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_ (I[Irr.. v '}'i 'j'{{'' ? 0 Approved' For Release 1 9 UP$2 QO R QD00 001-9 9 JAhIIJARY 195 , ~: ~.~ :1 Approv d For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 9 January 1959 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT Or COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. I i~Oft/~ ( t r Issued Semi-monthly. Price: Per year $28.00; Single issue $2.73.x" Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted, from recently received publications of the USSR, Eastern' Europe, and China.' The information selected is intended to indicate curtest scientific developments and activities in the USSR,,in the Sim. Soviet Orbit countries, and in Yugoslavia, end,is- disseminated as an aid to the United States Government research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents Page I. Behavioral Science 1 II. Chemistry 4 III. Electronics 24 IV. Engineering 34 V. Mathematics 38 VI. Medicine 44 VII. Metallurgy 60 VIII., Physics 61 IX. Miscellaneous 77 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 1. Goals of Soviet Education Realigned "The Principal Aim of School Is Preparation for Life and for Useful Labor" (unsigned editorial); Moscow, Sovetskaya Peda- gogika, No 6, Jun 58, pp 3-11 Salient points derived from this editorial in the organ of the Acad- emy of Pedagogical Sciences RSFSR are presented below. The editorial states that a plan for reorganization of the system of primary and secondary education is being formulated in the USSR. This reorganization is expected to lead the way for a transition to a new sys- tem of education in the USSR which aims to teach children greater respect for physical labor and to prepare them for productive work in industrial and agricultural establishments and on construction projects. "Since the Communist Party gained control of the government, the Soviet Union's preoccupation with mass education has been exceeded only by its drive for industrial expansion. The country has made tremendous strides in the education of scientists and technicians, but has made little progress in spreading political literacy among the Soviet people." The Soviet leaders claim that education has been and should remain CPYRGHT the natural outgrowth of free association of children and teachers, with each other, and with everything surrounding them. a general a o CPYRGHT Soviet education always was and still is e development o a new man: a healthy, strong, active, independently thinking man who would con- tribute all his knowledge, energy, talents, and abilities toward the building of Communism and toward progress, peace, and friendship among nations. Technology is to be used to create a Communist state; the function of educational system in the Soviet Union is to ensure per- petuation of the Communist state." The present system of education in the secondary schools is to a CPYRGHT degree, creating definite differences between physical labor and men- tal work. This is irreconcilable with the Communist philosophy, be- cause as the country moves closer to Communism such differences become obliterated primarily as physical work becomes enriched with intellec- tual content. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 The basic features of the present system of education were formed more than 20 years ago. The resolutions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the country played the decisive role in its for- m;.-lation and subsequent development. Socialist construction was in full swing at that time and survival itself' made it imperative that schools in the Soviet Union prepare people for technical schools and universi- ties. The Soviet Union needed people with a good foundation in basic sciences: physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, history, etc. The Soviet school has done well in that respect. However, geared mainly for training its graduates for college en- trance, the Soviet schools of primary and secondary education shoved poly- technical education and preparation for productive work in various in- dustries into the background. All. this led to one-sidedness in educa- tion and gave rise to a .situation. where the school became detached from life. This select had already beer., felt on the eve of the war and became particularly manifest during the postwar period when a large num- ber of graduates became members of the labor force. Education has had to adjust itself to meet new responsibilities presented by increasing mechanization of industry and agriculture. At the 13th Congress of the All-Union Lenin Young Communist League CPYRGHT Vu M N. S. F(hrushchev stated that e 10-year sc oo must oiler well-rounded education. The 10--year J~chool must prepare youth in basic sciences who are able and willing to Lively participate in building Communism and who will net be satisfi to remain on the sidelines as In its message to the 13th Congress of the VLKSM, the Central Com- PYRG HT mittee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union said: e ovie ttninn places high value on the achievements o Soviet you The Cen- tral Committee expressed c cnfirJ.enee that in the future Soviet youth will remain faithful to the spirit of Communism. The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in criticizing the Academy of Pedagogical sciences for its intolerable slow- ness in reorganizing education in primary and secondary schools, proposed Soviet Union also expressed the opinion that ttitude toward work.' The 20th. Congress of the as follows: 'Polytechnical education is to be eve ope , s u en s m usT ecome acqua~ to wi the most important branches of modern industrial stablishment ?+- be indoctrinated with the Communist Communist Party of the CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 spectators and well-wishers of Commun m." Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 -3.- and secondary education will also help to improve the existing system of higher education, bringing it closer to life and linking it with in- dustry in a more realistic mariner." Until lately the domin=ant theory of education in Soviet educational circles was that the secondary school, by offering general education and instruction in many technical and applied sciences, cannot arm the stu- dents with knowledge and skill in a definite specialty and still remain school. of general education. Proponen-cs of that view claimed that schools of general education, education devoted to instruction in many technical or applied sciences, and professional schools of technology and applied sciences are all different. They forget that all schools in the Soviet Union are elements of a single system for training the coming generation for life and for participation in Communist construction. "Progress is impossible without improvement in the organization and administration of industry and agriculture, without improvement in train ing of qualified cadres, without further progress in methods of teaching and indoctrination of the coming generation for the changing conditions of life." CPYRGHT In presenting his plan for successful fulfillment of the Communist construction program for the next 15 years to the anniversary session of the Supreme Soviet USSR, held on 6 November 1957 N. S. Khrushchev stressed e nee or continued effort toward the solution of complex scientific and technical problems connected with the revolutionary changes in the following fields!' electric power transmission, automation in in- dustry, utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, more rapid development of the chemical industry, and advancement in the science and Production of computing machines." CPYRGHT "Marxism-Leninism teaches that socialism is not stagnant and that socialism is not something that is final: Socialism must gradually be- come transformed into Communism. This transformation is expected to be the result of the conscientious effort of the entire Soviet population who, under the guidance of the Communist Party, will promote economic growth of the country and thereby help in the improvement of their own material well-being, which in turn will produce individuals more pro- foundly indoctrinated in Communism." The leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union maintain, therefore, that transition from a socialist principle from each ac- principle (from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs) presupposes not only a gigantic growth in socialist production based on high technological knowledge, but also a colossal spiritual growth of the Soviet people,, a rise in their cultural level, their Com- munist consciousness, and their attitude toward physical labor." Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Propellants 2. High-Temperature Conversion of Hydrocarbon Gases by Reacting Them With Oxygen 'High-Temperature Conversion of Hydrocarbon Gases," by Ya. S. Kazarnovskiy and N. V. Karkhov; Moscow, Byulleten' Tekhniko- Ekonomicheskoy Informatsii, No 8, Aug 58, pp 12-1 Natural gas, petroleum well gas, coke gas, and other hydrocarbon gases are the most readily available and cheapest raw material for the production of technological gas to be used in the synthesis of ammonia, al.oWls, and motor fuel. One of the newest methods for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons is high-temperature noncatalytic oxidation with oxygen. The reaction involved is expressed by the equation: C H4 -- 0.502 = CO -- 2 H2 -f- 8.5 Kcal. The noncatalytic oxidation of natural gas, petroleum gas, the meth- ane fraction, and coke gas was investigated at the State Institute of the Nitrogen Industry (GIAP) and at experimental installations of the Dnepro- dzerzhinsk Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant (DATZ) in 1951-1957. Thermodynamic analysis shows that, when the process is conducted ad- iabatically at a -temperature of 1,400-1,430? and a pressure of 30-35 at- mospheres, there is quantitative oxidation of methane and of other hydro- carbons so that substantially only carbon monoxide and hydrogen are formed and no free carbon appears in the reaction products. Detailed investiga- tion of the process at pressures from 0 to 35 atmospheres gauge has shown that, independently of the pressure within the system and the nature of the gaseous hydrocarbon converted, a practically quantitative noncatalytic oxidation of the gas is achieved at a temperature of about 1,450?. The ratio of oxygen to methane in the initial mixture is actually somewhat higher than that corresponding to the stoichiometric coefficient of 0.5 which follows from the equation given above. The final reaction mixture contains a small quantity of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and meth- ane (0-33-0-5% of methane). The high reaction temperature (1,450?) results - 4 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 in a very high velocity of the reaction: the diffusion stage of the proc- ess, consequently, determines the rate of the conversion. Under the cir- cumstances, preliminary mixing of the initial products is of importance. The investigations that have been conducted demonstrate that the fol- lowing can be achieved by the high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons: The process can be carried out under a pressure of 30-35 atmospheres, co that a considerable amount of electric power is saved which would other- wise be necessary for compressin; the gas in the following stages of the syrnthesis, which is usually conducted at a higher pressure. There is no necessity to purify the hydrocarbon gas from organic sulfur compounds, be- cause all organic sulfur is converted into hydrogen sulfide. The high pressure used and the high velocity of the conversion make it possible to conduct the process in equipment of small size. A simplified flow sheet of the conversion of 35 atmospheres gauge as applied to natural gas is shown (cf figure on p 13 [of source]). The natural gas is heated to 500-6000 in a preheater under a pressure of 35-40 atmospheres gauge. The oxygen, after leaving the compressor or evaporator for liquid oxygen, is heated to approximately 3500 in another preheater. The oxygen also has a pressure of 35-40 atmospheres gauge. The natural gas and the oxygen enter into the reactor through the mixing device of the burner. The reactor is a cylindrical vessel lined with a special refractory material. The formation of some carbon black may occur during the reaction. On leaving the reactor, the converted gas is cooled to 400? by means of injected condensate and then washed with hot water in a tower to remove the carbon black. During the process of washing, the gas becomes saturated with water vapor. The ratio of water vapor to the gas slightly exceeds 1/1. This quantity of water is entirely adequate for the subsequent conversion of carbon monoxide. When the conversion of methane is conducted under a pressure up to 35 atmospheres gauge and at the temperatures of preheating of natural gas and oxygen indicated above, the ratio of oxygen to methane in the initial mixture comprises 0.64-0.65. When a good preliminary mixing of the gas with oxygen has tak n place, the heat potential in the reaction zone amounts to 107---106 kilocalories/ m3 . hr, which makes it possible to construct highly productive reactors of small dimensions. Thus, at an ammonia plait with an output of 300 tons of ammonia per day the volume of the reaction zone will not exceed one cubic meter. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Conducting the conversion of methane and the conversion of carbon monoxide at a pressure of 35 atmospheres gauge and subsequent purifica- tion of the as from carbon dioxide at the same pressure make it possible to reduce the power needed for compressing the synthesis gas by 50-60%. By converting methane and carbon monoxide under pressure,, a more ef- ficient utilization of the reaction heat is achieved, because a large frac- tion of the heat of condensation of the water vapor is utilized. Ili gh -temperature noncatalytic conversion of hydrocarbon gases under atmospheric pressure is being carried out on an industrial scale at the Rustavsk Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant. Coke gas is used as a raw material there. The process conducted under a pressure of 35 atmospheres gauge has been brought up to the pilot-plant stage and is being introduced into in- dustrial application for the conversion of natural gas and of the by- product gases of crude petroleum production. 3. New Equation Describing the Kinetics of the Decomposition of Explo- sives "Formal Kinetic Laws of the Thermal Decomposition of Explosives in the Liquid Phase," by F. I. Dubovitskiy,, G. B. Manelis, and. A. G. Merzhanov; Moscow,, Doklady Akademii Nault SSSR, Vol 121,, No 4, Aug 58,, pp 668-670 The classical equation of autocatalysis does not accurately describe the thermal decomposition of explosives in the liquid phase except in the special case of autocatalysis by gaseous products in a closed system. By taking into account changes of volume during the process of decomposi- tion,, a formal equation has been derived which corresponds much more closely to experimental data. A. J. B. Robertson's experimental results on the decomposition of ethylenediamine nitrate (cf. Journal of the Amer- ican Chemical Society, Vol 67, 1948, p 221) were used to check this equa?-? Lion. Robertson's data in regard to the dependence of the specific veloc-? ity of the reaction on the degree of decomposition were found to corres- pond to points on a curve plotted on the basis of the equation. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Chemistry and Technology of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials The Relation of Characteristics of Metallic Uranium to the Behavior of This Metal Under Irradiation "The Relation of the Structure and Properties of Uranium to Its Behavior Under Irradiation," by A. S. Zaymovskiy, G. Ye. Sergeyev, V. V. Titova, B. M. Levitskiy, and Yu. N. So- kurskiy; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4,, Oct 58, pp 412-420 Data are given on changes in the dimensions and shape of uranium smaples as a result of irradiation. It is shown that by controlling the composition of the uranium and the conditions of its treatment (specif- ically, the degree of deformation in the alpha region and the conditions of heat-treatment), the magnitude of the radiation distortion of the sur- face and the value of G3 (the coefficient of radiation growth) may be changed within wide limits as a result of changes in the grain dimen- sions and'urdentation. The dependence of changes in the grain size of hardened uranium as well as of the hardness, tensile strength, and yield strength of this me- tal on the contents of iron, silicon, and aluminum in it has been inves- tigated. It was found that the rate of cooling and the content of the impurities mentioned exert an effect on the position of the critical point of the beta aJ.pha transformation in hardening. For instance,, at a rate of cooling amounting to 4000 C per second and a content of 0.05 percent of silicon by weight,, this critical point is lowered to 5305 C. Experimental data ipdicate that there is acceleration of creep under irradiation (nv = 6 X 1012 neutrons/^m2. seconds) by a factor of 50-100 (in other words, by 1.5-2 orders) for both pi?eferentially oriented and randomly oriented uranium. The rate of creep of randomly oriented uran- ium depends on the rate of burn-out. Data are reported that were obtained. in an investsgation :fix: which the mechanical iroperties of uranium produced by extension without re-, moving the metal from the reactor were studied. It was found that even after a short period of exposure to the action of a neutron field (up to one hour) the relative elongation is reduced to a certain extent and the tensile strength of the uranium increased. .