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QLIF ED F ASS 4090 - SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION I l/P 8 1 1 8 9.1 7 T 15 Approved for Release'19991U5 :C FEB;RURR~ 1959 -REPORT C u d For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 6 February 1959 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. Issued Semi-monthly. Price: Per year $28.00; Single issue :4R eJ9vt-.c f: CO/ h inrl & kncor~.f 1. ~7dor (urn to _.Qrrl '/\N 7 ~q $2.75. Ai ter n .1430 . Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 oqog /3o,\' 1 / yP Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluate. information extracted from recently received publications o' the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China. The infolhmation selected,is intended tQ indicate current. scientific' developments and activities in the USSR, in the Sino- Soviet Orbit countties, and in Yugoslavia, and is disseminated as an aid to United States Goverment research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents I. Biology II. Chemistry III. Earth Sciences IV. Electronics V. Engineering 31 VI. Mathematics 32 VII. Medicine 38' VIII. Physics 57 IX. Miscellaneous 70 NOTE: I-t ns in this report are numbered consecutiv--ty. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 1. Irradiation Effects on Plant Activity of Meristematic Ti,sue "The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Metabolism of Reserve Organs of Plants," by B. A. Rubin and L. V. Metlitskiy, Insti- tute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey, Biologic, Vol 19, No 5, Sep/Oct 58, pp 387-396 The aim of this research was to study the possibility of using radioactive isotopes and emission products of heavy nuclei for prolonging the period of vegetable storage. Potato tubers irradiated with gamma rays were used in studying metabolic phenomena: involved in the dormant state, germination, growth, and sensitivity to microorganisms. Topics discussed include the morphological and anatomical changes in growth zones of the tubers due to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the effect of ionizing radiation on nucleic acid metabolism. Results indicate that irradiation delays tuber germination because of the following: altered statet'of cellular colloids, shifts in the isoelectric zone of proteins toward the acid s1,de, delayed synthesis of nucleic acids in the growth points, decreased activity of a number. of oxidizing enzymes in the mitochondria, and, consequently, decreased rate of respiration. As a result of these changes the meristematic tissue in the eyes of irradiated potato tubers loses its capacity to divide. These same changes are produced by physical factors such as low temperature or chemical preparations'. because they delay oxidation processes in the tubers. The author concludes that irradiation makes it possible to prolong the potato storage'period. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 II. CHEMISTRY Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Pro eJp ].l&. is 2.. The Theory of the Chemical Stability of losives "On the Problem of the Theoretical Basis for the Determi: ation of the Chemical Stability of Explosive Substances," by W. K. Andreyev, Moscow Chemi cote chnological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Nauchnyye 1Doklad V sshe . ?Shkoly . -- Khimiya, i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiva No 11, Nov 5 8., pp 635- 39 The chemical transformation of explosives is usually a complex proc- ess which consists of a number of consecutive and parallel reactions the relative weight of which change's with changes in the temperature. For this reason the evaluation of stability in the low-ten erature region on the basis on the dependence of reaction velocity on temperature in the high.-temperature region is most reliable when the two temperature regions are close to each other. The stability of explosives is determined by the interrelationship of three characteristics: (1) the initial velocity of the s chemical transformation; the development (2) of self -accelerating reactions, specifically the maximum velocity of these reactions; and (3) the effect of admixtures or impurities on these reactions. One may distinguish between two types of the thermal decomposition of explosives; one type of decomposition is characterized by a strong acceleration of the decomposition under the effect of decomposition prod... ucts or some other admixtures (e.g., decomposition of nitroglycerin and of other nitric acid esters or of explosives which decompose in the solid state) while a relatively weak acceleration is typical for the other type of decomposition (e.g., decomposition, of nitramines and aromatic ni.trocompoundn). In the case of the first. type. of decomposition its self- acceleration and the presence of admixtures which contribute to this self-acceleration play the principal role; in the second type of decompo- sition these factors play a relatively less important, role and the initial % velocity of the chemical transformation is of greater importance. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 ;~ - Sortie V..".wwr Re:Jtats isi the rii_ rJe!;-",X.l r . at'LCj1., titi r;, J@73 "Opfiica:l. 1 vesti.gation of Transverse by B. V. Voytsekhovski,y, B. :Ye . #otov, V. V, aad M. Ye. Topchi,y,=, , ,Sibs riara D~ pas -me: 1.) J .cap: .my of a':iences USSR; Tfn?rosibirsk, Izve ;ti ii, S:L'Lbi.T,sko:,jro Ot l::.Le,ya Aka&eni.'. Vauk. SSSR To 9, Sep 58, pp 4-4--5p 0:, the basis of the experimental;hio: d--scr7:h^ei?., the follow- ing physical model of a detonation wave is proposed.: A. shock wave propagates ahead of the combustion front. This shock wave heats the gas to a high t?.anperature. Because of the imstabl ity of the flat front of combustion, transverse &eton.a,tion waves begin to prop-a- gate through the gas compressed and heated by the shock wave. These detonation waves crisscross the whole surface of the shock wave in dif- ferent directions with a network, of lines, formixsg a system of cej.L.-, whic"n ebange with time. Every transverse detonation wave consists of a shock wave followed by a combustion front. The pressure at the Jouguet point behind its front is approximately four times greater than that at the charnical peak of the principal detonation wave. At points of double collisions and particularly of triple collisions between transverse detontio? 3 waves, the pressure is several times higher than be:b.:z. s,?i. -the front of the propa- g a?ting shock wave. The stability of transver, se shock waves in explaim d by a sharp increase in the rate of combustion (determined by the factor 2e A "'rte after the secondary shock compression In a normal detonation wave the total gaent.::.ty of gas passes 'through the stage of a secondary shock compression. The dimensions of the detonation cells (i,- according to ,ouguet) are determined by the composition an1s^1. pr seure of the. gas m.ix.- ture; they depend only to a small extent on the di.aure?rer of the datona,- ti.on, tube, increasing somewhat at small diametr-era. A transition from a normal detonation to a spa, a detona?tio:r:: takes place when the diameter of the tube does not differ., greatly from the dimensions of the cell. Under these conditions ' a, f :c y: trerss detosr,,ati .,:n wave is preserved solely along the wails of the tubee, t~.he detonation is facilitated because of additional heating of the gc.s due to frictio; -. Thus, in spin' deton Lion the layer of gas the -oral' 'b-ur..'::s in a transverse detonation wave while the gas ~1rLt b_3; the :I: ! :c ve:.:Creme bi - El by virtue of turbulent ccanbustion. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 The scheme for the calculation of the characteristic angles of a single transverse detonation wave in normal detonation does not differ from the scheme for the calculation of a spin transverse detonation wave. Chemistry and Technology of Nuclear. .Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 4+. Solvent Extraction of Nuclear Fuels "General Conference of the Department of Chemical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, Held 22-23 May 1958" (unsigned article); Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni Khimicheskikh Nauk, No ]1, Nov 5 , pp 1399-1401 V. M. Vdovenko, Corresponding Member, Academy of Sciences USSR, gave a report entitled "Investigation of the Distribution of the Nitrates of Some Radioactive Elements Between Two Immiscible Solvents." He brought out that in present-day radiochemistry extraction processes based on the distribution of radioactive elements between two immiscible solvents are used extensively for the separation of radioactive isotopes. Extraction with organic solvents of uncharged inorganic complexes, often present in the form of acido-complexes, is one of the principal methods for the separation of radioactive isotopes. Vdovenko's report discussed results of-systematic investigations concerning the distribution of-the nitrates of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl. Furthermore, data on the distribution of a 'number of nitrates of other elements between aqueous solutions and. some oxygen-containing organic solvents were presented.. The author of the report succeeded in establishing a number of relationships which are interesting and important from the practical standpoint. These relation- ships correlate the efficiency of the salting-out effect of nitrates not only with the concentration of the nitrate ion, but also with the charac- teristics of the cation introduced into the solution (its radius and the magnitude of its charge). The results of the work that has been done on the subject made it possible to apply the extraction method for the separation of uranium and plutonium from aqueous solutions and the purification of these elements from splinter elements. The basic principles have been investi- gated of the extraction method for the treatment of irradiated uranium with the'use of a solvent which is safe as far as danger of explosions is concerned. The processes of distribution were investigated in the presence of calcium nitrate functioning as a salting-out agent. Applica- tion of this process makes it possible to separate from irradiated ura- nium approxima-cely 99% of the plutonium present in it. The extraneous radioactivity is reduced by a factor of 80,000. In this process, more than 99% of uranium is separated and the content of splinter elements in this uranium is reduced by a factor of one million. - 4 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 5 ? MYricitrin as a Reagent for the Dctermknatlo;o. of' Uranium "Investiga?t'tion of Complex Compounds of Uranium With Myricitrin," by P. A.. Zagorets, Chair of Chemical Physics, Moscow Chemico- Techuological, Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev; Moscow, Nauch- rA a Dok.lad V sshe Shko1 -- Khimi a i Khimicheska a Tek1b- nologiya. No 4, Nov,58, pp 680-684 Curves of the absorption by myricitrin and complexes of uranium with myricitrin in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum were taken. Specrophotomletric determinations indicated that there are three complex compounds of uranium with myricitrin with ratios of uranium to that substance equal to 1/1, 2/1, and 3/1. Direct chemical analysis indicated the formation of compounds with the ratios of 1/1 and 3/1. 6. Slectrophotometric Determination of Thorium "Fluorometric Determination of Sulfate Ions and Spectrophoto- metric Determination of Thorium With the'-Aid of Derivatives of Trihydroxyfluorone," by V. A. Nazarenko and M. D. Shustova, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriva Vol 24+, No 11, Nov 58, pp 134+-13+6 Derivatives of 2,3,7- trihydroxy 6-fluorone substituted in the 9- position were used as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of thorium. It was found that the 9-(o-hydroxphenyl)-trihydroxyfluorone is best suite. for determinations of this type. This substance forms a bright red complex compound with thorium at pH values greater than 2. Reagents of this type can also be used for the determination of the sulfate ion by the fluorometric method, because thorium enters into a sulfate complex, thereby freeing a part of the fluorone derivative, which fluoresces in ultraviolet light. 7. The System BeCl2 - BeF "Thermal Analysis of the System BeCkv- BeF2," by 0. N. Kuvyrk.~n, 0. N.Breusov, and A. V. oselova, Chair of Irxor- genic Chemistry, Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow, Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly -- Khimiya i Kta.imiehe- skaya Tekhfologiya, No , Nov 5 8., pp 660-663 A thermal analysis of the system BeCL, - BeF2 was carried out. It was established that this system forms a simple eutectic which contains 72.5 mol% of BeP2 and melts at 3060. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 ~. The Chara^tsristics of B~:ar~oyla ~titc,y7e as an Agent for the Extraction of Radloa,ctive Isotopes "The Dissociation Constant of Bei zoylacel,;o,,.ke brie., the Coeffi,- cients of the Distribution of This Compound Between Some Organic Solvents and the Aqueous Phase., by 1. Story and N. P. Rude:nko, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University Smeni M. V. Lomorcosov; Moscow, Nauchxiyye Doklady Vysshe Shkoly -- Rhimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnol.og;Lya, No Nov 58, p2 -629 The results of a determination of the dissociation constant of ben- zoylacetone and, of the coefficients of the distribution of this substance between benzene, chloroform, or carbon tetrachloride forming the organic phase and an acetate buffer solution forming and aqueous phase are reported. The properties of benzoyla,setone were investigated. because this substance, which forms inner complex salts with a great number of elements, may serve as an effective agent for the extraction of radioactive isotopes. The properties of benzoylacetone are compared with those of acetylacetone, which were determined in previous work done by the authors. 9. Elimination of Strontium Ions From Solutions With the Aid of Half - C ~.icined Dolomite "Interaction of Half-Calcined Dolomite With Strontium Ions in Aqueous Solutions," by S. A. Voznesenaskiy (deceased), V. F. Bagretsov, and. V. V. Pushkarev, Ural Polyp chni.c Institute imeni S. N. Kirov; Moscow, Zhur al Neorgax i.cheskoy_ Khimii, Vol 3, No 12, Dec 58,'pp.2801 280k An investigation of the interaction betwr-.en half-calcined dolomite as :d strontium ions contained in aqueous solutions, which has been carried out under static conditions, showed that strontium present in microcon,- centrations can under definite conditions be eliminated from these solu- tions rather efficiently by means of half-calcined dolomite,, :L. e. , "magacmass." On the basis of data obtained irnder static conditions, two mechazci.sms for the interac=tion of strontium with the magnomass were pro- posed, namely, (1) chemosorption on the surface of grains and coprecipi- tation on re crystallization of the magi+.arass and (2) coprecipitation accompaying new precipitation of difficultly soluble calcium and mag- nesium slats (cf. V. F. Bagretsov, Zhux .cal Neorganicheskoy i i, Vol 1, No 1, January 1956, p 179). The purpose of the present -work was an experimental investigation of the interaction between half-calcined. dolomite and strontium ions in aqueous solutions under dynamic conditions, i.e., daring the filtration of the solution through a coltmun filled with dolomite. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Solutions containing Sr89 were used in, the work described. It was found im, experiments carried. out at room temperature that at pH..1 5.0 of the iz itial solution a constant value of adsorption of vitro ium is established rather .rapidly under the experimental condition. This value depends on the time of contact of the solution with the dolq,- mite. When solutions of strontium in 1 N NEI , OH are used, a constant value of adsorption is established after filtration has been carried out for, a considerably longer time. When the strontium is contained in I N NeOH solutions, the adsorption gredually tops to zero. It was further- more found that the presence in the solution of anions that form diffi- cultly soluble salts with strontium considerably increases the amount of adsorption of this element. Industrial Chemistry 10. The Use of Polystyrene Vessels as Containers for Liquid Air "The Application of Polystyrene in Low-Temperature Technology," by Ruzicka; Prague, Stro irenstvi, No 4, 1958, pp 298-301 (reported by E,ogr A. A. Trokhin in Kis , Moscow, Vol 11, No 5, Sep-Oct 58, pp 62-64) In experiments carried out at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, applications of polystyrene as a heat-insulating material and material for vessels to be used as con- tainers for liquid air have been investigated. Glass Dewar flasks are dangerous because of the possibility that they may crack. . Metal Dewar flasks are safer, but are not a satisfactory substitute for glass flasks Unbreakable vessels made of foam polystyrene were found to tae satisfactory for the storage and handling of. liquid air. The results obtained in the work described make it possible to assume that foam polystyrene will find extensive application not only as a material for laboratory equipment but' also as an insulating material at low-temperature industrial installations. 