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C I AtI"D X.SX0~U T-- tS UNULMbb I V A oo Z 5C LEFT I F I C I N~U[r,Tf-conjugate systems. Hence, the authors expected that the esters of ethylphosphinous acid would also react easily with ryr-unsaturated acids. In reality, the tests showed that esterr of ethylphosphinous acid interact with acrylic and meta- crylic acids more actively than trialkyiphosphites and esters of phenyl- phosphinous acid. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 The ethyl ester of ethylphosphinous acid reacts more energetically with acrylic and metacrylic acids than the n-propyl and n-butyl esters. Thus, the reactivity of the various esters of ethyl phosphinous acids in relation to oy(-unsaturated acids also depends on the radical size, just as in other cases of the Arbuzov Rearrangement reaction. Constants of the compounds synthesized are presented in one table. 27. Synthesis of Esters of o~-Ijydroxy- R, 9-dichloroisopropyl- phosphirlic Acid "On the Interaction of Dialkylphosphoric Acids With Al- dehydes and Ketones. XXII. Esters of oC-Hydroxy-p,(3- dichloroisopropylphosphinic Acid," by V. S. Abramov and A. S. Kapustina, Kazan Chemicotechnological Institute imeni Kirov; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 3319-3321 This article presents a further investigation by the authors on the interaction of dialkylphosphoric acids with halosubstituted ketones. The condensation of symmetrical dichloroacetone with dialkyiphosphites is studied herein. The reaction occurs at both room temperature and on a steam bath without a catalyst, yielding the esters of cx-hydroxy- 3, 12-dichloroisopropylphesphinic acid. Reaction time ranges from 10 hours at 1000C to more than IE months at room temperature. The structural formula of this series: (RO)2Ij - C(CH2Cl)2 where R = CH, CH, CH C Hor iso-CH 32537, iso-3H7 , C19 4 . 9 The properties of the newly synthesized substances are presented in a table. 26. Properties of Trihalomethylsulfochlorides Studied "On the Properties of Trihalomethylsulfochlorides," by K. A. Petrov and A. A. Neymysheva; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, Pp 31+Ol-3 03 One of the characteristics and important properties of sulfo- chlorides is their capacity to form addition products with olefins on the short bond. This capacity has been used to synthesize 13-halo- genated sulfides which possess high physiological activity. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 This article describes the reactions of trichloromethyl- and fluorodichl.oromethylsuifochloride: with substances which have a short bond. In contrast to other sulfochlorides, trichloromethyl- and fluorodichloromethylsuifochloride react with difficulty with olefins to form the F3-halogenated sulfides containing the trihalo- methylgroup. Thus, trichloromethylsulfochloride reacts with cyclo- hexene only after long heating at 120?C, whereas methyleulfochloride reacts energetically even during cooling. Trihalomethylsulf ochlori des react with allyl chloride under more severe conditions than with cyclo- hexene. Addition products are obtained with propylene only at 100-110? and under a pressure of 100 atmospheres.. Addition products were not obtained at all with ethylene. Fluory3.ehlorosul,fochjoride was obtained by two methods : substitution of chlorine by fluorine in trichloromethylsulfochloride with the aid of hydrogen fluoride and by the cleavage of fluorodichloro- methylsulfodiethylamide with hydrogen chloride. 29. Reaction of OS-Oxides of PiperZlene With HCl Studied "Interaction of Q(-Oxides of Piperylene With Hydrogen Chloride," by A. W. Pudovik, B. Ye. Ivanov, and Z. M. Zinov'yeva, Izhevsk Mechanical Institute; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey.. Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 33-37 This experiment is another in a series on theoc-oxides of piperylene being conducted by the authors. In earlier experiments, they have 'covered the reactions of 0(-oxides of piperylene with water, acetic anhydride, acetyl chloride and ethyl alcohol. Later, they studied the hydration and isomerization of croxides of piperylene (3, 4-hydroxydopentene-1) and also its reaction with acetone, methanol, and dit'thylami ne . This: article describes the interaction of 3,4-hydroxydopentane-1 and 1,2-hyroxydopentena-3 with hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride and 3,1i-hydroxydopentene-1 form the addition product 3-chloropentene-l-of-1+. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 30. Arylaminolyais of Pherlyld:Lchlorophosphazosulfonaryls "Arylorninolysia of Phenyld:Lchlorophosphazosulfonaryls," by V. I. Shevchenko and V. T. Stratiyenko, Dnepropetrovsk Met- allurgical Institute; Leningrad, Zhur__nal Obahchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 31l.58_31 72 The reaction of phenyldichlorophosphazosulfonaryls with aniline was studied. Phenyldianilinophosphazosulfoneryls were synthesized: ArSO2N =P(C6H5)C12 + 'EC6H5NH2 -- 2C6H5NH3C1 + ArSO2N = P(C6H5) (NHC6H5)2. The alkaline hydrolysis of phenyldianilinochlorophosphazosul- fonaryls was also studied. The monoanilides of arylsufonamidophenylphos- phinic acids, Ar.S02NH=P0(C6H5)(NFIC6II5 ), were obtained from the hydrolysis of phenyldl.anilino- and phenylanilinbchlorophosphazosulfonaryls. 31. Method Described for Obtaining 2-Chloroalkyl Esters of Alkyl- chlorophosphinous Acid "Concerning a Method of Obtaining 2-Chloroalkyl Esters of Alkylchlorophosphinous Acid," by S. Z. Ivin and K. V. ICaravanov; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshche Khimii, Vol 29) No 10, Oct 59, pp 311.55 Yields reaching 70% were obtained in the production of 2-chioro- alkyl esters of alkylchiorophosphinous acid by reacting alkyldichloro- phosphines with alkylene oxides: RCH--CHR U'~ C1 + R'FC1 -*RIP 2 OCHCHC1. I I R R The 2-chloroethyl and 2-chloropropyl esters of methylchlorophos- phinous acid, the 2-chloroethyl, 2-chloropropyl, and 2-chlorocyclohexyl esters of ethylchiorophosphinous acid, the acid chlorides of 2-chloro- ethyl, and 2-chloropropyl esters of methylthiophosphinous acid were synthesized and characterized. - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 32. Synthesis of Diaryl Esters of N-phosphoric Acids of Aromatic Amidinea "Diaryl Esters of N-phosphoric Acids of Aromatic Amidines," by G. I. Derkach and A. V. Kircanov, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 3424-3127 C-chlore-P,P-diaro.,cyis9phosphazoaryls reacts with ammonia, diethylamine, and aniline to yield the diaryl esters of N-phosphoric acids of amidines, of N;N'-diethylamidines, of N'-phenylamidines, and of an aromatic series, according to the general equation: ArCCl = NPO(OAr')2 + 2NHRR'-> NH2RR'C1+ ArC(NRR') = NPO (OAr') . 2 The diaryl esters of N-phosphoric acids of aromatic amidines possess very weak basic properties and split during thermal cleavage into the corresponding nitrites and amides of diphenylphosphates. The physical characteristics of the newly synthesized products are presented in one table. 33? Conversion of Sodium Salts of Dialkyl hosphates Described "Reactions of Sodium Dialkyiphosphites and Phosphonates," by K. A. Petrov, N. K. Bliznyuk, M. A. Korshunov, F. L. Maklyayev, and A. N. Voronkov; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 3407-3411 CPYRGHT "Sodium salts of dialkylphosphites are -converted into the salts of esters of alkylphosphinic acids by the action of small quantities of dialkylphosphonates or alkyl halides." 34. Methods of Preparing Dialk 1 hosphates of Higher Alcohols Described "Dialkylphosphates and Pyrophosphates," by K. A. Petrov, N. K. Bliznyuk, and F. L. Maklyayev; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 3403-3407 " A method was developed for obtaining dialkyiphosphates of higher alcohols by hydrolyzing chlorophosphates and by the reaction of phosphory chloride with water-alcohol solutions. "It was shown that dialkylphosphates and dialkylpyrophosphates possess the capacity of alkylating aromatic amines." - 24 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 35. New Esters of Phosphonosuccinic al4d Phosphonopropanetricarboxylic Acids Synthesized New Method of Synthesizing Esters of Phosphinic and Thiophosphinic Acids. XXXI. Addition of Phosphorous and Ilypophosphorous Acids, Dialkylphosphorous Acids, and Esters of Phosphonoacetic Acid to Esters of Maleic Acid," by A. N. Pudovik, T. M. Moshkina, and I. V. Konovalova, Kazan Branch of the Scientific Research Cinephotographic Institute; Leningrad, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 3338-+k2 "Phosphorous and hypophosphorous acids are added to esters of maleic acid after prolonged heating in the presence of catalysts. "A number of new esters of phosphonosuccinic acids and phospho- nopropanetricarbbxylic acids with the butyl, :Lsobutyl, and isoamyl radicals in the eater groups were obtained by the addition of dialkyl- phosphorous acids and esters of phosphonoacetic acid to esters of maleic acid." CPYRGHT 36. Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium in Nitrogen-Helium and Helium Methane S stems "Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium in Nitrogen-Helium and Helium- Methane Systems;" by F. F. Khaxakhorin; Minsk: Inzhenerno- fizicheskiy Zhurnal, No 9, Sep 59, pp 24-29 "The volatility of helium in nitrogen-helium and helium-methane systems in the temperature range 68 to 150.30 K and at pressures from 4 to 215 atm is calculated from the data obtained in an experimental investigation of the liquid-vapor equilibrium of these mixtures. At pressures from 40-45 to 215 atm, the solubility of helium in liquid nitrogen and methane can be calculated with sufficient accuracy by the Krichevskiy-Kazarnovslciy equation. The constants for this equation were found for the temperatures investigated. The volatility of pure helium was calculated in the temperature range from 6 to 160?K at pressures of 300 atm." CPYRGHT - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Physical Chemistry 37. USSR Research in the Field of Paramagnetic Resonance "Investigations on Paramagnetic Resonance," by I. V. Aleksandrov and N. N. Korst; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 29, No 10; Oct 59, pp 106-107 "On 1-5 June 1959, the Kazan' Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences USSR and Kazan' University held the current All-Union Conference on Para- magnetic Resonance. The conference was well attended. The reason for thiE was that electronic paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic 'resonance, in addition to their importance in physics, have found applications in many fields of science and technology. "Just as in former years, particular attention at the conference was paid to electronic paramagnetic resonance. However, nuclear magnetic resonance was represented this time by a much greater number of investiga- tions than on former occasions. This circumstance is gratifying. Until recently, less attention was paid to problems of nuclear magnetic resonance in the USSR than abroad, with the result that a certain lag developed in USSR science in this respect. The conference at Kazan' demonstrated that this lag will soon be eliminated. "The conference was opened by an introductory address given by Ye. K. Zavoyskiy, who analyzed the present-day status of work in the field of paramagnetic resonance. Then reports were given on the investi- gation of the structure of organic and inorganic substances by electronic paramagnetic resonance methods. Of importance is the investigation of magnetic properties of a number of crystals. Problems in this field were discussed in papers given by representatives of Moscow, Kazan', and Tbilisi groups of physicists (A. M. Prokhorov and coworkers, S. A. Al'tshuler and coworkers, T. I. Sanadze, and B. G. Berlava). A con- siderable number of theoretical investigations in the field of electronic paramagnetic resonance were discussed which involved calculations of spin-lattice relaxation times, quantitative evaluation of fine structure spectra, and determination of the configuration of lines corresponding to electronic paramagnetic resonance signals. One may note a paper by N. N. Tikhomirova and V. V. Voyevodskiy, in which a simple and elegant method of analyzing the configuration of such lines was given and a method was reported