Vses. Konferentsii po Med. Radiol, Eksperim. Med. Radiol. Works of the All-Union Conference on Medical Radiology. Experimental Medical Radi- ology); Moscow, Medgiz, 1957, 146-147 (from Referativn Zhur- nal -- Khimi a Biologicheskaya Khimi , No 8, 25 Apr 5b., Ab- CPYRGHT stract No 10320) "Tests conducted on eight dogs subjected to single general X-irradiation (600 r) indicated decreased efficiency of hemoglobin in transporting oxy- gen, disturbances of tissue respiration, and the presence of toxemia. How- ever, during the first and second periods of the disease, no pronounced or acute disturbances were'noted in the respiratory properties of the blood. Hypoxy of an anemic nature was noted during the third period of the dis- ease (in the peripheral blood hemoglobin content decreased to 8.75%, and the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes was decreased). Due to improved dissociation of oxyhemoglobin, acceleration of respiration, and other com- pensatory mechanisms the organism did not suffer acute oxygen deficiency. Before the death of the animal, this compensation collapsed." 56. Tagged Iron and Sulfur Compounds Reveal Characteristic Changes in Erythropoiesis During Radiation Sickness "Characteristics of Erythropoiesis in radiation Sickness Judged by the Rate of Accumulation of Iron and Sulfur in the Composi- tion of Erythrocyte Hemoglobin," by L. A. Klyucharev, Tr, Vses. Konferentsii po Med. Radiol. Eksperim. Med. Radiol, (Works of the All-Union Conference on Medical Radiology. Experimental Medical Radiology); Moscow, Medgiz, 1957, 127-129 (from Refera- tivn Zhurnal -- Khimi a Biolo icheska a Khimi , No 8, 25 Apr CPYRGH Abstract No 10322) "To rabbits which were subjected to X-irradiation in doses of 400, 700, and 800 r, were administered intravenous solutions of the Fe59 salt of ascorbic acid, or subcutaneous solution of s35- tagged methionine. During the first day after irradiation, it was shown that due to the pres- ervation of body weight of the animals, and due to insignificant changes in the red blood, the inclusion of Fe59 in the erythrocytes was decreased. However, the rate of S renewal in the erythrocytes during the first few days was half as great as in the controls. Sulfur metabolism in bone marrow was also decreased." - 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 57. Changes in Blood Choline Content of Patients Suffering From Radiation CPYRGHT Sickness Discussed "Choline Content in the Blood of Patients With Radiation Sick- ness," by 11. P. Yeleazarova and V. S. Stepanova, Tr. Vses. Kon- fcrentsii po Med. Radiol. IClinika i Tera )i a Luchevoy k3olezni (Works of the All-Union Conference on Medical Radiology. Clini- cal Aspects and Therapy of Radiation Sickness); Moscow, Medgiz, 1957, 45-I7 (from Referativn Zhurnal -- Khimiya, Biologiche- ska a IChimiya, No 8, 25 Apr 58 A total of 50 people subjected to chronic effects of various types of ionizing radiations due to their work, and 20 people exposed as a result of radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms, were subjected to tests of blood choline content. Choline content during the first stage of radia- tion sickness decreased from the normal. 3-3.8 mg % to 0.1-1.9 mg 0. Cho- line content of blood was decreased in patients with malignant tumors (to 0.11+-1.6 mg %). X-irradiation doses of 100 and 200 r caused a. rise in blood choline content up to 0.24-3.2 mg % in these patients during the first days after irradiation. A further increase of the general dose of irradiation to 6,000-8,000 r showed a tendency toward returning the cho- line content to the original low figures." 58. Radiosensitivity Determined by Course of Acute Radiation Sickness in Corresponding Age Periods "Concerning the Sensitivity of Nearly Born Rats Towards Various Doses of Penetrating Radiation," by V. V. Kholin, Chair of Medi- cal Radiology (head, Prof M. N. Pobedinskiy) of the Leningrad State Order of Lenin Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians imeni S. M. Kirov; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiologiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 1.9-53 The aim of this research was to study the characteristics of acute radiation sickness in newly born rats (823) and to compare them with the characteristics of acute radiation sickness in mature rats (21.8), follow- in ; different doses of radiation (500, 1,000, and 2,000 r). The author's conclusion is that in a comparative evaluation of radio- sensitivity one should bear in mind not the difference of radiosensitivity, but the specific course of the acute radiation sickness in the correspond- ing age period. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-R6DP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 59. General X-Irradiation Intensifies Gastric and Enteric Secretory Functions "The Effect of General X-Irradiation on the Secretory Function of the Stomach and Intestines," by M. F. Nesterin, R.adiobio- logical Laboratory (head, G. P. Yeremin) of the Institute of Nutrition cf the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiologiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 61-66 Because one of the fundamental symptoms of the sickness caused by ionizing radiation is the disturbed function of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the secretory and enzymatic functions, the following research was conducted to study the effect of general irradiation by 200 r of X-rays on gastric and intestinal secretions of dogs. The following Eng- CPYRGH1.ish abstract accompanies the article. "...Following irradiation, the quantity of gastric juice was in- creased. This condition of hypersecretion lasted 12-14 days. On analysis of the secretory curve in dogs with Pavlov?s pouch, a disturbed relation- ship of the phases of gastric secretion was noted (following irradiation, the relative amount of the juice secreted during the nervous phase was decreased while that secreted during the chemical phase increased). The periodic character of the secretion of the intestinal juice was not changed after irradiation, but the amount of intestinal juice secreted (Tiery's method) was increased in certain dogs. The value of enterokinase and alkaline phosphatase in one gm of "mucous lumps" was increased by 2 to 3 times. This change lasted for about 2 weeks. Excretion of enterokinase and phosphatase with feces was, likewise, increased during the first few days after irradiation." 60. Edema Following Local Effect of Large Doses of X-Rays Explained by Changes in Capillary Permeability, Disturbed Lymphatic Circulation, and Chemical and Other Factors "Permeability Change After Local Effect of Large Doses of Ioni zing; Radiation," by V. M. Mastryukova; Moscow, Meditsin- skaya Radiologiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 66-71 The aim of this research was to stud permeability changes in capil- lary walls following large doses (!E,500 r of X-rays and to attempt to ex- plain the role of this phenomenon, i.e.) permeability changes, in the pathogenesis of edema during radiation trauma. A total of 60 tests were conducted on 16 rabbits. The following English abstract accompanies the article. - 65 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "It was cotablished that irradiation by X-rays in a do:,e of 4)500 r biirigr, ;about considerable increase of permeability of the skin vessels on the third day after irradiation. On the 11th day after the action of ionizinG) radiation, this permeability is decreased in comparison with the normal. Edema of the tissues which occurs after local irradiation is due not only to disturbed permeability of capillaries, but alto to disturbed lymphatic circulation, as well as to certain other factors." 61. Preliminary Intravenous Adiniriistration of Novocain Solution Decreases Deleterious Efi:_ets of X-Rays and Gamma Rays "The Effect of Intravenous Administration of Novocain on the Course of Radiation Sickness Under Experimental Conditions," by S. P. Sizenko and V. V. Markevich, Laboratory of Experi- mental Cancer (director, S. P. Sizenko, Candidate of Medical Sciences), Kiev Scientific Research Roentgeno-Radiological and Oncological Institute; Moscow, Meditoinskaya Radiologiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 72-77 The aim of this research was to study the development of radiation sickness against a background of novocain blockade, paying special atten- tion to the effect of novocain on the central nervous system. A total of 50 experimental rabbits were subjected to gamma and X-ray irradiation. Detailed experimental data and the following English abstract accompany CPYRGHIthe article. "Preliminary intravenous administration of the novocain solution in the dose of 0.08 to 0.1 cc per kilogram of body weight decreases the ef- fect of X-ray and gamma-ray irradiation (LD_50) on the organism of the animal. It is manifested by a less severe course of the radiation sick- ness, an increased number of surviving animals, a prolongation of life, and a less pronounced reduction in weight. "Administration of the novocain solution following the irradiation has no therapeutic effect on the course of radiation sickness and in cer- tain cases even aggravates it. "Leukopenia is less marked in animals with preliminary novocain ad- ministration, as compared to control animals." - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 62. Beneficial Effects of Intravenous and Peroral Administration of Urotropin Solution in Treating Radiation Sickness Discussed "Certain Data on the Use of Urotropin in Treating Radiation Sickness," by M. P. Domshlak and L. B. Koznova; Moscow, Medit- sinskaya Radiologiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58. pp 78-80 The purpose of this research was to use urotropin to eliminate de- composition products from an organism suffering from symptoms of radiation sickness caused by the therapeutic use of gamma and X-rays. Observations were made on 27 patients who were subjected to radiation effects of 150 and 500 r with a total dose of up to 12,000 r. The authors make the following observations: 1. The use of intravenous injections of a 400 solution of urotropin in 5 ml doses and its peroral use in 0.5 g doses three to five times per day has favorable effects on radiation sickness which has been caused by complications resulting from the use of radiation for therapeutic purposes. 