- 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 5 The Use of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys as Material for I1.iel Elements "Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys in the Construction of Reactors," by V. V. Kalashnikov, V. V. Titova, G. Ya. Sergeyev, and A. G. Samoylov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 421-431 The principal properties of uranium-molybdenum alloys and work on the use of uranium-molybdenum alloys as material for fuel elements of nuclear reactors are reviewed on the basis of non-USSR and USSR pub- lications. A bibliography consisting of 4 USSR references and 14 non- USSR references is appended to the article. The following conclusions are made. (1) alloying of uranium with molybdenum makes it possible to obtain alloys which have better mechani- cal characteristics and superior resistance to corrosion at elevated tem- peratures as well as a high dimensional stability under conditions involy- .~ng irradiation and cyclic temperature changes; (2) uranium-molybdenum alloys are suitable from the technological standpoint for the production of fuel elements; (3) although the use of uranium-molybdenum alloys in reactors operating on thermal neutrons necessitates a greater enrichment of the fuel because of the relatively high cross section of neutron cap- ture by molybdenum., the high dimensional stability under irradiation and the good corrosion resistance of uranium-molybdenum alloys in water at high temperatures and pressures may in a number of cases be decisive fac- tors in the selection of uranium-molybdenum alloys as material for fuel elements of nuclear reactors; and (4) one may assume that it is presuma- bly of advantage to use uranium-molybdenum alloys as material for fuel elements of fast-neutron. reactors. 6. Procedures for the Colcrimetric Determination of Uranium and Thorium With Potassium Iodate "Calorimetric Determination of Thorium and Uranium by Means of Potassium Iodate,," I , Ye. S. Przheval'skiy (deceased), A. P. Golovina, and Ye. R. Nikolayeva, Chair of Analytical Chemistry Moscow State University; Moscow., Vestnik Moskovskogo Universi- teta; Seriya Matematiki. Nekb.aniJr.i, Astronimii, Piziki, Khimii, Vol 30, No 1, Sep 5 pp 171-175 The iodate method is applied rather extensively for the determina- tion of tetravalent elements. Yu. A. Chernikhov and T. A. Uspenskaya have developed procedures for the determination of thorium, zirconium, Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 and tetravalent cerium by gravimetric and. volumetric methods. The high sensitivity of the Jodate method makes it suitable for microdetermina- tions. Colorimetric procedures developed by the authors of this arti- cle in 1950?-1953 can be applied for the determination of quantities as low as 0.04 milligram in the case of thorium and 0.1 milligram in the case of uranium. These limits are set by the minimum concentrations at which the metals in question can. still be precipitated with potassium iodate. The iodate method should not be applied for determining tetravalent uranium in the filtrate after separation of thorium from it by the same method, because the separation of the two elements in this manner would be too cumbersome. To determine thorium and tetravalent uranium colorimetrically, these metals are precipitated in the form of their iodates, which are then dis- solved and reduced by potassium iodide to free iodine. The iodine that has formed as a result of the redaction is extracted with chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. The colored solutions of iodine are subjected to colori.metric examination. Procedures for the colorimetric determination of thorium and tetra- valent uranium by means of potassium iodate are proposed; these procedures are described in detail... On the basis of the data obtained in work on the colorimetric deter- mination of thorium with potassilam iodate, one may assume that the for- mula of the thorium salt which is formed corresponds to that of a normal iodate. 7. I. V. Tananayev?s Work on the I.norania and Analytical Chemistry of Rare Elements and Actinides "Election of Academicians and Corresponding Members of the Acad- emy of Sciences USSR" (unsigned. article); Moscow, Izvestiya Akad- emii Nauk SSSR, Otd.eleniye I{l~i_micheskilrh Nauls; No Sep 50 1 PP 1135-115 ~ I. V. Tananayev is one of the most important scientists active in the field of inorganic and analytical chemistry. He had done fundamental re- search on the chemistry of fiourine and the application of physicochemical .. 9 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 analycis in the analytical chemistry of rare elements. Together with his collaborators, Tananayev carried out investigations on the chemistry ,)f more than 20 elements, Including lithium, rubidium, cesium, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, thorium, germanium, selenium, tellurium, and uranium. Particu- lar attention was paid by Tananayev to the investigation of the composi- tion, properties, and reactivity of flourides, oxalates, ferrocyanides, and hydroxides. The results obtained in the work in question made it pos- sible to citablish a number of relationships and to make valuable pro- posals concerning methods applied in the industry of rare metals and ac- tinides. For instance, Tananayev and his collaborators proposed tech- nological flow sheets for the extraction of rubidium and cesium from raw materials consisting of salts ( the ferrocyanide method) and for the production of beryllium, art nide,s, and. other metals (using fiouride meth- ods). At present Tananayev is engaged in work pertaining to the chemistry of solutions of inorganic compcounds. Simultaneous application. in this re- search of different physi coc:hemicel methods would enable more complete characterization from the standpoint of composition and stability of the state in which dissolved substances are present in solutions. The excep- ticnal stability of incompletely substituted ions that contain fluorine, which has been discovered by Tananayev and which determines the character- istics of processes of solution and precipitation of, is widely used in analytical chemistry and in connection with the application of a number of industrial procedures. Tananayev together with his collaborators proposed new analytical methods for the determination of a great number of elements and of impurities contained in pure materials that are of great importance in present-day techr..ol.ogy. He published more than 170 scien-, tific articles. Tananayev's achievements in scientific work were recog- nized on two occasions by the award of Stalin PrIzes. At a general meeting of the Academy of Sciences USSR held on 20 June 1958, T. V. Tananayev was elected Academician in the Department of Chem- ical Sciences within the special:i.zed branch of incrganic chemistry. 8. Work b V. M. Wovenko on Radicchemi.stry and the Extraction and Part- fication of Nuclear Fuels "Election of Academicians and C? rrespond;ng Members of the Acad- emy of Sciences USSR" (unsigned article); Moscow, :EzvestiyaAlr _ emii Nalak SSSR. Otdelenive l4him3..heskIkh ' Naua)1' No 9, Sep 58, Pp 1135-1.154 V. M. Vdovenko is a prominent rad..c.chemist. He has published more than 90 scientific works, principally In the fields of radtoche.mi.stry and inorganic chemistry. His first investigations dealt with the behavior of Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 :, LandpoJ,nt r ,f the theory of ion exchange, vdevcnkc lairest.l.t;af',ed the effeet of ion absorption by solid electrolytes on the cl.err.roencmr.,,~z.l. prr.?pertie', of the latter. At the same time he completed a uiunr,er cal,' i.nvestt,:,jra-tLons in the fi.eld of' hydrochem.isL-ry and subsequently (lid work ,an the rrlr ;rI?l 'i - az a:i radiur> on Toe principal. N : l'1.:. .i.nve ~,t i,gat.iora by Vdoventc:o were carried out after World War. ,t,I. Trae;;e l.rrrest3,gat.i.c.ns are of great Importance for the national economy of the USSR. A--4 head of a large group of scientific work- ers , he expanded. L,venkc, c:,ne of the greatest a t..horitles in the field of sol- vent extract i on c..hemi stry. At a general. meeting of the. Academy of Sciences JSSR held on 20 June 195h:, the election ,:,t IT. M. Vd:eve:,.lc:c~ as Corresponding Member of the Acad.- emy of Sc:.ience , USSR (.n. the special.a..zed branch of radiochemistry) by the Department. (Jr C::t).erti,c:J. Sciences was confirmed. 9. The Wc,::!s: :a ;r._ ' Szii.tsyn.n the Fields of Inorgam:i,c chemistry the and th C?n m~rx: aad I'ecJb-n(lc ;y r, l' lyre and Rad.. c_acti,v'e Elements - ~- - "E.Lec??r..i.or; Of A!::ad.-Ai].Zl k,a s -' nd Co.rre spc-, Members of the Acari- em,y et Sci.en.:es rSSSR" t unsigned article).; Mr,scow, I:z,vesti.ya Al &_ em~,i Na,rih SSSF, Otdeleniye I himieheskik:h Na kt .; rro 9, Sep5 V. I. Spit?3yn :i,. a prom .ner.~t invest.?gatc,r in the fields of inorganic chemist-,-y and th.c -:hrxm?st.r. y and te;.bncdc,rry of rare and radioactive elements . His early wor :?. wras ren the chemistry of mc.l,ybdenum and t*r:rngsten and was con- cerned 'wi.tb invetit.tgat .r..ns of the. composition of i,scpc7..ytungstates and of Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 reactions of their reduction as well as the preparation of chemically pure ammonium molybdate and other compoundds;. The rei-:lults of this work were uti- lized as early as the 1920s in connection with the organization of the pro- duction of tungsten and molybdenum in the USSR. ?dark done by him in 1928-1934 on the 'mechanisms of the reactions of chlorin& ion of oxides of bery- llium, aluminum, niobium, tantalum, and other elements played an important role in connection with the organization of the production of metallic beryllium and other metals. Spitsyn investigated problems pertaini.n.g to the volatility and thermal stability of different inorganic substances including chlorides, sulfates, and other compounds. With the application of present-day physicochemical methods, specifically methods of isotope exchange, he and his collaborators investigated in detail the struct,.ire, properties, and conditions of forma- tion of the most important complex compounds of molybdenum and tungsten. As a result of this research; using the concept of the hydrogen bond, he proposed in 1957 a new theoretical treatment of the structures of aqua- polycompounds and heteropolycompouands, i.e., substances. which comprise an important class of inorganic complex comp,,!1an.,ds . For a number of years Spitsyn and members of his group have conducted extensive investigation on the chemistry of uranium. He investigated the uranates of different elements, their composition and properties, the con- ditions of their formation, their crystal structure, and their thermal stability. The research in g2:zestlon gave information on the theroetical aspects of a number of production processes. In recent years., research on different radi.cactive isotopes and meth- ods for their separation and concentration was conducted under the direc- tion of Spitsyn. Spitsyn has also carried out a number of investigations on the isotope exchange of hydrogen and oxygen in different oxygen com- pounds . The work in question was conducted with the use of deuterium and oxygen-18. In 1955: Spitsyn and his ccd.lahcaators Dubllshed a manual en- titled Metody Rabot s Prime:n?en,iye~n RaciIca t. vnykh Indikatorov ([ethods of Work With the Application c' Racb.oaetive Tracers). On 20 June 1958 at a general, meeting of the Academy of Sciences USSR, V. I. Spitsyn was elected Acad.ean! clan in the specialized branch of inor- ganic chemistry at the Department of Chemical Sciences. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 10. Adsorption of Radioactive Strontium on Montmorillonite "A Study of the Adsorption of Radioactive Strontium on Mont- morillonite and of Its Fixation by Calcination," by V. I. Spitsyn and V. V. Gromov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 446-452 Montmorillonite clays are the best natural adsorbents for radioactive isotopes of strontium and other splinter elements. The conditions under which Sr 89 and Sr90 are adsorbed by montmoril- lonite have been investigated in detail. It was established that differ- ent cations can be arranged in the following order as far as their capacity to lower the adsorption of radioactive strontium is concerned. 3$ 3+ 2+ 2+ 244 + 4 + + Al Fe BP, si Ca Mg H NH K Na It was found that the adsorption of radioactive strontium by montmoril- lonite is of the ion-exchange type and is subject to the mass law. The 2 2- 2- presence in the solution of CO. , S0. , and 2 04 anions, with which strontium forms diff culty soluble salts,, does not alter the mechanism of adsorption. However, the.presenceof these ions lowers the quantity of aids pxbed .radioactive'strontiiun, apparently by reason of the formation of radioactive colloids. The process of fixation of radioactive strontium on montmorillonite clays bX calcination was investigated. Calcination at a temperature about 850-900 and an increase of the time of calcination above 1-2 hours have no effect on the degree of fixation of radioactive strontium. After treat- ment of this type, the amount of activity removed by washing with river water or sea water comprises approximately 2%. It is assumed that before the changes in the crystalline lattice at T = 8000 C fixation is caused by the formation of difficulty soluble chem- ical compounds of strontium with the adsorbent. Above 8000 C the course of the process is determined by changes in the crystalline lattice and gradual vitrification of the mineral. - 13- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 11. Work on High-Molecular Compounds at Moscow State University "At the Chair of High-Molecular Compounds.," by G. Goldenberg and G. Skvortsova; Moscow, Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta; Seri, a Matematiki., Mekhanik Ast;ronomii, Fi.zilki, Khimii Vol 30, No 1, Sep, PP 237-239 The work done at the Chair of High-Molecular Compounds, Chemical Fac- ulty of Moscow State University., is of particular importance in connection with the current emphasis on an expansion of the production of polymers. The Chair of Bi,gh-Molecular Compounds is the newest in the faculty, it, was organized 2 years ago. This chair is headed by Academician V. A. Kar- gin. New methods for the synthesis of polymers are being developed at the chair and the results cobtained transferred to institutes engaged in work of this type. `^ wo principal lines of research pursued in work done at the Chair of Eigh-Molecular Compounds are (.i) synthesis of new polymers and investi- gation of their properties and (2) investigation. of the structure of polymers. The first line of.research comprises the synthesis and investigation of polymers with a.n isotactic structure as well as work on block and graft po.lyiaers. Catalytic methods by means of which one can accomplish stereo- specific polymerization have been discovered quite recentl~. With the use of these methods, it became possible to synthesize polymers which ex- hibit an. isotactic structure and crystallize readily. Academician V. A. Kargin, V. A. Kabanov9 junior scientific associate; and I. Yu. Marchenko., candidate for a diploma, have developed a catalytic method for the stereospecific synthesis of polystyrene. It was found that crystalline polystyrene has a higher heat resistance, but lower mechani- cal strength than ordinary polystyrene. To improve the strength of isot- actic crystalline polystyrene, this polymer must be oriented. Experiments which have been conducted established that the orientation must be carried out at as low a temperature as possible. However, this temperature must be above the vitrification point. After orientation, the film is heated in the oriented state. Frcf P. V. Kozlov; 'V. A.. Kabanov, junior scientific associate., and A. A. Frolcva, candidate for a diploma, investigated the deformation of crystalline polyethylene ter phthalate films . It, was found that, after a film of this type has been stretched, destruction of crystals takes place and that this destru.,:tion is follgwed by recrystallization. When the crystalline film was heated and then stretched at some temperature above the vitrification point, recrystallizat;ion with the formation of Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 spheroli1es took place and the film became opaque, The result obtained demonstrated that, in order to obtain crystals which are rigidly oriented with respect to the field of mechanical forc:e9 one must stretch the amor- phous film at a low temperature and then heat it above the temperature of vitrification? By this method, films with advantageous mechanical characteristics are produced which are devoid of spherolites. Work is being done at the chair on the mechanism of the formation of polymers with a regular structure. Methods for obtaining new catalysts which will make it possible to synthesize such polymers are being developed. A major part of the work done at the chair is concerned with the investigation of .the properties of block and graft polymers and comparision of these properties with those of the individual polymer components. The purpose of this research is to establish in what manner the properties of the components are transferred to copolymers prepared by different methods and how the length of chains affects'the properties of copolymers: Investigation of the mechanical characteristics of copolymers and'-of' t.hei..r, properties in solution is of great interest. Different methods are used. for, the preparation of copolymers. The meehanochemical method; applied for the synthesis of block copolymers involves subjecting the polymer to mechanical destruction in the absence of oxygen. As a re- sult of the' action of the mechanical force. which is applied, the macro- molecules are torn and mac..roradicals are formed from.them0 When radicals of different species combine, block copolymers are formed. Another method for the synthesis of block copolymers involves mechani- cal destruction of polymers swollen in vinyl monomers. The macroradicals that are formed initiate polymerization of the monomers with the result that graft and block c:opolymers are formed. This method is convenient for industrial applications, but, requires careful fractionation. The synthesis of copolymers can also be accomplished by applying purely chemical method.s? Active groups (peroxide or hydroperoxide groups) are formed that are bound to the polymers by strong covalent bonds. These groups are capable of initiating polymerization of monomers with the re- sult that copolymers are formed. N. A. Plate, junior scientific associate,, and I. I. K:ono.reva, candid- ate for a diploma,, synthesized a graft copolymer by ozonizing an. aqueous suspension of starch and polymerizing styrene on the starch activated in this manner. The graft copolymer which was obtained in this manner proved to be good emulsifying agent. It forms emulsions stable toward both water and oil. At, temperatures higher than 800, the pol.ym3r, softens, not-with- standing a, content of starch in it ~an~.ounting to 60%; it undergoes deforma- tion of a highly elastic type and does not flow at temperatures lower Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 than that of chemical decomposition be(?,ause of the effect exerted by the rigid starch molecules. Investigation of the properties of this copolymer c~)nfi.rrned that the characteristics of graft polymers are as a rule addi- tive and represent a sum of the properties of the components from which they are formed. A block copolymer of epoxy resin with nitrile rubber, which was pre- pared by A. Dobrynina, was found to exhibit an elasticity typical for, rubber. At the same time it was harder and had a higher mechanical strength than rubber. This c:opc.lymer exhibited a high stability to oil and a high degree of adhesion. This investigation also proved that the principal characteristics of block and graft polymers are derived additively from the properties of the components.. By virtue of this rule., unlimited possibilities are open to the polymer industry as far as development of products with pre- determrined properties is concerned. At present work is being conducted on the use of new monomers for the production of graft polymers. Further- more., attempts are being made to graft organic polymers onto inorganic residues such as salts and carbon black. N. A. Plate and L. Dudnik synthesized a new polymer, namely, poly- bicycloheptadi.ene., which exhibits a high thermal stability.