for the determination of constants which characterize the lines. "Great interest was evinced in reports on the application of electronic paramagnetic resonance in chemistry. It is known that measure- ments of electronic paramagnetic resonance make it possible to determine the structure of free radicals. It was emphasized at the conference that - 26 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 this method may t;:Lve new information on the di.str.ibution of electron density in the radical, on the type of the interaction of tie radical. with the environment, etc. Thus, a report by V. N. Ch:Lbr:Lk:Ln, S. P. Solod- ovnikov, and S. I. Vetchink:Lrl brou~lit out that the ~'orlfi;uratlort of the lines corresponding to electronic paramagnetic resonance s:iguals emitted by dibenzyl chromium and its derivatives depends principally on the struc- ture of the radical itself, while the solvent exerts only a small effect on the configuration of the lines. "Work by L. A. Blyumenfel'd and A. E. Kolmanson reported at the conference demonstrated that electronic paramagnetic resonance may yield much that to new In the .investigation of biological objects. "Considerable attention was paid to the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Progress in the application of this method of investigation depends on the development of a nuclear magnetic spectroscope of sufficient resolving power. This problem was discussed in several reports (by F. I. Skripov and others, N. M. Iyevskaya and co- workers, Yu. S. Konstantinov and coworkers, L. L. Dekabrun and coworkers and Yu. Ya. Shamonin). The discussion of this problem indicated that the principal difficulty consists in the creation of a stable magnet with a sufficiently uniform field. "A considerable number of investigations dealt with the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. A. A. Kokin and G. V. Skrotskiy discussed the development of the method devised by Kubo and Tomit as far as its applications to magnetically dilute solutions and solids are concerned. A lively discussion followed N. D. Sokolov's report concerning the effect of proton exchange on the width of the line representing the nuclear magnetic resonance signal. A paper by I. V. Aleksandrov concerning the computation of the magnitude of chemical shi{ts was also presented. "Reports by Yu. S. Konstantinov and P. N. Borodin and F. 1. Skripov on the nuclear magnetic spectroscopy of fluorine presented extensive experimental data which made it possible to establish that the relation between the magnitude of the chemical shift and the electrical negativity of neighboring atoms cannot be interpreted within the framework of present- day theories. "A number of papers on applications of nuclear magnetic resonance in chemistry were also given. In this field, one must particularly note a report by R. A. Dautov and coworkers concerning the investigation of the structure of polymer molecules by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance and also a report by M. V. Vol'kenshteyn and coworkers. CPYRGHT - 27 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 "A paper by V. D. Korepanov on measurement of the relaxation time by means of the spin echo was received with considerable interest. Mastery of this method opens up new prospects in the field of nuclear spectroscopy. A series of reports on nuclear quadruple resonance by F. I. Skripov and coworkers must also be regarded as significant. This particular method makes it possible to investigate electric fields in crystals. "The conference demonstrated that an increasing number of USSR scientific institutions are participating in research on paramagnetic resonance. This is shown by the fact that not only Moscow, Leningrad, and Kazan' scientific institutions were represented at the conference, but also institutions located at Per,.,,', Krasnoyarsk, Sverdlovsk, Tbilisi, and other cities. "At the final session of the conference, a resolution was passed which outlined a number of measures that would expedite the organization of continuous [series] production of instruments required in work on para- magnetic resonance. The resolution also recommended the publication of a number of manuals on problems of pa).-amagnetic resonance." CPYRGHI 38. Measurement of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance at Low Temperatures "Resonators for the Determination of -Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance at Low Temperatures," by S. D. Kaytmazov and A. M. Prokhorov, Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 5, Sep/Oct 59, pp 107-110 A description is given of the design of resonators, by means of which one can determine the electronic paramagnetic resonance at low temperatures in the centimeter ( A, = 2.5 and 3.2 centimeters) and decimeter ranges of wave lengths. The design is such that the sample can be placed into the resonator after the temperature of the latter has been lowered. The centimeter resonator range can be regulated for different wave lengths. The dimensions of the resonator are such that it can be immersed into a standard Dewar :'lank with a capacity of one liter. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Radiation Chemistry 39. Hungarian Plastics Research Described "Successful Experiments by Plastics Industry Researchers", by Erzsebet Toth; Budapest; Magyar Nemzet, 18 Nov 59, P 5. The Organic C:ie,, Industry arid Plastics Industry Research Insti- tute in Budapest ma i.tlta.i.u:7 contact with 40 er,terpa:?;:, including the Pearl Button Factory (Gyon6y-;ombgyar); Ikarausz [u vehicle factory]; the Medical Sciences University, which uses polye:otor resins for anatom- ical preparations; the Leather Industry's Wooden Tb'f1uipment Enterprise (Boripari Fakellekteri:telo Vallalat); and the Audio and Film Technology Enterprise (Hang- es Ki.iroteclinika:L Vallalat) At the institute, Gyozo Ferenczi designed a polyethylene acid pump. Its frame is of cast iron and weighs 20 kilograms; all other parts are of polyethylene and weigh a total of one kilogram. One of the doors [in the laboratory] was marked with a "death's head." It leads to the control chamber for the "cobalt cannon." Janos Dobos, director of the department, said: "We recently placed into operation, together with the Central Chemical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the largest radiation source in Hungary to be used for chemical purposes." Using isotope radiation, new, special types of very pure synthetic materials can be produced -- for example, blood plasma substitutes. Polyethylene stable at 180 degrees centigrade can be produced here by applying radiation, whereas, without radiation, polyethylene can resist exposure to only 100 degrees centigrade. [For information on radiochemistry, see Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials.] Synthetic Fibers Chinese Research on the Synthesis of Acrylonitrile Copolymer Fiber "Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile and Polarized Vinyl Chlori4e,' by Wang Hsiu-kang ( ), Ko Tseng-p' ei ( g ~), and Hu Ya-tung 01 Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica; Peipi , Kao-fen-tzu Tung-hsun (Macromolecular Report), Vol 3, No 2, Apr 59, Pp 32-33 The authors state that the development [in China?] of polyacrylo- nitrile fibers has been hindered by the fact that polyacrylonitrile is difficult to dye and requires a special solvent for spinning. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDF ?-Q0141R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Their investigation of the copolymerization of acrylonitrile and'oriented vinyl chloride monomers, a project which is currently in the expanded ex- perimentation stage, was undertaken for the purpose of preparing a re- latively low-cost acrylonitrile copolymer fiber. This article presents the conditions necessary for a good copoly- merization reaction and for the spinning of the copolymer. The condi- tions were established by the authors after numerous exper:L-;ients, they say. - 30 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 III. EARTH SCIENCES 41. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of the Distribution Process of a Polydispersed Aerosol. Described "The Distribution of a Polydispersed Aerosol in a Turbulent Atmoci-here at a Lone; Distance From an Instantaneous ' Point So?u cc:," by I. L. Y,1.1 ol ' ":zc' A. Ya. Pressmt%n, Institute of Apps.*..d Geophysics, Ac,z,.. oi' Sciences USSR; Minsk, Inehen- erno-zizicheskiy Zhurnal, ITo 9, Sep 59, pp 33-91 The article describes the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the distribution process of a polydispersed aerosol at a long distance downwind from the source. The relationship between the expressions for volume concentration and Surface concentration of a polydispersed aerosol deposited from the atmos- phere and boundary conditions on the surface of the earth is derived. Thus, formulas -for'the volume and surface concentrations are shown to be essent- ially different, depending on whether or not the "weightless" component of a polydispersed aerosol is reflected by the surface of the earth. - 31 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 IV. ELECTRONICS Communications 42. Method for increasing Range of Panoramic Receivers' "Automatically. Adjustable, Filters Using Reactance Tubes for Panoramic Reception," by N. I. Svetlov; Moscow, Radiotekh- nika, No 9, 1959, pp 45-56 An effective method for increasing the dynamic range of a panoramic radio receiver is the use of automatically adjustable filters in the stages of the first i.f. amplifier of the wide-band channel. Electrically adjustable reactance tube filters with two phase-shifts g circuits are considered in this article. Appropriate formulas are given, and a method for engineering computation of the filters is described. Exploitation of a two-cycle band filter of this type in a panoramic receiver showed that the dynamic range of the receiver increases several times. Components 43. Cold-Cathode Tubes "Tubes Weighing One Gram," by T. Fetisov; Moscow, Izvestiya, 4 Dec 59 Cold-cathode tubes, in many cases, successfully replace more ex- pensive conventional electronic tubes, electromagnetic relays, and even transistors; Such tubes are about the size of a flashlight bulb, but have'no filaments. The weight of a cold-cathode tube is from 0.5 to 1.0 g, and the service life is about 100,000 hours, as contrasted with only 1,000 hours for a conventional vacuum tube. It was in the USSR that cold-cathode tubes were incorporated for the first time in various industrial electronic apparatus. Some of the Soviet electronic apparatus contain as many as 1,500 cold-cathode tubes. About one fourth of all the tubes in the series manufactured universal computer "Ural" are cold-cathode tubes. It is probable that the cold-cathode tubes will,:'in.the future, replace about one half of all vacuum tubes, relays, and transistors. L. N. Korablev, who suggested a better method for utilization of cold-cathode tubes, and a number of other organizations, and enterprises using such tubes have urgently - 32 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 requested a manifold increase in their production. ,At the present time, in the USSR, the demand for cold-cathode tubes is. at several million units, and it is expected that the demand will soon increase by several times. ~+~+. Hungarian Laboratory Produces 'et'rite Memory Units "A Visit to the Iron Industry Research Institute," by Valeria Bozsik; Budapest, Napszabadsag, 10 Nov 59, p 6 "According to Endre Nagy, Kossuth Prize winning mechanical engineer and chief of the powder metallurgy department of the Iron Industry Research Institute. "Some of the most important parts for modern signal equipment, electric brains, and various control devices are the ferrite rings used in memory units. These little rings, 2-7 millimeters in outside diameter, store the data. Photographs in source show the rings, about half the size of a match head, and the "almost square" hysteresis loop, on a cathode ray tube screen, for a "satisfactory ring." Nagy continues by saying that "the Central Physics Research Institute and the Beloiinnisz Signal Technology Factory use ferrite rings in build- ing various pieces of equipment. At this moment, we are the only ones in the country making them; we are using small-scale methods, but we completely satisfy the domestic demand,.',' "The rings are made of powdered manganese, magnesium, zinc, and iron oxide, mixed with materials which facilitate pressing, and formed into rings. The rings are then fired at a temperature of about 1,300 degrees' centigrade...." "We produced the primary materials with our own laboratory methods and had-a relatively easy job because we got complete manufacturing documentation on a trip to the Soviet Union...." 