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Approved Fo'r Release 1999/09/08 :CIA-RDP82-001418000100300001-0 C I A/ B, 1318917. T21. UNCLRSS I F ED'. SC I ENT IF I C: I NFORMRT I ON REPORT` .~ MRY'1959 -A proved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Cv PB 131891 T-21 COPY CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 8 May 1959 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. k~011113 C, ~~nn~?larn. l f(~r /I1 l Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 . Issued semi-monthly. Annual subscription $28.00 ($4 additional for foreign mailing). Single copy $2.75. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau, of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-001418000100300001-0 . . . PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from recently received publications of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities in the USSR, Jn the:Sino- Soviet Orbit countries, and in Yugoslavia, and is tdisseminated as an aid to the United States Government research. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents Page Chemistry 1 Fuels and Propellants Industrial Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 8 Organic Chemistry 18 Physical Chemistry 21 Radiation Chemistry 21 Radiochemistry 22 II. Earth Sciences 24 III. Electronics 25 Comm?nications 25 Components 26 Computers and Automation 30 Materials 33 IV. Engineering 40 V. Mathematics 45 VI. Medicine 48 Antibiotics 48 Bacteriology 52 Epidemiology 54 Hematology 54 Immunology and Therapy Instruments and Apparatus 65 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Page Pharmacology and Toxicology 68 Physiology 70 Public Health, Hygiene, and Sanitation 73 Radiology 77 Miscellaneous 80 VII. Metallurgy 88 VIII. Physics 89 Acoustics 89 Atomic and Molecular Physics 94 Atomic Energy Development 95 Nuclear Physics Optics 97 Plasma Physics 98 Solid State 98 Theoretical and Experimental Physics 99 IX. Miscellaneous Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 I. CHEMISTRY Fuels and Propellants 1. A Method for the Electrochemical Synthesis of K0, "A Direct Electrochemical Synthesis of K02," by M. I. Klyash~-- tornyy, Donets Industrial Institute; Moscow, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khimii, Vol 32, No 2, Feb 59, pp 337-3!i2 It was demonstrated that it is possible to produce K02 by direct elec- trochemical synthesis. In the method in question, a potassium amalgam is subjected to anodic oxidation in a solution of potassium bromide in liquid ammonia. The solution of potassium in ammonia that is formed at the cath- ode is oxidized by molecular oxygen. The technical indices of the process are as follows: current density (anodic) 10 amperes per square decimeter, current used 500 ampere-hours per kilogram of K02, use of electric power 5 kilowatt-hours per kilogram, yield of K02 2 kilograms per hour per square meter of anode area. 2. Formation of Lithium Superoxide "Formation of Lithium Superoxide from Lit 02. 2 H2 02," by I. I. Vol'nov and A. N. Shatunina, Institute of General and In- organic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 257-?259 By drying in vacuum Lit 02. 2H2 02 at 100-1200 and 10 mm Hg of re- sidual pressure, peroxide products derived from lithium have been obtained for the first time which contain in addition to Li202 an admixture of Li 02 in amounts of the order of 7-9% by weight. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 3. Superoxides of Calcium and Strontium "New Data on the Formation of the Superoxides of Calcium and Strontium," by I. I. Vol'nov, V. N. Chamova, and V. P. Serge- yeva, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorgan- icheskiy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 253-256 The optimum conditions for the formation from Ca 02, 211202 of a prod- uct containing approximately 40% by weight of Ca (02)2 and from Sr02, 2.112 02 of a product containing approximately 30% by weight of Sr (02)2 have been determined. It has been found that in the solid products of the decomposition of Ca02, 211202 the content of Ca 0 decreases and the content of Ca (011)2 increases with an increasing Ca (02)2 content. It was established that mixtures containing approximately 40% by weight of calcium superoxide are stable when kept in hermetically closed vessels. 4. A Solvent Extraction Method for the Dewaxing of Aviation Oil "Application of Beta-Chloro-Ethers in Combination With Dichloro- Compounds for the Deparaffination of Aviution Oil," by A. K. Seleznev, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Groznyy Order of the Labor Red Banner Petroleum Institute; Moscow, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khimii, Vol 32, No 2, Feb 59, pp 433-435 It was established that beta.-chlorethyl methyl ether in combination with dichloroethane has a minimum solvent effect for oily components at low temperatures. On the other hand, beta -chlorodiethyl ether in com- bination of dichloroethane dissolves oily components to a greater extentt at low temperatures. A characteristic of the mixtures of beta-chloroethers with di chloro- compounds that were tested from the standpoint of their effectiveness in the dewaxing of aviation oils is absence of a tempera- ture gradient of d.ewaxing. There is even a slightly positive temperature gradient, which is a highly desirable characteristic for applications in the dewaxing of lubricating oils. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Industrial Chemistry 5. Industrial Chemical Developments in the Leningrad Area "Among Leningrad Chemists," by M. Volokhovskiy, Deputy Chief Engi- neer; Chemical Industry Administration of the Lenini,!rad r ~~nzar- 1 z; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekondmicheskaya Gazeta, Vol 4, No 20 (I75), 15 Feb 59, p 1 Under the current Seven-Year Plan, the total volume of chemical pro- duction in the Leningrad economic region will increase by a factor of 1.5 and the production of plastics will increase by a factor of 3.5? At the Okhta Chemical Combine and at the Cast Plastics Plant experi- mental bases are being created for developing industrial technological processes and obtaining data necessary for the planning of the production of polyethylene, epoxy oils, polyester oils, and other valuable materials. The work being done there will make it possible to apply improved tech- nological methods involving a maximum degree of automatization at new chemical enterprises that are being created at present. Particular attention is paid to the mechanization of processes involving a large amount of labor. For instance, the departments of the plant producing technical rubber products will be changed completely to continuous production. The output will increase by almost one third. In the planned development of the Leningrad chemical chemistry, considerable emphasis will be placed on the complete utilization of shales and also of natural gas which already in 1959 will be supplied to Leningrad from the Northern Caucasus. Gas containing a large quantity of hydrocarbons can be produced from shale fines which go to waste at present. These hydrocarbons are an essential raw material for the production of many synthetic chemicals. It is proposed to organize the production of these chemicals at the shale gasification plant. The conversion of natural gas will make it possible to produce synthetic fibers, polyethylene, and a number of fertilizers. The construction of a phosphate rock mine combined with an enrich- ment plant is also planned in the Leningrad economic region. A large quantity of phosphate flour will be produced there. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 6. Chemical Research at. Moscow University in Connection With the Seven- Year Plan "Chemical Science on the Threshold of New Problems," by N. M. Emanuel', Corresponding Member Academy of. Sciences USSR; Mos- cow, Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta - Seriya Matematiki, Mekhaniki, Astronomii, Fiziki, Khimii, Vol 13, No 5, Jan 59, pp 3-b "Under the current Seven-Year Plan chemical production will be in- creased by a factor close to 3. The production of synthetic materials, fibers, resins, and plastics will be expanded to a particularly large extent. New types of production will be based on new crude materials. A rich source of raw materials will be formed by the by-product gases of petroleum production and natural hydrocarbon gases. The extensive use of hydrocarbon gases in the production of synthetic rubber and nitro- gen fertilizers will make it possible to reduce capital investments by several billion rubles. "The chemists active at the University of Moscow will participate in work on the new major scientific problems which have arisen and also will train young chemists for work on these problems. After the May [1958] Plenary Session of the Central Committee CPSU, the Chemical Faculty placed particular stress on research in the field of polymers and monomers for the synthesis of these polymers, the utilization of natural gas as a chemi- cal raw material, and research in the fields of chemistry of rare elements and semiconductor materials. The Scientific Council of the Chemical Faculty confirmed the plan of scientific research work to be done, work on methods for the synthesis of monomers and high molecular compounds and research on the properties of synthetic and natural polymers, as affected by their structure. Many-sided cooperative work by a number of chairs on the problems involved was organized. At present, preparations are being made for work on monomers and high-molecular compounds at a laboratory that will be subordinate to a number of chairs. A special faculty col- loquium on high-molecular compounds has been initiated. At several chairs of the chemical faculty work is being conducted on the development of efficient methods for the preparation o.' initial substances (monomers) to be used in the synthesis of high polymers. Among these methods, an important role is played by processes for the oxidative conversion of available petroleum raw materials to diverse oxygen-containing products of value. "Other important lines of research in chemistry have also not been neglected by the chemists. Laboratories specializing in the fields of rare metals, the separation of isotopes, and the physical chemistry of solutions are already active at the faculty. Extensive preliminary work is being done on the creation of a laboratory at which work will be don- ducted on frozen radicals. This field is one of the most advanced CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 sections of physical chemistry. Not very long ago the existence of molecular splinters representing free radicals appeared to be more or less hypothetical. Only very few investigators succeeded in establishing their presence as active centers of chemical chain reactions or were able to isolate them in low concentrations after subjecting gases to an elec- tric discharge. At present free radicals are being studied throughout the world as a very real and actual problem. Frozen free radicals can be used for the initiation of diverse chain processes. Furthermore, free -adicals can be accumulated in sufficiently large concentrations to ;Hake possible their use as a source of accumulated energy. "It is only 5 years since work at the chemical faculty has been conducted in laboratories at which first-class modern equipment is avail- able. During these 5 years, new equipment was developed which the chem- ists of Moscow University must have. This refers to devices used for measuring electronic and nuclear paramagnetic resonance, mass spectrometers for radicals, electron microscopes of high resolving power, and the most modern spectroscopic equipment. The methods of neutron.ography, X-ray analysis, and some others must be used on a more extensive scale." CPYRGHT drothermal Conversion of Apatite "Hydrothermal Conversion of Natural Phosphates to Fertilizers," by S. I. Voi?fkovich; Moscow, Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta- Seriya Matematiki, Mekhaniki, Astronomic, Fiziki1 Khimii, Vol 13, No 4,-Nov 58, pp 215-221 The hydrothermal process of the conversion of natural phosphates, which was originally developed in the US and applied after World War II at an industrial plant in Florida, is now being adapted for application on a large scale in the USSR. One of the advantages of this method is that natural phosphates are converted into citric acid -- soluble fer- tilizers without the use of acids or of large amounts of electric power. When applied to apatites, the hydrothermal method results in defluorina- tion. Hydrogen fluoride is evolved as a result of the hydrolysis of fluoroapatite. In the presence of silicon dioxide, this hydrogen fluor- ide is partly converted into silicon fluoride. Under suitable conditions, the principal part of the fluorine can be converted into hydrofluoric acid and another part into fluorosilicic acid. Salts of these acids can also be obtained. Laboratory experiments carried out by I. M. Meskin (Moscow State University) and R. Ye. Remin (Scientific Research Institute of Fertilizers and Insectofungicides) confirmed that it is possible to defluorinate apatite with products of the combustion of methane derived from natural gas. In this case the gas serves both as a source of heat and of water vapor, just as liquid. fuel does when it is applied for this purpose. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 8. USSR Organizatioraa:l Measures and. Conferences in Connection With Treatment, and Desalination of Water-_W ".Prospects of the Development of Scientific Investigations Aimed at Increasing the Efficiency of Thermal Power Plants in the USSR.