- it does not yet melt at temperatures higher -than 3500. The monomer Kok the synthesis of polybicycl.oheptadiene was obtained from petroleum at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR. X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy, and electrochemical methods are used in the investigation of the structure of polymers. The shape and structure of polymer molecules, specifically molecules of electro- lyte polymers ((e.g., polyacrylic acid and its salts, copolymers of metha-. cryli.c acid with methybnethac,rylate?, polyvinyl alcohol.,, and polyacrylamide) are being invest igat:,ed. The formation of molecular structures is also subjected to study. Of great importance is the investigation of synthetic polymers representing models of biological polymers and of the structural changes which take place in them under the effect of various fac:.tors With the aid of electron microscopy, N. F. Bakeyev and Kho Vergin established a, theoretically impor'tant relationship concerning the forma- tion of secondary struc;?tu:res. According to a concept advanced by V. A. Kargin, A. I. Ki?taygor. odsk:iy, and O. V. Sloni.mskiy, polymers' have a.. bundle structure. V?ergin ? s experimental work confirmed the accuracy of this ideas By using an electron microscope, it ccould be established thet bundles of molecules are present in dilute solutions of polymers. It wa-s-shown that high..-'polymer electrolytes may give rise to two types of /structure, a globular and a fibrillar. For instance, salvarsan gives r9.s._ to a geometrically regular structure when present in the amorphous state. -? 1.6 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 The structure of amorphous polymers can be regarded as formed by a system of regularly arranged molecular bundles. S. Y'a. Mirlina, senior scientific associate, and Yu. Nagcrnaya, candidate for a diploma, investigated changes in the electrical conductivity of high-.polymer electrolytes as affected by their orientation. Important relationships were established in regard to these changes, which depend on the shape of the macromolecules and the deg zity of their packing. The work of the Chair of High???Molecular Compounds is closely co- ordinated with that of other chairs of Moscow State University. Its activities involve c.oll.abcration with the Chair of Physics of the Solid State at the Physics Faculty, the Chair of Biophysics and Biochemistry, etc. Some of the work, being done is carried out jointly with the institutes of the Academy of Sciences USSR and institutes under the ministries, e.g., the Physicochemical. Institute imeni L. "Ia. Ka.rpov, the Institute of Syn- thetic Fibers, the Petroleum Institute, the Cinephoto Institute, the Chemicopharmar_,euticai Institute, etc. 12. Work on Polyester Urethane Films at the Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute ~_~ _`-' "Polyester Urethane Fi.1ms" by I. P. Losev and L. A. Datskevich; Moscow, Byulle'ten' Tekhniko?-?Ekonomicheskoy I.nformatsii, No 8, Aug 58n pp At the Chair of Technology of High-Molecular Compounds, Moscow Order of Lenin C'hemicotechnol.ogical Institute imeni. D. I. Mendeleyev, polyester urethanes have been synthesized by interacting diisocyanates with high- molecular polyesters derived from dicarboxylic acids and glycols. A dis- tinguishing c:haracterjsti,rc: of the polyester urethanes is the presence of free hydroxyl groups in the polyester molecules. Polyester urethanes can be synthesized with the use of a solvent or without a solvent. Polyester urethanes produced in the manner described are stable up to temperatures of plus 900 and down to minus 50-650. The stability at high temperatures can be increased by using aromatic compounds as initial materials. However, the elasticity of the films is consider- ably reduced thereby. 'ire films have a tensile strength of 150-350 kg per sq.are r.:enfAmeter. The tensile strength can. be increased to 800-850 kg per square centimeter if the film have been oriented by applying a load of 5 kg. The polyester urethane films are suitable as a material for gaskets stable to the action of organic: solvents and as a substitute for special rubber resistant to the action of organic solvents. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Polyester urethanes have a lower specific weight than solvent-resistant types of synthetic rubber. A polyester urethane adhesive has been devel- oped which is suitable for gluing together polyurethane films, so that different articles can be produced from them. and these films used as a leather substitute. Polymers of this type can be rolled similarly to polyvinyl. chloride; except that no plasticizer should be used. Isotopes 13. Selective Effect in Reaction of Hydrogen and Tritium With Some Metal Oxides "The Kinetic Isotopic; Effect in the Reaction of Hydrogen and Tritium With Some Metal Oxides," by 0 A. Shushunov and B.Ya. Andreyev, Chemistry Scientific: Research ' Institute., Gbr ?kiy State University i.meni N. I. Lobachevskiy; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 121, No 4; Aug 589 pp 689-692 Among the metal oxides investigated in the work reported in this in- stance., those of one group (Group I: Ag20, Cu2O., CuO, HgO, Pb02, MnO2, anal. Fe20 -- ferric oxide in the high-temperature range) react with hydro- gen fast~_rthan with tritium whereas those of another group (Group II: Mn O1}, Mn203, NiO, rot:, Fe q04, and Fe203 - - ferric oxide in low~?~temperat ur.e r ge) show a faster rat d of reaction with tritium than with hydrogen. The kinetic isotopic effect d- = kl/k2a is greater than unity for oxides of Group I and smaIler than unity for oxides o l.' Group II. The reaction. HT+H;20 BTO t B:2 may take place because of the cata- lytic effect produced by the oxides or the metals formed. from them and affect the results obtained in. regard to the kinetic isotopic effect in the reduction. It was established that the reaction formulated above is catalyzed rather weakly by oxides of the first group and the metals cor- responding to them. On the other hand,, the oxides of the second group and the metals formed from them were found to exert a pronounced catalytic effect in accelerating this reaction. However., the effect of the inter- fering reaction could. ba eliminated by removing rapidly from the reaction sphere the water that had formed. The fact that the reaction of tritium exchange with water did not play a significant role under the experimental conditions applied was confirmed by the results obtained in an investi- gation of the reduction, of the metal oxides with hydrogen and deuterium. It was found that reduction of oxides of the first group proceeds 1.4-1.8 times faster with hydrogen than with deuterium, and reduction of oxides of the second group 1.4?-1.6 times faster with deuterium than with hydrogen. - 18 .- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 On the basis of the temperature coefficients of N , the energies of activation of the reduction with hydrogen (El) and of the reduction with tritium (E2) were calculated. It was found that the nature of the oxide has a rather strong effect on E1 E2 In the first group and an insignificant effect in the second groups From oxides of the first -,group, El< E2 and drops with increasing tempera- tures. For oxides of the second group, E2 El and a- rises as the tempera- ture goes up. An anoma.,tus dependence of on the temperature was observed in the cases of silver oxide and iron oxides. .14. Distribution of Deuterium in Isotopic Exchange Between Water and Mio1s .~ _-------- -- - - - "Coefficients of the Equilibrium Distribution of Deuterium in Isotopic Exchange Between Water and Some Thiols, " - by K, I. Sakodynskiy,y S. I. Babkov, and N. M. Zhavoronkov, Correspond- ing Member, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol 121,, No 4, Aug 58o pp 681..-684 The coefficients of equilibrium distribution of deuterium at 20-800 between water,and n-butylthiol,, water and sec.o.butylthiol, water and iso-. amylthiol, water and n-hexylthiol, and water and thiophenol were deter-mined. They were found to lie in the range of 1,80-2.46. The temperature dependence of the coefficients of equilibrium distribution (d, ) was de- termined from data plotted in the lg ah _l/'T system of coordinates. Using the relationship between O' and the pquil.ibrium constant of the reaction K formulated by A. I. Brodskiy, the heats of the reactions of deuterium exchange between water and the thiols (-'.n LT) were calculated and found to be equal to 600-1 ..200 calories per mold On the basis of the data that were available, no correlation between the value of and the size and structure of the hydrocarbons radicals could be found. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Organic Chemistry 15. OrganoboronrCompounds "Organoboron Compounds. Report No 24, The Action of Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride on Phenylboron Dichloride and Diphenylboron Chloride," by B. M. Mikhaylov and N. S. Fedo- tov, Institute of Organic Chemistry imeni N. D. Zelinskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow,, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye_Khimicheskikh Nauk, No 7, Jul 5b., pp 657 859 As a result of the investigation which has been carried out, the following conclusions were derived; "l.. Phenylpyroboric acetic anhydride is obtained by the action of acetic acid or acetic anhydride on phenylboron dichloride. "2. Diphenylboron chloride reacts with acetic anhydride, forming diphenylboric acetic anhydride. "3. As a result of the action of acetic acid on diphenylboron chloride, diphenylboric acetic acid is formed initially. Later, it is converted by the action of acetic acid, to phenylpyroboric acetic anhydride. "4. Para-chl.orphenylboron aichloride reacts with acetic acid,*form- ing pars-chlorophenyl pyroacetic aiL"vdride. " Organoboron Compounds.. Report No 25, Concerning the Action of Organic Acids on the n-Butyl Ester of n-Propylehloroboric Acid," by B. M. Mikhaylov and T. A. Shchegoleva, Institute of Organic. Chemistry imeni N. D. Zelinskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleniye Khimi- cheskikh Nauk.9 No 73, Jh1 58; pp 60-865 On the basis of the investigation reported., the :Iollowing conclusions we .;,e derived- "1. The n-,butyl ester of n-propylboric acid, n-propylpyroboric acetic anhydride,, butyl chloride, and the butyl ester of acetic acid are formed by the action of acetic acid on the n-butyl ester of n-propylchloro-, boric acid. "2. The n-butyl ester of n-propyl.chloroboric acid, n-propylpyroboric propiondc anhydride, butyl chloride, and the butyl ester of propionic acid are formed by the action of propionic acid on the n-butyl ester of n- propylehloroboric acid. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 "3. The mechanism of the reaction between organic acids and the ester of n-propylchloroboric acid alas clarified. "h?. The n-butyl ester of n-propylboric acid reacts with acetic anhydride in the presence of hydxoGen chloride, forming n-propylpyroboric acetic anhydride,, the butyl ester of acetic acid, butyl chloride, and acetyl chloride." "Preparation of the Bromides of Organoboron Compounds '.From :the Esters of Organoboric Acids and Organoboron Chlorides," by B. M. Mikhaylov, A. N. Blokhina, and N. S. Fedotov, Institute of.:Or- -ganic Chemistry imeni N. D. Ze~inskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR '.'?Otdeleni a Khimicheskikh. Nauk, No 7, Jul 5 ., pp 79-1-M The following conclusions were derived on the basis of the work 'de- scribed: "l. Diphenylboron:bromide and the isobutyl eater of phenylbromoboric acid are formed by the action of~ phosphorus pentabromid.e on the isobuty], ester of Biphenyl boric acid. "2. The isobutyl ester of phenylbromoboric acid is prepared by the action phosphorus pentabromide on the diisobutyl ester of phenylboriel acid. "3. Diphenylboronbromide and phenylborondibromide are formed, re- spectively, by the action of hydrogen bromide on diphe4ylboron chloride or phenylboron dichloride." 1.6. Some Phosphinic Acid Polyesters "Investiga?k.ccns in the Field of Organophosphorus Polymers. Report No 4, On Polyesters of Certain Phosphinic Acids and Eydroquinone, " By V. V. Korshak, I.' A. Griboya, and M. A. Andreyeva, Institute of Organoelemetal Compounds, 'Academy of Sciences USS; Moscow, Izvestiya- ' AkAdeiiii" Naauk SSSR, Obdeleniye Kh:bnicheskikh Nauk, No 7, Jul 58., pp bdO-db5 The polyesters of methylphosphinic, phenylphosphinic, phenoxyphosphinic, para?-?nitrophenoxyphosphinic, para-me?thoxyphenoxy~phosphinie acids and hydroquinone were synthesized. It was shown that the nature of the sub- stitutent at the phosphorus atom. has a noticeable effect, on the properties Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 of the polyeoters. The introduction of an aromatic group into the polymer chain leads to the formation of products that are solid, as distinguished from analogous polymers obtained from aliphatic glycols. Investigation of the binary systems over the entire range of compositions indicated that a copolymer with a definite composition has the minimum melting point.' 17. The Structure of the Products of Some Reactions Leading to Organo- phosphorus Compounds "Concerning the Structure of the Products of the Reaction of Certain Alpha-Halogen-Ketones of the,.Carbocyclic Series With Triethylphosphite and Sodium :Diethylphosphite," by Academ- ician B. A. Arbuzov, V. S. Vinogradova, and I. A. Polezhayeva, Scientific Research Chemical Institute imeni A. M., Butlerov' at Kazan' State University imeni V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin; Moscow, Dokiady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 121, No 1+, Aug 58, pp 641-643 The authors present data concerning the structure of the prpducts of the reaction of triethylphosphite or sodium diethylphosphite with alpha- chlorocyclohexanone,alpha -chloro-a-methylcyclohexanone, alpha- chlorocyclopentanone and bromopyruvic acid ester. The complex reactions` which are presented in the text led to the formation of unsaturated esters of phosphoric acid, esters of epoxyphosphinic acids, and, in some instances, esters of beta-ketophosphinic acids -- depending on the nature ofithe halogen, the conditions of the reaction, and the sub- stituted alkyl radicals. 18. The Synthesis of Di-beta, beta'-chloroethyl Ester of Vinylphosphinic Acid -`- ----r "The Problem of the Synthesis of the Di-beta ,beta'-chlorethyl Ester of Vinylphosphinic Acid," by Ye. L. Defter, Scientific Research Institute of Plastics; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Khi- !nii, Vol 28, No 9, Sep 58, pp 2500-2502 - hie.of the lesser-studied compounds of the ester series of vinyl- phosphinic acid 'i`s the di-be.,bata?