45. Hungarian Researchers Produce High Purity Tungsten Filaments "Semiconductors Transform Technology," by Gyorgy Szigeti, Academ- ician and First Secretary of the Lorand Eotvos Physics Society; Budapest, Nepszabadsag, 22 Oct 59, p 6. In September, 100 Hungarian physicists and 120 foreign physicists from nine countries participated inthe colloquium at Balatonfured on . CPYRGHT solid state physics. The presidium of the Lorand Eotvos Physics Society has now:evaluated the results of the meeting. - 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 In the article, the author speaks in general terms about transistors, silicon rectifiers, etc. Hungarian researchers, he says, have succeeded in producing tungsten wire thinner than one hundredth of a millimeter which does not change form during 1,000 hours in an incadescent a temperature above 2,500 degrees centigrade. Instruments and Equipment 46. Two-Degree..of-Freedom Vectormeter "Vectormeter With Two Degrees of Freedom," by L. F. Kulikovskiy and P. P. Kemeshis; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 10, Oct 59, pp 28-32 Measuring instruments which determine the voltage and current vectors directly are becoming-more widely'used. With the voltage and current vectors obtained with the aid of this instrument, it is rather simple to reconstruct the vector diagrams for various ac devices, as well as to obtain directly the geometric locations of current and voltage vectors for a circuit with variable parameters. A vectormeter with two degrees of freedom was developed and built at the Chair of Automation and Telemechanical Devices of the Kuybyshev Industrial Institute. The main components of this vectormeter are: annular magnetic circuit, toroidal 3-phase winding, round loop, mirror, elastic rod, screen with coordinate graph, light source, compensating circuit, illuminator winding, winding with a center tap, and phase-shift- ing winding. The electric compensator -corrects the initialemf induced in the loop by the residual magnetic-flux coupling. A beam of light, after reflection from a mirror mounted on'.the',loop, strikes a screen from which the radius-vector can be read. This vectormeter has the following operat- ing characteristics: it draws power from a 220-v source; the maximum current measured is 5 milliamperes; maximum voltage measured is 1.1 volts; resistance of the loop is 200 ohms; current constant is 3.10-5 a/mm; distance between scale and mirror is 220 mm; and induction in the gap is 620 gauss. This vectormeter is intended for recording the current-vector hodo- graph,.and the geometric locations of the current vectors can be recorded on film. -34- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Materials 11.7. Research in Electrographic Methods "Gre:,' Possibilities in the Field of Electrography," by I. Zhil- evich, Scientific Research Institute of Electrography; Moscow, Pravda, 13 Nov 59 The young Scientific Research Institute of Electrography at Vil*nyus has proven, through extensive research, that electrographic methods of image reproduction are applicable to many fields of science and engineer- ing. The institute. has designed an electrographic device for reproduction of documents in large number,,from transparent originals, blueprints, or photographs. The institute, in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Academy of Sciences USSR, has, designed an electrographic attach- ment to conventional oscilloscopes for recording low-frequency processes on semiconductor coated photographic tape. A special machine designed by the institute has been installed at the Paper Plant imeni Yu. Yanonis of the Lithuanian Sovnarkhoz for industrial-scale production of semiconduc- tor coated photographic paper. The author stresses the fact that the experimental facilities at the Scientific Research Institute of Electrography, which is the only research establishment of its kind in the country, are far from being satisfactory. Therefore, there is an urgent need for expansion of experimental facilities at the institute and the need for establishment of a specialized enter- prise to manufacture electrographic equipment within the borders of the Lithuanian economic region. 48. Recent USSR Work on Semiconductors "Investigation of Semiconductor Materials," by B. T. Kolomiyets, Doctor of Technical Sciences; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 107-108 "The Institute of Metallurgy imeni A. A. Baykov and the Physico- Technical Institute held, on 22-26 June 1959 in Moscow, the Fourth Confer- ence on Semiconductor Materials, which was concerned principally with com- pounds and solid solutions. More than 60 institutions were represented at the conference. "A considerable number of reports dealt with compounds of the AIIIBV type. Among these materials, particular attention was paid to indium anti- monide, aluminum antimonide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide. Considerable progress has been made in preparing these materials in a state -35- CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 of high purity. Specificallys.irddium, antimonide with concentration of carriers derived from impurities amounting to 1012 - lol3cm-3 and a mobility of current carriers amounting to 106 cm2/ volt.sec at 77PK has been obtained. In addition to work done on the preparation of materials in a state of ultimate purity, investigations have been conducted with the aim of clarify- ing the role played by impurities. "Another group of papers, which reported work done by chemists, dealt with the results of investigations of different semiconductor systems and phases. These investigations were concerned mainly with materials pro- duced on-.'the basis of elemr.,nts belonging to the VI group of the periodic system, namely, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium. "The majority of reports were on the preparation and properties of solid solutions of the substitution type and of materials of complex com- position. The interest evinced toward this type of semiconductor materials is due to the possibility opened up for controlling the properties of materials by changing their composition. Considerable interest was aroused by reports dealing with materials which have the structure of zinc blende (sphalerite) and with vitreous semiconductors. "Much attention was paid at the conference to problems involved in the preparation and investigation of two-element compounds, a class of substances which has been investigated to only a minor extent hitherto. Among compounds of this type, antimony selenide appears to be particularly promising from the standpoint of practical applications. "Problems related to the thermodynamics of semiconductors were dis- cussed in some detail. One may note that progress has been made in work on the determination of thermodynamic constants of semiconductors. "A number of reports dealt with the technology of the production of semiconductors of simple, as well as complex, composition. "The conference demonstrated that definite progress has been made in research on semiconductors: the range of materials being investigated has expanded, the volume of work being done has increased, and the quality of the investigations being carried out has been raised. "The conference made a number of important decisions with regard to future development of research in this field and outlined the principal lines to be followed in formulating the theory of semiconductor:;materials and also in developing new substances for technical applications. "It is planned to hold the next regular conference on semiconductors at Leningrad in 1961." 36 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 49. Now USSR Research on Ferrites "Ferromagnetic Semiconductors," by Prof K. A. Belov; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 29, No 10, Oct 59, pp 108- 109 "During recent years, there has been a greatly increased interest in the new magnetic materials called -'ferrites,' which represent compounds of ferric oxide with oxides of different other metals (divalent metals in the majority of cases). Because they combine ferromagnetic properties with semiconductor characteristics, these materials'soon.faund extensive application in radio engineering, computers-;' 'automatic 'control,,etc. "Investigation of ferrites is also very important from the scientific standpoint. Research on correlations between their magnetic and crystal- chemical properties will contribute much that is new in the development of the solid state theory. "The Third All-Union Conference, dealing with the physics,' physico- chemical properties, and physical aspects of the application of ferrites, was held at Minsk on 1-7 June 1959. "As distinguished from previous conferences, the program of this conference was the first to include reports dealing with the investiga- tion of magnetic and electrical properties of single crystals of ferrites. Until quite recently, only polycrystalline ferrites (produced by the methods of ceramic technology) were subjected to study in the USSR. How- ever, to obtain an adequate understanding of the nature of the properties of ferrites, investigations must be conducted on single crystals. "At the Institute of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences USSR, large single crystals of ferrites with a spinel structure are now being grown. Magnetic anisotropy, galvanomagnetic phenomena, ferromagnetic resonance, and rotation of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic waves are being studied on these crystals. It was established that some single crystals oi-;the manganese-magnesium ferrite exhibit a very narrow line of ferromagnetic resonance absorption* (12-15 oersted) and a sufficiently high saturation magnetization. Single crystals of the manganese ferrite show a high specific rotation of the plane of polarization of electro- magnetic waves in relatively weak fields. "Research on single crystals of ferrites is also being expanded at other USSR scientific institutions. The Institute of Crystallography has supplied these institutions with the necessary equipment and drawings and conducts consultations with them. Particular interest is being evinced in the investigation of the ferromagnetic resonance characteristics - 37 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 of single crystals of yttrium ferrite with a garnet structure. The Institute of Semi conductors, Academy of Sciences USSR, and the Institute of Crystallography, Academy bf Sciences USSR, grow crystals of this ferrite with a width of the resonance line amounting to 5-6 oersteds. This makes it possible to approach the solution of the problem in regard to the creation of a amplifier and generator of super-high frequencies on the basis of materials of this type. "A considerable number of reports were concerned with the investiga- tion of the properties of ferrites of rare-earth elements (gadolinium an others) which have a structure of the garnet or perovskite type. These ferrites have very unusual magnetic properties. Experiments have shown that these properties change to a considerable degree when a very small number of iron ions are replaced by ions of other elements in the lattice of rare-earth ferrites (Institute of Semiconductors and Physics Faculty of Moscow University). It is quite obarious that in order to understand the phenomena which take place in these ferrites, one must investigate thoroughly their crystal-chemical structure. "The conference paid much attention to problems pertaining to the chemistry and technology of the preparation of polycrystalline ferrites; a class of materials which is of great technical importance. The princi- pal problem here is assuring the reproducibility and uniformity of the properties of the ferrites that are produced. This is a very complex problem because the properties of ferrites depend on many factors (the purity of the initial oxides, the conditions under which the material has been sintered, the pressure that has been applied, etc.). In con- nection with this problem, one must regard as noteworthy work done at the Chair of General Chemistry, Moscow State University, on the production of ferrites by a new, 'nonceramic' method. "A special subject of discussion. was formed by the information given in a large number of papers that dealt with the investigation of ferrites with a rectangular hysteresis loop. These ferrites are used for the magnetic elements of computers. One must note the extensive work on the behavior of ferrites in pulsating magnetic fields that has been done by a group of investigators' at the Moscow Power Institute. Investigation of the remagnitization of ferrites under the effect of pulsating fields is of importance from the standpoint of application of the results in work on the improvement of rapidly acting computers of small dimensions and the development: of new computers of this type. Solution of problems in this area is also of importance in connection with developments in other technical fields. "Reports on the investigation of static magnetic characteristics of ferrites with a rectangular hysteresis loop (Academy of Sciences) Belo- russian SSR) and also on the investigation of magnetic viscosity (Physics Faculty, Moscow State University) attracted considerable 'attention. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Discussions were held on results obtained in the investigation of ferrites with a high coercitivity, which at present are receiving increased recog- nition in technology as cheap and effective materials for permanent magnets. In connection with this, one must note work on the investigation of the domain structure of barium ferrites, which contributes to an understanding of the mechanism of remagnetization of ferrites with a high coercitivity (Institute of Metal Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR). "Many papers were concerned with the investigation of electric and galvaanomagnetic properties of ferrites. Knowledge of these properties is of great importance from the theoretical standpoint. Many ferromag- netic anomalies of :lectrical characteristics exhibited by materials of this t?- may not be subject to relationships established for metals and allo;?. Investigation- of the dependence of the specific conductivity and of the galvanomagnetic effects (primarily, the Hall effect) on the temperature and correlation of the data obtained with the temperature course of the spont.;ieous magnetization in single crystals and polycry- stalline materials will aid in- the solution of problems pertaining to the state of the energy spectrum of -electrons in the materials in ques- tion. The most interesting temperature range in this respect corresponds to the region of magnetic transformation (Curie point), in which the effects of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states of matter on the electrical properties must be clearly expressed. "In connection with this, one must note the results obtained at the Chair of General Physics, Moscow State University, in the investigation conducted there on the Hall effect in ferrites close to the Curie point. In the report on the work in question, a method is described for the determination of the so-called ordinary or classical Hall constant, on the basis of which the concentration of current carriers in ferrites can be calculated. Investigations of the anisotropy of galvanomagnetic phen- omena in single crystals of ferrites and of the dispersion of electrical conductivity and of the dielectric constant are also of importance for the understanding of the mechanism of conduction in ferrites. "A number of reports dealt with problems of magnetic spectroscopy, magneto-optics, and the behavior of ferrites at super-high frequencies. Investigation of these problems is of great technical importance because it furnishes-information that is of value in connection with the applica- tion of ferromagnetic semiconductors in high-frequency radio engineering. "Several papers were concerned with the theory of antiferromagnetism and of the magnetic anisotropy of ferrites (Institute of Metal Physics and Institute of Crystallography); unfortunately, there were very few theore- tical reports, which is a serious shortcoming. CPYRGHT - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 "On the whole, the conference demonstrated that both qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of research on ferromagnetic semiconductors in the USSR has widened considerably. However, a great amount of work still remains to be done in this important field of knowledge because many pro- blems of the-!theory of ferrites have not been solved as yet. It is nec- essary to establish the nature of the rectangular characteristic exhibited by hysteresis loops of manganese-magnesium ferrites, to formulate an ade- quate theory interpreting the width of' he ferromagnetic resonance absorp- tion line, and to expand research on the domain structure. One must also greatly expand the application of neutronographic methods d'or the investi- gation of the atomic and magnetic structure of materials exhibiting the properties of ferrites and antiferromagnetics." 50. Crystal Chemistry of Piezoelectrics "Some Problems of the Crystal Chemistry of Piezoelectrics " by CPYRGHT I. S. Rez, TsNILP. [Central Sci-Res Lab of Piezotgchnice, Minis- try of Radio Engineering Industry USSR), Moscow; Leningrhd, Zap- iski Vseso zno o Mineralogichesko o Obshchestva, Vol 88, No 5, Sep Oct 59, p 624 The author of the report discussed some problems pertaining to the crystal chemistry of piezoelectrics. Starting from experimental data and general crystal-chemical considerations based on the concept of structural types, the author formulated the following "genetic" princi- ple: it is advisable to search for new piezoelectrics among substances of a family at least one representative of which exhibits a pronounced piezoelectric effect. In doing this, principal attention must be paid to the investigation of different modifications of the typical struc- ture, first, those modifications which tend to increase the degree of assymetry, increase the dipole moment of the molecule, eliminate anti- parallel packing of structural dipoles, reduce the density of packing, and increase structural strains by reason of structural dipoles, reduce the density of packing, and increase structural strains by reason of the deformation of valency angles and shortening of bonds. The use of the genetic criterion enabled?the author and his co-workers to discover more than 425 new piezoelectrics by investigating substances in specially deve- loped highly sensitive equipment designed for the testing of small samples. The results obtained confirm the validity of the proposed criterion as a means of predicting the suitability of substances as piezoelectrics. Critical consideration of data obtained in the investigation of inorganic and coordination compounds has indicated the following: - 40 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 CPYRGHT (a) Compounds of a type exhibiting a piezoelectric effect contain easily deformable atomic structures (pyramids, tetraheders, and oct- aheders and combinations of these structures); difficulty deformable atomic structures of the type of linear chains and plane triangles are not conducive to the development of piezoelectric effect; (b) Piezoelectric properties are apparently exhibited by substances with predominantly covalent bonds; (c) In cases of isomorphous substitution, the piezoelectric effect which is due to the skeleton of the structure is preserved, being mod- ified, depending on the nature of the atom or the radical functioning as the subs-! ituent; (d) The relationships outlined above also apply to organic compounds. By applying the methods mentioned above, more than 20 types of piezo- electrically active compounds were found which have a high percentage of piezoelectrics in the "genetic series" derived from them. [SIR note: This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Interna- tional Session on Crystallography Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Death of Ye. S. Fedorov (Leningrad, 21-27 May 1959).] 51. New Method of Growing Single Crystals of Germanium "Growing of Single Crystals of Germanium in Salt and Oxide Melts," by V. N. Maslov, Yu. V. Granovskiy, and V. D. Samygin; Leningrad, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khimii, Vol 32, No 11, Nov 59, pp 2571-2574 It has been established that it is possible to grow from melts con- sisting of B2 0 and KC1 single crystals of germanium with a specific resistance approaching 10-15 ohms X cm and a length of diffusion paths of secondary carriers up to 0.5 mm. It was found that the fused salt phase is capable of suppressing the effect exerted by extraneous cry- stallization nuclei and of protecting the molten germanium, as well as the growing crystal, from oxidation. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 52. Procedure for Growing Single Crystals in Vacuum or an Inert Gas by Verneuil.'s Method "Equipment for Growing Single Crystals of High-Melting Substances in Vacuum or an Inert Gas Without a Crucible," by V. V. Dobroven- skiy, Institute of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences USSR; Mos- cow, Pribory i Tekhnika Experimenta, No 5, Sep/Oct 59, pp 134+-137 Growing of single crystals by direct melting of a highly disperse pow- der in the flame of an oxygen-hydrogen burner and subsequent crystalliza- tion were already applied by Verneuil in 1902 for the preparation of synthetic ruby crystals from aluminum oxide. At present, by applying this method, single crystals of ferrites, spinels, mull.ite, corundum, and a number of other materials are produced. However, the method in question is not suitable for growing single crystals of substances which interact readily with the gas phase during the process of crystallization and sub- sequent cooling. The difficulties inherent in this method can be over- come only by letting the. substances in question crystallize in vacuum or in the atmosphere of an inert gas after a melt containing them has been produced by subjecting an appropriate mixture to electric heating. Equip- ment of is type that is heated by an induction current has been des- cribed. By using this equipment, polycrystalline silicon could be obtained, which was subsequently purified by vertical zone refining. For the purpose of growing single crystals of silicon and of barium titan.te directly from powder in vacuum or in the atmosphere of an inert gas, the author has designed and constructed special equipment which is heated by means of a graphite resistance heater. Temperathres up to 2,000?C are employed in the operation of the equipment described. A new appliance for the uni- form feeding of powder has been designed and forms a part of this equip- ment. 53. Production of Plastic Scintillators With a Large Volume "Preparation and Properties of Plastic Scintillators With a Large Volume," by G. A. Kirdina and N. K. Pereyaslova, Institute of Applied Geophysics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 5, Sep/Oct 59, pp 47-51 Scintillator plastics exhibit a number of specific characteristics, among which is a relativly short time of de-excitation amounting to approximately 10-9 - 10-0 seconds, a high degree of transparency, high mechanical strength, stability at elevated temperatures, and good work- ability. Because they have these characteristics, plastic scintillators can be used in experiments on the investigation' of cosmic rays, the inves- tigation of properties of particles that form in accelerators, and in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Scintillators with a large volume can be used to advantage in highly sensitive intensimeters for p -rays. -42- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Thus, the development of methods for the production of plastic scintill- ators with a large volume is of considerable importance. In the present work, a method is described for "growing" scintillator polystyrene blocks with a volume up to 10,000 cubic centimeters. The result of the determina- tion of some characteristics of the scintillator phosphors prepared in this manner are described, and details are given on the method of prepara- tion. Before the purified styrene was subjected to polymerization by the method described, 2% of p-terphenyl and 0.02% by weight of POPOP has been added to it. The time of de-excitation of the polystyrene prepared in the manner described was compared with that of polyvinyltoluene scintill- ators prepared at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research and that of liquid scintillators representing a solution of terphenyl in toluene to which POPOP had been added. Miscellaneous 54. Fourth Conference on Radioelectronics To Be Held in 1960 "Third All-Union Conference on Radioelectronics" (unsigned art- icle); Gor'kiy, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy -'Radio- fizika, Vol 2, No 4, 1959, p 666 Among the recommendations made at the Third All-Union Conference on Radioelectronics in Kiev was the proposal that the regular fourth confer- ence of the Ministry of Higher Education USSR on radio engineering and electronics be called in November 1960 in Kharkov. 