1.10 Ftoropl.ast-4 "The Rolling of Ftoroplast-4 Film.," by I. M. Meyerovich, Moscow, B uUeten' Tekhniko-Ekonomicheskoy Informatsii, Vol 11, No 11, Nov 5 8., pp 20-22 The properties of ftoroplast-4 (polyfluoroethylene) are described, It is stated that this polymer can-be used at temperatures frctm,minus 2690 to plus 2500 CO The rolling of ftoroplast-4 films on.pgvipnent designed by the Central Design Bureau of Metallurgical Machine Building (TsKM), Central Scientific Research Institute of Technology and Machine Building (TsNIITMASh),-is discussed. -7- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 12. Developnert of Carboxyl Rubber to, the USSR "Carboxyl Rubber," by V. N. Re3rkh; Moscow, By le-,en' Tekhniko- Rkonomicheskoy Infoxrnatsii, Vol 11, No 1.1, Nov 5$, pp 1-15 The Institute of High-Molecular Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the A.11-Union Scientific Research Institute of Synthetic Rubber imeni Academician S. V. Lebedev have developed a method for the produc- tionn, of carboxyl-containing ela.stomers by the copolymerization of butadiene or other monomers with a small quantity of methacrylic acid (0.5-2%). The process of polymerization can be carried out in emulsion, in an acidic medium, and in the presence of redox systems. The presence of carboxyl groups in the polymer chain makes it pos- sible to vulcanize the rubber by reacting the carboxyl groups with oxides of divalent metals (e.g., magnesium oxide or zinc oxide) or metal hydrox- ides (e.g., magnesium hydroxide of calcium hydroxide). At high temperatures the capacity of vulcanized carboxyl rubber for elastic recovery drops (i.e., its yield point is lowered). This is due to melting of the crystalline phase., The yield point can be raised by forming strong intermolecular C-C bonds. This can be achieved, for i.:stance, by using a smal] quantity of thiuram. The tensile strength of carboxyl rubber is no lower than that of natural rubber and is much higher than that of analogous synthetic elastomers which do not contain carboxyl groups. Because sulfur bonds are absent, vulcanized carboxyl rubber is much more resistant to heat- aging than, natural or synthetic rubber vulcanized. with sulfur. Themost'.iportant characteristic of carboxyl rubber is its high notch resistance: notches on rubber of this type do not increase in size even after 360,000 deformation cycles, while analogous rubber from butadiene- styrene rubber is severed after 130,000-140,000 cycles and natural vulcan- ized rubber after 300,000 cycles. One of the drawbacks of mixtures based on ? carboxyl rubber is a tendency toward premature structure formation ("scorching"), which results in, a considerable lowering of the plasticity of the mixtures during proc- essing. This is due to reactions between the carboxyl groups of the polymer 'chains and metal oxides. The reactions in question can be inhibited to a certain extent by they introduction of some acids or anhy- drides, the addition of softeners, lowering of the temperature of proc- ess:Lng, and the application of apecial procedures; among which one may mention screening of the surface of the metal oxide with a protective high-melting film. -8'- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 The most effective procedure is the application of hydrates of salts in combination with metal oxides. For instance, calcium oxide does not exert a vulcanizing effect at the temperature used for vulcanization, whereas calcium hydroxide is a good vulcanizing agent. When hydrates of salts are used which split off water at temperatures close to that of the temperature of vulcanization, the calcium oxide introduced into the mixture is transformed into calcium hydroxide under the conditions in question. Tests conducted at the Institute of the Tire Industry, the Institute of Synthetic Rubber, and the Yaroslavl' Tire Plan'. have shown that the, butadiene-styrene rubber SKS-30-i, which contains carboxyl groups, can be used to advantage in the production of tires and is superior to analogous rubber not containing carboxyl groups. It was found that an addition of 20-30% of SKS-30.l rubber to SKI-30 AM rubber increases the notch resistance of tire casings by a factor of 1.5-2. Radiation Chemistry 13. Current Trends in Radiation Chemist "Radiation Chemistry -- Its Principal Trends and Problems," by N. A. BAkh, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, and P. I. Dolin, Doctor of Chemical Sciences; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSR, Vol 28, No 10, Oct 58, pp 20-33 A distinguishing characteristic of chemical reactions which take place under the effect of radiation is the participation in them of highly excited particles (ions, atcnns, free radicals, and molecules) the energy of which greatly exceeds that of the chemical bond. Ixs ordinary thermo- chemical and photochemical reactions, only a few particles of this type are present. As a result of the development of nuclear technology, radia- tion chemistry originated and the scope of research in this field increased greatly. In the initial phase of the development. of research on radiation chemistry, problems pertaining to the protection of various substances and. materials from the harmful effects of radiation predominated. At present stress is placed on applications of radiation for the purpose of conducting chemical reactions that will result in the formation of valuable chemical products. Under conditions which form the subject of study in radiation chemistry, charged particles usually transmit their energy com- pletely. Slow particles transmit a considerable portion of this energy. A knowledge of the relationships pertaining to the transmission of energy by slow electrons is necessary not only for the calculation of local doses (and consequently for the determination of the density of ionization along the track of particles) but also for a clarification of the type of excitation which is produced under the action of ionizing particles. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 ioudzatiarc potentials can. be calculated theoretically only for a simple gas For other substances, values of the ionization potential used. which are derived from experiments in which the free path of c:borc;ed particles was determined for the subst,y:rnce of question. The theory of the tra mTmi.ssion of radiation energy by molecules of a medium has been developed only for gases. The problem of applying this theory to condi :r sed systems remains open; one should do further work on this sub jer..t, particularly as far as effects produced by slow electrons are ^oa.cP,rziedn Radiation-chemical transformations also dapand on pr. oc,:.,3ses of trantanission of energy from particles which have acquired energy (atoms, mr)ie:cu-7 es, ions, and radicals) to molecules of the surrouxiding medium. The primary chemical reactions which follow ionization and excita- tiorn are of importance. Mass-spectrometric investigation of products formed. as a result of the impact of electrons on molecules of vax?ious compounds in. being conducted in the USSR (V. L. Ta1'roze) N. I. Tuaait- skly). Investigation of radicals which form in the radiolysis of organic .rrmpounds has been started. The study of these radicals is conducted by the method of paramagnetic resonance (V. V. Voyevodskiy). It is desirable to expand research in this field by applying different methods, for instance, pulse irradiation, for the determination of the half-life of short-lived intermediate products. Research on reactions taking place with the participation of hot atom,' atd radicals (that are formed in nuclear reactions) is related to the field of investigation mentioned above. A characteristic trait of particles of this type is that they may enter into reactions which are thermod3mamically impossible for ordinary cold particles. The investiga- tion, of hot particles will make it possible to clarify the role played by t:.hem in radiation chemistry and nuclear chemistry. Work on this sub- ject is being conducted on an extensive scale outside the USSR, while insufficient attention is being paid to this subject in the USSR. As far as radiation-chemical reactions of simple inorganic substances are concerned, the underlying relationships can be best 1avestigated on the simplest reactions such as the formation of ozone, the oxidation of nitrogen, and the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In, work done by S. Ya. Pshezhetskiy on the formation of ozone and of nitrogen oxides as a result of electron impacts, it was established that the prin- cipal role in the first transformation is played by excited molecules of oxygen and in the second by ionized molecules of nitrogen. To establish the gew.ral .relationships that are valid in this f'i.eld, one must investi- gate a large number of simple substances in different states after these substances have been subjected to the action of different kinds of radia- tion. Some reactions of this type may be of interest from the standpoint of the application of nuclear radiation as a means of acecmiplish.i.xig chemi- cal reactions which require a large amount of enter. gy (for. in-stance., the oxidation of nitrogen). - 10 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 A consider, able amount of work has bec n done on radi.ra.tio;a-chemical rea^:tions t4ki7:x; place in water and in aqueous solutions, because water. is used. in nuclear reactors as a moderator and heat-transfer agent and because products of nuclear fission are isolated from aqueous solutions. 1% al.1 the cases mentioned, nuclear radiation exerts a strong effect on water and aqueous solutions, so that radiation-chemical reactions play an important role. These reactions must be investigated, in order to solve general problems pertaining to the chemical effects of radiation. At present, using principally data obtained in research on processes taic?og place in aqueous media, attempts are being made to determine the role of ionization and excitation, to clarify the nature of tracks over which ionizing particles of different types pass, and to investigate proc- esses which take place in the vicinity of these tracks in the surrounding medium. Active intermediate products that are formed under the action of radiation on matter are also being investigated.. The very extensive experimental data that have been obtained on the radiolysis of aqueous solutions are adequately explained by the assump- tion that not only the radicals.OH and H but also the molecules H202 and H2 represent primary products of radiolysis. Radiation-chemical reactions may proceed in different directions. The radicals OH and H react with the substances dissolved in the water and also recombine with each other, yielding %02,, HQ, and'H2O. '.merecom - tion. is most probable along the' tracks of ionizing particles, where the concentration of radicals at the first moments after the passage of particles is many times greater than in the surrounding medium. Light r-,diatiou (gamma and beta) and heavy-particle radiation (alpha, d, p, and r.) induce the formation of radical and molecular products with different yields depending on the type of radiation. As a result of the action of light radiation on water, about 80% of the water molecules are involved in .h-mical reactions in the form of radicals and only about 20% can be detected in the form of H2O and H2 a The correspo',ding yields in the case of heavy particle7 radiation comprise 10-15% of radicals and. 85-90% of molecular products. The problem as to whether the molecular products are formed only by the recombination of radicals or may also form by some other mechanism has not been solved yet. By introducing into the solution substances which interact energet- ically with one of the radical prodaets' of the radiolysis of water, one can utilize more extensively the other radical for some suitable reaction. Organic molecules containing mobile groups usually function as acceptor radicals of this type. Some substances, under the conditions brought about by irradiation, serve as carriers or transmitters of oxygen in the oxydation of some other substance, thus considerably increasing the reac- tion yield. This phenomenon is-denoted as radiation sensitization. The idea in regard to the possibility of this pheacmienon was advanced by M. A. Proskurni.n, who together with his collaborators continues the inves- tigation of the phenomena involved. - 11: - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 As far as radiation electrochemistry is concerned, it has been estab- lished by V. I. Veselovskiy that irradiation of an electrochemical system consisting of the solution of an electrolyte and a metal electrode leads to a disturbance of the thermodynamic equilibrium in this system both because electrochemically active substances are formed. in the solution Ennrl because the electrons in the oxide layer of the electrode are excited. Electrochemically active products arise as a result of the transformations of the dissolved substance brought about by direct and indirect action of radiation and because of the radioalysis of water. Visible proof of a shift in the equilibrium of the system being irradiated is the generation of a stationary difference of potential between two electrodes which exhibit selectivity with regard to oxidizing and reducing products of radiolysis. Thus, the possibility of transforming radiation energy into electric energy in a galvanic system has been demonstrated. However, a practical application of this principle is connected with difficulties from both the technical and the scientific standpoints. Under the action of radiation either activation or passivation of processes occurring at the electrode may take :place. Intermediate prod- ucts of radiolysis which are formed in the solution (radicals and inter- mediate electrochemically active products) participate in the processes involved. Furthermore, the properties of the electrode itself change as a result of the direct action of radiation on it. This refers particu:- l.arly to semiconductor electrodes or electrodes the surface layer of which possesses semiconductor properties. It has been established in a number of investigations by N. A. Bakh and V. I. Medvedovskiy that electrochemical methods (potentiometry, polarography, etc.) are suitable for the investigation of products of radiolysis formed in aqueous solutions. In some cases, these methods proved very effective. The investigation of radiation-galvanic processes must be developed intensively in many directions. It is necessary to investigate the behavior under the effect of radiation of a great number of different redox systems, the products of radiolysis formed by which may be electrochemically active. An important problem is that pertaining to the mechanism of the selective action of products of radiolysis on electrodes. The investigation of the processes taking place on metal and semiconductor electrodes will contribute to the more effective appli- cation of radiation in electrochemical processes and to an understanding of corrosion processes taking place in radiation fields. Methods for suppressing corrosion under these conditions will be found as a result of this work. One must use more extensively electrochemical, methods in the investigation of products of radiation-chemical reactions and in work aimed at the clarification of the mechanism of these reactions. Investigations in the field of the radiation chemistry of organic substances have not yet led to generally recognized concepts, as distin,: guished from the radiation chemistry of inorganic compounds in aqueous Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 !'olutioais. However,, research in this :Cir-.ld progrees s rapidly and, is begiun1ng to cover an ever-increasing diveraity of reactions ar.,d. types of compounds. Modern and very effective methods are being applied in the investigation of the reaction products. Under the circumstances one may expect that new and valuable experimental data will be obtained soon and that general concepts pertaining to this field will be formu,- lated. Work on the radialysis of hydrocarbons in the liquid and gas phases has been initiated in the USSR. Processes of the radiation-chemical .Dx:f,rlatiou of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in the presence or absence of oxygen (in the latter case, by-products of the radiolysis of the solvent bring about oxidation) are being investigated systematically. A small number of investigations is being conducted on halogenation, amination, and other processes taking place wader the action of radiation. Although these investigations are of a predominantly qualitative nature and are concerned mainly with individual reactions, attempts are also being made at present to establish some general relationships per- taini:cg to radiation-chemical reactions in which organic substances par- ticipate. Very valuable data from this standpoint have been obtained by V. L. Tal'roze and Ye. P. Frankevich in the mass-spectrometric investiga- tion, of products formed by the be nbardment of molecules with electrons. It has been found that the principal reactions following the primary forma- tion of ions consist of ion-molecule interactions in which transfer of hydrogen atoms or protons takes place with the result that new ions or radicals are formed. The energy balance of these interactions is positive and the reaction energy is retained in the radicals or ions as excitation energy. The participation of radicals in radiation-chemical reactions of organic compounds can be established by the method of paramagnetic resonance. The presence of radicals in irradiated hydrocarbons has been detected by this method. Such radicals can be preserved for long periods of time in a frozen state at low temperatures (A. V. Topchiyev, L. S. Polyak). Radiation-chemical oxidation, as distinguished from photochemical and thermochemical oxidation, takes place at room temperature. This is possible only because the primary radicals which form as a result of the action of ionizing radiation have at the time of their formation a considerable excess of energy, which is preserved in the R02 radicals. This makes it possible to carry out reactions which require a sizable energy of activation, but does not bring about the development of chains, because the radicals R* which are produced in reactions of the type R*02+RH ROOH+R* - 13 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 do ~,).ot form peroxide radicals having a sufficient excess