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C I ~~FR 1 ~. ,-T UNCLRSS I F I,ED-- SCI ENT I F I`C , I NFCRMRTI QN A roved For Release 1999/09/08 ? CIA-RDP82i-00141000010 p - _ 1, p _ R?R 1 FE ved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001 RLE COPY PB 131891 T-58 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT 18 November 1960 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES /\r(t1?l to ._ 4(lii(rJ 47' /t a'c rdi Cntrl ~irunr(~a(ofy -0- A. Issued semi-monthly. Annual subscription $28.00 ($4 additionaVQ16 r" / S foreign mailing). Single copy $2.75. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 PLEASE- NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from recently received publications of the USSR and Eastern Europe. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities and is dis- seminated as an aid to research in the United States. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents Biology Page 1 Biophysics Microbiology Chemistry 8 Electrochemistry 8 Fuels and Propellants 8 Herbicides 12 Industrial Chemistry 13 Inorganic Chemistry 14 Insecticides 16 Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 17 Organic Chemistry 26 Radiation Chemistry 27 Radiochemistry 29 III. Electronics 30 Communications Components Control Systems Instruments and Equipment Materials Radar Wave Propagation IV. Engineering Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering Computers and Automation Electrical Engineering 30 32 35 36 37 38 39 41 41 44 47 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 V. Mathematics Aerospace Medicine Contagious Diseases Epidemiology Immunology and Therapy Oncology Pharmacology and Toxicology Physiology Public Health, Hygiene, and Sanitation Radiology Surgery Veterinary Medicine Miscellaneous VII. Metallurgy Physical Metallurgy Production Metallurgy VIII. Physics Atomic and Molecular Physics Magnetohydrodynamics Mechanics Nuclear Physics Solid State Physics Theoretical Physics page 50 54 54 55 56 57 6o 61 69 75 79 88 88 89 91 91 94 99 99 100 103 111 u6 119 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 1. BIOLOGY Biophysics 1. Anatoxin Purity Determined by Spectrophotometric Methods "Spectrophotometry and Luminescent Analysis of Anatoxins," by V. M. Vadimov, Division of Radiation Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gamaleya; Moscow, Zhurnal Mikrobiolo ii idem- iologii i Immunobiologii, Vol 31, No 8, Aug 0, pp 35-40 Preliminary paper electrophoresis followed by spectrophotometry and luminescent analysis was tested as a method to be used in quality control of anatoxin production. Tetanus and diphtheria anatoxins were selected for use in the experiments. Maximum absorption of the tetanus anatoxin occurred at a wave length of 278 microns; the diphtheria anatoxin contained formali- nized protein and had a mixed absorption spectrum in the short wave region. Electrophoresis was carried out in an acetate buffer with a pH of 5.2 and an ion concentration of 0.03-0.04 at 80 V for 16 hours. The strips were then dried in air at 200 C and scanned in ultraviolet light; eluates in physiological solution were measured with a SF-4 spectrophotometer. Maximum absorption was seen on the spectrograms between the limits of the third and the eighth zones. CPYRGHT CPYRGHT The results of these experiments are shown by tables, graphs and illustrations, and are discussed thoroughly in the text. The following con- clusion is given: "The above-described research on molecular spectral analysis of tetanus and diphtheria anatoxins, and also the data on their luminescent character- istics, are of interest for further development of the methodology of physi- cal-chemical analysis (control) in determining the degree of purification of anatoxins." 2. Electrophoretic Purification of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus "Purification of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Method, of Electrophoresis," by A. G. Makakhov, and N. M. Kiimov, Tr. Vses. In-ta Eksperim. Veterinarii (Works of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine), No 22, 1959, pp 189-194 (From Referativn Zhurnal Biolo i a, No 17, 10 Sep 60, Abstract No 798 "The foot-and-mouth disease virus maintains its biological character- istics if electrophoresis Is carried out at a temperature not higher than 5? C with the use of a medinal-acetate buffer (3.5 g of medinal, 4.0 g of Z COONa, 150 g of a 0.1 HC1 solution diluted to one liter with distilled r) with a pH of 7.6. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 CPYRGHT Electrophoresio was done simultaneously with 16 strips of paper 40x2 cm and a direct current voltage of 300 V, a current of 5 mA; the duration of electrophoresis was 18 hours. The virus was observed to move with the s- and 0 -globulin fractions of the blood serum of guinea pigs infected with type A virus (the animals were sacrificed 48-72 hours post infectionem). White mice infected with eluates of a - and P-globulin fractions died within 36 hours of infection. Mice infected with eluates of other fractions survived. Some virus particles have a rate equal to the a -globulin of the blood serum, and others, to the 0 -globulin; virus particles with electro- phoretic mobility corresponding to P-globulin are found in the highest con- centrations. The authors consider it possible to purify the virus of bal- last proteins by the method of electrophoresis." 3. I7mnunoelectrophoresis for Quantitative Protein Deter.,Lination "Isrnmxnoelectrophoresis of Precipitating Sera on Paper, " by Yu. S. Tatarinov, Chair of Biochemistry, Astrakhan Medical Institute imeni A. V. Lunacharslkjy; Moscow, Laboratornoye Delo, Vol 6, No 3, may/Jun 6o, pp 37-39 On the basis of their observation that fractionation of specific pro- teins on paper is relatively complicated and does not result in pure precipi- tate allowing a quantitative determination of the proteins which enter into the antigen-antibody complex, the authors experimented with paper immuno- electrophoreses and paper chromatography to study specific serum protein reactions. Three aspects of the research are discussed in this article: (1) simultaneous electrophoresis of precipitating sera and antigen; (2) electrophoresis of immune serum impregnated with antigen; and (3) electro- phoresis of antigen on paper impregnated with different protein fractions of precipitating serum. The following conclusions are given: 1. The specific reaction of precipitating antibodies with antigen in paper electrophoresis reveals characteristic zones of precipitation. 2. The combination of paper iminunoelectrophoresis and paper chromato- graphy permits the observation of the distribution of specific precipitate on the electrophoregram. Determination of the protein in the precipitate makes it possible to evaluate the antibody content. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 li . Appaxatus for Measurir Biocurrentc "Diagnostic Radiolccator," (unsigned article); Moscow, CPYRGHT itsinskly Rabotnik, No 17 (1929), 23 Sept 60, p 4 "In the course of the development of disease processes in the human organism, modifications of the bioelectric potentials which have their origin in the cells and tissues of the human and animal organisms, take place at specific points of the skin which are closely linked with the foci of the affections. A simple cathode millivolt meter which with great precision determines the constant and modified magnitudes of the biocurrents, and which makes it possible to measure the degree of the modifications-- signals of the encroaching disease -- has been designed by the personnel of the Institute of Physiology lineni A. Bogomolets of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Charts which indicate the location of these points on the skin, their nerve connections, and the magnitudes of the biopotentials in healthy and sick persons have been developed. The new apparatus is now being used for diagnostic purposes at the Kiev City Hospital imeni October Revolution, and in the therapy of radiculitis, neuritis, bone diseases, diseases of the joints, muscles, etc. In many cases it helps the physician to determine the area for action on the focus of the disease, to assess the intensity of the disease process, and to select the proper method of therapy. The experimental shop of the institute is now assembling these apparatuses for the scientific-Research institutes and medical establishments of the re- public." 5. Electroencephaloscopy Discussed in Recent Book "Elektroentsrfaloskcpiya (Electroence,).ialos copy)) by M. N. Livanov and V. M. Anan'yev, Medgiz; Moscow, 1959, 108 pp This book, which reports the development of a new device for recording CPYRGHT bioelectric potentials, is introduced with the following note: "A description of a new method of studying the dynamics and spatial relations of the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex is given in this book by M. N. Livanov and V. M. Anan'yev. This method (electroencephalo- scopy), which has alre&y been used in a number of scientific institutions in our country, is based on the use of an electroencephaloscope designed by the authors--a new apparatus for multiple point recording of bioelectric potentials of the human and animal brains. "The results of experimental and clinical investigations which have demonstrated the possibility of extensive practical use of the encephaloscope, particularly for the purpose of observing diseases and injuries of the brain (epilepsy, neoplasms, concealed trauma, etc.) are reported in the book. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 PYRGHT_ "The book is intended for physicians and biologists interested in the use of electrophysiological methods in clinical and laboratory practice." The introduction to the book explains the authors' purposes in design- ing this apparatus and in publicizing its advantages. The table of contents CPYRGHlis as follows: Introduction The development of electrotoposcopy Multichannel electrotoposcopy Commutation electrotoposcopy 9. What is basically required of electroencephaloscopy 19 Principles of operation of the electroencephaloscope 20 Circuitry and construction of the electroencephaloscope 25 Preamplifiers 25 Electron tube switch 28 Switching tubes 34 Pulse amplifier 39 Recording unit 41 Power supply of the electroencephaloscope 49 Construction of the electroencephaloscope 54 Conditions for operating the electroencephaloscope 56 Multiple electrodes 58 Electrodes for experimental purposes 58 Electrodes for clinical purposes 62 Results of work with the electroencephaloscope 67 Data from experimental work 69 Clinical investigations 82 Con clusions 103 Bib liography 105 -4- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 CPYRGHTC authors offer these conclusions: "The examples of the experimental and clinical use of the encephalo- scope which have been presented do not exhaust all the data obtained in research in which it was used over the course of 2 years. In particular, it performs an important service in the electrophysiological study of con- ditioned reflexes. "However, it must be assumed that the examples presented are sufficient to evaluate correctly the possibilities revealed by this new electrophysio- logical methodology in the field of investigation of brain processes. "The authors of this book hope that the use of electroencephaloscopy in other areas of physiology and medicine (electrocardiography, electro- myography, etc.) will also fully justify itself. "In conclusion, we consider it necessary to make it still more clear that the apparatus describe" is only the initial development and that there exists, therefore, a great possibility for improvement. The authors of this book have already developed an apparatus with 100 leads, and have demonstrated the possibility of constructing an apparatus with several hundred leads. "Such an apparatus will be able to give a precise picture of the spatial distribution of the variations in potential in excited tissues. These future multichannel apparatuses will not differ greatly, in their size, number of tubes and design, from the first 50-channel apparatuses. Extensive possibilities are disclosed here as a result of the application of the multiple commutation principle developed by the authors. The synchronization of several commutating pulses is the basis for this. As a result of this, a large number of combinations, which ensure passage into the signal amplification section from a large number of channels, is successfully achieved with a small number of circuit elements. "The authors suggest that electroencephaloscopic methodology will in time be applied to theoretical and practical research, and they hope that this book will assist in acquainting wide circles of scientific and clinical workers with this methodology." The book is well illustrated and contains a bibliography of 39 Soviet and 38 foreign authors. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Microbiology 6. Succindehydrase Activity Centers in Bacteria Studied "Detection of Succindehydrase Activity Centers in E. Cow.," by V. M. Ehshnarev, Department of Dry Biopreparations and Laboratory of Luminescence and Electron Microscopy, Insti- tu*oe of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni N. F. Gamaleya, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Byulleten'_Eksperi- mental'noy Biologii i Meditsin No 8, 1960, pp 106-107 With the aid of. 2,3,5, -triphenyltetrasol chloride, a specific reagent for succindehydrase in E. cola cells, a cell was found to have one to three succindehydrase "activity centers.'.' Since succindehydrase activity is associated with the mitochondria fraction in tissues, one can speak of such centers in bacterial cells as functi.ona1 equivalents of mitochondria. 7. Rumanians Study Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus "Concerning Some Characteristics of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolated in Rumania," by N. Draganescu; Bucharest, Studii si Cercetari de Inf ramicrobiolo ie Vol 9, No 3, 1960 pp 17- 2 The author studied the moment of the appearance and the persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolated in Rumania in the blood of white mice inoculated intracerebrally and subcutaneously. In the animals inoculated either intracerebrally or subcutaneously, the virus is present in the blood from the first hour after infection and persists until the death of the animal. By inoculating the mice through the respiratory tract, one obtains both clinically and pathomorpho logically the characteristic lesions of pneumo-encephalitis with an interstitial infiltration of the lung and inflammatory lesions specific to this virus in the central nervous system. Four successive intrapulmonary passages produced no changes in the neurotropic properties of this inframicrobial pathogen. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 8. Role of RNA in Anti-Virus Vaccines "Ratio Between the Ihmmmogenic Activity of Anti-Virus Vaccines and Their Infectivity,:' by R. Portocala; Bucharest, Studii si Cercetari de Inframicrobiologie, Vol 9, No 3, 1960, PP 3 5-373? The author discusses the role of the ribonucleic acid of viruses in anti-virus vaccines. If a vaccination is to be effective, it must be done with a virus which has largely conserved its infectivity via its RNA, which,, however, subjects the cell to the synthesis of the homologous virus. On the other hand, the viruses which have lost their inductive property cannot promote intracellular immunogenesia. The study led to the conclusion that the cell itself is the seat of the immunity in viral diseases; it is only in the interior of a cell with intact physiological characteristics that the RNA can exercise its inductive action and finally cause the synthesis of a virus, which becomes an antigen through its protein. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 11. CHEMISTRY Electrochemistry 9. A. N. Sysoyev's Work on Semiconductors and Fuel Cells "A. N. Sysoyev (1901-1959)," by I. S. Galinker, S. S.Urazovskiy, P. P. Budnikov, L. I. Kadaner, and A. I. Gorbanev; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Xhimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2130-2133 On the occasion of the death of A. N. Sysoyev on 4 Jan 1960, his work in the field of electrochemistry is reviewed. At the time of his death, Sysoyev was head of the Chair of Electrochemical Production, I4iar'kov Polytechnic Institute imeni V. I. Lenin. Re has carried out a number of investigations (referred to as important) on semiconductors. He discovered that tungsten, aluminum, and thallium that have been oxidized at elevated temperatures exhibit semiconductor properties. He conducted extensive in- vestigati.ons on the effects which impurities, the temperature of oxidation, deformation, and a nwnber of other factors exert on the rectifying proper- ties of semiconductors. He proved that in electrolytic rectifiers, the electrolyte plays only an auxiliary role in the rectification effect. At one time, Academician A. F. Ioffe referred to Sysoyev's work as outstanding because of the methods applied and the novelty of the ideas embodied in it. He stated that Sysoyev is the leading worker in the field of the chemistry and technology of solid rectifiers in the USSR. Sysoyev has been interested in carbon-oxygen cells and the nature of the so-called flame current. fIR Note: A list of publications by Sysoyev follows the review of his activity. Publications on semiconductors (10 references), electro- thermic processes and electric furnaces (20 references), electrolytic de- position of metals (17 references), and miscellaneous subjects (12 references) are included in this list Fuels and Propellants 10. Use of Heavier Petroleum Fractions for Jet Fuel Recommended "Catalytic Cracking or Reforming?" by B. M. Rybak and A. L. Ihalif, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Gas Industry; Moscow, Khimi a i Tekhnolo i a To liv 9_ Masel, Vol 5, No 8, Aug 60, pp 66-76 In this article, which disputes the necessity of expanding the catalytic cracking of heavy fractions in the USSR petroleum industry and criticizes A. V. Agafonov's recommendation to that effect made in the paper "Catalytic Cracking as One of the Means of Providing of .Raw Material for Petrochemical Synthesis" (cf Khimiya i Tekhnologiya Topliv ;L Masel, No 9, Sep 1959), tr? following statement s made: Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 CPYRGHT Approvea or a ease "Au i'ar as jet ( "reaction engine") and diesel fuels arc concern ed, it is not ncccssazy to use in all cases fractions boiling at 1)10-3500 for their production, as has been assumed by Agaf'onov. Without impairment of the quality of jet and diesel fuels obtained from nonparaffinic crudes and some of the ciitdeo with a low paraffin con-Lent, one may use the 180- 4300 fractions for the production of 'these fuels, the more so since, in addition to fuels for high-speed diesels, heavier fuels to be used in diesel engines with a high power output and stationary diesels will be required to an Inc reas tng extent." 