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Approved For R~~ ~4,9~/O~p~-f~ 1 j~O~A~Q01002V ~ ~ hF ~ ~ ~ ~ ~e -Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 PB 131891 T-17 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 6 March 1959 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE .C, ..f.r OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. Issued semi-monthly. Annual subscription $28.00 ($4 additional for 7l foreign mailing). Single copy $2.75. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 PLIASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from recently received publications of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities in the USSR, in the Sino- Soviet Orbit countries, and in Yugoslavia, and is disseminated as an aid to United States Government research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents Page I. Astronomy 1 II. Biology 3 III. Chemistry 4 Analytical Chemistry 4 Fuels and Propellants 4 Industrial Chemistry 11 Nuclear. Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 20 Organic Chemistry 27 Pesticides 32 Radiation Chemistry 35 h di i t R 36 em oc a s ry 38 Communications 38 Components 39 Computers and. Automation 40 Instruments and Equipment 42 Radar 45 V. Engineering 46 VI. Mathematics 47 Approximation Theory 47 Differential Equations 50 Information Theory 51 Linear Difference Equations 51 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Antibiotics Aviation Medicine Contagious Diseases Immunology and Therapy Pharmacology and Toxicology Physiology Radiology Surgery Veterinary Medicine VIII. Metallurgy IX. Physics Nuclear Physics Page 54 54 55 56 56 6o 62 64 69 72 75 77 77 81 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 1. Cold Int,erstcl.lar Grits "Cold Interstellar G'xs an~W Light Abuorption," by V. I. KKasov- skiy, Institute of Physics of the Atmosphc:re, Aead.emy of Sci?- en.ces USSR; Moscow, Astron_omichesk1.y Zhurna1, Vol 35, No 6, '_.. Nov/Dec 58, pp 825-82b It is shown that in a cold interstellar gas F nvelope,s of neutral mole- cules form around. the ions. On these envelopes an intense process of re- combination of atoms into molecules and the formation of negative ions take place. It is sho.P,n that the con::en.t:ration of negative ions, especially of moles:ular oXygan.. can be high enough for explaining the observed light ab- sorption. Various properties of screened ions are discussed, and the pos- c?ibility of inte:rate1iar polarization of stellar radiation by negative ions is indicated. A footnote by the author expresses the opinion that the phenomenon of ball lightning may be due to the formation of bundles of screened positive and negative ions. 2. Fine S-I.x?uc:tu:'e of Solar Lmis icon: "The Nature of t h..: Fine Stru::tux-s of Emission of Active Regions on the Sun,," by I. S. Shkicrv;kiy, State Ast::?r!nomical Institute imer.i Sternberg; Mosccror, Astr.onomicheski.y Zhurra,l, Vol 35, No 6, No?v/t c 58, pp 838..811.7 --------___ _... r The exc;it;ation me::hanism of -th r;o??c:a,? 1^d "emission mustaches" is dis- cussed. It is ;,hntnn, that during tihE? 1.f.fetima of m:(,..ztax:hea ( 200 sec ) ?~ I.e rt~, i; s . than sev .ra,.~ ?~ r. x..,,fix 'e ma.t , .?.,.,t`r' mu ;Z ?titnF.s. radiating S' "knc .s" of gas :!f small, size, moving in the a,,,,?; ive ,,egion with a velocity of 108cm/se(:, inte::?ac't with the photoz-~phe:ric plasma. This inter,. ar.:tion is a r asult of i orelastic ^ollision , be:twe;:n hyl_rogex atoms and of phen mvena on '.;he front of shock waves which are foimed. it of the knots. During this px?cicess the of the- atoms :,c-.'?u:i: v-x'y strongly. The tuunber ;:X emitted. Balmer ;.lpanta pe.:? eir y hyd '. gen atom moving rapi.:;.ly thx-ouR,h the photosphere is about Zrq important of such a mechanism of cheats;ivat:ion of tb ay'ait',e;i =ctom- a,,s -f h- t.:,ram fer of excit- ation is emphasized. The tota. mass ;.f gas in the_- knots ih whom 14_fetime of the active region is about 1.,013 gx?san ;, which i.s &b-out 3^1.0"'4 of the mass of the gas of the active . egiori. The F :-: gy of the knots- 0?8 ergs evidently is derive?i frcin the ene:~?gy of the ma.g' is fie::t.,i. in, the active region. The phen?_cmenurt of knot: is, analagen.s. to that of Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Similar phenomena (the formation of rapidly moving knots-plasmoids in nonstable magnetic fields) take place in the chromosphere (in flare regions) a - d prominences (explosive prominences). In this case favorable conditions for accelerating charged particles can arise. In conclusion it is shown that the so-called "continuous emissions" of active photospheric regions cannot be of synchronic type and therefore thermal emission. 3-4. Solar Radio Emission "Strong Surge of Radio Emission From the Sun on 3 March 1958, by N. L. Kaydanovskiy, V. N. Ikhsanova, N. S. Soboleva, G. M. Timofeyeva, and G. B. Gel'freykh, Solnechn e 11s.nn re) 1958, No 3, pp 72-75 (from Referativn Zhurnal --? Fizika, No 12, Dec 58, Abstract No 28303 Observation results of a radio emission surge on a 3.2-cm wave at the Pulkovo Observatory are described. Observations were carried out simultan- eously on the polarizing radiometer and on the Great Pulkovo Radio Tele- scope. The surge could be related to an optical flare of power 3 and radio surges on frequencies of 208.60 and 178 megacycles. The maximum flow ex- ceeds the flow from a quiet Sun by tenfold. The degree of circular polar- ization equal to 7% remained unchanged during the surge. The angular size of the active zone provoking the surge is about 1.5. The effective temper- ature was 108 OK. The difference in coordinates between the surge and the optical flare permitted determining the altitude of the surge over the photosphere equal to 0.1 of the solar radius. "Some Observational Results of Solar Radio Emission or. the large Radio Telescope GAO," by V. N. Ikhsanova.,, State Astronomical Ob- servatory, Pulkovo, Solnechnyye Dannyye, 195:7 (1958), No 6, pp 120- 122 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal ?--- Fizika No 12, Dec 58, Abstract No 28301) The first observation of solar radio emission on, the radio telescope with strong resolving power (about 1' on 3.2 cm wave) is reported. The active region of radio emission is reliably related to a group of solar ? spots. In some cases the sizes of active regions are 'below 1`. By means of comparison of the solar spots' motion together with the motion of radio emission sources, their altitude was established. similar for. 3.2- and 10- cm waves and equal to 1.07 of solar radius. It was concluded that the radio emission sources are coronal condensations connected to spots. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 5. X-Ray and EDTA Effects on Chromosome Fra "The Effect of Roentgen Irradiation and of Ethylenediamine- tetraacetic Acid on Chromosome Fragments in Microspores of Tradescantia Paludosa," by N. L. Delone, Institute of Biolog- ical Physics of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow; Moscow, Biofizika, Vol 3, No 6, 1958, pp 717-7211. The combined effects of X-ray irradiation and treatment with ethy- lenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were studied on the chromosomes of the Tradescantia paludosa plant. Results indicated that certain concentrations of EDTA (0.05-0.001M) cause chromosome reconstruction, and EDTA extends the state in which chrom- osome fragments are able to recombine. Comparison of the combined effects of X-ray irradiation and EDTA with the effect of X-ray irradiation alone indicates that the new types of chro- mosomes arising due to chromosome reconstructions have different spectra of mutations. 6. Chinese Cite Achievements in Cultivation of Green Algae "Unicellular Green Algae -- New Source of Human Food.," by Inst- itute of HydrobioloRr, Academia Sinica; Peiping, K'o-hsueh T'ung- pao (Scientia), No 21, 1958, p 665 This item reports the achievements of the Institute of Hydrobiology, Academia Sinica, in the accelerated cultivation of unicellular green algae during the great leap forward movement. In the 3 months preceding National Day (1 October), the institute reportedly cultivated unicellular green algae by the outdoor method at an annual rate of 12,000 chin per mou dry weight. This surpasses Japan's world record of 6,000 chin per mou annually. Preliminary analysis of the institute's product showed that the palisade type of unicellular green alga contained 48 percent protein and. 13.4 per- cent fat; the spherical-type [Chlorella?], 48.3 percent protein and 11.3 percent fat. The article also notes that the institute has developed strains of green algae adapted to temperatures ranging from 15 degrees to 35 and 40 degrees centigrade. Smples of green algae biscuits and candy, trial- manufactured by the Wuhan Food Products Plant, were recently taken to the USSR by Soviet scientists, it is stated. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 III. C.IIIEMISTRY Analytical Chemistry 7. Chinese Method for the Colorimetric Analysis of Ni,:kel "A New Method for Colorimetric Analysis of Nickel," by Cheng Ic'ang..yuan (i l' //~ ), Institute of Geophysical Prospect- ing, Ministry of Geology; Peiping, Ti-ch'iu Wu-li Klan-Van (Geophysical Prospecting), No 5, 195, p 25 This item reports that a rapid colorimetric method for the determina- tion of traces of nickel has been developed. The "new" method uses alpha furyl dioxime and is simpler than the old method with dimethylglyoxime, since it requires no preliminary separation. It avoids interference from Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn. Its high sensitivity eliminates interference from basic salts and hydroxides that form in alkaline solutions. A substitute calorimetric method to be used in cases when alpha furyl dioxime is unavailable is also proposed. It calls for the colorimetry of the yellow Ni(II) dimethylglyoxime complex in chloroform. Fuels and Propellants 8. The Effect of Ozone on the Rate of Combustion of dccarbons "The Influence of Ozone on the Rate of Combustion of Hydro- carbonc: -" by V. M. Cherednicherxko, I. N. Pospelova, and. S. Ya. Pshezhetskiy, Physicochemical ir.stituta imeni L. Ya. Kar- pov; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicreskoy I himii, Vol 32, No 12, Dee 58, pp 2673-267$ The problem concerning the role played by chemical kinetics in com- bustion cannot be regarded as clarified to a sufficient extent. The cor- relation between the kinetics of chemical reactions in the flame front and factors which are characteristic for the propagation of flames has not been investigated suzffic ientiy. Furtherncre, the problem concerning the relation between the kinetics and. mechanism of the praflwae reaction and the kinetics of processes taking place in the flame has not been clarified. from this standpoint the effect on the rate of canbustion of substances which change the rate of the chemical reation after being introduced in small quantities is of interest. One of these substances is ozone. When a small quantity of ozone has been a.d.ded to a mixture of hydrocarbon vapors with oxygen or air, the chemical composition of the mixture has not been Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 changed noticeably, the temperature of combustion has also not been changed, and such characteristics of the mixture as density, heat capacity, and heat a onductivity remain the -same. Under the circumstances one may conveniently of serve effects of changes in the characteristics of the reaction on pro- cesses which take place. The effect of ozone on the ignition of hydrocarbons was subjected to study in research done by S. A. Kamenetskaya, N. A. Slavinskaya, and S. Ya. Pshezhetskiy. In the work described at present, the effect of additions of ozone in quantities up to 27.3% by volume on the rate of combustion of mixtures of n??butane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and cyclohexane with oxygen and also of n-butane with air was investigated. It was established that introduction of ozone into the mixture in- -reases the rate of combustion. This effect is greater at low tempera- tuxes of combustion. It was established that the accelerating effect of ozone cannot be regarded as being a result of changes in the physical conditions of the process, including temperature changes, but is due to the influence of the ozone on the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Data concerning the effect produced by ozone on combustion are com- pared with data on the effect exerted by ozone on ignition. A possible mechanism for the action of ozone in both cases is proposed. 9. Systems Containing Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide "Investigation of Systems Containing Concentrated Hydrogen Per- oxide; Part 15 -- The Solubility Isotherm at 100 of the Ternary System Ca (OH)2 - H202 - H2O and Supplementary Characterization of the Solid Phases," by S. Z. Markarov and N, 1C. Grigor`yeva, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvest ya Akademii Nauk SSSR Ot. eleniye IQt.imicheskikh Nauk, No 11, Nov 58, pp 12 9-l295 On the basis of the solubility isotherms from minus 210 to plus 100 a polytherinic diagram of the ternary system Ca (011)2 " Ilpt)2 ?? H2O with the solid phases Ca02.8H2O; Ca 0. 2H( 0; and Ca 02.22H2 02 was constructed. The crystals of the hydrates and. perhydrates of calcium peroxide and also of anhydrous calcium peroxide were found to belong to a syngony lower than the cubic. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 X-:eay diffraction analysis of Ca 02 and C;a 0. 8 H.,O powders confirmed the data given in the literature in regard to the-fact that the crystals of the::e substances belong to the tet:^agor,-i.l syngony (system). Penetration of 2 molecules of water into the crystal lattice of Ca 02 produces only insign- ificant deformation of the principal lattice. The water molecules appar- ently enter into the voids between atoms. The X-ray diffraction picture of Co. 02 . 2 H2 02 powder differs considerably from the X-ray diffraction pic- tures of all other compounds of calcium, which indicates that this compound represents a separate entity. "Investigation of Systems Containing Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide; Part 16 -- Solubility Isotherms of the Ternary System Sr(OIi)2 - II2O 2 - H2O", by S. Z. Makarov and T. I. Arnol'd. Institute of Gener.,l and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Mosccna', Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Khim.icheskikh Na,.z No 12, Dec 5$, pp 1407-1412 The interaction of Sr(OH)2 with H-,,()2 of different concentrations has been investigated by the solubility method in the system Sr(OH)2 - IL202 - H20 at the temperatures of minus 100, 00, plus 200, plus 300, and plus 500. By using the residue method, the existence of the following compounds has been established with certainty: the octohydrate of strontium peroxide Sr02. 8 IL20 and the diperhydrate of strontium peroxide Sr02. 2 H2O2. It was furthermore established that the hitherto unknown monoperhydrate of strontium peroxide S-= %. Ii202 exists and that it is stable at, X02 con- centrations from 2.9 to 9.0% at plus 500. Data in the literature con- erning the existence of a hemihydrate and a hexahydra,te could not be con- firmed: the only hydrate that could be found was SriD2. 8 H2O. 10. Corv=--lion of Natural Gas Perer.ab,Aka, Prirodrykh Gazov (Conversion of Natural Gases): Trudy Vs s. rzno-o Nauchno-Issledovatel'sko o Institu.ta Prirodn kh Gazov JNI?Gaz,, No 6 (,14), Gostoptekhizda.t, Moscow, 1959, 15 standard printed sheets, 3,000 copies, price 12 r (announo.ement in Temati- he.;ki i'.1 ..r_ 'tlypuska, Izc1aniy NNa19`9 God, G etopteitii.zda.t Moscow. No 2 , Aug 5 , p 1, , Item No 71) This book will serve the needs of plant F~ngin(-.-ers and engineers ac- tive at planning and design "'project"), a;, well as of scien- tific 'workers of the gas; petrochemical, anal. chemical industries who are engaged in work on the separation of natural. gas, pr.odur.tior, of intermed- iate products for chemical synthesis. and manufactus.?e of synthetic pro- ducts. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGH "It contains a number of articles dealing with the isolation of hydro- carbons from natural gases and their conversion with the purpose of the manufacture of synthetic products. "The articles discuss results obtained in work done at VNIIGaz (All- Union Scientific Research Institute of Natural Gas) on the production of hydrogen, acetylene, carbon black., and synthesis gas, the production of formaldehyde by the direct oxidation of methane, propane, and their mix- tures, etc. A number of articles deals with the separation of hydrocar- bons by adsorption and the purification of hydrogen from admixtures." 11. Review of Work on the Evaporation and. Growth of Droplets in a Gaseous Medium Is arena i Rost Ka eV v Gasoobraznoy Srede (evaporation and Growth of Droplets in Gaseous Media), by N. A. I`aksr Itogi Nauki, No 1; Series published by the All-Union Institute of Scientific- Technical Information, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, 1.958, pp 92 According to an editorial note on the back of the title page, the re- sults of theoretical and experimental work and on the evaporation and growth of droplets in gaseous media are discussed and subjected to critical review in this book. Particular attention is paid to establishing whether or not there is agreement between theoretical results and experimental data. The significance of the subject is commented on and the scope of the CPYRGHT review outlined in the introduction as follows : "The evaporation of droplets of a liquid in. a gaseous medium and the reverse process of the Lp?c-wth of droplets in a medium containing supersat- urated vapor of a liquid play an important role in nature and in human activities. It is sufficient to recall that the cyclic:: movement of water in nature passes through the stage of the condensation of water vapor on hygroscopic particles (condensation nuclei) contained. in the atmosphere with the result that cloud droplets are .formed. A considerable propor- tion of these nuclei is formed as a result of the evaporation of sea-?Z-rater spray,; furthermore, ra.indr. opr; evaporate after they have formed and often do not reach the ground for this reason. In technology there is evapora- tion of fuel droplets in internal-combustion engines, in the spray drying of viscous solutions, and during the cooling of ii.ot gases with sprayed water. Fogs are forged by condensation when gaseous products of combus.. tion are cooled after these products have been e: jected from chimneys and. plane engines and in the process, of' the condensation of atmospheric mois- ture on droplets of sulfuric acid at sulfuric-acid plants or on droplets of phosphoric acid when screening smokes are produced by burning phosphorus The majority of particles in clouds produced after the explosion of a nuclear bomb are formed by condensation. Condensation of vapors a gas ions has been applied for a long, time as an important method of investiga- tion in nuclear physics. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Ap rp Fff Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "ne may mention in connection with this that the processes of absorp- tion of gases on solid and liquid aerosol particles are in many cases sim- Llar? to the process of condensation of vapors on droplets : the relation- ships under-lying both are described by the same equations. "Although the number of papers being published on the subject of evap- oration and growth of droplets is rather large, no review of the present status of work in this field has appeared either in the USSR or outside the USSR hitherto. The purpose of the survey which has been compiled in this instance is to satisfy to some extent the need for such a review. The re- view which follows will be limited to the subject of the evaporation of droplets of pure liquids; in other words, the evaporation of droplets of solutions will not be discussed. The thermodynamic aspects of the process i.e., the problem in regard to the vapor tension of the droplets will also not be considered. The reason for this is that the validity of Kelvin's formula cannot be doubted as far as droplets of the dimensions which must be considered in practical work are concerned. Thus, the review deals only with the kinetics of evaporation and of the growth of droplets of pure liquid. "The phenomenon being considered is very complex under actual condi- tions, because a great number of droplets evaporate; the process is of a nonstationary type and takes place in a medium having a temperature and vapor concentration which are not constant; the droplets move with rela- tion to the medium in a mariner which is not uniform and are deformed to a greater or lesser extent, while circulation originates within them; the heat exchange between the droplets and the medium proceeds by three dif- ferent mechanisms (heat conductivity, convection, and radiation). For the reason stated, the theory of the phenomenon is very complex, and a number of simplifications have to be made. One must begin with a highly idealized model of the process and then introduce into the equations which have been derived corrections that take into account the effect of different factors which have been excluded from the treatment. One proceeds analogously in the experimental study of the problem: measurements are carried out under conditions which make it possible to exclude the effect of some of the complicating factors. "Proceeding along this line, we devoted the major part of the review to the quasi-stationary regime of the evaporation of droplets (and of heat transfer to droplets) in which the velocity of the process at any given moment is equal to the velocity of a stationary process proceeding under the limiting conditions existing at this moment. As shown in Chapter III, nonstationary processes of evaporation and heat transfer may in many cases be regarded as quasi-stationary with a very close degree of approximation. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "Chapter I discusses the simplest case of the evaporation of droplets which are motionless with reference to the medium, i.e.; when the effect of the hydrodynamic factor is not considered. Although this case is never realized under actual conditions, the motion of sufficiently small droplets has no effect on the rate of evaporation, so that everything that has been said in Chapter I applies to droplets of this size. Chapter II deals with the quasi-stationary evaporation. of droplets in a gas stream, i.e., the evaporation of droplets which are displaced with reference to the medium. Chapter III considers a number of cases of nonstationary evaporation of droplets. "One must note that the experimental investigation of evaporation of droplets lags to some extent behind the theoretical treatment of the sub- ject; specifically, experimental measurements in the nonstationary region have not been condu..ted at all. On the other hand, many formulas for the nonstationary process have been derived with the aid of various simplifica- tions and cannot be regarded as reliable without being checked experiment- ally. For these reasons, we have attempted to cover completely in our re- view all published experimental work on the evaporation of droplets, while, as far as theoretical work is concerned, only those investigations are dis- cussed the results of which can be compared with experimental data." (pp 5-7) The book's table of contents follows. A bibliography consisting of S8 references, of which 23 are USSR, follows the text of the book. CPYRGHT Table of Contents The Most important Symbols Chapter I. Quasi-Stationary Evaporation and. Growth of Droplets Motionless With Respect to the Medium 9 2. The Effect of Stefan Flow on the Rate of Evaporation 13 3. Evaporation of Droplets in a Vessel With Abscc.rben.t Walls 14 4. Evaporation of Nonspheric Droplets 15 5. The Effect of the Concentration Differential. at the Surface of Droplets on the Rate of Evaporation 17 - 9 -? Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGHT 6. Lowering of the Temperature of Free Evaporating Droplets 21 7. Lowering of the Temperature of Suspended Evaporating Droplets 26 8. Experimental Data on the Evaporation of Moti.onleeg Droplets. Experiments With Fixed Droplets at r > 1 [r=radius of the droplets; 1= mean length of the free path of vapor molecules] 29 9. Experiments With Fixed Droplets at r Z 1 42 10. Experiments With Free Droplets 45 Chapter II. Quasi-Stationary Evaporation and Growth of Droplets Moving With Reference to the Medium 53 11. Theory 53 12. Experiment`s With Fixed Droplets in a Stream 62 13. Experiments With Freely Falling Droplets '74 Cha pter III. Nonstationary Evaporation and Growth of Droplets 79 14. Nonstationary evaporation of Droplets Motionless With Respect to the Medium 79 15. Nonstationary Evaporation of Moving Droplets 85 Bib liogr aphy 88 12. Roc ket P ropellants "Rocket Propellants" (unsigned article); Bucharest, Revista de Chimie, No 12, Dec 58, pp 690-693 This is a theoretical article based. chiefly on data published in Western periodicals. The article states that it is believed that the USSR used liquid fuels in launching its sputniks. The USSR is also studying photonic propulsion of rockets. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Industrial ChemistrL 13. Current Tasks of USSR Chemical Research "The Principal Tasks of Chemical Science" (unsigned article); Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdelez,.iye HIZimicheskikh Nauk, No 11, Nov 5, pp 1285-128b The expansion of chemical production in 1959-1965 that has been fore- seen will result in an increase in the output of chemical products by a factor of no less than 2-3 and an increase in the production of synthetic fibers and plastics by a factor of +.5-8. To accomplish the tasks which must be accomplished in connection with this, it will be necessary to ex- pand research on polymers to a considerable extent. Although chemistry is at a generally high level in the USSR, there is a considerable lag in some fields, particularly as far as work on recovered and synthetic fibers and on plastics is concerned. The reason for this is dispersion of effort and insufficient coordination between scient,..iic research and industrial development. There is an urgent necessity of expanding theoretical work and research in the field of polymers and initial materials used for the production of polymers, so that the USSR will occupy the foremost place in the world in this particular field within a few years. As has been brought out by Academician A. N. Nesmeyanov, president of the Academy of Sciences USSR, research on polymers involves more than purely chemical work: a considerable amount of physical research is in- volved. One of the most important problems in connection with the produc- tion of fibers of high quality and anisotropic, fflnLs is that of the orient- ation of molecules. In view of the fact that solutions are an intermediate stage in the production of polymers, research on solutions will play a con- siderable role. Data must be obtained. on the distribution of molecules according to molecular weight, shape, and dimensions. Problems must also be solved pertaining to the theory of processes involved in the working and molding of polymers so that mechanochemical phenomena. can be utilized for safeguarding the quality of polymers and improving it in processes involved in manufacturing. With the purpose of considerably expanding the volume of scientific research work in this field and reducing the time during which this work is accomplished, an expansion of the network of scientific institutions is planned for 1958-1960. At the same time, some higher educational inst- itutions will be expanded and new educational institutions created which will prepare specialists for work in the industry of polymers. A number of institutes of the Academy of Sc1 n:?es USSR will be expanded. New inst- itutes will be opened. At the Institute of. Organ.:;elemental Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR, a new division will be organized which will be engaged principally in work on the utilization of o:rga.noelemental monomers (of the organosilicon, organophosphcrus, and other types) and.inorganic Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 monomers for the synthesis of polymers? At the same institute, work will be done on the theoretical aspects of the chemistry of high polymers, and syntheses of new types of fiber-forming polymers will be developed. New divisions being created at the Institute of High-Polymer Compounds will do research on the synthesis of new polymers, copolymers, and block polymers and also study problems pertaining to the investigation of physico- chemical properties of polymers, the kinetics of catalytic polymerization, and the deterioration and stabilization of polymers. Laboratories being created at the Institute of Chemical Physics will furnish facilities for advancing work on the kinetics of polymerization and the kinetics of oxida- tion processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons, as well as expediting the development of a theoretical basis for the production. of block and graft polymers. Work will. also be done there on the physics and physical chemistry of laminated [reinforced] p . At the Institute of Physical Chemistry problems will be tackled that have a bearing on the scientific aspects of the application of polymers in building, agriculture (to give the desired structure to soils), and other fields. New laboratories are being opened for this purpose. Furthermore, this institute will have to expand work on the catalytic synthesis of mon- omers, the macrokinetics of catalytic processes, the utilization of radia- tion as an aid to polymerization, [radiation] vulcanization, and other problems which fit into its range of activity. Syntheses of monomers with the utilization of catalytic processes and of radiation will be investigated at the Institute of Organic Chemistry. Problems pertaining ':,o the conver=? sion of petroleum, natural gases, and by-product gases into intermediate products for the production of polymers will be investigated at the new Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis which will be opened in Moscow on the basis of the Petroleum Institute of the Academy of Scier_,es USSR. At the periphery the following organizations will be opened: institute of Organic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences USSR at .Kazan', which will function as a scientific center of petrochemistry for the petroleum-bearing regions of the Second Baku, and the Institutes of Organic ihemistry at Novosibirsk and Irkutsk (within the Novcsibirsk Department of the Academy of Sciences USSR), which will function as scientific centers and centers of theoretical work for the eastern regions of the country as far as problems of petro- chemical synthesis and of the chemistry of polymers are ~2onccerned. The Institute of Catalysis being created at Novosibirsk will work in close con- tact with these institutes. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Of great ifor the c1evel~?pm-ant of -hemiWal science will be expansion of reaeaY?3h. on. riatural.Ly o^.r;,anpound;3, particularly as far as the chemistry of piot.ein:; Is eeon.,.-.erned. In connection with this, the Institute of Naturally Occurring Compounds is being created within the Academy of . USSR. The prir.;c1pal activities of this institute rill be in research on the stru;tu~c: of pr-oteins, polysaccharides, and cellulose. Work do:one at. the.; institute will also b--: concerned. with the synthesis of biciogically active ,;ursi;at:tices. A Ccrurcil on, the Chemistry of Naturally Oc- curring 0ompiunc?.+ is being -reeats'! at the N!partment of Chemical Sciences, A~::-idemy of USSR, i.n order., tfa coordinate work in this field. 11~. Current Ikv,:l,opmerj.ta in the Field of t anosilicon Compounds CPYRGHT "The Chemictrry? an,:l Priactical Appl.i rations of rxrganosilicoia Com- p-:,und; +,An A.11???UD.ioll Conference at Leningrad):" by M. G. Voronkov, (':and i.rlita of c:hemita1 S_ien+::y,s, and V. L. Losev; Moscow, Vestnik Ak.a 7?mii. NauJ.c. SSSR, Vol 28. No 12, 58, pp 97-100 "(rgar;.osili' cn. campoun'is.. above all polyorganosiloxanes, which have many aivantageous chara;:ter. in5t: c,s from the standpoint of technical applica- tions, are being applied extensively in various branches of the national e:c ??r. lly. The requirements put by present-day technology induced rapid de- velopment in the .f.':i.elLi of the c.hemi ~jtry of orgar..osilicon compounds. Exten- sive work in. this field is. 'hp;ir.g dctn? in the USSR. "Z 'he Se ond. A1,1. Uni :,n Confer. ence on the Chemistry and Practical Appli- esa.t io:t: of Cyr gar; os 1.'Lic an Compound: was held at Leningrad, 25?-27 September 1958. 'T_tie eonfe:ren e was orgauiz d by the Ik partment of Chemical Sciences, The Institute of Silicate themistry of the Academy of Sciences USSR, the A11- :ir therm.-:al S.), iGty meni 11. 1. Mendel yev, the State Committee on L y at the .:.f Ministers USSR, and the Leningrad Sovnarkhoz. More than 650 p rs;~xr~ from diff'ererT . of the: USSR and also from for- eign. ..?:,un.trie o pa.:rtiuipat.d. in the ::o fe.rence. Not only se.tientists but also persons a..:t-i,r in the in lu.stry prezent~~-: reports and pa:^ticipated in the d...i us: is;n-: . }~ry-as, "A of t.he: ..?ep?~ ^ts given. at thr? : onf. err n,:e (more than 100) Y a. i. G.; 1. b the ? a ?:,re J 1 ie"Y. 1 .'1 ^, v e p~ is h.. rr.,r,~ =.lri. T}-~ c,ll~,ction of ar.{.. ,>icles C:;,ntA, thr. -' r~.`po't. r in2'uved. a Lyste.r?, of r,omenclatur of organo?ilicon by tr:F the Nanen.r; at ze. c;f Chemical Com- p:~ura:. at; t? rv_:ps,:: frr: nt : ~..he-mi.;'a1 Se.i :r,c: s, Aria,:Ierey :.f Sciences USSR. - 1. - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "The conference was opened by a plenary session at which two reports were given, one by K. A. Andrianov and one by V. Bazant. "Andrianov discussed the characteristic traits and prospects of the development of the chemistry of organosilicon compounds in the USSR. He emphasized that the principal method for obtaining new high-molecular or- ganosilicon compounds is the synthesis of polymers which contain, in addi- tion to silicon, atoms of titanium, aluminum, and other elements. Such polymers can be used for the production of fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and plastics which exhibit a high resistance to heat. Another important line of work is the development of polymers with partly organic and partly inorganic molecular chains consisting of both hydrocarbon and siloxane groups. Polymers containing functional groups in organic radicals forming side chains should also by synthesized. One may expect that by using these methods many polymers capable of forming fibers will be developed. Of in- terest also is the development of organosilicon polymers with organic chains. One must find active catalysts which assure the transformation of unsaturated silicon hydrocarbons into polymers with high molecular weights. The development of new heat-resistant organosilicon polymers which are suitable for use at temperatures in the range of 200-5000 is imposed by the requirements of present-day technology and should form the principal object of work done in the near future. "V. Bazant reviewed work done on organosilicon compounds at the Inst- itute of Chemistry of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. "The conference was subdivided into four principal sections: those of monomers, polymers, practical applications, and analysis and physico- chemical methods of investigation. "At meetings of the section of monomers, in addition to a great number of reports on direct synthesis, methods for the production of halogenated organosilanes were discussed. Compounds of this class are initial materials for the production of organosilicon polymers. "Of great practical interest was the information given on the phenyla- tion of trichlorosilane. Data have been reported which demonstrate that it is possible to apply a new technological process for the production of phenyltri chloros i lane which resembles the process of direct synthesis by the fluidized solids method (N. N. Tishina, K, A. Andr?ianov, S. A. Golub- tsoy,and others). New information was given on the synthesis of trichloro- silane by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon in a procedure applying the fluidized solids method. In this procedure powdered silicon is acted on by a stream of hydrogen chloride. The method in question makes it possible to increase the output by a factor of 10 and to control more efficiently the composition of the reaction products by regulating the tem- perature (I. V. Trofimova, K. A. Andrianov, and S. A. Go'lubtsov).. P. Rosciszewski reported on work done by Polish scientists on the direct syn- thesis of methyl-, ethyl, and phenylchlorosilanes. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 C %6T1 For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 "Very promising from the standpoint of the development of the chemistry of organosilicon compounds are reactions based on the use of compounds which contain Si-H bonds. Methods were discussed for the synthesis of aromatic organosilicon monomers by the interaction of hydrosilanes'With aromatic hy- drocarbons in the presence of catalysts, so that Si-C bonds are formed after elimination of hydrogen, and also reactions of hydrosilanes with aryl hal- ides at elevated temperatures leading to the formation of Si-C bonds as a result of the elimination of hydrogen chloride (M. Ye. Dolgaya, Ye. A. Cher- nyshov, and Li Kuang-liang). "Interest was aroused by the results of investigations of novel methods for the synthesis of triorganosiloxy derivatives of elements of the Ilird, Nth, and Vth groups of the periodic system. Syntheses of this type are accomplished by reacting triorganosilanols with alkyl derivatives and hal- ides of titanium and vanadium, with orthoboric and phosphoric acids, and with the oxides of boron, phosphorus, vanadium, and antimony (N. F. Orlov, B. N. Dolgov, and M. G. Voronkov). "Reports were also given dealing with the behavior under the conditions of direct synthesis of different dichloroalkanes and dichloroalkenes con- taining chlorine atoms bound to one carbon atom or several carbon atoms (G. I. Nikishin, A. D. Petrov, and S. I. Sadykh-zade), the catalytic addi- tion of hydrosilanes to unsaturated compounds (V. A. Ponomarenko, A. D. Petrov, and others), a comparison between the properties of organic com- pounds of silicon, germanium, and tin (V. F. Mironov, V. A. Ponomarenko) A. D. Petrov, and others), and new methods for the synthesis of organ- osilicon vinyl ethers (S. I. Sadykh-zade, A. D. Petrov, B. N. Dolgov, and N. P. Kharitonov). A. N. Nesmeyanov, R. Kh. i`reydlina, and their collabor- ators reported on the thermal and catalytic telomerization of hydrosilanes with olefins. In their report, new possibilities of applying reactions of this type were shown. "Yu. K. Yur'yev proposed a catalytic method for the synthesis of sil- acyclopentane from furanidine and silane. in his paper he reported the results of an investigation of some transformations of the compound that had been synthesized. "A number of reports dealt with the synthesis and the results of the investigation of the reactivity of organosilicon monomers containing dif- ferent functional groups or double bonds in the hydrocarbon radicals. Spec- ifically, the chloromethylation of organosilicon compounds was investigated for the first time (N. S. Nametkin, A. V. Topchiyev, and others). -15- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 ACPYRGHT Dro d For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "It was found in an investigation reported that organosiloxanes readily enter into heteroiytic scission reactions under the effect of nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents (M. G. Voronkov and others). "In reports presented in the section of organosilicon polymers new data were reported on the combined hydrolysis of equi:nolecular mixtures of diethyldichlorosilane with phenyltrichlorosilane. This is the princi- pal reaction for synthesizing polyorganosiloxane resins (A. G. Kuznetsova, K. A. Andrianov, and D. Ya. Zhinkin). The results of a physicochemical Investigation of the mechanism of the hydrolysis and condensation of mix- tures of methyl chlorosilanes were also reported (B. Lengyel, T. Szekely, and A. Szuppon of Hungary). Results were reported of an investigation dealing with the catalytic polymerization cCproductsof the hydrolysis of di- and tri-functional compounds with the purpose of obtaining soluble polymers with an increased viscosity (S. N. Dzhenchel?skaya, K. A. And- rianov, and Yu. K. Petrashko) and of research on the polymerization of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane under the effect of alkalis (M. Kucera, Czechoslovakia). "The synthesis and properties of polysiloxane elastomers were discussed in a separate session. Specifically; a report was given on the syn- thesis of the chlorine-containing siloxane rubber SKT-Kh 5, which adheres better to metals and exhibits a better stability at low temperatures and a higher heat resistance than the dimethylsiloxane rubber SKT (K, A. Rzh- endzinskaya and I. K. Stavitskiy). A method has been developed for the vulcanization of liquid and rubber-like polydimethylsiloxanes at room temperature which is based on the interaction between the end hydroxyl groups of the polymer in the presence of esters of orthotitanic acid and of a complex catalyst (a solution of an organotin compound in tetraethoxy- silane). Compositions for hermetic sealing have been proposed which are based on liquid polydimethylsiloxanes which harden at ordinary; within a few hours they change fram. the vi s cous-liquid. state to that of a rubber-like material which exhibits superior dielectric properties (B. B. Baranovskaya, A. A. Berlin, and others). A heat-,resistant rubber-like polymer could be obtained by utilizing the capacity of polydimethylsiloxane and teflon to undergo decomposition under the effect of mechanical and thermal treatment. The material in question has a high tensile strength (100-180 kg per square centimeter as compared, with 30-40 kg per square centimeter for the polydimethyls iloxa,ne rubbers 5 R-12A, NM-2, etc.). It retains these characteristics from minus 750 to plus 3500 (A. I. Glukhova, K. A. Andrianov, and others). .,. 16 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGHT "The complex catalyst triethylaluminum-titanium tetrachloride was ap- plied for the first time in the polymerizatiou of unsaturated silicohydro- carbons, with a result that polymers derived from dialkyldiallylsilanes could be obtained at relatively low temperatures and ordinary pressure (A. V. Topchiyev, N. S. Nametkin, and collaborators). "An important achievement in the chemistry of organosilicon high- polymer compounds is the synthesis of polymers with organic principal chains. In connection with this, interest was aroused by the descrip- tion of a method for the synthesis of polyorganometalsiloxanes the mole- cular chains of which consist of alternating Si, 0, and metal atoms and of polyorganosiloxymetaloxanes with chains consisting, to give an ex- ample, of alternating 0 and Al atoms surrounded by R3 Si 0 groups (A. A. Zhdanov and K. A. Andrianov). It was reported that polyamides synthesized from dicarboxylic acids containing silicon have a higher recoverable elast- icity than analagous polymers (not containing silicon] (V. V. Korshak, G. M. Frunze, N. V. Kukharskaya, and D. N. Sndreyev). "The organosilicon polymers that are applied industrially have a low tensile strength because of the small magnitude of the forces acting be- tween molecules. One of the methods of eliminating this shortcoming is introduction of polar groups into the organic radical at the Si atom. As a result of this, the polarity of individual links of the polymer chain Is changed and the forces of interaction between the molecules are increased (L. M. Volkova, K. A. Andrianov,, and collaborators). "Combining of organosilicon polymers with other high-molecular organic substances makes it possible to improve the technical characteristics of materials. Thus, I. Ya. Guretskiy, A. P. Kreshkov, and P. A. Andreyev in- vestigated the chemical aspects of the interaction of a number of organo- silicon compounds with cellulose nitrates under different conditions. The products that were obtained proved to be good film-forming materials. "In the section of practical applicat:.ons, the greatest deal of at- tention was paid to electrical insulators and materials for protective water-repellant coatings. New insulating materials were proposed which protect articles coated with them at temperatures of 300-3500. "Because of their high stability to abrupt temperature changes in the range from minus 700 to plus 3500, high resistance to moisture, and good dielectric properties, these materials can replace to advantage coatings made from enamel or glass enamel. They exhibit a high resistance to the chemical action of oxidants and corrosive substances, and to the action of solvents (N. P. Kharitonov and. B. N. Dolgov). Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Ay-For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "Ilythophobic material of, the glass-fiber reinforced textolite type was obtained by using polyester binding materials containing organosilicon com- pounds which have unsaturated groups (methaorylic, allyl, or vinyl) at the Si atoms and also groups capable of undergoing hydrolysis as a result of the action of moisture present at the surface of the glass fibers (V. A. Kiselev, Z. A. Zinov'yev, and others). By combining organosilicon polymers with phenolformaldehydes, epoxy resins, and nitrile rubbers, heat-resistant and mechanically strong materials for the production of foam plastics were obtained (M. Ya. Borodin, Z. I. Kazakova, and others). A number of papers gave information on the application of organosilicon compositions as water- proofing impregnating agents for cotton fabrics, leather and its substi- tutes, paper, building materials, and glass and on the use of organosilicon compounds for increasing the resistance of concrete to freezing. "In the section of analysis and physL ochemicai. methods of investiga- tion, reports were iven on progress in the field of the analysis of organ- osilicon compounds (A. P. Kreshkov) and of methods for the control of the production of organosilicon monomers and polymers (S. V. Syavtsillo, A. P. Kreshkov, A. P. Terent'yev, and others). Results were discussed of the de- termination by an X-ray diffraction method of the activity of silicon-copper alloys used for the direct synthesis of methyichlorosilanes '(I. Cermak, D. Snobs, and M. Dvorak, Czechoslovakia). "Molecular spectroscopy is at present of considerable importance in research on organosilicon compoundi`s and in the analysis of such compounds. Correlations between spectra of organosilicon compounds and the nature of chemical bonds in them and between the physi'.a?l characteristics and vibra- tional spectra of organosilicon compounds and their structure were discussed at the conference. . The charazteristi.cs and analytical applications of infrared, Haman, and ultraviolet spectra. of methylphenylsiloxanes were also discussed. A new additive statistinal method for the calculation of physicochemical charaeteristi-s; pa:rticula:r.?ly thermodynamic values, was considered. Only two reports were given on pr::blems of chemical analysis, which testifies to the insufficient extent of work on this subject in the USSR. "At the concluding plenary session, D. P. Novikov reviewed the status of and. plans for the development of the, production of organosilicon com- pounds in the USSR. "The resolution passed by the conference noted both achievement and shortcomings in the field of the chemistry of organosilicon monomers and polymers. It proposed a number of measxres which will ,expedite progress in the field of science and technology under consideration. A commission was elected for work on the nomenclat'are of organosilicon compounds. "No reports on the theory of tec:h.nological processes and the calcu- lation and design of chemical. equipment were presented at the conference." 1.8 .-. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 15. Possibilities of the Development of a Plastics and Synthetic Fiber Industry Based on Products Derived From Wood "Prospects of the Development of a Chemical Industry and of Scientific Chemical Research in the Latvian SSR," by A. I. Kalnins; Riga, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Latviyskoy SSR, No 10, (135), Nov 58, pp 5-10 Vairious modifications of the process of hydrolyzing plant material with concentrated acids are already being introduced into industrial application. The so-called "Riga method" of hydrolysis developed in work done under the direction of P. N. Odintsov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences Latvian SSR, is preferable to the method of hydrolysis with dilute sulfuric acid which is being applied at present. Pure glucose produced from wood wastes by the "Riga method" is approxi- mately 40% cheaper than that produced from maize grain (corn) by the method applied at present. Consequently, glucose will become in the near future one of the cheapest organic substances available as a raw material for the production of plastics, synthetic fibers, insecticides, detergents, etc. Experimental plants have already been built at which glucose is hydrolyzed in 'the presence of ammonia to produce 2-methyl- piperazine, a chemical from which one can produce a synthetic fiber that exhibits characteristics between those of nylon and dacron. By using 60% of glucose and 40% of fats: one can also produce detergents of a very high quality. The world consumption of soap is in excess of 6 million tons per year; in the opinion of a number of specialists, half of this quantity can be replaced by detergents derived from glucose ("New Ways of Utilizing Sugar," by H. B. Hass, La Sucrerie Belge, Vol 75, No 59 19569 pp 185-191). Work carried out by Prof 10 P. Losev, president, of the All-Union Chemical Society imeni Mendeleyev, and S. N. Ushakov, Corresponding Mem- ber of the Academy of Sciences USSR, es?t;ablished that alkali lignin is a good crude material for the production of plastics. Use of lignin for this purpose makes it possible to save up to 70% of phenol and up to 80% of formaldehyde in a number of cases. Particularly promising is production from lignin of a polyester fiber of the dacron type without the use of phenol. The pyrocatechol necessary for the production of this fiber is obtained by the melting of hydrolysis lignin or some other type of active lignin with caustic in the medium of an inert heat, carrier. The other necessary reagent, viz., epichiorohydrin, is produced from glycerin, which can be manu- factured most cheaply by applying a biological method of production ... 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 from sugar hydrol.ysa? eu with the use of a new process developed at the institute of 'Forest "industry Prob"lems ' .:'.n, ' i.?t,u,t Lesckhozyaystvennykh Problem), Academy of Sciences SS?, ;Iycerin is converted into epichlorohydrin by sub jec -wing to I.:i-te action of gaseous hydrogen chloride in glacial acetic ac- id,, .Dich;.orohydriii is formed, which is converted into epichlorohydrin by ,:reatm?nt: a concenrated solu- tion of sodium hydroxide? Polycondensat.ion of the two initial mate- rials takes place to an alkaline tned. when the mixture is heated in vacuum. Fibers of a very high s":rc:ng.h are produced by spinning from the molten polymer,. These fibers are rig;hly resistant -to the effects of moisture and can be dyed 'r:th fac.i .it:y According -to ~entat?.ive calcu,au;i.ons, fiber derived from glucose or lignin obtained from wood waste will ca: t. no more than 9,000 rubles per ton, ?!ab.ile the cost, of puxe wool. is 90 ,,(,)00 rubles per ton. Fur- t.hermore Y one must-, take into consideration that the synthetic fiber will. have a tensi-Le st:rengt o. ?'~?en times "hig6er than that of wool. Work on the subjec?t?.s mentioned above will be conducted at the nsti?;ute of Forest 'industry Problems and of the Chemistry of Wood (,specifically at the Division of the Chemistry of Lignin and of Wood Polysaccharides to be organized in 1.959 at this institute, which has been in existence since October 1.958 a_ a i-iubdiir sion of the Department of Chemical and (eologi:;ai Sciences organized at -,hat, -time within the Academy of Sciences La?ty: an SSR) ? Work on monomers for the synthesis of plastics and synthetic fi- bers derived from f;arfural ?w?ill be condu; -zed at the Institute of Organic Syn`,.hesi,s , Depar; of Chemical and ;aeoiogical Sciences, Academy of Sciences Latvian SSR. An experimental installation will be bu!.1 - for the vapor-phase oxidation of formaldehyde to glyoxai, a chemical needed for the pro- duction of high-s?t?,reng-t?.h viscose fiber? Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Const?ruc_ ;ion Materials 16 Devlopmen;s in the 'itilization and Treatment of Uranium Ores Con- _aining Other Elements in Addition ? ,o Uranium "Complete Utilization of Uranium Ores,," by Be V. Nevskiy; Mos- co1w, At?omnana EnYergi. vol 6. No 1. an 59 9 pp 5-13 The sub j ec?t?, is reviewed on ?ti?e basis of r on -USSR publications and papers presented a~:? the First International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy., Geneva, "955. i' is brought out that during recent years uranium deposits consisting of rich ores have been almost- entirely Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 der,leted, At the same time, the demand for uranium grows, For this reason, poor uranium ores are being used.. OF great importance for a profitable utilization of ores of this type is the use of other com- ponents contained in them in addition to Y;,ranium. Gold-uranium and uranium-vanadium ores are mined on a large scale and utilized in this manner. Progress is being made in developing the technology of the ex lrac:t.icn of uranium and other elements accompanying it, from phos- phorites containing uranium, coals and combustible shales, uranium- r:horium ores, uranium-copper, uranium pyri.';e, zirconi;am-uranium, niobium-tantalum-uranium, and uranium-mo:i.ybdenim ores., The increased emphasis on the many-sided and complete of uranium ores will make it possible to produce and convert on an industrial basis some new types of mineral crude materials? 1.7. Changes in the Valency State of Plutonium Under the Action of Radiation "The Effect of Radiation on the Valency State of Plutonium in Perchloric Acid Solutions," by N. 1. Popov; Moscow, Atom- Eaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 1., Jan 59, pp 71?-73 A previous paper reported the results of an investigation of the effect, produced by X-ray irradiation of the valency state of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (cf. N. I. Popov and others, A`somnaya Energiya 9 Vol 4, No 2, 1958) p 154). The oxidation of tetravalent plutonium in nitric acid solutions was explained by the action of hydroxyl radicals. However, in view of the fact that the nitric acid anion is also affected by radiation, the action on the plutonium of short-lived unstable ni- trogen oxides derived from the anion could have affected the, state of plutonium. To avoid the extraneous effect of products formed from the anion, the perchloric acid an ions 'which is not sensitive to radiation, was used in this case., The results of the experiments de- scribed lead to the conclusion that changes in the valency state of plu4oni,am in aqueous solutions subjected to the action of radiation are due to the effects of the F. and O T radicals unless acceptors which react with these radicals are present. This conclusion is in agree- ment. with results obtained in previous work. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 18, Isolation of Radiochemica111. Pure Np239 "Preparation of Radiochemically Pure Np239 With the Use of the Recoil of Fission Products," by ":'u., A. Zolotov and 'I. P. Alimarin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, 'U of 6, No 1.9 ,Jan 59,, pp 70-71 Radiochemically pure Np239 was prepared using the fact that, when the particles of the parent. subs';once have dimensions which are smaller than the length of the free path of fission products., one can free the substance from the activity of fission products by utilizing the recoil effect, Uranium dioxide containing 0,4% of o235 was irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Calcium carbonate was used as a carrier, The Np239 was separated from uranium, UX1, and 'OX2 by applying the extraction methuc',t Af 'r the oxidized (hexavalent) neptunium and the uranium heel been extracted with ether, the neptunium was separated from the ether extract by re- ducing it with hydrazine. As a resua3.t? of being reduced, the neptunium was' transferred into the pentavalent statue and became insoluble in ether. The method described makes it possible ?,o separate Np239 in 1-2 hours, Calcium carbonate or other carriers which can stand for a prolonged time the high temperature of the reactor core may be used o Because of the high temperature, it is not advisable to irradiate uranium oxides in aqueous suspensions stabilized with gelatin. 19. The Status of the Industrial Production of Heavy Water "The Industrial Production of Heavy Wainer.," by K. I. Sakodyn- skiy; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya . Vol 6, No 1, an 59 pp 14+-20 The importance of heavy wa};er in nuclear ~yechnology increases. It. can be used both as a moderator and a heat, .-transfer agent: in nuclear reactors. As brought out in recent statements made by 1. V. K'urchatov, deuterium is a promising fuel for thermonuclear rear_ lions. The requirements of different countries for hea?vy water are re- viewed on the basis of information given in non-ia'SSR putlica?tior's (no data on the USSR are included). Installations for the production of heavy water are described and information is given on the output and productivity of installations that are in operation at present or have been built, but are closed now. Plans for the development of the industrial production of heavy water in different countries are dis- cussed. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 20, A Method for the Determination of Critical Heat Loads for Water F1owint, in Tubes "Critical Heat Loads for Water Flowing in Tubes," by 1. T. Alad' yev, L. D. Dodonov, and 'V . S. '(rdalov; Moscow, Atomnayfa Energies, 'Vol. 6, No 1, Jan 59, pp 74-78 On the basis of work done in 1956-1957 at the Laboratory of Beat Transfer, Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences USSR, a method is proposed for the determination of critical heat loads during the flow of water below the temperature of saturation in tubes with a diameter of 8 millimeters or higher or in tubes of the same clearance but wit.-.h a cross section other than circular, within the pressure range of 20-200 atmospheres. The results obtained are compared with those reported in previous publications by the authors and in papers published by US workers. 21. Interactions of the Chlorides of :Hafnium, Niobium, and Tantalum With Phosphorus Oxychloride "On the Interaction of the Chlorides oflafnium, Niobium, and Tantalum With Phosphorus Oxychloride," by B. A. Voy-tovich and Ie A. Sheka, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, Kiev., Dopovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrains' koi RSR, No 8.9 Aug 58 , pp 849-852 The transformation in the systems i fC'12, - PCC] 3, NbC15 - PCCi.3, a.n.d. TaCl5 - POC13 were investigated and also, with the use of the cryoscopic method, the interactions of hafnium, niobitim, and tantalum chlorides with phosphorus oxychloride in nitrobenzene and in benzene? On the basis of the data obtained, the incorrectness of some data published in the litera- ture concerning the composition of hafnium and zirconium chloride com- pounds with phosphorus oxychloride is establisted, 23... Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 22. A Method for the Determination of Rare-Earth Elements in Marine Deposits "A Method for the Determination of Rare-Earth Elements in Marine Deposits," by E. A. Ostroumov, A. A. Astanina, and T. G. Shokhor, Institute of Oceanology and All-Union Insti- tute of Mineral Raw Materials; Moscow, Trudy Instituta Okean- ologii, Vol 19, No 56, pp 297-303 It has been established that it is possible to separate quantita- tively small amounts of rare-earth elements in the form of their oxa- lates in the presence of interfering elements (iron and aluminum) by applying a method developed by I. D. Borneman-Starynkevich and using a calcium salt as a coprecipitant. It was furthermore established that when the total quantity of rare-earth oxides in the material being in- vestigated is of the order of 0.0005 gram, these elements can be deter- mined precisely by a gravimetric method. Quantities of rare-earth ele- ments that cannot be determined gravimetrically with the use of an ordinary analytical balance can be determined by the X-ray spectrometry method. The procedure developed was checked on a bauxite sample to which a known quantity of rare earths had been added and on samples of bottom deposits from the Black Sea. 23. Decomposition of the Formiates of Rare-Earth Elements of the Cerium Group "Thermographic Investigation of the Decomposition of Formiates of Rare-Earth Elements of the Cerium Group," by M. N. Ambrozhiy and Yu. A. Osipova, Saratov State University imeni N.G..Cherny- shevskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 3, No 12, Dec 58, pp 2716-2720 The behavior of the formiates of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium was investigated the rmograph ic ally. It was es- tablished that the thermal decomposition of the formiates of lanthanum and cerium takes place in two stages with the formation of intermediate products of an indeterminate composition. Clarification of the nature of these products is referred to as a subject for a special investiga- tion. The thermal decomposition of the formiates of praseodymium, neo- dymium, and samarium leads to the direct formation of solid metal oxides and of gaseous carbon monoxide. - 24 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 2L. Pfipers on Nuclear Materials Presented at the Fourth Ukrainian SSR Conference on Chemical Production Conft-rol in the Metallurgical tnuustrr "Fourth Ukrainian SSR Conference on Chemical Production Con- trol in the Metallurgical and Metalworking Industry," by M. Ye. Vdovenko; Kiev, Ukrainski Khimic.heskiy Zhurnal, Vol 24, No 5, Sep-Oct 58, pp 695-697 The Fourth Ukrainian SSR Conference on Chemical Production Control in the Metallurgical and Metalworking Industry was held at Dnepropetrovsk, 5-8 June 1958. The conference was organized by the Dnepropetrovsk Sov- narkhoz, the Ukrainian SSR Direction (Pravleniye) of the Technical So- ciety of Ferrous Metallurgy, the Section of Analytical Chemistry and Production Control of the Direction of the Ukrainian Scientific-Technical Society of Ferrous Metallurgy, and the All-Union Chemical Society imeni Mendeleyev. Great interest was evinced in a paper by N. S. Mustafin and Ye. A. Kashkovskaya (Saratov State University) on the application of the new colorimetric reagent alberon, which is very sensitive to aluminum and beryllium. By using alberon, one can detect, 0.025 microgram of aluminum or beryllium in one milliliter of solution. Alberon forms instensely colored water-soluble compounds with a number of ions, while it is almost colorless itself. It interacts with -these ions in a wide range of hydrogen ion concentrations. In the work reported in the paper, the possibilities of determining aluminum in the presence of beryllium were investigated. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of aluminum in steels and bronzes was developed. L. S. Serdyuk and G. P. Fedorova (Dnepropetrovsk State University) investigated the color reactions of lanthanum, yttrium, and cerium with aluminon and Alizarin S. It was established that water-soluble colored complex compounds of yttrium, lanthanum, and cerium are formed in the presence of an aqueous ammonia solution of alumino even when sulfo- sali.cylic acid is absent. The effects of boric acid and ethylenediamine on procedures for the separate determination of elements in mixt..utes of (1) lanthanum and yttrium and (2) yttrium and cerium in. the form of alizarin stilts of these elements were investigated. A. 1, Ponomarev and A. Ya. Sheskollskaya (Institute of Metallurgy imeni Baykov, Moscow) reported on the separation of niobium from titanium by binding titanium in the form of an ascorbic acid complex. The authors of the report proposed the use of tartaric or oxalic acid as a complex- forming agent to separate niobium from tungsten. 1. 2r, Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 25. Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Traces of Magnesium in Zirconium "Determination of Magnesium in Zirconium With the Application of Ion-Exchange Chromatography," by S,, V. Yelinson and M. S. Limonik; Moscow, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, Vol 24, No 12, Dec 58, pp 1434-1436 A procedure for the determination of traces of magnesium contained, in ziconium is described. Before the determination the magnesium is separated chromatographically with the aid of the ion-exchange resin SRS, which contains sulfonic acid groups. 26. Scientists Extract 13 Rare-Earth Ell_cments From Chinese Soil "Institute of Chemistry Extracts 13 Rare-Earth Elements" (un- signed article); Peiping, K'o-hsueh Hsin-wen (Scientific News), No 14, 1958, p 345 This item reports that 20 young scientists of the Analytical Divi- sion of the Institute of Chemistry, Academia Siniea, recently extracted from Chinese native ores the oxides of 13 heretofore dixficult-to-extract rare -earth elements. Oxides of the following 11 were obtained in a state of spectro- chemical purity corresponding to international standards, the article saya.g lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium,, dysp- rosium, ytterbium, yttrium, holmium, and erbium. All surpassed British and American products in purity. The erbium oxide was purer than that put out, by the British manufacturer, "Johnson-Smith." Two rare-earth elements were extracted in 90-plus percent purity- thulium and latetium. The article gives the following general information on rare-earth elements: The rare-earth elements are difficult to separate because of their similar physical and chemical properties. Their application in scientific research and industry is rapidly expanding. For example, neodymium is being used in high temperature alloys for jet planes; thulium, for X-ray machines and mine logging equipment; and gadolinium, extensively in nu- clear research. China is among the countries which have the world's largest deposits of rare-earth elements. In the Pao-t'ou Mine (inner Mongolia) alone, there are many times 10 million tons. -26- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Organic Chemistry. 27., USSR Work on Lithium-Organic Syntheses and Lithium-Organic Compounds "Lithium -Organic Synthesis of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Derivatives Containing Oxygen," by A. D. Petrov, Ye. B. So- kolova, and Kao Ch'ing-lan; Moscow, Uspekhi Khimii, Vol 27, No 12, Dec 58, pp 1471-1503 Progress in the field of lithium-organic synthesis during, the past 10-15 years is reviewed. The review begins with an introduction dis- cussing syntheses based on dehydrobenzene (cyclohexadienine), which was prepared by G. Wittig in 1942 from o-Li-fluorobenzene. Part 1 deals with methods for the preparation of lithium-organic compounds on the basis of work done by H. Gilman (US), G. Vavon (France), E. A. Braude (Great Britain)., K. A. Kocheshkov (USSR), B. M. Mikhaylo'v (USSR), and others. Part 2 discusses the reactions of lithium-organic compounds with alkyl- and aryl halides. This type of action is referred to as being for all practical purposes the best fc! he synthesis of poly- cyclic hydrocarbons. Research on.the synthesis of such hydrocarbons by A. D. Petrov, B. M. Mikhaylov, and their co-workers is reviewed in some detail. Part 3 discusses reactions of lithium-organic compounds with aldehydes, ketones, and esters, i.e., syntheses of alcohols and glycols. It is pointed out by the authors of the review that because of the high reactivity of lithium-organic compounds reactions of this type always proceed in a normal manner. It is added that by using this general method one can synthesize not only saturated, but also unsatu- rated alcohols and, glycols, because lithium forms reactive derivatives even with alpha-alkenyl halides. Work by A. D. Petrov and members of his group on the interaction of esters of monocarboxylic acids (ethyl formiate, methyl butyrate, methyl isobi::tyrate, ethyl enanthate, and methyl undecylenate) and dicarboxylic acids ('dimethyl esters of adipic and azelainic acids, etc.) with tert-butyl lithium is described. The reactions investigated led to tertiary alcohol s,, which were obtained with good yields., and ketones as intermediate products of the reaction. Part, 4 reviews reactions of the addition of organolithium compounds to double bonds of conjugated dienes and olefins. The industrial impor- tance of reactions of 'this type (e.g. as applied in the industrial me't'hod of polymerization of butadiene to r'bber in the presence of butyl lithium) is pointed out. K. Ziegler'; ((Germany) work in this field is discussed. A. A. Korotkov's (USSR investigations on the polymerization of dienic hydrocarbons (butadiene and isoprene) under the action of butyl lithium and the copolymerization of styrene w?",th alpha-methylsty retie under the action of ethyl lithium as compared with the same copolymeri- zation in the presence of titanium t.erachloride and triethylaluminum) are mentioned. 27 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGH: A bibliography consisting of 130 references (21 of them USSR) is appended to the article, which was written t*ith the intention of sup- plementing Ka A. Kocheshkov and T. V. Talalayeva's review on the same subject published in 1949 (Sinteticheskiye Metody v Oblasti Metallo- organicheskilsh Soyedineniy Litiya,Nati.ya.,, Kaliya, Rubidiya, i Tsezi rya [Synthetic Methods in the Field of Organometallic Compounds of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium], Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, 1949, pp 20-158)- 28. Organophosphorus Research "Investigation in the Field of Thiosulfonic Acids. III. Alkyl Esters of Phenylmethane Thiosulfonic Acid and Their Antibac- terial Properties," by B. G. Boldyrev and Yu. I. Kofman, Zh. Obshch. Khimii, 1958, 28, No 3, 768-769, Moscow, (from Refe- rativnyy Zhurnal--Khimiya, No 22, 25 Nov 58, Abstract No 74022 by Yu. Vol'kenshtein _ "The purpose of the present wcrk is to investigate the effect which structural changes in esters of thiosulfonic acids (ET) have on the antibacterial activity; for this purpose a number of compounds of the formula C6H5CH2S02SR (I) were synthesized. A study of the antibacterial properties of (I) showed that their activity in relation to gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-resistant bacteria is lower than that of esters of alkane thiosulfonic acids. The activity of (I) with- respect to vari- ous fungi is markedly higher; hence, the activity of (ET) depends not only on the nature of the radicals bound a :.o the sulfide sulfur, but also on the composition of the original thiosulfonic acids. The ester syn- theses were realized by a method described in Reports I and II (cf. RZhKhim, 1957, Abstracts No 41042 and 7702i;). The values obtained for t!) were [listed in this order, R. yield in %, melting point in ?C (from 40% alcohol)]., C2H5-, 29.3, 70-71; C3:7 , 44.4, 44; iso-C3H7, 21, 61-62; CH2=CHCH2,, 33.8, 27; C4H9, 37, 34-35; iso-C4H9, 22, 44-45; C8H5C 2SO2SK, melting point 220-2210 (from a.].c ohol or C090H) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "On the Problem of the Interactions of, Chlorine-Substituted Tertiary Alcohols With Phosphorus Trichloride," by V. S. Abramov and V. K. Khairullin, Tr. Kazansk. Khim-Tekhnol. In-ta (Works of the Kazan' Chemicotechnological Institute)., 1957, No 23, 65-76 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal--Khimi a, No 22, CPYRGHT25 Nov 58, Abstract N 106 by V0 Gilyarov ROPC12 (I) and (RO)2PC1 (II) are formed by the reaction of PC13 with chlorine-substituted tertiary alcohols, but (RO)3P is not formed'because of s:,eric hindrance. Compounds of the formula (RO)2POH (III) are ob- tained by saponifying (II). By interacting (I) with R'OH (R? $ R), RO(R'O)PC1 (IIa) are synthesized and, after saponification, (R0) (R'O)POH (IIIa) are obtained. Below are given the values for R (for the compounds (IIa) and (lila), also R?), yield in %, boiling point in ?C/mm or the melting point in ?C, for liquid substances the n20D, d420,(CH3)2C(C,-, ), (i), 71, 118/16, 1.5236, 1.5280; (i1), 78.5, 171/5, 1.5265, 1.5192; (iii), -, 45-46; CH2(CH2)3C(CC13), (I), 58.5, 127/5, 1.5425, 1.5215; (11)9 52, 193-194/3 (melting pt. 57-58?), 1.5450, 1.4966; (III).p -, -, 1.5235, 104770; C=H2(CH2) C(CCl3), (I)., 72, 129-130/1 (melting pt. 55-56?), 1.5528, 15091; (iii), -; 138-139; (CH3)2C(CC13), 61'2t (CC13), (Ila), 77, 178-179/4, 1.5365, 1.5152 (melting pt. 39-40..5?); (IIIa), -, -, 1?,5130, 1.4900; (CH )2C(CCi3CH2(C"2)4 (CCl3), (Ila) 58?5, 181-182/2, 1 .5421, 1.5047; (1114, -, 67-69. To obtain (I)g 1 mole of C5i5N at < 00 is added to a mixture of 1 mole of PC13 and 1 mole of alcohol in ether; the mixture is stirred for 1-2 hours at 20? and 30 minutes at 36?. The viscous and fuming liquids ,k 11 are soluble in organic solvents. To ob-aih (11)0 1 mole of alcohol is added to a chilled mixture of 1 mole of (;,I) and 1 mole of 05H5N in ether; the mixture is boiled for 30 minutes, To 102.2 grams of (II) (R = (CH3)2C(CL3)) 4.42 grams of water are added; on shaking a violent reaction is observed.. (III) (where R = (CH3)?C(CC13)) are recrystallized from ether. Other (III) compounds are obtained analogously; the yields are nearly quantitatives. In the reaction of (II) with alcohol, the yields of (IIIa) are equal to 50-70%. To obtain 'C2(CH2)3(:(CC13)OH iiv), 75 grams of KOH are gradually added, for 4 hours with stirring, to a mixture of 810 grams of CHCl3 with 500 grams of cyclopentanone at -180; the mixture is stirred another 4 hours at -20? and then poured over one kilogram of ice and acidiffled.:; (IV are extracted by ether; yield 18.5%, boiling point 97-98?