55. International Conference on Microwave Links, Budapest "International Scientific Conference on Microwave Links" (unsigned news item); Budapest, Magyar Nemzet, 11 Nov 59, p 5 A 4-day colloquium on establishing microwave links began Tuesday, 10 November 1959, at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; it was organized by the Technical Sciences Department. of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and by the Signal Technology Association (Hiradastechnikai Egyesulet). Twenty-five foreign guests from the US, England, France, and Austria are participating, in addition to those from the Soviet Union and the People's Democracies. Geza Bognar, Kossuth Prize-winning academician, read the opening. address Tuesday before an audience of about 300. Papers were then read by L. Lewin (London), H. Dobesch (Berlin), and Sandor Csibi and Peter Rona of the Tele- communications Research Institute (Tavkozlesi Kutato Intezet). - 43 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 I- H. Schulanke (Berlin) opened the afternoon session. Papers were then read by Gyorgy Pribelszky, Tibor Hoffmann, Andor Budincsevics, Andras Dallos, Tibor Horvath, Janos Nagy, Janos Erdelyi, and Gyorgy Gellen of the Telecommunications Research Institute. "International Conference on Microwave Links" (unsigned news item); Budapest; Nepszabadsag, 24 Nov 59, p 9 At the recent Budapest International Microwave Conference, Soviet Academician V. I. Siforov reported on his theoretical research aimed at eliminating conditions which disturb radio reception. Lewin of England, De Castel of France, Prosin of the Soviet Union, and Beckman of Czecho- slovakia read papers dealing with problems of atmospheric scattering of radio waves,_thus contributing to a technical solution of relay stations far removed from one another. The paper of the absent Simon (France) read at the conference also dealt, with this problem. The Germans Dobesch and Schulanke discussed mathematic&l problems pertaining to signal tech- nology. There were 10 foreign papers and 21 domestic ones. Tibor Hoffmann (Hungary) read- a paper on molecular amplifiers. - 44 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 V. ENGINEE- RING Automatic Control Engineering and Computers 56. Application of Computers to Automation "With the Aid of Computers," by B. Bukiya, Tbilisi Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Building and Automation Equipment; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, 29 Nov 59 Various electronic computers for the control of industrial processes are now in the process of design at the Tbilisi Scientific Research Insti- tute of Instrument Building and Automation Equipment. Such special elec- tronic computers are now being designed for the control of blast-furnace operation, for cupola furnace operation, for the regulation of electric power distribution in power networks, and for automation of oil refining and other chemical processes. It is planned to design more than 100 such special control devices during the current Seven-Year Plan. 57. Application of Computers in. Rail-Transport Automation "To New Victories on the Labor Front" (unsigned article); Moscow, Avtomatika, Telemekhanika i Svyaz', No 11~,Nov 59, pp 1-3 The article contains the following passages: "In conjunction with the introduction of new 127-ton rollerbearing cars to rail transport, the retarding efficiency of the gravity classifi- cation yards must also be increased. The use of new braking devices will increase this efficiency without necessitating any changes in the length or grade of the tracks. "The TsNII(Central Scientific Research Institute of Rail Transport) and Giprotranssignalsvyaz' have developed methods for automatic retarding of cars on mechanized gravity classification yards by utilizing computers and radar-type car speedometers. The TsNII system is now being tested at the Losinoostrovskaya station's mechanized gravity classification yard, and the Giprotranssignalsvyaz' system is being tested at the mechanized gravity classification yard of the Leningrad-Sortirovochnaya station. CPYRGHT -45 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 "At present, the signalization and communication administration em- ploys 2,570 engineers and 7,240 technicians. This year, the schools of the Ministry of Communications will graduate 413 engineers and 1,656 technicians for signal., centralization, blocking, and communications services. The number of such graduates will increase each year. In addi- tion to the departments at the Leningrad and Tomsk institutes, new depart ments of automation, telemechanics and communications will be established at the Institutes of Rail Transport in Moscow, Sverdlovsk, Tashkent, and Khar'kov." 58. Hungarians Use Analogue Computer to Solve Power Net Problems "A Visit to VILLENKI," by Geza Simonffy; Budapest, Muszaki Elet, 29 Oct 59, p 13 For the past 6 years, the Electric Energetics Research Institute (vT_LLENKI) has operated a model of an alternating-current power net. 'T'his apparatus, which is essentially an analogue computer, has been used for several examinations in connection with international cooperation in power distribution. Electrical Engineering 59. Low-Frequency Electronic Converters "2-0.5 Cycle Electronic Frequency Converters for Electromagnetic Stirring Installations of Arc Furnaces," by N. S. Siunov, M. G. Rezin, Ya. I. Drobinin, and Ye. M. Glukh; Moscow, Elektrichestvo, No 11, Nov 59, pp 41-43 CPYRGH- The first experimental-industrial are furnace with electromagnetic stirring of molten metal was installed in 1956. A low-frequency (2-0.5 cycle) two-phase current was fed to a stator winding mounted under the bottom of the furnace. The bottom jacket of the furnace was made from nonmagnetic steel. The rotating magnetic field created by the stator in- duces an eddy current in the molten metal, which, in turn, creates a dyna- mic moment sufficient- to stir effectively the molten metal in the furnace. A very effective low-frequency electronic converter was designed at the Ural Polytechnic Institute imeni S. M. Kirov in cooperation with the "Uralelektroapparat" plant. This electronic frequency converter incorporates 12 rectifiers assembled in two groups of 6 each and inter- connected into a three-phase counter-parallel circuit . Eadi cf the group cf' tree rectifiers conducts current during one half of the cycle, while the group ..46- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 of other three is cut out by the grid bias. An independent grid control for each three rectifiers is achieved with the aid of a static phas regu- lator. A group of six rectifiers feeds one phase of the two-phase winding of the stator. A selt7n-rheostat, which supplies power -to -the magnetizing winding of the phase-regulator, acts as a transducer for obtaining a low- frequency sinusoidal current. The selsyn-rheostat is driven by a 20-w-dc motor through a reduction Gear. One mercury-arc rectifier of RMNNVV-1,000 X 12 type with 12 insulated anodes and 4 independently controlled grid circuits was used in ono industrial installation carrying 2,000 ampere current per phase of the stator at a frequency of 2-0.5 cycles. An electronic frequency converter of ?t-his -type will be installed at the Verkh-Isetsk metallurgical plant for electromagnetic stirring of metal in a 25-ton furnace. This type of frequency converter can be applied to furnaces up to 180 tons capacity. 60. Revision of Design Methods and Specifications for Dam Construction "For Further Progress in Hydroelectric Construction," by V. S. Eristov, Ministry for Construction of Electric Power Stations; Moscow, Gidrotekhnicheskoye Stroitel'stvo, No 11, Nov 59, pp 1-4 The Ministry for Construction of Electric Stations, in cooperation with its design, scientific-research, and construction organizations, has reviewed the blueprints and estimates for the 22 hydroelectric stations now in construction and concluded that a reduction from 47 to 39 billion rubles, i.e., about of the original estimates, can be secured by applying more progressive engineering principles. The suggested progressive measures are of the following nature: lowering the presently accepted unjustifiably high design safety factors; reduction in the volume of gravity-concrete dams by incorporating wider joints which help to lower the back-pressure (Bratskaya, Krasnoyarskaya, and Bukhtarminskaya stations); switching from gravity type dams to arch types (Ladzhanuri) which require only about one third of the concrete; replacement of some of the concrete members of the dam by other locally available materials; an increased water discharge per unit length of the spillway section of the dam, thus reducing the total length of the concrete section of the spillway: elimination of the conventional generator room (Kremenchugskaya and Dneprodzerzhinskaya); increasing the size of individual hydraulic turbogenerators, which p?rmits and increase in total capacity of the station without additiona. investment (Krasnoyarskaya and Bratskaya); elimination of some dispensable work in preparation of water reservoir (Stalingradskaya, Bratskaya, Kremenchugskaya, and Votkinskaya); and a decrease in the capacity of concrete mixing and other auxiliary facilities (Bratskaya and others). -47- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Surveying, Prospecting 61. Book on Interpretation of Dimensions of Aerial Photographs Izmeritel'no a Deshifirivovaniye Aerosnimkov v Pole kh Usloviyakh (Dimension Interpretation of Aerial Photographs in Field Conditions), by N. G. Kell', Laboratory of Aeromethods of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, 1959, .124+ pp The book acquaints the reader with the geometric and geodesic pro- perties of aerial photographs and the most efficient methods of utilizing these properties in field conditions. The principal protion of the book is given to dimension interpretation of aerial photographs used in different geological-geomorphological opera- tions. The book is intended for a wide group of specialists and researchers, topographers, geologists, geomorphologists, etc. 62. Earth's Magnetic Field Utilized by New Method of Geophysical Prospecting "Geophysical Prospecting Improved", (unsigned item); Moscow, Izvestiya, 1 Dec 59 A new method of geophysical prospecting is reported as having been developed in the Lvov Institute of the Geology of Useful Minerals of the Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR. The new method is based on the use of the natural pulsations of .he Earth's electromagnetic field. The advantage of this method consists in the fact that it dispenses with the need for cumbersome power apparatus. This will reduce the cost of pros- pecting many times in comparison with existing methods requiring the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields. - 48 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Miscellaneous 63. New Instrument and Machine Building Standards "Important Problems in Development of National Standards and Specifications" (unsigned article); Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 11, Nov 59, PP 1-3 The article contains the following passages: "During