11. Adsorption of Ozone on Silica Gel at Low Temperatures "The Physical Chemistry of Concentrated Ozone; Part 9 -Investi- gation of the Adsorption of Ozone on Silica Gel at Different Temperatures," by N. I. Kobozev, Ye. N. Yeremin, M. G. Terekhova, and A. N. Mal'tsev, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizieheskoy HIiimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1893-1899 In the work described, the adsorption of ozone on silica gel at low temperatures was investigated. The silica gel was saturated at a constant temperature in an ozone-oxygen stream until an adsorption equilibrium was established; the adsorbed quantity was then determined by as analysis. Analysis was carried out by oxidation of potassium iodide and titration of the fr8ed iodine with sodium thiosulfate. The adsorption isotherms at minus 120 , minus 1300, minus 1400, and minus 1500 were determined. It was established that the adsorption of ozone on silica gel decreases by a factor of 7-8 when the temperature is reduced from minus 3200 to minus 1500. Adsorption on silica gel makes it possible to obtain concentrated ozone in a form convenient for chemical applications. 12. Effect of the Diameter of the Vessel on the Yield of Nitrogen Oxide in the Explosive Oxidation of Nitrogen in Mixtures With Ozone "The Physical Chemistry of Concentrated Ozone; Part 10 -The Effect of the Diameter of the Vessel on the Yield of Nitrogen Oxide in the Explosive Oxidation of Nitrogen in Mixtures With Ozone," by D. V. Strakhav, V. P. Lebedev, and N. I. Kobozev, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 311., No 8, Aug 60, pp 1706- 1708 The relation between the nitrogen oxide (NO) yield and the diameter of the vessel during explosions of ozone-nitrogen mixtures in glass vessels at an initial pressure of 150 mm Hg was investigated. It was established that in the concentration range of 50-90% 03, the yield of NO increases with the diameter at all concentrations, the maximum yield changing from 0.4 to 1.95% with a change of the vessel diameter from 10 to 44 mm. The increase of the -9- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 yield of NO is retarded when d approaches )4 mm, the concentration being the more pronounced the higher the concentration of 03 in the mixture. Measurements at still greater diameters could not be carried out because of the inadequate strength of the glass vessels. On the basis of an extra- polation of curves that have been obtained, the assumption is made that the lower the concentration of ozone in the mixture, the greater will be the diameter at which the yield of NO reaches a maximum value. It is stated that this assumption must be checked in experiments carried out in metal vessels. ? According to A. G. El'kenbard, R. I. Genkina, and M. V. Polyakov, who worked with N2 - 02 - 03 mixtures, the yield of NO passes through a maximum with increasing diameters of the vessel because the chain mechanism, which applies to explosions in vessels with a small diameter, changes to a thermal (heat explosion) mechanism. It was brought out later that the dependence of the NO yield on the diameter can be explained from the standpoint of the heat explosion theory (ef Ya. B. Zel'dovich, P. Ya. Sadovnikov) and D. A. Frarik-Kamenetskiy, Okisleniye Azota pry Gorenii - Oxidation of Nitrogen Dur- ing Combustion, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow- Leningrad, 197). 13. Oxidation of Methane in the Presence of Nitromethane "Application of the Kinetic Isotope Tracer Method in the Investi- gation of the Oxidation of Methane in the Presence of Nitromethane," by V. B. Miller, P. I. Levin, G. P. Konareva, M. B. Neyman, and N. S. Yenikolopyan, Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Ehimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1980-1986 Oxidation of hydrocarbons is considerably accelerated in the presence of nitrogen oxides, alkyl nitrites, or a11r1 nitrates. Investigation of the oxidation of methane in the presence of N02 led to the conclusion that the interaction of nitrogen oxides with methane in the first stage of the reaction results in the formation of nitromethane, which acts as a homo- geneous catalyst of the reaction. To check the correctness of this hypo- thesis, the effects of the addition of nitromethane on the kinetics of the oxidation of methane were studied. It was found that nitromethane disap- pears rapidly in the beginning of the reaction and that formaldehyde and oxides of carbon are formed at the same time. After this, during a period of 1-1.5 min, the concentration of nitromethane remains practically constant. The relatively constant concentration of nitromethane during a period of 0.5-1.75 min can be explained in two different ways. One explanation would be that nitromethane is excluded from the reaction and for that reason does not decompose. Another, more probable explanation is that nitror phane is used up and regenerated at approximately equal rates. By using C ``"HN02, it could be established that the nitromethane which catalizes the oxidation Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 of methane is not only decomposed, but also forms during the course of the reaction. The rates of the formation and decomposition of methane in the presence and absence of oxygen were determined. It was found that in the presence of oxygen, the rate of the formation of nitromethane is 2-3 times greater than in the absence of oxygen. It is assumed on the basis of the results obtained that in the presence of oxygen, approximately 30% of the nitromlethane containing tracer carbon is formed by isotope exchange and approximately 70% as a result of radical reactions. It w HFs a that at T = 4730, isotope exchange takes place between C1 3N02 and Clk according to the following equation: C11q13N02 + CIUr. C14li4 + CH3N02 It was found that for every nitromethane molecule that is decomposed, 2-3 molecules of methane are oxidized. i.. Dependence of the Lower Concentration Limits of Ignition of Gas-Air Mixtures on the Molecular Structure of the Combustible Component "Dependence of the Lower Concentration Limits of Ignition of Gas-Air Mixtures on the Molecular Structure of the Combustible Component," by N. V. Solov'yev and A. N. Baratov; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Ihimii, Vol 31i., No 8, Aug 60, pp 1661-1670 Starting from N. N. Semenov's thermal explosion theory, a relation- ship has been established for alkanes, nonna1 alcohols, iso-alcohols, formates, and acetates between the lower concentration limits of ignition and the content of carbon atoms in the molecule of the combustible sub- stance. The fact that there is a quantitative relationship of this kind has been confirmed by experimental data. It was established that with an increasing content of carbon atoms in the molecule of the addbustible sub- stance, the lower concentration limits decrease monotonously according to a hyperbolic relationship. Application of M. Kh. Karapet'yants' comparative method indicated that the relationship which has been found is valid for all the homologous series that have been investigated. The expressions that have been derived, when employed in ccmibination with Karapet'yant$' compara- tive method, may serve for the calculation of the ignition limits of a great number of substances belonging to other homologous series when the limit of one substance of the series is known. The values of temperhture and concentration limits of a number of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing derivatives of these hydrocarbons have been determined for the first time. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Herbicides 15? Herbicidal Activity Lowered by Replacing Ester Oxygen With an Amide Group "Research in the Field of Synthesizing Herbicides. Report 5. Gamma-chlorocrotyl Amides of Aroxy- and Haloacetic Acids," by V. V. Dovlatyan and T. 0. Chalryan, Chair of General Chemistry, Armenian Agricultural Institute; Yerevan, Izvesti a Akademii Nauk Armyanskoy SSR-Khimicheslclye Nauki, Vol 13, No 2/3, 19 60., pp 187-191 Haloaryloxyacetic acids, upon being introduced into the soil, tend to act somewhat slower on weeds than when used to treat the surface portion of the plants. The main reason for the weak herbicidal activity of these compounds appears to be their low stability in soil. In addition, the amides and certain anilides of the acids cited are considerably more stable and effective in soil. In addition to the foregoing, a number of herbicides are known which manifest an expressed activity only under soil conditions, and they also contain the amide functional group. Among such compounds one can list the derivatives of urea and carbamic acid: is,opropylphenylcarbamate, isopropyl- 3-chlorophenylcarbamate, dichloralurea, slid others. Thus, on the basis of the data presented, one could suppose that the presence of the amide group in the molecules of a number of compounds, apparently, contributes to their activity and stability in the soil. The authors were motivated by these considerations to synthesize the gamma-crotyl amide of aroxyacetic and haloacetic acids with the following general formula: RCONHCH2CII=CCICH3 where R = ArOCH2, CC1H2, CC12, Proceeding from the above statements, the authors expected that the obtained amides would manifest in the soil a higher herbicidal activity than the earlier synthesized, corresponding gamma-crotyl esters of aroxy- and haloacetic acids. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 The gamma-crotyl amine necessary for the synthesis of the desired amides was obtained from 1,3-dichlorobutenc-2 according to the method based on the use of hexamethylenetetramine: (CH 2) 6N1. I Cl CH3CC1 = CHCH2 Cl CH3CC1 _ CHCH2C1-(CI'2)6 VA ' z5 CH3CC12 = CH- C112-NR-By condensing the obtained amine with aroxyacetyl- and hail&eety1. chlorides in the presence of sodium hydroxide, gaamna-^rotyl amides were synthesized: RCOC1 + H2NCH2CH CC1CH3 EaOff ) RCONCH2CH = CC1CH3. H Tests indicated that for the purpose of aroxyacetylation of gamma- chlorocrotyl amine, the ethyl esters of the acids can be successfully used in place of the acid chlorides. Preliminary tests of the ?,erbicidal properties of the synthesized amides, conducted by G. A. Darbinyan of the Institute of General Soil Science of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Armenian SSR, indicated that by replacing the ester oxygen of the gamma-crotyl esters of aroxy- and haloacetic acids by the amide group negatively affects the activity of this series of compounds. 2ndustriat Chemistry 16. Research on Triallylboron "Investigations in the Field of Boron Compounds; New Derivatives of Triallylboron," by Academician A. V. Topchivy'i,Ya. M.. Paushkin, A. A. Prokhorova, E. I. Frenkin, and M. V. Kurashev, Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Academy of Sciences SSSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 1311., No 2, 11 Sep 60, pp 364-367 Triallylboron prepared by a method previously described by the authors (cf Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 129, No 3, 1959, p 598) was reacted with alcohols, acids, and aldehydes. The reaction of triallylboron with alcohols leads to the formation of diesters of allylboric acid according to the equa- tion (C3H5)3B + ROH = C3H5B(OR)2 + C3H6 - 13 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 By the reaction of triallylboron with aldehydes esters of allylboric acid, propylene and cyclohexadiene are formed according to the following equation: (C3H5)3B + RCHO - C3115B(OCH2R)2 + C6H8 + C3H6 (R = C3H7; C6H7) Esters of allylboric acid that have been synthesized (9 esters are described) are being investigated from the standpoint of their application as monomers for the synthesis of polymers containing boron. 17. Device for Determining the Elasticity of Rubber at Temperatures Below Freezing "A Device and Method for the Determination of High Elasticity Characteristics of Rubber at Low Temperatures," by G. M. Bartenev and N. M. Novikova, Scientific Research Institute of the Rubber Industry; Moscow, Kauchuk i Rezina, No 7, Jul 60, pp 28-33 A modified device UPKM-3 and an accelerated method of testing rubber for stability at temperatures below 0?C are described. It was established that identical results are obtained by the method of determining the loss of elasticity in compression and the method of determining elastic recovery, so that a single universal method of testing on the UPKM-3 device can be recommended.. A method for determining the tendency of rubber to. crystallize is proposed. Inorganic Chemistry 18. Preparation of Rhenium Hexafluoride by the Fluorination of the Metal With Chlorine Trifluoride "Preparation of Rhenium Hexafluoride by the Fluorination of the Metal With Chlorine Trifluoride," by N. S. Nikolayev and Ye. G. Ippolitov, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry imeni N. S. Kurnakov; Moscow, Dold.ady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 134, 11 Sep 60, pp 358-359 Powdered rhenium was reacted with gaseous chlorine trifluoride (it does not react with liquid CIF ) The reaction was conducted in a stream of nitrogen. It proceeded a~ 300?. A volatile liquid containing ReF6 and an excess rr ClF distilled over. To prepare pure ReF, recrystallization from liquid hydrogn fluoride was carried out. ReF6. xCIF3 crystallized from the hydrogen fluoride. This product was? decomposed into Ref6 and C1F3 by dis- tillation in a hydrogen stream at 50 in a platinum tube. The ReF6 separated in this manner still contained some chlorine and hydrogen fluoride; it was purified by keeping it in vacuum for 1+ hrs at minus 70?. The melting point of the ReF6 finally obtained was + 18.7 ? 0.1? in contrast to the 18.8 and 19? given in the literature. - 14 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 19. T:uitulum Iodide and Formation of Tantalum From the Iodide "Formation of Tantalum Iodides and Iodide Tanta1wn, " by D. M. Chizhikov, Corresponding Member Academy of Sciences USSR, and B. N. Rabinovich, Institute of Metallurgy imeni A. A. Baykov, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklad.y Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 134, No 2, 11 Sep 60, pp 368-370 The investigation described was carried out with the purpose of estab- lishing the temperature at which the Interaction of tantalum with iodine begins, of studying the tantalum iodide or iodides that are formed, and of determining the properties of tantalum formed by the decomposition of tantalum Iodide. It was established that the reaction between tantalum and iodine begins at 3700. The presence of a new compound was established by X-ray diffraction analysis of products of the interaction of Ta with I at 530-550?. Chemical analysis led to the conclusion that an iodide of a com- position corresponding to the formula TaI had .formed. Tantalum formed by the decomposition of tantalum iodide was$d~posited on a monocxystall,ine tungsten filament and a polycrystalline tantalum filament. It was found that the tantalum crystals were arranged in a regular manner on the surface of the tungsten and were in -a disoriented state on the tantalum surface. 20. Titanium-Chromium-Boron Alloys --------------------- "Some Data on Alloys in the System Titanium-Chromium-Boron," by N. V. Cherlmshina, N. A. Nedoumov, and F. I. Shamray; Moscow, Zhurnal Neor anicheskoy Khimii, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2025-2031 In the work described, an investigation of the constitutional. diagram of the ternary system Ti-Cr-B has been begun. No systematic data on this system are available. Preliminary results obtained in an investigation of the microstructure and thermal behavior of alloys along the cross-sections Cr-TIB2 and Cr-T12B are reported. According to data published in the literature,' titanium borides are superior to other borides in that they have higher melting and a better heat resistance. 'Ductile chromium has a high mechanical strength and exhibits a considerable resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, chromium borides are resistant to the action of acids. Under the circumstances, an. investigation of the com- bined effects exerted by chromium and titanium on ternary alloys in the system Ti-Cr-B appeared of interest. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 21. Boron-Silicon-Carbon Alloys "Alloys in the System Boron.Silicon -Carbon," by K. I. Portnoy, G. V. Samsonov, and L. A. Solonnikova, All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials and Institute of Powder Metallurgy, Cornets, and Special Alloys, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheokoy Khimii, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2032-2011.1 A microscopic, X-ray diffraction, mic rodurometric, and chemical invest- igation of alloys in the B11C-Si and SiC-B cross-sections of the ternary system B-Si-C system has been carried out. The melting points and electrical properties of these alloys were also investigated. The existence of two ternary compounds was established. These compounds have the formulas B5SIC2 and B3Si2C2. They exhibit a great hardness (which reaches 7000 k9/=2 so far as the fin t of the two compounds is concerned), a high heat resistance, and a high resistance toward the action of acids and mixtures of acids. It was established that the alloys in the cross-sections mentioned have semi- conductor properties. The thermal EMF of the chemical compounds discovered reaches a magnitude of 150-200 F v/degree. Boron-silicon -carbon alloys are of great practical importance because of their great hardness, chemical stability, heat resistance, and semicon- ductor properties exhibited by the binary limiting systems. Insecticides 22. Water-Soluble Pesticidal Dusts "Method of Producing Water-Soluble Pesticidal Dusts Containing the Ammonium Salts of Substituted Dinitrophenols," by Karol Ullrich and Frantisek Matousek, Czechoslovakian Patent 88029, 15 December 1958 (from erativnyy Zhurnal -- Khin a, No 12, 25 Jun 1960, Abstract No 49111 by F..$y hk' Over a 2-hour period, 13.9 kg of a 50% product of petroleum sulfonation (wetting A;ent), 5.6 kg of (NH44)2SO44, and 16.7 kg of water are added to a mixture of 13.9 kg of dinitro-o-cresol (I), 36.1 kg of water, and 13.9 kg of 22.4% aqueous NH3 at 30-35? with constant stirring. The reaction mixture is stirred for approximately 4 hours more at 40?; the paste produced is dried and crushed. Dinitro-o-sec-butyiphenol, dinitro-o-cyclohexylphenol, or dinitro-o-sec-amylphenyl can be used instead of dinitro-o-cresol. 