/13 run, nOD 1.5085, d 20 1.3854 and melting point of 19-20?. 4 11 29 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 2). Some New Arylsulfamides Prepared "On the Reactions of Arylsulfonamides With Propylene Oxide," by A. Ye. .Kretov and. Ye. A. Abrazhanova, Dnepropetrovsk Chemico- techno:l.ogical Institute; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 28, No 10, Oct 58, pp 2779-2782 The reactions between three azylsulfonamides, the benzene-, para- chlorobenzene.-w, and para-toluene -sulfonamides,9 and propylene oxide were investigated. The reaction proceeds in two stages. Depending on the conditions of the reaction one can obtain either mono- or di-substituted arylsulfonamides. ArSo2NH2?RCH-CHR - ArSO 2NHCHR-CHROH (1) ArSO NH2+ ZRC ~HR- 2 61 ArSO N2 (CHR-CHROH)2 (2) The following compounds were prepared for the first time and char- acterized: N-beta-,hydroxyisopropylbenzenesulfonamide, N-beta-hsrdroxy- isopropyl-para-toluene sulfonamide, N-beta-hydroxy-isopropyl-para- chlorobenzenesulfonamide, N-beta, beta' -dihydroxy-diisopropyl-para- to.luenesulfonamide, N-beta, beta' -dihydroxy-diisopropyl-para-chloro- benzene sulfonamide, N-beta,-chlcarAsopropyl-benzenesulfonamide, Nj-beta, beta'-dichlorodiisopropyl,-para-toluenesulfonamide, N-beta, beta'?- dichlorodiisopropyl-para-chlorobenzenesulfonamicle and N-beta-acetyliso- propyl. -benzenesulfonamide . 30. Antituberculosis Compounds Tested "The Synthesis of the Hydrazides and Hydrazones of Several Hetero- cyclic and Aromatic Acids," by Yee S. Nikitskaya, Yee Ye, Mikhlina,, L. N. Yakhontov, and V. Ya. Furshtatova, All-Union Scientific Re- search Chemicopharmaceutical Institute imeni S. Ordzhonikidze; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshcb.ey Khimii, Vol 28, No 10, Oct 58, pp 2786- 2790 The hydrazides and hydrazones of the following acids were synthesized and. tested for the purpose of studying their antituberculosis activity: pyridyt-J-acetic, beta -(pyridyl-4.)-prop ionic, beta- (piperidyl-4)-propionic, beta- (pyr.idy.1.-4)-acrylic, 6-methylpicolinic, alpha- quinuclidinecarboxylic, and para-nitro-benzoic. Tests in vitro showed -chat these compounds are considerably less active than the corresponding derivatives of isonicotinic acid which have ex- hibited significant anti-tuberculosis activity in vitro as well as in vivo. -30- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 31. New Cocaine Synthesis Method "Synthesis of the Alkaloid Cocaine," by G. I. Bazilevskaya, M. S. Bainova,, D. V. Gura, K. M. Dyumaev, and N. A. Preobrazhen- skiy, Chair of the Technology of Medicinal and Aromatic Sub- stances, Moscow Intitute of Fine Chemical Technology; Ivanovo, Izvestlya Vysshykh Uchebn kh Zavedeni .- I imi i Khimicheska Technologiya, No 2, May 5 6., pp 75-81 CPYRGHT A new i.~.ethod for synthesizing the alkaloid cocaine has been developed at the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology. The over-all results of this work have been as follows: "10 The development of a method for the synthesis of the hydrochloride of racemic cocaine. "2. Investigation of the condensation of succinic dialdehyde with methylamine and the dipotassium salt of the monomethyl ester of acetone dicarboxylic acid to the methyl ester of tropane-3-one-2-carboxylic acid. "3. Development of a method for the quantitative decerminatLon of the content of methyl ester of tropane-3-one-2-carboxylic acid in the reaction mixture on the basis of the amount of reineckate insoluble in water that is formed. "u. The realization of stereo-specific reduction of the meth;-1 ester of tropane-3-one-2-carboxylic acid to the methyl ester of racemic ecgonine. Pharmacological tests of synthesized samples were conducted at the Minsk Medical Institute by Prof K. S. Shadurskiy and Aspirant N. A. Iskarev. The tests revealed that in some cases it is best to use racemic cocaine because it is not inferior in physiological activity to levo-(natural) cocaine and furthermore exhibits a lower toxicity than the latter. ..31- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 32, Some New Toxic Fluorine Coixounds "Synthesis of Some Physiologically Active Substances," by T. V. Smirnova, N.. M. Dukel'skaya, and Yu. A. Kondrat?yev, Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute imeni D. 1. Mendeleyev and Biology- Soil Faculty of the Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Ivanovo, Izvestiya Vysshikh UchebnyA Zavedeenly -- Khimi a i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya, No 2, May 5&, pp 82-86 purpose of this work was to synthesize and study physiologically active compounds containing fluorine which could be used as raticidal agents. Six new halogen-containing derivative phenyl ethers were synthe- sized and characterized. They were the Para-cllorophenyl-,beta-fluoroethyl ether, para-fluorophenyl-beta-fluoroethyl ether, the phenyl-beta-fluoroethyl ether, the para-bromophenyl-beta-fluoroethyl ether, and the para-fluorophenyl- beta-bromoethyl ether. That the compounds have physiological activity was confirmed by tests on white rats. Toxic properties were exhibited by the following ethers: para-chiorophenyl-beta-fluoroethyl, phenyl-beta-fluoroethyl, para-fluoro- phenyl.-beta-fluoroethyl, and para.~-bromoph.,enyl.-beta-fluoroethyl, and by para, Para' -di (beta -fluoroethoxyphenyi) ?-dimet.ylmethane It was found that para, para'-di (beta-f3.uoroethoxyphenyl)-dimethyl- methane possesses raticidal properties. The lethal doasage for white rats was equal to 120-140 mg/kg, and for Mirotinae) 0.25 mg/lOO g of body -breight. Because of the high sensitivity of Microtinae to this compound, its use as a. field extermination agent was proposed. 33, Review of Soviet Organophosphorus Insecticides "Organophosphorus Insecticides and Acaricides," by Prof N. N. Me.lonikov, Doctor of Chemical Sciences; Scientific Institute of Fertilizers and Insectofungicides; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteniy of Vrediteley i Bolezn , No 5,, Sep--Oct 58, pp 13.15 In this article Prof N. N. Mel'nikov of NIUIF (Nauchnyy Institut po Udobreniyam i Insektofungitsidam, Scientific Institute of Fertilizers and Insectofungicides] reviews the Soviet use and. planned usage of certain organophosphorus insecticides in agriculture. In the Soviet Union at present the following organophosphorus contact insecticides have been studied and have come into use: Thiophos (also known as NIUIF-100) - 0,0-diethyl-0,,4-nitro -pheny:.thiophosphate; Metaphos (vofatoks) ,..32- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 0 ,0-dimethy.1-O,4 -nitrophenylthiophosphate; Carbophos (malathion) - 1,2- d.Icarboethoxyethyl-O,0-d3methyldithiophosphate; Chlorophos - 1-hydroxy- 2,2,2-trichloroethyldimethylphosphonate; and. Dithiophos - tetraethyldithio- pyrophosphate? Among the toxic chemicals possessing systemic activity to be introduced extensively into production are mercaptophos -- 0,0-diethyl-2-ethylmercapto- ethy.L-t?hiophosphate; Methylmercaptophos - 0,0-dimethyl-2-ethylmercaptoethyl- thiophosphate; Octamethyl - octamethyltetraamide of pyrophosphoric acid; and Preparation M-81 - dieethyl'-.2-ethy:lme.rcaptoethyldithiophosphate. The first group of enumerated preparations can be used against pests affecting very different agricultural crops by spraying an equeous emulsion or suspension or by dusting. To prepare an equeous emulsion, OP-7 or OP-l0 is used as an emulsifier. The toxicity of these preparations persists for not more than 3 days. Arranged in an increasing order of toxicity to man and animals, they are Carbophos, metaphor, methylethylthiophos [sic], thiophos, and dithiophoso All the above-mentioned insecticides, in one way or another, are of interest for use in agriculture. At the same time, in deciding on the question of the development of their production in the approaching Seven- 'Year Plan, it is necessary to consider many factors: effective action on pests, availability of raw materials, simplicity of production, the quanti- 'ties which have to be used and the cost of the preparation, and the toxicity to man and animals. Calculations have shown that the cheapest chemicals are metaphos and methylethylthiophos, while the costliest is carbophoso Hence, the principal representative of this group produced in the coming'year$ will be metaphos, while methylethylthiophos will be produced in lesser quantities. The production of dithiophos can be organized at the production facilities for methylethylthiophos or mercaptophos and therefore will not require additional capital expenditure. In spite of its greater cost, it is expedient to organize the mass production of carbophos when its low toxicity to man and animals is considered. It will find very extensive application in combat- ing sucking pests in collectives and in individual orchards and gardens of workers and farmers. The chemical industry IX planning, in the near future,, to organize the production of metaphos?, methylethylthiophos, and other organophosphorus contact insecticides in such quantities as will meet the demands of agricul- ture. It is contemplated that the production of carbophos will be organized in two stages; at first at a small plant which will begin op::ration in 1959-60, and then a further expansion to mass production so that a supply sufficient for the needs of the country will be ensured. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Among the contact poisons a special place is held by chlorophos, chiefly because of its activity in combating the cattle skin gadfly and flies? It is possible that it will find use even against some plant pests, in particular those damaging cotton and fruit crops. The production of chlorophos in the near future, will be on a scale corresponding to the interests of agriculture. Among the,, group of toxic systemic-action chemicals at present, the following have been sufficiently studied and recommended for use in plant protectionz mercaptophos, octamethyl, methyllmercaptophos, and M-81o The first two are being supplied to agriculture at the moment, but only in small quantities. To attain adequate supplies, the full-scale production of mercaptophos is contemplated in 1959, and of octamethyl in 1961-62. It should be noted that these two substances are extremely toxic, owing to which public health officials and plant protection workers have urged their replacement by other insecticides which are safer to man and domestic animals. With this end in view, mercaptophos is scheduled to be replaced gradually by methylmercaptophos, which will serve the same purpose and is much cheaper to produce. Its production can be organized using the same equipment used for the production of mercaptophos and consequently does not require any great additional capital expenditure. Because of its lower toxicity to man and animals, methylmercaptophos will undoubtedly find wide application in the protection of some fruit crops. A second possible substitute for mercaptophos is the substance M-81, which, as far as its toxicity to man and warm-blooded animals is con- cerned,, is close to methylmercaptophos, although it is somewhat more expensive than the latter. In view of the many-sided character of Soviet agriculture, the organization of the production of this chemical is being planned at rates which will be specified. In any case,, the construction of a special plant department is required. To some degree, the production of M-81 can be coupled with the -production of carbophos since the initial intermediate for both compounds is dimethyl.dithiophosphoric acid. Together with ensuring the agricultural facilities with organophosphorus insecticides already known, scientific research is continuing the search for new effective toxic chemicals, both contact- and systemic-action types. A basic aim of the research is the discovery of substances :which are not only effective in combating plant pests bu;;, also safer from the standpoint of both production and application. Up to the present time,, a number of new interesting insecticides have been found which deserve further careful study. Among them should be mentioned substances with the following general formulas: ,o Ro, s (Ro)w P C , I , 2 0 , 5 and ,4r'0 P - NRI . 34 -? Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Another contact-action insecticide being studied and synthesized in the laboratories of A. Ye. and B A. Arbuzov is dimethyldiethyldithiopyro?? phosphate, which is considerably less toxic to animals than tetraethyldi?- thiopyrophosphate (dithiophos). Radiation Ctiemis -a 34,. Work on the Radiation Chemistry of Polymers at the Physicochemical Inst- itute imeni L. Ya. Kama "Materials Change Their Properties," by A. Paparnaya; Moscow, Pro shlenno-Ekonomicheskya Gazeta,, No 5, (460">, 11 Jan 59 At one of the laboratories of the Physicochemical Institute imeni L. "'a. Karpov a new type of polyethylene for use as an electrical insulat- ing material has been developed by irradiating ordinary polyethylene with cobalt-60. Ordinary polyethylene cannot be used as an electric insulat- ing material at the temperature of 1000, because it softens and begins to flow at 80-90?. On the other hand, the new type of polyethylene, which has been cross-linked by irradiation, can be used at 150-180? for any length of time without undergoing deterioration. The use of the newly developed polyethylene insulation reduces the dimensions of motors and transformers. Insulation of this type is needed for new high-capacity electric power stations and for long power transmission lines. This type of polyethylene will also be useful in machine building and the construc- tion of instruments. Other uses for polyethylene treated by irradiation will be as a material for chemical laboratory wear that will be resistant to strong acids and alkalis and as a material for equipment to, be used in the petrochemical industry. The use of polyethylene pipelines appear, to be very promising. Produc- tion of pipes from polyethylene is simple0 This material is corrosion- proof: pipes made of polyethylene will be suitable for petroleum, acids, gasoline, and alkalis. If the pipes are made of irradiated polyethylene, it will be possible to pump hot liquids through them. In a laboratory headed by V, L. Karpov, wood has been impregnated with solutions of styrene, acrylonitr, i.Le, or some other monomer. After the wood treated in this manner has been subjected to irradiation, the monomer polymerizes and becomes strongly bound to the molecules of the wood. The new material combines the properties of wood with those of the polymer. The compression strength of ordinary wood, which amounts to 395 kg per sq cm, becomes 3 1/2 times greater after the wood has been modi- fied in the manner described. The new material preserves its dimensions when exposed to moisture and tc the effects of the atmosphere. -After being kept for 20 days in water, a slab of ordinary wood weighing one kg increased - 35 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 in weight, to 3 kg and 8U0 gxaans. A slab o:i wood. k? one Icg, which had boon trcateri with a monomer and -uhc:n sa:iu j ct;r~d to :ion, showed an increase in wc:igh.t amounting to un1,y 295 rnia aft-?e- the woc.'d had been kept uncler" water for the same length of tLne. Although capron cord is of great advantage -in t t.o manufacture of tires because of its strength and durability, it does not a:U:1.1;1' e well to rubber: during the use of the tire, the bond between the rubber and. the capron cord loosens. According to Yu.. M. Ma].inskiy, senior scientific associate at one of the laboratories of the institute 'ut?ea"x:i ,',i!.~r?olr, problem of producing by means of irradiation a layer on the ccur:E'^c.e of the capron cord A..ich would adhere well both to the capron and to tth.e rubber is being studied. Work will also be done on z a ce: proofin?, vr=a::?y 1-1 in fabrins by expos- ing them to irradiation. By subjecting cap--:,on to the action of radiation emitted by radioactive substances, 't'his ca.n ie ? ]zdc heat-resistant : fabrics made of irradiated capron will not be r7._znc~rca;3. by .roning vith a hot iron. Another possibility of raa,dia'tion.c:Ij.en1dcal process]_:'?g is :improve- ment of the dyeing properties of $1.1c1.,~. as nitro::, lavsan, enant, and lchlorin, which at present ^~iair~o'I, ')e dyed r~ ary i]:~r. 35 Chemicral llosvnete.r T : M in C:.e!cl~usl'~vti!' lk+.boraLor~r 'tA Simple, Ch.etnicca DosirLeter," by ra_ Nuclear Physics of the Czechoslovak Aca-.errr of Sc ;-r-d. iiaroslav Bed- nar, ''Antonin" Mi:.ita -y in Brno,, Prague, Ja.dern:c Nne`rgie., >to n. Sep 5$, pp 26,2_26,-) The article describes the main of a saturated solution of chloroform iti water in ;'cl=L' ?7.r~?1 to to\JEtrd radia- tion and discusses ti Of 1 C:.'i : i.CX'C)"'Vl[1?. solution in chemical dosimetry in the laboratory. [For addleLonna. .nfoi':!n t;io?. on rat1 irv~ i'~n C.=r~.l'1'! 5 ;3y , See 1t''m No 17. 36. Czechoslovak Isotpe Produr-_,tion "We Have Our Own Isotopes" (Unr i~l'1 ?~ ~:.1'`~.ii; '::"a.Lryue, (Ybrasna Lidu, 20 Dec 55; p 1 rae Although the first Cze o ~.oslo;rzlc reactor at thz Institute of Nuclear Physics (Ustav jaclerne fyslky) in Re? is not; y , worki.n a'c full capacity, because some auxiliary equipment has no"t 'aceai i.r.r';IO.I.tx:c., the institute hrs 36 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 already conducted more than 100 irradiations and has begun production of isotopes for use at the institute itself and other institutions. The radioactive iodine being produced at the institute Is used to make prepara- tions which are used at the Endicrinological Institute (Endokrinologicky ustav) in Prague for treating thyroid gland. diseases. Methods of prepar- ing radioactive sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic., end. gold have been worked out. All these methods will be used to a greater extend; next year when radio- isotopes will be produced in greater quantities. The institute has also prepared suspensions of chromium phosphate with radioactive phosphorus for clinical use. [For additional information on radiochemistry, see Item No 18. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 IV. ELECTRONICS Conu unicat:ions 37. Horn-Parabolic Antenna "Horn-Parabolic Antenna for Radio-Relay Communication Lines With ?Vesna? Equipment," by A. A. Metrikin and V. K. Paramonov; Moscow, Vcstnik Svyazi, No 11, Nov 58,, pp 4-6 The horn-parabolic antenna, which is a combination of a part of a paraboloid of revolution and a pyramidal horn the apex of which coincide with the focus of the paraboloid, satisfies most of the requirements im- posed by the radio-relay systems. Such an antenna, intended for use on radio-relay lines having the "Vesna" equipment, consists of three distinct parts all connected by bolts: parabolic reflector with the side wails and protective cover, pyramidal horn pruper, and horn matching junction. The parabolic reflector and the side walls of the horn portion of the antenna are assembled from welded aluminum sheets 2 mm thick, and mounted on a steel-angle welded frame. The frame of the parabolic reflector is assembled with angle spars,, bent to a specified profile. The parabolic mirror is formed from an aluminum sheet over a concrete hump-mold. The accuracy of mirror fabrication is ? 2 mm. The antenna is provided with a rotating device which. permits smooth rotation t;; ithin a range of ? 70 in the horizontal plane and a range of ? 50 in the vertical plane. he antenna aperture is covered with a hermetically sealed cover of a di- electric material which practically reflects no electromagnetic energy. An excess pressure of dry air inside the antenna is obtained with the aid of an AD-4 dehydrator, 1-.Ach supplies 20 liters of dry air per min,. The traveling-wave ratio in the feed waveguide of the antenna was found to be about. 0.97 in the frequency range of 3,450-4,150 Mc. The over-all dimensions of the antenna are as follows : height 620 cm, ',ridth 390 cm, depth 320 cm, aperture area 7.5 m2, antenna volume 11 m3, weight 990 kg., and weight with rotating device 1,370 k . 38. New Soviet TV Receivers "TV Receivers 'Rubin-1021 and ?Almaz-?1021" (unsigned article); Moscow, Vestnik Svyazi, No ll., Nov 58, inside cover A Moscow TV equipment plant has designed the new-model TV receivers "Rubin-102" and "Almaz-102." The TV receiver "Rubin-1.02" is designed for reception on 12 TV channels and F'_M-.U_' radiobroadcasts. This TV set has - 38 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 19 vacuum tubes, its sensitivity is bettor than .100 microvolts, its power consumption is about 150 w, and the screen size is 270 x 360 mm. The set has two 1-GD-9 loudspeakers. The "Almaz-102" set has four loudspeakers and a 340 x 450 mm screen. Components 39. Frequency Dividers "Frequency Divider With Direct Locking," by T. S. Fedosova and K. A. Samoylo; Moscow, Radiotekhnik.a i Elelctronika, No 1, Jan 59, pp 1i.3-.53 The article analyzes the theory of operation of a direct locking frequency divider which differs from a conventional self--excited oscillator by the presence of synchronizing emf. The phase-pulse method which negleced the effect of harmonics was used to study the circuit. The purpose of this research was to prove the accuracy of theoretically calculated formulas. The dependence of oscillation amplitude and frequency- division band on the following values were determined experimentally: di- vision factor and the number of sync pulses;, width of the reference pulse, duration of the sync pulse, phase shift in the feedback circuit, and voltage amplitude in feedback coupling and amplitude of sinusoidal. sync voltage. Satisfactory agreement between the experipic::ntal data, and the -theoretical showed that the theory of frequency divider operation, derived without tak- ing into account the effect of harmonics, is fully satisfactory for engineer- ing purposes. 40. High-Sensitivity Bolometer "Bolometer for Registration of Pulsating Light Flux," by Y?a. A. Imas, State Optical Institute; Moscow, Pribory I Tekhnika Eksperi menta, No 6, Nov-Dec 58, pp 100-101 The bolometer described differs from existing instruments in that it permits direct registration of light f.:Lux with a high degree of resolution. The standard semiconductor bolometer of 1..5 x 103 v/w sensitivity is used as a ltmiinous-flux pickup. The device incorporates in its electronic circuit two 6N2P, one 6N1P double triode, and an electromagnetic oscillograph MPO-2. The characteristics of the instrument are as follows: maximum sen- sitivity for the whole scale is 0.2 cal/cm2 sec, spectrum sensitivity is uniform in the range of 0.4-3 microns, time constant. after correction is 2.10-3 sec, and the error in reproduction of calibration signal is ? 5;'0. -. 