2. Urotropin arrests nausea and vomiting in 15-30 minutes following its intravenous injection, and it is effective within 24 hours after its peroral use. This favorable effect lasts for one to 8 days. 3. The favorable effect of urotropin was independent of the time of its use (considered from the moment of onset of pronounced radiation symp- toms). The duration of the improved condition of the patient was inde- pendent of the dose of urotropin used. 1 Urotropin exerted no noticeable favorable effect on the peripheral blood picture. 5. Urotropin may find a place in the complex therapy of radiation sickness. 63. Chronic Effects of Ionizing Radiation From Small Doses of X-Rays on Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood of Dogs Studied "Blood Changes in Chronic Radiation Sickness," (Experimental data), by M. S. Lapteva-Popova; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radio- logiya, Vol 3, No 2, Mar/Apr 58, pp 53-61 The aim of this research was to study the chronic effects of ioniz- ing radiation caused by small doses of X-rays on the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Tests were conducted on 17 dogs that were subjected to X-ray doses of 5 and 10 r over a period of several years. The following English abstract accompanies the article. - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "...These investigations showed that the reaction of the organism is manifested by alternation of the periods of Increased symptoms of chronic radiation sickness with the periods of stabilization of the tempo- rary compensation of the process. "Sequence of development of the above periods, the time of survival of the animals, and other specific features in the development of this disease varied depending on the daily doses of irradiation (5 or 10 r) and individual characteristics of the organism. "The results of the chronic radiation sickness were aplastic or hyperchromic macrocybie anemias and leukoses. "There were no diseases or significant changes in the blood picture in the control group of animals kept in the same conditions as the ex- perimental animals." 61. Nitrogen Metabolism Studied in Acute Radiation Sickness in Dogs "Nitrogen Metabolism in Experimental Acute Radiation Sickness in Dogs," by I. V. Fedorov, Tr. Vses. Konferentsii o Med. Radiol. Eksperim. Med. Radiol. (Works of the All-Union Con- ference on Medical Radiology. Experimental Medical Radiology); Moscow, Medgiz, 1957, pp 108-111 (from Referativn Zhurnal -- Khimi a Biologicheska a Khimi a No 8, 25 Apr 5b, Abstract CPYRGI 10319) "Research was conducted on the intensity of tissue decomposition in radiation sickness by studying certain phases of nitrogen metabolism in injured animals both under normal physiological conditions and under fast- ing conditions. At the beginning and during the latent periods of acute radiation sickness, in severe cases and in cases of medium severity, the intensity of tissue decomposition was not increased. Distinct disturbance of nitrogen and phosphorus balance was evident only in the extremely severe cases and at the agonal stage of the disease and, on the whole, were not connected with the direct effect of penetrating radiation but depended on a number of secondary factors." - 68 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 65. X-Ray Irradiation Decreases Inclusion of P32 in Nucleic Acids of Certain Systems and Organs "Change in Nucleic Acid Metabolism in Radiation Sickness," by Ye. A. Dikovenko, Tr. Vses. Konferentsii o Med. Radiol. Ek- sperim. Med. Radiol. (Works of the All-Union Conference on Medical Radiology. Experimental Medical Radiology); Moscow, Medgiz, 1957, pp 96-99 (from Referativn Zhurnal -- Khimi , a C PYRG HT Biologicheskaya Khimiya, No 3) 10 Feb 5b, Abstract No 3580) "It was noted that rats subjected to general or partial X-ray irradia- tion exhibited a significant decrease in the inclusion of p32 in the nu- cleic acids of the spleen, bone marrow, lymph glands, the thymus, and the mucous membrane of the intestines." 66. Radioactive Phosphorus Used To Diagnose Breast Cancer "The Use of Radioactive Phosphorus in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer," by P. Ye. Dmitriyeva, Institute of Surgery imeni A. V. Vishnevskiy (director, Prof A. A. Vishnevskiy, Active Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR), Academy of Medical Sci- ences USSR; Moscow E ksperimental'naya Khirurgiya, Vol 6, Nov/Dec 57, pp 37-40 The use of radioactive phosphorus (P32) for diagnosis of mammary carcinoma is described. Sixteen patients were studied. Thirteen had cancer and three had benign tumors. Results point to some evidence that the inclusion of phosphorus in malignant tumor tissue depends on the intensity of the processes of re- newal of the nucleic acids in the growing areas of the tumor. - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Surgery 67. We of Amniotic Tissue in Treating Burn Injuries of Eyes Speeds fealirig and Stimulates Regenerative Processes "The Use of Amnion in Eye Burns," by T. G. Uglova, Candidate of Medical Sciences, and R. S. Goleminova, Senior Assistant, Chair of Eye Diseases V. M. I. (Higher Medical Institute) imeni Chervenkov, Sofia (Bulgaria); Odessa, Oftalmologiche- skiy Zhurnal, No 8, 1957, pp 498-501 The authors briefly review the use of biogenic stimulants in tissue therapy. In this article the amnion was used on 20 patients in 23 cases of burns of second and third degree to the eyes. The amniotic tissue had been preserved under refrigeration or by other means which preserve its biogenic properties. In complicated cases, repeated implantations of amniotic tissue were used, and this exerted a favorable effect on the course of the healing process in eye injuries -- both new and long-standing ones. The authors stress the fact that implantations of amniotic tissue under the conjuctiva and also amniotic tissue locally grafted onto necrotic sites in the conjuctiva act not only as a substitute for the defective tissue, but also exert- a favorable effect as a biogenic stimulant. Heal- ing in patients into whose eyes implantations of amnion were made (espe- cially during the first 2 days after burn accidents) was faster than in treatment of eyes by the usual methods. The authors make the following conclusions: 1. Preserved amnion may be used in severe cases of burns of eyes as a substitute tissue for the necrotic conjuctiva. 2. Preserved amnion implanted under the conjuctiva of burned eyes exerts a favorable effect on restoration processes in the conjuctiva and on the regenerative processes of the corneal epithelium. 3. Implantation of preserved amniotic tissue under the conjuctiva in prolonged herpetic keratitis usually produces sloughing and leads to the formation of a softer corneal opacity. i+. These observations are in full agreement with results reported by Academician V. P. Filatov. - 70 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 68. All-Union Conference of Surgeons To Be Held in September at Kazan' "All Union Conference of Surgeons," unsigned article; CPYRGHT Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 42, 27 May 58, p 4 "The All-Union Conference of Surgeons, Traumatologists, and Anes- thesiologists will be held at Kazan' on 25-30 September 1958. "The conference will consider the problems of "Prophylaxis of Traumatism," "Open Bone Fractures," "Problems of Anesthesiology," and "Tumors of the Large Intestines (excluding the rectum)." "People wishing to speak on any of these topics are requested to apply to the president of the organization committee, Prof N. V. Sokolov, at the following address: Kazan', Roshcha Frunze, 5, Hospital Surgical Clinic of Kazan' State Medical Institute." 69. General Conference of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow, Discusses Traumatology "The Problem of Trauma," (from material presented at the 11th session of the General Conference of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR) by A. S. Vol'pe,.Candidate of Medical Sciences, and V. M. Lotman; Frunze, Sovetsko Zdravookhraneniye Kirgizia, No 6, Nov/Dec 57, pp 60-64 11th se,ision of the General Conference of the Academy of Medi- cal Sciences USSR was held at Moscow from the 15th to the 20th of April 1957, to discuss the problem of trauma. The main subdivisions were: Trauma of the Central Nervous System, Burn Trauma, and Radiation Trauma. The following are some of the reports presented. Prof I. V. Davydovskiy, Active Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR,. talked on "Trauma as a Biological Problem." It was men- tioned that radiation trauma presents the greatest danger because it in- juries the tissues not so much anatomically as biologically depriving them of their capacity for regeneration. Prof P. K. Anokhin, Active Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, talked on the topic "On the Characteristics of Pain Reactions in Trauma." He explained the initial and delayed disorganizing effects of trauma of the spinal cord and of the hypothalamus and the harmful shifts that result, the physiological mechanism of pain reaction, and the genesis of shock conditions. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CrA**QP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Prof I. R. Petrov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR, talked on "The Pathogenesis, Experimental Prophylaxis, and Therapy of Various Types of Shock," and pointed out the role of hypothermia in treatment and prophylaxis of the harmful effects of oxygen deficiency. It was mentioned that in experimental research on cats and dogs, the use of artifical hypothermia prevents ill effects due to the cessation of the general circulation for 17 to 110 minutes. Deep artificial hypothermia is ineffective in burn shock. Effective therapy in experimental shock was obtained by the use of dibasol with glucose, the transfusion of blood substitutes, and the use of vitamins. Prof A. A. Vishnevskiy, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, talked on "The Nervous System in thq Pathogenesis and Therapy of Burn Disease" and stressed the importance of the nervous system in the development, of the reactions of an organism to burn trauma. Prof I. N. Priorov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, dwelt on "Burns and Their Therapy." He pointed to the complex pathogenesis of burn disease in its various phases. He stressed general measures to be taken (for example bringing the victim out of shock) and the treatment of the injured focus. Prof N. S. Molchanov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, talked on "Changes in Internal Organs During Burns." Two types of electric burns were observed, i.e., one due to contact of the surface of the skin with electric wires and the second due to short circuiting and its consequence in producing tissue injury. Prof N. A. Fedorov reported on "Immunohemotherapy