$" by M. S. Shkrob, Doctor of Technical Sciences and B. I. Morozov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Te lo}` ener- etika, Vol 6, No 3, Mar, 59, pp '55,_87 During 1958, work on the improvement of technical methods for the treatment of water, elimination of silicic acid from water, the deminer- alization and desalination of water, and the c1asoxygenation of water was done at the All-Union Heat Engineering Institue imeni F. Dzerzhinskiy (VTI), the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Water Supply, Sewerage, Eydrraulic Structures, and Engineering Hydrogeology (VODGEO), the Central Committee for Heavy Industry ~TsKTI), the Moscow Branch of the Central Committee for Heavy Industry (MO TsKTI), the. State Trust for the Organization and Improvement of the Efficiency of Electric Power Plants (ORGRES), and the All-Union Trust for Improving the Efficiency of the Power System and the Fuel Supply in the Ferrous Metallurgy Industry (O.rgenergochermet), Work on the synthesis of new grades of ion-exchange resins and investigations of resins were conducted in 1958 at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and the Institute if Vaccines and Sera of the Academy of Sciences USSR, the State Institute of Applied Chemistry, the Scientific Research Institute of Plastics, the Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute imeni D. I. Men.deleyev, VTI, and VODGEO. To discuss the results of investigations that had been carried out, the Commission on High-Parameter Steam, Institute of. Power Engineering imeni G. M. Krzhizhanovskiy, conducted the following scientific-technical sessions in Moscow in 1958: Session on Water Treatment at Thermal Elec- tric Power Plants Operating on Steam of Intermediate, Superhigh, and Supercritical Parameters (24-27 June, Section of Water Treatment of the Commission Jointly with the Ministry of Electric Power Plants, the Mos- cow Regional Power System Administration, and the Moscow Branch of the Scientific Technical Society of Power Indu try [MONTOEP], Session on Conditions of the Use of Water (Water Regime),, Water Treatment, and Safe- guarding of the Purity of Steam at ?'clear Electric -Power Plants (26-28 Ma.y, Boiler Section and Section of Water Treatment of the Commis- sion); and session o:..t the Chemical. Demineralization (Desalination) of Water (3.-6 Feb, Section. of Water Tr. eat?nent of the Commission Jointly with the Corr ission on Chromatography at the Depa-?tment of Chemical Sciences, Acadenyy of Sciences USSR). Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 In the second quarter of 1.959, a Conference on the Desalination and Desalting of Salty and Saline Waters will be held at Moscow by the Section of Water Treatment together with VODGEO, the Council on Problems of the Management of Water Resources (Academy of Sciences USSR) and the Inter- departmental (Mezhduvedomstvennaya) Commission on Arid Zones (Academy of Sciences USSR)? The preliminary program of this conference is as follows: Status of the problem of desalination of salty and saline waters (Council on Problems of the Management of Water Resources, Adademy of Sciences USSR); Thermal desalting (Baku Polytechnic Institute);IDesalting by elec- trodialysis with the use of ion-exchange agents (VODGEO, Black Sea Steam- ship Co, Scientific Research Institute of Plastics, Moscow Aviation Tech- nological Institute [MATI], etc.) Desalting by sunlight (Institute of Power Engineering imeni G. M. Krzhizhanovskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR); Chemical desalting (VTI and Alt:-Union S?ient fc Research Institute of Rydrotechnical and Sanitary Engineering [VNIIGS j) , , Inky nic 2hemi2i 9. Vapor Pressure of Lithium Chloride "Measurement of the Pressure of Saturated Vapor of Lithium Chloride," by A. N. Nesmeyanov and L. A. Sazonov; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 1, Jan 59, pp 231-233 Measurements of the vapor pressure of lithium chloride were carried out by the Knudsen method, The lithium chloride was determined in the condensate by titrating the chloride ion with silver nitrate. The degree of molecular association in the vapor is discussed. 10. Permolyybdates of Strontium, Calcium, and Cobalt "The Permolybdates of Strontium, Calcium, and Cobalt," by V. A. Shcherbinin and G. A. Bogdanov, Moscow Power Eng~- neering Ins-citute; .Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 260-271 Permolybdates of strontium, c,cLlcium,and cobalt have been prepared for the first time. Their composition was clarified and methods for their preparation were developed. The complex peroxy-compounds that were iso- 1eted formed as: intermediate products in the process of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by the combined action of sodium molybdate and salts of strontium, calcium, or cobalt. -7- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 11. Fluorescence Spectra of Uranyl Compounds "Spectroscopic Investigation of Uranyl Compounds," by A. N. Sevchenko and L. V. Volod'ko, Belorussian State University imeni V. I. Lenin; Minsk, Inzhenerno?-Fizicheskiy Zhurnal, ? Vol 2, No 2, Feb 59, pp 63-71 New experimental data obtained by the authors of the article and ? other USSR investigators on the fluorescence spectra of complex uranyl compounds in the crystalline form and in solutions indicate that con- clusions made by other investigators in regard to the spectroscopic properties of uranyl salts, which were based on a consideration of transitions between electron vibrational levels in isolated uranyl ions only, are faulty. B. I. Stepanov and A. N. Sevchenko proposed a pro- cedure for the analysis of spectra of urranyl salts which at present must be regarded as the most reliable. This procedure is based on the assumption that changes in the electronic state of the uranyl ion are accompanied by changes in the vibrational state within this ion, the vibrational state within the total molecule of uranyl salty, and also the state of intermolecular vibrations in the crystal as a whole. The experimental data presented in the article are based on investiga- tions of the behavior of uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate in complexes involving organic molecules. It is pointed out that spectros;c.)pic .;;ivestigation of uranyl com- pounds is of importance, because ubrazyl salts represent a raw material for the production of uranium ore concentrates. 12. Plutc.ri amt "Plutonium," (unsigned article) Kratkaya. Eu.tsiklopediya, Atomnaya Energiya, (Concise Encdclopedia, .Atomic Energy), Gosudarstvennoye Nauchnoye Izdatel'stvo "Bol'shaya Sovet- dkaya Entsiklopediya" Moscow, 1950, pp 295-297 The text of the entry of Plutonium reads as follows: Plutonium, Pu is a radioactive chemical element of the actinide series, element number 94, mass number of its longest lived isotope is 244. Discovered in 19+0 in the products of neutron irradiation of uranium. In nature Pu is formed in quantities of the order of 10-11 part to one part of U by means of the absorption of cosmic ray neutrons by U nuclei, spontaneous fission, and (oC,ri ) - reaction. Known isotopes of Pu have mass numbers from 232 to 246. Of practical importance is the -8- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Lbotope Pu239, an oC - emitter with a T 1/2 [hulf-lire ] of 24,410 years arld (x -pactLcle energies of 5.1)1711; 5,13)i2, arid 5.0971, Mev, .Long-lived Isotopes of Pu with T 1/2 greater than 2 years are Pu236. Pu238, pu24O pu211 Pu2li2, and Pu21I-h1. The role of Pu in nuclear engineering, and power engi- neering In exceptionally great. This is explained by the ability of the lso'tope Pu239, under action of neutrons of all energies to fission into 2 fragments with the release of a large amount of energy and a certain number of secondary neutrons capable of sustaining fission by a nuclear chain reaction, In the early ,pars of utilization of atomic energy, Pu was one of two (isotopes] (Pu2in and U235), but at present it is one of three isotopes (Pu239, U 377, and U233) capable in such a process. There- fore, the first atomic reactor was created for the production of Pu, and one of the two atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan in 19115 was a plutonium bomb, Pu is produced by the nuclear reaction: U23 ( l'1, i~ ) U239 5-> Np239 _L Pu239, This is more expeditious than separating the U isotopes with the objective of producing U235 which has the same properties in the matter of fission that Pu has. Consequently, the cost of Pu is less than half that of U235. Besides, the possibility exists, in principle, of converting all uranium, that is, the isotope U238, into Pu by utilizing the above reaction. For this purpose, perhaps, plutonium reactors with increased production with fast neutrons were used, in which Pu is produced faster than it is used up as a result of fission. In the future, possibly, powerful neutron fluxes in nuclear synthesis equipment will be utilized to convert U into Pu. Pu is a strategic material inas- much as it serves as the explosive material of atom bombs and the igniter of hydrogen bombs. In the USA alone, 13 industrial reactors are in opera- tion producing Pu. At atomic electric power stations, significant quanti- ties of Pu are produced in addition to the production of electric power. Plutonium of mixed isotopic composition is produced in operation of a reactor inasmuch as successive eutron capture reactions take place, Pu239 (71 , x ) Pu240 ( r1, r( ) Pu2'1. Pu2112 etc. Mass-spectrographic analysis of the produced Pu indicated the presence of the following iso- topes: Pu239 - 95%; pu240 - 4%; put 1 - ,3%; pu238 - Ol% Upon lengthy irradiation in a high density neutron flux, formation of the higher iso- topes are observed up to Pu246. The quantity of the main isotope Pu239 accumulated in uranium apparently does not exceed ,8 kilogram per ton of uranium. Maximum value of Pu accumulation is equal to, approximately, 7 kilograms per ton; in practice, the content of Pu per ton of U can reach about 3 kilograms [per ton], The pure isotope Pu239 has the following constants for reaction with thermal neutrons: cross section of fission -- 720 ? 15 barns; cross sec- tion of capture -- 3 12 barns; number of neutrons emitted upon fission -- 2.88; energy released upon fission -- of the order of 200 Mev, Pu has the ability to fission under action of neutrons of very low energy. Therefore, when handling it, the possibility always exists of a chain reaction occur- ring. A quantity of Pu less than 460 grams is safe under any conditions. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Pu is a silvery metal. At various temperature it exists in the form of 6 modifications ?- of -at low temperature, and P- )-(; cc- -n- , and 6- modificatluns at high temperatures; melting point is 6370. Plutonium alloys with many metals and forms a large hamber of intermetallic compounds; of these PuBe13 is the source of neutrons with an intensity of 6.7 x 10 n/sec. kg [sic, possibly 6.7 x 10' n/sec . kg is meant] and a spectrum close to the neutron spectrum of a radium beryllium source. The chemistry'of plutonium is quite complex. In aqueous solutions Pu exists in 3-, 4-, 5-?, and 6-valency states in the form of the ions PO+- , Pule' , Pu02+, Pu 0~ , respectively. Valence of 4 is the most stable. Pu VI is prepared by oxidation of Pu IV in acid solutions by the oxidizers: C.r20~-, S20 -, MnO~, Mu02 and others, and in carbonate solu- tions-with ozone! Nitr c acid also partially oxidizes Pu IV to Pu VI. The latter is quite stable. Metallic Zn, SO2, NH2OH, FeII reduce it to Pu III, but NaI reduces it to Pu V. Pentavalent Fu in nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions at pH 3.5 does not undergo any changes in the course of several days; in moderately acidic solutions.disproportionation 'takes place according to the scheme Pa V+Pu V - , Pu VI + Pu IV. The position of the equilibrium and the rate of disproportionation depend upon the pH; increase of temperature and addition of complex forming com- .-r,cunds accelerates disproportionation. Tetravalent Pu is obtained both from hexavalent and trivalent '(Pu] by the action of NaN02. Pu IV forms complex compbun.ds with many anions. In dilute sulfuric acid solutions Pu exists in the form of. PuSO42+ , Ind in more concentrated [H2SO4 solu- tions] forms Pu (S04) and Pu (S04) In concentrated nitric acid solu- tions, Pu (N03) 4, Pu('03) 5? Pli (x'43) axe 7samwn to eadst. in ecetic, oxalic, and hydrochloric acids Pu IV is present as an anion; tetravalent Fu is easily hydrolyzed [out] and develops radio-colloidal substances. Col- loidal Pu is, apparently,, a polymer of the type [Pux (H20)y (OH2]. It is difficult to depolymerize Pu. Fe TI, U IV, H2 in the presence of Pt etc reduces Pu IV to Pu III. In moderate acidic solutions Pu III is stable in the absence of air but in alkaline solutions is very rapidly oxidized by the oxygen of the air to Pu IV. The fluorides PuF3 and PuFj, are important compounds of Pu, which precipitate upon the action of hydrofluoric acid on solutions of tri?- ant. tetravalent Pu. Under action of the fluorides of the alkali metals, the salts NaPuF4, NaPuF5, L2PuF6, [Sic. possibly Li2PuF6 is meant] LPuF9 [again, possibly LiPuF9 is meant] precipitate out. Pu fluorides coprecipitate with the fluorides of the rare earth elements,, particularly of La which is used for the separation and purification of Pu, for example, from uranium which remains in solution. Separation of Pu from its carrier-Ka [Sic. possibly la or the cations of some other rare earth metals is meant] and coprecipitated elements, is carried out by means of oxidation of Pu to the hexavalent [state] and repeated precipitation of KaF3. In this process Fu VI remains completely in solution. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 In exactly the same way Pu is separated from its nearest analog, neptunium, for which one utilizes the great facility of Np to oxidize to the hexavalent state: KBrO3 at room temperature converts Np IV and Nr III to Np VI whereas Pu remains in the tetravalent state and coprecipitates with the carrier. The anhydrous fluoride PuF6, similar to UF61 is a highly volatile substance with a b.p. of 511G; it is hydrolized very easily in the pres- ence of negligible quantities of moisture. The proposal to utilize PuF6 as a gas to charge the cylinder of a reciprocating engine is of interest. The parameters of the engine can be so selected that upon compression: the gas attains a critical volume; this leads to the formation of a fis- sion chain reaction; the liberation energy; heating of the gas; and expansion of it when the piston moves, to a subcritical state. Plutonium nitrates, Pu (No3)) and Pu02 (NO ) , are crystalline sub- stances, easily soluble in water and oxygen-contaning organic solvents. The nitrate of tetravalent Pu is extracted by tributyl-phosphate (TBP) with the formation of the solvate (Pu (NO )1F. 2 TBP. This is utilized for the separation of Pu from irradiated ti a;sd fission fragments. U and Pu are extracted from the nitrate solution containing these components by a TBP solution in an inert diluent. At the same time, the majority of fragments remain in the waste aqueous solution. The organic phase con- taining U and Pu is passed through an aqueous solution of bivalent Fe, which reduces Pu to an unextractable trivalent state; Pu goes into solu- tion but U remains in the organic phase. Next, repeated purification cycles are carried out. There are reports in the literature of several extraction plants for the processing of irradiated U for the extraction of Pu, in which TBP, and some other organic solvents, methylisobutylketone, dibutylcarbitol, etc-.,,. are used as the extracting agents. Apparently, all or the majority of foreign plutonium plants use extraction processes. Separation of Pu from irradiated uranium is a difficult task since in view of the cost of Pu, a very high degree of extraction of it is required together with thorough purification of it from uranium and fission fragments, i.e., from half the elements of the periodic system. Processing is begun about 100 days after the end of irradiation, since that amount of time is required for the full con- version of the isotope N 239 to Pu. At this time, one ton of treated U contains about .8 kilograms of Pu, .8 kilograms of fission fragments with P - activity of 500,000 curies and y - activity of 200,000 curies. The purification factor of Pu from fragments required for further safety of- operations must be of the order of 10 . Other methods of processing ir- radiated U are known for the solution of this problem in addition to the extraction and precipitation methods. In recent years, operations for extraction of Pu from molten metal has received wide development. In the event of a positive solution, this promises significant cost reduc- tion of plutonium since costs incurred in solution and repeated extraction Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 of metal is eliminated. Extraction of Pu from molten U is very temp--ing. Pu is extracted best by molten silver or a molten mixture of uranium, lithium, and calcium fluorides. The methods of distillation of metallic Pu from molten U at 1680 degrees also yields positive results. These methods have not been utilized on an industrial scale owing to difficulties connected with working at very high temperatures. As a result of carrying out existing technological processes Pu is produced in the form of nitric acid solutions. Pu is precipitated from this, usually in the form of oxalate that permits additional refinement. By calcining the oxalate, the oxide Pu02 is prepared, which is treated by HF and is converted to the fluoride. By reduction of the fluoride by calcium silicide at 15500 metallic Pu is produced. Pu is extremely toxic. Having gotten into an organism Pu, for all practical purposes, is not removed, since it is retained in bones very strongly. Not weakening in time, the internal irradiation by a flow of high density ionizing oc - particles leads to disturbance of blood formation in the bone marrow. Pu easily forms aerosols during mechanical processing of the metal and by evaporation of its salts. Pu entering the lungs gives rise to lung cancer. Therefore, all work with Pu is carried out in gloved chambers (gloved box, gloved cabinet) which prevent contaminated air from entering a room. 13. Solvent Extraction of Plutonium "Mechanism of the Extraction of Plutonium Nitrate with Mono- butyl Phosphate and Dibutyl Phosphate," by V. B. Shevchenkb and V. S. Smelov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 2, Feb 59, pp 140-144 In a preceding report by the same authors (Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 5, No 5, 1958, P 542) the effects of MBP (monobutyl phosphate) and DBP dibutyl phosphate) on the extraction of plutonium nitrate with tributyl phosphate were discussed. In the work described at present the mechanism of the extraction of plutonium with MBP and DBP is elucidated. The mechanism of the extraction of plutonium nitrate with MBP and DBP having an ionic strength equal to 6 was investigated experi- mentally. It was found that plutonium is extracted in the form of PuK4 where K = [(C4 H )2PO ]-or [C4H9HP04]. It has been calculated that the equilibrium constant of the reaction of plutonium nitrate with MBP is (1.5 ? 0.25 ) x 103 and with DBP, (6.15 ? 0.85) x 103. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 l1.. A Double Uranium-Ammonium Fluoride "Investigation of the Analytical Characteristics of the Double Fluoride of Uranium (IV) and Ammonium," by Ye. no Nikolayeva; Chair of Analytical Chemistry Moscow State University, Moscow, Vestnik Moskovsko o Universiteta - Seri a MMatematiki, Mekhaniki, Astronomii, Fiziki, Khimii, No , Nov 5b, PP 193-196 effects of acidity, concentration of the precipitating-agent, and other conditions on the completeness of the precipitation of tetravalent uranium with ammonium fluoride was investigated. V. N. Zvenigorodskaya's method for the reduction of uranium with ferrous iron was used. It was established that it is possible to separate small quantities of uranium (0.5-2 mgs) from vanadium, molybdenum, and iron by precipitating uranium with ammonium fluoride if the quantity of the elements mentioned does not exceed 10, 15, and 50 mgs, respectively, per ten milliliters of solution. On the basis of the investigation which has been carried out, one may conclude that in comparison with the double fluoride of tetra- valent uranium and sodium, the compound of uranium with ammonium pre- cipitates in a less acidic medium and thus is less suitable for the separation of uranium from extraneous elements. 15. Nonaqueous Solutions- of Uranyl Nitrate "Investigation by the Method of Infra-Red Spectroscopy of the State of Water in Non-Aqueous Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate," by Ya. I. Ryskin, V. I. Zemlyanukhin, A. A. Solov'y*eva, and N. A. Derbeneva; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskov Khimii, Vol 4+, No 2, Feb 59, PP 393-396 It was found in the work described that two molecules of the water of hydration of uranyl nitrate are strongly deformed because of the firm bond between the molecules of water and the uranyl nitrate. The degree of deformation depends on the nature of the solvent. The remaining molecules of water present in solutions of uranyl nitrate in organic solvents are deformed to a considerably lesser extent. One may conclude, therefore, that the bond between them and uranyl nitrate is weaker. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 16. _Properties of a Complex Compounds Formed by Thorium With 2-Hydroxy- 17~ -Naphthoquinone "Investigation by the Distribution Method of the Formation' of Complex Compounds in the System 2-Iiydroxy-l, 2T Naphthoquinone-Th ~ - CHCI. - H2O," by A. P. Zozulya and V. M. Peshkova, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 379-392 The method of distribution between water and organic solvents was used for the investigation of the formation of complex compounds of tetra- valent thorium with 2-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone. The properties and. dissociation constants of the complex compounds formed were determined. 17. Complex Compounds of Trivalent Plutonium With Ethylenediaminetetra- acetic Acid "Determination of the Composition and Dissociation Constants of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Complexes of Pu (III) by the Method of Ion Exchange," by A. I. Moskvin and P. I. A.rtyukhin, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal NeorganicheskoyKhimii, Vol 4, No 3, Mar 59, pp 591-595 The distribution of trivalent plutonium between a monomolar solu- tion of NH4 Cl and KU-2 cation-exchange resin was studied in the pH range of 1.6 - 3.3. The distribution of trivalent plutonium between a monomolar solutions of NHIF Cl and KU-2 in the presence of 0.001 mole of Trilon B [ethylenediaminete?Lraacetic acid] was investigated in the pH range of 1.25 - 3,4, It was established that in the s2lutions investigated there is formation of the complexes Pu Y- and Pu Hy (where Y is ethylenediamine- tetraacetic acid), the concentration constants of the dissociation of which are equal to 4.4 x 10-1 and 6.2 x 10-10, respectively. 18. Investigation of Complex Oxalates of Plutonium, Zirconium, and Hafnium by the Ion-Exchange Method "Application of the Ion-Exchange Method for the Investigation of Complex Oxalates of Pu (IV), Zr, and Hf," by A. N. Yermakov, V. K. Belyayeva, I. N. Marov, and M. K. Chmutova; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 493-496 It was established by the method of ion exchange that complex ions of Pu (IV), Zr, and Hf6- with a composition corresponding to the formula [.MIV (C2 0 ) 5 ] exist in solution. - 14 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 19. Methods for the Volumetric Determination of Zirconium "Volumetric Determination of Zirconium; Part I. Titration with KMnOj, in an Alkaline Solution," by A. Schneer and H. Hartmann, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Lorand Eotvos University of Science at Budapest; Budapest, Magyar Kemiai.Fol oirat, Vol 65, No 1, Jan 59, pp 31-36 A method for the titrimetric determination of mandelic acid or p- bromomandelic acid with pertassium permanganate in an alkaline solution was developed. This method was used for tbr-. determination of zirconium. Precipitated zirconium,tetramandelate was dissolved in sodium carbonate and the mandelic acid bound to zirconium oxidized to benzoic acid. The amount. of potassium permanganate used is proportional to the quantity of zirconium, According to the empirical data obtained by the authors, 1 milliliter of an 0.1 N potassium permanganate solution corresponds to 0.5136 milligrams of zirconium. The method is suitable for the de- termination of 2=20-milligrams of zirconium. The results obtained are precise within ? 1%. A single precipitation suffices even in the pres- ence of large quantities of extraneous ions. "Volumetric Determination of Zirconium; Part II. Oxidation of Zirconium Tetramandelate with Chromic Acid," by A. Schneer and H. Hartmann, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Lorand Eotvos University of Science at Budapest; Budapest, Magyar Kemiai Folyoirat, Vol 65, No 2, Feb 59, pp 64-69 Zirconium tetramandelate that has been selectively precipitated with mandelic acid from a hydrochloric acid solution is filtered and dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid. The mandelic acid residues bound to the zirconium are oxidized completely with sodium bichromate to water and carbon dioxide in a sulfuric acid solution containing 70-90% of H2SO4 by weight. This oxidation requires 20 minutes at 1150. The excess of sodium bichromate is titrated back with a ferrous sulfate solution using ferroin as the indicator. One milliliter of an 0.1 N Na2 Cr2 07 solution cor- responds to 67.07 )A g of zirconium. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 20, Va or Prescure.of Lanthanum Chloride "Measurement by the Radioactive Tracer Method of the Vapor Pressure of Saturated Vapor of Anhydrous Lanthanum Chloride," by A. N. Nesmeyanov and L. A. Sazonov; Moscow, Zhurnal Ne- organicheskoy Khimii, Vol Ii, No 1, Jan 59, pp 230-231 The vapor pressure of lanthanum chloride was determined by the Knud- sen method with the use of La140 as a tracer. It is pointed out that no reliable data have been published as yet in the literature on the vapor pressures of chlorides of rare-earth elements. 21, Lanthanum Salicylates "The Salicylates of Lanthanum," by Ya. A. Fialkov (deceased) and V. I. Yermolenko, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, pp 359-36 The compounds formed by rare-earth elements with aromatic hydroxy acids may be of interest in connection with the separation of these ele- ments by absorption on ion-exchange resins. By measuring the electrical conductivity and the volume of precipitates, it was confirmed that lantha- num salycilate is formed in the system LaC13-NaSal-H20. The molecular conductivity of lanthanum salicylate was determined and the first constant of the dissociation of this compound calculated. The solubility of lan- thanum salicylate in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate were determined. The solubility product [La3 + ] a [Sal' ]3 was calculated under consideration of the values of dissociation Constants, 22. Vapor Tension of Hafnium Tetrachloride "Vapor Tension of Hafnium Tetrachloride," by Sung In-chu and I, S. Morozov; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 59, p 492 The vapor tension of hafnium tetrachloride in the temperature range of 200-312o was determined by the gas-stream method, using chlorine as the inert gas. It was found that the dependence of the vapor tension on the temperature can be described by the following equation: lg P = 5390 + 12,00 - 16 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 23. Effect of Irradiation With Neutrons on Ferrite-Perlite Steels "The Effect of Irradiation with Neutrons on the Structure and Properties of Ferrite-Perlite Steels," by V. S. Lyai3henko and Sh. Ibragimov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 3, Mar 59, pp 277-280 Samples of the steels 1Kh17N2, 2Kh13, and 30KhMa, which are sensitive to heat treatment, and of the steel 1Khl7 containing niobium, which is not sensitive to heat treatment, were subjected to irradiation with fast neu- trons at the temperatures of 700 and 500-6000. It was established that as a result of irradiation at 500-6000 the mechanical characteristics of the steels 1Kh17N2, 2Kh13 and 30KhY.A are change considerably. No such changes take place when the steel lKhl7 is irradiated. Results obtained in a metallographic investigation indicate that the increase in the me- chanical strength of the steels in question as a result of irradiation at 500-6000 is associated with structural changes. It is suggested that the observed changes in the microstructure are due to the formation of displacement peaks in the material that has been irradiated. 24. Economics of Nuclear Power "Some Problems of the Economics of Nuclear Power," by Ye. P. Anan?yev; Moscow, Atmnaya Eneriya, Vol 6, No 3, Mar 59, pp 245-252 The economics of nuclear power generation are subjected to con- sideration on the basis of papers presented at the second International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (Geneva, 1958). The capital investment required, operational aspects, the economics of fast neutron reactors, and the possibilities of using nuclear power for the generation of heat are discussed. It is pointed out that the ways in which applications of nuclear energy for power generation will develop In individual countries depend on the structure of the power production balance of the countries in question. As far as the USSR is concerned, the development of nuclear power generation in that country, which has large supplies of coal and extensive possibilities as far as development of hydroelectric power is concerned, will proceed along different ways than that in countries which lack coal. The fact that the USSR program provides for acquisition of experience in this field by operating nuclear power plants with a high output is stressed. The special conditions in Czechoslovakia are discussed. Because of the conditions in that country which has large supplies of uranium, and will have to increase the pro- duction of electric power without augmenting the production of coal, the decision was made to build an industrial nuclear power plant there that uses natural uranium as fuel. 