the next 2 years, machine building specifications covering the whole range of instruments, attachments, dies, and other technical equipment of general use should be worked out; and during the next 3-4 years, the machine building standards and specifications to cover common machine units and parts and the most important mass-produced equip- ment for mechanization and automation should be worked out. "During the first half of November 1959, the Committee on Standards, Measures, and Measuring Instruments at the Council of Ministers -USSR has approved the standardization program for 1960. "In 1960, for the first time, the standards for radio-engineering measuring instruments, such as tube voltmeters, standard signal genera- tors, heterodyne and resonance frequency meters, pulse generators, and meters for percentage of amplitude modulation, were worked out." CPYRGHT 64. Rocket Drills Rocks "Rocket for Drilling Rocks," TASS' Kishinev, Sovetskaya Moldaviya, 11 Sep 59 "This automatic rocket is intended, not for interplanetary flight, but for use on earth, for sinking d wits into solid rock with the aid of a flaming jet at supersonic velocity. the motor of this rocket, in which liquid fuel is used as in jet aircraft, does not liftthe rocket into space. The powerful high-temperature gas torch, which is ejected from the nozzle of the rocket at a velocity of 2,000 meters per second, strikes the rock and breaks it into tiny pieces. Drills can be made which were unattainable with drilling equipment available before in mining practice The self-propelled, thermal-drilling device was designed by Kazakhstan scientists in cooperation with engineers. As distinguished from existing thermal drills, the new machine is completely automatic." CPYRGHT - 49 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 65. Hungarians Report Soviet Development of New Structural Glass "Sital" (unsigned news item); Budapest; Muszaki Elet, 29 Oct 59, p 10 A new material named "Sital" (Szital) has been developed in the glass laboratory of the State Glass Industry Scientific Research Institute of the Soviet Union. The primary material is a glass of a peculiar structure; it is microcrystalline, the particles being approximately one micron in size. This microcrystalline structure, which is responsible for the properties of the glassy material, is produced through heat treating. Sital is four times stronger than glass; it is harder than high carbon tempered steel; it is not brittle; and it is lighter than aluminum. Its electrical characteristics are better than those of ceramic materials. It has very high heat resistance and does not soften even at 1,400 degrees centigrade. Ball bearings made of this material have proved long lasting, even in aggressive media at high temperatures. Sital is used for containers, machine parts, pipes, and fireproof walls. - 50 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 66. Soviet Cyberneticists Visit Hungary "Soviet Cyberneticiate Visit Hungary" (unsigned article); Budapest; Magyar Nemzet, 25 Nov 59, p 3 According to an announcement in source, M. A. Gavrilov, head of a laboratory of the Institute of Automatics and Telemechanies of the Academy of Sciences USSR; V. P. Smiryagin" chief of the electronic cOnuter utilization department" of the Computer Center of the Soviet Academy; T. I. Milchenko, chief engineer of the department; and D. I. Golenko, scientific worker, arrived in Budapest for a 3-week visit at the invitation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciencee. The guests will study the work of the Szeged Mathematical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and will discuss plans for joint work in the coming year. The Soviet cybernetieiste will also visit the Mathematical Research Institute of the Acadegr, the Cybernetics Research Institute, the Technical University, and several institutions and plants. - 51 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00470001-2 Antibiotics 67. Review of Book on Antibiotics Puti Izyskaniya Novykh Antibiotikov (Methods of Searching for New Antibiotics), by G. F. Gauze, reviewed by M. M. Mayevskiy; Moscow, Antibiotiki, Vol IV, No 5, Sep/Oct 59, pp 110-111 Guaze's book provides data on the methods of searching for anti- bacterial, antiviral, and antitumorous antibiotics. It contains five chapters, eah followed by a bibliography on the subject discussed in the chapter. Chapter 1 contains information on the different soil microbe-antagonists, and on the ecological significance of antibiotics. Data on the classification of the microbes which form the antibiotics is provided in Chapter 2. Proper classification of these microbes, the author states, is essential to the success of the search for new anti- biotics. Chapter 3 deals with methods of isolatiny antibiotics from cultural fluids and methods for determining the chemotherapeutical properties of the antibiotics. Methods of searching for and developing antiviral antibiotics are discussed in Chapter 4. Considerable space is given to the problem of utilizing bacteriophages in the search for antiviral antibiotics. The fifth and final chapter of the book deals with the problem of the search for antitumorous or "anti cancerous" antibiotics. Research work done by the author is described in this chapter. Aviation Medicine 68. Possibilities of Human Space Flight Discussed "A Human Being in Outer Space" (unsigned article); Moscow; Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 80 (1828), 6 Oct 59, p 2 Laboratories of many scientific research institutes are concentrating their attention on developing conditions which will be tolerable for a human being traveling through outer space in a rocket. There are many researchers, in the Soviet Union who are busy trying to develop an in- flight feeding system. This statement was given by Gr?A. Arutyunov, the director of a laboratory working on this problem. -52- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Scientists are familiar with the use of concentrated food in flights of short duration, lasting from 2-3 hours to several days. A food prepared from products that have high food value and a lower fat content than that required by people on earth is recommended. It must contain normal amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and vitamin. The bulk and weight of a human astronaut's food must be kept at a minimum and it must not spoil easily (concentrates, canned food). Feeding may be achieved in a satisfactory manner by the intake (every 3-4 hours) of smaller quantities of food than are required on earth. The intake of food under condition of weightlessness is particularly com- plicated. A human being cannot drink water from a glass while he is in a state of weightlessness, because "weightless" water acquires spherical shape. Poured out of the glass, it will hover in the rocket in the form of one or several ellipsoids. Water must therefore be drunk through a-special dispensing container with a tube attachment. Since food particles may fall "down," float through the air, and enter human nostrils, mouth, eyes, and ears under condition of weight- les cress, it is advisable that food placed in the cabin consist of solid, compact pieces. Food intake will have to be different when an oxygen mask is worn. The food must be in liquid form and must be prepared from highly nourishing products. Concentrated soup in puree form and made of highest quality meat, chocolate, fruit, and cream is recommended. Equipment should include a jar with a tube attachment; food passes through the tube and through a special valve in the oxygen mask and enters the mouth without interfering with respiration. The equipment used to feed the dog Layka operated on this principle. The assimilation of food is very important. Researchers outside the Soviet Union have suggested 100% assimilation can be attained by compound- ing synthetic mixtures consisting of amino acids and carbohydrates. The Soviet scientists, however, prefer to use natural products enriched with amino acids. How can a man survive in outer space if his flight should last several months? The rocket can hold only a-limited supply of water and food. There are two ways to solve this problem. (1) resorting to chemicals in supplying the necessary food -- proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins can be formed from products of nitrogen metabolism, and oxygen can be separated from carbon dioxide; and (2) using microorganisms and algae as food for humans. Fifteen varieties of algae which can serve as food for humans are'known to scientists. Chlorella is believed to be the most valuable; it not only can serve as food, but also possesses the exceptional capability of transforming carbon dioxide into oxygen. The fact that the - 53 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Japanese have used algae as part of their normal diet is sufficient proof that they do not disrupt digestive functions and do not harm the human organism. All that can be said about satisfying the human organism with water is that water can be obtained from the air in the cabin. Water in the cabin precipitates on chilled surfaces and can be used for drinking. Drinking water can also be obtained by the use of chemicals. Contagious Diseases 69. Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Polio in Slovakia and Attempts to Combat 7M. - "Invisible Carnivores," by Helena Libikova, Institute of Viro- logy of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences; Prague Priroda a Spolocnost, No 18, Sep 59, pp 8-11 The Institute of Virology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava, which studies virus diseases affecting man and possibilities of combating these viruses, has a section for research on neuroviral infec- tions. Presently, 11 scientific workers, five of whom hold a degree of can- didate of medical sciences or of biological sciences, work here. The research work of this group has concentrated its efforts for the most economical and fastest progress. Therefore, the section has selected only one project -- research on tick-borne encephalitis virus, which has a rather high incidence in Slovakia. The virus is found in natural foci in small firested or forest-steppe areas in Slovakia. In 1951, Roznava and its surroundings experienced an epidemic of tick-borne encephalitis. Information obtained in research on this disease determined the basic direction for the section's research on neuroviral in- fections. Up to this time, it was.the dominant opinion that the disease might develop in man only after the bite of an infected tick. But since several hundreds persons in Roznava and the surroundings were affected with the disease who had not come into contact with ticks showed that this opinion was untenable. The Roznava epidemic brought about large scale research work. The Institute of Virology brought in,specialists from the Czech lands and from Slovakia, and within 3 years it was determined that a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis exists in the Roznava vicinity. The virus was iso7.ated from the ticks and antibodies were discovered in the blood of roe bucks, rabbits, foxes, wild boars, and in small mouselike rodents) - 54 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 and also in the serum of birds, cows, goats, and sheep, thich. uneans that all these animals had been hosts to the virus for some time. In determining how the virus was transferred from the natural focus to the several hundred persons who were ill, detailed epidemiological study showed that most of the patients drank poorly pasteurized milk in which goat milk was also mixed. It was further determined that the goat milk carried the virus. Dr. Gresikova has shown that both sheep and goats eliminate the tick- borne encephalitis virus in their milk whether they are infected by sub- cutaneous injection or by experimentally infected ticks. The milk of these animals shows a higher concentration of virus than their blood. This is not true in cows, where only small amounts of the virus get into the milk. The virus will live in milk for a considerable number of days and will also live for some time in soured milk; it viii be active up to 2 months in butter and cream when these products are stored at 4 degrees centigrade. It can withstand temperatures of