-chlorethyl ester, a compound first" synthesized by M. I. Kabachnik.which at present has good prospects for- industrial applications. However, the Kabachnik method has several short- comings which prompted the author to suggest the following method) a mixture of the di-beta,bet,a'-chloroethyl ester of beta-chloroethylphosphinic acid and triethylamine (in a molecular ratio of 1:1.02) is slowly heated while being agitated. in benzene. The triethyl.amine hydrochloride pre- cipitate is easily removed and, the di-beta,beta'-chO.oroethylvinylphosphinate obtained (after the benzene has been distilled off) by fractionation in vacuum. The yield is approximately 70% of the theoretical. The di- beta,beta'-chlorethyl ester of beta-chlorethylphosphinic acid was prepared by a method described earlier by the author. - 22 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 19. ;:tonic Lieu Organophosphoru:, Insecticides "New Results in the Field of Phosphate Ester Insecticides," by Gyor,ry Matolcsy, Plant Protection Research Institute; Budapest, Mn :,yar KeniifU Folyoirat (Hungarian Journal of Chemistry), No 7- 5, Jul/Aug 58, pp 30 305 "Several new types of phosphate ester insecticides were synthesized. The esters synthesized belonged to the following groups: 0,0-dialkyl-S- thiocarbamyl-thiophosphate; 0,0-dialkyl-S-xanthogenyl-thiophosphates; 0,0- dialkyl-0-(S-thiocarbannylniercaptoethyl)-thiophosphates; 0,0-dialkyl-O-(S- dialkylthiophosphoryl-niercaptoethyl)- thiophosphates; 0,0-dialkyl-O-(S- xanthogenyl-mercaptoethyl)-tliophosphates; 0,0-dialkyl-0-(S-dialkylthi- ophophoryl-mereaptomethyl -thiophosphates; 0,O-dialkyl-S-(alpha-furyl- beta-carbethoxy-ethyl)-dithiophosphates; and 0,0-dialkyl-S~(alpha-furyl- betcracetyl-ethyl)-dithiophosphates. The method of synthesis is illustrated by the equations accompanying the text." Radiochemistry 20. The Effect of Radiation on the Rate of Isotope Exchange "Concerning the Effect of Radiation Emitted by Radioactive Substances on the Rate of Isotope Exchange," by V. I. Spit- syn and I. Ye. Mikhaylenko; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 11.63-11.64 The effect of beta-radiation emitted by S35 on the rate of isotopic exchange of sulfur in the system K2 S* 01E -- S03 at high temperatures was investigated. Two samples of potassium sulfate containing different .quantities of the radioactive isotope s35 were used. The results ob- tained, which are discussed in detail, indicate that the effect brought about by radiation is not ordinary radiation-chemical decomposition, of potassium sulfate. It is to be assumed that the beta-particles emitted by s35 produce excitation and additional ionization of sulfate anions in the potassium sulfate lattice. The sulfate ion, on being brought to the excited state, enters more actively into isotope exchange -- with sulfuric acid anhydride. It is also possible that the beta-particles 'bring about ionization of sulfuric acid anhydride molecules in the gas phase. Partial decomposition of the sulfuric acid anhydride results; the .p oducts of this decomposition then enter more readily into isotope c.,xchange with potassium sulfate. [For additional information on radiochemistry, see Item No 8.1 Physical Chemistry [['ox, infoi ni .tion on physical chemistry, see Item No 3.1 -23- Approved For Release 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 III. ELECTRONICS Communications 21. Self-Activity Amateur Radio Clubs "Every Possible Help to Self-Activity Clubs" (unsigned article); Moscow, Radio, No 10, Oct 58, pp 2-3 The article contains the following passages: "At the All-Union Volunteer Society for Cooperation with the Army, Air Force, and Navy (Dosaaf) there is growing and expanding a newly in- itiated movement for establishing self-activity Dosaaf clubs. Now, that the Dosaaf organizations are struggling to realize the resolutions of its Fourth Conference, i.e., a decided improvement in training of radio experts, widening the network of radio-amateur stations and raising the experience of amateurs, the self-activity radio clubs are acquiring outstanding sig- nificance. "Each large primary Dosaaf organization must establish its own self- activity radio club.... Responding to numerous suggestions from active members of the society, the Central Committee Secretariat of Dosaaf has ratified the "Charter of Self-Activity Sports Clubs of Dosaaf" which was based on the experience of the best self-activity collectives. This document can and should play a prominent role in large-scale organization of the defense society. "The charter of self-activity clubs specifically stresses that all the work within the clubs should be based on the principle of broad in- itiative among its members. And this is quite obvious. All activities of the club collectives, its sections, design groups, and sports teams are carried out by the society members without staff workers; the success of the undertaking. will rest solely on their activity." 22. Frequency Modulation and Pulse-Tune Modulation "The Influence on Pulse-Time Modulation by a Frequency Modula- tion of the High-Frequency Carrier," by R. Ebermann, Institute for High-Frequency Engineering and Electron Tubes,, Dresden Tech- nische Hochschule; Leipzig, Hochfrequenztechnik and Ele_ktroakustik, Vol 67, No 2, Sep 58, pp 48-59 A study is made of the shift, with respect to time, of the leading and of the trailing edges of high-frequency pulses., the carrier of which is frequency-modulated. The shift is a result of the dependence of the value of the build-up and decay process on the detuning of the carrier 24 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 from the mean frequency of the transm:lasion quadrupole, This shift of the pulse flank is responsible for the cross-talk attenuation, if the pulse is subjected to a pulse-time modulation in addition to the frequency modula- tion. This cross-talk attenuation can be kept within admissible limits through a proper choice of the frequency deviation. Diagrams are given for single-circuit, two-circuit, and three-circuit filters (Tschebyscheff filter and filters with circuits of equal attenuation) with regard to the influence of the leading edges of the pulses. 21. Radiation of Open Waveguides "Investigation of the Radiation Behavior of Open Waveguides," by K. E. Mueller, Institute for High-Frequency Engineering and Elektron Tubes, Dresden Technische Hochschule; Leipzig,, Hochfrequenztechnik and Elektroakustik, Vol 67, No 2, Sep 58, pp 35-42 Any radiation field, according to the Huygen principle, can be rep- resented by a superpositioning of the partial field strengths produced by elementary radiators. This article discusses an orientation of ele- mentary dipoles to the field strength prevailing in the aperture, this field strength being considered, for the sake of simplicity, a super- positioning of the wave which arrives from the generator and is re- flected at the open end, in such a way as to be used to determine the radiation field of the waveguide. A general formula is derived for the computation of the remote field and is applied especially for a rectangular and circular '??aveguide. The computed radiation diagrams are compared with measureient ralues for the rectangular waveguide excited by the H10 and H30 wave. The comparison shows satisfactory agreement. 24. Automatic Range Scope "Transient and Steady-State Processes in Automatic Range Scopes,," by F. M. Kilin; Moscow, Avtomatika i Telemekhanika, No 10, Oct 58, pp 901-916 Modern radar and navigation aid systems generally incorporate automatic range scopes, which are often called "autorange finders." Automatic-range-scope equations with stepwise-changing variable para- meters can be converted ger ,-ally into a system of discrete equations with a constant coefficient. The solution and analysis of such equations present no difficulty. Conditions were found for which the analysis of automatic-range-scope performance can be reduced to the analysis of an equivalent continuous system. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 The article discusses the transient and steady-state processes in an automatic range scope with due consideration of specific peculiarities of its performance, such as discontinuous processes in individual components of the system, variation of circuit parameters, and pulse conversion in the coin- cidence amplifiers. Instruments and Equipment 25. Ultraviolet Radiation Meter "Experiment in Measuring Natural Ultraviolet Radiation," by 0. P. Shelkova-Dorf, D. A. Shklover (All-Union Illumina- tion Engineering Institute), and I. F. Yakovleva (Yevpatoriya Bioclimatic Station); Moscow, Svetotekhnika, No 11, Nov 58, pp 20-23 In the summer of 1957 the All-Union Illumination Engineering In- stitute (VNISI), in conjunction with the Yevpatoriya Bioclimatic Station, conducted the measurement of total and scattered ultraviolet radiation with the aid of a photoelectric registering device developed at VNISI. An antimony-cesium vacuum phototube having a violet ray transmitting window STsV-6 and a set of filters ( 7A =290 to 340 millimicrons and 7. =340 to 400 millimicrons) was used as an ultraviolet radiation pickup. The power supply to the phototube was taken from two small batteries (GB-80) connected in series. Photocurrent reading was taken-with elec- tronic potentiometer EP-100. In 1958 VNISI and the Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences USSR, were engaged in developing a more precise instrument for measuring ultraviolet radiation which will incorporate photoelectric multipliers. Such an instrument will permit radiation measurement in separate, narrow sections of the ultraviolet spectrum. 26. Semiconductor Bolometers Designed by the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR "Semiconductor Bolometers" by I. T.D. :({onozenko; Moscow Byulleten' Tekhniko-Ekonomicheskoy Informatsii, No 8, Aug 58, pp 40-41 Semiconductor bolometers have been designed at the "Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian. SSR. Semiconductor bolometersc, just like metal bolometers, are devices sensitive to infrared radiation. It was established in work done at the institute mentioned that semi- conductor bolometers can be used in various fields of science and .- 26 .a Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 technology. In spectroscopic investigations, the 4.22 and 4.28 carbon dioxide bands can be resolved in a reliable manner with their aid. The width of the spectral interval isolated by the monochromator in this work amounts to 0.03-0.04 micron. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, these bolometers can be used for the investigation of radiation emitted by heated objects and measurement of the temperature of heated objects at a distance. They can be used in dosimeters measuring radiation emitted by the Sun, for the control of the tempera- Lure of rotating machine parts, etc. When used for absolute measurements of the total intensity of radiation energy, semiconductor bolometers can be applied in an extensive range of electromagnetic radiation beginning with wave lengths of visible light and ending with a wave length of 25 microns in the infrared region. An appliance has been designed for investigating the radiation characteristics of heated bodies. This appliance consists of an oxide bolometer of the nonvacuum type located in the focus of a spherical mirror and a bridge circuit. This circuit is coupled with a galvano- meter. In the case that modulated infrared radiation is used, the input end of an replaces the galvanometer. Practical experience showed that the production and use of, semi- conductor bolometers are much simpler than those of metal bolometers. Because semiconductor bolometers have a high sensitivity and a large resistance, they do not require complex amplifiers or an input trans- former. To satisfy the large demand for semiconductor bolometers on the part of various USSR organizations, the Experimental Production Division of the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, has organized a series production of these devices on a small scale. 27. The von Ardenne Molecular Mass Spectrograph "The Dresden Molecular Mass Spectrograph," by G. Kukavadze; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, p 476 "At a meeting of the German Physical Society held at Dresden on 27 April 1958, Prof Manfred von Ardenne described a molecular mass spectrograph which he had developed. The principal new part of this spectrograph is an ion source of original design with electron capture. "In ordinary ion sources applied in mass spectrometry, the ioniza- tion of the molecules being analyzed is achieved by electron impacts and is generally accompanied by decomposition of the molecules. The decompo- sition of complex molecules at the ion source interferes with the molecular analysis. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 "Von Ardenne succeeded in eliminating the decomposition of complex molecules into less complex molecules and atoms by designing a novel ion source. He achieved the desired object by compressing the plasma formed tinder the effect of a low-voltage discharge through the gas 'being in- vestigated or the vapors of the substance being investigated. The com- pression is brought about by means of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Generated by a nonsymmetric magnetic lens. "As a result of work which took 10 years, it was possible to eliminate by means of this arrangement the decomposition of molecules and to obtain a sufficient intensity of the ion bundle, notwithstand- ing the low cross section of electron capture by molecules and the short half-life of the negative ions. "In consequence of the improvement of the ion source, a precise molecular mass spectrograph was developed which has a high resolving capacity and can be used for the investigation of molecules with mass numbers from 20 to 1,000 without decomposition of these molecules. "A multilinear spectrum of paraffin was ta,.--n in which an un- expected fine structure became apparent. "The new method apparently makes it possible to investigate organic molecules and macromolecules. It will play a considerable role in chemical research pertaining to petroleum, fuels, and polymers and in work in the field of analytical chemistry." 28. Mass Spectrometers Designed and Produced in the USSR "USSR Mass Spectrometers," by L. P.; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 474-476 Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 3, 1958, contains an article by workers at the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building in which information on mass spectrometers developed in the USSR and produced by the USSR industry is reviewed. A table on pp 474-475 of Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, October 1958, lists the principal tech- nical characteristics of USSR mass spectrometers. The characteristics of the following mass spectrometers are given in the table: MI 1301 for the analysis of the isotope composition of gases and easily evaporating substances (supplied by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument, Building); MI 1303 for the analysis of the isotope composition of gases and vapors of liquids and solid sub- stances (supplied by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical In- strument Building); MI 1305 for the analysis of the isotope composi- tion of gases and vapors of liquids and solid substances (replaces MI - 28 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 1301 and 141 1303 --? supplied by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building); MKh 1302 for the analysis of the isotope and molecular composition of gases and easily evaporating substances (supplied by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building); M. 1303 for the analysis of the molecular and isotope composition of gaseous, liquid, and solid mixtures of substances with a vapor pressure higher than 0.,5 millimeter of mercury at temperatures no higher than 300?C (developed 'by the Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical. Instrument Building); MV 2301 for the analysis of the isotope and molecular composition of gases and easily evaporating substances (supplied by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building); MI 1101 for the rapid analysis of the isotope composition of alkali metals (developed by the Physicotechnical Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building). Also, MI 1306 for the analysis of the isotope composition of microquantities of solid substances and solid substances present in microconcentrations (developed by the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building); MI 5201 for the continuous analysis and indication of different components of complex mixtures of gases under conditions encountered at industrial enterprises (developed 'by the Academy of Sciences USSR and the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Building); MKh 61+01 for the analysis of the molecular composition of gases in the mass range of 2-60 (developed by the Western Siberian Affiliate, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical Instrument Bu-.LLu::ing); a magnetodynamic mass spectrometer for the analysis of the isotope and molecular com- position of gases (developed by the Physicotecrn.ical Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the State Union Design Bureau of Analytical In- strument Building). 