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 [For additional information on nuclear fuels and reactor construction materials see Item No 58.] Organic Chemistry 25. Organophosphorus Research "Acid Halides of Esters of Phosphonocarboxylic Acids. I. Syn- thesis of P-Acid Monochlorides of Dialk_yl Esters of Phosphono- carboxylic Acids," by. K. A. Petrov, F. L. Maklyayev, and M. A. Korshunov, Military Academy of Chemical Defense; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 1, Jan 59, pp 301-5 The authors reacted phosphorus pentachloride with esters of phos- phonocarboxylic acid to obtain twelve previously unknown P-acid mono- chlorides of dialkyl esters of phosphonoformic, phosphonoacetic, phosphono- and thiophosphono-propionic acids, according to the following reaction: R0\ 10 R0, ~0 R4 P-(CH2)n-CORD + PC15->ry.,P (CH2)n C'OR~ + POCI3+RC1 0 0 where n equals 0, 1, 2., They also showed that P-acid monochlorides of dialkyl esters of phosphonoformic acid result from the reaction of phos- phorus trichloride and chlorine with the esters of this acid. They established that upon reacting esters of phosphonocarboxylic acids with thionyl chloride, only the P-acid monochlorides of the dialkyl".. esters of these acids are obtained. Four previously unknown esters of phosphonoformic and phosphono- proprionic acids were synthesized and characterized. The data concerning these esters and the P-acid monochlorides are presented in the text. "C-Chloro-P ,,P-Dimethoxy- and C-Chloro-P, P-diaryloxyiso- phosphazoacyls," by G. I. Derkach, Institute of Organic Chem- istry, Academy of Sciences, UkrSSR; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii., Vol 29, No 1, Jan 59, pp 241-5 By reacting phosphorus pentachloride with the diesters of acylamidO- phosphoric acids, the C-chloro-P,.P-dimethoxy- and C-chloro-P, P- diary7n xyisophosphazoacyls were obtained. This reaction can be formu- lated as follows: - 18 - a Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 RCONHPO(OR' )2 -f- PC15 - HC1+ POC13+ RCC1= NPO(OR' )2. In all, 16 compounds not previously described were synthesized and charac- terized. Physical data concerning them is presented in the text. Upon thermal cleavage, C-chloro-P. P-dimethoxy- and C-chlor-P, P -- diaryloxyisophosphazoacyls form the corresponding nitriles and acid chlor- ides of dimethyl and di.aryl esters of phosphoric acid. Water reacts with these compounds to form the corresponding diesters of acylamidophosphoric acids. The author believes these compounds will be of great interest in the synthesis of new types of phosphoric acid derivatives. 26. New Insect Repellents "New Insect Repellents for the Protection of Humans and Ani- mals from Blood-Sucking Diptera," by K. P. Andreyev, G. I. Yanovich, G. A. Kudryavtseva, and R. G. Soboleva, Tr.Vses. N. -I. In-t Vet, Sanitarii i Ektoparazitol (Works of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Sani- tation and Ectoparasitology) 1958, 13, pp 152-172 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Khimi'ya No 2, 25 Jan 59, Abstract No 5 850 by I. Mil'shteyn "The methyl ether of beta-naphthol (I), terpineol (II) and diphenyl oxide (III) are suitable for the protection of farm animals from blood- sucking diptera. Treatment of the integument of adult cattle with solu- tions of I- III in either solar or :va.seline oil guarantees protection from these insects for 1..-4 days; aqueous emulsions offer protection for several hours. An oily solution of I protects humans from attacks by flies and mosquitoes, correspondingly, for 2-4 hours snd.90 'minutes; oily and alcoholic solutions of II offer protection from mosquitoes for more than 3 hours. Analogous solutions of III protect from housefly bites for a 6-hour period." CPYRGHT - 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 27. New Substdnce for the Control of '.ticks "Substance for the Control of Ticks," (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 13 Feb 59, p 4 The Laboratory for the Search for New Preparations of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Insectofungicides and Fertilizers has found another valuable property of dibutyladipinate. a substance which can repel the carrier of tick-borne encephalitis -- lxodes ticks. "Investigations in the natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis, conducted by Central Scientific Research Disinfection Institute in Perm Oblast, indicated that dibutyladipinate when applied to the cotton clothing of workers, gave protection from ticks for an entire month. "The Section of Disinfection of the institute also tested new repel- lant substances (Kuyzol and RP-99) which were synthesized by A. N. Kost and L. G. Yudin at the Laboratory of special organic synthesis Chemical Faculty of Moscow University imeni Lomonosov. The preparations possess acaricidal activity swiftly killing ticks. These preparations can be prepared from the by-products of the coke chemical industry." CPYRGHT 28, Research on Isoquinoline Carboxylic Acids Investigations in the Field of Isoquinoline Carboxylic Acid. III. Preparation of a Number of 1-Alkoxy-Substituted Acids of the Isoquinoline Group, Their Esters and Hydrazides and Certain Data on the Mobility of Alkoxy Groups in the Isoquinoline Ring," by L. I. Linevich, Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 1, Jan 59, pp 202-8 The purpose of this research was to synthesize a number of trialkoxy- substituted acids of isoquinoline group and several of their derivatives, and to test the physiological activity of those compounds, which appeared to be of interest. A number of these compounds not .previously described in the literature were obtained and characterized. Data concerning them is presented in the text. A number of homologous trialkoxy-substituted acids of the isoquino- line group were obtained. They are, characterized by an alkoxy group in the 1 position of the isoquinoline ring. A number of esters and hydrazides of these acids were obtained. It was established that in 1-alkoxy-'r, 8-dimethoxyisoquinoline-3- carboxylic acids, the alkoxy group in the 1 position of the isoquinoline ring is mobile in an acidic medium and is easily hydrolyzed. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 [For additionz.i information cn organic chemistry see items No 1, 2and 3?] Physical Chemistry 29. Physical-Chemical Changes Resulting From High-Velocity Charged Particles "Research Work at the Physicochemical Institute, (unsigned article); Moscow, Sovetskaya A viats, 22 Mar 59, p 1 At the Scientific Research Physicochemical Institute imeni L. Ya. Karpov, according to the Seven-Year Plan, changes in the physical and chemical properties of substances, resulting from their irradiation with high-velocity charged particles, are being studied. The results of these investigations will permit a completely new approach to many problems in the field of chemistry. For conducting the experiments at the institute, instruments and equipment employing radio- active cobalt and a charged particle accelerator are being used. At the present time, a new electrostatic generator is being installed. A photograph accompanying the article shows senior scientific worker V. A. Kozlov checking the assembly of a new accelerator. Radiation Chemistry 30. Formation of Free Radicals in Solids Irradiated With Fast Electrons "Investigation of Free Radicals Formed in Solids Subjected to Irradiation With Fast Electrons," by Yu. N. Molin, A. T. Korit- skiy, N. Ya. Buben, and V. V. Voyevodskiy, Corresponding Mem- ber Academy of Sciences USSR, Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady.Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 123, No 5, 11 Dec 58, pp 882-&83 Using the method of electronic paramagnetic resonance, the formation of radicals in 20 different solid substances as a result of irradiation with fast electrons was investigated. The substances irradiated included polymers (polyethylene, nylon, capron, polymethylmethacrylate, teflon, and different types of rubber), solid organic acids and their salts (oxalic acid and its salts, succinic acid and its sodium salt, stearic acid. a v citric acid), and aromatic compounds (naphthalene, alpha-naphthol, beta-nai:itlml, ben aoylperoo d , .and'meU l), In all samples investigated, the maximum Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 concentration of radicals was observed after a dose of the order of several tens of megarads had been applied. In the majority of cases, the radicals proved to be rather stable. Radicals with a relatively short half-life at room temperature (all experiments were carried out at room temperature) formed in polyethylene, oxalic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and one of the rub- ber samples. After irradiation of polyethylene, the radical -CH2 - CH - CH2 - had formed, which is unstable at room temperature. By carrying out the irradiation at minus 18?, the Velocity of the transformation of this primary radical into the secondary radical could be reduced (i.e., the primary radical was stabilized). It is assumed that in experiments with the majority of the subotances investigated the formation of stable radicals in considerable concentra- tions could have interfered with the observation of less stable radicals with a half-life of the order of seconds or shorter. To observe the para- magnetic resonance spectra of such radicals, a periodically modulated electron ray bundle will be used. To observe short-lived radicals in solids and particularly in liquids, a pulse method will also be applied. Radiochemistry . 31, Neutron Activation Analysis of Aluminum, Magnesium, Vanadium, and Indium "The Neutron Activation Analysis of Samples of Rocks and Ore Concentrates," by D. I. Leypunskaya, Z. Ye. Gauer and G. N. Flerov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 6, No 3, Mar 59, pp 315..320 A method for the determination of aluminum, magnesium, vanadium, and indium by the neutron activation analysis in ores when these ele- ments are present in concentrations that are not too low is discussed. The method in question consists of irradiation with a Po-Bo source of samples of rocks, ores, or concentrates being analyzed and subsequent determination :if the resulting activity with scintillation counters or other counters. It is brought out that application as a tracer of a short-lived isotope of the element being determined make it possible to apply a rapid method of analysis. The high sensitivity and precision of the method make it promising as far as practical applications are concerned. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 32. Conversion of the Carbon of Calcium Carbonate Into Acetylene "Synthesis of Acetylene From Calcium Carbonate," by A. V. Trofimov, N. G. Markova, and E. I. Dobkina, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry imeni V. I. Vernadskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khimii, Vol 32, No 2, Feb 59, pp 399-40)+ It was found that it is possible to convert calcium carbonate into calcium carbide by heating a mixture of calcium carbonate with magnesium in a tightly closed steel test tube at a temperature of about 700-800?. The calcium carbide can then be converted into acetylene. This procedure eliminates the carbidization of calcium carbonate in a hydrogen stream, in vacuum, or in a sealed test tube. In this manner the process is sim- plified and accelerated considerably. The purpose of the investigation was development of a simple method for the conversion of the carbon of calcium carbonate into acetylene so that the radioactivity of the carbon contained in carbonate rocks may be determined in work on the geological age of rock formations. Determination of the content of radioactive carbon in acetylene is preferable to its determination is solid carbon. [For additional 'Information on radiochemistry see Item No 20.] - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 33. Terrestrial Corpuscular Radiation "Study of Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial Corpuscular Radiation by Cosmic Rocket," by S. N. Vernov, A. Ye. Chudakov, P. V. Vakulov, and Yu. I. Logachev; Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 125, No 2, 11 Apr 59, pp 3011.-307 The cosmic rocket launched in the direction of the Moon on 2 January 1959 was equipped for recording cosmic rays and terrestrial corpuscular emission. The latter is understood to consist of streams of charged part- icles reaching very high altitudes, where the terrestrial magnetic field secures a "magnetic trap" causing a high intensity of emission. A pre- liminary processing of data obtained within an altitude range of 8,000 to 150,000 kilometers from the Earth's center is presented. The spatial dis- tribution of the high intensity zone is found to lie at 26,000 km from the Earth's center. At 55,000 km the terrestrial corpuscular emission is zero. The composition of the emission in the outer zone of high intensity was recorded by scintillators. It indicated x-rays of 100 kev or below. The measured energy flux does not quite concur with data by Van Allen from the fourth American satellite. The intensity of cosmic radiation appeared constant starting with 66,000 km altitude, up to 150,000 km. It indicates that at this, altitude the terrestrial magnetic field has no more, effect. -24 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 III. ELECTRONICS Communications 34. Pocket Type Radio Receiver "Syurpriz" "Radio Receiver 'Syurpriz," by L. Levin, G. Katunin, and B. Kotov; Moscow, Radio, No 3, Mar 59, pp 40-42 The radio industry of the Saratov Industrial-Economic Region has ~'mpleted preparations for serial production of the miniature (pocket type) radio receiver "Syurpriz." This is the smallest transistorized superheterodyne type of receiver so far developed in the USSR. The set utilizes printed circuits. The receiver operates in the frequency range of 150-415 kc and 520-1,600 kc; its sensitivity varies from 10 millivolt/m to 7 millivolt/m, depending on the reception frequency range; selectivity with respect to the adjacent channel is about 10 db; attenuation of image channel varies from 10 db to 15 db depending on the frequency range of reception. The set has automatic volume control and its efficiency is about 35%. The power supply consists of four alkaline cadmium-nickel storage batteries of the KNP-0.42 type having a capacity of 0.4 amp hr. The battery is 14 x 50 mm and assures continuous operation of the receiver for about 14 hr. The receiver consumes about 30 milliamps of current. Seven transistors of the P-14 type are used in the set. The two- stage IF (465 kc) amplifier uses two of the P-14 transistors. Another P-14 type transistor is used as a detector. Three transistors are used in the power amplification stage. The overall dimensions of the set are 1.50 x 80 :: 32 mm and it weighs 520 g. The dynamic loudspeaker has a diameter of 57 mm and a depth of 30 mm; it develops a sound pressure of about 1.5 bars. The frequency response range of the speaker is from 300 to 7,000 cycles. The magnetic antenna is built with e. ferrite rod 123 mm long and (.8 mm in diameter. 