16 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 23. Spectrophotometric Investigation of the Formation of Coml~le::c by Uranyl With Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid "Spectrcphotometric Investigation of the Formation of Compplexe by Uranyl With Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid," by A. G. Ko:,lev and N. N. Kxot; Moscow, Zhurnal Noorganicheskoy I(himii, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1959-1963 The formation of complexes by uranyl with ethylenediaminertetraacetic ue.i.u. was investigated spectrophotometrically. It was established that under definite conditions) the complexes UO2H2Y, JU02)2J, and ~02Y are formed . They were i . olate n the solids t I t ri ,. o ; o r. form 01 compounds UO2H2Y.r'42 , Ll 2 eY .nH2O, and K2 UO Y '.nn 0. The dissocia- tion. ("instability") constants of 5UO2)2 7 and LUo2J 2- were. calculated. 24. 1~ydration of Uranyl Nitrate in Or anic Solvents During Extraction from "hydration of Uranyl Nitrate in Organic Solvents During Extraction From Salt Solutions," by V. M. Vdovenko and Ye. A. Smirnova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, No 3, May 60, pp 291-295 It was established that during the extraction of uranyl nitrate from solutions containing salting.-out agents capable of binding water, the de- gree of hydration of uranyl nitrate in diethyl ether diminishes with in- creased concentrations of the salting-out agent in the aqueous solutions. At equal concentrations of salting-out agents, the degree of lowering of hydration depends on the capacity of the salting-out agent to bind water. The degree of hydration of uranyl nitrate extracted with dibutyl ether from solutions containing salting-out agents is not affected by a dehydrat- ing effect exerted by the salting-out agent. 25. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Dissolution of Uranium Oxides in Acidic Solutions "Some Problems of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Disso- lution of Uranium Oxides in Acidic Solutions," by V. I. Spitsyn, G. M. Nesmeyanova, and Ye. A. Kanevskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 19-191+2 Using data published in the literature, the isobar potentials of the dissolution of U02, U03, and U308 in sulfuric acid solutions of different concentration were calculated under consideration of the formation of com- plexes. The values of p Z and A Z? for these processes were compared with - 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 the ruoults of the dissolution of U02 and U30 in solutions of :;u1.l'uric acid at concentrations of 150-1000 grams per liter. It was es tab7..ished that the experimental data are in agreement with the results of thc.,no- dyncunic calculations. The values obtained for the isobar potentials of the dissolution of UO2?, UO~, and U~O8, particularly in dilute solutions of acids, indicated tfla?t i is adv2sable to use oxidizing agents when U02 and U 08 are dissolved. At the same time, attempts to correlate experi- mental data on the dissolution of U 08 with normal redox potentials of ox.3.- dizing agents used to expedite solu;ion did not indicate that there is a well-defined relationship between them. The effect of the temperature on the solution of these oxides under the conditions applied indicate that kinetic factors play a decisive role when some oxidizing agents are used. 26. Selective Acid Leachin f Uranium From Ores "Investigation of the Behavior of Minerals Accompanying Uranitun During the Process of Acid Leaching of Ores," by G. M. Nesmeyanova and N. K. Chernushevich; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 9,, No 2, Aug 60, pp 137-138 The principal minerals accompanying uranium are the oxides and cabonate of iron and also the sulfides of heavy metals. Their behavior in. hydrometal- lurgical processes has been studied by a number of investigators; however, none of the investigations in question was carried out under conditions corresponding to the leaching out of uranium. In the work described. at present, the behavior of magnetite, hematite, limonite, siderite?, pyrite, and covellite during leaching with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid to which manganese dioxide had been added was investigated. The con- centration of the leaching agent was varied from one grain per liter 4.00 grams per liter; this corresponds to concentrations used in. processes for the selective leaching out of uranium, The results obtained are reported with particular attention to the dissolution of iron by the acid. 27. Effect of Hydrocarbon Diluents on the Extraction_ of U.ranium, Pia?toniUin, Zirconium, and Cerium With Tri-n-Butylpphos Dha?te From Nitric Acid ~W Solutions "The Effect of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Extraction of U (VI) Pu (IV), Zr (IV), and Ce (3) With Tri- n-Butylphosphate From Nitric Acid Solutions," by V. B. Sheychenko, A. S. Solovkin, I. V. SHailin, L. M. Ki.rillov, A. V. Rod.ionov, and V. V. Balandina; Leningrad, Radiokhhimiya., No 3, may 60, pp 281-290 The effect of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon diluents on. the extrac- tion of U (VI), Pu (IV), Zr (IV), and Ce (III) with tributylphosphate (TSPP" from nitric acid solutions was investigated. It was established that there - 18 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 is a definite correlation between the capacity of thx.- Till'- di:l.tu.tLi, nia.:;tures to extract the nitrates in question and. the polarities r; and :P o:l' the organic phase . It was also established that deviation from -thc. ideal 1"q in the distribution of the salts (nitrates) at high concentrat,eons of the extracting agent are due to changes in the polar characteristics. oC the organic oolution during the process of extraction. The anomalous; ].,e.havi or of zirconium nitrate during the extraction of this salt with so1.ut:ions of MP in organic oolvents having a low polarity is discussed. 28. Spec otometric Investigation of the Formation of Nitrat-ermlexr~s ofPlPlutoi in Acetone ~~ --~~ __.~.. "Spectrophotometric Investigation of the Formation of Nitrate Complexes of Plu.ton.yl in Acetone," by V. M. Vdovenko., A. A. Lidovskiy, and M. G. Kuzina; Leningrad, .Radi.okh,imi, No 3, may 60, pp 301-306 - ---By applying the spectrophotometric method, the formation of nitrate complexes of plutonyl in acetone was investigated. nitrate was used as the donor of nitrate groups. The composition of the compounds that form under these conditions was determined. It was found that in the system under investigation, there is formation of plutonyl nitrate and of the com- plex compound trinitrateplutonyl. These compounds are very stable in acetone solutions. The absorption spectra of the compounds that are formed were .Invest r,- gated and the spect~~ophotometric characteristics of these compounds determined.. It was established that the absorption spectrum of the complex compound trinI.- trateplutonyl is very complicated and differs substantially from the absorp- tion spectra of plutonyl perchlorate and plutonyl nitrate. As d.?ist:inguishad from tri.nitrateuranyl, trinitrateplutonyl does not exhibit during -the forma- tion stage any increase in the intensity of the absorption bands that are ascribed by some investigators to metal-oxygen bond vibrations in the plutonyl ion. The work described in this paper was carried out in 1957. 29? Distribution of Plutonium During Extraction With Tribut 1 Phosphate; Part II- The Effects of the Ism era?t-ure on the Distribution of' Plutonium -'-`~ - "The Distribution of Plutonium During Extraction With. Tributyl Phosphate; Part 2.-- The Effect of the Temperature on the Dis- tribution of Plutonium," by E. I. Moiseyerlko and A. M. Rozen; Leningrad., Radiolhimiya, No 3,, May 60, pp 274-280 Measurements of the distribution factor of Pa (?V) in the acidity range of 0.1-10,OM of 1U103 and concentrations of u.ranyl nirate in the range of 0.021-1.26M at temperatures of 20?, 300, 50?, and 70 showed that at; - 19 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 acicll ticz: up to 5 M the distribution factor drops with the temperature an the absence of uranyl nitrate anti that at acidities, higher than 5 M i l; increases with the temperature. The first effect is explained by a re- duction of the distribution factor with the temperature and the second by increases in the activity coefficients. The then. nodynamic constants of the distribution of Pu (1V), the coefficients of activity in the aqueous phase, and the heat of extraction have been calculated in an approximate manner. 30. Spectrophotometric Investigation of Formation of Nitrate Complexes of Plutonyl in Aqueous Solutions in the Extraction of Pu VT With Dibutyl Ether "Spectrophotometric Investigation of the Formation of Nitrate Complexes of Plutonyl in Aqueous Solutions in the Extraction of Pu (VI) With Dibutyl Ether," by V. M. Vdovenko, A. A. Lipov- skiy, and M. G. Kuzina; Leningrad, Radioldiimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 307-311 The foxmation of complex compounds of Pu (VI) in nitric acid solutions was investigated. It was established that in nitric acid of the concen- tration 11-12 N Pu (VI) is present principally in the form of plutonyl nitrate. When the concentration of nitric acid is increased further the concentration of the complex compound trinitrateplutonyl, which has a tendency to form at these concentrations of nitric acid, also increases. In aqueous solution, Pu (VI) has only a small tendency to form complex compounds with nitrate ions. The stability of the nitrate complex compounds of Pu (VI) exceeds that of the corresponding uranyl compounds. The distri- bution of Pu (VI) between aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and dibutyl ether was investigated. It was established that as the concentra- tion of nitric acid increases in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the complex compound trinitrateplutonyl increases in the organic solvent. The work described in this paper was carried out in 1957- 31. Extraction of Plutonium With Tri-n-Octylamine From Hydrochloric Acid Solutions "Extraction of Plutonium With Tri-n--Octylamine From Hydrochloric Acid Solutions, " by V V. B B. Shevchenlc , V V. S . Shmidt, and E E. A. Me zhov; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 5, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1911-1913. It had been established earlier that plutonium (IV) can be readily ex- tracted with tri-n-octylamine (TOA) from nitric acid solutions (A. S. Wilson, Report No 530, presented at the Second Geneva Conference on Peaceful Uses of Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Atomic Energy, 1958). In the work described at present it was i'ound that plutonium (IV) can be easily extracted with tri-n-octylcunmonium chloride from hydrochloric acid solutions. Apparently the extraction of tetravalent plutonium is due to the formation of a complex compound consisting of one molecule of plutonium (IV) chloride and 2 of TOA. IICI. Trivalent plutonium is practically not extracted at all by 'TOA. H01 from hydrochloric acid solutions. 32. Extraction of Nitric Acid With Tri-n-Oct lamine "Extraction of Nitric Acid With Tri-n-Octylcunine," by V. D. Shevchenko,, V. S. Shmidt, E. A. Nenarokomov, and K. A. Petrov; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Ehimii, Vol 5, No 8, Aug G0, PP 1852-1856 Results obtained in experimental work on the extraction of nitric acid with tri-n-octylamine dissolved in o-xylene and carbon terachloride are reported. 33. Formation of the Complex Compound Trinitrateneptunyi "The Formation of the Complex Compound Trinitraneptunyl," by V. M. Vdovenko, A. A. Lipovskiy, and M. G. Kuzina; Leningrad, Radiolhimiya, Val 2, No 3, may 60, pp 312-314 Formation of a complex compound of neptunyl in acetone was investi- gated. Pyridinium nitrate was used as a donor of nitrate groups. It was established by the spectrophotometric method that there is formation of the complex compound trinitrateneptunyl. It was also established that the increase of the distribution factor of Np(VI) between the aqueous solu- tion and dibutyl. ether with increased concentrations of nitric acid is due to formation of trinitrateneptunyl. 34. Oxalate Compounds of Tetravalent Neptunium Oxalate Compounds of Tetravalent Neptunium," by P. I. Kondratov and A. D. Gel'man; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 315-319 The solubility product of neptunium oxalate at 199 and the concentra- tion dissociation ("instability") constants of neptunium oxalate complexes were determined. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 35. 'i1, methods for Production of Ilavy Water "'.Two-'.Temperature Methods for the Production of Heavy Watcr, " by IC. I. Salcodynskiy and N. M. lhavoronkov, Physical Chemistry Institute irneni L. Ya. Karpov; Moscow, Uspelchi IChimii, Vol 29, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1112-1137 Methods for the production of heavy water,, the fundamental relation- ships underlying the two-temperature method, and material flow sheets involved in the production of heavy water are reviewed in detail. The requirements of different countries in heavy water are compared. The low requirement for heavy water in England, where heavy water reactors are built mainly for experimental purposes, is contrasted with the high requirement in Sweden, where such reactors are being built for power generation. The increasing importance of a large-scale production of heavy water from the standpoint of satisfying a future demand for ther!r_o- nuclear fuel is pointed out. it is stated that although the enrichment of deuterium by two-, temperature exchange between hydrogen sulfide and water was originally investigated in Germany and the US during World War II, this method was applied for the first time on an industrial scale in the USSR. The first large industrial unit at which this method was applied has been built in the USSR in 191E6-1949. It is being successfully operated at present. Application of the hydrogen sulfide-water exchange method in the US and Western Europe is reviewed. This method is compared with other two- temperature procedures, such as the exchange between a liquid thioalcohol and water proposed by H. Urey, the use of dithioethy].eneglycol in a two- temperature process developed by Pintsch-Bamag A. G., and the two-tempera- ture process proposed by H. S. Taylor which is based on hydrogen exchange in the system cyclohexane -benzene -hydrogen. After subjecting to detailed consideration the prospects of -the appli- cation of individual methods for the production of heavy water on a large scale, the authors come to the conclusion that two-temperature exchange between water and hydrogen sulfide is the only method for the production of heavy water known at present that is capable of assuring production of un- limited quantities of heavy water at a low cost. They regard it as certain that this method will be applied in preference to others in the future. In the authors' opinion, low-temperature distillation of hydrogen. produced at ammonia plants will also be applied. In discussing the two-temperature ex- change between hydrogen and ammonia combined with the distillation of ammonia to increase its deuterium content, they point out that a nitrogen-hydrogen mixture can be used in this process without the expensive purification re- quired in low-temperature distillation of hydrogen. An additional advantage would be that no special equipment is needed beyond that ordinarily available at nitrogen fertilizer plants producing synthetic ammonia. On the basis of the considerations presented, the authors conclude that the hydrogen--ammonia. exchange method also has possibilities. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 36. J Lability of Conripoundu voxmimea by Chlorides of Titanitun, Zirconium., and ]kit'nitun With Phonplhoxus Orychloridc ~'- "'llic EL':I.'cct of the Solvent on the Stability of Compounds Fornv d by the Chlorides oi' T',xzium,, Zirconium, and. Hafnium With Phosphorus Oxychloridc, " by B. A. Voytovich, Institute of General and .Liorguzic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Zhurnal NeorGaanichcakoy I0iimi:i, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1981-1986 On the basis of a thermal anaiynis of binary systems consioting of titanium ch.:Lorjdc;, sirconium chloride, or hafnium chloride and phoophoiuj oxychloriae, it was catablichcd that addition compounds of the general fonnulCLs McCi]i .POCl3 and 14cCl1,.2POC13 are formed in these systems. It was found that the stability of these compounds incrYeases from titanium to hafnium. T e effect of a solvent on the stability of these compoundnwt.s invcatig:rLed, using; nitrobenzene as the solvent. It was established that the stub.,Llity of the compounds in solution, as indicated by the dissociation (":instability") constants, changes in the same manner as that of the com- pound:s in cui undissolved state. 37. Extraction of hafnium With Tributylphos hate "Extraction of Hafnium With Tributylphosphate," by S. S. Korovin, Ye. N. Gribenik, and L. N. Komissarova, Chair of the Technology of Rare and Dispersed Elements, Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology imeni. M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow, Zhurnal Neorganichesk r Kh:]mii, Vol 5, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1876-1881 Results of experimental work on the distribution of macroquantities of hafnium between nitric acid solutions and tributylphosphate are reported. Data on the extraction of zirconium are given for comparison. On the basis of the data on the extraction of zirconium and hafnium, the dependence of the distribution factors of these two elements on the nitric acid concentra- tion was investigated. A study of this subject is of interest from the standpoint of the application of tributylphosphate for the separation of hafnium from zirconium by extraction. 38. Beryllium Oxide and Its Properties "Beryllium Oxide and Its Properties;" by P. P. Budnikov and, R. A. Belyayev; Leningrad, Zhurnal Prikladnoy Kh3mii, Vol 33, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1921-1940 The properties of beryllium oxide are reviewed with particular attention to its behavior under the action of radiation and the action of high tempera- tures. The characteristics of beryllium oxide as a nuclear reactor material are compared with those of other high-melting oxides. It is pointed out - 23 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 1h1t beryllium oxide in of advantage an a nuclear reactor material (moderator) because of its non:Wflammability, favorable crosn-nectiono of neutron capture and neutron dispersion, and high resistance to thermal shock. Its properties as a material for refractory ceramics are discussed. The concluding paragraph calls attention to the high toxicity of beryllium compounds. The review is based principally on work repbrted in non-USSR1publi- cations. A bibliography consisting of 11.9 non-USSR references and 12 USSR references follows the article. 