39 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 41. New Soviet Trans.lstor Radio "Newest Sov-.Let Transistor Radio" t.luisigned article); Paris, L"Humanite, 30 Jan 59 The article was accompanied. by a photograph of the "newest Soviet transistor radio" described as a "pocket sputnik." It is said to pick up and rebroadcast the "bips" of the satellites. Co -a? ee:cs and Automation 42. Method of Selectin Io seal eratLons Permitt Their Accomplishment on Digital Computers "Method of Selecting Logical Operations and Mechanisms for Effect- ing Their Accomplishment on Digital Computers., "? by G. G. Lyub- chenko; Kiev, LJkrainskiy Matemati. ,heskiy 2h.urnal., Vol 100 No 4, Oct/Nov/Dec 58; pp 375-388 A method of selecting and appraising a set of :Logical operations is described which can be constructively applied in a universal or specialized computing machine. The author sl:zozis that it is expedient to apply only 11 logical operations from which only 2,037 sets may be composed which are practicable in a universal machine. The application of a logical. constant frequently leads to simplification of t:r..e mechanism and to shortening of the time required by the machine for calculation. The appraisal and selec- tion of the sets of operations are carried out in accordance with the con- structive complexity of the machine aggregates 1, effect the selection, with the rate of calculating the Buhl. functions., with. the energy expended by the aggregates, and. with various combinations of these three factors. On selecting a set of operations.., the appraisal should be carried out in three stages (an intti.a.l rough, and final estimate) wi.ich., as is shoran, makes it possible to estimate all the 2,037 sets by examining a relatively small number of sets. 1E3. Calculus of Assertion Formulas of Bi.vaient Logic "Methods for Determining the Identical `ruth or Falsity of the Calculus of Assertion Formulas of :Bivalent Logic;; "` by G. C`. Lyubchenko, Calculation Center of the Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Kiev., Do ovidi Akad.em.lfauk t:Tkra;!nsekoy R.SR, No l.l, Nov 58,, 1153 -1156^ ._.._ W_. The article gives five sets of rules enabling one to determine identically true or false formulas of the calculus of assertion formulas expressed solely by means of logical operations of one of the 16 com- binations of these operations. The rules are designed for transformation -?0- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 i to algorithms which can be worked out on computers. These rules differ by a number of properties from those of the known method of determining -identical truth or falsity of formulas. The rules are effective for the given purpose because of these properties. 1F1F, Likely Locations for New Computer Installations Listed "List of Higher Educational Institutions at Which Intervuz Com- puter Installations Should Be Established" (unsigned article); Byulleten' Ministerstva Vysshevo Obrazovaniya SSSR, No g, Sep 58, p9 A list of higher educational institutions (VUZes) is given at which intervuz computer installations should be established. The list follows. Moscow Power Engineering Institute Moscow Higher Technical School imeni Bauman Aviation Institute Moscow Chemicotechnological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev Leningrad Polytechnic Institute lmeni M. I. Kalinin Electro-technical Institute iaieni V. I. Ul'yanova (Lenin) Opticomechanical Institute Leningrad Chemicotechnological Institute imeni Lensovet Minsk Belorussian Polytechnic Institute Baku Azerbaydzhan Polytechnic Institute Yerevan Polytechnic Institute - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Odessa Polytechnic Institute Sverdlovsk Ural Polytechnic Institute Tashkent Central Asia Polytechnic Institute Tbilisi Georgian Polytechnic Institute Tomsk Polytechnic Institute Instruments and Equipment 45. Series Ionic Converter "Performance Analysis of a Series Ionic Converter," by A. Ye. Slukhotskiy, A. S. Vasil'yev, and V. M. Martsinovich; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, No 1, Jan 59, pp 63-69 Sonic and ultrasonic (hydrogen gate) frequency generators feeding power to various types of oscillators can be built on the principle of the series converter. The following frequencies can be generated by a series converter when utilizing different gating devices: with mercury gate up to 3,000 cycles, with inert-gas gate from 6,000 to 7,000 cycles, and with hydrogen gates up to 30,000 cycles. In the latter case an appreciable output can be realized only for pulsed operation. The article analyzes the performance of a series ionic converter that can be utilized as a source of higher-frequency current. Conditions are determined at which the load voltage acquires nearly sinusoidal form and the operation becomes stable. The latter characteristic of a series lonic converter is not present in the more commonly used parallel ionic con- verters. The calculated characteristics for a series ionic converter were in close agreement with the experimental data (discrepancy not greater than 10%). -42- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Methods of Accelerometer Calibration "Methods and Instruments for Calibration and Testing Accelero- meters," by S. S. Shchedrovitsiy; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 6, Nov/Dec 58, pp 87-93 Wide use of accelerometers in quality control of machine building (muachine tools, pumps) motors etc.) and as flight data-units of aircraft, has necessitated the development of new methods for accurate calibration and testing of accelerometers. P. N. Agaletskiy has developed a differential method for checking and calibrating the accelerometers. According to this method, the in- strument is first set at a distance rl from the axis of rotation and is tested for the angular velocity wl. Then the instrument is reset at a distance r2 and an angular velocity w2 is selected so that the output signal is equal to one obtained for the first setting. The accelera- tion is then calculated by the formula 2 2 a = rl - r2 wl w2 2 2 - For the purpose of dynamic testing of accelerometers, the vibration stand VS 300-P was designed at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Metrology :imeni D. I. Mend,Qleyev. This stand was designed for opera- tion in a vibration range of 100-10,000 cyclr-;s and for a maximum amplitude of 0.5 mm. The platform can be set at any angle with the horizontal plane. The stand has two electrodynamic vibrators, a sound generator for frequencies up to 10,000 cycles, and a TU-600 power amplifier. Maximum permissible load on the platform is 5 kg. Such electrodynamic vibration stands for calibration of accelerometers are in use at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Technology and Machine Building (TsNIITMASH). A piezoelectric vibration stand for operation at frequencies higher than 10,000 cycles was developed at TsNIITMASH. The dynamic component of such a stand is made up of a set (about 4+0) of piezoceramic (generally barium titanate) rings energized with a sinusoidal voltage. An effective acceleration of 120 g can be obtained at a vibration frequency of 2(,000 cycles. A cr. .oration stand of the falling-hammer type is used to reproduce accelerations. tapulses of very high value, up to 100,000 g. -43 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Coincidence Analyzer "Time Analyzer," by V. V. Okorokov; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 6, Nov/Dee 58, pp 63-67 The article describes a 112-channel coincidence (time) analyzer with a minimum width channel of one microsec, which permits registering several pulses during a single cycle. The coincidence circuit of the analyzer is built in the form of a matrix,, so that the -time-delay is applied to both the trigger pulse and the investigated pulse. The circuit will conduct only when tow registered pulses appear in the same channel and when the mechanical counter is in operation. Such a registration of pulses in various channels is carried out independently, one of the other. The circuit incorporates the following components: master quartz oscillator which generates a series of one-microsec trigger pulses, a frequency divider which transforms the one-microsec pulses into 8- microsec pulses, first blocking oscillator which is connected to a 14- cell "slow" commutator switch, the phasing circuit to which the examined pulse is fed, and the second blocking oscillator connected to "fast" commutator switch. The "slow" commutating switch has 14 cells and the "fast" commutator switch has 8 cells, thus forming a total of 112 channels (14 x 8, 112) in the matrix. The coincidence of pulses in one of the cells of the "fast" switch with that of a pulse in the "slow" switch is registered by a mechanical counter. The analyzer utilizes 6P9, 6Zh4, 6N15A, and 6N15P tubes. The analyzer performed satisfactorily during the several months of the test run. 48. Czechoslovak Laboratory Instruments "We Are Exporting Laboratory Instruments" (unsigned article); Prague, Obrana Lidu, 23 Dec 58, p 2 The article states that the Laboratory Instruments National Enterprise (Narodni podnik Laboratorni pristroje) in Czechoslovakia is making the following instruments: the "Minor" photo colorimeter, which is smaller and cheaper to manufacture than previous types, but which Works as well; a s;;ioke meter (kouromer) for measuring the intensity of combution engines and for measuring soot in exhaust fumes; a perfected dosimeter, which looks like a wrist watch and accurately measures the radioactivity in the air; a nuclear particle counter, the "Dostra," for which Czechoslovakia has a world patent; and a microphotometer, which uses electronic tubes. -44- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08: CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 The article states that instruments made at the Laboratory Instruments Nat!.)nal Enterprise are exported to South America, China, Japan, Portugal, Egypt, Mexico, Pacific Islands, and other places. 49. Radar Signal Detection in Presence of Interference "Signal Detection With the Background of Normal Noise and Random Reflections," by V. D. Zubakov; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektro- nika, No 1, Jan 59, pp 28-38 The article discusses the theory of optimum radar signal detection in the presence of normal noise and random reflections from surrounding objects. A special case was examined for detection of coherent-sequence signals under the conditions of known Doppler frequency and unknown in- itial high-frequency phase. The investigation of a case when the Doppler frequency is not known presents considerable difficulties, but the problem can be reduced to simpler terms if the signal is transmitted in two coherent blocks. - 45 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 50. Resonance Transformer "Resonance Transformer," by A. A. Kosovskiy; Moscow, Elektri- chestvo, No 12, Dec 58, pp 22-26 The author developed a resonance transformer (authorship certificate No 103446 METP SSSR) for testing the insulation of large electrical equip- ment (hydrogenerators, cables, etc.) with high voltage. The inductance of the resonance transformer and the capacitance of the tested electrical equipment are matched to form a resonant circuit. The transformer is of core type with an adjustable upper yoke, which can be raised to any desired height by four jacks. Each core has two air gaps, the upper of which can be regulated. The transformer is designed to supply 16 kv to the tested electrical equipment having capacitance of approximately one microfarad and loss-angle tangent up to .25. [For additional information on engineering [subjects, see Items Ha 26, 93, and 94.1 -46- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 VI. MATHEMATICS Approximation Theory 51. The Error Introduced by Solving a System of Differential Equations in Partial Derivatives by the Finite Difference Method "Estimate of the Error of Solving a System of Differential Equa- tions in Partial Derivatives by the Finite Difference Method," by V. S. Skvortsov; Moscow, Us ekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp 155-1 0 An estimate of the error introduced by solving the first boundary value problem for an elliptical system of linear differential equations in partial derivatives of the second order having constant coefficients, and homogeneous according to the order of differentiation, by the finite difference method for the case of two and three dimensions is given. 52. Linear Positive Polynomial Operators in the Approximation of Functions of Class Z, "Concerning One Asymptotic Property of Positive Methods of Summing Fourier Series and the Best Approximation of Functions of the Class Z2 by Linear Positive Polynomial Operators," by P. P. Korovkin; Moscow, Uspekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp 99-103 un(t) =1/2 +- n (n) COS kt N 0 h=l k be an even, positive trigonometric polynomial of order n. We set Ih (f,x) =1/it f f(x+t) un(t) dt. (1) It is clear that Ln(f,x) is a positive linear operator, the value of which for each integrable function f(x) is a trigonometric polynomial of an order not greater than n. It is known (see P. P. Korovkin, "Concerning the Convergence of Linear Positive Operators in the Space of Continuous Functions",'DAN Vol 90, 1953) that the sequence Ln (f,x) converges uni- formly to f(x), f(x)6 c2z, l if _ 1. limp (n) n-3 co 1 (2) - 47 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 In. the present work the case is investigated when the order of Ln (f,x), the approximation to f(x), depends only on the value of the second generalized derivative of f(x) at the point x, i.e., when lim Ln (f,x) - f(x) = D2 f(x) , n~oo Ln Y,x - x D2W~ (3) where D2 f(x) = lim f(x+t) - 2f (x) + f(x - t) t--.00 t2 53. Approximation of Class Z Functions by Certain Polynomial Operators "The Order of Approximation of Class Z Functions by Certain Polynomial Operators," by I. M. Petrov; Moscow, Uspekhi Mate- maticheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp 127-131 A function periodic with period 2-n is said to belong to the class Z if the inequality f(x+h) - 2f(x) + f(x h) :~- 2h is satisfied for all x and h. Let D2n-2(f,x) = 3--- 2 n(2n2+ 1) n-1 2 ff(t) [n+2 E (n-k) cos k(t-x)] dt k_1 be the operator of Jackson. n (f,x). b = s 2n f(x) - D f (xx) Z 211-2 Two theorems are then proved, namely: Theorem I -- The equality 12 In 2 is valid. lim bn 1t' n- Theorem II -- The equality lim b' f sin x dx - 4 holds. n- n O x ?1' -48- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 54. Methods of Cesaro and Abel Used in the Summation of Double Series "Summaticn of Double Series by the Metho::.s of Cesaro and Abel in a Restricted Sense," by I. I. Ogiyevetskiy; Moscow, Uspekh i Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp 119-125 A notion of summability of a double series in a restricted sense, based on the utilization of a bounded limited transition, was required when it arose in the ,theory of double Fourier series, where its application makes it possible to obtain results of a more general character, than the use of ordinary summability based on the limited transition of Pringsheim (see C. N. Moore, "On the Summability of the Double Fourier Series of' Discontinuous Functions," Math. Ann. Vol 74, 1913, 555-572; J. Marcinkiewicz, A. Zygmund, "On the Summability of Double Fourier Series," Fund. Math.,, Vol 32) 1939, 122-132). Use of the bounded limited transition was also proved effective in other investigations to some degree or the other in connection with the theory of functions of two variables, for example, in the approximation of functions of two variables by trigonometric polynomials and by Berstein polynomials, in the interpolation of functions of two variables by a trigonometric polynomial (see Kipriyanov, "Conver,3ence and Summation of Trigonometric Interpolation Polynomials for Functions of Two Variables," DAN, Vol 97, No 6, 1954), and in the sutmnability of double Sturm-Liouville series, etc. In connection with this there is interest in the investigation of bounded limited transition in application to the summing of double numerical series -- the summing of double numerical series in the restricted sense. In the present work the summation of double numerical series in the restricted sense by the methods of Abel and Cesaro is considered. - 49 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Differential Equations 55. Convergence of a Power Series Representing the Solution of a Differential Equation "Concerning the Region of Convergence of a Power Series Represent- ing the Solution of a Differential Equation," by P. T. Reznikov- skiy; Moscow, Us ekh i Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp-145-150 In studying the motion of planets, perturbations of the elements of the orbits are generally represented in the form of infinite series. Esti- mates of the regions of convergence of power series satisfying differential equations are known ([1], [2], [3]). All these estimates are based on ap- plication of a majorizing differential equation, the right side of which is a Cauchy majorant. A. M. Lyapunov [4] used a finite (not differential) majorizing equa- tion with a Cauchy majorant for investigation of the convergence of series ordered according to the degrees of the initial data. Nevertheless, the calculations, traced by the author, frequently lead to results of no practical significance. In the present work the author considers the conditions of convergence of a series, satisfying a differential equation and ordered according to the degrees of a small parameter. For this case a terminating majorizing equation is introduced (contain- ing a small parameter) with an arbitrary majorant. 1. A. M. Lyapunov, "Concerning the Conditions of Motion in a Particular Case of the Three Body Problem," Soobshch Matem. ob-va 2-ya Seriya, Vol 2, No 1, 2 (1889). 2. H. Poincare, Les Methodes Nouvelles de la Mecanioue Celeste, Vol I, Paris, 1892. 3. V. V. Golubev, Lektsii o Analiticheskoy Teorii Differentsial'n'ki; Uravneniy, (Lectures on the Analytical Theory of Differential Equations)., Moscow-Leningrad, Gostekhizdat, 1952. 4. A. M. Lyapunov, Obshchaya Zadacha ob Usto chivosti Dvizheni a (General Problem Concerning the Stability of Motion)., x:oscow-Leningrad, Gostekhizdat, 1952. - 50 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Information Theory 56. Ergodic Transfer and Stationary Transfer Capabilities Related "Remark concerning the Transfer Capability of a Stationary Channel with a Finite Memory,," by I. P. Tsaregradskiy; Moscow, UUs'eeihi Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 13, No 6 (84), Nov/Dec 58, pp-49-61 A. Ya. Khinohin gave a mathematically rigorous proof for the case of discrete information of the functioning of systems of communication within the premises of a stationary system (A. Ya. Khinchin, "Concerning the Basic Theorems of the Theory of Information," UMN Vol 11, No 1, 1956) 1'7-75) Nevertheless, there remains uncertainty concerning questions of the possi- bility of substantiating the inverse assertions of these theorems. The purpose of the present work is to establish the exact relation between the ergodic transfer capability Ce7 introduced in the article cited, and the stationary transfer capability Cs, and to prove the validity of the inverse assertions of the theorems of Shannon. Linear Difference Equations 57. System of Two Linear Difference Equations "Concerning a System of Two Linear Difference Equations With Constant Coefficients," by A. G. Naftalevich, Vil'nyus; Moscow, Matematicheskiy Sbornik Novaya Seri,, Vol l.6 (88), No 4, Dec 58, pp 420-432 A system of two linear difference equations is considered, namely, n akf (z+kaf) = 9(z), k=1 (1) m bif(z+J ~) = h(z), I(a/P) 5 0. where ak, bj, d, P are complex numbers, g(z) and h(z) are functions given meromorphic in the complex plane and f(z) is the sought-for meromorphic function. - 51 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 If the letters A and B designate the operators Af(z) f(z+P), then the system (1) has the form (E k al, A ) f(z) = g(z), k=1 m (m bjBj ) f(z)= h(z). j=1 Let k Z: akt an-7 (t - ~. k=1 j_1 )kj, rTr bjtbm i!1(t-~i )hi j=l It follows that system (1) may be described (assuming as follows: s TT (A - ~ j E) j f(z) - g(z), j=1 r i 1 (B-Iii E)hi f(z) = h(z), E f(z) = f(z). f(z+ ), Bf(z)= =1) It is proved that any solution of the homogeneous system (1) (that is, systems in which g(z) and h(z) ,are identically equal to zero) may be represented in the form of a sum of the solutions of an elementary system of the form (A-)jE)kj f(z) = 0, (B - ti E) hi f(z) =0 (j=1, 2, . . . , s, i=1, 2, . . . , r), (Ei,j); - 52 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 a.ndi conversely, it is proved that any function, given in the form of a sum of the solutions of the system (Ei,j), is a solution of the system (1). The solution of system (Ei)'j) is expressed in final form by means of ellirtical functions and sigma and zeta functions of Bernstein. It noted that the system (Ei, j) for the case hi= k j = 1 has been solved by Ermit (see P. Appell, E. Lacour, Principes de la theorie des fonctions elliptiques et applications, Paris) 1922). As far as the inhomogeneous system (1) is concerned, it is proved that it is joint if and only if m (> akA ) h(z) bB3) g(z). Z.-.L j =l Several applications of the theory of asymptotic periods of integral and meromorphic functions were also introduced (see A. 0. Gel'fond, Ischi- sleniye Konechnyith Raznostey [Numerical Finite Differences], Moscow- Leningrad, Gostekhizdat) 1952). - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 V 11 MED1CINN Anti t>iotics 58. Antibiotics 23-21 and 1779 .in the Therapy of Malignant Growths "Effect of Two Antibio .i c , (23-21 and 1779) on Experimental Tumors, " by Hsu Ping, Li.~ Mi rLg- chaijg , Wu Te- cheng, Ch' u Tsun-ch'ing;, V. Kuri.lovich, Institute of Drug Sciences, China, Shanghai; Moscow, AntiH.otiki, 6, Nuv/Dec 58, PP 5-8 White mice were user], in the experiments which were conducted to determine the effect::veness of antih-otics 23-21 and 1779 when used in thc: therapy of experimentally induced itialignant tumors. Both antibiotics are obtained from strains isolated from the soil :in South China, and on the basis of their chemical and hiulogical properties may be grouped with act.inumycins. They are obtained in the form of red. crystals and have bacteriostatic effect on gram positive microbes. The experiments were carried out in vitro and in vivo. Gt,owths were produced in the mice by the intraperit.uneal administra;t.iun, of Ehrlich' s adenocarcinoma in ascitic fluid containing 3-10 million cancer., cells. Different doses of 23-21 and 1779 were applied and in all case., were found to have the ability to in- hibit the growth of the cancer in the animals. Tests were also conducted to determine the toxicity of the antibior,ics, It was established that the LD50 for 23-21 is 452 gamma/kg, and of 1779 -- 745 gamma/kg. A table, two graphs, and a bibliography are provided in the article . 59. Effect, of Chlorotet?:acycline anci Ox tetracycline on Virus Toxicit "On the Effect, of Chlo?rrotet::acycline and Oxytetraeyeline on the Toxic Properties of Viruses of the Ornithusis-Psitaccusis Gruup in Vitro," by B. 1 0,, Semenuv and. V. A. Lashkevich, Institute for the St;ody of Poliomyelitis, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Ant,ibiotiki, 6S. Nu~vv/Dec 58, pp 73-77 An account of. the research work done to de-.errn.ine the effect of chlorut,et.racycline and. on. he toxic properties of the urnith,isis virus, strain B; psitaccosis virus, strains "Aran" and "Lori; and the primary atypical pneumonia v:ixuas, strain 15.. The toxicity of the viruses was established by he intravenous administ:~atian of virus suspen- sions prepared on meat-peptone b u~;illon? Dilutions of the antibiotics were then administered to the a.nima1 . Both a.n`:il)iot,ic, -- chlorotetracycline and oxytetxacycline -- displayed a, capacity for ina.ct.ivating the toxicity Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 L' the ornithosis-psitaccosis group of viruses. The viruses displayed an equal sensitivity to the antibiotics. The tests also revealed that high concentrations of the antibiotics, at least 1,000 units, are required to inactivate the viruses. Chlorotetracycline and oxytetracycline failed to prevent intoxication of the mice when administered prior to the viral infec- tion of the animals. 