of Burn Disease." He mentioned that his experimental work indicates the presence of auto- antigens. in the burn victim and that the use of isoimmune serum is very effective therapy. Clinical data from a number of therapeutic institu- tions indicate that immunotherapy is a highly effective method for pre- venting autointoxication in severe burn disease. M. M. Kapichnikov, Candidate of Medical Sciences, and P. M. Chepov, Candidate of Medical Sciences, reported on "Izmniuiobiological Bases of Tissue Incompatibility in Homoplastic Grafts." Prof A. V. Lebedinskiy, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Med- ical Sciences USSR, talked on "Radiation Trauma Due to the Effect of Various Types of Ionizing Radiation." Basic differences in trauma due to radiation were enumerated as disturbances of the immunological reac- tivity of an organism and changes in permeability of vascular walls, as well as inhibited processes of regeneration which prolong the course of radiation trauma. - 72 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Prof P. D. Gorizontov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medi- cal Sciences USSR, reported on "Pathophysiologrical Characteristics of Certain Forms of Experimental Radiation Trauma." Prof N. A. Krayevskiy, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, presented a similar paper, "Data on the Pathological Anatomy of Radiation Trauma." Radiation burns and the type of reaction in response to general irradia- ttion of an organism were discussed. Prof N. A. Kurshal:ov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, reported on The Prophylaxis, Clinical Management, and Therapy of Radiation Sickness in Man." The different phases (stimulation of the nervous system, inhibition, etc.) are outlined. Prof P. S. Kupalov, Active Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, reported on the topic of the "The Influence of Penetrating Radia- tion on the Activity of the Central Nervous System." By experiments using local radium irradiation on the spinal cord, the direct effect of penetrat- ing radiation on the activity of the central nervous system was proven. Prof A. N. Filatov, Corresponclisie Member of the Aeudeiny of Medical Science's USSR, talked on "Hemotherapy in Trauma." His topic was subdi- vided into six parts, i.e., use of blood preparations for hemostasis, transfusion of blood and blood substitutes to prevent shoclt, use of blood preparations containing antibiotics and antiseptics; use of blood and proteins to prevent protein depletion and intoxication, use of blood stimulants to prevent anemia, and use of blood preparations to speed local healing of wounds. Prof A. A. Bagdasarov, Member of the Academy of Medi- cal Sciences USSR, talked on "Alood Substitutes in the Course of Traumatic Shock, Burns, and Radiation Disease." Modern colloidal blood substitutes were described as preparations obtained from human blood, especially proc- essed heterogenic proteins and synthetic preparations. M. D. Kovrigina, the Minister of Health USSR, participated in the discussions and talked on hygiene of industrial and agricultural labor, the significance of radiation trauma, the organization of therapeutic nutrition, etc.. She emphasized the fact that the medical science must be sensitive to the needs of the population it serves. - 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Veterinary Medicine 70. inoculation Tests For Brucellosis in Cattle "Protective Inoculation Experiments With Killed Brucella Abortus Vaccine in Cattle," by A. Geissler, State Testing Institute for Veterinary Medicine; Leipzig, Monatshefte fuer Veterinaermedizin, Vol 13, No 11, 1 Jun 58, pP 331-337 Inoculation experiments with killed Brucella abortus vaccine (chino- sol vaccine) and live Brucella abortus vaccine (Buck-19 vaccine) were carried out on a total of 25 young cows. Of the 13 animals inoculated with the killed vaccine, 7 proved to be protected against a very massive experimental infection. Six animals aborted, had a premature birth, or exhibited a Brucella infection of the uterus, Two of the four animals inoculated with Buck-19 live vaccine were abortive. In both of the young cows, a persistent titer, produced by the inoculation, could be determined even before infection. Of eight control animals, only one remained uninfected. The results show that killed Brucella abortus vaccines can produce a prophylactic effect. For this reason, they should be tested further, and more intensively than heretofore, for applicability in stamping out. Brucellosis. A necessary condition is the, fact that the choice and care of the production strain, the preparation of the vaccine (especially the killing process), and the organization of the inoculation process, includ- ing the required hygienic conditions, be carried out with the same care and uniformity as are now exercised in the case of inoculations with live Buck-19 vaccine. It is wrong to inoculate animals which are already infected, since they longer be protected by an active inoculation. - 71i. - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 71. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Cattle and Hogs "On Methods and Diagnostic Reliability of Agglutination and Complement Fixation In the Cast of Brucellosis in Cattle and Hogs," by S. Hajdu, Zvolen Branch of the State Scientific Veterinary Institute, Bratislava; Leipzig, Archiv fuer Ex eri- mentelle Veterinaermedizin, Vol 11, No 6, Nov Dec 57, pp 976- 993 The deficiencies of the two main methods of serological testing for brucellosis, cgglutination and complement fixation, are discussed. In the case of both reactions, special attention is given to the appearance of a regional phenomenon which can lead to false interpreta- tion of'the results in the case of mass tests. On the basis of experi- mental findings, it is assumed that, in a majority of cases, the regional phenomenon is caused by incompleted antibodies, both in the case of ag- glutination and in complement fixation. The two forms of incomplete antibodies are not identical (not in an immunobiological sense); both are thermostable. Methods of eliminating the regional phenomenon are dis- cussed. Because of the frequent appearance of nonspecific agglutinins in the sera of domestic animals, a circumstance which greatly reduces the reliability of low agglutination titers, complement fixation, especially since it never produces nonspecific results, seems. to be more reliable than the agglutination method. In complement fixation even low titers can be interpreted. Complement fixation is' part!.cularly advantageous when used in herds which have been infected for a rather long time. The introduction of complement fixation in the routine diagnosis of brucellosis in swine is recommended. A necessary condition for obtaining correct results in the case of complement fixation is carrying out the reaction in dilute solutions, just as is done in the case of agglutination tests, a-procedure which, however, for technical reasons, is hard to apply in the case of mass tests. A feasible combination of agglutination, complement fixation, and the Coombs' test for mass serological tests for brucellosis is described. - 75 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 72. Dry Foot-and-Mouth Disease Antigen "Dry Antigens of Foot-and-Mouth Disease for Complement Fixation," by R. Kunter, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Riems; Leipzig, Archiv fuer Experimentelle Veterina'rmedizin, Vol 11, No 6, Nov Dec 57, pp 930-93 A description is Given of the preparation of dry substances from the iphthae sc^'Ls of cattle (tongues) to types 02, A5 and C foot-and- mouth-disease virus, with a phosphate buffer solution and twice distilled water used as extraction solvents. The dry antigen, the weight of which amounts to 1.26-10.6 percent of the initial weight, depending on the method of preparation, has'a 40- to 80-fold complement-fixation-antigen titer in relation to dry antigen. The type-specificity of the dry k;ntigen is not impaired in any way by the drying process. Very slight losses of complement-fixation antigen were observed only in the case of dry antigen which had been rinsed with chloroform and that which had been'.obtained from extracts , oftwice-distilled water. Extracts inactivated by means of heat produced a noninfectious dry antigen which can be stored-at room temperature without difficulty. The stability of dry antigen produced from buffer-solution extracts is retained for at least 6 months under refrigeration and for at least 3 months at room temperature. For the dry antigen obtained from twice- distilled water extracts, the stability-under refrigeration and at room temperature is retained for at least 2 months. it is recommended that the dry.antigen be used in the evaluation of hyperiimnunization of guinea pigs, and for. comparative tests over rather long periods of time. - 76 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 73. Specificity of Organic Changes in Foot-and-Mouth Disease "On the occurrence of Organic Changes in Experimental Foot- and-Mouth Disease in the Guinea Pig,and the Question of Their Specificity," by K. Potel, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Island of Riems; Leipzig, Archie fuer Experimentelle Veteri- naermedizin, Vol 11, No 6,,Nov Dec 19579 rP 879-905 As far as.- the heart; muscle is concerned, the virus exerts a direct effect in the development of the characteristic inflammatory-de generative tissue processes. This is confirmed-by the positive identification of virus, by the absence of bacterial pathogens., and by the frequent sympa- thetic affection:of the myocardia. The situation is quite different the case of other organs. First of all,, it must be. determined that extremely rare tissue changes are to'be encountered in several organs - (spleen, kidneys, brain) and that these changes are,not?produced by the virus itself, but by bacteria. On the other. hand, in control". annals not infected by foot-and-mouth disease, which have been, exposed to.a bacterial infec-';1vn, especially salmoneliosis,,'.exudative-proliferative:and degenerative tissue processes can very often be detected in.the above-mentioned organs, primarily in the brain. On the basis of the author's experiments,. it was decided that there was no justification for,-assigning.aspecificity to the tissue processes of the parenchymatose organs, which are more or less frequently observed, since these processes, although not always so pronounced., can also occur in the case of bacterial diseases.:,, 74. Harmful Effects After Use of; Crystal .Violet Vaccine "Bad Effects of Vaccination After. Use of Crystal Violet Vaccine Against Hog Cholera," bjr. H. Krueger; Leipzig, Monatshefte fuer Veterinaermedizin. Vol 13, No 12, 15 Jun 58j. pp 356-356 With the introduction of the crystal violet vaccine in 1953., epidemic conditions [in East Germany] have improved greatly. Out of 166,018 pigs vaccinated in the Gera district (Bezirk) from 1 January 1953 to 31 August 1957, only 575 (0.34 percent) succumbed) which ',.s proof that, under proper conditions,-the crystal violet vaccine is generally well tolerated. - 77.- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Fuchs (Archie fuer Ex erimentelle Veterinaermedizin, No 9, 1955) 618) reports that he often (in 136.2 percent of the 'cases) observed chronic, catarrhal bronchopneumonia of the superior and median lobes during the dissection of swine for the purpose of obtaining virus. The use of the blood of swine with bronchopneumonia should be considered ac- ceptable for the production of vaccine only when it can be assumed with certainty that the virus of enzootic pneumonia of young pigs is not -- even temporarily -- circulating in the blood and being reduced in infec- tiousness just as much as the virus of hog cholera itself. The test of the safety of the vaccine extends only to the determination of whether or not the virus of hog cholera,. in attenuated but still infectious form, is being inoculated along with the 2rystal violet vaccine. The inflammation of the tissue at the inoculation site is most likely due to the combined effect of glycerin and crystal violet. The dye, a hexamethyl-p-rosaniline hydrochloride, depending on the commer - ci.all,:, used substances for. its preparation, contains various amounts of impurities. Presumably, the toxicity of the commercial dye varies greatly, which means that not all crystal violet has to cause a harmful tissue in- flammation. It would be well to study in detail the problem of the occur- rence of bronchopneumonia after inoculation of crystal violet vaccine in connection with processes which occur, in. the reticulo-endothelial system. It is certain that the dye produces a certain disturbance in the organism which, possibly, is not without effect on the development oi' inflammatory changes in'the lungs. The.use of the' crystal. violet vaccine cannot, at this time, be dis- pensed with in the GDR, even if the suspicion. that it has a harmful effect on the respiratory. organs is. confirmed. It is better to wipe out hog cholera immediately and dispense with protective inoculations, as has been done, as far as we know, in. the USSR. 75. Complement Fixation. in the Case of Rabies, "The Diagnostic Significance of the Complement-Fixation Reaction in the Case of Rabies," by H.'Bindrich and E. Kuwert, Friedrich Loeffler Institute; Riems; Leipzig, Archiv fuer Ex erimentelle.Veterinaermedizin,.Vol 11, No 6,.Nov Dec, 57, pp 1015-1034 The production. of a specific, rabicidal hyperimmunoserum in the dog for the purpose of. the complement-fixation reaction is described. The use of a virus washed with chloroform as an immunizing antigen for the serum donors prevents the nonspecific brain-antigen-antibody reactions described in the literature. ' - 78 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The complement-fixation reaction represents a strictly specific re- action for the diagnosis of rabies. There i,-3 considerable agreement between the results of the virolog- ical and histopathological methods and those of the complement-fixation reaction. In the case of the fixed virus, the titer of the complement-fixing an-cigen is higher than that of the street virus. The uniformity of the antigen structure of various strains of the rabies virus' is confirmed by means of the complement'-fixation reaction. It is recommended that the complement-fixation reaction be intro- duced into the diagnosis of rabies. 76. Prof T. Ye. Boldyrev, boviet L'pidemiologist "Boldyrev, Tikhon Yefimovich," by V. Rozhdestvenskiy; Moscow, Bol'shaya Meditsinskaya Entsiklopediya, Vol 4, 1958, CPYRGpr 44-115 "Tikhon Yefimovich Boldyrev (born in 1900), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, is an outstanding Soviet epidemio- logist., disinfector, and organizer of Soviet public health. "In 1919 Boldyrev was drafted into the Soviet Army where he served until 1953, In 1926 he graduated from the Leningrad Military Academy. He received his Doctor of Medical Sciences degree in 1939 and became chief of the Chair :)f Epidemiology, Kuybyshev Military Medical Academy. He has held the rank of professor since 1940. "From 1942 to 1949 Boldyrev was head of the Chairs of Epidemiology of the Military Faculty, Central Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians and the Third Moscow Medical Institute. With the beginning of World War II, he became head of the Antiepidemiological Administra- tion, Main Administration for Military Sanitation of the Soviet Army, and organized the present system of epidemiological protection of troops, which provided satisfactory sanitary-epidemiological safeguards of the army during the war. 79 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CWYdid For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "From 19)7 to 1954 Boldyrev was Deputy Minister of Health USSR and Chief Stute Sanitary Inspector of the USSR.. During this period the San .i Lary Ir)spectorate, under his leadership, supervised the improvement of sanitn.vr conditions during the reconstruction of cities, industrial enterprises, and major reservoir-.., "Turine 1951E-1956, Boldyrev was a senior adviser for the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. In addition to performing organizational work, he produced three monographs on problems of public health which were published. in Chinese in Peiping. For his productive work in China he was awarded the Sino-Soviet Friendship Medal and a Certificate of the Government of the People's Republic of China. "In 1956 Boldyrev was head of the Chair of Epidemiology, Central Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians and the Divisipn of Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni N. F. Gama.leya, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR. "Boldyrev's sphere of interest is varied. He has published over 100 works on epidemiolog~, epidemiological protection of troops, disin- fectants, and the organization of public health. His works also encom- pass military epidemiology under conditions of contemporary warfare, the means of establishing important prophylactic and antiepidemiological measures, and methods of d.sinfecting troops. "From 1945 to 1953 Boldyrev was editor of the periodical G+.giyena i Sani.tarriyyaa,, editor of the section on 'Military Epidemiology'- in Erts ~klopedicheslc.;i Slovar' Vo .nnoy Meditsin and Entsiklopedicheskiy Slovar -Spravo^.hn;ik dlya Voyennykh Fel'dsherov, and headed the editorial bureau of the sections on 'Ep'idemiologiya i Gigiyena' in the text, Opyt Sovetskoy Meditsin v Velikoy Oteehestvennoy Voyne 1941-45. "Boldyrev Is currently the editor of the section, 'Epidemiologiya 1. Infektsionnye Bolezn,i' in. the Bol'shaya Medi.tsinskaa Entsikloped a. Since 1956 he has been Chairman of of the Organizational Committee, All- Union Society of Epidemiologists, Microb:iologirsts, and Infectionists." Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 77. Conference on Medical Training in the USSR "All-Union Conference on Higher Medical Training," by I. B. Kardash' Minsk, Zdravoolthraneniye Belorussia, No 4, Apr 58, pp 76-77 The All -Union Conference on Higher Medical Training was held at the conference hr'1.1 of the Ministry of Health USSR from 30 January to 1 Feb- ruary 1958. The conference was attended by directors of all medical in- stitutes of the. USSR, their deputies, deans, of all medical faculties of universities, and ministers of health of the USSR and union republics. The principal address was given by M. D. Kov-rigina, Minister of Health USSR. Kovrigina pointed out that at present, within the system of Soviet public health, there are 79 medical vuzri, (higher educational institutions) and five medical faculties in universities. Over 153,000 students study in these institutions. During the past few years eight new medical institutes were organized and two medical faculties"opened. Ko'v+igina disc:. i that the goal of Soviet public health is to have one physician for eve_y 400 persons in the USSR. During 195'( 346,000 physicians, excluding dentists practiced; this gives a ratio of one physi- cian for less than 600 persons. In the Belorussian SSR, however, the ratio was one physician for 980 persons during 1957. The speaker also indicated the necessity of establishing a stomatology faculty in the Belo- russian SSR. Kovrigina also recommended that training b.. available for advanced specialization in principal medical institutes. Greater interest in in- ducing students to participate in advanced training was also discussed. Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Atomic and. Molecular Physics 78. Density Distribution in Proton Source Studied "Radial Distribution of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Ion Source," by M. D. Gabovich and Yu. B. Yermolovich, Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Ukr. fiz. zh., 1957, 2, No 2 165-174 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal, Fizika, No 4, Apr 58, Abstract No 8751) A study of the distribution of charged particles in a magnetic pro- ton source is described. Ions are produced in the source through the ionization of gas by fast primary electrons. A magnetic field is applied along the direction of electron motion. It is assumed that the secondary electrons move in a radial direction and the secondary ions, in the direc- tion of the magnetic field. It is also assumed that concepts of forced diffusion are applicable to the secondary electrons and ions. The expres- sion obtained for the concentration of charged particles in a radial direction is checked experimentally. Nuclear Physics 79. X-ray Quanta Emitted by a Nucleus "Polarization and Angular Distribution of X-Ray Quanta Emitted After Electron Capture by a Nucleus or After a Conver- sion Transition?,) by A. Z. Do.':..ginov, Leningrad Physicote chnical Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperi- mentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki Vol 34, No ,+, Apr 58, pp 31- CPYRGHT 9 "The resul'.., obtained previously by the author (Nucl. Phys., 2, 723, 1956/57) are extended to the case of K- or I,-capture of any degree of forbidden transition with account of nonconservation of perity. It is shown that observation