39. Effect of Fast Neutrons on Characteristic Temperatures of Iron and Copper "Investigation of the Effect of Fast Neutrons on ?theiCharacteristic Temperatures of Iron and Copper.," by Sh. Sh. Ibragimov, A. G. Kaimi- lov, and V. S. Lyashenko; Sverdlovsk, Fizika Metallov i Metalloye- denia, Vol 10, No 2, Aug 60, pp 316-317 The effect of a neutron field on the characteristic temperatures (Debye temperatures) of Armco iron and electrolytic copper was investigated. Parallel with this, the presence of distortions of the third type (nonordered static displacements of atoms in the crystal lattice was investigated and the microhardness of the metals determined. Determination of the character- istic temperature and of distortions of the third type was made by the X-ray diffraction method. It was fo)$d than irradiation with a total dose of fast neutrons amounting to 1.4 X 10 n/cm does not produce any change in the characteristic temperature of iron. In the case of copper, some decrease in the characteristic to eratu'e was observed after irradiation with total doses equal to 0.70 X 105 n/cm and 1.4 X 1019 n/cm2. However, the decrease observed was within he liznitb of experimental error. Irradiation was carried out at 40-70 . To arrive at a definite conclusion, samples will have to be irradiated with larger doses at lower temperatures. There were distortions of the third type in the lattice atis a result of irradiation. Changes of microhardness could be correlated with static displacements of atoms. On the basis of the results obtained, the con- clusion was made that the increase in the hardness of the metals investir gated was due, to some extent, to the formation of distortions of the third type. This assumption is in agreement with results obtained by the authors in an investigation in which the irradiated metals were annealed and the activation energy of defects strengthening iron was determined (Ibragimov, Lyashenko, and A: I. Zav'yalov, Atomnaya Energiya-- in print). 24 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 1t0. Effect of Fast INleutrons On the Properties of Metals "Illic Effect of Faut Neutrons on the Properties of Metals, by Sh. Sh. Ibragimov and V. S. Lyashenko; Sverdlovsk, Fiz il;a Metullov i Metallovedcnilye, Vol 10, No 2, Aug G0, pp 183-166 Data cLre reported on changes in the strength, hardness, and electrical resiutcuicc of some metals under the action of fast neutrons at temperatures in the range of 40-700. It was established that the radiation-produced increment in the values (100cribing there characteristics is determined by the crystal structure and the melting point of the metal. The manner in which the strcnLth and hardness change under the effect of the tot:Li done of radiation differs from the manner in which the electrical resistance changer. Reversal by annealing of the increases of microhardness and elcc-? trical resistance in the samples investigated. was found to take place at two different temperatures. It is assumed that the defects which strengthen the irradiated metal are not of the Frenkel type. The results obtained by testing the metals investigated (Al, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mo, and 11) are listed in a table. 161. Effect of Neutron Radiation on Molybdenum "The Effect of Neutron Radiation on the Structure of Molybdenum," by F. P. I3utra; Sverdlovsk, Fizika Metallov i Metal1ovedeniye, Vol 10, No 2, Aug 60, pp 223-225 It was found that irradiation of molybdenum with neutrons results in a sharp increase of the diffuse dispersion of X rays and an increase of the lattice spacing by 0.03%. These phenomena are explained b~r ntatical distortions of the crystal lattice, which are stable up to 600 and are removed completely by annealing at 8500. 42. Calculation of the Properties of Substances Differing in Their Isotopic Composition "On the Approximate Calculation of the Properties of Substances Differing in Their Isotopic Composition, " by M. ICs. Karapet'yants and Yen Kuo-sen, Chemicoteclulological Institute imeni D. I. Mendeleyev (Moscow) and Szechwan University, Cheng--tu; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy I himii, Vol 316, No 7, Jul 60, pp 1647-1648 The isotopic effect in the characteristics of substances is usually expressed by the values G G D =A and GD-GII =13, H - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 where GII is the property G of a substance containing one icotol)e (for instance, hydrogen) and GD the some property of a substance containing another isotope (for instance, deuterium) . In cases when the :Lsotopic effect was investigated for a large number of substances or over a wide range of conditions, it was found that A and B are not constant. In the majority of cases, one can obtain satisfactory results when the changes in A and D are calculated by mecums of the approximate linear equation GD=aGjI+b Application of this equation is illustrated on the relation between the critical temperature of halides of deuterium and hydrogen and that between the indexes of refraction of ordinary water and heavy water as affected by the wave length. When a very extensive temperature range is involved, the precision of the calculation can be increased by employing the equation 19 G I I = a, 1g GI1 +b An approximate calculation can be made of the properties of a substance with a different isotope content. For instance, when a different degree of deuterization (designated by x) has to be considered, the dependence of a and b on x must be determined. When the G - t dependence of substances is known, the equation Gt=aG-;o + b Organic Chemistry 43. Addition of Dialkylthiophosphorous Acids and Acid Esters of Ethyl- and Phenylphosphinous Acids to Olefins New Method of Synthesizing Esters of Phosphinic and Thio- phosphinic Acids. XXX1V. Addition of Dialkylthiophosphorous Acids and the Acid Esters of Ethyl- and Phenylphosphinous Acids to Unsaturated Hydrocarbons.," by A. N. Pudovik and I. V. Konovalova, Kazan' State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Obshchey Khimii, Vol 30, No 7, Jul 60, pp 23+8-2352 The authors demonstrated that dial.lgrlthiophosphorous acids and the acid ester of ethyl- and phenylphosphinous acids are added to Olefins in the presence of benzoyl peroxide or on exposing them to ultraviolet light. The addition products -- the ester of a1ltrlthiophosphinic, diallsylphosphinic and alkylphenylphosphinic acids -- are obtained in yields ranging from 4o to 60%. - 26 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 The ruldition of diul1gr1?thiopliocphorouc acids and the acid eutr rc or etlw.l?. ,ul(.L i)henylphosphinouc acids to o1cfins occurs accordint; riullcal mcchcuiism, contrary to Markovnikov':; rule. Tliroc tableo lieting the yields and hysical characteristics of the esters of allWlthiophosphinic acid LRP S)(OR' 22J, the ectero of rzlllplictiyl- and diallcylphocphinic acidu ' R' P O)OR' ' , and the al]~ylphcnyi- and diallgrlphosphinic acids LR R' )P(0)OII7ccompany the L. M. Nilcitina participated in the experimental portion of the work. trt~. Method Cm proved for S ,thecizing Graft Copolymers "A New Method of Synthesizing, Graft Copolymers," by V. V. Korshak, K. K. Mozgova and M. A. Shkolina; Moscow, Vysolcomolelculyarn e Soyedinyeni, No 6, Jun 60, Pp 957 - 958 The proposed new method for synthesizing graft copolymers consists of heating samples of polyamide or polyester films of fibers for some time in air or nitrogen and then subjecting them to block copolymerization with vinyl monomers. The resultant copolymers possess h,her mechanical strength than the initial conrpou3ds. Radiation Chemistry 45. Gas Evolution During the Radiolysis of Organic Subs?-l-ances and Its Relation to Thermal Decomposition and Melting "The Mechanism of Gas Formation During the Radiolysis of Organic Substances and Its Relation to the Aggregate State of These Substances," by A. B. Taubman, L. P. Yanova, R. S. Maslovskaya, and P. Ya. Glazunev, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Dokiady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 134, No 2, 11 Sep 6o, pp 397 RSCOCII2C112C00CII2CH2N(R' ) 2 + NaCl withoutthe separation of the intermediate products, a group of allylthio- dialkylamino^'thyl of succinie acid was synthecized havin;; the fo].- losr:Ln6, gencral formula. RSCOCH2CH2C000H2CH2N(R')2, where R' = CH3, C2H5; R = CH3, C2115) C3H71 iso-C3H7, C1j119,, C5Hll, iso-C5H11; their iodomethylates, iodoethylates, and hydrochlorides were also prepared. By this me hod it was possible to obtain the compounds mentioned rr1.?I,h yields up to 60,%, based on the succinic acid used. Lower end product yields were obtained in the case of the lower boiling mercaptides. The results of the investigation of the curare-like activity of the synthesized compounds will be published separately, according to the authors. One table accompanies the report. 100. Research on Morphine Derivatives Being Conrlu,.t'_ d at Pannenian Insti: ut~? "Derivatives of Morphine. Report II. 3-Methoxy-4,5-Npoxy- 6,7-(2',3'-indolo)-N-methylmorphinane," by S. P. Nkmekdzhyan and G. T. Tatevosyan, Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry of Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR; Yerevan, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk A anskoy SSR-himicheskiye Nauki, Vol 13, No 2/3205 19 0, pp 201-205 The present report by the authors represents a portion of the research being performed on the synthesis of new polycyclic compounds which contain the cyclic nucleus of morphine condensed with other heterocyclic nuclei. The report describes 3-methoxy-4.,5-epoxy- 6.7-(2'.,3'-indole)-N-methy.Lnior- phinane(I) in the molecule of which the cyclic skeleton of morphine, which retains all the functions of dihydrocodeine with the exception of the hydroxyl group at position 6, is combined frith the indole nucleus found in the composition of many important alkaloids. In contrast to alkaloids of the indole series, compound (I) is not a dex'i,vativre of try- pt,-amine; it contains the gamma-(indoly.l-3)propylamine, deri7rat ive s of which are being sought by the systematic research now 'being cond.7.i'?ted. - 64 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Ccncrl)rnuu1 (. 1:) war; r;yrrt'huol"'oc.St by condenoin; ctahy( with. phenyl- hyclrcz:; l?nv:. l',lcmen tr.,.ry ru;a1.y^cu of the compound were conduc?LC;t by Tono.ka.nyan and ArrLkcl.yc.rn of Analyt:tcai Laboratory of the above:-nomcd anri;i.l:ute. In add.L t: l.on to Lhc' :free base, the hydrochloride, pic.ratc, and iodomcthylatc of ca;ipou. l01 (a) uau obtr.r?ined and chars 2 Lcri:,.ed. Tilt! tes L?inr; of' l:hc .c compounds wJ.l.. be pub1: ohed raCl)^.1' L I e1.y, n?r,,,eord.l.,. - I o the authors. 101. Pr.chyciuarc lntagonism InvestiUatod "The I.ture of Pachycurarc Antagonism With Certain Depolarizing Agents on the Rcctur:r Abclomi.n:Ls of Frogs," by T. V. Komissarov, Chair of Ph rrnocology, Minsk Medical Institute; Moscow, ByulletcnI Eksperimental'nov Biolog.i I Mccl:itsiny, No 0, 1960, pp 93-97 Thc; purnoue of this investigation was to study the antagonism between pachycurare (cl-tubocurarinehloride, paramyon and diplac:Ln) and such depolarizing agents as acetylcholine and ditilin (succinicholine) in experiments on the rectus abdomin:Ls of frogs. The calculations chow that pA2=pA10 > 0.95 for all combinations studied and, consequently, the antag- onism between pachycurare and the depolari zing agxent does not appear to be strictly competitive. With low concentrations of pachycurare (in the order of 10-7 --10-6 mcl/l), absorption is practically nonexistent and the antagonism of pachycurare (at these concentrations) ??rith depolarizing agents appears to be strictly a competitive antagonism. With an increase in pachycurare concentration, competitive antagonism is disturbed as a result of changes in the monomolecular nature of the interaction of pachy- curare with the cholinoreactive struetur%:,.?. This may involve both chernical and absorptive blocks of these structures simullanecusly. 102. Production of Vitamin B12 "Vitamin B12 From Waste Water," by U. P. Zalrharova, ? Tr. Vses. Vitamin. In-t- (Works of the A2.1-Union saes c Research Vitamin institute), 1951, 6, :L'`1-157 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Ithimiya, No 8, 25 Apr. 60, CPYRGHTAbstract No 31665) "A method of isolating vitamin BIG from waste waters (in the form of an aqueous concentration or in crystalline form) of an aeration station at a pilot plant and of testing the obtained vitcmins have been develope d. It was established that t-h^ preparations are biolc7ica7.1y highly active aqueous concentrations of the vitcunir_ when added. to the normal ration of - 65 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 A AW or Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 hogs increased the weight of the animals by 18 percent over that of the control animals. It was established also that the crystalline form of the vitamin corresponds to all the requirements of pharmacopeia. The injection of the vitamin into animals which recovered from theileriacis, but were suffering from progressive anemia contributed to the recovery of the animals and the restoration of normal circulation processes, according to data of the Daghestan Agricultural Institute." ? 103. Vitamin B12 in Therapy of Acute Hepatitis "Effect of Vitamin B12 on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Acute Hepatitis," by L. Kelemen, A. Hor?i'zth, Co. Nadnagy Palencsar, D. Szilagy, and I Bodo, Med. Interns (Rumania), 1959, 11, No 10) 1513-1516 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, 15) 10 Aug 60, Abstract No 7.0311 E. CPYRGHeynbaum) "The hyperglycemic curve (HG) in 80 patients between the ages of 7 and 67 years suffering from acute hepatitis was studied after the admini- stration of 0.5 gram per kilogram of body weight of glucose. In those cases (47.5 percent) in which the HG failed to return to its initial level within one hour, the investigations were continued with the addition of 100-1,000 gamma of vitamin B12 to the glucose solution. Children tolerated the glucose better than older persons. In 20 patients, the addition of the vitamin increased their tolerance to carbohydrates, restored to normal and improved the hyperglycemic curve; this effect was less expressed in six patients, while in nine patients the effect was only slightly expressed or was not expressed at all." 104. Therapy of Experimental Hyperkinesia "Combined Application of Cholinolytics in Experimental Arecoline Hyperkinesia," by Yu. I. Lisunkin, Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacotherapy, Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Farmakologiya i Toksokologiya, Vol 23, No 4, Jul/Aug 021-327 The synergistic effect of cholinolytic drugs when used in 'the therapy of arecoline-induced hyperkinesia was studied. The following drugs were tested: diphacil, tropacin, pentaphene, atropine, diazil, scopolamine, and BETE (the hydrochloride of the tropic ester of benzilic acid). Albino male mice were used in the experiments. The experiments disclosed dif- ferent degrees of synergistic action of the drugs, depending on the combinations of the preparations used; expressed synergistic action of - 66 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 the potentiation type wrtis noted in combinations of scopolamine and penta- phenc; atropine and tropacin; diaz:Ll and diphac:Ll; diazil and tropacin; diazil and ncopolamine; and scopolamine and BET1. A high degree of mutually potentiated action was noted when the combination of atropine and pentaphene was used. 105. Therapy of Typhus Abdominalis "On the Therapy of Patients Suffering From Typhus Abdominalis With Adrenocrorticotropic Hormone in Combination With Anti- biotics," by B. D. Mabel', Vopr. Baketriol. immunol., i Khimoterapii pri Kishechn. Infetsiyakh Problems of Bacteri- ology, Immunology, and Chemotherapy in Intestinal Infections), L., 1958, 21i.3-21i.8 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, CPYRGHTNo 15, 10 Aug 60, Abstract No '(3945, by I. Levin "Eighteen patients suffering from severe cases of typhus abdominalis were treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone in combination with levomy- cetin. The hormone was intramuscularly administered for a period of 1+-7 days (.o-6o-8o units). A beneficial therapeutic effect was noted in 17 patients. The temperature was restored to normal and symptoms of intoxication sharply diminished at an average of 40 hours after the initial administration of the hormone. In six patients the temperature again rose; it did not, however, reach the initial level, and was not accompanied by symptoms of intoxication. A repeated course of hormone therapy used on two patients produced a rapid therapeutic effect. A sharp diminution of the bacteremia index was noted under the influence of the hormone." 106. Monomycin and Colimycin Therapy of Infections "Comparative Investigation of the Therapeutic Action of the Antibiotics Monomycin and Colimycin in Experimental Infections," by S. P. Shapovalova, Laboratory for the Experimental Study of the Therapeutic Properties of New Antibiotics, Institute for the Search of New Antibiotics, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR; Moscow, Antibiotici, Vol 5, No 1+, Jul/Aug 60, pp 21-23 The results of the experiments in which neomycin and colimycin were administered to mice experimentally infected with staphylococci, strepto- cocci, and pneumococci bacteria are reported. It was established that neomycin and colimycin are highly effective when used in'the therapy of infections caused by Friedlander's pneumobacteria; subcutaneously adminis- tered to the animals in doses of 3.4-1E milligrams per kilogram of body weight, they prevented the death of about 50 percent of the mice. Somewhat - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 AI Q ie4~1~u ~ Lt L ~/Q;~/~~ttn c~~i QI,P 2eQPe1c ;1 Ro100J 046000 0 sepsis and sepsis induced by Flexner's dysentery bacteria. The antibiotics were olilhtly effective in the therapy of experimentally induced pneumo- cocci and streptococci sepsis. It eras further established that the thera- peutic effect of both antibiotics is about equal, although colimycin is more effective in cases of staphylococci induced sepsis. 107. Monomycin -- Now Antibiotic "Pharmacological Investigation of Monomycin -- a New Antibiotic," by V. A. Shorin, L. Ye. Goldberg, and V. Ye. Kremer, Institute of the Search for New Anti- biotics; Moscow, Antibiotiki, Vol 5, No 1r, Jul, Aug 60, pp 10-15 The toxicity and pharmacological properties of monomycin, an anti- biotic obtained from the culture of Actinomyces circulatus, var. monomycini /Antibiotiki, Vol 6, No 4, ?Tul/Aug 60, p 37 were investigated in experi.