of energy. Per- oxide radicals which are not capable of bringing about reactions that require an energy of activation may add radicals and form dialkyl peroxides. This process is typical for processes of radiation-chemical oxidation and is not observed in photochemical oxidations. Investigations in the field of the radiation chemistry of organic substances done with the purpose of developing methods for the production of valuable substances must be'con- ducted on an extensive scale. The distinguishing characteristic of radiation-chemical processes, which consists in the participation in them of excited radicals, ions, atoms, and molecules, can be utilized most effectively in chain reactions. In view of the fact that polymerization a chain mechanism, there is a natural tendency to utilize radiation for the initiation of this process. ystemat:Lc research on the mechanism of radiation-polymeriza- tion is being conducted in the USSR under S. S. Medvedev's direction. Both structure formation in polymers and deterioration of polymers under the action of radiation are being studied. The first systematic investi- gations of the effect of radiation on polymers were carried out in the USSR by V. A. Kargin, P. A. Rebinder, and their collaborators. These investigations were concerned mainly with changes in the 'thermomechanical properties polymers under the action of radiation. At present a number of USSR scientists (V. L. Karpov, V. L. Tsetlin, Yu. S. Lazurkin, and others) are conducting different investigations in regard to the action of radiation on polymers. It is known that aromatic groups stabilized organic compounds to a considerable extent with respect to the action of radiation. This is due to the fact that the energy which accumulates in aromatic groups is not transmitted further along the chain, but is dissipated. Aromatic groups exert this effect in polymers as well as in other compounds. Thus, poly- mers which contain aromatic rings in the chain are not subjected to radia- tion vulcanization. Their deterioration under the effect of radiation is very slow. The practical application of radiation to induce chemical transforma- tions in polymers with the purpose of developing desirable properties in these polymers is in its very beginning. However, one can. already mention a number of applications which are very promising, for instance, radiation vulcanization, the development of polymers which are stable to the effects of radiation, the synthesis of graft polymers, and improvement of the heat resistance of polymers. Introduction into polymers of protective substances makes it possible to increase the radiation stability of the polymer. How- ever, in the majority of cases, one cannot yet control the effect of radia- tion on substanced of this' glass. ' - lk - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Irradiation of solid substances brings about processes resulting in modifications of the chemical composition cq of the structure. In cry- stalline substances, changes in, the lattice constants are produced and also displacement of charges, displacement of structural elements from their normal position, and other cha.nges. These processes can be observed because of changes in X-ray diffraction diagrams and alterations in the density and in the mechanical, optical, electrical, and other character- istics of crystals. Heavy particles exert the strongest effect on the characteristics mentioned. Modifications brought about in the character- istics of solids under the effect of radiation must be taken into con- sideration in connection with the use of structural materials in nuclear to cbnology. Research on structural changes in solids under the effect of radia- tion. is carried out on a rather extensive scale. The results obtained in work of this type are usually published in physical journals. Very little work on chemical changes in solids subjected to the effect of radiatio};, has been done either in the USSR or outside the USSR. The chemical changes which develop in solids subjected to the action of radiation frequently remain in a latent state and become evident only when other factors act on the substance. The chemical changes in question may bring about very radical and thoroughgoing modifications in the prop- erties of the solids in question and may even result in the complete destruction of the solid. Such phenomena take place, for instance, as a result of the initiation of chain reactions or processes brought about by scission or the formation of a new bond in very large molecules. But even pronesses which take place with ordinary yields may have a sharp effect on the specific characteristics of the substances, particularly as far as catalytic and semiconducter properties are concerned, because these prop- erties depend to a very great extent on structural and chemical changes. Solid. substances have the capacity of preserving for a long time thermo- dynamically unstable disturbances of the chemical composition and struc- ture. By letting accumulate such disturbances or defects produced as a result of the action of radiation, one may control some properties of solids. By subjecting the solids to radiation that brings about nuclear reactions, one may introduce into the solid substance microimpurities consisting of neighboring elements. This method of precise dosage of microimpurities may prove effective as a method of modifying in a desired sense the characteristics of catalysts and semiconductors. The changes in properties of solids taking place under the effect of radiation have not yet been studied to a great extent; one may expect that systematic investigation of the phenomena in question will yield valuable results from the scientific and technological standpoint. -15.. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Radiochemistry For information on radiochemistry, see Items No 8 and. 16.7 Organic Chemistry 11i. Synthesis and Transformations of Chlorides of Organoboron Compounds "General Conference of the Department of Chemical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, held. 22-23 May 1958" (unsigned arti- cle), Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleniye Khimi.- cheskikh Nauk, No ll, Nov 58; pp 1399-14,01 "A report entitled 'Synthesis and Transformations of the Chlorides of Organoboron Compounds' was presented by V. M. Mikhaylov, Doctor of Chemical Sciences. It was brought out in this report that, the esters of organoboron acids react with phosphorus pentachloride, exchanging alkoxyl groups for chlorine atoms. This reaction is a general and simple method for the preparation of chlorides of organoboron compounds. When applied to esters of disubstituted boric acids, this method yields both symmetric and unsymmetric dialkyl and diaryl borochlorides as well as ;alkylar,~rl borochlorides. Esters of monosubstituted boric acids form, depending on the proportion of reagents, either esters of alkyl-(aryl) chioroboric aicds or alkyl-(aryl) borodichlorides. The report discussed results of the investigation of chemical properties of different classes of organo- boron chlorides, which have beeome accessible because of the discovery of a simple method for their preparation. The reactions of compounds of this type with water, alcohols, organic acids, organic acid anhydrides, ammonia, and amines were investigated. It was established that the trans- formations of organoboron chlorides proceed over the stage of the forma- tion of intermediate complex compounds. These transformations are often accompanied by symmetrization. The reactivity of the chlorides depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the organic radicals which enter into their composition and on the composition of the substances with which the chlorides react. The investigation of the reactivity of the chlorides led to the synthesis of different new types of organoboron compounds. "Tile report was followed by a lively discussion, in which A. D. Petrov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Academician M. M. Shemyakin; K. M. Gorbunova, Doctor of Chemical Sciences; and others partici- pated. It was noted that organoboron compounds have already found impor'-- t ?ant practical applications, so that work in this field is not only of theoretical but also of practical importaWnce." 16 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Analytical Chemistry 15. A Seminar at Sverdlovsk on the Analytical Chemistry of Dispersed Elements "A Seminar on the Analytical Chemistry of Dispersed Elements," by V. A. Oshman, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, and K. V. Ogorodnikov; Moscow, 7~avodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 24, No 11, CPYRGHT Nov 58, p 1423 "An interoblast seminar on methods for the determination of rare elements was held on 23-28 June 1958 by the Sverdlovsk Division (Otdeleniye of the All-Union Chemical Society imeni V. T. Mendeleyev, the Ural House of Technology, and other organizations in the City of Sverdlovsk. "Fifty persons from 27 plants, mines, and research institutes of the oblast participated in the seminar. "At plenary sessions that were conducted reports were heard on the application of dispersed elements in the national economy and the principal directions in the development of the analytical chemistry of rare and dis- persed elements. Reports were also given on present-day methods for the determination of indium., gallium, germanium, selenium., tellurium, and thal- lium in fuels used for the generation of power, metallurgical and chemical raw materials, and products of the treatment of such materials. "Furthermore, the participants in the seminar did practical work on the development of new analytical methods at laboratories of scientific research institutes and higher educational institutions. "The participants in the seminar familiarized themselves with rapid methods for the separation of indium from complex mixtures with the aid of phytic acid combined with a polarographic determination at the end of the procedure, the colorimetric determination of indium with the aid of rhodamine 3 B, the amperometric determination of germanium, the polaro- graphic determination of selenium and tellurium without preliminary separa- tion, iodometrie determination selenium and tellurium after their separa- tion with potassium iodide, photocolorimetric determination of selenium and tellurium involving successive precipitation from a nitric acid solu- tion with the application of a copper catalyst, etc." 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 16. Analysis by the Method of Reflected Beta Radiation "Analysis of Complex Systems by the Method. of Reflection of Beta Radiation," by S. N. Kryukov, B. S. Bokshteyn, T. I. Degal'tseva, and A. A. Zhukhovitskiy, Moscow Steel institute imeni I. V. Stalin; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 24, No 11, Nov 58, pp 1305-1308 A method is described for the determination of the heavy component in systems also containing light elements. This method is based on meas- ur ment of the reflection of beta radiation. It has been proposed by N. A. Bogdanov and V. F. Funke (cf. Zavod.skaya Laboratory n., Vol 21, No. 2, 1955). The basic principle of the method and the technique of applying it are illustrated on the analysis of the system Fe-Mo-W and the determination of the content of iron in iron ores. An equilibrium mix- ture of Sr90 and Y90 was used as the source of beta radiation. Inorganic Chemistry or information on inorganic chemistry, see Item No 227 Miscellaneous 17, New Chemicotechnological Institute Opened. in Karaganda, Kazakh SSR "New Institute in Karaganda" (unsigned. article); Moscow, Promyshlenno.-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, 17 Oct 58 A new Chemicotechnological Institute (Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskiy Institut,), Academy of Sciences Kazakh SSR, has been opened in Karaganda. The main aim of the institute is to develop the problem of the complex utilization of natural resources of Central Kazakhstan. The institute has 26 laboratories with which to conduct this research. 18. Czechoslovak Scientist Visits Hungary --.Gas Analysis Methods C ed "Czechoslovak Experts Help Hungarian. Researchers" (unsigned article); Budapest, Nepszabadsag, 12 Dec 58 Je,roslav Janek, chief of the Gas Chromatography Laboratory of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, was recently the guest of the Hungarian Petroleum and Natural Gas Experimental Institute (Magyar Asvanyolaj es Fold-gazkiserleti Intezet), spending several days in Veszprem after his American and Chinese tours. -18- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 On the basis of his suggestions, the institute has changed its work methods. It is replacing its old. gas analysis instruments with domes- tically produced, relatively cheap equipment, Scientific work will be simpler with the new equipment because it will be suitable for the exam- ination of both natural gases and petroleum products. 19. Dissertations of Candidates of Chemical Sciences in Hungary "Reports of the Scientific Qualifications Committee -- New Candidates, .Tune 1958" (unsigned article); Budapest, Magyar Tudomany, Vol III, No 8-9, Aug-Sep 58 The Scientific Qualifications Committee has qualified the following as noted: Geza Bodor, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, on the basis of his dis- sertation titled "The Connection Between the Internal Structure and the Properties of Several Fiber-Forming Polymers"; his opponents were Acade- mician Zoltan Csuros and Peter Szor, Doctor of Chemical Sciences. Kalman Burger, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, on the basis of his dissertation titled "Toward an Analytic Application of Delta-Positive Halogens" Csic7; his opponents were Zoltan azabo, Corresponding Member [pf the Hungarian Academy of Science s7 and Arital Vegh, Candidate of Chemi- cal Sciences. Gabor Foldiak, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, on the basis of his dissertation titled "Radiation-Chemical Changes Exerted in the Electric Industry on Hydrocarbons and Insulating Oils as a Result of the Action of Electric Fields"; his opponents were Gyorgy Varsanyi, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, and Laszlo Vajta, Candidate of Chemical Sciences. Bela Lakatos, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, on the basis of his dissertation titled "A new Method for Calculating the Degree of Polarity of Chemical Bonds"; his opponents were Rezso Gaspar, Doctor of Physical Sciences, and Brno Pungor, Doctor of Chemical Sciences. - 19 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 III. EARTH SCI, LACES 20? Information Theory Used in the Interpretation of Geophysical Investi- atio:ns "The Information Theory of the Interpretation of Geophysical Data," by L. A. Khal,fin, All-Union Scientific Research Insti- tute of Prospecting Geophysics; Moscow, Dokiady Akad mii Nauk SSS.R, Vol 122, No 6, oct 58, pp 1007-1010 The information theory of the interpretation of geophysical data is considered. It differs ; frc?n the general theory of information in that the idea of describing geophysical methods of research as systems of an information observation is the basis of the method. Former works of the author are referred to, namely, a course of lectures given at the Lenin- grad. State University, 1956-1957 (in printing), and Dokl. Ina sektsii teor'. i3. infoxmatsii, works presented at the information theory section at the all-union scientific session ded:Lcated to the Radio Day, Moscow, 1957. Besides the theoretical' information approach, the problems considered may be investigated on the basis of the classical theory of statistical estimates. The problem concerning the relation between the theoretical information theory and the theory of statistical estimates is at present, however, not completely solved. As is known, the, problem of interpretation of data of a geophysical method consists of, determining according to the geophysical field 7P () (signal) the corresponding distribution of sources of that field P of com- murilca.tion (in the notation !P (r) we designate the variable coordinates of the geophysical field by r). In doing this an inherent difficulty consists in the fact that for the given geophysical field 1p Cr) reported., by ( it is possible to name only such a characteristic of the sources of- -that field., which is in one-to-one correspondence (theorem of uniqueness) with the given geophysical field, (signal) (r): a such a presentation the direct and inverse problems are natually sub- divide-d. It is evident that the interpretation may be either in squares or analytical. Under the square interpretation the following is understood: the given different l j, are found by solution of the direct problems corresponding to Tp i r), such that tables of sheets divided into squares are obtained in the result: (2) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Interpretation then consists in that ens;:or~~:i ~g to the measuring fieid 1 (r) the corresponding 7 Pj(r) ar'c fouad. in tab1r:s (?) (it is assumed. that this is always passible to cu i. the rz:cl~ r ?t ets eae t~uff.._c ie,,,tly cetailc 2n8osequently the caught-fo el); , c:L?