29. Distortion in Electron Lens Computed "Isotropic and Anisotropic Distortion of Weak Magnetic Xlectrcea Lenses," by R. Gobrecht, Heinrich Hertz Institute fbr0sc llation Research, German Academy of Sciences, Berlin-Adlershof; Ber:Un, Experimentelle Technik der Physik, No 3, 1958, pp 97-109 The distortion of weak magnetic electron lenses is determined by means of a pointwise plotting of an eccentrically oriented anode dia- phragm used as an object point which can be rotated out of the optical axis. The -total distortion error is divided into isotropic and an.iso- tropic portions and each portion is determined separately. To describe the distortion properties, a distortion factor V is defined, which relates the magnification /3 to the magnification , o within the Gauss dioptic, when abaxial beams are used. The value of the aberration,, or Seidel coefficient, is computed from the measurements. - 29 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Components 30. Cathode-Grid Vacuum Tubes "New Tubes for Wide-Band Amplification," by B. Govorov and V. Rachenko; Moscow, Radio, No 10, Oct 58, pp 5+-57 The 6Zh,20P, 6&21P, and 6Zh22P pentodes with supplementary cathode grid and possessing superior characteristics were recently developed in the USSR. These new pentode tubes have an additional grid placed between the cathode and control grid, to which a positive potential with respect to the cathode is applied. This sixth electrode is called the cathode grid. Electrons emitted from the cathode, while traveling in the accelerat- ing field of the cathode grid, will be in part attracted to the cathode grid and others will enter the space between cathode grid and control grid. The electrons thus entering into the retarding field of the control grid begin to lose some of their velocity and form an electron cloud at the surface of the control grid. This electron cloud, being a source of electrons for the plate circuit and screen grid, is called the virtual cathode. Small spacing between the virtual cathode and control grid and a greater spacing between the control grid and cathode grid result in a high value of trans conductance and low input capacitance, i.e.., high Q- factor. The cathode-grid tubes can be used in video amplifiers, "traveling wave" amplifiers, and wide-band resonance amplifiers. These tubes can be used also single-grid frequency converters. Computers and Automation 31. Soviet Computers in Science and Engineering "Mathematical Machines and Their Significance to Science and.thh.e National Economy," by V. I. Loskutov, Moscow, Priborostroyeniye, No 11, Nov 58, pp 8-12 "In the Soviet Union unique differential analyzer, was built, -- the most powerful in the world, incorporating 24 integrators and characterized by a high degree of automation of all of its units." CPYRGHT This machine was installed at Kiev University and has since been successfully solving problems related to investigations in the field of science and engineering. At present, Soviet industry has mastered series production of specialized analog computers, linear and nonlinear models designated IPT-4, IPT-5, MPT-9 MPT-11, MN-5, MN-8, and others, capable of investigating dynamic systems and other processes described by differential equations of the order 6 to 32. - 30 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 "An illustration of the effectiveness of such type machines is the matrix-type electrointegrator EI-l, which is capable of solving problems connected with efficient exploitation of oil fields. This machine has a matrix of electric resistors and capacitors placed at 20,000 points, and is thus a unique machine of this class. "The development of universal digital computers is at present directed toward increased calculating speed, expansion of storage capacity, improvement of logical capabilities of the machine, incorporation of more stable elements, and reduction of their size and power consumption. All these tendencies are vividly reflected in two new machines, the proto- types of which will soon be completed. "One of these will be universal digital computer intended, for installation at large computing centers and will be used for investigation and calculation of complex scientific and engineering problems. Its calculating speed will be 20,000 operations per second. The circuit of the machine will incorporate a series of storage units: internal storage with ferrite capacity for 2,047 numbers, intermediate storage with three magnetic drums each having a capacity for 4,096 numbers, and external strage with four magnetic tapes having total storage capacity for 100,000 numbers. "Simultaneously, work is being conducted on a second universal digital computer intended for investigation and calculation of complex problems at scientific research institutes and design establishments. The control unit and arithmetic unit of this machine will be built with circuits incorporating transistors and semiconductor diodes. The capacity of internal ferrite storage will be 2,048 forty-column binary digits or 4,096 commands. The external storage will consist of two magnetic tape units each holding 70,000 forty-column digits. "The new machine will operate with a speed of 2,000-2,500 single- address operations per second and will be one of the first models of a small size universal digital computer built with circuits incorpor .ling transistors, ferrites, and miniature radio tubes." 31 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Materials 32. Ferromagnetic Resonance at Low Temperature "Ferromagnetic Resonance in Certain Ferrites at Low Tempera- ture," by N. I. Krivko, Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoy Fiziki, No 8, Aug 58, pp 1703-1710 This article presents basic findings on ferromagnetic resonance behavior at low temperature and frequency range of about 9.4 x 109 cycles. The investigation of ferromagnetic resonance has acquired gz'eat practi- cal significance in the light of the recent development of gh-frequency and superhigh-frequency radio engineering. Polycrystalline ferrites NiO ? ZnO ' Fe203 and Li20 ZnO ' Fe203 with variable molar ratio of their components were examined. The basic resonance parameters according to Pil'shchikov'a formula and the of the absorption and dispersion curves were determined. A considerable reduction of the spectroscopic desintegration factor for certain ferrites during the transition from 290?K to the temperature of liquid helium (4-20K) was observed. The relaxation time had but a slight temperature dependence throughout the whole range itp to the temperature of liquid helium. Theoretical explanation of some of these phenomena can be based on the fact that pronounced disturbances of spin dipole interaction can exist in the actual ferrite lattice. An interesting phenomenon observed was decrease of g-factor with decrease in temperature for the following: 16.7$ NiO, 37.3% ZnO, 46% Fe203; 18% NiO, 42% ZnO, 40% Fe203 and 20% Li201 80% Fe203. The author thanks A. P. Komar, N. M. Reynov, and L. E. Gurevich for assistance given in this research. - 32 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Acoustics and Audio Frequencies 33. Pulse-Operated Hydroacoustic Transducerw "The Determination of the Directional Characteristic and Efficiency of Pulse-Operated Hydroacoustic Transducers," by H. Markgraf and G. Spengler, German Office for Measure- ment and Weight, Berlin; Leipzig, Hochfre uenztechnik and Elektroakustik, Vol 67, No 2, Sep 558, pp 64-67 This article describes research directed toward finding the deter- minative electroacoustic properties of hydroacoustic transducers which operate as pulsed transmitters. These properties are derived from the directional characteristic and efficiency of a transducer The direc- tional characteristic was recorded with the aid of a special underwater microphone; a new type of calorimetric measuring device was used to determine the efficiency. The measurement accuracy was less than plus- minus 4. percent. The tests were conduction at the Laboratory for Acoustics, Fhysicotechnical Central Institute, German Office for Measure- ments and Weight. - 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 IV. ENGINEERING 34. New Power Presses "Conformity," by S. Sinel'nikov Moscow, Izobretatel' i Ratsionalizator, No 10, Oct 58, pp 16-18 This article contains the following passages: "Recently, we decided to make another step forward by building a 75,000-ton press which will have no equal. The design of such a press was undertaken by the Central Scientific Research Institute of Tech- nology and Machine Building (TsNIITMash). The institute's Laboratory of Press-Forging Equipment under the direction of Rozanov has success- fully accomplished the undertaking. The construction of these unique giants has begun. It is clear that when they are put into operation the Soviet Union will take first place in the world in regard to the power capacity of presses, although the Americans have also begun the erection of a giant of almost 70,000 tons." "In the meantime, modern technology has set forth new demands. TsNIITMash has accepted the challenge and has again entrusted Rozanov with the problem of design. In the winter of 1956 the Scientific Council of the institute was already in a position to examine the sketch drawings of a 150,000-ton supergiant. It was originally expected that the discussion would be confined to the details, since it was assumed that the basic design could not raise any doubts because all the recent, profitable experience was fully taken into consideration. However, it turned out to be otherwise. Certain experts have criticized the design in its principle." 35. Superlong-Distance Electric Power Transmission Lines "Economy of Long-Distance and Superlong-Distance Electric Trans- mission Lines Operating on DC and AC," by N. N. Krachkovskiy, Moscow; Elektricheskiye Stantsii, No 10, Oct 58, pp 64-70 The article contains the following passages: "In the Soviet Union, at present, 500,000-v tension is introduced as a rated voltage for long-distance electric power transmission; such a voltage is well suited to the requirements of the Unified Power System (YeES), which is now being created in the European part of the USSR. -34- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 "In conjunction with the existence of tremendous resources of very cheap hydraulic power in Eastern Siberia, as well as great resourre,: of low-cost coal mined in open pits, the problem of transmitting large amounts of electric power from Siberia to the European USSR, in particular to the Urals, a distance of 2,000-2,500 km, is now being given full considera-? tion." "In a series of recently conducted works, the technical feasibility of transmitting electric power to such great distances with 500- to 600-kv, three-phase AC was conclusively proved; however, the cost of transmission becomes high and a question arises as to the expediency, on the whole, of the construction of such superlong-distance electric transmission lines. The use of 800- to 1,200-kv direct current might substantially lower the cost of power transmission." "Technical-economical comparison of electric power transmission by means of direct or alternating current for any predetermined capacity and distance can give only a limited answer and will not permit any general conclusion as to the advantage of any method." The author proceeds with the discussion of several specific cases of predetermined power capacity and distance of a power line. 36. New Method of Testing High-Voltage Circuit Breakers "Simulation Method of Testing High-Voltage Circuit Breakers," by V. V. Kaplan, V. M. Nashatyr', and V. L. Ivanov, Moscow, Elekt - richestvo, No 11, Nov 58, pp 29-35 In 195( the Laboratory of High-Voltage Engineering imeni Gorev of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute designed and built a circuit which can test the performance of a fast-operating automatic reclosing switch using the simulation method. The testing installation consists of two oscillatory circuits tuned to the industrial frequency. Actual testing of automatic reclosing switches with the aid of this simulation circuit was carried out at the laboratory. Oscillograms of the performance of automatic reclosing switches were taken with a moving-coil oscillograph and cathode-ray tube oscillo- scope. The oscillograms have shown that the developed synchronizing device permits very precise adjustment of the testing installation. new testing installation can solve the most complex problems by applying the simulation method. Conditions equivalent to actual conditions were set up to check the commutation capability of automatic reclosing circuit, breakers. The testing circuit is capable of reproducing conditions for any ratio of reclosing and recovery voltages. - 35 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 37. Solutions of Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations Expressed in Terms of an Asymptotic Expansion in Banach Spaces "Asymptotic Expansion of Solutions of Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations in Banach Spaces," by L. A. Groza, Novosibirsk Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, Aerial, Surveying and Cartography; Moscow, Doklad Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 121, No 6, Aug 58, pp 963-966 This work concerns an investigation of the behavior of the solutions of differential equations of the second order as ( approaches zero, C , greater than zero, being a small parameter multiplier of the highest derivative v '' . The article's introduction reads as follows: "Let Y be a Banach space with the elements multiplied by real numbers. Let the function f( C) e Y ( ( real) be given in a particular neighborhood of the point E = 0. Let the series Co+ Cl c.t 02c2 n~ +. . + Cnt. . . , (1) where Cn E Y. be such that for any fixed n lim (C 3C .+C2 62+ . . . CnLll : 0. (2) EP0 n Then we will say that (1) serves as an asymptotic expansion of f(C) and describe that by: f (E )-_. 0 55 C n J (3) By an arbitrary choice of the elements C , Cl, . . . , Cn, . E Y it is possible to construct a function r(C ) e Y. for which (3) is satisfied. "Next the equation y' '+ y'+Ay = 0 is considered where')O is a (4) small parameter; y (x, )e Y; A is any linear, bounced operator mapping the space Y into Y. ie, A cS .>YI . We will consider the solution of equation (4) on an arbitrary fixed segment jxo, x7 (xo a ?where a , another constant, is greater. than zero and n de- pendent on f, then we will say that the process of summing ^f is saturated. The set of continuous periodic functions of period 2 Tr , different from a constant and such that I P~ (x) mf(x) = 0 1 ) we will n ) call the saturation class pertaining to the process T .it The results of the work are in the form of four theorems which are stated below. -38-- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 "Theorem I. Let -^ , a process of summing, be given defined by the sequence of constants T It (k : 1, . . . , n; n a 1, 2, and let there exist a nonnegative function of the natural argument l~l(n) ouch that lim (n) = o, and lot ri -w l K' `' Ck Y (n), It for every fixed k, where C1, greater than or equal to zero, is a constant depending on k. Then the process 'T is saturated with an approximate saturation of order y (n). "Theorem 2. In order that the best approximation 6n, (f) of the periodic function f(x) of period 2- by trigonometric polynomials of order not greater than n (n ; 2, 3, . . . ) satisfy the condition Cvn(f) = 0(lnr-ln ), n it is necessary and sufficient that a constant A. greater than zero, exists, and is such that for all real values of x and the values of h from the interval 0 h 1/2 the following condition f(x+h) ?)? f(x-h) -2f(x) Ah In I r-1 is satisfied. ln n "Theorem 3. In order that IH2 (x) - f(x) 0 n n I it is necessary and sufficient that the integral 1/2 in t f 74t) i? f (x-t) - 2f (x) dt (1-ln ff ) t2 be uniformly bounded relative to x and 0. 2 "Theorem !i?. In order that `Hn (x) f(x) 0 (?1"A i ), it is necessary and sufficient that the integral 1/4pLt) In t 2 2 ( C?+1n2) In tk + C' ] dt f -t2- [ (1- In e ) 4 ln2 e be uniformly bounded relative to x ande ) 0. Here lQ (t) is determined by the formula (2(t) _ f(x?h2t) ?f f(x-2t) - 2f(x), which was developed in the paper, and C and C' are absolute constants." - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 40. Extremum Functions in Approximation Theory "On the question Concerning Extremum Functions in Certain Problems of Approximation Theory," by S, I. Rabinovich, Dnepropetiovsk, Metallurgical Institute; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 121, No 6, Aug 58, pp 977-979 The following is the text of the author's statement of the problem. "Let W(r) H(a) be the class of periodic functions of period 2 7r, hav- ir a derivative of the rth_order satisfying. the Lipschitz condition of order a with ~n) the constant 1, and let ` kn) (k z 0, 1, n+l; n /~ X0 ntl ? 0) be a triangular matrix of numbers, satisfying the 0, lt2 "For each function f(x) E,` W(r) H(a) we make up a sequence of trigo- nometric polynomials of the n-th order n (n) Un (f ; x; ') ao/2 4 k1 k a fl /-r 2 where alt and bk are the Fourier coefficients of the function f(x), and invesitgate the question concerning the behavior of the absolute value of the deviation f(x) - U. (f; x; X). "A. F. Timan (Izv. AN SSSR, Ser. Matem., the asymptotic inequality f(x) - Un (f; x; X) G 2 (n) In n n M k - r InT+'1 n na (ak cos kx + bk sin kx), (1) 10, 393, 1946) proved that 7r/2 0 to sin t dt. + 0( 1 ) nr4a 40 G (n) ' 62 rA (n) k4l k 1 - \ (n) I`It (2) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 holds for any function f(x) E W(r) H(a), where r ? 0 is any whole number and 0 a - 1, for n approaching infinity (in the case a = 0 the right side mus lie increased twofold), since for each n there exists a func- tion ~pri x) for which the inequality (2) is converted to an asymptotic equality. "However, the following question still remains open: oe there exist a function f(x)) not dependent on n, in the class W(r) Hza) for which the inequality (2) would become an asymptotic equality along a particular sequence of the values of n? Such a problem was first considered by S. M. Nikol'skiy, where it was applied to the polynomial of best approximation (see Izv. AN SSSR, Ser. Matem.) 17, No 2, 1958). "The purpose of this work is the solution of this problem for linear methods of approximation." 41. Generalized Solution for Systems of uasilinear Equations Examined "On the Uniqueness of the Generalized Solution of the Cauchy Problem for Systems of Quasilinear Equations of the Hyperbolic Type," by B. L. Rozhdestvenskiy; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 122, No 5, Oct 58, pp 762-765 The uniqueness of the generalized solution of the Cauchy problem for systems of quasilinear equations of the form C~ui/Co t + (u,: t, x) /a x a 0 1 = 1, 22 ..., n; u [ ui, u2,..., un are considered. The generalized solution is that system of functions ui(t, x) which takes on assigned values at the line t = 0 and satisfies the integral relationships j ui(t, x) dx - (Pi (u(t, x), t, x) dt : 0 i a i, 2, ..., n, where C is any sectionally smooth closed curve lying entirely within the half -plane t 0. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 42. Solution of Differential Equations in Banach -S ace Treated "Application of the Theory of Semigroups to an Investigation of Differential Equations in Banach Spaces," by M. Z. Solomyak, Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 122, No 5, Oct 58, pp 766-769 The solution of the equation du/dt f Au = f(t) with the initial condition u/ t=O = uO is considered, where u _ u(t) and f(t) are elements of a complex Banach space X and depend on the parameter t 6 [O,T] and A is a closed unre- stricted operator with a dense region of definition D(A) in X. A more general form du/dt + Au + B(t)u = f(t) is also considered, where B(t) is an operator, which is in some sense subordinate to A. 43. Uniqueness of Solution of Quasilinear Differential Equation Considered "On the Cauchy Problem for Quasilinear Equations, " by B. L. Rozhdestvenskiy; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 122, No 4, Oct 58, PP 551-554 The discontinuous solutions of a conservative system of equations ul 5Q1 (ul, u2, .. , un t, x = 0, (i - 1, 2, ... , n) 6t (S x are considered. A generalized solution of the Cauchy problem for the above system of equations is defined as those functions ui(t, x) that take on certain values at the line of origin t = 0 and satisfy the integral expression ui(t, x) dx - (Pi (u, t, x) dt = 0, (i = 1, 2, ..., n) where u = ul (t, x); u2(t, x); ...; u,l(t, x) and C is any sectionally smooth closed curve lying entirely within the region t .. 0. -42- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 The paper outlines a method by which the question of the uniqueness of the.generalized solution of the Cauchy problem for the above system of equations may be reduced to the question of the uniqueness of a con- tinuous solution of the Cauchy problem for a certain system of quasilinear equations. The method is illustrated in an example of the proof of the uniqueness of the generalized solution of the Cauchy problem for a par- ticular quasilinear equation. 44. Solution of an Elliptical System of Equations Described "General Representation of the Solutions of an Elliptical System of 2n Equations in a Plane," by B. V. Boyarskiy; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 122, No 4, Oct 58, pp 543-5 An elliptical system of first-order equations ux a Auy + Bu # f is considered, where u is an unknown 2n-component real vector, A and B are square matrices of order 2n, and f is a real vector defined in a certain plane T of the variable z ^ x + iy. Certain necessary and suf- ficient conditions that a solution must satisfy are given as theorems. -43- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 VI. MEDICINE Aviation Medicine 45. Effect of Para--Aminobenzoic Acid on Altitude Tolerance "The Effect of Novocain on the Tolerance of White Rats to High Altitudes," Report TT, "The Effect of Para -Aminobenz oic Acid," by Yu. F. Udalov (Moscow) (Received by the editorial office 1 Nov 57; Presented by Active Member of Academy of Medical Sciences USSR V. V. Parin), B ulleten' Eksperimen- tal'noy Biologii i Meditsiny, No 8, Aug 58, pp 71-72 "Para-aminobenzoic acid increases the resistance of the body to oxygen starvation encountered at high altitudes. This conclusion was reached as the result of experiments with l14 adult white rats. Of these 114 white rats, 56 served as a control group and 58 were given food con- taining para-aminobenzoic acid (200 mg per 100 of body weight). The experimental rats were raised (in an altitude chamber) to an 'altitude' of 11,000 m at a speed of 30 m/sec,:remaining at that altitude for 10 minutes. The mortality rate among rats which received para-aminobenzoiG acid was half as great as in the control group. "In the previous report it was shown that novocain increases the resistance of an organism to oxygen deficiency. It was hypothesized that since ovccain produces a local-effect on nerve endings of inter-- oceptors, it also causes a general effect on the central nervous system. Use of para--.aminobenzeic acid was decided on. because it, has been shown that i t causes p.'h;ys iolog' ea 1 of f e pct on the central nervous system similar to that of novocain." 46. Neuxophy i_ologicr l Research on Radial Acceleration "The Effect of. Radial Accelerations on the Secretion of Salivary and Gastric Glands and on Periodic Stomach Con- tractions," by P. M. Suvorovcvv, Central Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians (head., V. P. Lebedeva), Moscow; (rk;cef.vea by the editorial office on 4 March 1958; presented by Active Member of Academ;;? of Medical Sciences V. N. C?:ie -n.ig.. s.kiy), ;3;iulleten' 1 sperim ental'noy Biologii i Medits ira y, No 9, Sep3, pp 2t -34 "Results of 310 experiments on six dogs revealed that radial ac-. celerations in cranio-.caudal and caudo-cranial directions cause inhibi- tion of reflex salivary secretion as well as of periodic stomach con- tractions. A spontaneous secretion of gastric juice was noted, in Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 response to great acceleration, in dogs with a Basov stomach fistula. However, no spontaneous secretion of gastric juice was noted in a dog with an isolated Heidenhain stomach pouch, i.e.', only a prolonged period of inhibition of gastric secretion was noted. It can be assumed that the above-mentioned changes are connected with changes that take place in the nervous system, particularly in the parasympathetic and. sympathetic branches. "Radial accelerations in all experiments were created by rotating the animals in a centrifuge with a radius of 3.6 m." 47. Air Sickness Discussed in Czechoslovak Periodical "Air Sickness," by Maj Vladimir Malcik, MD, Air Force In- stitute of Health; Prague, Vojenske Zdravotnicke Listy, Oct 57, PP 459 -467 US, British, Czechoslovak, German, Russian, and French sources con- cerning physiological and psychological causes, symptoms, cures, and exceptional cases of air sickness are surveyed in the article. )i.8. Czechoslovak Aeromedical Research on Word Audiometry "Air Force Word Audiometry," by Maj Vladimir Malcik, MD, :ta- stitute of Air Force Health, Alois Pospisil, MD, and Engr Frantisek Zatocil, ND, clinical "ORL" laboratory, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Charles' University; Prague, Vo enske Zdravotnicke Listy, special 18-page supplement to Jan 58 issue , pri 1-1d, The article first narrates the history of Czechoslovak audiometrical research and explains the use of word, rathcr than mechanical, audiometry. The rest of the s rt_?.cle is devoted t~~ efforts to draw up an effective word list for testing the hearing of airmen.. The ai-bicle states that the first list of words drawn up consisted of terms used in Air Force communications. This list was divided phoneti- cally into ten groups of -ten words each. These ten groups were to be in- terchangeable. By testing the hearing of a large number of airmen, a curve was drawn showing the average hearing ability of the airmen. The results obtained with different groups of words were so diverse, however, that the word groups could not be considered interchangeable. -45- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 According to the article, a second list of words was drawn up in which less common words and new methods were employed. The average curve re- sulting from -tests with this word list confirmed the advisab:tlity of using special word lists for Air Force personnel and the word group,_,, ca' this second list proved to be interchangeable. This concluded the first step of the research program. Immunology and Therapy 49. Combined Live Vaccine Against Plague, Tularemia, Brucellosis, and Anthrax "The Effectiveness of Combined Vaccination With ?Ave Vaccines Against Plague, Tularemia, Brucellosis, and Anthrax;" Report I: Compatibility of Live Vaccines (Plague, Tularemia, Brucel- losis, and Anthrax) in Experiments on Guinea Pigs," by N. K. Vereninova, Ye. 1. Smirnova, N. F. Kalacheva, N. 1. Kuznetsova, and Z. N. Karaseva, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology of Southeastern USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemio- logii i Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 1.1, Nov 5d, pp 45-52 This article is introduced with the following statements concerning the use of live vaccines: "The diversity of prophylactic inoculations and the difficulty of carrying them out suggested to investigators the idea of using combined vaccines consisting chiefly of killed microorgan- isms, anatoxins, and complete antigens. Practical experience has shown that the problem of using associated. preparations manufactured from killed vaccinnes, anatoxins, and complete antigens is close to being resolved, and several- assoociated preparations have always been introduced into Soviet public health practice. This cannot be said about live vaccines. Until recently, the possibility of simultaneous inoculation against several infections with live vaccines was almost unstudied. Meanwhile, under certain epidemic conditions the necessity arises for vaccinating the population stimzLtaneously against several infections the specific prophylaxis of which is accomplished with live vaccines in our country "The possibility of concerning jrwunity to several infections with combined vaccines of live and killed [microorganisms] Is ind.icated by investigations devoted to the problem of antigen compatibility in as- sociated preparations (Kompaneyets, Dmitriyev, and Nikollskaya, 1932; Ruchkovskiy and Mach, 1933; Neshcha&m(.,.nko a_Md Golub, 193+; Akimenko, 1949; Korobkova and associates, 1950; Kalacheva, 1954; PLLipenko and Polyakova, 1955; Gubina., 1957, etc.). One data obtained led to the - 46-? Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 conclusion that the use of combined vaccination with live vaccines for the prophylaxis of a number of infections is completely feasible. It is necessary to take into account the fact that competition of antigens in the organism is decreased or altogether absent when they are selected correctly." CPYRGHT The object of the research discussed in this article was to study the effectiveness of combined vaccination of guinea pigs simultaneously against plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and anthrax to evaluate the compatibility of these components. The immunogenic characteristics of monovaccines against the four infections were the main criteria employed in selecting doses for the experiments performed. The experiments are described in detail in the texts and results are summarized in tabular form. The following conclusions are presented on the basis of the results obtained over a period of 2 1/2 years (1955?-1957): "l. Following combined vaccination with four kinds of live vaccines (plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and anthrax), sufficiently intense im- munity against plague (500 Dcl), tularemia (1,000 Dcl); and brucellosis (2 infecting units) was produced in guinea pigs; the immunity was almost the same as immunity which developed after immunization with the corre?? sponding monovaccines. "2. The anthrax antigen as a weaker stimulant of the physiologicat mechanisms of the vaccinal process was suppressed by the other three antigens in the combination; as a result, immunity against anthrax was not developed to a sufficient extent. Survival in these animals follow- ing infection with the anthrax pathogen was extremel,T low in comparison with su.rviva], in guinea pigs vaccinated with the anthrax monovaceine. "3. Weak resistance to infection with F. anthracsis was observed. in guinea pigs vaccinated. with the combi Dd. vaccine both subcutaneously and cutaneously. ")+. In view of the insuff:Lcient resistance to anthrax infection after combined inoculation of guinea pig,.., weals immli ity was observed with respect to mi ed. infection. "5. The method of introducing anthrax vaccine in advance,, up to 10 days before inoculation of the tri:vuccine, guaranteed a pronounced effect following both separate and sJiiv .taneous infection with pathogens of the four infections. "6. The suggested method was harmless in experiments on guinea pigs. " Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 50. Simultaneous Immunization With Live Brucellosis Vaccine and Tetanus Anatoxin "The Effectiveness of Simultaneous Immunization With Live Dry Brucellosis Vaccine and Tetanus Anatoxin," by Tzyan Shun '-tsyu, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gamaleya; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 58, pp 83-93 After introductory remarks concerning principles of and previous research on combined immunization, the author of this article presents results of his studies on the effectiveness of simultaneous immunization of guinea pigs with live brucellosis vaccine (Br. abortus 19-BA) and na- tural tetanus anatoxin. The experiments are described in detail; results are discussed and summarized in the following three tabies: Titers of Tetanus Anatoxin in Guinea Pigs Immunized With Live Brucellosis Vaccine and Tetanus Anatoxin and With Tetanus Anatoxin Alone; Wright, Opsono- Phagocytic, and Burnet React:Luns in Guinea Pigs TxmnunIzed With Live Brucellosis Vaccine Alone and Combined With Tetanus Anatoxin; and Results of Testing Immunity Against Brucellosis. Conclusions offered on the basis of these results are as follows: "1. Upon simultaneous action of live brucellosis vaccine 19-BA and tetanus anatoxin on the guinea pig organism, immunological re c. oils tructior. of the organ.1sm with respect to brucellosis was the sense as it was in pigs immuniz(:d with brucellosis vaccine 19-BA alone, i.e., tetanus anatoxin combined with brucellosis vaccine action does not affect the dynamics of the development and extinct-.Lon of the immunological process against bru- cellosis. Titers of tetanus anatoxins in pigs immunized simultaneously with two antigens were considerably higher than in pigs immunized with only tetanus anato:in. "2. Guinea pigs were found to be uniformly resistant to a virulent Br. melitensis strain and tetanus toxin both after simultaneous iumuniza?. tion. with both antigens and after their separate administration. "3. Subcutaneous inoculation. with live brucellosis vaccine 19..BA can be employed succ:_ssfully in combination with active immunization agains t tetanus . " 48 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00.141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 51. Double Vaccination Against Q Fever "Experimental Double Vaccination Against Q Fever," by S. M. Kulagin, A. D. Fukts, R. 1. Zubkova, and L. D. Popova, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gama.1eya and Krasnodar Kray Sanitary-Epidemiological Station; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 11, Nov 58, pp 25-29 This report concerns research on specific prophylaxis of Q fever. After some introductory discussion on previous experimental work with the Q fever vaccine, the authors present evidence to support their recommenda- tion that the vaccine be administered in two doses instead of three. Vaccinations were performed in Krasnodarskiy Kray from July 1956 to January 1957; 643 workers from meat combines and milk factories where high indexes had been obtained in 1955 investigations for Q fever were inoculated. One group was vaccinated. once; and the other, twice. Results are discussed in the text and tabulated. Conclusions presented on the basis of these observations are as follows : "1. Experimental vaccination of 643 persons against Q fever with a vaccine having a'prolonged period o preservation (15 months) demonstrated that it was entirely adequate to guarantee specific prophylaxis In inocu- lated persons. "2. Complete tolerance to the vaccine, which produced reactions in. 8.2% of the persons inoculated, was noted. Three severe reactions and 11 infiltrates were observed out of 1,105 persons inoculated. No abscesses occurred. "3. The immunological effectiveness of two-time vaccination in doses of 0.5 and one ml at 2.-week intervals during a 5-month period completely corresponded. to that of three-time vaccination. The immunological effect was lower at a remote period (8 months) than in persons inoculated three times. "4. Although 15% of the persons in collectives where the vaccination were performed reacted positively to Rickettsia burneti antigen, allergic reactions following inoculation were not observed. This indicates the possibility of specific vaccination of threatened groups without prelimi- nary serological testing. "5. Two-time vaccination in doses of 0.5 and one ml at 2-week in- ervals can be recommended to simplify mass vaccination against Q fever." - 1F9 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Pharmacology and Toxicology 52. Hungarians Develop Psychosis-Producing Drug "The Effect of Dimethyl-Tryptamine (DMT) on Normal Individuals," by Dr Ferenc Kajtor, Neuropsychiatric Clinic of Debrecen Med- ical Sciences University (director, Dr Pal Juhasz) Ideggyogyas- zati Szemle, Budapest, Vol XI, No 42 Oct 58, pp 122-126 Dimethyl-tryptamine is a new psychoticum produced and used in Hungary. It produces model psychoses similar to those produced by lysergic acid (ISD-25) and mescaline. In this experiment, electroencephalograms were taken from five normal adults while they were in a model psychosis pro- duced by DMT. The DMT was administered intramuscularly and produced a two-phase change in the EEG depending on the seriousness of tI psychic changes. The change in the EEG due to the effect of DMT is very similar to that which takes place due to ISD; however,, DMT has a quick effect and thus probably acts directly, whereas ISD has a slow affect and thus acts more likely in an indirect manner.' The experimenter presumes that DMT produces two effects: it facil- itates certain activating and sensitizing systems in low concentrations but causes inhibition of differentiation in higher concentrations. 