- ments carried out on mice, rabbits, and cats. The experiments established that monomycin has an effect on the organism similar to that of colimycin, micerin, and neomycin; its general effect is expressed by the depression of central nervous system, and neuromuscular conductivity; differing from colimycin, it has a considerably stronger effect on the vestibular appa- ratus of cats; like colimycin it has a hypotensive effect, but is consider- ably less toxic than the former. Monomycin has little effect on the automatic nervous system; monomycin preparations are not pyrogenic. 108. Amino Acids "Synthetic Amino Acids" (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 11 Oct 60, p 4 More than 18 new'animo acids were synthesized at the Institute of Biological and Medical Chemistry. The more important of these are methio- nine, tryptophan, and aspargine. Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid used in the therapy of hepatic infections, hepatitis and cirrhosis in particular. Tryptophan plays an important part in the diagnostics of pregnancy toxicoses. With its help, it is possible to determine the insufficiency of vitamin B6 in the organism. Aspargine is an essential component of the media used to cultivate tubercular bacteria and used in the preparation of the antitubercular vaccine. The latter two preparations are now being manufactured at the Moscow Chemical Plant imeni Voykov. 68 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 109. New I3acteriostatic and Analgesic Preparation "Ts:Lgorol" (unaigned article); Moucoir, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 11 Oct 60, p 3 Toigerol, a new therapeutic preparation used -In the therapy of granu- lating and necrotizing -traumas, trophic ulcers of different etiologies, burns, and radiation injuries, was prepared by a group of scientists at the Institute of Organic Chemistry imeni Zelinskiy. It was found to possess bacteriostatic and analgesic properties. Tsigerol is usually applied to the surface of a wound. If the injury extends over a consider- able area (over 20 square centimenters) tsigeron should be applied In the form of a solution in vegetable oil at the ratio of 1:5, for pure tsigerom may evoke a burning sensation. It is nontoxic, and there are no contrain- dications to its use. It is now manufactured at the Moscow "Akrikhin" plant. Physiology 110. Effect of High Stimulations and Curarelike Agents on Neuromuscular Transmission "Facilitation and Depression of Neuromuscular Transmission During the'Course of Rhythmical Stimulation in the Process of Intracellular Recording," by A. 1. Shapovalov, Chair of Pharmacology, First Medical Inst:i.tute, Leningrad; Iioscow, Fizioloicheskiy Zhurnal imeni I. Ai. Seehenov, No 9, S-i,) .:o, pp 1112-1119 The facilitation and depression of neuromuscular transmission during rhythmical stimulation of the riotor nerve was studied in experiments . performed on a nerve-muscle preparation of a frog with the aid of intra- cellular electrodes, and it was determined that the facilitation of neuro- mnuccular tro at tetanic stimulation is presynaptic in nature. Depression in neuromuscular transmission at high stimulation rhythms and under, the effect of curarelike agents and calcium ions develop: (.:) in the presynaptic nerve endings, (b) in the end-plate area, and (c) in the contact area betTreen the end-plate and the adjacent cell surface. The transformation of the stimulation rhythm, ;which is usually con- sidered. a result of the _pessimal inhibition of synaptic transmission, can occur not only With the 11.cvelopment of depression, but also as a result of the enhancement of neuromuscular transmission. - 69 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 ApplravedhFm-R lea51e1 I~Mjq_ 670001-0 "The Effect of Gangliobloc Icing Agents on the Activity of Some Enzymatic S,yutems and the Quantity of Sulhydryl Groups in the Upper Cervical Ganglion," by N. B.'Vysotskaya, Ye. I. Il'ina, and A. A. Karkevich, Laboratory of Special Pharma- cology, Institute of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR and Chair of Pharmacology, First Moscow Institute imeni I. M. Sechenov; Moscow, Fiziologi- cheskiy Zhurnal SSSR imeni I. M. Sechenov, No 9, Seep 60, PP 1076-1082 The effect of nicotine, tetraethylammonium, hexonium, pentamine, and mecamine on the activity of specific and nonspecific cholinesterase,, acidic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and succindehydrase as well as the content of sulfhydryl groups in experiments in vitro on the upper cervical ganglion of cats was studies. The ganglioblocking agents were investigated -2 in concentrations of 1 ? 10 to 1 ? 10-6. As a result of the investigation it was discovered that none of the ganglioblocking agents had any effect on the above-mentioned enzymes; however, the content of sulfhydryl groups decreased somewhat, with hexonium proving to be the least active in this resper:t and nicotine and pentamine being the most active. The introduction of substances containing sulfhydryl groups (cysteine and unithiol) or those aiding in its liberation (urea) did not restore the ganglionic transmission disturbed by the ganglioblocking agents. The activity of the specific and nonspecific cholinesterase was determined by the Koelle method and the acidic and alkaline phosphomono- esterase by a modified Gomori method. Histochemical techniques and polar- ography were also used in the investigations. 112. X-Factor Formation in Frog Heart "The Problem of the Mechanism of the Formation of X-Factor by the Action of Acetylcholine on the Frog Heart," by T. G. Putintseva, Laboratory of General and Comparative Physiology, Institute of Animal Morphology imeni A. N. Severtsov; Moscow, Fiziologicheskiy Zhurnal SSSR imeni I. M. Sechenov, No 9, Sep 60, l0 64-1070 By the action of acetylcholine on the cardiac muscle, substances are formed in addition to the x-factor which decompose the x-factor when it is stored for a long period at room temperature or boiled, thus changing Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 1~pr016700~ un. natinS Appgpvqq o9ri 4er h00 X411 R9p substances with the aid of activated charcoal, the period over which an x-factor solution can be stored increases from 20-24 hours to several months;, in a dry state, the activity of the x-factor can also be main- tained for several months. Purified, as opposed to contaminated, x-factor can maintain its activity while being boiled in a weak alkaline solution. Metabolic poisons, such as sodium fluoride, monoidoacetate, malonate, and potassium cyanide, have no effect on the formation of the x-factor in the cardiac muscle. Poisons which interfere with oxidation processes (2,11--dinitrophenol and sodium azide) inhibit the formation of the x-factor, which indicates the relation of- this substance to the metabolism of macroergic compounds. 113. Spatial Orientation in Vertebrates "The Role of the Cerebellum in the Spatial Orientation of Higher Vertebrates," by I. S. Beritov, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheska a, No N, Jul Aug 60, pp 1B 1- ?9 The author of this. article states that all receptors are involved in the spatial orientation of a living organism, but that only the visual and labyrinthine receptors have substantial significance in this important function of the central nervous system. It is known that the afferent path from the labyrinthine receptors runs partially through the cerebellum and ends in its posterior lobes (the nodulus, flocculi, and uvula), and even in the anterior lobe (the lingula). it is also known that excitation of these lobes of the cerebellum causes the same electrical potentials in the temporal lobes as does excitation of the labyrinthine receptors. On the basis of this, it was decided to conduct experiments on dogs to determine the role of the cerebellum in spatial orientation. Results of these experiments showed that spatial orientation of the clogs on the basis of labyrinthine and auditory reception takes place because of the activity of the cortex of the ectosylvian and suprasylvian gyri of the cerebrum. The vestibular constituents of the cerebellum (lobulus, flocculi, uvula, lingula) play a definite role in the accomplishment of one of the main functions of the cerebral cortex. This function consists of the projection of perceived objects in the external environment, the creation of images of spatial relations among these objects, zuzd the production of oriented movements in response to them. It is possible that the vestibular constituents of the cerebellum exert a mitigating effect on the elements of the vestibular analysor of the cerebral cortex by activating the ret3- cular formations. - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 '41ac (;oru:ia.tione,t ret'lc:x reac't'ion to labyrinthine e,ti.nh.i7.i (:vid.ecltly doc:1 no!, .i.r.volvc tlu; er:r( bellwu. The cerebellum doe; not c;ecln to b': 1.r1voai,crt. i.l, th #o'rmILL.t.o:n and differe:rltiation of conditioned r0:f1.1:xo:: h'.1 Bound Aft, :L tho c,,ntir(e cerebellum) or only the vest:ibulur and au:ii.?toay ,;q;.t?? out;:3, :1z?c: tc:moVr,.?'l, the vestibl:t]ar and auditory perceptions of :~pc11;i..~1 rr.lcLt!..r.s-.i.i.i?c di.;ap!.,(; .r at firut, bocoming partially restorud ;rit;hin 2-;; in 'rithr:;. Ti;is, (1i:;s,.,ppearance is caused, apparently, by impai.rrr:cnt of the fc nc l?lon~a.:~. ~nri . ti.l:~tl of the conducting nuclei of the brain ;l ;:cir., and of t., w t'c,lina t:i.on. This is clue to ).a.einorrhage and'r(r.e of the The cub;;equcnt }?drtial restoration. of opa[Aal f :cJ: i.o rui:y be., d 'by re::,o.rptiorl of blood lost, by re:atorat:ion of i::i,cju, and by cessation of the tonic inhibitory action of the: cere- b;::L.trm (,n vest; i.buular and auditory nuclei of the medulla obior.(;,at,a. action of these nuclei on the ro?t.i cuIar. for- X1.1'. th.z, u h ?t'; on the cerebral cortex, may become ?ir. n.-:-D 'i(:d to such o:i ext(:nt that it compensates somewhat for the mitiga,tin r,c`;.ton o'' .010 1.3.t! . Sp; ~lrlj.l~r^is Studied "The I'hys ioloCical Mechanislns of Spatial Analysis," l n L. Sh. Ayrapet'yants, A. S. Batuycv, V. A. Kislyako'r, and K. Lehentrau, Laboratory of Interoceptive Conditioned Reflexes, Institute of Physiologj i;neni I. P. Pavlov, Academy of Sciences USSR and Chair of Higher Nervous Activity, Leningrad State University; Leningrad, Fi::i - ologi.c:heskiy Zhurnal SSSR imeni I. M. Sechenova, Vol 11.6, No 5, Aug 0, pp 90b-916 According to this article, from information found in p s~lle.d 1 i.te:~- c tare, it can be deduced that spatial analysis in higher.' .Mii'lllalfs result of the integrated activity of a group of several an,aly:~or::;. Result:., of ext)e.rimentts on monkeys, cats, and dogs, and the humxtn behavior indicate that visual, vestibular, and motor responsible for the formation of temporary spatial associations an?. for bridging about analysis and synthesis of spatial factors. It that proprioceptive signalization plays an important part. in analysis and in the structure of the motor actions which are ??ca;;j~aaa.i't~l.c; for oriented movements of the organism in respect to Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 115. Combined Noirie Vibrta,ti.on Effec l;c "Soutc Characte.r:Lutica of Neurodyncmic:r in Persona Exposed to l;ho. Comb:Lnod, Action of Indductr:Lal Noise and Vibration," by G. I. Zuyev, Choir of Industrial hygiene With the Clinic of Occupa?tionrwl Discuses, Leningrad Sanitary Hygiene Medical Inca:iAutc; Moucoi , Gigiyena I Sani't?ariya, No 9, Sep 60, Pp 36-1r1 This; article :A; that very little information can be found in r3cinntific 1:i.terttur.o to explain the neurodynamicel of shifts that aritae ? in workers In :t-1~1.u.r. trite which ernose them to the sirnultaneou . action of noise and, vibration. A study of a group of young, physically well-developed irorkcrs in the metal casting industry was therefore undertaken. The r., cv.:Lts of clinical c:xr.unin.ation of' these workers showed a few- subjective snd objec-'-1ve d:Lstr.irborlces specific for the neurasthenic syndrome. T .o results of physiological examinations, including adaptometry and au.diorrtetrrr, revealed regular ch,uirees in the central nervous system and shifts in audi- tory function. Increased changes in the central nervous system paralleled an increase In the length of service in the metal casting industir. It is suggested that :Lnda:ts:t;rial establishments in which people are exposed to the simultaneous action of noise and vibration be constructed with sound- prood material and that workers employed in, such establisrnnentr wear specially designed ear muffs. 116a. Noise Measurement Devices "Devices for Noise Measurement," by I. A. Gradskiy; Moscow, Gigiyena I Sanitariya, No 9, Sep 60, pp 50-53 In the author's opinion, the successful solution of the problem of noise control depends, to a great extent, on the quality of devices and methods used in gauging noise. He proceeds, therefore, to acquaint the reader with the designations and most important technical char.?a:aceri.stic, f; of some acoustic devices used in the Soviet Union, the US, and in some West European countries. It is customary to delineate the character of noise by the ie-c=.1 of sound pressure and by the spectrum. In noise analysis, the greater portion of time is spent on reading instruments and on processing experimiental data. The use of automatic recording instruments siibstantiallty reduce. this time and improves gauging accuracy. An audio-noise meter con;i.sti..n.r.~ of a microphone, amplifier, rectifier, and an indicator has been used to gauge the level of sound pressure. A recording instrument of the N-110 type has been developed in the USSR and is being manufactured by one of the plants of the Leningradski;,tr Sovnarkhoz. Some firms abroad are manufacturing multiple-unit dear t es for - 73 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 acou;sl;:Lc ({ar.;(r:inr;. Thr';,o Ctevic.eo aro ;; consistin(; of ail audio-no l_(., m-11-or, rc,nn.lyzer, and n. recording instrument. The type 3310 spec !-robr':tph is 1hy a Danish firm. It hu,0, been found thot the magnetic recording method with a magnc.+t o - phone hr,,;; (rcat promise. A single rtcordin(, of noise can be analyzed in detail :t,, n labor:+ I?.orr clod can be retained in care additional study is required. Thc: J\inp(: ;c eornpru.xy in 'l;h:' US mc:nu.if actures a portable magnetaphcnie of the ((Y) or 601 type iU1: u.;e In acoustic gaug-tn(,. Audis noi.,~r m('?': r:;,;:tri.!).7.y ,re,, ;zr:ta. other noise C;i:Luaing mw I; bc~ once year in ihpocial acoustic labor^.- 11..C b. Speeclh Percep!:lon of Schizophrenics Invertigated in. Hungary "New Hethod 1',:,r the Investigation of Speech Perception," by Ervin Varga, .Psychiatric Clinic, Budapest Medical University; Budapest, A Magyar Tudomanyos Akademie. Bio- es Orvosi Tudomanyok Osztalyanak Kozlemenyei, Vol XI, No 1, 1960, pp 73-92 The author compared the speech, or rather, word perception of a se- lected group of schizophrenics and normal persons through a series of word tests he had devised. Choosing a group of homonyins, the author produced a conditioned reflex to the words in his subjects by blocrin g air into their eyes each time the words were spoken or projected on a screen. He also u.oed the system of word association. Later, the subjects were instructed to depress a key or squeeze a bulb whenever the homonyms occurred in a sentence or a random list of words. By measuring the time interval between stimulus and -response, the author found that in every instance the schizophrenics responded more quickly and accurately to the word stimuli than the normal sl.ib j ric.:i; , he attributes this to damage to the delaying inhibition in schizophrenics which results in "desyinbolization" or the state in which the conrr'ete meaning of a word or the meaning it has assumed prevails over it zemantic meaning. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 199909 O8ecC% 4-F B 0Ofi41$t0?1 0870001-0 117. Organophosphorus Poisoning "Precautionary Measures in Handling Organophosphorus Poison," by Yu. S. Kagan, Candidate of Medical Sciences; Moscow, Zashchita Rasteniy of Vrediteley I Bolezney, No 5, 1960, pp 11-5-11-6 The data which have been obtained in experiments on animals and the examination of the intoxication picture of humans by organophosphorus preparations permits us to conclude that these poisons principally damage the central and vegetative sections of the nervous system. Such symptoms of poisoning as salivation, crying, constriction of the pupils, contraction of the muscular fibers in internal organs (bronchi, intestines, etc.), slowing the work of the heart are the results of the overactivation of the parasympathetic system. Twitching of the hands and legs, tonic and clonic spasms, shortness of breath, and disturbances of speech and recognition arise as a result of the action by insecticides of the central nervous system. If the organophosphorus compound should enter'the body via the mouth, it is recommended that the affected person be given several glasses of water as quickly as possible and later caused to vomit by tickling the throat. A still better method is to wash the stomach with the help of a tube (this should be done by a medical worker). To remove the poison, it is necessary to drink a suspension of activated charcoal in water (2-3 tablespoons in a half glass of water). Skin which has come in contact with thiophos, metaphos, mercaptophos, M-81, M-82, or carbophos should be immediately treated with 5-10% solution of aqueous ammonia or 5-10% solution of soda; the eyes should be immediately washed with water. In all cases of poisoning, the doctor should be called as soon as possible. The intoxication picture, the first aid measures and treatment are basically analagous for the various organophosphorus compounds. Mercap- tophos, octamethyl, and thiophos are more toxic than metaphos and carbophos and are extremely toxic even in small doses; their action occurs more rapidly which complicates treatment. The prognosis for intoxication by these preparations. is always very serious. Especially dangerous is mercap- tophos; severe intoxication in humans can develop by dropping as little as one gram of this poison on the skin. Everything said above forces us to pay particular attention to pre- cautionary measures, the very strict observance of the corresponding in- structions and sanitary rules. Each worker must undergo a period of instructions. Youths under 18 years and pregnant women, as well as those breast-feeding children, are categorically 'forbidden to work with these chemical agents. 