- r4. In recent timer. the so-1 'EZ x 2 (l e'`'_ I W = 0. It is noted that the Hermite and Langer polynomials and Bessel functions are particular cases of this function. - 37 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 VII. MEDICINE Bacteriology 32. Culturing Cholera Vibrio in Guinea Pig Intestines Culturing of Cholera Vibrio in the Small' Intestines of Guinea Pigs," by A. G. Nikonov, V. I. Yevseyeva, P. D. Bibikova, and K. G. Bichul', Rostov-na-Donu Scientific Research Antiplague Institute; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Innnunobiologii, Vol 29, No 12, Dec 5 8., pp 51-53 On the basis of observ tions that the increase in the virulence of cholera vibrio cultured by to usual methods is unstable and inadequate for vaccine preparation, the authors attempted to pass this pathogen through the small intestines of guinea pigs and to dry it subsequently in the intestinal contents. Results of testing virulence of vaccine strains 11 and 16, prepared by the usual method (culturing in the peri- toneal cavity of guinea pigs), are compared in tabular form. Results of the authors' experiments are given in detail in the text and presented in a table. Coasclusions based on these results are as follows: "l. Culturing cholera vibrio in isolated loops of small intestines of guinea pigs increased virulence to a great extent in comparison with passage in the peritoneal cavity. The virulence reached a Del of one billion in half the strains passed. "2. Drying the strains in the contents of isolated sections of small intestine stabilized the virulence at1 .ned by passage for a long time." It is stated that strains 11, 16, and 143 as ntained virulence after 5-7 months of preservation in a dried form (Del equal to one. billion), and that after one year and 5 months virulence was maintained at the same level in strain 16 and was decreased in the other two strains. The same increase in virulence was not observed in all strains -- in' strain 1110, .325-1-B, the Del was never lower than 4 billion. - 38 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Epidemiology 33. Brucellosis in the Altay Mountains "Certain Peculiarities of Brucellosis in the Altay Mountains," by V. M. Lyubushkina, Gornoaltayskaya Oblast Sanitary- Epidemiological Station; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiollo iii. Epi- demiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 2, No 11, Nov 58, p 116 "Wjiile selecting groups for inoculation against brucellosis in 1956 and the beginning of 1957, we were confronted with an interesting fact in Gornoaltayskaya Oblast which obliged us to occupy ourselves more intensdvely with the problem of the characteristic course of brucellosis under local conditions. "Our observations encompassed 8 villages (4+5 animal husbandry farms) threatened with brucellosis abortus, including 8 kplkhozes of Kosh- Agachskiy village, which was also threatened with brucellosis melitensis. A total of 5,059 persons in all were examined, of whom 1,037, or 20.5%, reacted positively to laboratory diagnostic tests. At the same time, 84 persons, or 1.6% were discovered to be clinically ill with brucellosis. "So:,?. for example, 33.6% of persons examined in Ulaganskiy village reacted positively, whereas clinical manifestations were present in only 1.1%. Results were as follows on individual farmu in the afore- mentioned village: 38.3% of the population reacted positively in the Kirov kolkhoz; 25.7% in 'Pogranichnik' kolkhoz, and 25% in 'Pobeda' kolkhoz in the absence of clinically evident brucellosis. In Mayminskiy village, 30,-9% .reacted positively in the presence of clinical manifesta- tions in 0.6% of the persons examined. The greatest number of persons who reacted positively to brucellin were in Kosh-Agachskiy village -- 54.4+% in the presence of only 1.8% patients. "In the presence of considerable variation in the percent of posi- tively reacting persons and the percent of persons with clinical manifes- tations of-brucellosis both in individual villages and on separate farms of the same village, the relationship of indexes maintained its charac- teristics so that the percentage of positively reacting persons consider- ably exceeded the percentage of persons with clinical manifestations of brucellosis. "Tkere has been no epidemic outbreak of brucellosis in the oblast for a number of years. In the oblast as a 'whole (8 villages), the per- cent of positively reacting persons was 20.5 with clinical man'!festa- tions in 1.6% of the persons examined. - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 ApproHRfelease 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 "Thus, the results of the investigation indicate a wide distribution of brucellosis in the Altay Mountains and a predominance of brucellosis abortus foci." 34. Complement Fixation Test for Survey of Ina China "Use of Complement Fixation Test in Surveys of Inapparent Japa- nese Encephalitis in H s and, Animals," by Wang Tae (yam and Chang Sung-shah ( 7~_'~ ), Virus Laboratory, Ronan Health and Antiepidemic Statioh; Peiping, Wei-she -wu Hsueh- ao (Acts Microbiologica Sinica), Vol 6, No 4, -195b., pp 442-446- This item presents experiments undertaken in 1957 to re-examine the practicability of the complement fixation testiin epidemiologic surveys of inapparent Japanese B encephalitis. The authors state that Chinese epidemiologists in Shanghai had pre- viously concluded that inapparent infection of B-type encephalitis was difficult to detect by the complement fixation test. However, Ramon and others (148--and 1947) hold that any fixation of the complement would indicate infection occurring within the past year since B encepha- litis antibodies do not remain in the serum longer than a year. From the results of their experiments, summarized below, the authors conclude that the complement fixation test could be used to detect recent inap- parent B-encephalitis infection. Seventy-four healthy patients who had contact with patients suffer- ing with B encephalitic during the 1957 epidemic in Cheng-chou were given the complement fixation test. Thirty-nine were positive in titers of 1''.2-1:64, while 3 demonstrated the presence of anticomplement. Twenty-four other healthy persons residi g in the same area but with no contact with the patients were likewise tested. Only four were positive. Healthy domestic animals chosen at random from the epidemic area demon- strated by the complement fixation test that they had had recent latent infection in rates as follow: 1011 cattle, 11/26 hogs, 17/25 sheep, and 5/26 goats. Since 1952, 32 municipalities in Cana have conducted, surveys of latent B-encephalitis: infection in humans by using the neutralization test which calls for the use of large numbers of experimental animals and relatively precise laboratory equipment, according to the authors. 40 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 35. Tularemia From Handling Game in East German "Tularemia Infection Originating at a Game Dealer's," by H. Mochmann, Institute of Hygiene, University of Rostock; Ber- lin, Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen No 47, 20 Nov 58, pp 1532-.? 1533 Since 1952 a total of 98 cases of tularemia have been diagnosed serologically in humans in Mecklenburg. Most of the cases -ere among rural people who had come in contact with diseased wild hares. Since 1945 tularemia has been endemic in Mecklenburg. In January 1958 two new cases of tularemia were diagnosed. The two patients were an elderly married couple who live in Berlin, and who had skinned, cleaned, 1eaten tanundressed hare purchased at a game dealer's. The area where the hare had originally been taken could not be ascertained. The case of the elderly Berlin couple is pointed out as an example of the fact that tularemia should not be considered a disease confined to rural areas, but one which could become epidemic among an urban pupulatddon. Immunology and Therapy 36. Allergic Reactions Following Tick Bites After Inoculation Against Tularemia "Two Cases of Allergic Reaction in Persons Inoculated Against Tularemia Caused by the Bites 'of Infected Rhipicephalus ros- sicus Ticks," by V. P. Borodin, A. P. Samsonova, and A. P. Koroleva, Stalingradskaya Oblast Sanitary-4idem3,ological 'Station; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiolo ii idemiolo i i Immundpiologii, Vol 2 0., No 11, Nov 5 6., pp 117-11 This article reports two unusual -instances of allergic reaction after persons with inoculation immunity to tularemia were bitten by infected ticks. Both individuals *woi'kedi.jn a tularemia focus of the marsh-steppe type, collecting ticks. The reactions in both persons, who had been inoculated 4 and 6 years previously with live tularemia vaccine, are described in detail. Conclusions based on the results of observations and tests are as follows: "1. Local allergic reactions were observed in two persons inoculated with tularemia vaccine and bitten by Rh. rossicus ticks infected with the tularemia pathogen; the reactions were of the positive intensive tularin test type (observed in tularemia patients and persons who have recovered from tularemia) accompanied by a slightly increased teierature. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Appr&Fe'l BHr kelease 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 "2. The isolation of a highly virulent culture of the tularemia pathogen in a marsh-steppe type focus from Rh. rossicus ticks removed from the inoculated persons substantiated their active carrying of the tularemia pathogen and VIP, possibility of infecting noniimnunized persons with the afore mention i disease. "3. The presence of an allergic reaction in persons inoculated with live tularemia vaccine at the site of a bite by infected Rh. ros- sicus ticks substantiates their high resistance to tularemia." Pharmacology and Toxicology 37. Acetylcholine-Cholinesterase Changes in Blood and Plasma Studied "Mediator System of Acetylcholine-Cholinesterase in Acute Poi- soning by Dichloro Ethane," by M. P. Slyusar', Vopr. Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevaniy v Gornorudn. Khim. i Mashinostroit. Prom-sti. (Problems of or Hygiene and Occupational Dis- eases in Mining, Chemistry, and Machine Construction Industry), Kiev, Gosmedizdat, Ukrainian SSR, 1958, 92-100 (fro&Befera- tivn Zhurnal -- Khimi Biologicheskaya, Khimi , No 22, CPYRGHT 25 Nov 5 , Abstract No 2 700 "Acute poisoning was produced within 4 hours in white rats by the administration of dichloro ethaa at 10 mg/liter concentration. The animals were sacrificed after a 16- to 18-hour period, and determim.tions were made of the blood and tissue activity of cholinesterase and of acetylcholine content. It was shown than. acute poisoning brought about decreased cholinesterase activity in the'blood serum and plasma by 4+3 and 23~, respectively, during the light narcosis stage and by 37 and 23% during the 'aftereffect' phase. Acetylcholine appeared in the blood. Decreased cholinesterase activity was also evident in the tis- sues of the brain and spinal cord (16.4 and 16.7%), liver (27.8%), pancreas (20.30), heart (29%), and pyloric part of the stomach (31.2%). 42 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 33. The Effect of Echinopsine on the Permeability of Blood and Lymph Capillaries "The Effect of Echinopsine on the Permeability of Blood.and Lymph CapiLlaxies," by Chzhu Shoypen, Uch. Zap. 2-y Mosk. Med. in-t (Scientific Reports of the Second Moscow Medical Insti- in-t), 1957, 6, 99-103 (from Referati Zhurnal. -- Khimi Biologicheakaya Kh miya, No 22, 25 Nov 5d., Abstract No 2998, "Echinopsine decreased the rate of absp'rption of Nat Cl from sub- cutaneous cellular tissue into the blood, and its transfer from the blood stream into tissues. The phenomenon may be connected with decreased membrane permeability or with retardation of blood flow due to the hypo- tensive effect of echinopsine. Echinopsine did not_ change the permea- bility of lymph car13la~ies with rospect'io-cP dt4 fi1;31." 39. "Nanofin" Effect on S35 Methionine Inclusion into Proteins "The Effect of Nanofin on the inclusion of S35-Methionine Into the Proteins of the Brain and Heart of Albino Rats," by I. G. Zhakov, Uch. Zap. 2-i Mosk. Med. in-t, (Scientific Reports of the Second Moscow Medio&l Institute)., 1957, 6, 4+9-52 (from Referati Zhurnal -- Khimiya Biolo cheeks Khlmiya, CPYRGHT No 22, 25 Nov 5d., Abstract No 29b72) "After the intrasmuscu].ar introduction into white rats of 5 mg/kg of the ganglion blocking substance 'nanofin,' the rate of inclusion of S35-methionine in the proteins of the brain and of the heart was increased. This was effected chiefly by the rise in the concentration of s35 in the tissues of these organs. After the intragscular administration of 10 mg/kg of 'nanofin,' the inclusion of S methionine in the proteins of the brain and heart lagged behind the concentration of s35 .W the tissue. This Is probably connected with acreased protein metabolism in the brain and heart after a large dose of 'nanofin.'" -43- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 40. Changes in Iodine-Reducing Compounds During Drug-Induced Sleep "Concerning the Dynamics of Iodine-Reducing (Sulfhydryl) Com- pounds in the Blood Under Conditions of Drug-Induced Sleep (Materials Contributing to the Biochemistry of Blood During Sleep Inhibition," by I. S. Roizman, Nauchn. Tr. Vinnitsk. Gos Med. in-ta, (Scientific Works of the Vinnitsa State Medical Institute), 1957, 8, 64+-77 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal-- I Uni Biologicheskaya Khimiya, No 22, 25 Nov 58,9 Abstract CPYRGHT No 297 9) "After various types of drug-induced sleep (ether, chloral hydrate, urethane, amytal, and pentothal) it was observed that the concentration of iodine-reducing compounds was increased in the blood during the period of sleep and was decreased after the.pekiod of sleep. Sleep induced by chloroform produced an insignificant decrease in the content of iodine-reducing compounds during sleep and a slight increase after sleep. Data are presented concerning changes in oxidized and reduced forms of iodine-reducing compounds." l+i. Morphine-Induced Shock 'Cljnicophysiological and Hematological Characteristics of Mor- phine Shock," by V. K. Ionova; Alma-Ata., Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Kazakhskom SSR (Seriya Meditsiny i Fiziologii Vol 1 (9). 1958, pp 55-5 The aim of this research was to study a new form of toxic shock -- morphine-induced -- to establish the peculiarities of this pathological process arising after the intravenous administration of morphine to dogs and to study the clinical symptoms and hematological changes ensuing. Tests were conducted on 50 dogs which received a 1% solution of morphine at the rate of 0.1-1.0 ml per kg of body weight. Immediately after the administration of a dose of 0.5-1.0 ml per kg, there was, in most cases, an mediate state of excessive stimuJ,ption of the vegetative system, increased blood pressure, and accelerated pulse rate. This state appeared 15 seconds after morphine administration and lasted for 60 seconds. This condition was followed by general inhibition, ?comp]. to loss of sensitivity to pain, and acute or complete loss of reaction to reflex stimulation. In 40-60 minutes the animals began to react to strong sound stimulation, and in 1-3 hours they were able to move. -44- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Blood pressure in all instances was lowered (down, to 15-30 mm Hg) starting 1-3 minutes after morphine administration. Body temperature decreased within 10 minutes and remained low during the second day. The process of blood coagulation was delayed, within a few minutes and this lasted for an hour, but in some instances the blood lost its coagulation capacity. Blood serum complement activity was diminished in all cases. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was protracted, the erythrocyte count rose by 0.5-2.0 million per mm3, and. hemoglobin rose by 5-10%. The two latter changes became evident within a few minutes and were most pronounced 30 minutes ter morphine administration. During this Same period the leukocyte count dropped temporarily to 1,000 per-nm , giving rise to leukopenia of the neutropenic type. Morphine used in smaller doses (0.1-0.5) did not exert very dis- tinct effects. The author concludes that the intravenous administration of a 1% solution of morphine at the rate of 0.5-1.0 ml per kg of body weight which causes decreased blood pressure, weakened respiration, accelerated pulse, decreased reflex stimulation, lowered body temperature, delayed blood coagulation, decreased leukocyte count,, decreased serum complement titer, delayed rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, increased hemoglobin percent, and increased number of erythrocytes produces a symptom complex similar to the symptom complex of shock. Physiology 42, Effects of Ultrasound on Gastric Functions "Effect of Ultrasound on the Secretory and Motor Function of the Stomach (Experimental Investigation)," by M. K. Smnov (Minsk), Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoy Fizicheskoy Kul?tury, No 6, Nov-Dec 5b., PP 512-519 The effect of ultrasound on the function of the stomach is dependent primarily on the intensity of the ultrasound, the functional condition of the gastric glands and muscles, and whether exposure is before, during, or after a meal. Ultrasound even of low intensity (0.6 W/cm2) stimulates gastric secretion if no food has been introduced into the stomach. Ultra- sound of any intensity causes an increase in the amount of gastric juice in the stomach and in the acidity of this gastric juice. This lasts for a period of 3 days irrespective of whether food is eaten or not. Ultrasound shortens the intervals between contractions of the stomach and increases its tonus. A total of 94 experiments were conducted on three dogs. - 45 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Public Health, Hygiene, and Sanitation 43. More Sanitary Physicians To Be Trained "The Status and Outlook for Training and Advanced Training of Sanitary Physicians," by Docent V. V. Yermakov and M. G. Savchenko, Sovetskoye Zdravookhraneniye, No 10, Oct 58, pp 7-10 "The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union clearly defined the aims of public health protection in the USSR. Con- tinued expansion of health service and further improvement in the level of preventLve medical work and general medical service was declared to be necessary." It is expected that training sufficient numbers of qualified sani- taty-physicians wJ-1 solve the problems with which health officials are confronted. The medical universities of the country