35. Phase-Difference Modulation "Simplex System Noise Immunity When Transmitting Binary Signals With Phase-Difference Modulation [Angle Modulation]," by N. P. Bobrov; Moscow, Radio, No 3, Mar 59, pp 27-31 The system of transmission of discrete signals by means of various modifications of phase modulation is of great interest. One such system is the simplex system of binary signal transmission utilizing - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 phase-difference modulation, originally suggested by Petrovich. The advantages of phase-difference modulation over frequency modulation is particularly apparent in high-speed transmission systems when for a given frequency channel it is required to transmit the greatest number of bin- ary signals (bits) in a unit of time. The author thanks M. V. Yakovlev for assistance. Components 36. Electropneumatic Transducer "Electropneumatic Transducer Developed at Institute of Auto- mation and Telemechanics, Academy of Sciences USSR," by Yu. V. Krementulo; Moscow, Avtomatika i Telemekhanika, No 2, Feb 59, pp 211-219 In automation of technological processes sometimes it is advantageous to utilize electric systems for measurement and pneumatic systems for actual control of the process. At the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics of the Academy of Sciences USSR very accurate and reliable transducers were developed for conversion of measurement voltages into proportional air pressure at the pneumatically actuated control devices. The electropneumatic transducers were designated as EPP-1 and EPP-2. The EPP-1 electropneumatic transducer is comprised of the following units: rheostat data pick-up unit, slide-wire electropneumatic transducer, electronic amplifier, power-supply pack, reduction gear, two-phase revers- ing motor, line and control windings, cam, baffle, feed-back unit, fixed inductor and nozzle of the primary pneumatic relay, inter-choke chamber, compressed air supply. The air pressure supply to the transducer is at 1.3 kg/cm2. The electric power supply to the device is drawn from a 220 v, 50 cycle line. The accuracy of the device is about t 0.7%. A series of experimeut-s have proven the suitability of the device for automatic controls of certain technological processes. 37. Cathode Circuit Detection in Reflex Klystron "Cathode Circuit Detection in an Underexcited Reflex Klystron," by S. A. Kornilov and 0. N. Kazbekova; Moscow, Radiotekhnika I Elektronika, No 3, Mar 59, pp Lc 0-1+81 The cathode circuit detection characteristics (response, transfer constant) of an underexcited reflex klystron were determined experimentally for frequencies of 3,000 and 10,000 Mc. - 26 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 The investigation has shown that the cathode circuit detection has sensitivity equal to that of a crystal detector and a transfer constant several decibels higher than that for a crystal detector. 38. New Oscillator Triodes "Electrical Calculation of Performance of New Oscillator Triodes," by V. A. Khatskelevich; Moscow, Radiotekhnika, No 3, Mar 59, pp 58-68 In recent years a number of triode oscillator tubes were designed with power output ranging from a few kilowatts to several hundred kilo- watts, which were designated GU-5A, GU-10A, GU-21B, GU-22A, GU-23A, GU-30A, GU-4A, GU-11A, GU-12A and G-433. The power output of the enumerated tubes in kw is as follows: 3.5, 15, 15, 30,100, 40, 10, 30, 40, and 80 respec- tively; the plate voltage in kv is 5, 8, 9, 9, 11, 8, 6, 10, 10.5 and 11. These new oscillator triodes have a number of constructional peculiari- ties which change considerably their internal characteristics and perform- ance. The current distribution in these tubes, their parameters and static and dynamic characteristics are different from those of the old series. A new method is proposed for calculation of the static and dynamic characteristics of these new tubes. The author thanks Z. I. Model', B. P. Bytov, and S. G. Rud' for assistance. 39. East German Tropicalization Efforts "Climatization, a Necessity Where Overseas Export Is Involved," by F. Boberski, Berlin; Berlin Nachrichtentechnik, No 3, Mar 59, pp 9T-101 This lead article, on East German tropicalization measures, includes the following information: Dr Boeer, head of the East German Main Office for Climatology, Pots- dam, has studied climatic conditions on the basis of geophysical investi- gations in China and in East Germany. He comes to the conclusion that six climates should be differentiated. A climatization testing station, approved by the Office for Technology., was erected at the Scientific-Technical Office for Motor Design, Berlin- Adlershof, and, since 1958, has been under the DAMW (German Office for the Testing of Materials and Products, Berlin. The testing area is 14 meters long. The DAMW thus has taken over all direction and coordination of climatization problems for all branches of industry, including research and development assignments. - 27 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 After Czechoslovakia had finished research work in China in 1955, East Germany sent to China, in 1956, a delegation of climatization ex- perts, including one climatologist, one microbiologist, one electrical engineer, and two chemical engineers, .one of which was a specialist in cable and wiring. This delegation tested about 1,500 sample products of various branches of industry at five experimental stations erected by Czechoslovaks and Chinese. In 195'(, a new delegation went to China to continue the work. The DAMW is preparing another trip which will extend through 1959- 1960, and will include the testing of tropicalized instruments in India and Indonesia. The Chamber of Technology of East Germany is faced with the respon- sibility of supporting the procurement of documentation on tropicaliza- tion by industry and of contributing to the standardization of testing and delivery specifications. The DAMW has suggested climatization-test markings for equipment for special areas of application under the general headings of: temperate climate, moist-hot climate, moist-dry climate, cold climate, mountainous climate, and oceanic climate. The following publications are already available: DIN 50010: Pruefung von Klimaeinwirkungen (The Testing of Cli- matic Effects DIN 40040: Klimaschutz von Bauelementen der Nachrichtentechnik (Climatization of Components of Communications En- gineering) VEM 11001: Richtlinien fuer den Klimaschutz elektrotechnischer Erzeugnisse (Instructions for Climatization of Elec- trical Engineering Products VEM 12'701: Galvanische Ueberzu.ege (Galvanic Coatings) Der Bericht der China-Delegation 1956 (The Report of the 1956 China Delegation) -28- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 40. Tropicalization of East German Relays "Climatizea Communications Relays," by B. Thiel and W. 'Reiser, Central Laboratory for Communications Engineering; Berlin, in VEB RFT Fernmeldewerk, Arnstadt; Berlin, Nachrichtentechnik, No 3, Mar 59, pp 117-122 This article gives detailed suggestions for "type 2 protection" of the various parts of DC relays of communications equipment for operation in such areas as Vietnam, South China, India, Indonesia, UAR, Iraq, Sudan, and Northwest China. The conditions under which "type 2 protection" is satisfactory are: air temperature from plus 55 to minus 25 degrees C (plus 131 to minus 13 degrees F); relative humidity from 95% at 35 degrees C to 10% at 40 degrees C, and vapor pressure from 40 to 5 mm Hg. "Type 1 protection," i.e., tropicalization for any and all weather conditions, is rejected by the article because of the difficulties in- volved with respect to insulation. Of the modern plastics, only the expensive chlorinated or unchiorinated fluorocarbons, and of the tra- ditional insulation materials, only ceramics, the use of which requires design changes, can be considered for such a protection. The article suggests that all parts, standard and tropicalized, be of the same de- sign, and recommends measures for processing relay parts of standard design so that they will satisfy the requirements for "type 2 protection." 41. Tropicalization of East German Capacitors "Climatization of Capacitors of Communications Engineering and the Testing Methods Required for Them," by H. Koerner, Gera; Berlin, Nachrichtentechnik, No 3, Mar 39, pp 122-124 Various types and designs of capacitors used in communications engineering are discussed with respect to their possibilities of appli- cation under various climatic conditions. A comparison is also made of the two current designation systems represented by the testing regula- tions., DIN 40040 and IEC-80 and IEC-68. 29 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 42. Tropicalization of East German Resistors "The Climatization of Carbon Coated Resistors for Electrical Communications Engineering and Measurements,," by H, df Gold- schmidt, Teltow; Berlin, Nachrichtentechnik, No 3, Mar 59, pp 125-128 The article discusses the equipment, methods, and results of teats conducted at the climatization laboratory of VEB RFT Werk fuer Bauele- mente der Nachrichtentechnik9 Teltow, for the tropicalization of carbon coated and boron-carbide coated resistors manufactured in East Germany. Computers and Automation 43- Universal Digital Computer LEM-1 "Small Universal Digital Computer LEM-1 with Magnetic (Ferrite) Components," by Yu. A. Makhmudov; Moscow9 Radiotekhnika No 3, Mar 59, pp 47-57 The article discusses some problems connnected with the design and construction of the LEM-1 universal digital computer incorporating con- tactless magnetic (ferrite) and capacitive "DYeZU" (high-retentivity capacitive storage devices) components. The LEM-1 computer was developed at the Laboratory for Electromodeling of the A11-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, Academy of Sciences USSR, under the direction of Prof. L. I. Gutenmakhero This digital computer operates with a fixed point placed before the most significant digit. One binary column is reserved for sign represen- tation of the numbers. The machine operates with 15-column binary members. The internal storage device of the machine has 8,191 addresses, of which 79167 addresses are in permanent storage and 1,,024 addresses in. the operat-> ing storage. The LEM-1 computer is composed of the following units. per- manent storage;, operating storage, arithmetic unit, command analyzer, input unit., magnetic tape external storage, output unit and central con- trol unit. The computer incorporates about 3,000 magnetic (ferrite), elements', about 80 electronic tubes in the pulsed-power circuit;, about 500 transistors and about 16,000 selenium rectifiers. The computer is designed to perform several operations simultaneously. At 30 ke frequency of pulsed-power supply the computer performs, 1,200 additions or sub-, tractions, 600 multiplications or 200 divisions. At present, work is doing conducted at the laboratory for the development of pulsed-power supply at 300 kc frequency, which should considerably increase the speed of the computer. This is the first computer incorporating.contactless magnetic and capacitive components that has been developed at the Laboratory for Elec- tromodelingo - 30 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 44. Computers Constructed in Tbilisi "Tbilisi Computers," (unsigned article); Moscow, Izvestiya Sovetov Deputatov Trydyashchikhsya SSSR, 26 Mar 59, p In the center of Tbilisi there is located a new scientific research institute of instrument construction and means of automation of the na- tional economic Council of the Georgian SSR. Original mathematical machines are constructed in its laboratories for example, a controlling computer for regulating the electric operating conditions for ferroalloy furnaces. The machine has successfully passed the laboratory tests and at present is undergoing industrial tests at the Zestafonskiy ferroalloy plant. A second computer is intended for determining the weight of individual forms of raw material entering into a cupola furnace. In this particular machine, constructed in the laboratory, the calculation of important para- meters stabilizing the heating system of the ferroalloy plant is possible. The machine determines the delivery of coke and supply of draft as a function of the given temperature of the metal and the composition of the flue gases. A computer is also ready for automation of the calculation of voltage and power losses in power transmission lines. 45, Autopilot Vibration Servomechanism "Dynamics of a Vibration Servomechanism in Electric Autopilot," by I. N. Krutov; Moscow, Avtomatika i Telemekhanika, No 2, Feb 59, pp 115-126 Analyzes the performance of an electric vibration servomechanism which automatical.:Ly actuates the aircraft controls. An electromagnetic clutch is utilized for shifting of speeds in this system. The dynamic? of such a servomechanism was investigated with the aid of a phase plane. This method of examination was demonstrated for two specific cases: when the servomechanism motion is described by a first order equation and when it is described by a second order equation. The parameter relations defining the limits of stability of such a vibration servomechanism are defined. Due to the low inertia of the servomotor, speed shifting is effectively performed by an electromagnetic clutch which connects the out- put shaft with a continuously rotating motor. The method described also permits calculating whether complex self- oscillations would be set up in the system for given values of the para- meters. 