75 ,- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 l h(~ t ! atment of vegetation w Lth organophosphorua i:.ould bo dose i.)rincipally by the aviation method which ensures the hy_;tnf: conditions of work. Ground dusting or spraying is pcrm:i ttcd only on sinail areas frith the condition that the tractor is equipped tr.i_ :Y! a, ca'3:ln and the roof, of the -tL:nks containing the poi3onous chemical are t: ;ntly sea.1ed. The application of organophosphorus insecticides with th.i a:tcl, of backC.a.ck3 or any type of manual means is categorically forbidden. Dusting must only be conducted in the morning and in the evening since the canner hcurs increase the content of poi3onous fumes in the atmosphere. The length of thu work shift for this particular type of work must not exceed 1F hour, per d.ay; the rr_ma:ining time should be used in eoinplet:Ln? other tasks. Each worker handling poisonous chemicals must be equippi::il T-J' th special clothing, a respirator, activated charcoal, and protective Classes. 118. Colorimetric Determination of Aminazine Described "Method of Determining Aminazine in the Atmosphere," by L. I. Grebennik and P. S. Ugryumov; V Sb.: IQlimiya i Meditsina It-In the Collection: Chemistry and. Medicine/, Issue 9, Moscow, Medgiz, 1959, 35-37 (from Referativnyy Zhiirnal -- IQzimiya, No 8, 25 Apr 60, Abstract No 31330, by G. '?~ayeva Three basic methods for the quantitative determination of aminazine in the atmosphere are cited. The most convenient method under industrial conditions appears to be the colorimetric, based on the rose coloring of aminazine in aqueous solutions of H2SO4. Measurement of the intensity of the color should be conducted in a photometer equipped with a green filter S-530 opposite the control. Selection of the air samples should be done with connecting Petrie absorbers containing 6 ml of H 2 SO lb diluted with water in a ratio of 6:1. 119. Tetraethyl Lead Poisoning "Occupational Poisoning with Tetraethyl Lead," by G. T. Dinischiotu, L. Pilat, and A. M. Georgescu, Med. Interna, 1959, 11, No 6, 8115-854 (Rumanian) (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- 1Qiimiya, No 8, 25 Apr 60, Abstract No 31309, by Z. Khaimskiy A history of tetraethyl lead (TEL) poisoning is presented; subjective and objective symptoms taken from five histories of the disease (the author's own data). During the treatment, excellent results were obtained -76- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 by the r,,e of CaNa.2-salt of etL-hylenediaminetetrac,cetic acid (I) i.,aich can also be used for prophylactic purposes; Its uFe increases the elimination of. Pb from the organism by 10-20 times and prevents psychiatric disorders (paroxysms are resumed if the administration of (I) is stopped.). Rules of safety tr:cn:i.ques and for personal hygiene when working with tetraethyl lead. are presented. 120. Public Health in Bulgaria "For the Well-Being of the People," by Dr Lyuben Stoyanov, Deputy Minister of Health and Social Welfare, Sofia; Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 9 Sep 60, p 4 Great strides in the development of public health facilities and the improvement of the health of the people have been made in Bulgaria during the 16 years since the country was liberated by Soviet troops. Medical assistance to the people is now free, and all medical establishments are maintained by the government. Appropriations for public health are increasing yearly. Public health appropriations for 1960 are in excess of 1.2 million leva, or about 160 leva per capita.of the population. More than 158 hospitals with a total of over 30,000 beds have been built; about 250 medical-sanitation points have been established at the industrial enterprises. In addition 282 sector hospitals, 884 maternity hospitals, about )00 outpatient clinics, and more than 1,200 medical points have been organized. There are now in Bulgaria 16 physicians per each 10,000 people. Each year Bulgarian schools are graduating about 750 physicians, 150 stomatologists, 370 pharmacists, many nurses, midwives, and feldshers. The mortality rate in the country has been decreased from l4.9 to 7.8 per 1,000 people. Such diseases as exanthematous fever, diphteria, and other infectious diseases have been almost completely eradicated. Tuberculosis incidence has been considerably reduced. 121. Instructions Issued on Establishing Health and Epidemiological Standards "Council of Ministers Decision No 511-1 of 5 May 1960"; Bucharest, Colectia de Hotariri si Dispozitii, Vol 9, No 16, 17 May 60 pp 2 i- E The Rumanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with approval by decision of the Council of Ministers, has issued a series 'of instructions regarding the establishment of health and epidemiological standards and the punishment of violations committed against these standards. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 This work covers 223 pages and sets up provisions governing the fol- lowing general topics. Public hygiene -- drinking water; sewage systems; sanitation of populated centers; health standards for the operation of enterprises, insti- tutions, and public organizations; the operation of sport sites, cultural and entertainment places, other public places, and public transportation; and hygienic and sanitary measures for human cadavers Food hygiene Labor hygiene School hygiene Epidemic diseases Measures for proving and punishing violations of these standards - 78. - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 ltad:toiop 122 Chemical Protection A,i;a:tnot Rrdicltion "Protective Action of Arninocthyli$otl:.iouroniwn Against Toni.:tng Radiation," by Ii. Belokonaki., Vo en.-Med. Delo (Military-Medical Affairs; BuJ.LrariaJ, 1959, 14, No 3) J.3?-1( (from llefurativr y Zhurnal -- I h.irniya, 131o- lotTi.rizc.slcavu IChimivu, No 17, :L0 Sep (50, Abstract No CPYRGHT _25104, ~" . Kivnran "The protective action of aminoetl.Vlisotliiouronium (I) againot radiation was tooted on mice rats, and guinea pigs which were irra- diated with lethal doses of X-rays; the chemical corrrpourd was ac3rnin- istered to the animals intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, and per os. The intraperitoncal and subcutaneous administration of (I) 10-30 nd.n- utes, and per os 30 minutes to 2 hours before the irradiation prevented the death of 30-60 percent of the animals. In all cases the protective action of (I) was expressed in doses which were considerably smaller than the LD%dones I'J' -200 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered intrape ritoneally and subcutaneously, and 150-300 milligrams per kilogrr;m of body weight when administered per os. The author recomrner_dc that the drug; be practically tested on large experi- me ntal animals. 123. Pro hylactic use of Diphacil in Acute Radiation Sickness and Sick- nesses Accompanied by 2hrombocytopenia and a HeinorrbaE is Syndrome "Concerning the Prophylactic Sti.nnf ation of Thrombopoiesis by Diphacil Following the Action of Ionizing Radiation.," by N. V. Traslnuiova, Laboratory of Pathological Physiolomy, Central Scientific Research Institute of Medical Radiclo8y, Ministry of Health USSR; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radiologi5_a, Vol 5, No 8, Aug 60, pp 26-29 - Diphacil (diphenylacetic acid diethylcminoethyl ester) was admir..- istered subcutaneously as a means of preventing thrombocytopenia in rabbits subsequently X-irradiated. by 600 r which produced acute radia- tion sickness,. Data obtained on various 'blood studies indicate the possibility of the prophylactic use of diphacil during radiation sickness and during clinical radiation therapy of a number of diseases which are accompanied by thrcmbocytopenia and a hemorrhagic syndrome (leukosis and Werlhof's disease, etc.). - 79 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 124. Combined Use of Ilyaluronic Acid and Tetracycline Ef ective A ainst Radiation Sickness "The Effect cf Ccrtain Substances or. the Permeability of the Intestinal Wall. for Bacteria in irradiated Mice," by L. Z. Rukhadze; Muucow, Meditsinslca Radiologiya, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 6o, pp 85-86 -' Many investigators have shown that bacteremia in X-irradiated ani- mals is due to the penetration of nLicroorganisms from the intestine into the blood system. The purpose of the research described was to study means of pre- venting the penetration of microorganisms into the blood of irradiated animals. To this end, thu following substances were used: tca,nrialbin (15 mg per mourie from the day of irradiation by 500 r, until the death of the animal); citrin (5 mg per mouse, administered once per os 2 hours prior to the irradiation of the animal), and kyaluronic acid (0.1 ml administered subcutaneously 211? hours prior to irradiation). These compounds decrease tissue permeability. Tetracycline was also admin- istered (1.5 mg per mouse from the day of irradiation until the death of the animal) but in combination with citrin or with hyaluroriic acid. On the basis of the results of these experiments, the author draws the following conclusions: 1. Tha single prophylactic administration of citric and of hyalu- ronic acid did not decrease the permeability of the intestinal wall all. during the period of radiation sickness; therefore, it seems to be undesirable to treat bacteremia patients by this pro:,-educe. 2. During the experimental therapy of radiation sickness, of all the substances used in this research, the combination of hyaluronic acid with tetracycline proved to be most effective: the administration of these substances decreased the mortality rate of the irradiated animals by a factor of three as compared with the controls (irradiated, untreated animals) . 3. The combined action of tetracycline with citrin led to a decrease of bacteremia, but did not exert, a decisive effect on the outcome of radiation sickness. - 80 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 M i ? Ad.?.Ii:li:stxttti.on of '1'e of Urf.-mt !L' ? r..vir t-cr; JuclJa,ticsn Sc_cuelac err he .!:(-Oct of ]Jyilrogrn Poroacid(a on the Survival 1{of Tta,-t0 and on Ca.talj).oe Acttivi.ty Under the J,i'fect of 'Toni - it2r; Radiation:;, " by I A. Pelit;henlco and V. V. Ruclalcov (Lreniriu,rad); Moscow, Merlitr2irjeslta,ra;~}rt~, Vol 3, No 9, Sep 60, p 87 ____ _ -- 7.'],te Purpose of the rcr earch described ini s to mod.i.'r the capacity of an oroxn'.rm to adapt to ionizing x?adi, .tion by means of Trory- small amounts o:C h?rd.roi en r,errx:lde. For this purpose,, an addition compound of urc:,a ttnd hydrogen peroxide, pero..xyhydrate of urea, canes;.eL;ized according to the method described by Tantar (i9o8) in which the hyc1ro- gen peroxide co:nt;ent is Fwproxirnatc.1y' 3';%,. The }uruival rate on .he 30th day poatirrza,dia,tio:1 by 700 r of rats.whic'li were treated by this compound several :,ides bei'o.?e iraaftdLatioa was -,3(,'L M1 compared slit.: 48r+% stir/:iva:L in the turf;r(:aced control.u. Rcettlt, corlp&.r?nt blood cata'ase activity, according to the method of T3_-Jch-7rubkova,, iri irradiated "sit;roatc:d and treeted animal .arid also in heait]?iy t nimals that had. no-- received and those that has. received this compound (pero.,ylrjdrate of urea) are presented in a tiible, and signI.J..`rf a 50,j decrease of ca'ta.l-a: e activity after .irxac',_at-Lon. The p:: el'1."i).1..'.'.?3ry a('L iil.lti? t, r,`at !.U i w ~` per xyhV1'r:("43.te of .r.c e~' seo the f lSt a :'f. } of + Casa.J.f r :1'Tiy o hS'^.Atl? W.,imaJ.w al :l !_t'y~r~C to a 1 {.ib / 1.L.?.r. 4 J....y J. ~..r> . .r L' 1 ?J of act'1.vit?; Doss.';.rrQC~~.i~t It t7rZssj'..` t? ''} c st, one afor for 11',reasing t le 'lp s'arvIva rate C,.;r the it:" d anJ:za1t_- is ?.t lrZ '2'. r break-up o- 'the :pezo.: deE i??iSir:'h are formed. 1 6, ]Zrtd. _rti ~?:~ rtee t, i "(rer,4ct ia-L Of i 17'ic,,a~' "l~. oc. t.;t ? aTni.tA = D?x:~ :i.,..z, t:. i-.-e r.; Ile' Ey -Ze of 7.r'T.lgtthe in or, ,of ?t, iy r* +. ,: of C ox the t~~.y:tu:zr OA the Protective Effect oia .I~c'"+,7P.:-`?T:1?.J.rJtivT13i'.lf?^ljr~~' Dlz:'i.?lg In ju aus?rd by P net:rati.r"T a t i ; iC'.. r by L. 'YY r7a~ l h oscora, MU itstns'_ air a'cl..L 5, 'No 9 Sep 63, PP rjur;.'Lg the pe2rt.od i955-i9.57. apiO'T~^.:t~?14;;e1 ?;`':~ Y1;:'e'~8rfz'i.'ior.E o -h ? bet, a--thi.oE'.t.r2~r]ElIni:;1e de.riva?tii%e ' were p.rer.-T :'"ed under the ?11 ?~C;~ il~i"' ri F. Yu.. Ra ~s1:L lskiy and et u,' !ec' wi`,h ? E.~ t:r..;?ir ar?:s :~ac?+,x,,,?,:. a.-':ti therapeutic. acticrt. rad .atic?: 'Irests were C_ ,., #nice irr'a*.Arx, e:3. by -0'/' r dos ':~ of X :: Rys-' an the r'~?S! l.i.. en.:r e 'Summarize as o.i.: ws., Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 The results of the research described ngree with those report .d by Cohen, Vou, and van Bekkumn, who detected a marked protective action exe: L d by 1-amino-2-thiopropane and l-thi.o-2-aminopropene; i-alai.-ro-2- amir:?obJtane, with regard to its protective action and toxicity, dat':'.'ers slit fitly from beta- thioethylamine, i. e., the optimum protective dove of 168 mg/kg prevents the death of 601) of the irradiated animals, while a dose of 210 vg/kg causes spasms. 1 -amino -2 -thiobutane exerts a pro- tective action only in doses of 630 mg/kg, which is more than four times the protective dope of' beta-tnioethylemine. Protective doses of 2-methyl- 3-thio-4-amir,,o'autane also are ac,ziew..rat larger then the protective: ,saws of beta-thin-ethyl.asiine. The preceding compounds have no significant advantage over beta-thioethyJ.iunine as far as increasing the therripeuti.c: range is concerned. The introduction of a phenyl group into the carbon chain of beta- thioet.hylamine (to form 3-phenyl-3-thio-4-aminobutane) increases the toxicity of the compound and, deprives it of its protective action. Since all of the compounds tested contain a f ?ee sulfhydryl group., they are unstable when stored. 127. H otlre=da Most Effective at Termination of Latent Period and. Peak of Radiation Sickness "The Effect of A;ynothermia on the Development of Acute Radiation Necrosi.s of Skin," by L. A. Afrikenova, Ye. F. Vlasova and 'Ye. F. Uratkov; Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radio- l0aiYa, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 434T The purpose of the research described was to study the effect of hypothermia on the course of radiation injury of the skin developing, against the background of acute radiation sickness. Tests were con- ducted on rats X-irradiated by doses equivalent, to 400 and 250 r to produce radiation sickness, and 5,000 r immediately after whole-body irradiation to cause local necrosis. Hypothermia consisted of lovering the body temperature until the rectal temperature was 25-230 C. The authors present the following conclusions: Under combined radiation action, the course of both radiation sickness and of the local process is aggravated. During the course of radiation sickness, there are periods during which the additional stimulant --hypothermia--acutely aggravates the course of radiation sick- ness and increases the percent of the animals that die because of the combined injuries. Such periods are the first days of the latent period and the termination of clinical. symptoms of radiation sickness. The application of hypothermia is inadvisable during these periods. -92_ Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Hypothermia exerts a positive effect when it is applied c'?url.:ng the termination of the latent period and at the peak of the developmentof radiation sickness. 128? Exudative Pleuritis Aggravated During Radiation Sickness "The Characteristics of the Course of Exudative Pleuritie Following Radiation Action (Experimental Research),," by M. S. Lipovetskiy, Ya? I. Veksler, A. R. Sheyngerts, and L. I. Radyuk; Moscow, Meditsinska ra Radiologiya, Vol 5, No 9,, Sep 60, pp 47-54. Four series of tests were performed on 55 rabbits to study the special characteristics of exudative pleuritic compl & ated by a back- ground of radiation sickness (whole--body X?-irradiation by 502 r). The authors present the following conclusions. Exudative pleuritic proceeding against a background of' radiation sickness assumes a number of traits which are characteristic only of the combined injury,; acute and rapid development of anemia, a severe course of pleuritic with a marked hemorrhagic nature, the formation of exten- sive blood clots in the pleural cavity, a significant retardation of the process of exudate resorption,, frequent pneumonia coriplication.s, and a high mortality rate of the injured animals. The most severe course of the sickness was observed I those. animals in which the experimental pleuritis was inflicted at the peak of acute radiation sickness. Exudative pleuritic in irradiated animals aggravates and acceler- ates the course of radiation sickness, i. e., its latent period is shortened, the onset of leukopenia is more rapid and more acute., and the normalization of the red and white blood inde.xte~s is more protracted. The pathomorphological picture of pleuritis against a backgr..ound of radiation sickness is characterized by inflammatory processes of an. essentially hemorrhagic nature with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis and with f requent involvement of pulmonary parenchyma in the process. - 83 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 129. Plutonium Metabolism and Distribution in Bone Tiacue "Plutonium Corr-ent in Protein Fractions of Long Bores of Rats," by 1. A. Tseveleva;; Moscow, Biokhimi , Vol 25, No 4, Jul./Auk, 60, pp 636-639. _ The nature of plutonium distribution in -various fractions of the diaphysis of 1o,--g bones of rats was studied. It was found that the major portion of he .radioelement was fixed in the organic matrix (up to 90%). Four protein compounds were isolated from the organic substance of bone: collagen, album?!noids, mucoids, and residual protein. The collagen comprised 90% of the bone proteins. The albuminoids, mucoids, and residual protein foruied 2.0, 1.6, and 6.9%, respectively (calculated on the basin of nitrogen). All protein su.bstences of the bone contained. lutonium. Plutonium was bound with collagen (65-80%), with alhuminoids 15%), with mucoids (3.16), and with residual proteins (5%). The metabo- lically active protein (albumiioida) bound plutonium, per mg nitrogen, at a rate ten times as great as collagen, and residual proteins. The relative specific activity of mucoids was 2.5 times as great as that of collagen. Oh!s is explained, probably, by the participation of the SO4 group of chondroitirsulphate in the fixation of plutoniuaa. 130. Decreased Capilla~yr Resistance a Factor in Spontaneous Hemorrhage During RadiTl;ion Sic~:ness "Change of the Physiclogical Resistance of Capillaries in Experimental Radiation Sickness Caused by Internal Beta-Irradiation With Radioactive Phosphorus," by G. G. Bazaz'yan, Laboratory of Physiology and. Biochemistry of Blood Coagulation; Moscow, Vestnik Moskovskogb Uni.- versit-eta, Seriya V1, Biologiya, Pochvoved eni~ra,No 2, Ma,r .Apr _6O, pp 18-21 _'.. Capillary permeability and fragility in rats subjected to irradia- tion from radioactive phosphorus administered subcutaneously in. aunts of 1; 3.18, and 5 nticrocuries per g live weight was studied. Res?Lt1ts confirmed that during radiation sickness caused by internal beta.