graduated.'8,900 sanitarj physicians during the Fifth Five-Year Plat' (1951-1955). It is expected that 13,700 more sanitary physicians will be graduated by the end of the Sixth Five-Year Plan. More than 10,000 sanitary physicians will be graduated during the period between 1961 and 1965. "This will satisfy the needs of the Soviet population as far as sanitary- epidemic control is concerned." "At present the sanitary-epidemic control establishments still need medical personnel specializing in hygiene.and sanitation. A great short- age of specialists in epidemiology and com minal and industrial hygiene exists. This shortage is particularly great in the Kazakh, Turkmen, Kirghiz, and Tadzhik SSRS. For this reason it is necessary that those in charge of public health in those republics give their utmost attention to training qualified personnel specialized in epidemic control." "Sanitary physicians are being trained at present in 19 sanitary- hygiene fa'--lties of medical universities of-the USSR. This training is conduci L in accordance with the plan formulated and approved, by the administration of -personnel. and educational institutions of the Ministry of Health USSR." "There is a shortage of people with the degree of Doctor of Sciences. People with Doctor of Sciences degrees are needed to occupy the chairs of hygiene in medical universities and institutes for advanced training of physicians. Of 175 heads of chairs of hygiene and sanitation in the medical universities and institutes for advanced study of physicians of the Ministry of Health RSFSR, 89 have a degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences and 78 have a degree of Candidate of Medical Sciences. Of the 89 with DoctQr of Medical Sciences degrees 4+7 are over 60 ars of age and of the 7d with Candidate of Medical Sciences degrees 4b are over 50 years of age." -4+6- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Radiology 44. Tissue Therapy Alleviates Injurious Effects of Radiation Sickness "The Effect of Tissue Therapy on the Morphological Compo- sition of the Blood of Rabbits Subjected to Total X-ray Irradiation," by D. Baldandorzh, Chair of Pharmacology (head, Prof S. V. Tsyganov) and Chair of Roentgenology and Radiology (head, Prof Ye. D. Dybovyy), Odessa Medical Institute; Kiev, Vrachebnoye Delo, No 10, Oct 58, pp 1073-1076 Since one of the most apparent injuries in radiation sickness is injury to the hemopoietic organs, the present research attempted to verify whether or not tissue therapy would have any favorable effect on the morphological composition of the blood. Tests were conducted on 75 rabbits divided into three groups: those subjected to single total X-ray irradiation by 620 r followed by daily subcutaneous treatment with an aloe extract (0.5-0.8 ml of aloe extract) for 17-20 days; those irradiated and. treated by a single treat- ment utilizing preserved tissue therapy; and control animals irradiated but not treated. Results indicate that the viability was greater in the two experi- mental groups (16 and 17 animals, compared with 10 controls), loss of weight was less and its return to normal was speedier (weight of experi- mental animals returned to normal by the 45th day,, at which time that of the controls was 86% of the original), and maxi= fall in the number of leukocytes occurred on the 4th day in the experimental animals after which it began to rise, while in the controls it continued to drop until the 6th day. Although the number of thrcmbocytes decreased in both experimental and control anima-?s, the maximum drop in thrcmbocyte number in rabbits treated with aloe extract and tissue therapy during the 4th- 6th day period was only 51-55% of that in control animals. Use of tis- sue therapy in irradiated animals aided in the normalization of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The return to normal of the number of lymphocytes was accelerated in experimental animals as compared with controls. The author makes the following conclusions: 1. Tissue therapy contributes to increased animals survival after X-ray irradiation. 2. Tissue therapy prevents leukopenia, which is one of the severe symptoms of radiation sickness. 47 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 3. Tissue therapy contributes to the improvement of the morpho- logical composition of the blood and the normalization of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. 4. Tissue therapy wards off thrcmbocytopenia. 45. Karlsbad Hot Springs Cure Radiation Damage "Regarding the Favorable Effect of the Karlsbad Hot Springs on Radiation Damage," ,by A. Kukowka, director, Institute for Health Resorts and Balneology and for Physical Therapy, Bad Elster; Berlin, Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen, No 49, 4 Dec 58, pp 1606-1608 After years of active work as a roentgenologist and radiologist and in spite of careful attention to what were considered satisfactory pro- tective measures, the author acquired extensive X-ray and radium damage on the fingers of both hands. All attempts to heal, or at least to arrest, the radiation damage failed. Many of the outstanding dermatolo- gists of the world were consulted, and all suggested measures were tried without success. Finally, amputation was suggested, but refused by the patient. Treatment, both externally and internally, with the waters of the Karlsbad spring, together with special diet, caused the almost complete disappearance of the radiation damage. The improved condition lasted about 8-10 months after the cure; then the treatment was repeated, in order to consolidate the cure. The therapy was suggested to 12 physicians who suffered varying degrees of extensive radiation damage. Here, too, the Karlsbad water cure was successful. The results varied in accordance with the intensity of the damages and the number of treatments, but in each case there was distinct improvement. A completely satisfactory explanation of the effect of the Karlsbad hot springs has not yet been given. The author believes it to be based on complex effects on the entire organism. or additional information on radiology, see Item No 9.7 - 48 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Veterinary Medicine 46. Anthrax in Lions at Zoos "Anthrax Prophylaxis in the Case of the Feeding of Raw Meat in Zoological Gardens," by J. Wilisch and L. Schienbein, Institute for State Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Hygiene, Karl Marx University, Leipzig; Leipzig, Monatshefte fuer Veterinaermedizin, Vol 13, No 22, 15 Nov 58, pp 676-679 The repeated occurrence of anthrax in lions of a zoo in Central Germany justified an investigation of the possible sources of the infec- tion. In each case, connections could be established between the supply of raw meat and the infection in the lions. Investigations in the sup- ply areas of certain animal carcass disposal plants produced interesting evidence of repeated cases of anthrax in the supply area: of the Mulde and Weisse Elster rivers. Since many tanning factories are also located in these areas, there is support for the opinion that outbreaks of anthrax in the area are not bf enzootic origin, but based in most cases on imports (hides, etc). In one case, however, an outbreak of anthrax could be connected directly with an outbreak in the same farm 22 years before. Eleven regulations are suggested for preventing anthrax in raw meat supplied to zoos for feeding the big cats. 47. Adaptation Mechanism of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus to Mouse Brain "Comparative Histological, Virological, and Hematological Investigations on the Mechanism of Adaptation of Foot-and- Mouth Disease Virus to the Brain of the Mouse," by W. Koetsche, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Riems; Leipzig, Archiv fuer Experimentelle Veterinaermediziny Vol 12, No 4, Jul Aug 58, pp 524-603 Comparative studies of the central nervous system of mice infected with different strains of foot -?and-mouth-disease virus during various degrees of passage produced the following results: Between the original cattle strains and the standard strains adapted to the guinea pig there are, from a histological point of view, no quali- tative differences, but only -- in keeping with their stage of adaptation to the mouse brain -- slight quantitative differences which disappear entirely with` continued passage. The histological changes are character- ized by degenerative damage and inflammatory reactions. Degenerative lesions of the ganglion cells, especially early damage, are considered to - 119 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 be caused directly by the virus. They can be detected histologically very early, long before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In the course of higher passage, their frequency of occurrence increases steadily. The same applies for an individual infection. During the course of the virus infection, the ganglion cells undergo a number of stages of degeneration, involving both the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. The early specific lesions are those which are characterized by activa- tion and swelling processes of the cell nucleus and of the whole cell, wherein the chromatin is effected by congregation processes and the cyto- plasm by vacuolar processes. The intermediate and late phases observed during the further course of the virus infection are characterized by a shrinking of the cells, karyopyknosis, and processes which lead to a lysis of the entire cell. The predilection sites for the degenerative lesions are the cornu Ammonis, Nucleus caudatus, the cortical areas of the Lobus piriformis, Lobus parietalis and Lobus occipitalis, and Nucleus medialis ddencephali. In the high passages, degenerative lesions also occur in the remaining sections of the central nervous system, with the exception of the cerebellum. Ganglio;a, cell degenerations occur especially early and. espec;' %lly pronounced in the areas near the ventricles of the cerebrum, primarily the paraventricular sections of the Nucleus caudatus and tho external ridge of ganglion cells of the cornu Ammonis. The vulnerability of the cornu Ammonis is demonstrated in particular also by the preferred occur- rence of degenerative ganglion cell lesions after extraneural infection. The inflammatory changes are expressed as reactive processes in the form of diffuse leukocyte proliferation within the nerval parenchyma, through vessel wall reactions and pial infiltrates. In the early passages and early stages of infection, the multiplica- tion of leukocytes can be observed in the central nervous system only within the ventrical and vascular system. During a series of passages, their number increases at first only very slowly, and they are confined initially almost exclusively to the ventrical and vascular system. In certain stages of infection, especially with the onset of regular clini- cal symptoms within 24+ hours, they increase significantly. With continued passages, they reveal more and more the tendency to emigrate into the neural parenchyma. T1eir presence can be verified as cellular infiltra- tion in the neural parenchyma at the predilection sites of the degenera- tive changes, and in the periventricular tissue, in the corpus callosum and corpus striatum, and in lesser numoers at many points in the'rest of the central nervous system. Toward the end of the infection they show a tendency toward regressive symptoms, especially karyolysis. Near the end of the irfection of a high passage, no leukocytes, or only their remnants, can be found in the predilection sites, in spite of widespread degenera- tive lesions. This speaks against the assumption that the leukocytes - 50 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 serve. only to remove the detritus. In their case, a virotropism is assumed. The number and the localization of the leukocytes found in the central nervous system may be co . si.dered an indication of the distribution and the infectious capacity of the foot -aid-mouth-di.sease virus which has come to rest in the central nervous system. In the lower passages, the reten- tion and multiplication of the virus are lirn ted, according to histologi- cal examination., primarily to the blood vessels and ventricles and the skeleton musculature. The changes in the latter are expressed. as inflam- matory reactions and degenerative lesions (Zenker degeneration) and repre- sent the cause of the myositic syndrome. The absolute leukopenia in the case of hematological examination and. its a-Zmost complete absence within the vascular system (with the exception of the early passages and phases) in the histological findings are co +ideered proof of the origination of the tissue leukocytes in the blood. Tapir emigration into the nerval parenchyma may be looked on as a tissue wall lesion caused by the virus of foot-and-mouth disease and is supported by the lesions of the neural parenchyma which are caused by the virus and which result frown the dis- turbance to circulation in the ;terminal area, of the blood stream. Inflammatory changes in the inside walls of the blood vessels, par- ticularly in the small veins of the cerebrum., axe in the form of vascular and perivascular iiiltrates. In al.1 early passages, the vascular forms appear almost exclusively and are increasingly replaced by the perivascu- lar infiltrates as the passages became correspondingly higher. UThe ras- eular infiltrates of the low passages reveal lymphocytes as the primary inflammation ce3Js. L;ter, the leukocytes which had been located at the walls move away and form mixed lympholeukocytic infiltrates., whereby the leukocytes show, from the very beginning, a tendency to emigrate into the perivascular and perineural tissue. Leukocytic perivascullr infil- trates are formed for the most part in the higher passages. Around some of the vessels lying within the teleacephalon and in the vicinity of the ventricle there are edematized tissue zones. They are considered a morphological expression of increased tissue permteability in the region of the terminal vessels. The pla mater, especially the cerebral dien- cephalic pia mater, exhibits, in several sections, an inflammatory reac- tion of varying degree. The basal sections of ti3e cerebrum and the diencephalon are especially affected, but reactions, although slight, are also found in the rema portions of the.central nervous system. The cells are predominantly lymphocytes. The endothelial cell nuclei of the capillaries of the cerebrum and diencephalon, and, to a lesser degree, the capillaries of the otter parts of the central nervous sys- tem, regularly show a slight to moderate activation in the form of an edema which, in the case of increasingly higher passages, is still pres- ent only in the early stages of Imfection. 51 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Through histological and hematological examinations of the changes occurring in the individual phases, it was established that the course of an individual infection corresponds to that of a total series of passages. The injection, as such, does not lead to specific lesions and reac- tions, but it is surmised that the injection trauma creates predisposing conditions for the primary retention and multiplication of the virus. The investigations were carried out on mice about 4-5 weeks old, and on animals about 3-4 weeks old, in the case of the "speccial" standard-A series. A series of passages was begun with material of the "special" standard-A series with 5- to 7-week-old mice. On the basis of ?'histologic'al examinations, it could be shown that a series of passages longer than that used for the mice 3-4 weeks old has to be conducted before the lesions and changes have reached the threshold value characterized by clinical manifestation. The transition from slight changes, comparable in quality to the other series, to pronounced changes is visible within the span of a few passages (between the 68th and 80th mouse passage). From this it can be concluded that the age of the mice is of considerable importance for the rapidity of the retention process. It is assumed, however, that the age factor is not decisive for the ultimate fixation, since the maxi- mum histological changes occur at practically the same time for both the 3- to 4-week-old mice and the 5- to 7-week-old mice. There is no doubt, however, that, in the low passages, the active metabolism of a younger mouse could offer especially favorable possib:Llities for the synthesis of the virus. There are parallel connections between the intensity of the histo- logical changes and the virus -content. The earliest proof of virus, as shown by experimental investigations of all phases of the infection, can be produced after a latent stage between the first and third hour post infectionem, 3 hours post infectionem fromi the blood of the infected animals, 8 hours post infectionem from the bled brain. The cerebrum, diencephalon, and the blood have the highest virus content. In the other sections of the central nervous system, the virus content diminishes in a cranial -- caudal direction. In the low passages the virus undergoes an auto ste rilization in the brain 48 hours post infectionem. The early detection of the virus in the blood indicates the existence of vircia, through which, in the primary infection, a spread of the virus at its main multiplication sites takes place. After a determination of the blood status of healthy mice from the first day of life to an age of 10 weeks, extensive hematological investi- gations showed, for the course of the foot-and-mouth dibeases infection of all mouse-brain-adapted strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, significant and readily characterized chang.s in the blood picture. In - 52 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 the case of clinically infected animals there is an absolute -- confirmed histologically also -- leukopenia with leukocyte counts