60. Antibiotics in the Therapy of Acute Radiation Sickness "Application of Bicillin and Oxytetracycline in the Therapy of Acute Forms of Radiation Sickness," by M. Ya. Chaykovskaya, I. S. Kas'yanov, and G. Ye. Vaysberg, Radiological Division (head, Prof A. V. Kozlova) of State Scientific Research Insti- tute of Roentgenoradiology and Chair of Microbiology (head, Prof Z. V. Yermol'yeva, Corresponding Member, Academy of Medi- cal Sciences USSR) of Central Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians; Moscow Antibiotiki, 6, Nov/Dec 58, pp 92-95 Report on research work conducted to determine the effectiveness of bicil;LIn [dibenzyl-ethelene-diamine of penicillin] in combination with oxytetracycline when used in the therapy of acute radiation sickness and concomitant lesions. Bicillin is a slowly soluble preparation which, unlike other antibiotics, is retained in the blood in therapeutic doses for periods of 7-10 days. The experiments were carried out on dogs which were subjected to irradiation in doses of 500 r. It was established that the application of bicillin in doses of 250,000 units every 3 days and oxytetracycline in doses of 300 milligrams daily had a beneficial effect on the course of acute radiation sickness and concomitant affections. Aviation Medicine 61. New Preflight Tests for Czechoslovak Pilots "Experience With a Battery of Vasomotor Tests With Flying Personnel," by Maj Alois Sturma, Military Political Academy (Vojenska politicka akademie) in Prague; Prague, Vojenske Zdravotnicke Listy, Dec 58, pp 572-571+ This article describes a battery of vasomotor tests given to pilots to determine the functional condition of the central nervous system before flying. Although experiments with this battery of tests were performed on only 14 pilots, the author believes that the results showed that these tests indicate the flying ability of the pilot better than tests previously used, which consisted of an anamnesis, measurement of blood pressure and pulse, and a cold pressor test. -55- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 The new tests, the article states, consist of detailed anamneses, both familial and personal.; a character evaluation by the individual himself, by his commanding officer, and by his fellow pilots; and the length of time ho sleeps, the length of time necessary to rest, the length of time he rests before night flights, the manner in which he spent the previous day (alcohol, traveling, sexual. contact, increased effort, excitement), the quality and length of time since his last meal before flying, appetite, use of black coffee and its effect, the manner in which preflight preparations were made, and his symptoms and difficulties during flight (headaches, ear- aches, psychic condition, and digestive difficulties). Contagious Diseases 62. Czechoslovak Research on Virus Infections "A Micromethod of Complement Fixation in the Diagnosis of Virus Infections," by Rudolf Benda, Ludek Danes, and Jiri Obenberger, frcan chairaL tl-n Egideni.ology, "Jan Ev. Purkyne" Military Doctors Research and Graduate Institute (Vojensky lekarsky vyzkumny a doskolovaci ustav Jaria Ev. Purkyne); Prague, Vojenske Zdravot,- nicke List y, Dec 58, pp 574-579 This article describes the technique of complement fixation by a modi- fied micromethod on Plexit glass plates, using constant dilution of the serum and antigen with several doses of complement. The article reports experiments in which this method was used in the diagnosis of and research on different virus infections, including glandular viruses of the Coxsackie group, tick-borne encephalitis, "LCM," rabies, Q fever, and lymphocytic choriomeningitides. Immunology and Therapy 63. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine "Yolk (Embryonal) Vaccine for Prophylaxis of Spring-Summer (Tick-Borne) Encephalitis," by A. K. Shubladze, Ye. N. Bychkova, and V. A. Anan?yev, Institute of Virology imeni Ivanovskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 56, pp 102-109 ' The research to which this article is devoted involves a study of a yolk vaccine for protection against spring-summer encephalitis. The experi- ments were based on a vaccine proposed by Shubladze and Andzhaparidze in 1949, which consisted of a 10% suspension of virus-infected chick embryo with 0.10 formalin; three strains, a laboratory SofIin strain, strain YaM3, - 56 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 and strain 90E, were used in this vaccine. In addition, the following strains were tested for the new vaccine: L3, 1X10, YaS8 (all yolk- cultured), and SofIin (cultured in mouse brains). In 1957, a vaccine consisting of the first three of these strains was compared with the brain- cultured vaccine with respect to immunogenic effectiveness. Results are shown in a table. At present, the authors have undertaken studies of several variants of the yolk vaccine; liquid and dry, with and without sup- plements, mono- and polyvaccines, vaccines inactivated by cold and high temperatures, deformalinized, and with a decreased amount of formalin. Experimentation with these variants is summarized in six tables. CPYRGHT Conclusions drawn from these results are as follows: "l. Experimental study of yolk (embryonal) vaccines showed that they are immunogenically adequate. "2. The immunogenicity of a 5% yolk vaccine is not inferior to that of a vaccine with a 10% content of infected chick embryo tissues. "3. Complete Inactivation of the virus in the yolk vaccine was ob- served after decreasing the amount of formalin from 0.1 to 0.05%- "4. The rate at which the virus is inactivated in the vaccine can be shortened from 20 days (for 5 days at room' temperature and for the subse- quent 15 days at 40) to 12 days. "5. Three-day exposure of the vaccine to 0.05% formalin at 370 is sufficient to inactivate the virus. "6. The harmlessness of the vaccine (complete inactivation) must be checked after its deformalinization. "7. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is not decreased by deformalini- zation. "8. The immunogenicity of liquid yolk vaccine is decreased after 6 months preservation. "9. Dry yn'liz vaccines have good immunogenicity. "10. Thu _:.,~perimental data provide a basis for recommending the devel- opment of the production of the vaccine from virus cultures on fibroblastic chick embryos." - 57 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT 64, Dry Live Brucellosis Vaccine for Cattle "The Problem of Vaccinating Adult Cattle Against Brucellosis With Dry Brucellosis Vaccine," by M. M Ivanov, I. G. Levina, P. S. Studentsov, and V. S. Kuznetsov, Tr. Gos. Nauehno- Kontrol'n. In-t o Vet re aratam, No 6, 1956, pp 110-123 (from ReferativnZhurnal -- Biolo i , No 11, 10 Jun 58, Abstract No 50173, by I. Ya. Panche~lto "Vaccination was performed with live brucellosis vaccine from strain No 19. The vaccine was administered subcutaneously in 5 ml doses to all barren cows and to cows with calves up to 6 months old. The agglutina- tion reaction was the criterion for the immunological reactivity of the animals. If the agglutination titer was lower than 1:200 some 15-20 days after vaccination, vaccination was repeated, and if the required titer was not attained, the animals were vaccinated a third time. Observations showed that the vaccination can terminate a brucellosis enzootic and stop the spread of abortions. The RSK (complement fixation reaction) disap- peared after 5-8 months in healthy vaccinated cattle, whereas it was main- tained for a long time (more than 2 years) in animals which were in the initial or latent stages of infection before vaccination. These indexes can be used for differentiating healthy cattle from brucellar cattle in vaccinated herds. Immunological reactivity with respect to vaccine from strain No 19 was noted in several healthy animals." . 65. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Cattle "Comparative Evaluation of Immunobiological Reactions in Diagnosing Brucellosis of Cattle," by P. B. Sadauskas, Byul. Nauchno-Tekhn. Inform. Lit. N.-I. In-t Zhivotno- vodstva i Veterinarii, No 2, 1957, pp 37-40 (from Referati- vn Zhurnal -- Biolo i , No 11, 10 Jun 58, Abstract No 50167, author's summary) "It was demonstrated that, in a herd with fresh, acute brucellosis, combined RA (agglutination reaction), RSK (complement fixation reaction), and Huddleson reactions can be used to detect the greatest number of Brucellar animals. When the course of the infection is chronic, the greatest number of animals can be detected by combining the RSK, opsono- phagocytic reaction (OFR), and eye allergen. When infection disappears during normal calving, the RA, the Huddleson reaction, and the RSK dis- appear in the herd, and at the same time the OFR and the eye test reaction arc pronounced." - 58 .. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 66. Brucellosis Therapy in Cattle "Antivirus Therapy of Cattle With Brucellosis," by V. P. Gromov and Kh. B. Frumkina, Tr. Sverdl. S. -Kh. In-ta, No 1, 1957, pp 311-315 (from Referativn Zhurnal -- Biolo i , No 11, 10 Jun 58, Abstract No 50171) by A. D. Musin) CPYRGHT "Experimental Therapy with antivirus (AV) was performed on 24 cows with brucellosis. AV was prepared from three strains of Brucella by the usual method; 15 ml of it was administered to the cows the first time, 50 ml after 15 days, and the same amount 30 clays after the second injection and 30 days after the third injection. A general reaction of the organism to the introduction was manifested by increased. titers and an increase in the opsonic index. The agglutinin titer increased to 1:11.00-1:6,400 under the effects of AV; it remained at this level for a long time, and decreased to 1:50-1:25 toward the 10th-12th month after therapy. The phagocytic re- action was reinforced and clinical manifestations of brucellosis disappeared in the sick animals after AV therapy. The authors suggest that AV can be used to treat brucellar cattle on threatened farms in conjunction with meas- ures for improving sanitary conditions." 67. Diagnosis of Brucellosis "The Effectiveness of Seroallergic Methods of Diagnosis Following Recovery of Cattle Hosts From Brucellosis," by A. I. Bychkov, Tr. Mosk, Vet. Akad., Vol 19, No 1, 1957, pp 258-272 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, No 11, 10 Jun 58, Abstract No 501'65, by A. M.) On comparative study of seroallergic methods of diagnosis, it was shown that the RA (agglutination reaction) and RSK (complement fixation reaction) did not guarantee the detection of all animals suffering from brucellosis. A considerable number of sick animals were detected by the main allergen of Rostov VOS which was used in addition to the RA and RSK. Corpuscular antigen of VIEV (All-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science) is a partic- ularly specific and active allergic preparation which the authors recommend for checking healthy herds and for the recovery of herds threatened with brucellosis, for the examination of animals brought onto the farm, and for the examination of animals after vaccination for brucellosis." - 59 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 PYRGk 68. Agglutination Reaction in Ouine Brucellosis "The Problem of the Specific Sensitivity of the Accelerated Agglutination Reaction in Diagnosing Brucellosis in Sheep," by M. A. Prudentov, Tr. Stavropol. I sk.Kra evo N.-I. Vet. St., No 3, 1956, pp 139-143 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, No 11, 10 Jun 58, Abstract No 501 0, by I. P. "Research showed that the flocculation RA (agglutination reaction) has greater specific sensitivity than does the blood-droplet reaction. The author recommends the flocculation RA with serum for diagnosing brucellosis in sheep which are clinically healthy with respect to brucellosis, and also for checking post-vaccirial reaction in sheep which have been vaccinated against brucellosis." Pharmacology and Toxicology PYRGHT 69. 'Therapy of Burn Shock With Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone "Effect of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone on the Course of Burn Shock," by G. A..Zubovskiy; Moscow, Nksperimental'naya Khirurgiya, 6, Nov/Dec 58, p 59 'The effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) on the course of burn shock was studied in experiments on rabbits. Two series of experiments were carried out. Fourth degree burns on the skin of the abdomen (12 per- cent of the body surface) were inflicted on 22 animals of the first series, and the character of the developing pathological process was studied. Ob- servations have shown that when traumas of this type were inflicted on rab- bits a fatal form of burn shock developed. Two of the 22 animals died as a result of vascular collapse within 7-12 minutes after the trauma was in- flicted; 16 animals died within 35 -- 140 minutes, and four within 24-11-8 hours with manifestations of progressive cardiovascular asthenia and blood clotting. Blood clotting was observed only in the animals that died within 24-48 hours after the trauma was inflicted. "Sixteen rabbits in the second series received 25 units of ACTH intravenously 10 minutes after burns were inflicted. The reaction of the organism to the administration of ACTH was expressed by an insignificant and brief rise in arterial pressure. Within an hour after the administration of the drug, the development of cardiovascular asthenil symptoms ceased in almost all the animals, and a considerable rise in arterial pressure and in tissue blood circulation was observed. Only six animals of this group died within the first hour; the other ten died within 24 hours. - 6o - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 CPYRGI?proved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGHT "Thus, a single injection of ACTH during the erectile phase of burn shock produces an expressed therapeutic effect in the course of several hours. This effect is apparently conditioned by the intensification of the humoral protective mechanism, and has a particularly beneficial effect on the condition of the vascular-motor center." 70. Serotherapy of Gas Infection "Serotherapy of Experimental Gas Infection Caused by Septic Vibrio Combined With Aerobes," by S. V. Solov'yev; Moscow, Eksperimen-cal'- naya Khirurgiya, 6, Nov/Dec 58, p 61 "The object of the work was the study of the effectiveness of the serotherapy of a gas infection produced in white mice by a combination of two cultures: septic vibrio and one of the aerobes -- hemolytic streptococ- ous, staphylococcus aureus, Bact., proteus vulgaris, and Bacillus coli. The antisepsis serum was administered to the experimental animals in doses of 200 antitoxic units as follows: once 3 hours after the infection; twice 3 and 24 hours after the infection; three dines 3, '24, and. 48 hours after the infection. "These doses of the serum had a favorable therapeutic effect when ad- ministered to animals infected with a monoculture of septic vibrio. In the basic experiments, the antisepsis serum was administered in similar doses to white mice infected by the combination of sublethal doses of two cultures. As a result of the more intensified virulent action of the anaerobic and aerobic causative agents, the control nontreated animals died, although in all, they received less than a single lethal dose. "In the serotherapy of a gas infection caused by septic vibrio in combination with hemolytic streptococcus, Bact. Proteus vulgaris, or Staphylococcus aureus, the antisepsis serum was found to have little effect. A favorable therapeutic effect was obtained, however, when the animals were infected with septic vibrio in combination with colibacillus. The therapeu- tic effect was noticeably increased when the serum doses were increased. "It was thus found that the course of a gas infection and the therapeu- tic effect of the antigangrene serum frequently depend on the character of the wound microflora." - 61 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 71, New Czechoslovak Medicines "Local and Foreign News" (unsigned article); Prague, Obrana Lidu, 21 Dec 58, p 2 The "Galena" National Enterprise in Komarov, near Opava, is preparing the production of new medicines. The enterprise will make "Cholagol" drops from curcuma rootstock imported from India, China, and Australia. These drops are given to patients with glandular difficulties. Physiology 72. High-Temperature Effects on Muscular Efficiency "The Effect of High Temperature on the Muscular Efficiency of Human Beings," by G. A. Goncharuk (Kiev), Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases; Moscow, GGiigi- ena True. i Prof essional'n a Zabolevaniya, Vol 2, No 6, Nov Dec 58, pp 19-22 High temperature irritates the human thermoregulating apparatus, and lessens the ability of the human organism to maintain body temperature at a constant level, thereby inhibiting its muscular activity. Excitation of cortical and subcortical centers of thermoregulation is evidently accompa- nied by inductive inhibition of motor zones of the central nervous system. The inhibitive effect of high temperature on muscular activity seems to be of a protective nature. A total of 179 experiments were conducted on 16 healthy people, between 16 and 23 years of age, who were kept at rest in a compartment in which the air temperature was between 40?C and 42?C; the relative humidity was between 30% and 40%. A control group was kept in a compartment where the temperature was between 18?C and 200C and the relative humidity was between 30% and 40%. A method developed by M. V. Leynik was used to determine muscular efficiency. Indexes of muscular efficiency were calculated from an ergograph tracing of the force and frequency of flexion of the index finger during 2 one-minute periods of lifting (with one minute rest in between) of a load weighing 4.5 kilograms, averaging one lift per second. 62 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 73. Pathologic Motor Reactions Produced in Rats by Sound "The Role of the Cerebral Cortex in the Development of Motor Pathologic Reactions Produced in Rats by Using Sounds as Irritants," by B. I. Kotlyar, Nauchnyye Dokla Vyoshey Shkoly, Biologicheskiye Nauki, No 1958, pp 98- The author of this article discusses experiments conducted on 1i7 white rats selected on the basis of their sensitivity to sound. Results of the experiments produced sufficient evidence that all stages of epileptiform reaction which develop in rats in response to intense sound stimuli are connected with infracortical parts of the brain; the reactions were noted in decorticated animals. Motor neurosis appears as a supplementary element of epileptiform re- action in rats exposed to repeated sound stimuli. leis is an example of specific clonus, the execution of which requires participation of cortical neurons. The dynamics of the formation of motor neurosis show that strong excitation develops in the cerebral cortex. The author of this article further states that attempts were made to obtain motor nevxosis a second time in decorticated rats; the previous re- sults could not be dupjicated even after 40-60 experiments were performed. 74. Experimental "Training" and Its Biochemical Manifestations "Biochemical Changes in Animal Muscles Subjected to Various Kinds of Experimental 'Training,'" by A. F. Makarova, Sector of Physio- logy and Biochemistry of Scientific Research Institute of Physical Culture, Leningrad; Kiev, Ukrainskiy Biokhimicheskiy Zhurnal, No 6, 1958, pp 903-910 As a result of the experiments, which were conducted on rabbits by subjecting the sciatic nerve to a faradic current to produce repeated syste- CPYRGHT matic contraction of the muscles, the following conclusions were derived: "l. Experimental 'training' produces an increase in the amount of structural protein found in the muscles and is greatest when the training is conducted with 'heavy' loads. "2. Of the structural muscle proteins, the proteins of the myosin com- plex have the greatest quantitative increase, with the ATP-ase activity of the muscles increasing accordingly. There is a greater increase in the pro- tein content of the muscle stroma with 'heavy' training at a slow pace, when the time of the levatory load is longer. - 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 ' ase nctivit 3. Zlie degree o:L g ycogc,n con en ncrease -4 1" y y as a result of the training depends on the rate of the movement rather than on the size of the effort. "4. 'icavy' training at a rapid pace produces more intense variegated biochemical changes than 'heavy' training at a slow pace, or with burdensome loads. "5. Our data confirm N. N. Yakovlyev's view that the biochemical chan&-.s occurring in the muscle as a result of 'training' are a manifestation of the biochemical adaptation to concrete forms of fulfilling work." Radiology 75. Effect of Radiation Sickness on Blood Coagulation "The Mechanism of Disturbance in Blood Coagulation in Acute Radiation Sickness," by A. S. Petrova; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiologiya, No 6, Nov-Dec 58, pp 25-29 This article reports a study of the mechanism of the origin of the hemorrhagic syndrome and morphological changes in thrombocytes and other components which take part in blood coagulation under the effects of acute radiation sickness. Dogs and rabbits were exposed to total irradiation in doses of 800 and 600 r respectively. The quantity of the thrombocytes, the thrombocyte formula, the diameter of the thrombocytes, the blood coagulation time, and reabsorption of the blood clot were then determined. The experi- ments established the following points: (1) Changes in all component's which enter into the blood coagulation picture begin from the very first days of irradiation; (2). the presence of large numbers of irritating forms and macrothrombocytes in the peripheral blood points to the appearance of atypical regenerative processes in the megacaryocyte apparatus of the bone marrow; (3) the effect which quantitative, as well as qualitative, changes of the thrombocytes in radiation sickness have on the development of hemor- rhages is indicated by the fact that blood coagulation time is restored later than the quantity of the thrombocytes; (4). the correlation between the changes in reabsorption of the blood clot and the development of throm- bopenia is confirmed by the fact that both take place simultaneously; and (5). a considerable prolongation of the blood coagulation time is noted during the period of the more pronounced qualitative and quantitative changes of the thrombocytes. -64- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 76. Relatiorish:Lp_of Acetylcholine-Cholinesterase System to Intestinal Motor Activity in Radiation Sickness "Motor Function of an Isolated Portion of Small Intestine of Dog During Acute Radiation Sickness," by K. V. Smirnov (Moscow); Moscow, Pulleten' Eksperimentallnoy Biologii i Meditsin , Vol 46, No 12, 1958) pp 23-28 '.Pasts were conducted on three dogs to study the motor function of isolated intestinal loops from the small intestines under normal condi- tions and after X-ray irradiation. Kymographic tracings after the lst, 2d, 8th, and l1Eth days of irradiation accompany the article. Results indicate that the disturbance in intestinal motor activity in irradiated dogs may depend on shifts in the acetylcholine-cholinesterase system which develop during radiation sickness. 77. Changes in the Functional Condition of the Cardiovascular System During Radiation Sickness "Changes in the Functional Condition of the Cardiovascular System During Radiation Sickness," by N. V. Il'chevich and V. A. Kozak, Institute of Physiology imeni A. A. Bogomolov, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, Laboratory of Physiology o." Circulation and Respiration; Kiev, Fiziologicheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 14, No 6, Nov/Dec 58, pp 775-782 The research described in this article,was conducted on changes in arterial blood pressure and their relationship to vascular interoceptive reflexes during various phases of radiation sickness. The research was motivated by the observation that functional disturbances occur in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in people working with radioactive substances. Results indicated the following: 1. During the first 21E hours after irradiation, arterial blood pressure is lowered while reflex excitability is elevated both for pressor and de- pressor reactions. 2. Restoration of arterial blood pressure is accompanied by the lower- ing of the reflex response and a dr-)p in the pressure in the carotid sinus region. 3. The lowering of the blood pressure during the terminal period of radiation sickness parallels the decrease and rapid exhaustion of the vascular interoceptive reflexes. -65- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 78 Exe~r:iment,al Pneumonia in Radiation Sickness "Characte.rj.yitics of the Development, Course, and Outcome of Ex ic.r.i.mvsntai Pneumonia in Acute Radiation Sickness," by P. N. Kiselev, 13. M. Rabinovich, and I. D. Meter, Bactero-Serolog, ica:L .Lalaoratory, Central Scientific Research Roentgenoradio- logical Institute; Moscow, Meditsiriskay Radiologi No 6 y, , Nov/Dec 53, pp 3-10 Experiments which were conducted on rabbits and rats established that the animals became highly susceptible to severe and in most cases fatal affection with pneumonia after having been subjected to sublethal doses of ionizing irradiation, the critical period having set in 3-21 days after their irradiation. It was also, found that the animals lost their local as well as general immunity during radiation sickness. This latter fact, the authors state, indicates the importance of pneumonia prophylaxis in cases of radiation sickness. The use of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, and other measures is recommended. 