of the correlation between the polarizations of x-ray quanta emitted by the atom after K- or I-capture and the direction of nuclear spins or the polarization of the subsequent nuclear radiation may yield important data on beta-interaction. The angular distribution of the x-ray quanta is anisotropic if the capture occurs from the L III shell. Some formulas are :presented which permit determining spins and parities of niinlear levels by observing the polarization of x-ray quanta after conversion transitions." - 82 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CO. Scattering of Particles "Scattering of Particles With Arbitrary Spins", by L. D. Puzikov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Eks eri- mentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 34, No 4. Apr 56, pp 977-952 CPYRGHT "Geometrical consequences of scattering following from the fact that nuclear particles possess spins are analyzed. A scattering matrix for a particle with an arbitrary spin is constructed. Quantities which can be experimentally measured such as cross section, polarization, correlation of polarizations etc. are expressed in terms of this matrix. It is ex- amined to what extent the polarization experiment is sufficient and it is shown that to recontruct the scattering matrix it is necessary to measure the scattering cross section of a polarized beam on a polarized target or the polarization correlation after scattering. Finally the change in polarization of the incident particles occurring during scattering are sufficient if the spin of the beam is smaller than that of the target." 81. Time Reversal in Gamma Reactions "Time Reversal and Polarization Phenomena in Reactions .. Involving Gamma-Quanta," by L. 1. Lapidus, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoy i Teoretiche- skoy Fiziki, Vol 34, No 4,'Apr 58, pp 922-930 Consequences of the invariance of gamma-reactions under time reversal are analyzed. Examples are given by discussing the Compton effect, photon production, and radiative capture of pions. The obtained results are also interesting from an experimental viewpoint in that the study of nucleon polarization in photon fission of a deuteron gives the same in- formation as the radiative capture of a polarized nucleon; and the study of polarization of a gamma-quantun% in the radiative capture of a neutron by a proton is equivalent to the study of a cross section for the photo- fission of a deuteron by polarized gamma-quanta. - 83 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 82. Particle Distribution in Showers "On the Spatial Distribution of Particles in Extensive Atmospheric Showers", by G. B. Khristiansen, Moscow State Uni- versity; Moscow, Zhurnal Eks erimentalno i Teoretichesko Fiziki, Vol 34, No E, Apr 5d., pp 956-961 The spatial distribution of densities of electron beams, p-mesons and other charged particles in atmospheric showers of cosmic rays in the lower atmospheric layers was recently extensively studied in USSR (Yu. N. Vavilov, S. N. Nikolskiy, Ye. I Tukish, DAN SSSR,93,233 (1953); A. T. Abrosimov, A. A. Bednyakov, V. I. Zatsepin et al. ZhETF 29, 693 (1955); Yu. A. Antonov, Yu. N. Vavilov, G. T. Zatsepin et al. ZhETF, 32, 227, (1957); L. Kh. Eydus, M. I. Adamovich, I. A. Ivanovskaya et al, ZhETF, 22,440, (1952); A. T. Abrosimov, N. N. Goryunov, V. A. Dmitriev et al, ZhETF, (1958) in printing. An analysis is attempted to find the relative role of various factors affecting the spatial divergence of charged particles in extensive air showers. It is shown that the spatial dis- tribution of electrons is completely determined by Coulomb scattering. The spatial distribution of p-mesons is to a large degree determined by Coulomb scattering.znd by the deflection in the magnetic field of the Earth. The transverse momentum transferred to ' and K-masons in a elementary nuclear cascade is respectively 1.5.10 ev/c and 5.10 ev/c. 83. New Betatron Design Suggested "Relativistic Problem of Electron Motion in an Axially Symmetrical Magnetic Field. Moving along the Axis of Symme?, try," by N. V. Konyukov and Ya. P. Terletskiy, Moscow State University, Tula Pedagogical Institute, Moscow, Zhurnal Eksseri_ mental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 34, No , Apr 58, pp 1003-1005 After the publication of the known betatron design by R. Wideroe (Arch. Elektrotechn., 21x387, 1928) only two versions of relativistic problems of electron motion in an alternating axially symmetrical magnetic field were analyzed: motion in a parallel uniform magnetic field in the direction of the axis of symmetry (Ya. P. Terletskiy, ZhETF 11, 96, 1941) and motion in a barrel shaped magnc-i;ic field (D. W. Kerst and R. Serber, Phys . Rev . 60, 53, 191ii., Ya . P. Terletskiy, !I. of Thys . USSR, 9; 159, 1945). A new approach to the problem 1s presunted by assuming the magnetic field decreasing in the direction of the axis of symmetry (bottle-shaped field) and moving along this axis with a variable or uniform Velocity. This Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 design may be used for a new type of accelerators-the linear induction accelerator, cr linear betatron. The here derived formulas for the linear betatron with a uniformly moving magnetic field are analoguous to those of the conventional betatron E/Eo.v- H/2Ho. However, as distinguished from the betatron, a strong field H may concentrate in a small region, due to the relation Hr2 = constant. 84. New Betatron Design Suggested "A Betatron With Sharply Focusing Sections" by G. I. Dimov and A. F. Bondarev, Tomsk Polytechnical Institute imeni Kirov; Tomsk, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Fizika, No 2, 1958, pp 7B-84 Improvement in focusing with a consequently higher efficiency of the accelerator is attempted in a new betatron design. The magnetic fields for bending and for focusing are separated. The focusing field consists of short lenses located in the straight sections of the betatron. (G. I. Dimov, A Betatron With Straight Sections, Izv.vuzov. Fizika, Vol 1, 62, 1957). The described betatron has four straight sections and four bending sections with eight sharply focusing sections. The attained sharp focusing of electrons increases the amount of accelerated electrons during one cycle of the betatron. 85. Injection Into a Betatron "Accou-,, of Collective Interaction of Electrons in Cyclic Accelerators by L. M. Kovizhnykh and A. N. Lebedev, Physics Institute im Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal EksperimentalInoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 34, No 4, Apr 5 pp 934-992 The collective electron interaction in the computation of current at the instant of injection into a betatron is discussed., Mich research in the USSR was devoted to the problem of betatron capture (V. N, Logunov, Ye. P. ^hinnikov and V. D. Rusanov, LhTF, 27, 1135, 1957; Yu. S. Koro-. bochkc, !aLF 27, 71+5, 1603, 1957). The occurrence of capture in a con- stant field was experimentally confirmed, although it dia not substantially alter the qualitative picture of capture as presented by Korobozhko. It was concluded that the mechanism is of collective nature with a predominantly Coulomb interaction. The mathematical analysis of injection of nonrela- . tivistic electrons into the betatron is approached statistically by usirg a kinetic equation with introduction of a self-o.onsistent interaction. -65- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 36. Neutron Amount From U235 Fission Measured "Determination of the Mean Number of Neutrons Emitted in U235 Fission by 14.8 May Neutrons," A. N. Protopopov and M. V. Blinov, Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 4, No 4, Apr 58, pp 374-376 The detector used for carrying out these measurements was an ioniza- tion chamber with a U235 layer on the high voltage electrode (D. J. Hughes and J. A. Harvey, Neutron Cross Sections, N. Y. 1955; G. A. Dor- ofeyev, Yu. P. Dobrynin, Atomnaya EnergiyA II, 10 (1957)). Because of the low efficiency of this detector it was set closely to a chamber recording the fission fragments. Pragtically the two chambers formed one double chamber with two similar U235 layers on the high voltage electrode. Each chamber was a detector of primary fission and a detector of neutrons from fissions occurring in the other chamber. The ratio of the mean number of neutrons emitted in asingle act of fission by 14.8 Mev neutrons to the mean number emitted in thermal neutron fission was determined as V /yi _ 1.90 + 0.17. Using a valueYT= 2.47 + 0.03, the value for y is given as 4.7 + 0.5. 87. Theoretical Investigations of Proton Structure "On the Question of the Structure of the Proton," by B. B. Dotsenko, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademti Nauk SSSR, Vol 119; No 3, 21 Mar 58, pp 466-467- A theoretical investigation of proton structure is given. Because of the difficulties in approaching the problem strictly on the basis of field theory, certain phenomenological assumptions are made. The model taken is that of a kernel surrounded by a meson shell where this shell consists of a single mason. An expression for the interaction potential is obtained using Tamm's hypothesis of the dissociation of a meson in the field of the kernel into a nucleon-antinucleon pair. The steady-state solution for the kernel-meson system is obtained, following Tamm's hypoth- esis that the steady-state is disturbed through the annihilation of the central kernel upon the appearance of the antinucleon in pair formation. These expressions are used to obtain the wave functions of a meson forming the cloud around the kernel. By putting 2j = l in the wave function a meson distribution is obtained which agrees with the experimental results of Chambers and Hofstadter (Ph s Rev 103, No 5, X454, 1950")- 86 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 88. Further Measurement of Assymetry Coefficient in ?+ - btesori Decay "Angular Correlai,ion in '1( *---P ?+~ e4' Decay, Observed in Nuclear Emulsions," by Ic1. P. Babayan, N. A. Marutyan, K. A. Matevosyan, and N. M. G. Sarinyan, Physics Institute, Acaden{r of Sciences Armenian SSR; Yerevan, Do~kla_dy Akademii TTauk Arn~ran- skoy SSR, Vol 26, No 3, 1958, pp 145-1~+8 The angular assymetry of positrons in -ff --~ - e* decay was studied to increase the statistic on the assymetry coefficient in the formula for the angular distribution of electrons from the beta decay of polarized moons. Six hundred events were analyzed. A value o4. equals -(0-300 = 0.095) was obtained, taking the depolarization effect into snnrnnnt. An average of this value with the dl's from fbur other'cosndc ray studies was computed as O\ = -(0.311 + 0.095). The authors note that certain chemical properties of the emulsion evidently cause additional depolarization effect. 