- irradiation from. radioactive phosphorus, capillary resistance is signifi- cantly reduced at certain known stages of the sickness, ?which contributes to the onset of spontaneous hemorrhage in the injured organism. - 84 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 1.31. Chain ;cs in Reactivity of Irradiated Animals Subjected to Anes- thetics "Pharsic Changes in the Renetivity of Irradiated Anirnalrs in Relation to Anesthetics," by K. K. Poplavskiy (Lenin- (,,rad); Moscow, Meditsinskaya Radioiogiya, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, pp 35-85 The purpose of the research described was to study the reactivity of irradiated animals in relation to anesthetics administered during the various periods of acute radiation sickness with differing severity; the effect of different doses, types, and time of application of the anesthetics was determined. Tests were conducted on 4,,000 mice subjected to irradiation by 360, 720, or 1,1E1E0 r; and also to ether anesthesia inhaled for 15 minutes from air containing 0.2 ml/liter, 0.4 ml/liter, or 0.6 mil liter; or to hexenal, 211 solution, in amounts of 90 gamma/g, 150 ganirna./g; or 250 F;aaiuna/g. Various aspects of reactivity changes in the ranesthetized, irradi- ated animals are discussed. Results indicate that the reactivity of irradiated animals is substantially changed as a result of anesthetics. These changes have a phasic nature and depend on the period of the sickness. During the peak of radiation sickness, the sensitivity of the irradiated mice to anesthetics is increased regardless of the specific characteristics of the anesthetics and the severity of radiation sickness. During the other periods of radiation sickness, the nature of reactivity changes depends on the properties and dose of the anesthetic, and on the severity of the. injury. 132, Polonium In,ji.try- of Hepatic Bile-Fozzna,tion Functicn "Biligenesis Function of the Liver in Dogs Subjected to Polonium Injury," by L. L. Fedorovskiyr; Moscow, Meditsin- skaya Hadiologi a, Vol 5, No 9, Sep 60, PP 59-62 The purpose of the research described was to study the bile- forma,tion function of the liver in organisms injured by poloniuno Tests were conducted on five dogs subjected to radiation sickness by the subcutaneous administration of a neutral solution of polonitmi in the amount of 0.01E millicurie/kg body weight. (Polonium invades organs which are rich in reticulo-endothelium, which includes the liver tissue.) - 85 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 The author concludes that the results indicated phasic ctuunj,c:o in the uxternal occxrtoxy function of' the liver in does oub,iccteci. to injury by poloniwn. These changes involve the amount of' bile secreted and its bilirubin and bile acids content. The phasic changes in bile secretion consist of an increase in bile secretion during the first few days of radiatr.on sickness, followed by normalization of' seci.~_-tion, which is then replaced by acute suppression of bile secretion. The mechanisms for the development of these changes evidently are connected, on the one hand, with a disturbance of neuro-hwnoral regulation in the organism, and, on the other hand, with severe injury of the liver by polonium. 133. Shifts in Acid-Base Balance Following Acute and Chronic X-. Irradiation "Change in the Acid-Base Balance in Rabbits Subjected to Acute and Chronic X-Irracliation," by Ye. I. Floka, Chair of Biochemistry of Kishinev Medical Institute; Kishinev, Zdravoolchraneniye Moldavskoy SSR, No 2, Mar/Apr 60, pp 51-5b As a result of analyzin ; his research data on the action of pene- trating radiations, the nuthor presents the following conclusions: (PYR(HT 1. A single whole-body X-irradiation of rabbits with 1,200 r leads to the onset of nongaseous acidosis on the second and fourth days after irradiation. On the 7th and 14th days after irradiation, the acid-base balance is normalized or the nongaseous acidosis is replaced by gaseous alkalosis. 2. A single whole-body X-irradiation of rabbits by 1,500 r leads to the onset, on the second to the fourth day after irradiation, of nongaseous acidosis T rhich is retained by the majority of animals until the time of death. 3. The nongaseous type of acidosis which arises after irradia-, tion is not connected with the accumulation of organic acids, especially of ketone bodies. Aggravated acetonemia was observed in some of the animals that were irradiated Trith 1,500 r doses only toward the time of death. 4. Fractional chronic irradiation of rabbits over a period of 15 days by 100 r daily resulted in no noticeable shifts in the acid- base balance. - 86 - roved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For ] Release 1999/09/08 : i CI Protein. RDP82 001411R000100670001-0 ip la llrtibodics '- -' 11 T;lect.roc11cmi(_ t,l Proper-Firs of Immune Proteins Which Axe Synthesized in the Irradiated Organiem," by L. G. Prolco. penko, Chair of *Bic cli,=istry, State Medical Institute of Kursk; Moscow, Biolshj,znivrt. Vol 25, No lN, Jul/Aug 60, pp 630-635 The purpose: of the research described was to trace the clyria is changes in. the e:Lectrocliemical properties of various types of antibodies produced in lieUthy and irradiated organisms Results of the eletrol horetie studies show that in healthy rab- bits. -;he anrtiparatyphoid n.gglutinins and precipitins migrate in the electrical field with the ganmut, globulins after the first immunization. The third immunization. shift's the migration of the antibodies in the healthy animals toward the beta globulins. In rabbits irradiated with a 600 r dose, the antiparatyphoid ag- glutinins that were synthesized migrated with the gamma- and beta- globttlins during the vihole period of observation. In anima:Ls X-irradiated 1,rith the lethal dose of 1, 000 r, the ag- glutinins are localized in the gammm- , beta--., and alpha,,-globulin fractions. The third injection of antibody shifted the formation of the antibody so that it. migrated with. the gamma globulins. The precipitins in the injured rabbits were localized only in the ganmia- globttlin fraction. 135? Sensi-Livity of Sex Organs of Gonna- Irradiated Mouse The Estrus Cycle of Mice Subjected to G na-.Irradiation During the Period of Embryonic Development," by F. B. Shapiro, 1Tauchzi. Dokl. Vyssh. Biol. N. (Scientific Reports of Higher Schools of Biological Sciences ), No 2, 1959, pp 101-105, (from Referati Zhural -- Biolo iya, No 1I+, CPYRGHT 25 Jul 6o, Abstract No 68098, by V. Semagin "Mice were subjected to the effect of ganmsa?-irradiation from Co60 by a dose of 50 r on the 10th, 1.2th, and. l4th day of pregnancy, and the sex cycle of their female progeny ?wra.s observed. The frequency of the estrus cycle in the later 1?r,t,s decreased, especially in mice from mothers irradiated on the 12th and loth day. Among those irradiated during the embryonic period, the ratio of females to males was dimin- ished. The average number of normal cycles wa.s diminished by a factor of 1.5 in each female. During 3 months of observations, the frequency of cycles 1ras greai;er in the second generation than in that of thr: unirradiated and controls. The ovaries of nice embryos seemed. more sensitive to irradiation than the ovaries of mature mice." - 37 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CI/2-001418000100670001-0 136. New Anesthetic Apparatus "Anesthetic Apparatus USIA-1" (unsigned article); Moscow, CPYRGHT I,leditsinskiy Rabotriik, 16 Sep, p lE "R. I. Savachenlco, V. A. Milchalev, and A. S. Perel'muter research workers at the A]1-Union Scientific Research Institute of Medical Instruments and Equipment, in cooperation with Prof I. S. Zhorov, designed a universal apparatus for the administration of anesthetics by inhalation. The now apparatus has been maned "UNA-l." It is designed to provide required anesthetics in all types of operations and, in case of necessity, to regulate artificial respiration. "1UNA-1 will be used to administer the following four gases: nitrous oxide-., cyclopropane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. It has little effect on normal respiration and supplies the exact dose to be administered. Another advantage is that it makes possible the supply of a mixture of oxygen with air, ether with air, or a mixture of ether-air-oxygen. Clinical tests of the apparatus gave positive results, and its manufacture has been authorized." Veterinary Medicine 137. Mechanism of Action of Ho?; Cholera Vaccine "Research on the Phenomenon of Incompatibility Between the Lapinized Virus and the ?athogenic Virus of Hog Cholera," by S. Mihaita and M. Pupa.; Bucharest, Studii si Cercetari de Inframicrobiologie, Vol 9, No 3, 1960, Pp 391---1.07 _ Hogs inoculated with a vaccinating dose of lapinized hog cholera virus are protected from subcutaneous infection with the classic virus, starting 72 hours after administration. The phenomenon by which the lapinized virus gives early protec- tion against hog cholera is due, in the first days, to the incompatibility between this virus and the pathogenic virus of hog cholera. This incompatibility appears during an interval of 2-4 days between the action of the lapinized virus and that of the pathogenic virus on the organism. roved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 From, their work, the authors conclude that the lapinized virus replice.tes and spreads in the hog organism for 48-72 hours following inoculation; after a maximum percentage of virus bodies is circulating in the blood (the 6th-7th day) there is a quantitative reduction in favor of the antibodies which develop. The rate of replication and diffusion of the classic hog cholera virus is 48-72 hours more rapid than that of the lapinized virus. The vaccination of healthy hogs -- those which are threatened with infection or subjected to contact with infected hogs -- with lapinized virus preserves over 75 percent of the animals from infec- tion by contact. Miscellaneous 138. Institute for Study of the Problem of Aging "To Prolong Human Life" (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 23 Sep 60, p 3 An Institute of Gerontology and Experimental Pathology which is to become the center of research work on the problem of aging has been opened in Kiev. Three clinics where the problems of age modifica- tions in the nervous system, internal organs, and the support-motor apparatus will be studied are attached to the institute. There are nine research laboratories, an outpatient division, and scientific- consultation sections attached to homes for the aged. Biological problems of aging, and the changes which take place in the cellular composition of the aging organism, protein synthesis, and antigenic properties of the tissues and cells will be investigated. A st6.tis- tical department has been organized. The effe.t of physical activities and living conditions on the organism will be studied. The effective- ness of geriatric drugs, such as the antireticular cytotoxic ser m, blood transfusions, vitamins, tissue exrtracts, hormones, and novo- cain, when applied to the aging organism will be studied. Data gathered and the results of investigations already carried out are being analyzed. - 89 - -00141 R000100670001-0 Appro Fp,c'9Q9~jQ eal/~~82-001418000100670001-0 "Order on the Statute of the State Supply Office for Phar- maceutical and Medical Practice," by Sefrin, Minister of Health; Berlin, Gesetzblatt der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, No 23, Part 2, 15 Aug 60, pp 257-259 This order, which became effective on 1 July 1960, discusses the tasks of the Supply Office for Pharmaceutical and Medical Practice of the GDR Ministry of Health, in Berlin; direction and organization; location, management, and supervision of the 12 supply depots; and supply committees for cooperation with local authorities. 111.0. Organizational Change in Hungarian Academy of Sciences "From the Life of the Hungarian Acaden7 of Sciences"; Budapest, Mbar Tudor, Vol LXVII, No 9, Sep 60, CPYRGH,t 551 "At its 17 June 1960 meeting, the Presidium Council approved the transfer of the science of gerontology and the Gerontological Committee from the Biological Section to the Department of Biology and Medicine." - 90.,_ Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 VII. METALLURGY Physical Metallurgy 1111. Increasing the Wear Properties of Chromium Platings "Increasing the Wear Resistance of Electrolytic Chromium Coatings," by D. S. Plishko, Kiev Institute of the Civil Air Fleet; Moscow, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykli Zavedeniy, Mashinostroyeniye, No 7, 1960, PP 155-159 Laboratory tests showed that, electrolytically coated chromium paired in dry friction with gray perlitic cast iron underwent a wear only 1/8-110 that when paired with bronze; the reason was found to be that during the friction process, the chromium surface became coated with a gray layer with a hardness of 1,500-1,800 kilograms, per square flh i.llirieter. 142. Effect of Heat Treatment on Long-Time Strength of E1694R Steel "Influence of Heat Treatment on the Value of the Long- Time Strength of Austenitic Steel E1694R," by A. A. Moiseyev, T. F. Semenova, Ye. D. Surovf:seva, and N. V. Sukhobokova; Mcacow, Elektricheskiye Stantsii, No 6, Jun 6o, pp 24-26 The structure, mechanical, and heat-resistant properties, partic- ularly long-time strength properties, of E1694R pipe depend greatly on heat-f reatment regimes. E16911R specimens subjected to a stress of 25 kg/mm and a temperature of 610 deg C had long-time strengths varying from 663 to 7,228 hours, depending on the heat-treatment parameters. The best long-time strength properties were obtained by austeni-tizing under the following conditions: heating to 1,150-1,170 deg C, holding for 2 minutes per square millimeter cross section, and cooling in Crater. 1113. Ductility of Certain High-Temperature Steels "Ductility of Certain High-Temperature Materials," by A. V. Stanyukovich; Moscow, Energoinashinostroyeniye, No 5, may 60, pp 26-30 Results are given of a study of the ductility of a number of high- temperature steels at elevated temperatures and constant strain rates. Graphs show the change of ductility with respect to temperature, strain rate, and time (ductility diagrams). - 91 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved Q019&*7tgBp, %fter heat treatment (quenched at 940 deg C in oil) tempered at 630 deg C for 2 hours) in order to ascertain the minimum strain property through guaranteeu higher yield point (mss = 106. and db - 115 kg/mm-2). Aus- tenitic steels were represented by 11ai18N9T (quenched at 1,050 deg C, 'tempered at 680 deg C for 3 hours) and E1612 (quenched at 1,150 deg C and age-hardened at 750 deg C for 20 hours). Other nickel-base alloys listed here are alloy A (chromium-nickel alloyed with titanium), alloy G (chromium-nickel alloyed with niobium and containing a small amount of titanium), and alloys B and V (chromium- nickel containing large amounts of titanium, tungsten, and molybdenum). At pracrtically all operating conditions, 'E:;I10 does not yield less than 2 percent at tensile rupture. The most satisfactory operating temperature for E1612 is 500-580 deg C; for 1Kh18N9T, it is 500-600 deg C and 600-850 deg C for alloys B and V. 1114. Serial Mass-Spectrometer Adapted for Metal Vapor Studies "Experience in the Use of a Serial Mass-Spectrometer for Studying Vaporization of With High-Vaporization Temperatures," by P. A. Akishin, L. N. Gorokhov, 0. T. Nikitin, and Yu. S. Khodeyev, Chemistry Faculty of the Moscow State University; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eks- perimenta, No 4, Jul/Aug 60, pp 98-102 Descriptions are given of changes incorporated in a serial MS-3 mass- s ectrometer (originally designed for isotope analysis) for its use in studies of vapors of substances with high-vaporization temperatures. The chan?;es consist of the following: (1) an ion source equipped with an ef- fusion chamber, the temperature of which is measured during tests; (2) a device to block entrance of the molecular beam into the ionization chamber and filter out background interference; (3) a high-sensitivity circuit for registering t'e ion current when operating with substances having low vapor pressure at testing temperatures. In a check test of the modified mass-spectrometer, the value for the heat of sublimation of silver was found to be 65.0 f 0,9 Kcal,fgram-atone in thn temperature interval of 1,115-1,12330K as compared to the accepted value of 64.5 Kcal/gram-atom. - 92- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 r I c' R/PB 131891. T~~ uric i rN ORMRT I O .~ Approved For Release 1999/09/05 CIA RDP8 41 F~t000 jj~18NTT~IC' R .8 >NOEMER 1960 2 OF 2 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 145. Techniques in Metal Vaporization "Techniques in the Vaporization of Metals in a Vacuum (A Re- view)," by M. I. Vinogradov; Moscow, Pribory i Tckhnika Eks- perimenta, No 4, Jul/Aug 60, pp 3-13 A study is rude of techniques used in thermal vaporization of metals in a vacuum to obtain condensed films and coatings. Primary attention is devoted to apparatus and the operation of vapor sources of metals with high-vaporization temperatures. Most of the material in this review is of foreign origin. The main Soviet contribution is taken from the col- lection Eks rimental'naya Tekhnika i Metody Isslodovani ri Vysokikh Temperaturakh (Trudy Soveshchaniya 26-30 Iyunya 1956 g) rimental Techniques and Methods of Invests ation at High Temperatures of the Conference of 26-30 June 1956 ] and concerns the design and operation of a vaporizer. 146. Corrosion of Steels in Phosphoric Acid "The Corrosion of Steels and Alloys in Extraction [Extracted] Phosphoric Acid," by Ye. V. Zotova; Moscow, Khimiches kaya Promyshlennost', No 4, Jun 60, p 65 (329) Corrosion teats (100 hours) were conducted under laboratory con- ditions on various steels and alloys in two solutions of phosphoric acid (32 percent P205) 1.89 percent F. 2.2 percent SO3. at 90 deg and 55 percent ?205, 0.8 percent F, 4.5 percent SU3 at 105-110 deg) in liquid and vapor phases. Nickel-silicon alloys N30S5 and N6005 have unsatisfactory cor- rosion resistance in both solutions. High corrosion,ce was noted for steels: 1Kh18N9T, Kh27N10, and particularly Kh16N14M2B, Kh23N10M3, Kh23N18M3, Kh27N1OM3, Kh27N18M3, Kh23NlOM3D3, Kh27NaOM3D3, Kh23N18M3D3, Kh27N18M3D3, Kh2oN28M3D3, and Kh23N28M3D3. Cast steels Kh23N23M3H3 and Kh23N28M3D3 also have a high corrosion resistance in both the liquid and vapor phases of the above solutions. Among the cast alloys, chromium cast ror_ :32T and 17Kh32T and chromium-molybdenum cast iron lOKh29M3T and 23Kh33M3T have considerable greater resistance than alloys of the sormite type (42xr,30N8S3 and 3OIth3ON8S3143) . Steel mixer blades of an extractor were also tested for corrosion rates (grams per square meter per hoir) in a suspension of extracted Dhosphoric acid (26-j2 percent P205,.up to 2.5 percent SO3 and 1.8 percent F) and suspended gypsum crystals at 84-90 deg C with a 1:2.5 ratio of liquid to solids. The corrosion rates vary from 9.60 for Kh23N18D2T to 0-0.7 for Kh23N28M3D3T and Kh18N28M3D3. - 93 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 For apparatus used in the production of double super hosphates, austenitic steels Kh18N12M2T (EL-448), Kh23N28M2T (EI-628), and Kh23N28M3D3T (Ei-629 or EI-943) are recommended. P.. oduction Metallurgy 147. Explosive Forming of Sheet Metal at Kharkov Aviation Institute "Pressing of Sheet Material With a Jas Piston," by N. D. Lebedyanskaya and A. N. Zaytsev, Kharkov Aviation Insti'- tute; Moscow, Izvestiya Vysshikh Ucheb kh Zavedeni , Mashinostroyeniye, No 7) 1960, PP 87-95 A method is described for calculating the process of stamping sheet metal shapes by means of a gas piston (explosive forming), including the calculation of the required pressure and size of charge to produce the necessary pressure distribution on the work during the explosion. The method was tested by experimentation and showed an agreement of theoreti- cal and empirical data which is satisfactory for practical purposes. 