79. Penetration of Radioactive Silver Through Skin and Fresh Wounds "Penetration of Radioactive Silver Through Uninjured Skin and Wound Surface Under Experimental Conditions," by 1. T. Tsilyuryk, Chair of Roentgenology and Radiology, Kharkov Medical Institute; Moscow, Novyy khirurgicheskiy Arkhiv, No 3,. May/Jun 58, pp ,'. -1+9 Experimental data indicate the possibility of radioactive silver absorption through'the skin. 'The quantity of the'r6,dioactive isotopes absorbed through fresh wounds is quite significant. The author mentions that contact with radioactive substances such as silver is serious, especially if one considers the long half-life of silver and its significantly hard rays. 80. Intestinal Wounds Combined With Penetrating Radiation "Characteristics of the Course of Wounds of the Small Intestines in General Affection of the Organism by Penetrating Radiation," by V. I. Filatov; Leningrad, Eksperimental"naya Khirurgiya, No 6, Nov/Dec 58, p 60 "The characteristics of the behavior of incised and lacerated wounds of the small intestine in the onset of radiation sickness, its climactic stage, and during the healing period were studied. Ninety-nine experiments were carried out on 1.0 dogs and 50 rabbits.' - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 The dogs were subjected to general. roentgen irradiation with a dose of 350 r; the rabbits, with doses of 1100 x. It was found that in the period of the initial reaction; to acute 2d and 3d degree radiation sickness, the course of wounds of the small intestine in dogs who were not subjected to surgical interference (suturing or intestinal resection) is severe, and results in an early death from peritonitis and radiation sickness. "Surgical interference in rabbits, carried out 2 hours after the wounds of the small intestines were inflicted and during the initial period of radiation sickness, produced better results than operations carried out 6-8 hours later. The cause of lethal cases was a severe form of acute radiation sickness. All the dogs which were operated on during the initial period of radiation sickness and 8 hours after the wounds of the small intestine were inflicted, but which were not subjected to antiradiation therapy, died of radiation sickness or its complications. Mortality was considerably lowered when complex therapy of radiation sickness was applied. The wounds healed without complications despite the somewhat retarded regeneration. However, in 3 of the 20 dogs, invagination of the small intestine produced complica- tions which were difficult to diagnose because of the development of acute radiation sickness. "The infliction of wounds in the small intestine during the climactic period of radiation sickness resulted in the death of most of the dogs shortly after operations were performed, even though early surgical inter- ference was undertaken. Repeated wounds of the small intestine inflicted 2-3 months after the combined affection (acute radiation sickness and wounds of the small intestine) were marked by leukopenia and lymphopenia.,- which are characteristic of acute radiation sickness. Infectious complications fre- quently marked the healing process of the wounds. "In additional experiments which were conducted on 19 dogs 13 months after the general irradiation (Co O in a dose of 1+00 r), hip wounds inflicted by firearms caused the development of lymphopenia only. The wounds healed without complications." 81. Radioactive Cobalt Therapy in Treating Inflammation of Phalanges "Treatment of Paronychia by Gamma Rays From Radioactive Cobalt," by L. M. Stukova, Central Scientific Research Institute of Roent- genoradiology, Ministry of Health USSR; Kie,;-, Novyy Khirurgicheskiy Arkhiv, No 6 (216), Nov/Dec 58, pp 23-27 Hand inflammations in 97 patients were treated by gamma-ray radiotherapy from cobalt-60. Patients' ages varied from 20 to:70 years, and the duration of infection before treatment varied from one week to more than a year. Sites of infection were bone, subcutaneous tissue, and paronychia. - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Results indicate that radiation therapy brings about complete and stable anatomic recovery of the injured phalanges with comparatively rapid. disappearance of all signs of subjective and objective inflammatory effects, and therefore speedily restores the working capacity of the patients. The author concludes that radiotherapy using cobalt-60 in cases of paronychia accompanied by inflammation of only the soft tissues and by in- flammation of the bones has a. favorable effect on the course of the disease. 82. Certain Mechanisms of Cell Recovery Following Radiation Studied "Certain Mechanisms of Postradiation Changes in Resting Yeast Cells," by V. I. Korogodin, Soil Biology Faculty, Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow, Biofizika, Vol 3, No 6, 1958, pp 703-710 The aim of this research was to find a link between postradiation changes of cells and cell division. Postradiation mechanisms studied were cell stain- ing capacity, spontaneous lysis, and the dynamics of postradiation recovery of resting yeast cells maintained in nonnutritive media. Results indicate that following gamma-irradiation by partially lethal doses of ionizing radiation the death rate of yeast cells in the mitotic rest state does not differ from the death rate of control yeast cells. Follow- ing irradiation by absolutely lethal doses of ionizing radiation, the death rate of yeast cells is rapid and a portion of the irradiated cell population disintigrates. In the author's opinion, the development of radiation sequelae, which lead to inactivation after several reproduction cycles, becomes hampered or impossible if active metabolism is lacking. The decrease in radiation effects on yeast cells surviving gamma-irradiation is attributed to the destruction or diffusion of toxic products migrating from the irradiated cells. The author suggests that the study of the mechanisms of the recovery of cells surviving irradiation under rest conditions will explain the nature of primary radiobiological disturbances. - 68 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Surgery 83. The Neurorlystrophic Process in Experimental Osteomyelitis CPYRGHT "The Development and Compensation of the Neurodystrophic Process in Experimental Osteomyelitis," by L. A. Rabinovieh- Narodetskaya; Alma-Ata, Eksperimental'naya Khirurgiya, No 6, 1958, p 61 "Having developed a method of producing experimental traumatic osteomyelitis, we have set as our goal the study of the development of this process under the influence of some effects on the nervous system. A prolonged medically induced sleep was utilized as an additional irri- tant in some series of the experiments; vitamin B1 was introduced into the peripheral section of a cut and sutured nerve, and into a whole nerve in other series of experiments. In all, there were seven series of ex- periments on 105 grown rabbits and 10 dogs in whom experimental traumatic osteomyelitis was produced. The periods of subsequent observations were 3-6 months. "The results of the experiments have shown that an affection of a peripheral link of the nervous system in the form of a high neurotomy of the sciatic nerve followed by immediate suturing has an unfavorable effect on the compensating adaptation of the organism to experimental osteomyelitis and aggravates its development. The introduction of small doses of vitamin B1 into the peripheral end`of the cut nerve as an additional irritant has a favorable effect on the course of experimental osteomyelitis. "The introduction of vitamin B1 into the sciatic nerve or sleep therapy improves the reactivity of the animal orgaasm and more rapidly mobilizes the compensating adaptation of the organism to experimental osteomyelitis. The preliminary cutting of the sciatic nerve followed by its immediate sutur- ing lowers the reactivity of the animals as well as the compensating capacity of the organism with respect to osteomyelitis. The application of medically induced sleep on simultaneous bone infection) does not unfavorably affect the course of experimental osteomyelitis in the animal." 84. Surgical Shock and Shock Reactions "New Data in the Investigation of Surgical Shock," by Prof M. S. Lisitsyn, Clinic of General Surgery No 2 Military-Medical Order of Lenin Academy imeni S. M. Kirov; Moscow, Vestnik Khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekov, No 9, Sep 58, pp 70-77 A survey of 15 years of clinical and experimental investigations which were conducted to determine the origin and nature of shock and shock reactions in patients undergoing or about to undergo surgical treatment is d.scussed. On the basis of study and analysis of the data obtained, the author concludes that: - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 1. Presurgical, surgical, and postsurgical. shock reactions and shock are stages of but a single process, that of surgical shock. 2. A perverted neuro-vascular-humoral state provides the background for diathesis to shock reactions and shock. This condition should be taken into consideration and corrected before surgery is undertaken. 3. Disturbances of cortical neurodynamics which develop as a result of emotional trauma, and more frequently as a result of surgical trauma, modify the reactivity of the central nervous system and the ability of the cortical protective mechanisms to restore the disturbed functions. 1.. Insidious and unclear forms of shock reactions and shock may and should be diagnosed by determining the volume of the circulating blood., the cardiac rhythm, the rate of the blood flow, the functions of the parotid glands, and other indexes. 5. Predisposition to shock reactions and shock is manifested in patients during the presurgical period when emotional and psychic disturb- ances and disturbed functions of the central nervous system modify the neuro-vascular-humoi I background, disturbing the vascular reflex. 85. Certain Experimental and Clinical Problems of Intra-Arterial Trans- fusion in Severe Shock "Certain Problems of Intra-Arterial Blood Transfusion in Severe Shock," by N. S. Yefin:ishin, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Faculty Surgical Clinic of Stanislavsk Medical Institute; Moscow, Khirurgiya, No 11, Nov 58, pp 19-23 Intra-arterial blood transfusions were administered to 20 patients in severe shock. Regardless of the severity of injury, intra-arterial blood transfusion had favorable effects if it was conducted promptly after the appearance of shock symptoms, and repeated transfusions pro- longed, thES desirable effect. Experiments performed o 13 dogs subjected to se-,rere and prolonged shock also proved that the favorable effects of intra-arterial blood transfusion depend on the dose of the transfused blood, the severity of the shock condition, and the duration of the shock condition preceding the transfusions. -70- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 86. Morphological7. Changes in Preserved Major Blood Vessels "Morphological Changes in Preserved Blood Vessels With Respect to Preservatives, Time of Blood Vessel Excision, and Duration of Preservation," by T. I. Noskova, Chair of Hospital Surgery, Chernovitsk:i.y Medical Institute; Kiev, Novi Khirurgicheskiy Arkhiv, No 6(216), Nov/Dec 58, pp 114-117 Sections of major blood vessels (aorta, femoral, and carotid arteries) were removed ~ 4, .:.,nd 6 hours after death and were preserved in various solutions. Results indicate that the endothelium is the first tissue to be destroyed due to preservation, but that this tissue is preserved longest when the blood vessels axe preserved in -itrated blood. Charges in the tunica media and exLima (splitting of fibers, degenerative changes in the nucleus, and edema in the adventitia) are seen earliest (5-10 days) in vessels preserved in dry sterile test tubes and in physiological saline solution. Degenerative changes are rapid in all blood vessels removed as late as 4-6 hours after the animal's death. 87. Czechoslovak Anesthesia Instruments "By Means of Instruments Against Pain" (unsigned article); Prague, Obrana Lidu, 6 Jan 59, p 2 Dr Jaroslav Jaderny, chief anesthesiologist at the Kraj institute of National Health (Krajsky ustav narodniho zdravi) in Karlovy Vary has success- fully solved the problem of administering general anesthesia to ambulatory patients. He designed and constructed simple and easy to manipulate in- struments which meet numerous requirements for the surgical treatment of ambulatory patients. The instruments are very inexpensive and to a great extent will take the place of bulky and costly anesthesia equipment. One of the new instruments is used for inducing analgesia by means of trichloroethylene. It may be used for deliveries, for applying painful bandages, and other purposes where analgesia is required for only a short period of time. Other models of this instrument may be used in hospitals for operations or for anesthetizing children. - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 88. Rehabilitation of Burn Victims in Czechoslovakia "Rehabilitation of Burn Cases by Balneotherapy," by Pavel Stepanek, and Jana Stepankova Spa Rehabilitation Institute (Lazensky rehabilitacni ustav), Marianske Lazne; Prague, Vojenske Zdravotnicke Listy, Dec 58, PP 557-560 This article describes the rehabilitation of burn victims before thf- ~ are sent to spas for treatment, and discusses the prevention of contractures, respiratory system complications, constipation, and osteoporosis. The principles of general physical training, exercises of the burned parts, and exercises for the return of normal stance and gait are discussed and physical therapy is evaluated. Physiotherapy continues and occupational therapy is increased in the Spa Rehabilitation Institute. The article stresses the importance of carbon dioxide and Radon baths. 89. Use of Plastic Films in Czechoslovakia "The Possibilities of Using Films of Plastic Materials in Peace and War Surgery," by Maj No Macik, Lt Col Engr Dusan Milic, and Engr Antonin Krivanek; Prague, Vojenske Zdravotnicke Listy, Dec 58, PP 555-556 This article describes the preparation of PVAC films and discusses the experimental and clinical evaluation of these films. The article recommends their use in routine surgical work, such as wounds, burns, and certain suppurations. The article states that plastic films have only limited value in treating; second and third degree burns, but that they will be useful at first aid stations and dispensaries for treating first degree burns. Veterinary Medicine 90. Virus Left in Aphthae Scabs in Cattle With Foot-and-Mouth Disease "On the Extraction of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus From Cattle Aphthae Scabs," by E. Kunter, Friedrich Loeffler In- stitute, Riems; Leipzig, Archie fuer Ex er_Wientelle Veterinaer- medizin, Vol 12, No 5, 195 6., PP 792-801 Experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of complement fixing, infectious, and immunizing antigen after extraction from aphthae scabs, both in laboratory experiments and in connection with the produc- tion of vaccine concentrate. - 72 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Double distilled water and m/150 isotonic phosphate buffer solution proved to be good agents for the extraction of the foot-and-mouth iUsease virus from cattle aphthae scabs; m/180 phosphate buffer solution is less suitable for the purpose. The optimal stirring time during the extraction of the virus is between 20 and 30 minutes. The titer of the complement fixing antigen is reduced to some extent during extraction by the addition of 50 percent chloroform. The greater part of the virus is removed in the form of complement fixing and infectious antigen along with the first and second extract from the aphthae scabs. The decrease of the two components, complement fixing and infectious antigen 'titers, is uniform. In the third and fourth extracts, and in the residue accumulating during the production of the vaccine concentrate, continuously varying amounts of the complement fixing and infectious antigen titers could be determined. The experimental, vaccines produced from these extracts and from these residues still hud, in part, an immunizing effect. It is recommended that the raw virus material be extracted three times. Any further extractions must be considered uneconomical for the time being because of present technical conditions and the very small amounts of antigen recovered. 91. Survival of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle Bile "Investigations On the Occurrence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in the Bile of Cattle With Special Regard For Its Survival," by E. Kunter, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Riems; Leipzig, Archie fuer Experimentelle Veterinaermedizin, Vol 12, No 5, 1958, pp - 95 The occurrence and survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus was in- vestigated in the bile of 1-2-year-old cattle infected intracutaneously in the tongue with type 02 virus (Koos). The bile was removed at 24, 48 66, and 168 hours after infection. The virus was found in only 11 (12.25 of the 90 bile samples .examined. The virus titer never exceeded 10-1. Of the 65 bile samples taken after 24 hours, only 7 (10.8%) contained the virus, whereas 25% of the bile samples taken after 48 hours contained the virus. No infectious virus could be found in the samples taken after 66 and 168 hours. - 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 No conclusions could be drawn on the virus content of the bile at any given time during the viremia stage, since far fewer bile samples were examined. 48 hours after infection than 2U hi,~urs after infection. At any rate, the occurrence of the virus is hardly to be expected in the bile after 166 hours. The virus found in the gall had a very low survival period. Its presence could no longer be detected even 24 hours after death at a storage temperature of 11.0C. The pH of the bile varies between '7.1+ an:-. 7.8 thirty minutes after death; it reached 8.75 ??? 9..1 after 24 hours after death. Investigations on the virucidal properties of cattle and guinea pig bile led to negative results. The foot-and-mouth disease virus type 02 (Koos) and the guinea pig standard A virus were exposed to the effect of the bile in the form of untreated aphtJuae extracts., centrifuged virus solutions, and virus solutions purified with chloroform. On the basis of these investigations the f'cot-and-mouth disease virus seems to be one of the most resistant to bile. 92. Complement Fixation and Inhibition in Brucellosis Abortus Bovinus "Comparative Investigations With the Conipiement Fixation Reaction and the Complement inhibition Reaction for Brucellosis in Cattle,," by Ch. Lehnert, Institute of Veterinary Microbiology and Epi- zoology, Karl Marx University, leipzig; Leipzig, Archiv fuer EEx erimentelle Veterinaermedizin, Vol 12, No 5;, 195U~ Pp 74U.-755 In comparative investigations of 50 sera of brucellosis-infected cattle with complement-.f ixat ion and complement-inhibition reactions., the best results were obtained when active serum was used with the complement fixation reaction. After inactivation by means of heat .(56cC f-or30 minutes), prozones or completely negative reactions occurred in the case of a considerable number of the sera. Antibodies capable of fixing antigen but not complement could be detected with the complement inhibition reaction in these cases. The complement fixing brucellosis antibodies in the cattle serum must accordingly be considered th.ermo tdbile to some extent. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 93, The Magnetic Sus' e tibili.ty of Solid. Solutions of Some Carbides, Borides, and Nitrides "The Magnetic Susceptibility of Solid, Solutions of Some Metal- Like Compound.s," by G. V. Samsonov, V. S. Neshpor, and N. S. Strel?nilcova, Institute of Powder Metallu. gy and. Special Alloys, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSE; K:iev, Do 2ovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrains?koi RSR, No 8., Aug 58., pp 838?-840 The relative magnetic susceptibilities of the solid solutions NbC - ZrC, TaC - NbC, TaB2 - ZrB2, and TiC - TiN were investigated taking the susceptibility of one of the components as unity. An attempt is made to explain the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of components in these alloys. 94. Review of Methods for the Determination of the Creep of Heat-Resistant Alloys "Parametric Methods for the Evaluation of the Creep of Heat- Resistant Alloys.," by L. Ya. Liben-aan.; Za-vodska. a Laboratories, Vol 21., No 12, Dec 58,, pp 1501,?1509 The subject is reviewed on the basis of :infoxmation given in published papers. A bibliography consisting of 17 references. tvra of then USSR, follows the article. The data given in the article refer mainly to alloy steels; but there is also some information on other alloys (e. g.,, monel, titanium 75A). 95. Chinese Determine Rare-Earth Elements in Alloy Steels "Determination of Traces of Rare-.Earth Elements in Alloy Steels," unsigned article; Peiping, K?o?-hsueh B.'sin-wen (Scientific News), No 20, 1958, p 475 This item briefly describes the procedvr.?e by Vaich the Institute of Metals of the Academia Sinica determines trace amounts of lant'_:anum, cerium, praseodymium., and neodymium in specimens of alloy steels. As reported., alloying elements are separated out by electrolysis utilizing a mercury cathode and by extraction with organic reagents. Several hundred milliliters of the residual liquid are concentrated. to a volume of 0.5 milliliter. The rare-earth elements contained therein are then determined spectrographically using a carbon electrode Traces as small as a few ten,-thousandths percent, can be determined by this method, the article says. ". 75 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 96. Chinese Extract Pure Nickel for H:iih.-Tempe rature Alloys "Preparation of Ultra-Pure Nickel" (unsigned article); Peiping, K?o-hsuch Hsin-wen (Scientific News),,, No 24, 1958, p 588 This item claims that scientists in the Institute of Metals, Academia Sinica, have worked out a procedure for the extraction of nickel in the degree of purity required for high-temperature nickel-base alloys, i. e., "containing less than 0.0005 percent of any one of the following: arsenic, antimony., bismuth, cadmium, lead, zinc:, and tin." As reported, the procedure, which was developed without the help of literature on the subject, is simple,, requiring no reagent, and adaptable to large-scale production. It costs about as much as refining steel with a high-frequency induction furnace, and the impurities are recoverable. [For additional information on metallurgy, see [Item No 26.1 - 76 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 Ix. PHYSICS Nuclear Physics 9'7. :half'-Life of Pu-239 and. 2110 "The Specific Alpha Activities of Pu-239 and ?u-2110," by Ya. P. Dokuchayev; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6., No 1, Jan' 59, p 74 The specific alpha activity of Pu 239 and 2110 was determined from measurements of 12 Pu samples of various isotopic content. The results showed that a microgram of Pu-239 yields 136,200 4 200 alpha-decays per minute, corresponding to a half-life of 24,390:? 30 years. One microgram of Pu-2110 yields 500,000 ? 4,000 alpha-decays per minute, corresponding to 6,620 ? 50 years. These values of half-life agree with the most accurate values, as given by M. G. Inghram and others (Phys Rev 83, 1250, 1951 and by E. F. Westrum and others (The Transuranium Elements, Part II, 1717 - 1726, 1950). 98. Half-Life of U-233 "The Specific Alpha Activity and the Half-Life of U-233," by Ya. P. Dokuchayev and I. S. Osipov; Moscow, Atomnaya Ener2iya, Vol 6, No 1, Jan 59, p 73 By analyzing data obtained from measurements of alpha activity of five uranium isotopes, it was established that 20,940 alpha-decays/min correspond to a microgram of U-233. Such alpha activity of U-233 gives an estimate of the half -life of the element of (16.26 ? 0.08).104 years. 