at times under 3,000 mm3. The leukopenia, according to histological examinations, is caused by the emigration of the leukocytes into the neural parenchyma. In the differential blood picture a considerable increase of the neutrophilic granulocytes over the lymphocytes takes place, which, cor- responding to the stage of adaptation, can lead to an almost complete inversion of these two values. This is the case with the standard-A strains in very high passages, but all other investigated strains show, in the course of their passages, a tendency toward the formation of such a blood status. Before, or together with, the onset of clinical symptoms, there is an overlapping of the neutrophil and lymphocyte curves. The blood pic- ture, and especially the dynamic differential blood picture, may be con- sidered a sensitive indicator of the existing degree of adaptation of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease to the central nervous system of the mouse. Comprehensive interpretation of the histological, virological, and hematological data is considered one possibility of providing informa- tion on the adaptation of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease to the mouse brain. Above and beyond that, the view is expressed that it is possible, with the aid of the dynamics of the blood picture, to investi- gate the course of adaptation even in the case of other types of virus. The work was suggested and guided by Professor Roehrer, president of the institute; others who took part in the research were Miss I. Jacob, Miss A. Ruehtz, and Mrs E. 0ltmanns, all technical assistants, and Mr. W. Lange and Mr. E. Buechner, a.sociates. l8. Immunizing Properties of Type 0 Foot and Mouth Virus "On the Immunizing Properties of Type 0 Foot and Mouth Virus Adapted to the Chicken Egg," by Ursula Schmidt, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Riems; Leipzig, Archiv fuer Expeerimen- telle Veterinaermedizin, Vol 12, No , Jul Aug 5, pd p 643-656 Strain U1308 of type 02 foot and mouth virus, after 19 reciprocal passages between unweaned mouse and incubated chicken egg, was adapted to the egg and carried through 69 additional passages up to the time of the report. Before being used for inoculation, the ..virus was first purified with an ultracentrifuge and later by chemical means. From the 56th egg passage on, the transfer was successful without this previous treatment. - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 A detailed description is given of the varying behavior of the infection titer, during the course of passages, toward cattle, pigs, guinea pigs, and unweaned mice. During the passages, virus suspensions from parts of infected incubated eggs were used to produce vaccines which produced, complete immunity in the case of pigs, but which protect cattle only very rarely against test infections. There appears to be some connection between the infectiousness of the egg-adapted virus and its ability to produce immunity for the animal8 in question. 49. Era of Medical Physics Opens New Fields and Requirements "Physics and Medicine," by G. Frank, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Meditsin- skiy Rabotnik, No 95, 28 Nov 58, p 2 Reference is made to an article by N. S. Khrushchev appearing on the same date and in the same paner emphasizing the importance of natural sciences, especially physics. The author makes the following statements. Physics now commands a revolutionary significance owing to advances in nuclear physics and the extensive use of artificial radioactive sub. stances in biology and medicine. Through the use of isotopes we can talk about the molecular anatomy of living things and a new type of in vivo biochemistry has been born. Through the use of the highly magnifying electron microscope, and techniques of ultrafine tissue sections (down to 0.01 micron in thickness) we can talk about molecular organization of cell structure, and structural details previously unsuspected are dis- closed in many extremely important parts of living ;things. The intro- duction of roenlgenostructural analysis, modern procedures- of electronics in research on the electrical structure of living tissue, electrical parameters, etc., demand that new techniques, new methods, and new terminology be introduced in, many fields of medicine and biology. With the birth of molecular morphology of living things,,iiew fields have. been opened in the study of pathology due to molecular changes during the course of infectious diseases, malignancy, chemical immmunity, athero- sclerosis, etc. The use of electron paramagnetic resonance promises to reveal unsuspected phenomena in the mechanism of enzyme processes in organisms, and the chemical effects of ionizing radiation, etc. which are connected with the so-called free radicals. The author goes on to say that it is time to reform educations' programs and introduce the study of physics into medical vuzes (higher educational institutions). This may be done by designing each chapter of physics intended for use in medical vuzes around interesti,.g examples in the field of medicine. This is a gradual way of introducing a course of medical physics. The author concludes that it has become necessary to unify the efforts of physicists working in medical.vuzes with those working in scientific research institutes. -54-. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 50. New Institute of Medical Radiology To Be Opened Near Moscow "Institute of Medical Radiology" (unsigned article); Moscow, Izvestiya, 21 Dec 58 A new Scientific Research Institute of Medical Radiology (Nauchno- Issledovatel'skiy Institut Meditsinskoy Radiologii), Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, is being planned. Construction will begin in 1959; the institute will be located on a site near Moscow. The institute will be a scientific center where atomic energy will be used for medical purposes. The basic aim of the institute will be to work out new methods of recognizing and treating various diseases with the aid of ionizing radiation. It will also study new sources of radiation of high energy and their use in medicine. Coasiderable? atten- tion will be given to the study of the biological action of ionizing radiation on animal organisms and measures for protection against it. The institute will have an Experimental Sector wh*, will consist of 20 laboratories, among which will be the laboratory of Biophysics, Medical Physics, Microtiology, Genetics, and Radiobiology; the sector will be concerned with the study of the influence of cosmic radiation on humans, as it will affect them during space flight. The institute will also have a Clinical Department of 1100 beds, which will have the latest equipment, especially in the surgical clinic. The new institute will be the scientific methodological center for all establishments utilizing radioactive substances in medicine, and it will train all personnel who will be working in this field. 51. Prof V. A. Potemkina, Soviet Helminthologist, Celebrates 60th Birthday "Jubilee of V. A. Potemkina" (unsigned article); Moscow, Veterinariya, No 12, Dec 58, p 83 Prof Valentina Alekseyevna Potemkina, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, celebrated her 60th birthday and 33d year of scientific and pedagogical work in December 1958. Potemkina graduated in 1929 from the Veterinary Faculty of the Mos- cow Zootechnical Institute, and in 1931 went to work for the All-Union Institute of Helminthology imeni Skryabin as a laboratory assistant. She has remained at this institute up to the present and is now a professor. - 55 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 She has published over 50 works on the diagnosis and therapy of helminthosis of domestic animals. She is currently a member of the Scientific Council of the above institute and a member of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Sanitation and Ectlpparasi- tology. She has been awarded the Order of Labor Red Banner, the medal "Outstanding in Agriculture," and other medals. 52. Higher Veterinary Education in China "Higher Veterinary Education, in the People's Republic 'of China," by Prof V. S. '.Tersov'; 'Moscow, Veterinariya, N6:1 2, Dec 58, .;pp 71-73 In 1952 a major reorgainization in the higher school system of China gave the agricultural vuzes and faculties independent status as institu- tions. At present there are 24 agricultural and three zooveterinary vuzes, which are directly subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture. There are 11 institutes that train students in the veterinary sciences; three of these institutes offer.a 5-year course and the rest a 1-year course, but all institutes are scheduled to have a 5-year course in the future. The training of agricultural cadres is conducted in 15 specialities: agronomy, mechanization of agricultural production, veterinary medicine and zootechnology, plant protection, soil sciences, agricultural chemistry, and others. The number of students studying in zooveterinary and agricultural institutes has increased considerably since 1953, when 15,419 students were being trained. In 1956 the number rose to 34,181 students. At present over 3,000 students are being trained in veterinary sciences alone. - 56 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 VIII. PHYSICS Nuclear Phy s i c s 53. Superfluid State of Matter "The Possibility of Superfluid State of Nuclear Matter When p - p and n.- n Interactions Are Taken Tnto Account," by V. G. Solov'yev, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 123, No 3, 21 Nov 58, pp 437-439 An attempt is made to find conditions which would satisfy the poten- tial of n- n interaction in order to create a state of superfluidity of nuclear matter. The p - p interactions only are analyzed under the as- sumption that the n - n interactions are of the same nature and equal in magnitude. For this purpose a model hamiltonian is analyzed according toVN. N. Bogolyubov's method (ibid., 119, 52, 1958). It was found that the state of superfluidity of nuclear matter can be reached if the p - p interactions are priominant and are of very weak magnitude. 54. Hungarian Nuclear Physics Commented on by Dubna Director "Concerning Scientific Cooperation of Social Countries and Con- cerning the Results of Hungarian Atomic Physics Research -- Statements of Prof D. I. Blokhintsev, Director of the Dubna Joint Institute for Nuclear Research" ('unsigned article); Budapest, Nepszabadsag, 11 Dec 58 The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna is the joint research laboratory of the 12 socialist countries, including Hungary. They are dealing primarily with that branch of research which promises the most: an examination of the properties and effects of high energy, accelerated particles. However, this purely scientific institute also serves far-: reaching practical goals because its work is closely connected with the realization of the peaceful use of atomic energy. The world's largest most powerful] particle accelerator is here; there is no similarly versa- tile piece of equipment anywhere else in the world. There are now 11 young Hungarian researchers in Dubna. - 57 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Professor Blokhintsev said that it is necessary that there be coordi- nation of the research being done in his institute and in the several na- tional research institutes such as the Central Physics Research Institute (Kozponti Fizikai Kutato Intezet) in Hungary. Professor Blokhintsev's visit served this purpose. He visited the atomic physics research insti- tutes in Hungary and his statements concerning Hungarian research are summarized below. Lenard Pal, deputy director of the Central Physics Research Institute, has done research on neutron physics which promises to be useful in the area of reactor construction, providing better economy of the neutrons which liberate the energy in reactors. The instruments of the Frvin Fenyves group of the Central Physics Research Institute automate a very tedious job: the tracing of particle tracks in photoemulsion plates (apparently the instrument locates trans- formed points in single plates]. Academician Lajos Janossy, director of the Central Physics Research Institute, has done research on the nature of light which makes use of extraordinarily precise measurements; from a metrological viewp6int his work means the ultimate exploitation of the technological possibilities. Professor Janossy is working on a resolution of the apparent wave-particle duality. Professor Blokhintsev also visited Debrecen, where he found the most interesting work of the Debrecen nuclear research institute, headed by of Sandor Szalay, to be the work on migration of atoms of heavy elements in the soil; this might be called biogeochemistry. As an example of the benefits of international cooperation, Professor Blokhintsev noted that Janossy had needed some information on the effect of certain high enex' r, accelerated particles. Hungary did not have the equipment for these tests., but they were done in Dubna and in 2 weeks Janossy got the results - 58 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Molecular Physics 55. Theory of the Hydride Molecule "On the Theory of the Hydride Molecule According to the Model of the United Atom," by R. Gaspar and I. Tamassy-Lentei, Insti- tute for Theoretical Physics of Kossuth-Lajos University, Debre- cen; Leipzig, Anua.len der Physik, Vol 2, No 3/4, 1958, pp 208-216 The various properties of the molecule are computed by the variation method, with the aid of the model of the united atom used for the decriii- tion of the term systems in molecular spectroscopy. In this model, the atomic nuclei are kept in the geometric arrangement of the molecule and the cigenfunction of the molecule is obtained from the single center, single-electron eigenfunctions by the Slater process. Good results for hydride molecules can be expected with this approximation. The calcula- tions are carried out for the molecules HF and H2O and for the molecular ion (HO)-. The computed values for total energy, nuclear spacing, and dissociation energy of these molecules are in good agreement with the experimental values. One great advantage of this method is that the- analytical part of the calculations is no more tedious than in the case of atomic problems. Theoretical Physics 56. Field Equations of General Theory of Relativity "On Time-Dependent Solutions of the Field Equations of the General Theory of Relativity," by A. Papapetrou, Research In- stitute for Mathematics, German Academy of Sciences in Berlin; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vol 2, No. 3/4y 1958, PP 87-96 The earlier discussed treatment of gravitational and electromagnetic fields which are periodic with respect- to time is generalized for the case of an arbitrary dependence on time. It is shown that the boundary condition in the infinite can be satisfied only if both the electromagnetic and the gravitational field are independent of time for t?--~ - 00, and t _> +'1ao , . . The role of the de Donder condition, used in the computation, is discussed; and it is shown that the results obtained here are independent of the de Donder coordinate condition. - 59 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 57. Bose Statistics "An Approximate Solution of the Quantum Problem of Many Bodies in the Case of Bose Statistics," by B. T. Geyliionan. Moscow State Pedagogical Institute imeni Lenin; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 123, No 3, 21 Nov 58, pp 430-432 It was demonstrated by N. N. Bogolyubov (Izv. AN SSSR, ser. fiz 11, 77, 1947)-that the growing density and interaction energy of a Bose gas leads to a decrease of the amount of particles in the condensate No. A case in which No is low is analyzed, and the necessary equations are derived, although not solved. 58. Thermodynamics of Superconductivity "Thermodynamics of Superconductivity," by V. A. Moskalenko, Mos- cow State University imeni Lomonosov; Moscow DookladyAAkademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 123, No 3, 21 Nov 58, pp 433-436 A demonstration is presented that the variational principle as ap- plied to the analysis of the phase transition of superconductors con- firms previous results obtained by N. N. Bogolyubov, D. N. Zubarenko, and Yu. A. Tserkovnikov (DANA 117, 135, 1957) and by J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffner (Phys. Rev. 106, 162, 1957; 108, 1175, 1957) based on a Hamiltonian model. It is shown that the application of the variational principle gives more general results than the above-mentioned works, if the variational principle is based directly on H. Froelich's (Phys, Rev. 79, 845, 1950) thermodynamics of superconductivity (D. N. Zubarev and Yu. A. Tserkovnikov, DAN, 122, No 6, 1958). Electronics 59. Luminous Trail of Breakdown Streamers Photographed Two Manifestations of the Breakdown Streamer of a Positive Point Corona in Atmospheric Air," by G. List, Institute for Radiation Source, German Academy of Sciences in Berlin; Berlin, Experimentelle Technik der Physik, Vol 6, No 5, 1958, pp 223-228 Two characteristic manifestations of the breakdown streamer of a posi- tive point corona are described, which we^e observed in the space (1-30 cm in length) between a pointed and a fla?, electrode. The photographs 60 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 include what is considered to be the first description of the unstable luminous trail in the case of large electrode spacings. It was found that the path of the complete sparking-over does not always follow the luminous trail of the corona discharge. Measurements were made on a corona discharge between a positive point and a grounded plate, and the breakdown voltage Ub is plotted against the electrode spacing d. For small spacings, up to d w 8 cm, the curve is described by the equation UD ? 11;.,7. - 0.7 d2, while for d > 18 cm it is a straight line correspond- ing to the equation UD e 11.50 + 4.43 d. For average spacings (d = 8... 