53. Study of the Effect of Diethyl-4-Nitrophenylthiophosph,ate on Warm- Blooded Animals "Study of the Permeability of Diethyl-4-Nitrophenylthiophos nhate `Fagged With Radioactive Isotopic Phosphorus (P32) in the Bodies of Warm-Blooded Animals," by K. A. Gar, N. A. Sazo- nova, and V. I. Chernetsova, Ti^. Tsentr, N. 1. Dezinfekts. In- ta (Works of the Central Scientific Research Disinfection In- stitute), 1957, No 10, 263-273 (from Refera?tivn Zhurnal-- Khimiya, No 18, 25 Sep 58, Abstract No 62025, by I. Mil?shteyn) "Investigations were conducted on the permeability of diethylpara- nitropnenylthiophosphate (1) tagged with isotopic P32 in the body of warm-blooded animals (white rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and cats). After -50?- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 ApprovATOWTIease 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 poisoning the animal with (1) either orally or by application on the skin, P32 appears in all. the organs of the investigated animals. The distribu- tion of P32 in all types of animals investigated proceeds approximately equally. The transmission of (1) in the organism of warm-blooded animals is accomplished by the blood. (1) quickly decomposes in the organism; the hydrolysis products of (1) are excreted in the urine. In animals receiv- ing a lethal dosage, an increased amount of undecomposed (1) is observed in the important vital centers." 54. Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride on Serum Protein "The Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride on the Level of Buffer Acids in the Serum Protein Picture of Dogs," by 1. D. Man- surova, Tr. Stalinabadsk. Med. In-ta. (Works of the Stalina- bad Medical Institute), 19570 No 27, pp 21-27 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal--Khimiya-Biologicheskaya Khimiya, No 22, 25 Nov 58, Abstract No 29993, by I. E l'man) "The subcutaneous administration of CC 14 to dogs produced a marked decrease in the quantity of buffered acids in the blood serum (up to the administration of 58 moi. egv./l, following the administration of 39 mol. egv/l) which is analogous to the decrease in buffer acids during cerosis of the liver in humans. The effect produced by CC14 led to a marked de- crease in the A/G coefficient and an initial increase in the quantity of alpha2 globulins (from 5% to 16.4%), with a subsequent increase in the content of the beta2-globulin fraction (to 25%). In the beginning, the gamma-globulin content doubled during this type of liver affection,. Later, it g": adually decreased." 55. Effect of Various Substances or. Blocd Serum Phos hatase "Concerning the Effect of Dichloroethane and Carbon Tetrachlo- ride on the Phosphatase Activity of the Blood," by S. L. Dan- ishevskiy, Tr. Lenirgr. San.-Gigiyen. Med. In--ta. (Works of the Leningrad Sanitary Hygiene Medical Institute), 1958, No 44, PP 155-163 (from Referativnyy Zhur.nal- -Taiimiya-'3io"logir,ries~lza a Khimiya, No 22, 25 Nov 58, Abstract No 29992, by I.El'man) _ "Dichloroethane and CC14 in vitro produces a decrease in the activity of alkaline blood phosphatase. After single or repeated inhalation of dichloroethane or CC14 fumes by rabbits, as well as subcutaneous 51 _ Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 administration, the alkaline phosphatase content in the blood decreases. Thiu decrease varies over a wide range (from 12 to 80% after the inlaa- lation of dichloroethane fumes) and does not depend on the concentration of the intoxicating substances." Effect of Various Substances on the Toxicity of Dichlorcethane "The Course of Dichloroethane Poisoning During Functional Changes in the Thyroid Gland," by 00 I. Kharitonov, Sb. Tr. Byuro r 10 Sudebnomed0 Ekspertisy i Kafedry Sudebn0 Med. Alma- Atinsk. Med. In-ta. (Collected Works of the Bureau of the Main Forensic Medicine Commission of Experts and the Chair of Forensic Medicine of the Alma-Ata Medical Institute), 1957, No 1, pp 42-45 (from Refer. ativnyy Zhixrnal--?Chimiya?-B3tacJ,rhesaya Khimiya= No 22, 25 Nov 58, Abstract No 29990, by L. Goldberg) 516. "It was determined that the preliminary administration of thyroidin to rabbits produces a 50 decrease in the LD of dichloroethane. The in- toxication proceeds rapidly with death occuring within 20-30 minutes. By inhibiting the hormone function of the thyroid gland with methyithiouracil, the LD of dichloroethane is unchanged, with death occuring in the animals within 6-8 hours." 57. Magnoline, a New Alkaloid "The Pharmoc ology of a New Alakaloid, Magnoline," by E. Ye. Aleshinskaya, Tr. Krimsk Med. In-ta. (Works of the Crimean Medical Institute), 57, No 18, pp 675-682; (from Referattivnyy. Zhurnal--Khimiy , Biologicheskaya Khimiya, No 22, 25 Nov 58, Abstract No 2997 by S. Dolina) "In experiments on cats, magnoline, an alkaloid from Michelia fuacata, possesses hypotensive action in doses of 0.5 mg/kg and higher when ad- ministered intravenously. This action is connected with the inhibitory effect of magnoline on the sympathetic ganglia and on the medulla oblongata, and its adrenolytic properties. Magnoline possesses anticholinesterase properties." 52 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Public IIealth, ILyiene, and Sanitation 58. IIelico ter Equipped With an Aerosol Generator "Tests of a Helicopter With an Aerosol Generator," by V. F. Dunskiy and A. F. Funikov, Candidates of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteniy of Vrediteley i Bolezney, No 3, May-Jun 58, pp 20-21 "Type AG-L6 aerosol generators are not adaptable to agricultural aviation inasmuch as their performance at existing speeds of flight are wholly inefficient and a better aerosol generator has not yet been de- veloped. However, during the past few years, new possibilities for avia- tion application of aerosols have appeared with the use of the helicopter in agriculture. "The helicopter can fly at slow speeds. Its rotor throws a great mass of air downward and, as an ordinary blower, creates a strong current directed to the ground. This current carries along the aerosol injected into it and forces it onto the plantings to be sprayed (e.g., the tops of trees) and ensures a uniform deposit of the finest droplets of in- secticide liquid on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves in all parts of the trees. A helicopter equipped with the aerosol generator can be an extremely effective agent against pests in mountainous orchards where the use of an airplane or ground vehicles is difficult or :impossible. "The initial tests of this type were conducted in 1957 under airport- operating conditions by the Mosstazra [Moscow Plant Protection Station] and the State Scientific Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet with a Ka-15 helicopter equipped with an AG-?I6 generator. A supercharger was in- stalled inside the fuselage and was driven in the engine at a rate of 3;000 rpm. Air from the supercharger enters the combustion chamber of the?gen- erator and then passes into a Venturi tube. The gasoline is fed into the combustion chamber from a tank situated inside the fuselage. The agent enters the narrow section of the nozzle tbrotgh a measuring valve from a bunker. "Exhaust from the combustion chamber of a land-based aerosol gen- erator is usually produced by decreasing the engine speed. But in heli- copter flight it is not possible to reduce the engine rpm rate. Hence, - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 the valve in the air duct is controlled by an electromagnetic governor. AL the release point the pilot opens the valve and allows part of the air from the supercharger to pass out. This is equivalent to decreasing the revolutions of the supercharger. "The gasoline enters the chamber from the fuel tank under 0.2 atm pressure and flows through a carburetor jet which provides a supply of an enriched fuel mixture in the chamber. After the release the electric gas- oline valve is closed and the gasoline flows consecutively through running and starting jets; by this process the mixture arriving in the chamber is leaned down in accordance with the needs of the operating system. The temperature of the exhaust gas is 5000. "At the airport, measurements were made of agent deposits on the ground and of the droplets which settled. The helicopter flew over a transverse line of cuvettes and slides at a fixed height (5 or 10 meters) at a speed of 13-45 kilometers per hour. At a distance of 100 meters from the line of cuvettes release of the aerosol was begun and was dis- continued 200 meters beyond this line. "Twenty-five slides were placed 3-5 meters apart so that the de- posits of the aerosol ,sere measured in a belt 75-125 meters wide. To decrease oil spread the slides were coated with a special silicone sub- stance. "After the test the drops were counted and measured under a micro- scope calculating the area of the examined portion of glass. The quantity of liquid deposited on a unit area was determined by adding the volume of all deposited droplets. In addition, a colorimetric method was used to determine the quantity of dye deposited in the cuvettes. (This dye had been dissolved in the employed liquid in the quantity of 0.1%. In an aerosol formed by a thermomechanic process deposition of the dye is equiv- alent to deposition of a nonvolatile type of toxicant, such as DDT.) "The tests were conducted in the early morning when the wind speed at a height of 1.5 meters was 0.25-3.9 meters per second. The character- istics of the aerosol stream and its dispersion were as follows: at a flight speed of 35 kilometers an hour the aerosol stream was directed at the ground at an angle of nearly 300, at the slow speed of. 13 kilometers an hour the aerosol stream was directed sharply downward and diffused. It was wider in its transverse direction than in its longitu"mal direc- tion. On both sides of the flight line the aerosol is carried along by - 54 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 the upward ajr eddies; at speeds greater than 45 kilometers an hour it is diffused at n slight angle to the earth and the action of the strong down- ward current from the rotor is sharply decreased. Therefore, the helicopter speed for aerosol processing should not exceed 40-45 kilometers 'an hour; the flight altitude over the surface to be treated, 5-10 meters; and the lateral 3ispersion, 30 meters. "The degree of deposition of the liquid during the different tests amounted to 10-42% but up to 66% of the dye which had been substituted for the poison deposited. The remaining portion of the liquid and dye was carried by winds beyond the limits of the investigation zone. "The increase in deposition in comparison with the characteristics of a generator operating under ground-based conditions should be attrib- uted to the action of the downward air current produc;;-d by the helicopter rotor. "During 1958, tests of a helicopter equipped with an aerosol genera- tor under actual operating conditions are intended." 59. Czechoslovak Article on Membrane Filters "The Possibilities of Using Membrane Filtration in Microbi- ological Diagnoses," by Col Josef Chvapil and Jan Svejcar, Central Military Hospital in Prague; Prague, Vojenski Zdra- votnicke List, Jun 57, pp 274-281 Experiences using membrane filters in bacteriological and hygienic practice are reviewed and their advantages listed. The use of membrane filters is particularly valuable whenever the presence of inhibitory sub.? stances and small quantities of the microorganism are an obstacle to the successful outcome of cultivation. The membrane filter method was introduced by the authors in the in- vestigation of the most varied clinical materials (CSF, exudates, urine, separtion of bacteriophages, etc.). Furthermore, a modification was worked out for the detection of microorganisms in the blood which is more advantageous than methods hitherto employed. - 55 .. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 According to the authors, the possibilities of utilizing membrane falters under field conditions are clear. They recommend that labora- tories acquaint themselves with the technique. In this respect, they any, it will be necessary to catch up with other countries, such as the Soviet Union, the'US and Germany. 60. Insect Control Research in Czechoslovakia "The Fight With Insects in Open Terrain" by It Col Jan Svoboda, MD, "Jan Ev. Purkyne" Military Medical Institute; Prague, Vojenski Zdravotnicke Listy, Aug 57, pp 362-366 Insects which are injurious to human health and means of controlling them in open terrain are discussed in an article based on insect control research carried out in temporary bivouac, areas, field kitchens, and field slaughterhouses in the Czechoslovak army. The use of Nerafum insecticide preparation is proposed. For more thorough extermination, an improvised fumigator which allows both the choice of the desired insecticide mixture and the application of a con- centration adequate to a given situation is recommended. Radiology 61. Course of Thermal Burns of the Cornea During Radiation Sickness of Varying Severity in Rabbits "The Course of Thermal Burns of the Cornea During Radia- tion Sickness in Rabbits," by P. I. Lebekhov (Leningrad); Moscow, Vestnik Oftal'mologii, No 1, Jan/Feb 58, pp 3.10 The aim of this research was to study the anatomical-physiological processes characterizing the organs of sight during thermal burns against a background of radiation sickness. Tests were conducted on 88 rabbits, of which 6o were irradiated by 700 r of X rays, or 700 or 1,000 r of gamma rays. The experimental animals were also subjected to second3or third degree, or diffuse thermal burns, - 56 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Detailu of the experimental metho,1., blood analysis, inflammatory changes, and frequency of infectious complications are presented. Results confirm that corneal thermal burns of medium severity against third degree radiation sickness are frequently characterized by the pres- ence of secondary infection which causes a significantly more severe course of the burns than the course of burns uncomplicated by irradiation. In- fection in the foci of corneal. burns of irradiated rabbits showing weak symptoms of radiation sickness appears at the same rate as that in the foci of burns of no:,irradiated rabbits. The only difference between the course of corneal burns against mildly expressed symptoms of radiation sickness (second degree), and that of corneal burns of nonirradiated rab- bits is the greater frequency in the former case of erosion at the site of the corneal burns. In animals showing weak symptoms. of radiation sick- ness (first degree), remission of inflammatory charges and regeneration of epithelium of the cornea proceed at a faster rate than in nonirradiated control animals. 62. Conference oil Ionizing Radiation "Scientific Conference on the Problems of the Action of Ionizing Radiation on Animal Organisms," by Ya. L. Shekhman; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademi.i Na,lk SSSR, Seri ra Biol.ogiceskaya, No 6, Nov-Dec 58, PP 758-70 A conference organized by the biological section of the Institute of Biology imeni A. A. Bogomol.'ets, Academy of Sciences Ub'ainian SSR (Di- rector of the Biophysics Sectio:c, Corresponding Member of Academy of Sci- ences Jk-rainian SSR, A. A. Gorodtskiy), was held 9-13 June 1958 in Kiev. As the title indicates, the conference was dedicated to problems connected with the mechanism of the action of radiation on the animal organism. Corresponding to this,, the content of the reports were centered around the following basic problems: The general mechanism of the action of radiation on the biological system in simpler organisms was reported by A~ A. Gorodetskiy (Kiev), Ya, L. Shekhman and L. Kh. Eydus (Moscow), V. K. Tk(-h Kharkhov and I. F. Kovalav (Odessa), and others; the dynamics of the pathomorphological and biochemical changes cau: d by radiation sickness,, by A. I. Smirnova-. Zamkova, 0. P. Chepinoga, S. A. Korol (Kiev), P. F. Minayev (Moscow); Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Nucleic and protein metabolism during radiation sickness, by I. F. Lipkan, R. Ya. Marchuk, N. V. Zelenskiy (Kiev), and other's; dosimetry and the action of small doses y by S. N. Ardashnikov (Moscow), 'Yea F. Morgan (Kiev), B. I. Kirichinskiy (Kiev); and others; and the pathogenesis and therapy of radiation sickness, by A. 0. Bogomolets, Yu. A. Spasokukotskiy, N. N. Lebedev, and others. The distribution; accumulation, and excretion of radioactive isotopes from an organism, and the course of infection during radiation sickness were aJ.,_o disscufi;jera. The conference, according to the author., was well organized on the whole and the reports presented in the program were very timely. In ad- dition; the conference afforded the individual members an opportunity for personal contact - between biologists, physicists, and clinicists -- which was very fruitful and facila.tated the development of work on the study of the mechanisms of the radiobiological effect. 