31 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 46. Method of Programing Discussed "On One Method of Programing," by V. S. Kurolyuk, Mathematics Institute, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR; Kiev, Dopovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrainskoi RSR9 No 12, 1958.9 pp 1992-1295 Presents a method of programing, not associated with the technical, peculiarities of specific digital computers, which makes it possible to introduce formal conversions of programs, permits aut6za11--ic translation into programs for specific machines, and enables recommendations for the technical improvement of the machines to be formulated. 47. Continuous Strong Markov Processes of One Dimension "One-Dimensional Continuous Strong Markov Processes.," by Ye. B. Dynkin; Teoriya Veroyatnostey i yeyq Primeneni a; Moscow, Vol 4, No 1, pp 3-5 One-dimensional temporarily homogeneous strong Markov processes with continuous path functions are considered. No regularity conditions are aseumed4 Infinitesimal operators for all these processes are calculated. These calculations are 'eased on a preliminary analysis of the local be- haviour of path functions. The general results of sections l--3 are used in sections 4-.5 for conducting a more detailed investigation of the proc- ess in intervals of its regularity. 48. New Zeiss ZRA-1 Computer "The New Zeiss Automatic Computer ZRA 1," by H. Kortum,9 W. Kaemmerer, and F. Straube, Jena; Berlin, Feingeraetetechnik, No 3,9 Mar 59, pp 97-104 The article gives a description, block diagram, explanation of the operating procedure and programing, and photographs of certain components of the ZRA 1. The ZRA 1 is a digital computer. The numbers fed into the machine and the results produced by the machine are in decimal arrangement. The programing is done by means of ordinary punched cards, each card holding up to 12 lines. Each decimal point represents a tetrad in direct dual coding. The scanning speed is 80 cards per minute, corresponding to 960 program lines per minute. The magnetic storage drum has a capacity of 4,096 words and rotates at a rate of 72,000 rpm; it can be filled in less than 4 minutes. The computer output is in the form of a line printer,, maximum 205 lines per second. All the pulse storage devices of the computing and mechanical devices, all control and logical circuits are -32- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 based on switching circuits with ferrite cores having an almost rectangular hysteresis loop. The circuits are fed with a 200-kc voltage in series, the operating pulses being produced by electron -tubes modulated by syn- chronizing tracks on the storage drum. All switching circuits have ger- manium diodes. The ferrite cores were developed at the Jena Institute for Magnetic Materials and produced at VEB Keramische Werke,, Hermsdorfa The diodes were developed at VEB Werk fuer Bauelemente der Nachrichtentechnik, Tel- towo The storage drum was developed by J. N. Lehmann of the Institute for Machine Computer Engineering, Dresden Technische Hochschule, and H. Lotz of ZIL, Fraureuthe The punched card unit and printer were de- veloped at VEB Rheinmetall, Soemmerdao 49. Energy Transport in Cadmium Sulfide Crystals "Investigations On the Carrier Diffusion and Other Forms of Energy Transport in CdS," by J. Auth and R. Ridder, Physics Institute, Humboldt University, Berlin; Leipzig, Annalen der Physik, Vol 2, No 7/8, Jan 59, pp 351364 An investigation was made of the concentration distribution of the charge carriers in partially illuminated CdS crystals at room temperature and at 80 degrees centigrade. Two exponential concentration decreases, with different characteristic lengths, were found. For the first, more abrupt decrease of concentration, the diffusion lengths were found to be 3-15 microns for crystals not known to be activated., 3 microns for Mn-activated crystals, and 27 microns for Age-activated crystals. This decrease depends on the intensity and direction of the applied voltage. For the second, smoother decrease of concentration, diffusion lengths, of 002 - 1025 mm were found for brystals not known to be activated, and 0.15- 0.3 mm for Ag-activated crystals. The incipience of the second concen- tration decrease varied from crystal to crystal, and is clearly dependent on temperature. The concentration decrease is lacking entirely in crystals of one particular origin. The first, more abrupt concentration decrease is interpreted as an "ambipolar" diffusion of the charge carriers. The life of the holes then'amounts to lo-9 -lo-7 second (assuming D ti"5 cm2/ see). The second,, flatter drop is caused essentially by redbsoPption of light produced by luminescence. Special experiments show that the light produced by luminescence in the case, of CdS can produce photoconductivity. -, 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 50. Results of an Investigation of the Piezoelectric Activity of Various Substances "Experimental Research on New Piezoelectrics," by I. S. Rez, A. S. Sonin, Ye. Ye. Tsepelevich, and A. A. Filimonov, Cen- tral Scientific Research Laboratory of Piezoelectrics; Moscow, Kristallografiya, Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 59, pp 65-68 .._ On the basis of research done at the Central Scientific Research Lab- oratory of Piezoelectrics (TsNILP) in 1956-1957, 39 inorganic and complex compounds are listed which exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect, 43 inorganic and complex compounds which have an insignificant piezo- electric activity, 90 organic substances which exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect, and 184 organic substances which exhibit an in- significant piezoelectric effect. 51. Domain Structure of Lead Titanate Crystals "Optical Investigation of Single Crystals of Lead Titanate," by Ye. G. Fesenko and R. V. Kolesova, Rostov-on-Don State University; Moscow, Kristailografiya, Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 59, pp 62-64 Single crystals of lead titanate were investigated with particular attention to their domain structure. The characteristics of lead titanate are compared with those of barium titanate. It was found that the domain structure of lead titanate sometimes disappears spontaneously for no ap- parent reason. This phenomenon requires additional investigation. 52. Observation of the Domain Structure of Barium Titanate "Observation of the Domain Structure of Barium Titanate With the Aid of an Electron Mirror," by G. V. Spivak, E. Igras I. A. Pryamkova, and I. S. Zheludev,, Moscow State University; Moscow, Krist,.all.ografiya, Vol 49 No 1, Jan/Feb 599 PP 123- 125 The design and application of the electron mirror used are described. Results of determining the micro-relief on the surface (and the domain structure) of barium titanate crystals are reported. -.34 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 53. Dielectric Properties of Triglycine Sulfate Crystals "The Twinning and Dielectric Properties of Triglycine Sulfate Crystals," by V. P. Konstantinova, I. M. Sil?- vestrova, and V. A. Yurin, Institute of, Crystallography, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Krista7logref iya, Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 599 pp 125-3.29 The twinning of triglycine sulfate crystals was investigated by the method of etching. The dependence of the dielectric permeability of triglycine sulfate crystals on the temperature, the intensity of an alternating electric field, and the frequency was investigated. 54. Twinning of Domains in Trigl ine Sulfate Crystals "The Problem of the Domain Structure of Triglycine Sulfate Crystals," by L. A. Shuvalov, K. S. Aleksandrov, and I. S. Zheludev, Institute of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences USSR and the Krasnoyarsk Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Kristallografiya,, Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 599 PP 130-132 It is pointed out that triglycine sulfate and also triglycine sele- nate and triglycine fluoroberyllate as well as several other recently dis- covered seignettoelectrics which are isomorphous with triglycine sulfate, undergo changes of point symmetry when they pass through the Curie point. Because changes of symmetry of this type in connection with seignetto- electric phase transitions are unusual and have been encountered for the first time in this instance, the domain structure in crystals of this group must exhibit a number of interesting peculiarities. The twinning of domains in triglycine sulfate crystals and similar crystals is con- sidered from the theoretical and geometric standpoints.- no new experi- mental results are reported. 55. A Method for the Polarographic Determination of Germanium "Polarographic Determination of Germanium," by N. V. Stashkova and A. I. Zelyanskaya; Novosibirsk, Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdel- eniya Akademii Nauk SSSR, No 1, Jan 599 PP 59-66 In an investigation carried out with the use of different inert elec- trolytes;, it was found that tetravalent germanium is reduced at a mercury dropping electrode in many solutions with the formation of a pronounced wave. It was found that addition of Trilon B to the solutions improves the shape of the germanium wave. The applicability of the polarographic method for the determination of germanium against a background of sodium acetate and borax in practical analytical work was established. -35- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 The colorimetric method with the application of pheny.,.fluorone is suitable for the determination of small quantities of germanium (up to several hundredths parts of l%)e The polarographic method is suitable for the determination of germanium present in higher concentrations (in the range of 0.01 - 0.1% and higher). 56., Lithium-Cadmium Ferrites "The Characteristics of (Li20o5 Fe2 0? )y X? (CdF2 0~.)x," by Na A. Smol?kov and S. A. Dovba, Chair of Magnet'isrn, Moscow State University; Moscow, Veatnik Moskovakogo Universiteta -- Seri a Matematiki Mekhav.iki Astronomii? Fiziki, Khimii, No , Nov 5 r pp 155-161 It was established that as the concentration of cadmium ferrite in- creases in solid solutions of (Li2 0.5 Fe 03)1,X? (CdF2 04) a, there is reduction of the electric resistance, lowering of the Curie point, reduc- tion of the coercive force, an increase in the initial. and maximum magnet.'.c permeabilities; and an increase in the maximum and residual [intrinsic] inductions [intensities of maguetizations]o The existence of a complex dependence of the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization on the composition of the solid solutions was established. 57e Manganese-Magnesium Ferrites "The Magnetic Characteristics of Solid Solutions in the System Mg Fe2 01, .. Mn Fe2 0,W " by N. A. Smcl 1koir and V. F. Be o r, Chair of Magnetism, Moscow State University; Moscow, Vestnik Moskovsko o Universiteta --m Seri Ma',,ematiki, Mekhaniki Astronomii Fiziki Khimii, No , Nov 5 , pp 163-169 After annealing of Mg Fe2 0) W Mu Fe2 0. solid solutions there is reduction of the initial and maximum magnet.i,Z permeabilit Wes and of the residual magnetic induction.. There is also an increase of the coercive force in solutions with a high content of the -manganese ferrite. The angle of rotation of the plane of polarization and the extinction increase for all ferrites in solutions with a low >ntent of the manganese fer- rite. There is a much greater increase of the ,former than of the latter. -36Q Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 58. Lithium Scintillation Glass for the Detection of Slow Neutrons "A Scintillation Glass for the Detection of Slow Neutrons," by V. K. Voytovetskiy, N. S. Tolmaeheva, and M. A. Arsayev; Moscow, Atomnaya Enerpl.Ya, Vol 6, No 3, Mar 59, pp 321-326 A scintillation glass that had been developed was Investigated. It was found that this glass, which has the composition L12 0.2 SJ.02 (Ce), can be used for the detection of. Blow electrons. The scintillation ef- ficiency of the glass when excited with electrons was found to be equal to 1.4% of that exhibited by Na 1. (TI). The scintillation yield for alpha particles was found to be 3.8 - 4 times smaller than that for electrons. The constant of the deexcitation time was determined and found to be approximately 0.15 microseconds. It was established that the scintillation efficLenc of glass 0.1 cm thick containing lithium with a concentration of the Lib isotope amounting to 90.5% comprises 82% for thermal neutrons. For neutrons with an energy of 10 electrovolts the 6cintillation efficiency of a glass 0.5 cm thick was found to be 40%. It is pointed out that glass used for the detection of slow neutrons must contain a sufficient quantity of either lithium or boron. 59. Review of Work on Borides of Rare-Earth Elements "Borides of Rare-Earth Metals," by G. V. Samsonov (Kiev); Mos~.ow, Uspekhi Kh.iml.i.., Vc.l 28, No 2, Feb 59, pp 189-217 The structure and physical properties of borides of rare-earth metals, methods for the production of rare-earth metal borides, sintering of borides of rare-earth metals, and applications of borides of rare-earth metals are reviewed on the basis of USSR and non-JSSR,publications. A bibliography consisting of 72 references of which 44 are USSR (22 of them to publica- tions by Samsonov) is appended to the article. It Is pointed out that the principal .field of the application of borides of rare-earth metals, particularly their hexaborides, is elec- tronics, where they are used as cathodes for powerful generator instal- lations instead of metallic cathodes. The aaTan.tages of using rare-earth metal borides for applj..,.ations of this type comprise a low work function of thermal emission., stability at low pressures, stability towarde bom-- bardment with ions, and a capacity for operation at high intensities of the field. Because cathodes made of rase-earth metal borides are not poisoned in the presence of air, they can be used in dismountable systems of electronic installations. Cathodes of lanthanum boridy have been used successfully in a synchrophasotron at a high intensity of the field, high temperatures, and high current densities. A cathode of lanthanum boride was used on a cyclotron for 150-200 hours as compared with the 20-hour use- ful life of a tantalum cathode. - 37 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 With the development of the prod'xc,tion of rare-earth metal oxides; and the consequent reduction of their cost, and also because investigations have been carried out on boride cathodes, the appllicatior c:C boride cathodes in television sets (electron ray tubes) and other- electronic devices which are generally used becomes possible. One of the drawbacks of boride ca- thodes is a low electric resistance, by reason of which they cannot be heated readily. This drawback can be eliminated by using solid solutions of borides rather than individual borides. These ,.olutions develop maxima of electric resistance while the favorable emise,i.on characteristics of the borides remain unchanged. Extensive possibilities for the application of rare-earth borides are aloo opened up by reason of the high melting temperatures of com- pounds of this class, their hardness, and their chemical stability. 