99. Electron Capture by Betatrons "Electron Capture During the Acceleration Phase in Betatrons and Synchrotrons," by P. A. Ryazin and A. B. Minervin; Moscow, Atomnaya Eneriya, Vol 6, No 1., Jan 59, pp 68-69 The fundamental electron equations in cylindrical coordinates are derived and analyzed. They are used to avaluate the electron coordinates and the currents in the chamber. Setting the current J= O, equations of single electrons are obtained, applicable to low currents. In the case of strong emission currents it is shown that the mechanism of collective interaction is predominant and that capture may occur on the leading and trailing pulse front. - 77 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 100. Fission of Am-241 "The Fission Cross Section of Am-241 for 14.6-Mev Neutrons," by A. N. Protopopov, Yu. A. Selitskiy, and S. M. Solov?yev; Moscow, Atorrnlaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 1, Jan 59, pp 67-68 The method of determining the neutron flux incident on the target and the computation of fission events were described in a previous paper by the same authors (Atomnaya Energiya Vol 4, No 2, 190 1958.) A xenon-filled scintillation counter was used for recording the fission fragments. Light pulses were recorded by a photomultiplier FEU-33. The differential spectrum obtained for fission fragments of Am-241 is presented in graphs. The cross section of fission of Am-241 by 14.6 Mev neutrons was found to be 2.35 1- 0.15 barns. 101. Ionization by Gamma Ra s "The Distribution of Ionization Along a Gamma Ray Beam and Reproducing the Roentgen With Normal Ionization Chambers," by K. K. Aglintsev and G. P. Ostromukhova; Moscow Atomna Energiya, Vol 6, No 1, Jan 59, pp 63-66 It was established that the ionizing effect measured in normal ioniza- tion chambers for the reproduction of the Roentgen in the region of gamma radiation should be referred to a point in space shifted from the center of the measuring electrode of the chamber of the source by a magnitude of about 0.35 Rmax The correction for the shift of the measuring volume ~P-^ for the gamma radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 is, respectively, 0.996 and 0.992. 102. Natural Gamma Rays "Gamma Ray Spectrometry of Natural Radio Nuclides," by G. M. Voskoboynikov and N. P. Kartashov, Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 1, Jan 59, pp 42-48 The results of a theoretical computation of a spectrum of hard gamma rays of equilibrium uranium and thorium uniformly distributed in ores are analyzed. The energy distribution of pulses created by this gamma radia- tion in a scintillation gamma spectrometer is computed. The results are represented in graphs, which can be used to compute spectral effects expected in spectrometric studies of natural gamma radiation. Such computations are required during analysis of gamma spectrometric methods of prospecting and survey of useful ores, recently more applied in geophysics. Computed coefficients of equations for separate determination of uranium and thorium content in ores are presented. Computed spectro- grams are given, and problems of accuracy of spectrometric research are discussed with respect to applications in conditions of geophysical observa- t ions. - 78 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 103. Neutron Moderation "Neutron Moderation Lengths," by V. P. Kochergin and V. V. Orlov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 1, Jan 59, pp 34-41 An approximate solution of integral equations for space moments of neutron distribution function in an infinite medium with an infinite plane isotropic source is presented. The energy-angular moments of the neutron scattering function are expressed in the experimentally determined angular distribution of neutrons of various energies in the case of an anisotropic elastic scattering on nuclei. By using experimental data of total cross sections and angular distribution at elastic neutron scatter- ing on nuclei of H-1, D-2, Be-9, C-12, and 0-16, the neutron moderation lengths were computed for moderators: water, heavy water graphite, beryllium, and beryj,lium oxide. Experimental and theoretical values were in satisfactory agreement. 104. Betatron Studies at Tomsk Polytechnic Institute Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Fizika, No 12, Dec 58 Abstracts of the following articles on the betatron from Izv. Tomskogo politekhn, in-ta, Vol 87, 1957 appear in the source. "The Stability of the Equilibrium Electron Beam in a Betatron," by P. A. Cherdantsev, pp 41-47 (Abstract No 26785) "Problems of Thermal Design of Betatron Electromagnets," by I. V. Shipunov, pp 106-199 (Abstract No 26787) "Inductive Parametric Oscillator as Exciter of a Resonant Circuit in the Betatron," by V. M. Vysotskiy, pp l57..160 (Abstract No 26'788) "Design of the Compensating Transformer," by I. P. Chuchalin and M. F. Filippov, pp 231-235 (Abstract No 26'/39) "Computation of Extinction of Reverse Voltage in a Pulse Scheme," by V. M. Razin, pp 236-246 (Abstract No 26790) "A Betatron Without an Iron Yoke or Poles," by G. I. Dimov and D. A. Noskov, pp 101-105 (Abstract No 26791) "Design of the Electron Injection Diagram of a Betatron," by V. M. Razin, pp 16-177 (Abstract No 26792) -79- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 "Testing the Injector Properties of a Betatron," by N. M. Goloshchanov, pp 288-296 (Abstract No 26793) "Injectors for Betatrons of 15-25 Mcv," by A., G. Vlasov, pp 297-300 (Abstract No 26'(911.) "Computation of Elements of Shift of Electrons in a Betatron," by V. M. Razin, pp 178-186 (Abstract No 26795Y "The Problem of Relat-:on of Radiation Intensity to the Frequency of the Feeding Current," by D. A. Noskov, pp 252-255 (Abstract No 26796) "Spatial Distribution of Radiation of a 10-Mev Betatron," by V. A. Moskalev, pp 387-392 (Abstract No 26797) "The Use of a Betatron as an Electron Injector for. Synchrotrons of High Energies," by A. A. Vorob'yev and G. I. Dimov, pp 329-332 (Abstract No 26798) "Peculiarities of Induction Acceleration in an Electromagnet With Rectilinear Sections," by G. I. Dimov, pp 351-357 (Abstract No 26799) "Design of Electron Synchrotrons of Medium Energies With Preliminary Inductive Acceleration," by G. I. Dimov and V. A. Kochegurov, pp 360-365 (Abstract No 26800) - 80 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 X. MISCELLANEOUS 105. Science Coordinating Committee To Be Established in USSR "Establish Scientific-Educational Centers," by M. Nuzhin, rector, Kazan' University imeni V. I. U1'yanov (Lenin); Moscow, Sovetskaya Rossiya, 23 Nov 58 To improve scientific research and the training of scientific cadre, the establishment of a Committee for Science and Higher Education under the Council of Ministers USSR (Komitet po Delam Nauki i Vysshego Obrazo- vaniya pri Sovete Ministrov SSSR) has been proposed. This committee is to coordinate the work of the Academy of Sciences USSR, the republic acad- emies, scientific-educational centers, and individual vuzes (higher edu- cational institutions) of the all-union level. All other institutions and enterprises including tekhnikums are to be subordinate to individual sovnarkhozes. No intermediate organizations are to exist between the committee and the scientific-educational centers. Mining Mi-_,.chine Building Institute and Other Mining Enterprises To Be Established by Sverdlovskiy Sovnarkhoz "Urgent Problems in Metallurgy in Central Ural Area," by S. Stepanov, chairman, Sverdlovskiy Sovnarkhoz; Moscow, Izvestiya 22 Nov 58 To fully exploit the metallurgical resources of Central Ural, the Sverdlovskiy Sovnarkhoz is in the process of establishing a new Scientific Research and Planning-Design Institute of Mining Machine Building (Nauchno- Issledovatel'skiy i Proyektno-Konstruktorskiy Institut Gorno Mashinostroye- niya). The institute will have a -pilot plant in Sverdlovsk. In the out- lying areas, the sovnarkhoz plans to establish enterprises which will con- duct the major overhauling of mining and transportation equipment. It is also expected that the establishment of these organizations will warrant the formation, in the near future, of a major specialized trust, the "Shakh- torudstroy.." - 81 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 107. Academic Center Planned for Tadzhik SSR "For a Close Tie Between Science and Industry," by Prof S. Umarov, president, Academy of Sciences Tadzhik SSR; Stalinabad, Kommunist Tadzhikistana, lE Nov 58 In keeping with the planned expansion of scientific centers in union republics, the Tadzhik SSR is to have an academic center. The center is to be built during the next 7 years and is to encompass all the basic scientific research institutions of the Academy of Sciences Tadzhik SSR. An area of 60 hectares has been assigned fcr this center near Komsomol'- skiy Lake. A sum of 50 million rubles has been allocated for this project. 108. Professors Ye. M. Margorin and L. A. Zil?ber Receive Prizes "Prizes for Scientific Work" (unsigned article); Moscow Meditsin- skiy Rabotnik, 13 Jan 59 The Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR has awarded the Prize imeni Academician N. N. Burdenko, awarded annually for the most outstanding scientific work in the field of surgery, to Prof Ye. M. Margorin for his work, "Gunshot Wounds of the Skull and Brain." The Presidium also awarded the Prize imeni Honorary Academician N. F. Gamaleya, awarded every third year for the most outstanding work in the field of microbiology, epidemioloy, and immunology, to Prof L. A. Zil'ber for his monograph, Osnovy Immunologii (Fundamentals of Immunology). 109. Microbiology Journal Begins 30th Year of Publication "Thirty Years of Publication" (unsigned article); Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 30, No 1, Jan 59, pp 3-5 This issue of the journal begins with a brief article heralding the journal's 30th year of publication. The article contains statements con- cerning the purpose of the journal, past Soviet successes in the fields to which the journal is devoted, and contributions of Soviet public health workers to the construction of the Communist society. The importance of scientific investigations directed toward the better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and cpide-miology of infectious diseases and toward the development of prophylaxis measures, control and ultimate eradication of these diseases is emphasized. The editorial board appeals to readers to submit their on scientific, articles, reviews, and notes for publica- tion. More extensive treatment of the following fields in proposed: Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 CPYRGHT associated immunization, new methods of administering vaccines, and accel- erated methods of laboratory diagnosis and detection of pathogenic micro- organisms in the environment. Programs for improving the training of young physicians and bacteriologists are also mentioned. As has been done in the past, the journal will devote about 50% of each issue to a definite theme. The following subject breakdown is proposed for the 12 1959 issues: "1. Problems of immunity and inoculation prophylaxis. Anaerobic infections. "2. Problems of microbiology and methods of laboratory diagnosis and detection. "3. Problems of diseases with natural foci. "4. The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis of enteric infections. "5. The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis of respir- atory infections. "6. Problems involving the chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of infectious diseases. Problems in disinfection, disinsection, and deratiza- tion. "7. The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis; and prophylaxis of enteric infections. "8. Problems of training and advanced training of cadres. Instruc- tion in epidemiology, microbiology, and infectious diseases. "9. The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis of respir- atory infections. "10. Problems of immunity and inoculation prophylaxis. "i1. The 42d anniversary of the Great October Socialist Fevolution. Experience in the prophylaxis of infectious diseases in the USSR. Problems in general epidemiology. "12. Problems in microbiology and methods of laboratory diagnosis and detection." - 83 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 110. The Eirrlrth Mendeleyev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry To Be Held in March 1959 "Toward the Fort hcomirig, Eighth Dendeleyev Congress," by N. M. Zhavoronkov, Corresponding; Member, Academy of Sciences USSR, deputy chairman, Organizational Committee of the Eighth Men- deleyev Congress; Moscow, Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly, No 11., Oct-Dec 58, pp 613-616 In March 1959, the Eighth Mendeleyev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry will be held in Moscow. The last Mendeleyev Congress was held in 1935. The eighth congress has been called to help solve the major pro- blems that have developed during the past 24 years in chemical research and development. Over 1,250 reports will be given at the various sections of the con- gress which gill include all subdivisions of chemistry and chemical tech- nologry. 111. New Chemical and Technological Institutes To Be Opened in Yaroslavl, RSFSR "There Should be Closer Ties Between Industry and Science," by I. Fetisov, chairman, Yaroslavskiy Sovnarkhoz; Moscow, Izvestiya, 13 Nov 58 It has been decided to establish in Yaroslavl a series of scientific research institutes and design bureaus and to expand and enlarge the exist- ing institutions. Among the institutes to be established are the Yaroslavl Technological and Scientific Research Institute (Yaroslavskiy Tekhnologi- che.kiy i Nauchno-Issledovatelskiy Institut) and the Design-Technological Institute for Equipment for the Working of Plastics, Caoutchouc, and Rubber (Kon:ctruktors]co-Tekhnologiclie. skiy Institut po Oborudovaniyu dlya Pererabotki P1:tstmass, Kauchuka i Reziny). Among those to be expanded is the Scientific Research Institute of Monomers for Synthetic Rubber (Nauchno-Issledovatel'- skiy Institut Monomerov dlya Sinteticheskogo Kauchuka). In addition, the Yaroslavskiy Sovnarkhoz will expand and enlarge a series of plant labora- tories. - 84 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 112. Establishment of New Institutes in Sumgait, Azerbaydzhan SSR "Sumgait -- A Growing Center of the Chemical Industry," by G. Aliyev, secretary, Sumgait City Party Committee; Baku, Bakin- skiy Rabochi,y, 10 Oct 58 According to this article, the Azerbaydzhan Scientific Research Insti- tute of Construction Materials and Structures is being transferred to Sumgait. To make the city of Sumgait a chemical center, the following institute will be established in the City: Scientific Research Institute of Petrochemical Processes (Naucluio-Issledovatel'skiy Institute Neftek- himicheskikh Protsessov), Academy of Sciences Azerbaydzhan SSR; and there will be a major expansion of the Azerbaydzhan Scientific Research'and Planning Institute for the Automation of the Petrochemical Industry (Neftek- himavtomat). 113. Hungarian Research Facilities Surveyed "The Status of Hungarian Science and the Major Trends in its Development," by Academician Ferenc Erdei, Budapest Magyar Tudorany, No 11-12, Vol III, Nov-Dec 58, pp 495-513 In September 1953, the Central Statistics ('lfica completed the Collec- tion of data pertaining, as much as possible, to all areas of Hungarian science. These data were not published and are now out of date. The Science and Higher Education Council (Tudomanyos es Felsooktatasi Tanacs) decided to collect such data again for the period up to 31 December 1957. These data have now been processed by the Secretariat of the Science and Higher Education Council and by the Central Statistics Office. As of the end of 1957 there were 1111. scientific research institutes in Hungary (this number has increased since then), and research work was being conducted in more than 600 university and college faculties. The permanent fund of the scientific institutes represents a value of nearly one billion forints, and the 1957 budgetary expenditures of these institutes was 466.8 million forints. A similar sum was expended for higher education and associated research in 1957. At the end of 1957, there were 9,770 persons working in the scientific institutes and 8,531 working in higher education. All together, 0.4 per- cent of the working population was engaged in science or in higher educa- tion. Scientific workers in the research institutes numbered 3,665 (out of the 9,770); 144 of these were regular or corresponding members of the Hun- garian Academy of Sciences, 186 were doctors of the sciences, and 789 were candidates in the sciences. - 85 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 From 1953 to 1957, the permanent fund for scientific research increased 1.60 percent. The yearly budget increased 50 percent. The number of workers in scientific research institutes increased from 8,531 in 1953 to 9,777 in 1957. The number of scientific research institutes increased from 81 to 114. The number of scientific workers increased from 2,416 to 3,665. The number of assistants and administrative workers decreased from 6,115 ir.. 1953 to 6,015 in 1957. This means that some scientifically trained workers are now involved in administrative work. In 1953, technical research was predominant and basic research was forced into the background; 66 percent of all workers in research insti- t.tes and 58 percent of the researchers themselves were in the industrial research institutes; the industrial research institutes got 66 percent of the budgeted expenditures and had 60 percent of the permanent fund and they received 58 percent of the investments effec uated in 1953. Only 12 percent of the workers of industrial research institutes were working in the area of light industry and foodstuffs industry., This situation substantially changed in 1957. The distribution of all institute and faculty personnel was as follows: 32.6 percent in techni- cal sciences, 22.8 percent in medical sciences, 20.7 percent in natural sciences (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and geology), 14.9 percent in agricultural sciences, 8.1 percent in social sciences, and 1.1 percent in transportation sciences. Of the research institutes, 31.5 percent (36 institutes) were con- cerned with technical sciences, and had. 45.2 percent of all institute personnel. Agricultural sciences had 31 research institutes and 18.1 percent of the institute personnel. The natural sciences had 15.8 percent if-the institutes (15 institutes" and 17.5 percent of the institute person- nel. The social sciences had 10 p(,rcent. of the institutes (12 institutes) and 5.2 percent of the institute personnel. The research institutes in technical sciences got 42.9 percent of the 1957 budgeted expenditures, those in. agricultural sciences got 21.4 percent, those for natural sciences got 17.1 percent, and those for social sciences got 3.4 percent. About half the institutes in the natural sciences belong to the acad- emy; the other half are distributed among several -af.nistries. The inde- pendent research institutes (both academic and. ministerial) and the facul- ties are about equally loaded with research work in this area. Most of the research work in medical sciences falls on the faculties which belong to the Ministry of Health. A larger part. of the medical sciences institutes belong to the Ministry of Health; the smaller part belong to the Academy. Counting special support [for external research projects], academy participation in medical sciences research is less than 10 percent of the trtal. - 86 ,. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 The institutes do most of the research in the agricultural sciences. There are 31 agricultural science institutes with 1,770 workers whereas only 763 persons work in the 87 agricultural science faculties. Most of the institutes and all the faculties belong to the Ministry of Agriculture. Counting special support, academy participation in agricultural sciences research is about 10 percent of the total. The 36 institutes for technical sciences nave 4,413 employees, where- as the 72 faculties of a technical nature have only 1,152 employees. The technical institutes are distributed among several ministries, listed here in order of priority: Heavy Industry, Metallurgy and the Machine Industry, Construction Affairs, Light Industry, Transport and Postal Affairs, ? Food, and Health Ministries, the National Water Affairs Main Directorate, the Geology Main Directorate, and the National Council of Trade Unions (one institute). Counting special support, academy participation in this branch is less than 10 percent. In the area of social sciences, the burden of the Ministry of Culture and that of the academy are more equal. A significant part of the social sciences research is done in the faculties (157 faculties with 887 workers) which belong to the Ministry of Culture. Of the 12 institutes (which have 506 workers), 10 belong to the academy. Still, the larger part of the research falls to the ministry. To sum up: only 33 of the 114 institutes are academy institutes, and, although as there are 4,464 instructors-researchers in the faculties belonging to the various ministries, only 438 are working in the framework of academy special ax1pport. But these academy workers in the faculties are engaged exclusively in research, whereas faculty workers, as such, spend most of their time in instruction. 114. Czebhoslovak-Soviet Scientific Cooperation "The Word 'Life,"' by Miroslav Kroh; Prague, Obrana Lidu, 21 Dec 58, p 5 This article, based on information received from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, discusses past and present Czechoslovak-Soviet scien- tific cooperation. The article states thaw Soviet and Czechoslovak technicians shared in the construction of the 14-meter spectrograph at the observatory in Ondrejov. This unique solar spectrograph was the first in the world to record the course of a solar eruption simultaneously on five wave lengths. -87- please 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00260001-5 The article discusses Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation in mathematics. A school in Prague, under the direction of scientist L. Kurzweil, spent 3 months in the Soviet Union working on the theory of differential equa- tions. Scientist Babuska is working on the theory of partial differential equations in Prague. He was inspired by the work of N. I. Muskhelishvili, and was personally acquainted with and collaborated with the Soviet mathe- matician, S. L. Sobolev. The Czechoslovaks a.n:. the Soviets work together in the fields of functional analysis, mathematical logic, and other sub- jects on a permanent ba :Ls. Discussing scientific research on proteins, the article states that a group of scientists at the Chemical Institute of the Czechoslovak Acad- emy of Sciences has had some success in solving problems pertaining to the structure of proteins, and will begin collaborating with the Institute of iii.;h-Mole cular Compounds of the Academy of Sciences USSR. The article gives the following statistics about plans: Soviet and Czechoslovak scientists are scheduled to work jointly for 220 weeks; Soviet and Czechoslovak scientists will directly collaborate on 211. projects at 39 Soviet and Czechoslovak laboratories; the work of Soviet and Czechoslovak scientists on 57 research projects at 73 laboratories will be coordinated. Discussing research on synthetic materials, the article states that the Chemical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences is in con- tact with the laboratory of A. D. Petrov at the Institute of Organic Chemis- try of the Academy of Sciences USSR in Moscow. Scientists in both Czech- oslovakia and the Soviet Union are studying unsaturated organosilicon com- pounds and substituted aryl-silicon compounds. Research is aimed at increasing the number of practical basic concepts and at studying the characteristics of these compounds. Specific tasks have been outlined for Soviet and Czechoslovak laboratories in order to avoid duplication. Results achieved by one group are immediately communicated to the other, with no waiting for publication, and both groups keep in contact on a personal basis and through correspondence. As another example of cooperation, article states that the Soviet scientist Prof M. G. Brazhnikova spent 3 months in Prague in 1951 and that it was in Prague that she succeeded in isolating albomycin. The article also discusses archaeologi.-P.1 cooperation between Soviet and Czechoslovak scientists in Dolni Vestonice snd Pavlov in Czechoslovakia and in Kostenki in the Ukraine. The final. example of scientific cooperation is the participation of the Czechoslovak scientist Dr Mrkos in the Soviet expedition to the Ant- arctic. The article points out that the trip is costing the Soviet; govern- ment 100,000 rubles a day for each member of the expedition. 0 UsGOMM-DC..6o15.1 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100260001-5