18 cm), the curve goes over from the quadratic form to the straight line. 60. Flamelike Plasma Discharge "Electron Temperature and Electron-Noise in the High-Frequency Torch Discharge,",by L. Moliwo, Heinrich Hertz Institute of the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin, Berlin-Adlershof; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vo7., 2, No 3/4, 1958, pp 96-129 The noise temperature of the electron "torch" in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is found to be about 14,000?K at a test wavelength of 20 centimeters. Output and resistance are also measured for the volume involved. The discussion shows that the electron temperature-is about 13,500?K, and that of the shot noise, 3800K. The gas temperature is about 4,000?K. The discharge column is in a state corresponding to that of a DC glow-discharge column at atmospheric pressure. It is' shown that the possibility of a stabilization of such a state is much more . favorable for a high-frequency discharge than for a DC current discharge. ,16 Mechanics 61. Nonlinear Oscillations of Bounded Liquid Studied "On the Theory of the Nonlinear Oscillations of a Bounded Volume of Liquid," by N. N. Moyseyev, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladna Mate- matika i Mekhanika Vol 22, No 5, Sep/Oct 58, pp 622 21 CPYRGHT The introductory remarks of the author follow: "The present work concerns the calculation of the nonlinear oscilla- tions of a bounded volume of liquid. It has, however, a number of short- comings, with the result that for a long time the author felt that its publication would not'be expedient. 61 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 - CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00240001-7 "It should be mentioned that the results were obtained in a formal manner, convergence of the process has not been proved, and the calcula- tions involved in carrying out the process are very tedious. "The possibility of extending the results to the case of a body con- taining a liquid with a free boundary was not certain, since a theorem concerning the amplitude of the main oscillations of such a body is lack- ing. "Since the amplitude in nonlinear oscillations quickly reaches its limiting value and the waves are destroyed, it would seem that only a linear theory would be of practical value or a theory which takes into account the dissipation of energy on destruction of the waves. "The process does not have any firm foundation at present. Never- theless, the following circumstances, it seems to us, now warrant publi- cation of the theory. "1. The application of high-speed computers now make it possible to carry out the required calculations without any particular difficulty, particularly since effective methods have been developed in recent years for calculating the solutions of the corresponding boundary-value problems. "2. The problem of the amplitude of the main oscillations of a body with liquid has been cleared up completely. The extension of this theory to the case of the oscillation of a body containing a liquid with a free boundary does not present any great difficulty. "3. Investigation of resonance phenomena is, in principle, impossible to carry out within the limits of linear theory, but the problem is now beginning to interest practical persons." 62. Equations for the Nonlinear Reflection of Shockwaves Given "On the Nonlinear Reflection of Weak Shock Waves," by 0. S. Ryzhov and S. A. Khristianovich, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladna Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 22, No 5, Sep/Oct 58, PP 586-599 599 Physical conditions are given which permit considerable simplifica- tions to be made in the equations of gas dynamics describing nonstationary flows with small but. sharp changes in the parameters of the medium. The mathematical simplifications are based on the fact that pressure changes in the flow occur in a small region adjacent to the shock-wave front. Such flows, are termed "short waves." Exact particular solutions are obtained for the nonlinear differential equations evolved. These solu- tions are then applied to obtain an approximate solution for the problem of the nonlinear reflection of a shock wave from an absolutely rigid wall. - 62 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 63. Applicability of Linearization Method in Theory of Shells Examined "Certain General Problems on the Stability of Shells," by I. I. Vorovich; Moscow, Dokia Akademii Nauk SSSR.9 Vol 122? No 1, Sep 58, pp 37-40 The fundamental equations of the nonlinear theory of shells are an- alyzed to determine whether the linearization method, in which the moment of stability loss is determined by the first eigen number of some none linear boundaxy-value problem, is applicable as a method of solution 'in the case of shells. 64. New Formulas for Friction and. Heat TTansfer in Turbulent Motion "Hypothesis of Localization in the Turbulent Motion of a Liquid With Viscosity," by L. G. Ioytsyanskiy, Leningrad; Moscow, Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika9 Vol 22, No 5, Sep/Oct 58, pp 600-611 The hypotheses of the localization of the mechanism of turbulent mixing and the localization of the Reynold analogy between transfer of motion and heat content are expanded to the entire region of turbulent motion, where interaction of molecular and molar processes occurs. This it is claimed, makes it possible to unite all existing semiempirical theories of turbulent motion and heat- and mass-exchange. New formulas for friction and heat-transfer in turbulent motion are obtained. These formulas are used to construct analytic expressions for the velocity and excess-temperature profiles throughout an entire cross section of the flow, covering laminar, intermediate, and purely turbulent regions. These expressions are continuous, with continuous first deri- vatives. 65. Stability of Motion of Heavy Point of Variable Mass "On t'ae Stability of Programed Motion of a Heavy Point of Var.'.able Mass," by A. S. Galiullin, Kazan Trudy Kazan- skogo Aviatsionnogo Instituta, No 37, 1957, pp 85-90-T?rom Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Mekhan1ka No 7, Jul 58, Abstract No 7356 by M. I. Yefimov Several types of sufficient conditions for stability of programed motion of a heavy point of variable mass are established under the assumption that the reactive force of the environment on the point at - 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 a tangent and normal to the trajectory has the form F,. " K, (t) 11 , Fn = IC2 (t) -1 where -J is the modulus of the velocity of the point, and Kl, K2 are the coefficients of influence of the environment on the point. Example of stable motions along a vertical straight line are given. 66. Synthesis of Compensating Networks in Dependent Control Systems "Synthesis of Compensating Networks in Dependent Regulation Systems in the Case of Slowly Changing Influences," by Ye. I.Baranchuk, Tr. Leningr. voyen.-meishan. in-t, 1957, No 6, pp, 335-348 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -?- Mekhanika No 11, Nov 58) Abstract No 12120 by Ye. N. Miroslavlev A dependent regulation system whose links are linear systems, in which case the connections between them are fixed, is examined. The possibility of synthesis of such a system according to given qualitative indicators with the aid of characteristics and equations based on an analysis of forced motions of the system is proved. An example of the synthesis in the case of slowly changing influences is presented. 67. Heating of Body Moving Through Viscous Fluid Considered "On the Heating and Melting of a Solid Body Through Fric- tion," by S. S. Grigoryan, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladna Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 22, No 5, Sep/Oct 5 8., PP 577-585 The heating and melting of a solid through friction are analyzed and solved for two simple cases. First, the problem of the friction of one solid on another is considered, and then the problem of the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid over a solid object. Methods of dimen- sional analysis are used in the treatment (L. I. Sedov, Metody Podobin i Razmernosti v Mekhanike rSimilarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechan- ics , Gostekhteoretizdat, Moscow, 1957). -6li.- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 68. Parameters of High-Altitude Stage Rocket "Selection of Parameters of a High-Altitude Stage Rocket," by A. K. Platonov; Moscow, Tr. Mosk. aviats. 1n-t, 1956, No 64, pp 15-40 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Mekhanika, No 7, Jul 58, Abstract No 7533 by A. S. Budnik) This work sets forth an approximate graphopnaly-tic method for deter mining design parameters of single and two-stage high-altitude rockets. For the case of vertical flight without considering the atmosphere the ballistic problem in dimensionless parameters is solved and a method of constructing a grid of functions of dimensionless parameters of motion from similarity criteria of rockets (relative mass and thrust-weight ratio) is given. Using this graph the author solves the ballistic problem (for the preliminary design stage of rockets) by determining the required relative final mass for a known altitude of ascent, the thrust-weight ratio and the specific thrust of the motor. For f),igbt in the atmosphere a scheme of an analogous solution of the ballistic problem with an approximate consideration of drag and the influence of back pressure of the atmosphere on the performance of the motor is used. Equation of the weight balance of the rocket is constructed with the aid of statistical data on specific weight characteristics of the con- struction elements excluding the motor elements for which an approximate theoretical weight analysis is performed. With the aid of this method for solving the ballistic problem and the 'weight balance equation, a method for determining the basic design parameters of the rocket is set up. In this case optimum parameters are partially selected. The minimum total propellant consumption is selected as the criteria of optimality. From this condition the selec- tion of optimum pressures in the engine chamber and the nozzle are made for single-stage rockets. The determination of the optimum coefficient of oxidizer surplus is made only for maximum thermodynamic specific thrust. For two-stage rockets the question concerning the selection of optimum staging is examined. A method of graphic searching for the optimum com- bination of values of relative final masses of the stages under condi- tions of minimum loss of fuel is derived. The problem is solved for the case of specific thrust, of motors identical for both stages and different (for each stage) weight coefficients. - 65 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 69. Equations of Motion for Gas With Shock Wave Solved "On Exact Solutions of the Equations of One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics With Shock and Detonation Waves," by I. S. Shikin, Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow Dom Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 122, No 1, Sep 58, pp 33-36 A general method is given for solving exactly the equations for the one-dimensional nonstationary motion of an ideal non-heat-conducting gas in which the velocity at any given time is a linear function of the dis- tance from the center, axis, or plane of symmetry and in which a shock or detonation wave is propagated with a certain velocity with respect to the undisturbed gas with constant pressure and a certain initial density. Spectroscopy and Optics 70. Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions "Solution of a Problem on Splitting the Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in the Crystal Lattice Field," by N. V. Afanas'- yeva; Leningrad, Optika i Spektroskopiya. Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58, pp 629-633 The effect of crystalline fields of various symmetry on the state of ions of rare earths is analyzed. A method is suggested for finding operator equivalents for various potential functions. The relative location of ion energy levels is found in the field of cubic symmetry. The parameters of crysta1.lattices for double nitrates and ethyl sulfates of rare earths were determined. 71. Spectra of Po yatomic Molecules "Intensities in the Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules," by B. S. Neporent and N. G. Bakhshiyev; Leningrad, Optika i Spektro- sko iya, Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58, pp 634+-645 The effect of the solvent on the magnitude of the absorption integral, on the duration of the excited state, and on their correlation is ans', lyzed for polyatomic molecules. It is shown that the concepts of in- tegral intensities of electron transitions may without doubt be referred only to complex polyatomic molecules, while for the case of simple polya- tomic molecules the conditions and limitations are determined under which - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 these concepts retain their meaning. It is shown that for the case of complex and for some simple polyatomic molecules the solvent may be con- sidered as an external dielectric medium. Several models of the system "absorbing molecule - solvent" are discussed, and the inadmissibility of some models accepted by several writers in which the solvent is form- ally considered an isotropic medium "penetrating the molecule" is demon- strated. The necessity of introducing corrections considering the in- ternal field in the solution is shown: the correction suggested by T. P. Kravets (Izv. Imp. Mosk. Inzhenernogo Uchilishcha, Ser. II, No 6, 1912) according to Lorentz or the correction with consideration of the reactive field. The values of the absorption integral were studied experimentally, as well as the duration of the excited state in vapors and in several solutions for phthalimide and five of its derivatives. It was estab- ljshed.lmac the agreement of the experimental data with the correlations derived from theory is reached in taking into account the reactive field according to H. Onsager (J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 8, 1986, 1936) or., with somewhat worse approximation, by means of the Lorentz correction. 72. Absorption Bands in Solutions "Internal Field and Intensities of Absorption Bands in Solu- tions," by N. G. Bakhshiyev; Leningrad, tike i Spektroskopiya, Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58, pp 61+6-651. The re:.ation of the internal field to the intensity of absorption bands in solutions is analyzed in a general form. A simplified expres- sion for the correction of the sllvwt:, effect was obtained according to the theory of H. Onsager (J. Amer. Chem. Soc.,y 58, 1986, 1936) and of C. Boettcher (Theory of Electric Polarization, Amsterdam, 1952). The results are applied to electron absorption spectra of a number of aro- me.tic compounds. 73. fzectra by Low-Voltage Pulse Discharge "Excitation of Spectra in the Vacuum Region by a Low-Voltage Pulse Discharge, ".by F. Z. Pedos and N. S. Sventitskiy, Lenin- grdd; 'Mika i SpektroskopiYa, Vol 5, No 6,, Dec 58, pp 706-707 The possibility of obtaining a low-voltage pulse discharge in vacuum, previously described by the authors (ibid. Vol 1+, p 1.07, 1958), is of par6icular importance for the excitation of spectra in the far ultra- violet. The equipment was augmented by an autocratic pulse repeater and a voltage regulator. It was used for photographing the spectra >f Fay (:u, C, Mg, Al, Ti, W, and other elements. - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7' Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 74. Polarization of Scattered Light "Ellipticity of Polarization of Scattered Light," by G. V. Rotenberg and I. M. Mikhaylin; Leningrad Optika i Spektro- skopiya, Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58,pp 671-681 A visrrc,l uevice is constructed for the measuring of all polarization characteristics of a light beam, i.e., the polarization degree, the de- gree of ellipticity, and the position of the plane of the predominating polarization. The degree of ellipticity of the, polarization of light, scattered by atmospheric air, either pure or smoky, under conditions of irradiation by a linearly polarized beam, is measured as a function of the scattering angle. It was established that under proper condi- tions the degree of ellipticity of polarization of the scattered light is considerable. 750 Interferometer "Interferometer With a Concave Diffraction Grating," by F. M. Gerasimov and S. S. Naumov; Leningrad Optika i Spektroskopiya, Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58, pp 682-685 Interference of two beams diffracted from a grating is analyzed and an interferometer with a concave grating, built on this principle, is described. The interferometer is used for testing reflecting surfaces and for checking the quality of plane diffraction gratings (G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 4+5, 30, 1955 ? 76. Optical System for Image Formation "Image Formation by an Aberrationless Optical System of Objects in a Field Brighter or Darker Than the Objects Themselves, by L. P. Moroz; Leningrad, Optika i Spektroskopiya, Vol 5, No 6, Dec 58, pp 692-698 An equation is derived, connecting the width of a separate object in the shape of a narrow band in cases when this band is situated in a field brighter or darker than the band, the band's contrast with the field, the contrast between a point on its axis and the surrounding field in an image formed by an aberrationless optical system with a round aperture, the aperture of this system, and the wavelength of radia- tion. This equation permits the solution of the problem of finding the necessary values, and, in particular, the threshold values of each of the enumerated quantities, when all remaining quantities are specified - 68 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 with relation to the values of the threshold of contrast response of the instrument's receiver. The equation is of different type depending on whether the object is brighter or darker than the field at a specified contrast with the field. A connection between the two cases is estab-... 