60. Method. for the Preparation of Europium Hex:aboride "Europium Hexaboride," by O. V. Samsonov, V. P. Dzeganovskiy, and I. A. Semanshko, Institute of Cermets, Powder Metallurgy, and Special Alloys, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR.; Moscow, Kristallo rg , Vol 4, No 1, Jan/Feb 59, pp 119-120 The structures of hexaborides of a number of rare-earth metals have been investigated rather thoroughly. It has been established that these borides have advantageous thermal emission charact?.risTics. For this reason, compounds of this class are used extensively in electronics. Among the few rare-earth metals which had not been synthesized or in- vNstigated was europium hexaboride. This compound has been prepared in the work described in this instance by reducing a i:are europium oxide with boron carbide. The characteristics of europita~m hexaboride from the standpoint of its, application in electronics were determined and compaxcd with those of other rare-earth metal borides. 61. Adhesion Plateaus in Photoconductivity Lf , Single crystals "Slow Onset of Photoconductivity of CdS S_.ngle Cry.: tats at Week. Excitation intensities," by K. W. Boear and H. Waritcsch, Second Physics Institute of Humboldt Univi-~r?s:Lt,r and Labora- tory for the Physics of Electrical Breakdown, German Academy of. Sciences, Berlin; Leipzig, Annalen dei9 Physik, Vol ,2s NO 7/8, Jan 59, pp 406-1.12 ___ _ _. - An observation of the slow build-up of photoconductivity with weak light excitation affords the possibility of obtaining information on the adhesion-.term spectrum in the forbidden zone, and of computing the con- centration of pronounced adhesion-term groups as well as their adhesion coefficients for the electron capture. Crystals which have a structured -38- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 adhesion-term spectrum reveal build-up curves with points of divergence. Plateaus can be recognized, which are caused by the successive filling of adhesion-term groups, and which make possible a calculation of the adhesion- term concentration and of the corresponding adhesion coefficients. To compute these variables, only the concentration of the conductivity electrons on the plateau and the time of the upward swing of the curve at the end of the plateau are required. - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 62. The Ionization and Dissociation of Air in H ersonic Flight "Dissociation and Ionization of Air, Problems in Hyper- sonic Flight," by Engr Capt Yu. Kibardin, Candidste of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Sovetskaya Aviatsiya, 27 Mar 59, p 2 The author presents a basic review of information concerning the dis- sociation and ionization of air caused by hypersonic flights. After dis- cussing these phenomena, the author states that at the present time, al- though plasma, which is a mixture of stripped nuclei and electronic gas, has been obtained under laboratory conditions, it has not been obtained under hypersonic flight conditions, although ionization has. In addition, according to the author, electric and magnetic poles can act on this ionized air. The author states that ionizied air is chemically more active than normal air. Ions of air energetically enter into chemical reactions with materials found in flying apparatus and can cause the oxidation of the outer covering. The degree of dissociation and ionization of air around the nose portion of a flying apparatus will be less than that found in the rear portion of the apparatus, while the temperature will be higher. There- fore, the nose part of the apparatus should be covered with special insula- tion. The discussion is accompanied by three graphs. The first one, Figure I, shows a graph of the dissociation and ionization of air at temperatures up to 25,0000 C and at speeds up to 7 kms per sec. Figure 2 shows changes in the chemical composition of air as a result of dissociation and the formation of nitrogen oxides and ionization, depending on temperature for two pressures -- 0.001 atmospheres and 100 atmospheres. Figure 3 presents curves of the air temperatures surrounding the nose-portion of an apparatus at various altitudes and speeds. It is seen from Figure 3 that flight at great speeds close to the gound can be accompanied. by air temperatures of up to 10,000? C. At heights of approximately 100 km at these rates of speed,?th`'temperature of the air is decreased at the critical point almost by a factor of 2. On the surface of a flying apparatus, where the pressure is approximately equal to atmospheric pressure, the temperature will be lower, especially at increased speeds. However, such a lowering of tempera- ture does not guarantee the integrity of the structure. Special. measures are required for the thermic protection of the structure which will be discussed in a forthcoming article. In addition, the author states that free atoms of oxygen and nitrogen are obtained as a result of the dissociation of molecules and can enter into reaction with each other, forming opaque nitric oxide. At the same time, -40- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 a new type of heat-exchange beginsli.e., radiation, around a flying body. It should be further noted that during the flight of a flying apparatus, the temperature and pressure of the air is different at various points on its surface, complicating the, aerodynamic problems. 63. Future Development of Combined Power-Heating Electric Stations "Power-Heating Plant Development in Large Power Systems With High-Capacity Electric Stations of High and Super-High Pres- sure," by S. F. Kopsyev; Moscow, Teploenergetika, No 4, Apr 59, pp 3-10 The article analyzes the apparent inefficiency of combined power and heat generation at the same electric power station in the light of greater emphasis recently placed in the USSR on the gaseous and liquid fuels. "The rayon boiler installations burning gas or liquid fuel for central- ized heating cost 30% less than similar installations operating on solid fuel, and their operating efficiency is raised to $0-90%, in contrast to an efficiency of 65-75% for installations operating on solid fuel. "These advantages of separate generation of electric power and heat, if fortified with superficial and one-sided evaluation of the newly intro- duced factors affecting the future construction of the power plants in the USSR, might be interpreted as a blow to the practicability of combined power-heating generation, depriving the latter of its leading role in the future power supply to the cities and industry. "As a possible 'rescues of the combined power-heating generation, it is suggested to continue to supply heating from large power-heating elec- tric stations located directly at the coal fields or from 'micro-power- heating stations' burning gas. When gas is. available, even separate cen..-. tralized heating boiler units are considered inefficient,, and complete decentralization down to individual heating units for each apartment is suggested. "Detailed analysis of this problem carried out by a number of lead- ing power engineering institutes (Power Engineering Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR, All-Union Heating Engineering Institute, Moscow Power Engi- neering Institute, All-Union Correspondence Institute of Power Engnineer- ing, and Promenergoproyekt), as well as by individual experts, has shown that the existing dmbts about the practicability of combined power-heating installations are without foundation and that the economical basis for the combined power-heat generation cannot be undermined by the new factors entering into the further development of power engineering in the USSR, provided these factors are properly interpreted in the future construction of combined power-heating electric stations." - 41 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 64. New Zeiss Spectrograph "A New Glass Spectrograph," by H Scheller, VEB Carl Zeiss, Jena; Berlin, Feingeraetetechnik,No 1, Jan 59, pp 19-23 VEB Carl Zeiss, Jena, has developed a new glass spectrograph, the optical principle of which goes back to an earlier type (spectrograph for physicists). with the Foersterling three-prism arrangement. It is a very stable and easy to operate instrument rugged enough for use in an indus- trial laboratory. It can be converted rapidly and repeatedly to meet the requirements of varying spectrographic problems. The main feature of the new development was the equipping of the three- prism spectrograph with two cameras of different focal length and large relative aperture for the spectrographic recording of Raman emission of organic substances or of 'tither low-intensity phenomena such as luminescence, flame spectra, and converter spectra. The three-prism arrangement also afforded the possibility of bridging the gap of a glass spectrograph of very high dispersion. When combined with an autocollimation camera with a focal length of 1,300 millimeters, the three-prism spectrograph can be used for the emis- sion analysis of spectra with an especially large number of lines, such as are encountered in the quantitative analysis of rare earths, highly alloyed steels, and tungsten carbides, as well as ceramic products based on titanium oxide or zirconium oxide. 65. Jet Propellants Commission in Poland "Formation of-Jet Propellants Commission, Polish Academy of Sciences," (unsigned article); Warsaw, Skrzydlata Polska, 18 Mar 59, p 3 Brief item in source reports the formation of the Jet Propellants Com- mission (Komisja Napedow Odrzutowych) under Technical Sciences Department IV (Wydzial IV Nauk Technicznych) of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The task of this new commission is to prepare a 5-year plan and prospective plans for scientific research in rocket technology in Poland. Chairman of the commission is Prof Dr Michal Lune, corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences. - 42 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 66. East Germans Welcome Translation of Tsien's Book on Cybernetics "Book Reviews. Technische Kybernetik, by R. S. Tsien, trans- lated by H. Kaltenecker, VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin, and Berliner Union, Stuttgart, 1958, 288 pp," by Hornauer; Berlin, Nachrichtentechnik, No 3, Mar 59, pp 142-143 The review cf this book (H. S. Tsien, Engineering Gybernetics, McGraw-Hill,, New York, 1954) ends with the following statements: "It 'can thus be seen that Tsien's observations penetrate up to the very limits of present-day knowledge and give a large view of the problems which cybernetics presents to the engineer. All mathematical entries are given without derivations, and so thie book can 'be used for more profound study only by those who are equipped with the necessary mathematical knowl- edge, thus essentially that knowledge which today has been compiled under the concept of the mathematics of control. "In view of the fact that the problems of automation have come to the fore in East German industry, the appearance of this book by Tsien is to be welcomed. It can be recommended emphatically as a valuable aid to anyone who intends to concern himself more deeply with the scientific and mathematical problems connected with automation." CPYRGHT 67. New Petroleum Research Institute at Kuybyshev "Creation of a New Petroleum Research Institute at, Kuybyshev, USSR," (unsigned article); Bucharest, Petrol si Gaze, Jan 59, p 42 The success of geological exploration in the Kuybyshev area in recent years has led to a considerable increase of gas and oil reserves. New deposits with very favorable exploitation parameters were discovered. As a consequence, crude oil production in the Kuybyshev area will increase to three times that of the present production in the period 1959-1965. Due to the rapid development of this important industry, which requires the application of ultramodern methods and technological processes, and due to the many problems that need to be solved, the Complex Scientific Research Institute of the Petroleum Industry (Institutul complex de cercetari stiinti- fice al industriei pet.rol.ului) was established at Kuybyshev. The institute's activities began in June 1.958. -43- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 The institute was created on the basis of many geological research laboratories and some technical services of Giprovostokneft. The struc- ture of the institute provides for the following sections: geology, geo- chemistry, geophysics, drilling, exploration. 'automatics and telemechanics, fuel, oils, and plans. The geology section comprises five laboratories: stratigraphy, tectonic and deposit formation, calculation of reserves, methodology of prospecting and exploration operations, and hydrogeology. The geochemistry section is represented by the laboratory of the geo- chemistry of paleozoic deposits, the laboratory of geochemistry of crude oil, and the laboratory of microbiology. The geophysics section has three laboratories [not named]. The drilling section is provided with laboratories of drilling tech- nology, rational drilling regime, and drilling machines and equipment. The exploitation section has created laboratories for crude oil extrac- tion techniques and technology, intensification of crude oil extraction, and gas extraction and transportation. There are three laboratories in the fuel section: preparation of raw material, catalytic processes, and petrochemical synthesis. In the oils section are the laboratories of the manufacture of oils and paraffin and of grease synthesis. The planning section has two sectors: drilling'and extraction. The subject plan of the institute for the second half of 1958 provides a broad program of present problems connected with the development of the petroleum industry in the Kuybyshev area. [For additional information, see Item No 59 and also Metallurgy.] -44- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 68. Fejer Series Used in the Approximation of Conjugate Functions "Approximation of Conjugate Functions by Fejer Sums," A. V. Yefimov; Moscow; Uspekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk, Vol 14, No 1(85), Jan/Feb 591 PP-183-188 Let f(x) be a periodic function of period 2 qland let am- am(f) and bm = bm(f). be its Fourier coefficients. We will denote the corresponding Fourier and Fejer sums by n Sn(f,x) ? ao12 t 1(amcos mx + bmsin mx) (n- 0, 1) 2, . . ,) n dn(f,x) = l/n+1 U Sm(f,x), respectively. We will say that f(x)E MH1 if f(x) has the period 27f and for-any x E [ 0, 27r ] and h > 0 satisfys the condition sup max E (-1)k-i/k -2ial GMh ISI~h x i=0 i (k i s a whole numbere 1). Henceforth, if M = 1, we will write f(x)E H. We will denote the conjugate function of f(x) by T(x). We have established in [1] the case when k . 