89. Deuteron Scattering on Nuclei "Double Elastic Deuteron Scattering on Nuclei," by 0. D. Cheyshvili, Tbilissi University, Soobshch, AN GruzSSR, 1957, 19, No 1, 23-28 (from Referativnj y Zhurnal, Fizika, No 6, Jun 58, Abstract No 12729 Computation of polarization is carried out by taking the nucleon- nucleus interaction; averaged over the deuteron wave function. A potential of interaction of a neutron and proton with the nucleus is chosen as well as the potential of Coulomb interaction of the proton with the nucleus. The computation is carried out in the Born approximation. For the compu- tation of poLaft2atibn'and of the differential cross section the spin matrix of density is used. The final expression for the differential cross section of a double deuteron scattering on nuclei contains values characterizing the interaction of nucleons with the nucleus. - 87 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 90. Inelastic Proton Scattering "Angular Distribution of Protons from (n, d) Inelastic Scattering" by I. Sh. Vashakidze, Tbilissi Un4versity, Soob- shch. AN GruzSSR, 1957, 18, No 6, pp 663-670 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal, Fizika_, No 6, Jun 58, Abstract No 12703) Two final states from the above reaction are distinguished.: (1) the proton produced is fast,, and (2) the proton produced is slow. It was found that the angular distribution of fast protons exhibits two maxima: at angles W- 00 and 900. The first maximum is affected by cen- tral force interaction, the second one by spin-orbit interaction. The angular distribution of slow neutrons also has two branches, an isotropic and an anisotropic. The first is due to central forces, the second to spin-orbitals. Experiments at a 14 M~-v energy seem to agree with these results. 91. Equilibrium Spectrum of Photons Computed "Equilibrium Spectrum Chara:t."sizing Particles at Energy Close to the Initial," by V. I. tendyel and V. A. Shkoda- Ulyanov, Nauchn, zap. Uzhgorodsk. un-t, 1957, 18, 121-125 (from Referativnyy Zpurnal, Tizika, No 4, Apr 58, Abstract No 7734) The equilibrium spectrum of photons is computed by using a method devisee. by S. Z. Belen'kiy and by applying a more exact expression for the probabilty of pair production. Numerical' computations show that in the region of E.z E0 the supplementary term which appears in the expression describing the equilibrium spectrum acquires considerable importance. - 88 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 92. Cross Sections for Protons and Pions in Gra White Measured "Nuclear Interactions of ir -mesons and Protons In Graphite," N. M. Kocharyan, G. S. Saakyan,M. T. Aleksanyan, Kh. D. Pach- adzhyan, Institute of Physics, AcadenJ of Sciences Arnenian SSR; Izv AN ArndSR. ser. fiz.-matem. n. 1957, 10, No 3, 81-88 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal, Fizika No 4, Apr 58, Abstract No 71751) A magnetic mass spectrometer for cosmic rays was used to find, the, inelastic interaction cross section of^~-m??sons and protons in graphite. In an interval of total energies of 0.36-66 Bev, the cross section was determined as 210 mb for pions; and for protons in an interval pulses of 2-16 Bev/sec, 202 mb. 93. Bubble Chambers of Construction "Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chamber" by V. Z. Kolganov, A. V. Lebedev, S. Ya. Nikitin and V. T. Smolyankin Moscow, Pribory i Tekhiv.ka Eksperimenta No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 31-34 A bubble chamber with capacity for one liter of liquid hydrogen and 10 cm in diameter was constructed at the Moscow Cryogenic Laboratory. The same design will be applied to the construction of a larger chamber. A special method of reliable sealing of the glass windows to the chamber at low temperatures was devised. Pictures of tracks of particles obtained by introducing neutron beam from the synchrocyclotron of the Joint In- stitute for Nuclear Research are presented. They are used. for investiga- ting the generation of pions in n?-p collisions. The accomplishment of the const?,metion met with many difficulties, successfully overcome by the constructors, A. N. Yershov and N. A. Zubkov, under the guidance of V. A. Beketov. "The Large Freon Bubble Chamber" by G. A. Blinov, M. F. Lomanov, A. G. Meshkovskiy Ya. Ya. Shalamov and V. A. Shebanov; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperiinenta, No 1, Jan/Feb*58, pp 35-38 The efficiency of a chamber for observation of high energy particles increases with the size of the chamber. But the construction and opera- tion of large chambers net with so many difficulties that no chambers larger. than 5 liter capacity were built. -89- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The chamber described here has a capacity of 17 liters, and operates at room temperature under 38 atm pressure. It is filled with a mixture of freon-12 and freon 13 of 1.2 density. The chamber was intended for operation with high energy accelerators and it was successfully tested by injecting a 680-Mev neutron or proton beam from the synchrocyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The large volume X the chamber and the relatively long response period made this instrument us- able for cosmic ray research. "A System of Photography for Large Hydrogen Bubble Chambers," by A.V. Belonogov, A. G. Zeldovich, V. Z. Kolganov, L. G. Lands- berg A. V. Lebedev, S. Ya. Nikitin, V. T. Smolyankin and. A. P. Sokolov, Moscow, Pribory i'Tekhnika Fksperimenta, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 38-41 A method of illuminating and photographing tracks in bubble chambers from one side was devised and tested on the above described liquid hydro- gen chamber. A gas bubble in liquid hydrogen has a sharp directional diagram of scattered light and makes photography at 900 to the incident light impossible. To overcome this difficulty the scattering diagram of light of a hydrogen bubble was computed. The back wall of the chamber is a spherical mirror with a light source in its optical center. The re- flected light gathers again in the center without reaching the camera. Only the light which, after reflection, is scattered by the bubbles enters the camera and gives a picture of the tracks. Crystallography 94. Neutron Diffraction of Single Crystals "Study of Single Crystal Defective Structure With the Aid of the Neutron Diffraction Meathod," by B. G. Lyashchenko, D. F. Litvin, I. M. Puzey, Yu. G. Abov and V. S. Golovkin, Moscow, Kristallografiya, Vol 3, No 2, 58,pp 148-15)- An intense source of neutrons generated by a nuclear reactor can be utilized to study the defects (,f single crystals of various substances. The defects of single crystals' of nickel anu iron alloys were studied by irradiating such crystals with a beam of neutrons generated from an ex- perimental heavy-water reactor. A single-crystal neutron spectrometer, designed by the Acadexmj of Sciences USSR, was used in this experiment. -9o- Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 The cross-section of the neutron beam irradiating the sample was greater than the surface of the sample, so that the diffraction pattern was reproduced by the whole volume of the sample and revealed the over- all structure of the crystal. All of the single crystals studied with the neutron diffraction method revealed some structural defects, even with the most carefully prepared samples. Solid State Physics 95 - Work Function at 110-Surface of Tungsten Measured "Positive Surface Ionization of Sodium and Potassium and Work Function of Electrons at Face (110) of Tungsten Single Crystal," by G. N. Shuppe, Ye. P. Sytaya and R. M. Kady rov, ,Tr. Sredneaz. un-ta, 1957, No 91, 5-15 (from Referati ? _ Zhurnal, Fizika, No 4, Apr 58, Abstract No 8653) Contradictory published data concerning the work function of face (110) of tungsten is ascribed to interference by other faces with lower work function. The authors consider that correct results may be obtained only by simultaneous use of two methods: the method of thermoelectron emission, by which sections with a minimum of work function maybe investi- gated and the method of surface ionization which yields the value for max. The average work function of the face (110) was determined on the basis of electron current as 4.8 ev; and on the basis of ionic current, as 5.14 ev. The latter value represents the lower limit for T (110)- Impurities of other faces in the direction (110) constituted 50% or more, thus explaining the low value of ~p obtained by the electron-current method. / - 91 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Electricity 96. Investigation of Dark Current "Problems of Temperature Dependence of Dark Currents Ob- served in Preilluminated Dielectric Single Crystals," by G. V. Aslanidi and R. V. Tsitayshvili, Georgian Polytechnical Insti- tute, Tbilissi, Tr. Gruz. politekhn in-ta. 195T, No 4 (52) pp 199-206 (from Referati Zhurnal. Fizika, No 6, June 58, Abstract No 13!425 The energy diagram of a dielectric crystal is analyzed, taking into account that to the centers releasing electrons of the dark current and due to preillumination of the crystal, these correspond to energy levels located in the forbidden zone near the lower boundary of the conductivity zone. Kinetic equations are derived for the variation of the number of electrons n per unit of time in the conducting zone and at the levels corresponding to the centers responsible for the existence of the dark current. It is shown that the dependence of n on temperature for small values of the time, after darkening of the crystal begins is determined by the product of two functions, one of which is an increasing and the other a decreasing function of temperature. Ultrasonics 97. Photodiffusion &thgd for Visualization of Ultrasonic Fields Dis- "Study of Photodiffusion Method of Ultrasonic Field Visual.- ization," by M. Ye. Arkhangelskiy and V. Ya Afanasyev, Ac_,u.stics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR; Moscow, Akustiche- skiy Zhurnal, Vol 3. No 3j Jul-Sep 57, pp 214-219 =....a,_~.