about 50-60 degrees centi- grade, but is quickly destroyed by boiling. Dr Malkova has determined that chlorine preparations can destroy the virus. Doctors Macicek, Nosek, and Ernek of the institute have studied the relationship of the encephalitis-carrying tick to wild animals. It has been shown that roe bucks, rabbits, sui'.010uselike animals can receive large quantities of virus subcutaneously or intracerebrally without be- coming infected since theyhave natural immunity. However, the virus circulates in the blood and lives in the brain for some time without producing any signs of disease. In experimentally infected'. chicks the virus sometimes causes a chronic preliminary brain inf amnation, while in ducklings the virus circulates in the, blood after infection, and in lizards it can lead to serious illness following subcutaneous infection. Since slices of brains and other organs are a source of information, the section's histologist, Dr Albrecht, constantly assists all the other members of the collective. In working on the problem of tick-borne encephalitis, the section discovered a virus in eastern Slovakia responsible for inflammation of the brain and spinal marrow of horses. This virus was hitherto unknown in Europe. New information on antibodies of the virus, found in humans and animals, is being obtained constantly. Much attention was also given to the virus-tick relationship. New methods of feeding ticks on infected mice and of carrying the virus from animal to animal via ticks were introduced. The first successful attempts of Dr Rehacek to grow tick tissues as a basis for research, since the viruses multiply in tick cells, are pioneering. - 55 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Since the use of white mice for experimentation is expensive and space-consuming, the work of the last half year has been concentrated on trying to find the best riethod of growing tissue cultures. The first results look very promising. It is hoped that this procedure will soon replace the use of mice. Only then will it be possible to expand the research to the extent required. This use would also simplify the virological diagnosis of tick-bornr, encephalitis in kraj and okres hygenic-epidemiological stations. Protective inoculations against polio were begun in 1957 in Czechoslovakia. In the research on serums, Dr Pesek devised a simplified test on plastic trays with small depressions: the results were identified according to the color reaction caused by the effect of the viruses on the cells. From this it was known that small children in Slovakia came into contact with all three types of polio sooner than those in the Czech lands Bohemia and Moravia and, overcoming an inapparent infection, form antibodies. This information made it possible to select the age groups most suitalbe for inoculations. During the polio research, the problem of Coxsackie and ECHO viruses was also inve sL-igated. Dr Mayer, working for several years, demonstrated some types of these viruses among patients. Before this it was not known that such viruses occur in Czechoslovakia. Dr Zemla heads the new biochemical laboratory which was established in the last 2 years in the section for research on virus infections of the nervous system. The biochemical laboratory has already taken its first steps: the glucose consumption of growing cells in relation to time and to various medium conditions was determined for HeLa cells, where polio and tick-borne encephalitis virus is known to multiply. The present attempts devote attention to other components, e.g., phosphorous compounds, which are important in the material change of cells. These components are an important structural unit of virus particles. Hematology 70. Bulgarians Develop Blood Expander "Hydrolysate," (unsigned article); Prague, Ceskoslovensky Cerv- eny Kriz, Nov 59, p 8 According to the above source, the Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion is Sofia has produced a hydrolysate by chemically and thermally processing the beef cable blood. The new product is suitable for use in all cases where the intake of food through the mouth is impossible and when it is essential that the patient's strength be restored, such as prior to - 56 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 surgery or in post operative situations. The hydrolysate is said to cost only 1/100 that of human blood and in many cases can actually replace the use of human blood completely. The institute is also working on a protein blood substitute. Work has been in progress on this product for the past 4 years. The blood substitute has biological characteristics which correspond to the Soviet BKZ blood substitute. Another aspect of the work conducted at the institute is the accelera- tion of the work leading to blood preservation techniques, and particularly the preservation of red blood corpuscles through the' um of hydrolysate. Immunology and Therapy 71. Immunogenicity of Inhalation Vaccination "The Problem of the Effectiveness of Inhalation Vaccination," Report I. The Effect of the Inhalation Method of Vaccination on General. Immune Reconstruction of the Organism," by A. I. Maslov, District Hospital and Military Medical Order of Lenin Academy imeni Kirov; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 30, No 11, Nov 59~ pp 15-18 In introducing this article, the author states that recent achieve- ments in the study of aerosols in general and medical aerosols in particu- lar have revealed new possibilities for more intensive study of the in- halation method of vaccination. In the research described, the depth of penetration and fate of particles ranging in size from 5 to 30 microns in various branches of the respiratory tract were studied. In the first series of experiments, white mice were vaccinated aerogenica]iy with a live B. prodigiosum aerosol produced by a special sprayer; a table shows the dimensions of the particles "livered, the quantity of particles (in percent), and the weight of particles (in percent according to the weight of the solution used). the mice were exposed for 5 minutes in an aerosol char^ber in 'which the density of the aerosol was 50 million micro- bial cells per liter. The effectiveness of the method was then tested by seeding ling sections from the mice on meat-peptone agar and calculating the number of colonies produced. Several other experiments were per- formed; the extent of general immune reconstruction in the experimental animals was determined by immunization and subsequent challenge with Gertner'a bacillus. - 57 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Comparison of the results of the inhalation method with those of the subcutaneous and intranasal-oral methods are presented in a table. The author concludes that the inhalation method of vaccination guarantees intensive, general immune reconstruction of the organism to which it is administered, but that a high concentration of vaccine and rather prolonged exposure of the animal to the aerosol are required. 72. Lithium Therapy of Psychic Disturbances "On the Therapy of Maniacal States of Different Origin and of Certain Psychic Disturbances in Organic Cerebral Affections With Lithium Salts," by M. I. Botvinnikova, Hospital imeni Skvortsov- Stepanov; Moscow, Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakov, Vol 59, No 10, Oct 59, pp 1222-1223 Lithium carbonate in doses of 0.5-1.0 gram two or three times per day 'was administered to ten .patients suffering from different foxms of psychoses : three of the patients suffered from manic-depressive psychosis, one froi., infectious psychosis with maniacal syndrome, one from vascular affection of the cerebrum with psychic disturbances, five from organic affections of the cerebrum with psychic disturbances. A calmer state was observed in all of the patients at the end of the first week after therapy was begun. Irritability decreased, the behavior of the patients became more normal, they became interested in their surroundings, and their sleep improved. Five of the patients were discharged. No adverse effects were rioted in any of the created patients. 73. Contraindications to Use of Rauwolfia serpentina Preparations "On the Problem of Indications and Contraindications in the Therapy of Patients Suffering From Hypertension With Rauwolfia serpentina Preparations," by N. N. Kolotova, Ye. M. Kucherenko and T. P. Chuberk3.s, Chair of Hospital Therapy, Vinnitsa Medi- cal Institute; Moscow, Sovetskaya Meditsina, Vol 23, No 10, Oct 59, pp 112-115 Rserpine was administered to 42 patients suffering from hypertension. Serious complications developed in three of the patients: two developed myocardial infarction, and the third developed a disturbance in cerebral circulation. The author considers three possibilities: (1) reserpine had no relation to the development of the complications; (2) reserpine was the direct cause of their uevelopment; and (3) under certain condi- tions reserpine was the contributing factor. Further experimental re- search irs needed to ascertain whether reserpine may cause complications when used in hypertension. On the basis of the data obtained, however, the author recommends that care be exercised before reserpine and other Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Rauwolfia serpentina preparations are used in cases with expressed coronary sclerosis or chronic coronary insufficiency; expressed sclerosis of the cerebral vessels with chronic insufficiency of the cerebral circulation; and increased tonus of the vagus nerve. 74. Diphtheria Toxin Exposed to ITitrasound "The Effecto of Ultrasonic Waves on Diphtheria Toxin," by G. I. Stepanchenok-Rudnik, Ye. I. Nekhotenova, V. A. Blagoveshchenskiy, and P. V. Pavlov, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gamaleya; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii.. Vol 30, No ii, Nov 59, pp lid-119 "An investigation was undertaken to explain the action of ultrasound of varying frequency and amplitude on diphtheria toxin and the effect of purifying the toxin on its sensitivity to ultrasonic waves. The following diphtheria toxins were selected for the investigation: (1) natural toxin which had been kept for some time (18 Lf/ml, Kf--1 hour and 15 minutes, MLD--0.0028 ml); (2) fresh natural toxin (3OLf/ml, Kf--one hour and 20 minutes, MLD--0.0006 ml); (3) toxin which had been purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (3OLf/ml, Kf--30 minutes, MLD--0.02 ml); (4+) toxin purified by the precipitation of the natural toxin at the iso-electric point (pH 14.0) with 30% trichioroacetic acid (38 Lf/mi, Kf--120 minutes, MLD--0.008 ml). A Soviet UL-1 apparatus in which a barium titanate piezoceramic disk served as a source of sound waves was used for the re- search. Exposure to sound was carried out in special trays with nylon bottoms. The apparatus was provided with a cooling system, which made it possible to keep the temperature of the toxin being exposed to ultrasound around 2500. "The action of ultraso is waves at a frequency of x+00 and 2,1+00 kc and a sonic pressure of 5 v-t m', and also at frequencies of 800 and 1,200 kc and pressure of 10 vt/cm for 30 minutes (in certain cases for 90 minutes) had no effect on. the toxic properties of the diphtheria toxins investigated;' the values of the Lf, Kf, and MLD of the toxins exposed to ultrasound were not changed. Purification of natural toxin by precipitation with a~nnonium sulfate or trichloroacetic acid did not affect the sensi-'%-.ivity of the toxin to ultrasound." CPYRGHT -59- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Pharmacology and Toxicology 75. Effect of Cholinolytics on Suprarenals "Effect of Certain New Cholinolytic Substances on the Function of the Suprarenal Cortex (Clinical-Experimental Investigation)," by T. A. Mel'nikova, 0. P. Zaplatina, and N. M. Kostygov,(Lenin- grad), Chair of Pharmacology Leningrad Chemicopharmaceutical Institute and Surgical Section of the Oktiabr Railway Hospital; Moscow, Proble Endokrinologii i Gormonoterapii, Vol V, No 5, Sep/Oct 59, pp 1E-19 A report on the results of research work conducted to determine the effect of anicaine and tropacine, new cholinolytic preparations on the hypophysial-adrenal system is presented. Anicaine is the diphenyl acetic ester of piperidyl ethanol and has the following structural formula: H N--Ch2--Ch2--OCOC Tropacine is the hydrochloride of the tropic ester of diphenyl acetic acid. Pharmacological investigations have established that both preparations stimulate the secretion of cortical hormones. The applica- tion of the preparations is recommended in cases in which the use of the adrenocortiotropic hormone is indicated. 