2 and in [2] the case when k = 2 that if f(x)E Hk and f(x) is the conjugate function, then (1) f(x) - &n-1(f,x) - 1/1i fal[ f(x + t/n) - f(x-t/n)] sin t dt + o t2 + 0(1/n), where al > 0 is the smallest root of the equation u o sin dt = 71 2. t In the present work the following theorem is proved. -45- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 k Wk(h,f) Iblp` h II 4 f(x) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Let f(x) E Ht (k~ 2) and f(x) be the conjugate function. Then for deviations of the function f(x) frcm its Fejer sum, the following equa- tion holds : (2) f(x) - vn-1 (f,x) = f(x- 1/2n) - f(x+ 1/2n)+ 0(1/n). [1] A. V. Yefimov, "On the Approximation of Certain Classes of Con- tinuous Functions by Fourier and Fejer Series," Dissertation, Moscow, 1957.' [2] A. V. Yefimov, "On the Approximation of Certain Classes of Continu- ous Functions by Fourier and Fejer Series," Izv. AN, Seriya Matem., Vol 22, 1958, pp 81-116. 69. Approximation of Periodic Differentiable Functions by Trig(>nometric Polynomials "On the Best Approximation of Periodic Differentiable Functions by Trigonometric Polynomials," by Sun' Yun- Shen; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Matematicheskaya, Vol 23, No 1, Jan Feb 59, pp 67-92 In the work, the exact upper bound of the best approximations by trig- onometric polynomials of order n-l of periodic functions of classes. W(r) and W(r) for r 6 is established. 70. Information Theory With an Abstract Alphabet "Information Theory with an Abstract Alphabet-Generalized Forms of McMillan"s Limit Theorem. for the Case of Discrete and Continuous Time," by Albert Perez, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics; Moscow, Teoriya Veroyatnostey i yeye Primeneniya, Vol 4, No 1, 1959, pp 105-109 Various means of generalizing McMillan's limit theorem are discussed. - 46 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 71. Integral Equations Solved Approximately "Approximate Method of Solving Nonhomogenous Integral Equations With Any Arbitrary Regular Value of the Parameter," I. D. Belogorskaya; Kiev, Dopovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrain- skiy RSR, No 12, 1958, pp 1288-1291 The paper gives a description and a demonstration of a method for solving integral equations which is analogous to Seidel's method for solv- ing a system of linear algebraic equations. -47- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Antibiotics 72. New Antibiotic -- Mycerin "Mycerin" (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 6 Mar 59, p 4 "A method for obtaining and purifying mycerin, a new antibiotic, has been developed at-the Division of Infectious Pathology and Experi- mental Therapy of Infections of the Institute of Epidemiology and Micro- biology imeni N. F. Gamaleya, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR. The prep- aration, prepared from an actinomycete isolated from the 'soil of Krasnodarskiy Kray, is now being utilized in the therapy of infections caused by microorganisms which are resistant to other antibiotics -- peni- cillin and streptomycin in particular -- in a number of clinics. "Conclusive reports on the high effectiveness of mycerin were furnished by the Institute of Neurosurgery imeni N. N. Burdenko, the Moscow City Hos- pital imeni Bauman, Maternity Home No 16 in the Leningradskiy Rayon of Moscow, and other medical establishments. The drug produces no side effects. When administered parenterally, the drug freely permeates the nervous sys- tem, forming a highly effective concentration in the spinal corn fluid. Mycerin is particularly useful when used parenterally in the therapy of large area burns, purulent cerebral processes, and abscesses of the mammary gland in women, and when administered intranasally in drops to newly born infants to prevent infections of the respiratory organs. "The new drug is administered intramuscularly .in small doses not ex- ceeding a total of 1.5.-.2.G grams in 24 hours. It was also found to be effective when administered internally in doses of 2-5 grams. The course of treatment is 2 or 3 days. Facilities for large-scale production of this valuable preparation 'should be provided by the Moscow Sovnarkhoz." CPYRGHT - 48 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 73. New Antibiotics Obtained From Plants of Ferula Genus "Galbanic Acid and its Derivatives as New Antibiotics of Plant Origin," by N. P. Kiryalov, M. A. Litvinov, V. 0. Mokhnach, and T. N. Naugolnaya; Moscow-Leningrad, Botani- chestva, Vol E, No 1) Jan 59, pp 101-10 Numerous investigations established that aqueous and aqueous-alcohol solutions of the sodium salt of galbanic acid in meat peptone bouillon have a bacteriostatic effect on staphylococcus aureus strain No 209. Galbanic acid is a crystalline substance obtained from the roots of Ferula kokanica Rgl. et Schm. and Ferula gunnnosa Boiss. It has a 'melting point of 91+-,96 degrees and. its chemical composition is C25H 20 . It is an umbelliferone derivative 'with the following probable 'strv c url formula: --CH3 CH,HV 3 3 Further investigations reveled that the'products of the partial de- composition of galbanic acid also possess great antimicrobial activity. When galbanic acid is reacted with alkalies, an oxidibasic acid is formed. It has a melting point of 225-226 degrees, and its chemical for- mula is C233H 2O . It was further found that the methyl and ethyl esters of the-oxi i as~c acid are even more antimicrobially active than galbanic acid. The preparations have no effect on the coli bacillus. They are only slightly toxic. Of considerable interest is the fact that they differ structually from other known antibiotics. Methods of extracting the anti- biotics from the plants are described. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 CPYRGHT 71+. Phthalazole, an Antibiotic Preparation "Antibacterial Action of Phthalazole," by Ye. P. Podruzhnyak and V. Ya. Pochinok (Kiev); Kiev, Vrachebnoye Delo, No 12, Dec 58, pp 1293-1298 Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phthalazole [Phthalylsulfathiazole, Lekarstvenn a Sredstva, (Drugs) by Prof. M. D. Mashokovskiy Moscow, Medgiz, pp 490- .91 ]on Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cola, and Bacillus pyocyaneus. The antibacterial action of phthalazole was tested in vitro by utilizing a physiological salt -solution of the chemical. While phthalazole dissolves with difficulty in physiological salt solution, the addition of sodium bicarbonate markedly increases'the solubility of the drug. The experiments were carried out in Petri dishes on either a meat-peptone agar medium or on liquid culture media. The results of the experiments were as follows: 1. Phthalazole exhibited an expressed antibacterial action on Bacillus coli, Bacillus pyocyaneus, and Proteus vulgaris. 2. The antibacterial action of phthalazole depended on its concentra- tion and the culture medium used. . 3. When used in combination with penicillin it enhances the action of both the latter and itself. 75. Plans for Antibiotic Production "Our Plans and Prospects, Today and Tomorrow in Antibiotics," by Z. Yermol?yeva, Corresponding Member of Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 6 Jan 59, p 3 "During 1958, our industry perfected the production of many antibiotic substances. Among the preparations of the neomycin complex, polymycin and mycerin are very necessary in surgical practice and in treating intes- tinal infection in children. At the end of the year, as a result of in- tense work, a group at the Sverdlovsk Factory of Medicinal Preparations produced the first consignment of erythromycin -- an antibotic effective in diseases caused by penicillin-resistant-type microbes; and the first consignment of an antifungus preparation, :rlystatin, was produced at the Moscow Factory No I. The production of bicillin III -- a preparation of penicillin of prolonged action -- and a mixture of tetracyclines and vi- tamines was authorized. CPYRGHT - 50 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 "r'or our group at; the Laboratory of Antibiotics of the Central Insti- turee for the Advanced traLninf~ of Physicians,, it was very important to put I.rrto mn,sl-) roducts.on L?lrr tett' .cy' preparations for intramuscular admin- 1s ti at.iori tliei. }rave: alr:~ady reee''.ived favorable reviews by clinicians in ?:-rn iouc npr.cia.iti,~,s ) "Tire second work conducted by us: illuminating the action of various anLibioticr on tumor growt;h. We showed that, despite certain ideas on the subject-, such antibiotics as penicillin, streptomycin, and tetra- cycline do not stimulate tumor growth. We have now undertaken an energtic search for antibiotics which will. intd.bit tumor growth. "Our young antibiotic science has already made a huge contribution in -tie fight for the health of hiunanity. However, there are still many out- standing problems on which many s,:.:ientific workers -throughout the world are working. We hope, as cluickly as po sible, to find an antibiotic against the oldest killer of man -- cancer -- and against still unconquered dis- eases -- poliomyelitis and virus influenza? 'Old' bacterial infections require our constant attention so as to obtain better medicinal forms of antibiotic and to prevent the growth of resistant forms of microbes and superfluous side effects." CPYRGHT Aerosol Method. of Anti.bioticrl Adm:inist;ration "Therapy of Patients With Pulmonary Inflammatory and Suppura- tive Processes With Antibiotic Aerosols," by 0. V. Korkushko, Chair 1 of Therapy at Kiev Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, Kier, trrachebno Del.o, No 1, Jan 59, pp 21-26 An aerosol method of admit,:LLcl r?tng ant.ibiot,ics in the therapy of pul- monary inflammatory and sup1Yaral:i?+,'e: processes is described. The observa- tions and experiments were read(.: on 13C patients at the Kiev Oblast Clinical Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group comprising 1O5 patients w;;a given the aerosol treatment; the second group, consisting of 25 patient,, received the antibiotics intramuscularly. The course oi' aerosol therapy consist=ed of 20-?3O inhalations, each inhalation lasting from 25 to 30 minutes, The I. I. Elkin and S. I. Edelshteyn aerosol. atomizers were used. The- atorr:Lzers were connected by rubber tubes with oxygen cylinders equipped 'caith dosimeters and reducers. At each inhalation treatment, the patents recei-rec1 300;,00,7 units of penicillin and 250,000 units of streptomycin through the respiratory organs. The observations established that the d::r.e.ct ae:r.o o.L method of therapy of pulmonary inflam- matory and suppurative diseas?s with ancibio-tics is more effective than the indirect method of -therapy by the intramuscular administration of the prep- arations. In cases which require surgical interference, the aerosol method may be utilized as orir of the components of the complex of preoperative preparation. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Bacterioloq 77. Membrane Filters to Determine Seedability of Intestinal Bacilli "The Exper9mental Use of Membrane Filters for Quantitative Determination of the Exttent.'of Seedability of Surfaces by B. coli," by B. M. Laprun and Ye? I. L'vovskaya, Sb. Nauchn. Rabot. Mold. Otd. Bses. Nauchn. 0-va Mikrobiol., Epidemiol., i Infektsionistov (Collected Scientific Works of the Moldavian Branch of the All-Union Society of Microbiologists, Epidemi- ologists, and Infectionists), No 2, 1957, pj 97-100 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, No 20, 25 Oct 58, Abstract No 90940, by V. V. Vlodavets "Washing from 50 or 100 cm` surface was done with a 5 x 5 cm sterile gauze pad moistened with physiological. solution. The pad was immersed in a flask containing 50-100 ml of sterile physiological solution and was agitated for 3-5 minutes, after vhich the liquid was filtered through a membrane filter. This filter was placed on an Endo medium for a day to determine the number of B. coli. The number of B. cola on one cm2 of surface was determined by simple count ing. Washings from small round objects were done from the entire surface. After 726 washings, growth of B. coli was obtained in 11.28 cases (57.%), whereas growth was observed in only 302 cases (1+1.6%) when seeding was done according to the generally accepted directions. The authors recommend a method of washings with seed- ing on membrane fitter for quantitative determination-of B. cola." 78. Effect of Sublethal Doses of Chlorine on Enteric Bacteria "The Relationship of Dysentery Bacteria :.n.d Intestinal Bacilli to Sublethal Doses of Chlorine, Taking Into Account Their Drug Resistance and Modifiability," by N. D. Trofimova, Tr. Krymsk. Med. In-t (Collected Works of the Crimean Medical Insta.tute , No 17, 1957, pp 141-147 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, No 20, 25 Oct 58, Abstract No 90708) by V. G. ?etrovskaya) CPYRGHT "The relationship of Sonne and Flexner dysentery bacteria, Boyd- Novgorodskaya and Newcastle subspecies, and intestinal bacilli (citrate- positive and citrate-negative) which were sensitive and resistant to etazol and synthomycin, and to subletthal doses of chloramin.e and sodium hypochlorite was studied. There was a total of 46 strains in the experi- ment. A high resistance of Sonne dysentry and very low resistance of the - 52 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100300001-0 Boyd -Nov gorodslcaya and Newcastle to etazol and chlorine was rioted? The esi;i bl Cr3hed differences w- 4 U' .e'k:, lsect to :?.tazol of the citrate-positive intestinal bacilli and manmial.itt,n Lnt~=stir:a1 basil 1, iii the author?s opinion, earl be an additional criterion :for di1'fcreni:, these species. Parallel- Lctn between the re