__ The accelerating action of ultrasound on process of developing of an illuminated photolayer of ordinary photographic paper at a normal incidence of the ultrasonic wave is investigated. The dependence of relative blackening on the time of ultrasonic exposure and the intensity of the ultrasound is determined. The optimal conditions for vis?a.aiization of the cross section of the ultrasonic beam and. the sensitivity of the method at a frequency of 2 Mc are giv,, n. The convenient construction of the radiometer used. for intensity measuring is described. - 92 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 98. Method of Converting Ultrasonic Patterns Into Visible Patterns Given "On the Conversion of Ultrasonic Patterns Into a Visible Picture", V. G. Prokhorov, Mos cow, Akustiche skiy Zhurnal, Vol 3, No 3, Jul-Sep 58, pp 251,.-261 The conversion mechanism of an ultrasonic pattern into visible range by means of an electron acoustic tube is described. The operation of a piezoquartz plate in the operatir,,.' reception range of the pattern is studied and the threshold of the tube's response is determined. Some practical applications in the frequency range of 4 to 10 Mc are presented. 99. Catenoidal Ultrasonic Concentrator Found to Give Best Amplification "Calculation of Ultrasonic Congentritors", L. G. Phrkulov, Leningrad Electromechanical Institute imeni Ulyanov, Moscow, Akvsticheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 3, No 3, Jtzl-Sep 57: pp 230-238 Ultrasonic concentrators, i.e., velocity transformers, in the shape of conic, exponential and catenoidal horns are investigated. Equations for computing the resonance dimensions of concentrators and the amplifica- tion factors of the oscillating velocity are derived. The catenoidal ocneentratccL-was.foiarl. tcbet'banest'advantageous for obtaining high amplifica- tion.. Computation for correcting e,r:rors of lateral deformations is carried out. Experimental results are given. 103. Development and Application of Lya:punov ;ibthods Described Matody A. M. Lya unova i i ikh Promeneniya (methods of A. 11. Iyapunov and Their Application), by V. I. Zubov, Leningrad State University; Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo Uni- vero seta, 1957, 242 pp The following is the introduction by Academician V. I. Smirnov to the monograph on Lyapunov [Liap;unoff] methods for solving problems in nonlinener mechanics, "particularly for solving probien;s concerning automati,: Control." Considerable attention has been devoted in recent Soviet literature of the problem of finding the "Iyapunov function" for various types of differential equations. - 93 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 ApproJed Foy Release 199~~-~ ~`~1 F'~OIL1 ~ iY~U'1'-9 Rt1: :Q 4c ~~` iw.O11b~1 ` ! +~ ~ * V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I l fl ?' CPXi Jed, For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00130001-9 "V. I. 'ubov'c monograph is a direct extension of A. M. Iyapunov's famous work "General Problem of the Stability of .Motion." We shall re- call briefly she basic results of this wort:.. A. M. tfnpuriov reduces the problem of stability to an investigation of the null solution X l= x2 = ... xn- 0 of a system of ordinary diffcrenbi.-A. equations c1x a fs (xl)...,xn,t), (s = 1, ...,n) (J.) c where the right side is a power series in x1,...,xn without a free term. The series converge in the neighborhood x, = x2 = ... xn= 0. "If the right sides,i.e., if the coefficients of these series do not contain t, A. M. Lyapunov speaks of steady state motion (an autonomous system). In investigating the stability of the null solution of (1) he developed and applied two methods; expansion of the solutions of system (1) into a series of a special type and the use of functions V (x1,..., xn, t), which together with their derivatives with respect to t,as com- puted from (1) n W(x1,..., xn)t) =dV-~V+_- z fs c:5 xs s=1 exhibit certain properties as functions of (x1,...) xn, t). If these functions are constructed they yield sufficiency conditions for stability or instability. In constructing functions of this type A. M. Lyapunov used a theorem which he had proved earlier concerning the solution of systems of partial differential equ.atz cos which do not satisfy the con- ditions of the well-known theorem of. S. V. Kovalevskaya. We shall call the functions V mentioned above 'Iyapunov functions' and we shall refer to the theorem mentioned as the 'auxiliary theorem. "In his work, A. M. Iyapunov established conditions under which in- dividual linear terms of equation (1) resolve the problem of stability, and he considered a number of important particular cases where this prob- lem can be resolved only by considering terms of higher order, the so- called "doubtful cases." A procedure for constructing periodic solutions is given In one of the doubtful cases of an autonomous system (l). In further investigations he departed from the systems of differential equations and he considered the points P of an n-dimensional space which move according to fixed laws upon a change in t. These are so-called dynamical systems. Such systems are considered further, not in an n-. dimensional Euclidean space (7:1,..., xn), but in a certain metric space .-9,., Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 gc.d For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "Dynamical systems in a metric space are considered. in the first chapter of this monograph and the question of stability (in various senses) of invariant sets, 'i.e., sets consisting of trajectories. The functions V are replaced by functionals in the application of the second Iyapunov method. The behavior of a trajectory in the neighborhood of invariant sets is investigated under the condition of stability and in certain cases, the entire region of asymptotic stability is characterized by means of a proper function. This chapter is of a purely theoretical character and does not cover the construction of these functions. "In the second chapter, the results of the first chapter are applied to systems of differential equations of the form (1). Particular attention is given to the case when the right sides are homogeneous functions of (xl,..., xn). Necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability are given in this case. "If the right sides of the equations (i) are analytic and the systems are autonomous, that doubtful case is considered when the character.:tstic equation of the first approximation has k null and k pairs of unique, purely imaginary roots, with simple elementary divisors wherein the remaining roots have a negative real part. The condition for the exist- ence of k holomorphic solutions is given which leads to a sufficiency condition for the stability of the null solution. A sufficiency condi- tion for asymptotic stability is also given. In the absence of null roots a family of boundary solutions is given which is analogous to the family of periodic solutions of A. M. Iyapunov, as mentioned above. The author also considers the case when the right sides of equation (1) con- tain t. "The third chapter deals mainly with the generalization of. A. M. Iyapunov's auxiliary theorem concerning systems of partial differential equations and the application of his first method. The result leads naturally to a generalization of the results of Briot and Bouquet (Ecole Polytech, Vol 21, 1856), and of Poincare (Ecole Pol tech, Vol 45, 1777- concerning the construction of solutions of differential equations in the neighborhood of particular points. Autonomous systems (1) are con-. sidered whose 'right sides are holomorphic and do not contain linear terms. Integral curves are constructed on the basis of certain additional, as- sumptions and these approach the origin of the coordinate system as t approaches plus infinity. If this origin gives the point of asymptotic stability all the integral curves may be obtained in this manner. In certain cases necessary and sufficient conditions are given for asymptotic stability. - 95 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 C~Y11d For Release 1999/09/23 - CIA-RDP82-00141R000100130001-9 "In the fourth chapter the notion of a dynamic system in metric space is generalized to obtain a procedure which would be applicable in investigations of stability in one sense or another for problems involv- ing partial differential equations. As in the first chapter an analogue is constructed for the second Lyapunov method. In addition, estimates of the distance of the moving point from the invariant set are given. This yields new results when applied to systems of ordinary equations. "The results of the previous chapter are applied in the fifth chapter to partial differential equations. "In the foreword to his paper, 'General Problem of the Stability of Motion,' A. M. Lyapunov wrote, 'In this essay I had only the intention of describing what I had already done towards solving the problem as pre- sented to me and hope that it might, perhaps, serve as a point of departure for further research of the same type:' "This hope has been amply fulfilled: hundreds of papers have appeared in print which are directly related to the research of A. M. Iyapunov. The present monograph of B. I. Zubov has considerably expanded and gen- eralized this work." The following summary of the contents of the monograph is given by the author, V. I. Zubov. "The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with new results in the theory of the stability of motion and also to sum up the investiga- tions of the author in this area of mathematics. It is well known that the problems of stability reduce not only to a study of systems of dif- ferential equations but also of partial differential equations. In the present work therefore this is taken into account. "The following is a brief summary of the contents of the present monograph. "In sections one to five of Chapter 1, basic information concerning the notion of a metric space is given and the terms used in the work are defined. Sections'six and seven contain examples of dynamical systems in various spaces. Section eight contains a definition of a notion of a dynamical system in a metric space and the basic theorems of the book of Nenytskiy and Stepanov, (Kachestvennaya Teoriya Different sial'nykh Uravneniy (Qualitative Theory of Differerxtiaquations 2edition, GITTL, Moscow-Leningrad, 1949) are given. Sections nine and ten give the basic definitions concerning the notion of Lyapunov stability of invariant sets of a dynamical system and the properties of certain stable invariant sets are investigated. In Section 11, a method for the quanti- t-tive construction of the neighborhood of a stable (asymptotically stable) invariant set is given. In particular, it is established that - 96 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 (mfl For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 for the Iyapunov stability of an invariant set M of a dynamical system f (p, t) it is necessary, (and, in the case of a sufficiently small compact neighborhood of the set M, sufficient) ) that there be no motion of f (p, t)., p a member of MJ having limit .points in M. The results obtained here are new even for the theory of ordinary differential equations. Sections 12 and 13 give criteria for the stability and instability of Invariant sets with the aid of certain functipnals. These functionals are analogous to Iyapunov functions, so the method developed here may therefore be considered a development of the second I{yapunov method. All results of these sections have a local character. We shall give one of these as an example. So that an invariant set M be uniformly asymptot- ically stable, it is necessary and sufficient that a functional Vj pos- sessing the following properties exist in a certain neighborhood S(M,r) of the set: the number cl7 0 may be indicated by c2 .0 such that V(P) c2 for S (p,M) 'l cl; V(p) 0 for (p,M) ?