11&,xO The method used for the derivation of these equations may be applied also for objects of different shape, for optical systems having other properties, and in the case of image receivers having scattering properties. Miscellaneous 77. New Isotope Laboratory in Hungary Budapest,.Nepszabads , 14 Dec 58 A new Isotope Laboratory will begin operations soon in the Lorand Eotvos Science University. This will be the first isotope laboratory in which analytic experiments exclusively will be performed. 78. Soviet Physicist Comments on Hungarian Theoretical Physics "Professor Blokhintsev visits the Theoretical Physics Institute" (unsigned article); Budapest, Nepszabadsag, 13 Dec 58 D. I. Blokhintsev, director of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research Dubna visited the Theoretical Physics Institute (Elmeleti Fizikai In- tezet) of the Lorand Eotvos Science University and discussed the research being done there. The members of the institute reported on their scienti- fic work and plans. Blokhintsev, who has achieved outstanding results in the area of theoretical physics, listened to the reports with interest. Academician Karoly Novobatzky, director of the institute., reported on his examinations connected with fundamental problems of theoretical physics. Docent Gyorgy Marx reported on achievements in the theory of elementary particles. Blokhintsev stressed the importance of theoretical research, and reported on the experiences of Soviet research institutes. He also noted that the contacts between the joint institute of Nuclear Re- search in Dubna and the Hungarian research institutes, which have proved profitable in the past, must be even closer in the future. - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 A ybR lfor Release 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Scien- 1943 1947 1952 - 1957, tific Total No of Total No of Total No of Total No of Workers No Uzbeks No. Uzbeks No Uzbeks No Uzbeks Doctors of Sci- ences 28 2 46 7 51 17 32 Candi- dates of Sci- ences 57 27 145 53 256 74 403 162 Total 210 51 441 110 605 157 1,064 455 The more recent developments in Uzbekistan are: establishment of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1956 and establishment of tln:. Institute of Regional Medicine in 1957. The latter is expected to develop into a sci- entific center for the study of problems of experimental and theoretical medicine. During the school year 1956-1957, there were in operation in Uzbeki- stan, 32 universities, 100 technical schools and special schools of subprofessional level. The total student population in these schools during the 1956-1957 school year was 130,000. The. chapter headings U the book are as followss I. Building of Comisunism: and drowth of Science i.'i the USSR II. Science in Uzbekistan: the Offspring of October (Revolution) III. Scientists of Uzbekistan and Development of Theoretical Ques- tions of Modern Science IV. Social Sciences and Their Role in Cultural Structure of the Republic V. Scientific Basis: a Perspective of Comprehensive Develop- ment of Economic Regions of the Republic 111. Scientists of Uzbekistan: (Scientists) in Cotton Growing VII. Geological Surveys and Mineral Resources of Uzbekistan VIII. Chemical Scientists and the Economy of the Republic IX. Technical Sciences in the Service of Socialist Construction - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 IX. MISCFLLl1NROUS 79. Scientific Progress in Uzbekistan Attributed to Soviet System 40 Let Sovetskoy Nauki V Uzbekistan (Forty Years of Soviet Science'-in Uzbekistan), by Ku. M. Abdulayev, president of Academy of Sciences Uzbek SSR, Publishing House of Academy of Sciences Uzbek SSR; Tashkent, 1958, 216 pages "The history of Uzbekistan is one of degradation and despair, a history of rapid subjugation by foreign armies and of catastrophic events which reduced the country to a status of a colony and brought feudalism and ruin to the most prosperous cities iii Central Asia. Scholarship suffered and the record of these years is 'not easy to re- construct. Science and technology in present-day Uzbekistan is an offspring of the Soviet revolution of 25 October 1917. Since on the eve of the October Revolutioi the republic was technologically and economically one of the most retarded sections of Tsarist Russia progress made by scientists of Uzbekistan during the past 40 years cannot be considered less than phenomenal." Abdulayev's book is an expanded and. supplemented edition of the text of a report read at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences Uzbek SSR celebrating the 1+Oth anniversary of the revolution. The book pre- sents a brief sketch of the formation and development of Soviet science in Uzbekistan and, in a condensed form, tells of the most important achievements of Uzbek scientists in various fields of natural history and social sciences. The aim of this book is twofold: 1. To present concrete data, characterizing the principal landmarks of development of Soviet science in Uzbekistan. 2. To point out the growth of science in Uzbekistan, which was achieved unde'- the leadership of the Communist Party and the Soviet gov- ernment, creating a cultural revolution in the country and subsequently realizing Lenin's policy concerning nationalities. The rapid tempo of development of science in the Uzbek SSR is clearly expressed in the increase in native scientific personnel, primarily that of the scientific personnel of the republic Academy of Sciences. This can be seen from the figures given in the table below. - 70 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 CPYRGHT X. Investigation of Soil Improvement in Uzbekistan XI. Investigation of Flora and Fauna of Uzbekistan XII. Science and Rise in Sericulture and Animal Husbandry XIII. Medical Science in Uzbekistan XIV. The Immediate Problems of the Soviet Science in U;beki.stan 80. New Scientific Organization Founded in China "Scientific and Technical Association of the People's Republic of China Founded" (unsigned article); Peiping, K'o-hsueh T'ung- pao (Scientia), No 19, 1958, p 603 This item reports the establishment of a new scientific organization, the Scientific and Techni al Ass ciation of the People's Republic of China by the amalgama tion of the All-China Federation of Scientific Societies and the All- China Association for the Popularization of Science and Technology. The motion to combine the two societies under the new name was unanimously passed during their joint national congress which convened in Peiping 18-25 September 1958. A motion was also passed to consider the current congress as the new organization's first. A presidium and secretariat of the association's first national committee were elected. According to the article, the Scientific and Technical Association will assume the party-assigned responsibility of utilizing every level of its organization in the promotion of a mass movement for an extensive technological revolution in China. It will endeavor to fulfill in 1962 the Twelve-Year Plan for Scientific ane'Technical Development originally scheduled for completion in 19617 and to bring China up to the world's advanced level in science and technology in 3 years. [SIR Note: Elsewhere in this journal a list of members of the associa- tkn% 150-man First National Committee is presented, with the following persons identified as officers: Chairman: Li Ssu-kuang Vice chairmen: Liang Hsi, Hou Te-pang, Chu K'o-then, Wu Yu-hsun, Ting Hs lin ("f / #_), Mao I-sheng, Wan I ( Tj AFan Chang-chiang 3:[_)., Ting Ying ( ~ and Huang Chia-ssu ( '' ) ( y A~ , - 72 ?- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000/100240001-7 Members of Presidium: Wang Fa-wu Liu Ch'eng-chao, Tu Kuo-hsiang, Su Feng ( t ), Su Pu-ch' ing, Chao Shou-i Q& ? - ), and Mi Chia-fan ( - ) . Members of Secretariat: Yen Chi-tz'u, Chen Chi-tsu ), Chou P'ei-yuan, T'u Ch'ang-wang, Hsia K'ang-nung ( I_ i J, and Nieh Chun-Jung The full text of the "Resolution to Establish the Scientific and~Tech- nical Association of the People's Republich of China," on page 583 of this issue, embodies the constitution and by-laws of the association. The as- sociation's resolutions, "To Struggle for the Fullfillment of the Twelve- Year Plan for Science and Technology Five Years Ahead of Schedule" and "To Sponsor a Scientific and Technical Gift Presentation Movement on the Tenth Anniversary of the People's Republic of China and Prepare for the Calling of a National Congress of Activists of Scientific and Technical Discoveries and Inventions," are published on pages 585.1' 81. Hungsplkw Appoint New Scientific Qualifications Committee "motion No 1035/1958 (IX. 2) of the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government, Concerning Replacement of Chairman, Secretary, and Members of the Scientific Qualifications Committee" by Antal Apro, First Deputy Premier o Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government; Budapest, Akademiai Kozlony, Vol III, CPYRGHT No 15-16, 15 Sep 58 "l. The Ipretsent chairman, secretary, and members of the Scientific Qualifications Co nittee are hereby relieved of their respective offices. 2. The following persons are appointed to these offices as noted: "Academician Vadasz, chairman "Corresponding Member [of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Gabor Tbinai, secretary. "Academician Antal Babits, Corresponding Member Otto Benedikt, Corresponding Member Agoston Budo, Doctor of Technical Sciences Gyorgy Csanadi, Academician Tibor Erdey-Gruz, Academician Pal Kiss Gegesi [or Kiss Pal .. Gegesil , Corresponding Member Arpad Gerecs, Candidate of Eco:-? mmilm- Arpad Haasz, Academician Gyorgy Hajos, Candidate of Chemical Sci= ences Gyula Hardy, Academician Lajos Jdnossy, Candidate of Biological Sciences Gabor Kolozsvari, Corresponding Member Mate Major, Academician - 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 CPYRGHT Rezso Manninger, Academician Erik Molnar, Academician Gyula Nemeth, Candi- date of Biological Sciences Sandor Rajki, Candidate of Technical Sciences Istvan Salyi Sr., Academician Andras Somos, Doctor of Medical Sciences Jozsef Sos, Academician F. Bruno Straub, Academician Imre Szabo, Doctor of Technical Sciences Lajos Szeniczei, and Academician Erno Winter, mem- bers. "First Deputy Minister of Health Istvan Simonovits, Representative of the Ministry of Health "Chief Director Istvan Tamassy, Candidate of Biological Sciences, representative of the Ministry of Agriculture." 82. Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institutions Listed "Directive No 14+/1958 MTA (A. K. 17-18) of the President of the 1 Hungarian Academy of Sciences," by Istvan Rusznyak, president); Budapest, Akademiai Kozlo y, Vol VII, No 17-18, 15 Oct 58 The following list of Hungarian Academy of Sciences installations is an attachment to a directive concerning "Organizational and Operational Fire Regulations for the Hungarian Academy of Sciences." This directive sets up five different types of positions: an "independent official" (fugget-lenitett eloado), who "operates under the technical direction of the National Fire Command of the Ministry of the Interior"; a "nonindepend dut.c official" (nem fugg. eloado), who "is the fire official of the ins stitution and works under the direction of the institution's director or chief"; a "person responsible for fire regulations" (tuzrendeszeti felelos); a "fire regulations committee" (tuzrendeszeti bizottsag) made up of 3-9 persons depending on the fire danger in the institution, its size, the number of workers, and technological dangers (the chief of the committee is the "official" -- see above -- and the members are engineers, techni- cians, etc.; the function of the committee is primarily advisory); and finally, "volunteer fire fighters." The table below gives the regulations for setting the number of volunteer fire fighters needed. Inasmuch as the following list includes institutions for which no such official is proposed (:these are probably housed in areas not under academy control), the list can be presumed complete list of all institutions admin= istratively responsible to the academy. 74- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 AgpFeved CPYRGHT FeF Release Number of Volunteer Fire Fighters Per Shift No- of Workers- Danger Group to Which 201- 501- Above Institution Belongs 51r200 500 1:,000 1,000 11 15 19 21 9 13 17 19 9 13 17 In the following list, the first number is the serial number of the institution; following the name of the institution is the number of posi- tions (if'any) of the various types. 1. Academy Office?(Akademiai Hivatal) -- one responsible person. 2. Philology Institute (Nyelvtudomanyi Intezet) -- one responsible person. ,.3. Literary History Institute (Irodalomtoiteneti Intezet) -- one responsible person. 4. Folk Music Research Group (Nepzenekutato Csoport) -- one re- sponsible person. 5. Historical Sciences Institute (Tortenettudomanyi Intezet) -- one nonindependent official. 6. Economic Sciences Institute (Kozgazdasagtudomanyi Intezet) -- 7. State and Legal Sciences Institute (Allam- es Jogtudomanyi In- tezet) -- none. 8. Geographical Sciences Research Group (FoldrajzitudomanyC Kutato Csoport) -- none. 9. Trans-Danubian Scientific Institute (Dunantuli Tudomanyos In- tezet) -- none. 10. Philosophic Institute (Filozofiai Intezet) -- none. 11. Central Physics Research Institute Kozponti Fizikai Kutato In- tezet) one independent official, 8 responsible persons, a fire regula- tions committee of 5, and 19 volunteer fire fighters [per shifjJ0 - 75 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 CP~R fed For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 12.. Nuclear Research Institute (Atoimnagkutato Intezet) -- one non- independent official. 13. Mathematics Research Institute (Matematikai Kutato Intezet) -- one responsible person. 14. Astronomical Institute (Csillagvizsgalo Intezet) -- one respon- sible -peon. 15. Theoretical Physics Research Group (Elmeleti Fizikai Kutato Csoport) -- one responsible person. 16. Cybernetics Research Group (Kibernetikai Kutato Csoport) -- ane responsible person. 17. Solar, Physics Research Group (Napfizikai Kutato Csoport) 18. Agricultural Research Institute (Mezogazdasagi Kutato Intezet) -- one nonindependent official, 19 responsible persons, a fire regular tions committee of 3, and 8 volunteer fire fighters Der shifty'. 19. Soil Study and Agricultural-Chemical Research Institute (Talaj- j;ani~ es Agrokemiai Kutato Intezet) -- one responsible persona 20. Animal Health Research Institute (Allategeszsegugyi Kutato In- tezet) -- one responsible person. 21. Soil Biology Research Laboratory (Talajbiologiai Kutato Labora- torium) -- one responsible persona 22. Agricultural Operations Institute (Mezogazdasagi Uzemtani In- tezet) -- none. 23. Child Psychology Institute (Gyermeklelektani Intezet) -- one responsible person. 24. Technical Physics Institute (Muszaki Fizikai Intezet) -- one responsible person. 25. Geodesics and Geophysics Research laboratory (Geodeziai es Geofizikai Kutato Laboratorium) -- one responsible person. 26. Geochemistry Research .Laboratory (Geokemiai Kutato Laboratorium) -- one responsible person. 27. Oil Mining Research laboratory (Olajbanyaszati Kutato Labora- toritmi -- one responsible person. - 76 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Ap 28. Central Chemical Research Institute (Kozponti Kemiai Kutato Intezet) -- one nonindependent official. 29. Stereochemistry Research Group (Sztereokemiai Kutato Csoport)-- one responsible person. 30. Genetics Institute (Genetikai Intezet) -- one responsible person. 31. Bilogical Research Institute (Biologiai Kutato Intezet) -- one responsible person. 32. Biochemistry Research Institute (Biokemiai Kutato Intezet) one responsible person. 33. Botanical Research Institute (Botanikai Kutato Intezet) -- one responsible person. 34+. Academy Library (MTA Konyvtara) -- one responsible person. 35. Farm of the Agricultural Research Institute (Mezogazdasagi Kutato Intezet Gazd.) -- one nonindependent pfficial, 4 responsible per- sons, a fire regulations committee of 5, and 9 volunteer fire fighters [per shift. 36. Academy Press (Akademia Nyomda) -- one nonindependent official, 2 responsible persons, a fire regulations committee of 7, and 13 volunteer fire fighters. 37. Academy Publishing House (Akademia Kiado) -- one responsible person. 38. Research Tools Making Enterprise (Kutatasi Eszkozoket Kivitelezo Vallalat) -- one nonindependent official, 8 responsible persons, a fire regulations committee of 3, and 13 volunteer fire fighters [per shift. 390 Matrahaza Scholars Vacation Area (Matrahazi Tudosudulo) -- one responsible person, who will be the manager. 40. Balatonvilagos Scholars Vacation Area (Balatonvilagosi Tudosu- dulo) -- one responsible person, who will be the manager. 4+1. Balatonszabad Officials Vacation Area (Balatonszabadi Hiv. Udulo) -- one responsible person, who will be the manager. 42. Nagymaros Officials Vacation Area (Nagmarosi Hiv. -- one respon- sible person, who will be the manager. 1+3. Balatonalmad Scholars Vacation Area (Balatonalmadi Tudosudulo!) -- one responsible person, who will be the manager. - 77 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7 83. Com uter Presented as Gift "Short Communications," Izvestiya Sovetov De utatov Trud sbeh- d kYis-a~ SSSR 20 Dec 59-- p The Soviet Union gave a new complete electronic computer of the Ural type to the Indian Statistics Institute in Calcutta. 78 m USCO! -DC-55973 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100240001-7