63, Czechoslovak Radiological Research "Present Day Possibilities of Decontaminating an Organism Internally Irradiated by U-235 Pissioi. Products," by Lt Col Prof J. Nosek, MD,, "Jan Ev, Purkyne" Military Medical Acad- emy; Prague., Vo jenske Zdravotn1cke Li.sty, Jan 58, pp 9~'l2 Studies made at the "Jan Ev, Purkyne" Military Medical Academy of the possibilities of decontaminating organisms internally contaminated with U??235 fission products are described. The objective of the studies was to determine if the calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Ca/- EDTA) shortens the biologi -?.A.l half'i.,.fe of long-lived U-235 fission prod-- ucts. The article a section on methodology, a discussion., and a summary. The author believes that EDTA has not succeeded in satisfactorily clearing contaminated bone of the fIssior products of U-235 but that it ?s a very valuable aid in ridding -the gastrointestinal tract,, liver, and kidneys of heavy metals and rare earths. Ca/EDTA shortens the biological half-life of U-235 fission prod;a;ts in the 'liver spleen., small and large intestines, and kidneys, - S8 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 64. Hungarians Produce Medicines to Protect Against Radiation "Hungarian Medicines Against Old Age and Radiation" (unsigned article); Magyar Nemzet, 9 Nov 58, p 11. The Hungarian pharmaceutical industry has prepared a 15-year develr--- ment plan and factories have already started to execute the plan with in- novations costing several hundred million forints. Next year, construction of a new headquarters for the Pharmaceutical Industry Research Institute (Gyogyszeripari Kutato Intezet) will begin in Budapest. The 500 researchers of the institute are developing new antibiotics, medicines for virus diseases, and medicines for tumorous ailments, heart and circulatory diseases, rheumatism and gastric ulcers; they are also engaged in experimentation with and production of new vita- min products. These new medicines [the vitamins] overcome mental and nervous disorders and also delay aging of the organism. In the Kobanya Medicine Factory (Kobanyai Gyogyszerarugyar) they are producing [or will produce] isotope* preparations and medicines for pro- tection against radioactive radiation as well as vitamin B-12, insulin, and various hormone preparations. [For additional information on radiology, see Item No 10.] - 59 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 65. Effect of Niobium on Tempe Brittleness of Chrome-Nickel Steel "Effect of Niobium on Temper Brittleness of Chrome-Nickel Steel," by M. P. Braun, Doctor of Technical Sciences, and Engineers B. B. Vinokur and A. I. Kondrashev- Stalinsk, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy--Chernaya Metal- lurgiya, No 8, Aug 58, pp 113-118 Specimens of chrome-nickel steel 30KhN with niobium content ranging from zero to 0.90% were tested by the Academy of Agricultural. Sciences Ukrainian SSR and the Novo-Kramatorskiy Machine Building Plant to deter- mine the effect of niobium on temper brittleness and toughness. The various heat-treating methods are described and results are given for impact strength tests at temperatures from -200?C to 300?C. The most effective content of niobium is in the 0.30-0.40% range. Optimum heat-treatment for this type of steel consists of quenching at 850-900?C,and tempering at 58o-650?C. Long holding at 650?C results in a sharp i..,,..jase in toughness. Increase of toughness is more rapid when applying multiple cyclic tempering with alternating cooling (in water and in a furnace). Final cooling speed has no effect on toughness. 6o Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 VIII. PHYSICS Nuclear Physics 66. USSR Developments in the Field of Nuclear Energy "Nuclear Energy in the National Economy," by Yu. Klimov; Moscow,, Prooshlenno-Ekon)micheskayaGa zeta, Vol 3. No 137 In 1959??1965 a number of new nuclear power-generating plants will be put into operation? These plants will be equipped with different types of reactors, The building of powerful nuclear energy electric power plants will not only supply some parts of the country with electric power, but also free a large quantity of coal and petroleum for use as raw material in the chemical industry. A nuclear energy electric power plant has been in operation in the USSR for more than 3 years without any difficulty or interruption. Recently, the first section of a nuclear electric power plant was started the nominal capacity of which is 600,000 kw. However, the construction of power reactors in the USSR is still on an experimental basis? The reason is that reactors of a great variety of designs can be used for the generation of heat which is then trans- formed into electric power. The type of reactor selected depends on the nuclear fuel used, the disposition of the fuel within the reactor, the energy of the neutrons which bring about nuclear fission, and the nature of the substances used to bring about the physical processes which take place in the reactor. The most careful calculations and detailed com- parative analysis of the designs of nuclear power plants have not yet given an answer to the question as to what type of reactor is most con- venient and economical. A nuclear reactor is a very ~omplex device, One cannot foretell in advance all characteristics of its operation and all its advantages and shortcomings, The answer can be given only on the basis of actual opera- tion of power reactors of different types, so that all data can be com- pared. However, one must already use discrimination at this stage in deciding for what capacities the nuclear energy electric power plants will be designed. Those power reactors which have been investigated most thoroughly and the advantages of which are most apparent should be de- signed for high capacities. On the other hand, reactors in regard to which doubts and moot points exist, and the advantages of which are less apparent, showd be designed for lower capacities. 61 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 However,, the electric power capacity of the reactors must be suf- ficiently high (1,e,,, of the order of tens or hundreds of thousands of kilowatts) to carry out experimental operation under conditions as close as possible to those encountered in connection with the industrial uti- lization of nuclear energy? The program for the building of power reactors in the USSR is often referred to as a large-scale industrial experiment carried out by the Soviet Union. Under this program, a number of nuclear energy electric power plants of different capacities are being constructed in the USSR, The capacities of these plants range from tens of thousands to several hundreds of thousands of kilowatts. The question is often asked whether one cannot select the most thoroughly tested reactor design as a prototype and on the basis of this design begin extensive construction of nuclear power plants. In connec- tion with this, the example of the development of nuclear power in Great Britain is mentioned,, where for all practical purposes only one type of reactor (gas-cooled;, graphite-moderated, and employing natural uranium as fuel) is used. The development of nuclear power in England along the lines indicated is due to the very rapid depletion of coal in that country and the in- creasing expense of imported crude petroleum? Under the circumstances Great Britain cannot wait until the most economical type of reactor has been developed and selected- to prevent a shortage of power in the near future, it is necessary to concentrate on the development of a single type of reactor there, even if this reactor is not of the best possible type. The situation is different in the USSR and the US9 because these countries have a sufficient supply of conventional fuel for the next few decades. Therefore, both in the USSR and the US reactors of dif- ferent types rather than a single type are being constructed. Apparently, a score or more years will elapse before it will be decided which re- actor type is the most economical. What types of reactors are used at USSR nuclear energy electric power plants that are in operation: or are being built at presenta First of all, one must mention the so-called water-water type of reactor, in which water is used both as a ccoolant and a moderator, In reactors of this type, the nuclear fuel, is cooled by water pumped through the reactor. In order that the water assume the highest possible temperature; it is kept under a pressure of 1.00 atmospheres, This water transmits heat to steam generators forming a hart of a second circuit and then returns to the reactor. Steam under a pressure of 20 atmospheres is formed in the steam generators. This steam is fed into turbogenerators, -62-, Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 A nuclear power plant with reactors of this type is being built in Voronezhskaya Oblast, Another nuclear power plant of the same type will be erected in Leningradskaya Oblast, In Ul?yanovskaya Oblast a reactor of the water-water type is also being constructed. However, this reactor will have a simpler system of steam generation-, the water will boil in the reactor itself. The steam generated in the reactor is fed directly into the turbine. Reactors of this type are considered very promising? In them fuel elements of the same type will. be used as those applied at the Voronezh and Leningrad nuclear power plants. The construction of reactors of this type was delayed because of the high radioactivity of the steam that is fed into the turbines. It has been demostrated, however,, that this radioactivity can be lowered to a level which makes it possible for the personnel to stay in the vicinity of the turbine for a definite length of time sufficient to complete the necessary work. At the plant being built in the Urals reactors of another type are used, .A prototype of these reactors is-that used at the first USSR nuclear power electric energy plant that is in operation in the vicinity of Moscow. In the graphite-,moderated reactor of the Ural Plant, ordinary water under high pressure will be used as the heat-transfer agents In the reactor of this design, the graphite acting as moderator is perforated by many vertical ducts containing nuclear fuels. The heat- transfer agent flows through these ducts. The steam will have a higher pressure and temperature than those of the first nuclear energy electric power plant (the pressure of the steam will amount to 90 atmospheres and its temperature will be 480-5000). In an experiment carried out at the first USSR nuclear energy electric power plant, the majority of the steam ducts were operated at the boiling point. The experiment was successful. At present, the reactor of this electric power plant operates under new, more advantageous conditions. Superheating of the steam in the steam ducts of the reactor itself will as so be applied at the Ural Plant. In the reactor of the nuclear power,=generating plant which will be constructed on the Volga, liquid sodium is used as the heat-transfer agent and graphite as the moderator. Sodium is of advantage as a heat- transfer a nt, because it can be heated to a very high temperature without a substantial increase of pressure in the heat-transfer circuit. Because of this, it will be possible to bring the temperature of the steam generated in the boilers to 5000 at a pressure of the steam amount- ing to 90 atmospheres. A fhst breeder .rea .tor has been planned for construction on the Volga. The start of the operation of the first section of a new and very power- ful nuclear energy electric power plant was reported in a Tass dispatch ..? 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 recently, In the reactor of this power plant, graphite is used as the moderator; water as the heat-transfer agent, and natural uranium as fuel. A motion picture on the subject of this nuclear power plant was shown recently at the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (Geneva, September 1958). Mobile power reactors and reactors for transportation purposes are also being developed in the USSR, The reactor for the icebreaker Lenin has operational characteristics which cannot conceivably be achieved with the use of ordinary sources of power. The icebreaker, which will soon be in operation is distinguished by a high degree of self-sufficiency (it can stay at sea for one year), high speed, and a high capacity for cutting through ice. As far as its characteristics are concerned, this vessel is far superior to the most powerful existing icebreakers both in the USSR and outside the USSR. Soviet scientists are also making a large contribution to the study of controlled thermonuclear reactions, 67. Construction of a Nuclear Reactor in Georgian SSR "From Every End of the Country" (unsigned article); Moscow, Pravda, 26 Nov 58 "The construction of a nuclear reactor in Georgia is drawing to an end. Laboratories are being equipped in which scientists of the Soviet republics of Transcaucasia will conduct scientific research." 68, New Soviet Book cm Nuclear Engineering Yadern a Ener eti,heskiye Ustanovki (Nuclear Po!-7--r Instal- lations, by P, A, Petrov, State Power-Engineering Publish- ing House (Gosenergoizdat,) Moscow/Leningrad, 1958, 256 pp The book is based on a course given by the author at Moscow Power Engineering Institute? The principles of physical and thermal calcu- lations for thermal reactors are presented and a sample calculation for a power installation is given. The various fission materials and eco- nomic problems are considered, All descriptions of actual reactors are based on non-Soviet literature. The book is intended for nuclear en- gineering students, -64- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 69. Reasons Protective Shells Are Used in Reactors Outside USSR Examined Zashchitn iy- e Obolochki Xadern kh Reaktorov (Protective Shells for-Nuclear Reactors, by A. N. Komarovskiy, Publishing House of the Main Administration for the Utilization of Atomic Energy Under the Council of Ministers USSR (Atomizdat), Mos- cow., 1958, 68 pp The use of protective shells in reactors outside the USSR is the subject of the book. The reasons given in the literature for the use of these shells despite their high cost are examined. Protective shells have not been used in the USSR nor are they included in reactors now under construction or projected. Various aspects of the design, con- struction, and testing of shells are covered., 70. PMsical and Engineers:~g Problems in Reactor Design "Physical and Engineering Problems in Small-Size Protective Shield Design," by V. I. Kukhtevich and S. G. Tsypin; Mos- cow Atomna a EnerBiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 393-402 The designing of small protective shields of nuclear reactors is reviewed for facilitating the construction of mobile units. Physical problems arising in the design of a small shielding are discussed. The radiation of the nuclear reactor, gamma rays and neutrons penetrating the shielding layers, the formation and passage of capture gamma rays, and sector shielding are treated. Engineering problems such as Compton scattering of the shield, the choice of materials and the best arrange- ment of shielding layers are also discussed. The design of such reactors is considered so complex that thorough testing and experimental cor- rections are suggested. 71. Automation of Reactors "Complex Automation for Reactor Control," by P. Kovanits and M. Kulka, Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 403-411 Two types of follow-uup systems suitable for automatic control of nuclear reactors are analyzed. In the first system a detector follows the deviation of a certain point, e..g., the specified constant neutron flux. This system is suitable for combining the functions of measuring and signaling the period, the power, and subcritical state of the re- actor, and for emersency protection of the reactor. In the second .r 65 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 system the power of the reactor follows the deviation of the detector. Such a system can combine the operation of automatic control of the subcritical state, the period, and the power of the reactor. The design of follow-up systems of both types would give two different methods for the complex automation of reactor control. The first version is easier to introduce into the existing equipment. The second and improved version will probably find application in new installations. The suggested schemes have the advantage of consisting of standard parts, of providing autocontrol, and of ensuring constant operating conditions of the detector and the apparatus. 72. New measuring Instrument Developed "Short Communications" (unsigned article); Moscow.9 Aton ay Ener6a, Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58 p 187 ?? A magnetometer for accelerators -- The Physics Institute of the Acad- emy of Sciences USSR devised a magnetometer with a permalloy dial for measuring the static and dynamic magnetic fields in accelerators. The measuring range of the apparatus is 0 to 60 oersted; its sensitivity is (2-3)?10-'3 oersted. In measuring nonuniform magnetic fields variable in time, the design of the equipment automatically eliminates the error connected with the hysteresis of the permalloy and the relation of eddy currents of the -ield to the velocity of field variation. 73. Nuclear Transitions "Electromagnetic Transitions in Isomeric Nuclei," by L. I. Rusinov and D. A. Varshalovich; Moscow;, Atomnaya Ener ly a. , Vol 5, No 4, Oct 58, pp 1+32-4 5 ?? a?`=??--~ Electromagnetic transitions in isomeric nuclei are analyzed. The probabilities of gamma radiation of isomeric nuclei are compared with theoretical evaluations. The comparison is carried out for permitted as well as forbidden j- and 1-transitions in spherical nuclei and for transitions between levels of one rotational band,, single-particle and K-forbidden transitions in deformed nuclei. Experimental data on electromagnetic emission and quantum characteristics of isomeric nuclei concur with modern representations of the structure of the atomic nucleus. - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100220001-9 7 4 ,, Pickup Reactions of Uranium "Cross Section of the U-238 (n, 2n) U-237 Reaction for 15-Mev Neutrons," by G. P. Antropov. Yu. A. Zysin, A. A. Kovizhnykh, and A. A? Lbov; Moscow, Atomnaya EneaiYa, Vol 5, No 1t, Oct 58, pp