-> 0; the function ((f (p,t) ) is non-increasing for f (p)t) E' S (M, r) and V (f (p, t)) > 0 for t uniformly relative to p E S (M, where S, is some number such that 0 ~4,_' r. "In section 14 one of the central theorems of a nonlocal character is developed. It is shown that for an invariant open set A containing a sufficient neighborhood of the set M to be a region of asymptotic stability of a uniformly asymptotically stable and uniformly attracting set M, it is necessary and sufficient that there exist two functions V(p) andC. (p) such that: 1. V(p) be assigned and continuous in A, and I (p) be assigned and continuous in R,~ (p) = 0, p f M. whereupon -1G V(p) L. 0 for p L- A; (p) 7 0 for (p,M) # 0. 2. Yl ar1dr(1 may be indicated by U 2'> 0, such that V(p) < (p) for ? C' (p,M) >' 2. . V and 0 fob Q (p, M) - 0. 4. dV/dt = (1+ V) . 5. V(p) -> -1 for (p, q) - 0, p f A, q E AAA, and - q ~ M - 97 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 APFpY 1dTor Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "Here, as above, p and q are elements of the space R and 4 (p,M) is the metric distance of the point p to the set M. Section 15 gives a method for determining the distance from the motion to the invariant set sought. Sections 1-15 make up the contents of the first chapter, which consists of an investigation of invariant sets cf dynamical systems. "in Cha-.'ter 2, the ideas and methods of Chapter 1 are applied to the theory of ordinary differential equations. In Section one, the theorem of Section 14 of the previous chapter is developed for stationary systems of differential equations. It is shown that the Iyapunov function V may be chosen such that it is differentiable to the same order as the right sides of the system. In this chapter, a representation of this function is given using line integrals and the problem of the analytic structure of the right sides of the system is solved, where the region of asymptotic stability has been previously assigned. In Section 2, the case when the right sides are holomorphic is considered. In this case, the function 11., the existence of which was established in Section 1 of this chapter, is represented in the form of a-converging series. The function may be obtained over the whole region of asymptotic stability by the analytic continuation of these series. The method used to construct such series may be used to obtain the approximate solution of certain nonlocal prob- lems and to construct boundary solutions in the form of series which con- verge either for t > 0 or for t ( (- oo , .. ) . These series are obtained from the fact that any boundary solution may be described by functions which are analytic with respect to t in any belt or semi-belt containing the real semi-axis. In Section three, a theory of equations with homo- geneous right sides is developed. It is shown that in order for the null solution to be asymptotically stablc~, it is necessary and sufficient that there exist two homogeneous functions, a positive-.definite function W of order m and a negative-definite function V of order (m4 l - }t) such that dV/dt = W, where u is the index of homogeneity of the right sides of the system. If the right sides of the system are differentiable, these func- tions satisfy a system of partial differential equations whose solution may be found in closed form. This fact makes it possible to give a nec- essary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability in the case when the right sides are forms of degree gi. In Sections four and five, a number of doubtful cases are considered, the case of k null roots and 2k purely imaginary roots. Several results are obtained concerning stability and the existence of integrals of th- system and the family of boundary solutions. In Section six, the theory developed in Chapter 1 is applied to the theory of nonstationary systems of equations. Theorems which follow from the results of Section 14 are formulated and a method for investigating periodic solutions is proposed. - 98 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 CPYRGHT "In Section one of ,Chapter 3, the problem is solved of representing the solutions of partial differential equations analytically, in the case when the conditions of Kovalevskiy?s theorem are not fulfilled. Th. theorems obtained in this section are applied in the following section to systems of ordinary differential equations. This is an extension of the investigation of Briot and Bouquets H. Poincare, Picard, Horn, and others, and makes it possible in Section 3 to develop a method for con- structing the series describing the family of 0-curve's whose right sides do not contain terms which are linear with respect to the functions sought. This method of constructing such series affords another approach to solving the problem. of stability in the case of the systems considered in sections three to five of Chapter 2. The method also makes it possible to formulate theorems resting on she properties of the solutions of cer- tain systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. The third chapter thus represents an attempt to solve the problem of stability with the aid of the first Iyapunov method. "In Chapter 4, metric spaces and families of transformations in them are again considered. The notion of a general system in metric space is introduced in Section one. A general system is a two-parameter family of operators from R to R. - These operators have properties similar to those which occur in solutions of the Cauchy problem and the problem for partial differential equations. The notion of the stability of in- variant sets of general systems is developed. In Section two, the second Iyapunov method is extended to the solution of problems concerning the stability of invariant sets of general systems. Necessity and sufficiency theorems are obtained. Basically, these theorems amount to a method for investigating two-parameter families of operators with the aid of one- parameter families of fu.nctionals. A general method is proposed for determining the distance from the motion to the invariant set. Section three gives'several applications of the theory to the Cauchy problem for the solution of ordinary differential equations,. The results thus obtained do' not occur in any published literature. "The fifth chapter contains several applications of the theory to the problem of the stability of the null solution of systems of partial differential equations in the case of the Cauchy problem or the mixed problem. General theorems are developed in Section 1. These embody a method for solving the problem of stability and have an oriented character. Concrete systems of partial differential equations are given in Sections two and three, and criteria for asymptotic stability are found. In Sec- tion three, the stability of the solution of the Cauchy problem for linear systems of equations is investigated with the aid of a one-parameter family of quadratic functionals assigned in W2 ( ). The stability cri- teria are obtained according to the norm W2 (Nj. Several examples are given of the investigation of stability in the case of a mixed problem." - 99 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 "On the Formation of Noise in an Airduct With Pocketf , " A. G. Minin and Ye. Ya. Yudin, Central Aerohydrodynamic Insti- tute imeni N. Ye. 72hukovskiy, Moscow, Akusticheskiy Zhuraal, Vol 3, No 3, Jul-Sep 57, pp 291..292 Experimental research of sound forming in a duct with pockets in the wall was carried out to verify the sonic power of turbulent noise. The equipment was described by the author in ZhTF 14, 9, 561, (1944). The mean vel.Zity of the flow was 10-35 m/sec. It was experimentally eatablished that in presence of pockets the noise of the flow is propor- tional to the eighth power of the flow velocity. It is concluded that the law c.f the eighth power holds not only in the case of a free flow in an unbounded space, but also in a certain range of velocities in channel flow, provided the liquid surface of separation is sufficiently sharp. - 100 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9 VIII. MLSCE LLANEOUS 102. Soviet Technicians Visit Czechoslovakia "Soviet Technicians in Prague," (unsigned article), Prague, Obrana Lidu, 30 May 5t'3, p 1 On 29 May, a six-member delegation of Soviet technicians arrived in Prague. The group was led by Pavel Ivanovich Korobov, first deputy chairman, State Scientific-Technical Committee of the Council of Minis- ters USSR. The Soviet guests came to Czechoslovakia to attend the 13th session of the commission for scientific and technical cooperation be- tween Czechoslovakia and the USSR. 103.. Birthday of Czechoslovak Academician "Local and Foreign News," (unsigned article), Prague, Obrana Lidu, 28 Jun 58, p 2 On 29 June 1958, Eduard Cech, mathematician and academician, will be 65 years old. Ce6h is a professor of mathematics at Charles Univer- sity (Karlovy universita) in Prague and has twice been awarded a state prize. 104. Russian Scientist in Czechoslovakia "Local and Foreign News," (unsigned article), Prague, Obrana Lidu, 15 Apr 58, p 2 On ]A April 1958, V. N. Stoletov, Deputy Minister of Higher Educa- tion of the USSR, and Academician N. A. Maysuryan, head of the Department of Plant Protection, Moscow Agricultural Academy imeni K. A. Timiryazev, arrived in Prague. They will take part in the discussions on:"Michurin's Aerobiology," which will take place 15-17 April under the sponsorship of the Czechoslovak Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Ceskoslovenska akadende zemedelskych ved). - 101 - Approved For Release 1999/09/23 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100130001-9