76. Papaverine Therap,~ of Disturbed Cerebral Circulation "On the Intravenous Application of Papaverine in Acute Distur- bances of Cerebral Circ:ulation," by R. A. Tkachev, L. I. Alek- sandrova, and E. S. Prokhorova, Imtitute of Neurology, Academy of Medical Sciences *USSR; Moscow, Sovetskaya Meditsina, Vol XXIII, No 10, Oct 59, pp 106-109 Papaverine was administered to 60 patients suffering from acute dis- turbed cerebral circulation. The. patients arrived at the Institute of Neurology from half an hour to 2 hours after the appearance of the disease symptoms. AU were afflicted with hypertonia in the sclerotic phase. Papaverine was administered in doses of 2 milliliters of a 2- percent solution intravenously together with 10 milliliters of a 40- percent solution of glucose once a day. In all cases the drug produced a rapid therapeutic effect. On the basis of the data obtained, the authors recommend the application of p epa rin in .xypertonic cerebral crises. -60- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 77. Neur& eptic Drugs in TFierapy of Neuroses "Eeriment,of the Application of Neuroloptic Drugs in the Therapy of Neuroses," by L. I. Maricheva, Psychoneurological Hospital imeni I. P. Pavlov, Leningrad; Moscow, Zhurnal Nevro atolo ii i Psikhiatrii imeni S. S.'Korsakov, VolLix, I0 10, Oct 59, pp 9 -120 A report on the results obtained in the application of aminazine in combination with psychotherapy in the therapy of patients. suffering from different types of neuroses is presented. Aminazine administered in the initial stages of the psychotherapeutic treatment relaxed tension, fear and alarm and helped to normalize sleep and the appetite. It made the patients more amenable to psychotherapy. Small doses of the drug, 0.025-0.075 gram tyro or three times a day, are recommended. 78. Rhodanine and Its Derivatives "Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rhodanine and Its Derivatives," by, Zlakowska, Acta Polon Pharmac. (Poland), 1958, 15, ids 6, -- (? (from i et jygry Zhurr,.a1 -_ Kb a Biolo iche- "krra. Khiim ya), No 22, 25 Nov 59, Abstract No 303 64., by R. Khauxnina) "Investigations were conducted of 12 rhodan_-Lne derivatives. Rhodanine itself and its methyl and ethyl derivatives, its closest analogues, were found to possess great"st toxicity (LD50 162-228 milligrams per kilogram of body weight); its phenol and acetate derivatives were found to be consi- derably less toxic (LD50 3,520-1.0853 Lsij milligrams per kilogram of body weight in experiments or, mice). Most of the investigated compounds produced functional and histological hepatic and renal modifications. Some of the preparations :rre found to be capable of producing hypergly- cemia." CPYRGHT 79. Derivation of Q,uartenasy Ammonium Salta "Derivation of Quarternary Ammonium Salts From New Types of Initial Materials," by V. P. Erekaycv; Moscow, Institute of National Economy imeni G. V. P1ekhanovc; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Promyshlennost' USSR, Vol XIII, No 10, Oct 59, ppi 20-2 The article describes a new technical method of deriving quarternaxy ammonium salts from synthetic high molecular alcohols produced at the Shebenskiy combinat of synthetic alphalitic acids by the oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and from phenol and phenol mixtures. The quarternary ammonium slats thus obtained have a bacteriostatic and, tatic - 61 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 effect on 17 species of microorganisms; they are also bactericidal to :staphylococci, Bacillus cola, Proteus vulgaris, and have a fungicidal effect on yeastlike fungi. 80. Bettex Use of Medicinal Plants Urged "Better the of hbd .final R u Ma bertal Aesoiaoes;' k~Prof V. Asatiani, Corresponding Member of the Academy of 6ciennces Georgian SSR; Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, No 80 (1828), 6 Oct 59, p3 The author of this article states that scientists of the Tbilisi Clhemicopharmaceutical Scientific Research Institute have taken into con- sideration the decisions of the June Plenum of the Central Committee UPSU and have outlined more clearly the tasks with which they are con- fronted: the development of new preparations against cancer and hyperten- sion., the search for effective cardiac., styptic, and astringent drugs, cost reduction and improvement in production of a number of medicaments, the promotion of effective supervision over production, and the evaluation of medical preparations, etc. The primary effort is being channeled toward the exploration of wild flora of the USSR. There are many regions in the USSR where the medicinal plants and resources have not yet been explored. An expedition sent in 1959 to Makharadze Ray-1n returned with rich herbariums of medicinal plants. Much material. has been collected by the institute as result of numerous other expeditions. The personnel of the institute made 5,000 Analyses under field conditions, and 15,000 plants were collected. About !EO rayons were explored; thickets of medicinal plants in these rayons were charted and their approximate supply was indicated. Since thickets marked on the chart no longer exist, the institute is endeavoring to take measures to preserve planets that have medicinal value. The institute is giving considerable attention to collecting and examining folk remedies used in the Georgian SSR. These remedies have been used for centuries and handed down from generation to generation. Some remedies used by various racial groups have been tested in various departments of the institute, and their effectiveness has been 'tried out in clinical practice. These remedies will soon be in production. The department of pharmacobotany at the institute has accelerated its efforts to examine those plants which are important as raw material for new drugs. Results cf these efforts will be turned over to the pharmaceutical industry so that production of new drugs can begin in 1959. - 62 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Decisions of the Jtue plenum also served to encourage the biochemical h:,*rd ^al., and anal;yytical departni its of the institute to i:.tensiy their -l;-Ay of the chemical corn,poaition and properties of various plants. The coffee factory in Batam and the c:herricopharmaceutical factory in 'irbilisi are important segm.nts of the chemical industry of the USSR. The Batu'm factory was established after I. G. Butateladze, director of the institute and member of the Acaderr ? of Sciences Georgian SSR, formulated a process for obtaining caffeine from scraps of tea shrubs and waste pro-. d:!trts of the tea industrr. The institute was therefore in a posit?io . to o ooperat to seJ:j 71.t:h the factory from the ve?.V- beginning of its operation. S 1e:ntists of the institute have developed a method of purifying caffeine -without using lead salt,, thereby reducing the cost of caffeine production. ley peod.iet;e of cs.ff'ei:ae have bees. usal to make thealbinum arrd vitamin: P. The, riajiufacture of the lb.lm.w1 from by-prrod,;icts of caffeine saved a urge amoux:.t of tarr.)i:w for the co'uabry. There still is great shortage of IX- CJSSR. seas ial--Z fr effs,~tive cardiac drags, the scientists of the is ~,~ri,tr.~ts discovered that Digitalis ci.liare is a valuable source of raw mab-:~r.:La.l for steroid preparations. A drug called tribestris, which in-, :~r as ~s the acidity of gastric Juices, was derived from a plant called Tr :tfal%a . This plaint also is a aourose of very valuable steroid saponi s . Diosgenin is one of the compori ::rts of sago.:,?c:: it is used in medical i .?? d:ustry as a raw material for the synthesis of cortisone and other medical preparations. It was f'nand that an effective drug agaList den ton yCoeis caa be derived from T.:?ibz7us. Tribulus was foaad. to be ?cidespread in the, Georgian SSfi . Scientists of the ?hilisi i,'`zemi copha:!~a:::eutical Scientific Rese:ar :h Institute are searchi?::g for ::~::?tM steroid c:o:qp:ja:r7.s-s also from other of souther.: flora,. T-16 is being carried on L close coop(.:rati)n ?Mith the p3i. F ion Re:ccarch `".i cph:r aceutic:al T~t:;t While. making a study of astriigents;, scientists of the i .ttit'~~te found out what phai nac;ologica1 and clinical diff. erL c e fe st? s exist among tazy-' .ns of vaZ?ious oxgisi s. This opens up new prospects for their therapeuti% use. P."L .t col.le ::t. rrs of other depa." tnu-~w.ts of the i:- stitute ha:se also been sucor ssfuJ. in their -4ro.rk. - 63 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 81. Fulfil]axei.t of Seven-Year Plcn " 6Te ;,hall Fulfill the Seven-Year Plan Ahead of Schedule, " by L. A. IIayorov, l,Ioscow Chord copharm aceutical Plant imeni L. Ya. Karpov; Moscow, YIeditsinskayy'a Progrshlerinost I SSSR, Vol XIII, No 11, Nov 59, PP 9 The Idoscou Chemicopharmaceutical Plot t imeni L. Ya. Karpov fulfilled the 8-month plan of 1959 by 18 Au?ust and increased production_ by 22 per- cent over the corresponding period of 2.953. The plant :Is primarily engaged in the manufacture of vitae n.s and oait.t'aiotics. The production of vital ir. D_2 has been increased more than threefold over that in 1958. In 1959, thce plant be[. an_ the production of new antibiotics: grizemyn, fumagilline, col;yr!arcine, cricine, and eulevonaycetin. Improved methods of production, are beiizj introduced in the plant. The plant will successfully fulfill the Seven-Year Plan , vrhich envieaSes the douolin of production by the plant without conNiderabl;y increasing its facilities or person:lel. 82. Pressure Trauma Studied "Ali Analysis of Factors Causing Barotrauma of the Ears Z?Then E,cuased to Iri,,;h Pressure., " by A. P. Velitskiy and V. I. Voyr%chek, Clinic Cf Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases of the IIilitary Medical Order of Lenin Acadel'jy imeni S. M. Kirov; I icv, Zhu~zsowL 'Jc"~s~y>'?_, Nosov klh, i Oor1cwfkh Bolezni No Sera/Cc'; 59, pF 2 3-?3O 5, The author of this article states that the results of observations of 1.10 student divers be'i;vreen. 20 mid 25 years of age showed that pathology;.. ical processes in the o:>e and :_e:sopha? -yr x facilitate the appearance of be.rota-minas of the ears ?in. per,ata^i3 exuosed to high-pressure conditions. Barotr,atu:i ;?r:as u sua_l y observed in persons with pathological proces,sees which ob,trur:ii,c:c? ventilation of 'th'.e tyraeoailii c cavity, such as a deviated .1`U_o$Iiio ~"''!.t li.'tis, ,;:!d r,+r:;i;~,l?rha1 etlti:. To pre?ce:l;; baro :!'c;.tr~~, divers should be carefully selected and sub jecsted to #:: prior to each submersion. In examining each diver, must. be paid to the condition of the nose and r_asopll sl _,_~:, wcI the p.r.nea:L?:..lity of the Eus'!; tubes. - 64 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100470001-2 Hyp-~t1mr.nit' Produced by 60,r) of tho M eex? m:L t of the I TLYpr t;he,1c Effeo.t of Carbon Dioxide Pt, id the 10a of (;02 fo:r Pr-~dueix g Deep I ypot hersnia in Warn? -Boded 'trS i. S. Rc pir , Department of General PathologJ', L?istitute c;f 1;`i. lr:x'irm:atai.:. Medicine, Academy, of Science )s u- SR; ;Musi.uw, Pato:Lo ichew? Mir Fiziooioogiya i ] speri- rn tesl'M^ rz `:(,rauiya, No 5, Se0 t 59, pp 6-56 The aivi hor ;)f t1,,is axticl d.i;ao-:urise i t~ t~~~ riar~:~!ts conducted on 72 rabbl.ts to deter. `ne the effect of various concentrations of C0)2 (5%, 10, 15%p, =td 20%) in the inspired air o: body temperature and on thermore.- gul.atior... The i ~Jaral~~i-,io of air Alich ront,ai ed. between 15% and 20% Cot r-3 u1t^.:d, the on4rpressl.o? . cf p'Lyzic,3:L : s .d chemicaa. thexz regxlati r reartioi2s. '_?'!:.:;.F, ?caz:, c;tt;:l;Jc-;d 15? a drop c~;s;Ziv? i3:. heat production, by =i cu- L tr? tr~rra)r at all F~ c arc :~ of physical c;"r.1_t1i ng, axed by an i::!rrease in heat emir'::io . i':tc. t'r" Jm.r rdiate asr~riromn:'wt . The d tractioxc of thermc?reegu1,a,.. Lion was n t cor ,ec.ted with the, geu,az 2. toaesthetic effect of C02p did not de-perd or. LCYpa::c: ~ai. ~, .9;.-td r?