11E8. A 1 in Electric Current to Facilitate Machini of Stainless A E1607 "Improving the Workability of the Heat-Resistance Alloy E1607A During Machining," by V. N. Verezub, Kharkov Aviation Insti- tute; Moscow, Izvestiya V sshikh Uchebnykh Zaveden/yj Mashino- stroyeniye, No 7, 19 0, pp 101-10 Results are given of a study of the machining of E1607A stainless under normal conditions and with an applied &].ectric current (50-400 amps per square millimeter), with particular attention to the durability of the tool, the cleanness of the machined surface, and the temperature of the tool during the machining operations. The study led to the following con- clusions! The workability of E1607A is improved by the application of an optimal current 200-300 amps per mm2) in the cutting area. Depending on feed and cutting rates, the same conditions improve the tool durability up to a factor of three; chip formation is noticeably improved; the clean- ness of the machined surface is improved; the accretion of chip is elimi- nated; and vibration during machining is reduced within a certain limited cutting regime. The application of current during machining can be used as preliminary machining, process of E1607A under industrial. conditions. 94 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 149. Optimum Machining Methods for a High-Silicon Alloy "Study of the Workability of the Alloy 5-15," by S. P. Shabashov and L. V. Poluyatova, Ural' Polytechnic Insti- tute; Moscow, Izvesti a V sshikh Ucheb kh Zavedeni , Mashinostroyeniye, No 7, 1960) pp 129-13 Information is given on the relative workability and machinability of alloy S-15 by different methods. Relationships are established for the rate of removal of metal, the life of grinding wheels, and the para- meters of grinding operations. S-15 contains 0.5-0.8 percent carbon, 14.5-16.0 percent silicon, 0.3-0.8 percent manganese, up to 0.1 percent phosphorus, and up to 0.07 percent sulfur; its melting point is 1,195 deg C. and its specific weight, 6.9; its bending strength is 23.3 kilograms per square millimeter. It has a high chemical stability, is produced in accordance with GOST standard 2233-43, is known in the USSR as "ferrosilid," and is used by the Sverdlovsk Pump Works. The study showed that the best method of grinding S-15 is with grinding wheels of "KZ" silicon carbide with ceramic binder, a hardness of CM1, and grain size of "46-6o." 150. Electroslag Refining of High-Temperature Steels and Alloys "Improvement in the Weldability of Austenitic Steels and Alloys as the Result of Electroslag Refining," by B. I. Medovar, Institute of Electric Welding imeni Ye. 0. Paton, Academy of Sciences UkrSSR; Moscow, Svarochnoye Proizvodstvo, No lo, oct 60, pp 16-18 Comparison tests were conducted on steels E1725 (Kh15N35V5T) and E I726 (Khl3N18V2Br) (before and after double electroslag refining) and alloy Ei437B (Kh20N8OT3Yu) (before and after single electroslag refining) to determine the effectiveness of the electroslag refining process as a measure to combat hot cracking in weldments of these materials. The apparatus consists of a water-cooled crystallizer containing a certain quantity of nonoxidizing fluoride slag into which the tip of an electrode made of the mate:^ial to be refined is immersed. After the arc is struck, droplets of meta]. from the consumable electrode pass through the slag layer where they are subjected to a refining action and then accumulate on the bottom of the crystallizer. The electrode moves upward as the level of metal rises, while at the same time crystallization of the metal proceeds in an axial direction (from top to bottom). The con- sumable electrode and slag surface are protected by an argon atmosphere. - 95 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 It in claimed that it wan Just recently that studies were made of the electroslag refining process as a method of improving the defor- mability of austeni.tac alloys and steels and that very good results were obtained. It is also claimed that weldmentn made of metal. refined by this process show high stability to hot crack formation. Although boron losses occur due to oxidation in this process, it is considered beneficial as it eliminates the cause of hot cracking, and at the same time, the heat resistance of the metal in either higher or remains unchanged. No data are given. 151. Determination of Free Boron in Boron Carbide,_ Boron Nitride, and Alloys on Their Basis "Determination of Free Boron in Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and Alloys on Their Basis," by Ye. Ye. Kotlyar and T. N. Nazarchuk, Institute of Powder Metallurgy, Cermets, and Special Alloys, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, Moscow, Zhurnal Analiticheskoy Khimii, Vol 15, No 2, 1960, pp 207-210 A method has been developed for determining free boron in boron car- bide and boron nitride. The method is based on the oxidation of free boron with a mixture of perhydrol and nitric acid, while the boron com- bined in carbide or nitride is not oxidized. The determination of free boron ends in titration with alkali in the presence of invert sugar. 152. Investigation of the Ageing of Duralumin by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method "Investigation of the Ageing of Duralumin by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method," by V. S. Pavlovskaya, V. N. Podd'yakov, and B. N. Finkel'shteyn, Moscow Steel Insti- tute imeni I. V. Stalin; Sverdlovsk, Fizika Metallov i Metalloveder-iye., Vol 10, No 3., Sep 6o, PP 346-349 The method of nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied in the investigation of the ageing of duralumin. The intensity, width, and shape of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines were measured. Data were obtained concerning the influence exerted by the quadruple effect on the parameters of the resonance lines. Qualitatively, conclusions were drawn concerning the distortions of the crystal lattice produced by regrouping of atoms of the constituents in the process of the break- down of the solid solution. - 96 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 153. Controversial Data on Constitution of Binary Alloys "New Thermodiffusion Data on the System Chromium-Molybdenum," by D. A. Prokoshkin and 0. I. Sidunova, Moscow Higher Tech- nical School; Moscow, Izvesti a V sshikh Ucheb ki Zavedeni Mashinostroyeniye, No 5, 1960) pp 101-105 A metallographic analysis revealed a phase recrystallizatioll during the diffusion of chromium into molybdenum at 1,400 deg C in a vacuum furnace. This indicates that there exists in the system Cr-Mo in the solid solution a region with special structure and properties, a region not heretofore revealed. The presence of this region is also confirmed by other analyses. It is thus concluded that chromium and molybdenum in the solid solution do not form the continuous series of solid solutions de- scribed in the literature. 154. Bauschinger Effect on EI-437B Alloy Under Cyclic Stress "The Bauschinger Effect for the Alloy EI-437B During Cyclic Deformation in a Wide Temperature Range," by S. V. Serensen and P. I. Kotov, Moscow Aviation Technological Institute; Moscow, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Mashinostro- ey nitre, No 5, 1960.. pp 65-74 Results are given of an investigation of the Bauschinger effect in alloy EI-437B during cyclic loading at both normal and elevated tempera- ture. The nature of the elastic imperfections of this alloy at high temperatures is demonstrated, and a rapid stabilization of the Bauschinger effect during cyclic deformation is established. The test temperatures used were 20, 700, and 800 degrees centigrade. The elastic-plastic de- formations were produced on a stand described earlier (Zavodskaya Laboratoriya, No 3, 1960), and the deformations were measured with an instrument described by Ivchenko and Kotov (Izv. Vuzov., Mashinostroyeniye) No 12, 1957). 155. New State Standard (GOST) for Welding Wire "GOST for Steel Welding Wire" unsigned article; Moscow, Byulleten' Stroitel'noy Tekhniki, No 9, Sep 60, pp 14-15 Certain specifications are presented from GOST 2246-60 concerning the physical properties, dimensional tolerances, packing, and shipping (chemical compositions not included) of cold-drawn steel welding wire. This new 97 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 standard, an approved by the Committee on Standards, Measurements, and Measuring Instruments of the Council of Ministers USSR, establishes tech- nical specifications for welding wire of 5 grades of carbon steel, 23 grades of alloyed steel, and 28 grades of high-alloy steel in diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 mm. COST 2246-60 repleaces GOST 2246-54 as of 1 July 1960. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 VIII. PHYSICS Atomic and Molecular Physics 156. Complex Spectral Band Structure "Complex Structure of Excitation Functions of Spectral Bands of N 2, CO+, and NO+ Molecular Ions," by I. P. Zapesochnyy and S. M. Kishlco, Uzhgorod State University; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 134, No 2, Sep 60, pp 311-313 It was attempted to obtain more accurate data on the character of optic excitation functions of diatomic molecules by carrying out experi- ments of electron-collision induced excitation of the band spectra of N2, CO, and NO emitted by neutral or singly ionized molecules. The relative band intensities were determined by means of photoelectric recording. The most probable explanation of maxima of fine structure should be found in different elementary processes of dissociation or ionization of diatomic molecules. 157. Hungarian Investigates the Role of Multi-Polar Interactions in the Van Der Waals Attraction "The Role of Multi-Polar Interaction in the Van Der Waals Attraction, " by Ferenc Berencz, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Szeged University of Science; Budapest, Magyar Fl zikai Folyoirat, Vol 8, No 2, 1960, pp 83-94 The author demonstrates that dipolar-octopolar energy is of the same as:nitude as quadrupolar energy, and, consequently, when approximative t;.., L'hods are used, both types of energy can be taken into account or omit- Led. It was further determined that in the expression of the perturbative energy in the interaction of two hydrogen atoms, the dipolar- quadrupolar energy amounts to 53 percent of the dipolar-dipolar energy; the quadrupolar- quadrupolar energy is 13 percent of the dipolar-dipolar energy, while the dipolar-octopolar energy amounts to 23 percent of the dipolar-dipolar energy. - 99 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 158. Hungarians Investigate Splitting of do Terms in Strong Complex Fields "The Splitting of do Terms in Tetragonal, Trigonal, and Rhomboid Shaped Strong Complex Fields," by Ierenc Gilde, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Szeged University of Science, and Miklos Ban, Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Szeged University of Science; Budapest, M agyar CPYRGH?zikai Folyoirat, 'Vol 8, No 2, 1960, pp 95-114 "The properties of the complex compounds of metals having d elec- trons are determined to a large extent by these electrons. From the do (n = 1,2, ....10) electron configurations, we prepared all the strong field configurations resulting from the effect of a iptragonal, trigonal, and rhomboid shaped strong complex field. We determined into how many and what kinds of irreducible states these configurations split as a result of the influence of the strong field. To achieve this, we evolved a procedure for the classification of the products of splitting. Since this procedure contains only set-theory considerations, it is precise." Magnetohydrodynamics 159. Accelerating a Conducting Gas by Means of Traveling Magnetic Fuld "On the Acceleration of a Conducting Gas With a Traveling Magnetic Field," by V. B. Baranov, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleniye Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Mashinostroyeniye, No , Jul Aug 60, pp 14-16 On the basis of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics, this work con- siders the one-dimensional problem of the acceleration of a conducting gas by a traveling magnetic field. Formulas are obtained and graphics plotted for the velocity distribution, density, pressure, and temperature along a channel for three cases: acceleration in a.c'hennel of constant cross section, isothermic acceleration, and acceleration in a slightly expanding channel. The case is also considered in which the magnetic field induced in the conducting gas can be neglected; viscosity is not taken into account. An induction pump designed by the Institue of Physics of the Academy of Sciences Latvian SSR (Kirko, I. M., Elektrichestvo, No 4, 1959) trans- ports liquid sodium by means of an inductor which, produces a magnetic field which moves along the channel and is directed perpendicular to the direction of flow of the sodium. The relative motions of the magnetic field and the liquid generate a ponderomotor force which compels the liquid to move along the channel. The velocity of the propagation of the field can be increased by increasing the frequency of the current applied to the inductor. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 This article investigates the possibility of using r3uch a method to accelerate a slightly conducting gas at velocities on the order of 10-12 kilometers per second. 160. Magnetovorticular Annulus as a Model of Ball of Lightning "The Magnetovorticular Annulus," by Yu. P. Ladikov, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Tekhniche- skikh Nauk, Mekhanika Mashinostroyeniye, No 4, Jul Aug 65y pp 7-13 A study is made of the existence and stability of a stationary plas- moid with a toroidal configuration. The vector velocity v and the magnetic field intensity H are considered to be colinear; thus H 4 T v = X FIT-9 v , where Xis a certain constant scalar value, and p is the density of the'fluid in the annulus. The existence of a similar plasma configuration was described by V. D. Shafranov ("Magnetovorticular Annuli," ZhETF, Vol 33, No 3/9, 1957), but the solution was not analyzed thoroughly; the notion was merely ex- pressed that such an annulus can be stable only when the velocity of the gas in the annulus is higher than the corresponding alfen velocity v ,~ H n p , i.e., when X is less than or equal to unity. Here it is shown that a similar magnetovorticular annulus, assuming the usual perturbation limits, can be stable even when X is greater than unity. It is also estab- lished that, in a number of cases, the pressure inside the annular plasmcid can be considerably higher than that outside and, co;,sequently, a consider- able temperature can prevn':l inside. This gives reason to consider the magnetovorticular annulus a possible model of a ball of lightning. Such a model can explain a number of phenomena observed during the occurrence of balls of lightning (movement inside closed rooms, magnetization of metallic objects, etc. [Stekol'nikov, I. S., Fi zika Molnii i Grozozash- chita (Physics of Lightning and Lightning Protection),' rotection , Moscow-Leningrad, 1943 )- The real value of such a model can be realized only after the question of the duration of its existence has been investigated and subjected to experimentation. The work here was under the direction of L. I. Sedov. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 161. Utilization of Carnot Cycle in Induction Puin s "One-Dimensional Flow of an Electrically Conducting Gas With Constant Velocity in a Moving Magnetic Field," by Ye. I. Yantovskiy, Kharkov; Moscow, izvestiya Akadem{i Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Tekhnicheskikh Nauk Mekhanllca i Mashinostroyeniye, No 1$, Jul Aug 60, pp 166-167 An earlier work (Val'dek, A. I., "Flows and Forces in a Layer of Liquid Metal of Plane Induction Pumps," Elektromekhanika, No 1, 1959) treated the flow of an incompressible electrically conducting liquid in a plane duct of finite width under the effect of a moving magnetic field which was induced by an alternating three-phase current flowing in the walls of the duct (applicable to induction pumps). Here an analogous approach is used to consider the partial case of a flow of an inviscous compressible gas with constant electrical conductivity. The method affords, in principle, the possibility of realizing a generalized Carnot cycle in the extraction of energy from a flow of gas by means of a moving magnetic field. 162. Magnetoaerodynamics for Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow "On the Quasi.-One-Dimensional Stationary Flow of a Compress- ible Conducting Gas in a Duct of Constant Cross Section in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic and Electrical Fields," by I. B. Chekmarev, Leningrad; Moscow, Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, p546-547 The equations of the quasi-one-dimensional stationary flow of a con- ducting as are integrated for the partial case in which the force of the external electrical field is proportional to that of the magnetic field. 163. Hungarian Investigates Speed of Small, Ai li.tude Waves and Weak Disruption Surfaces "Small Amplitude Waves and Weak Disruption Surfaces in Magnetohydrodynamics," by Janos Szabo, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lorand Eotvos University of Science,Budapest; Budapest, Ma ar Fizikai Folyoirat, Vol 8, Nc 3, 1960, CPYRGHTPP 175-i86 We summarized the most important characteristics of small-amplitude waves spreading in an ideal medium. We then demonstrated that the speed of weak disruption surfaces is the same as the speed of such waves. We also investigated the relationship between the characte rist:.cs of the basic equations of magnetohydrodynamics and weak disruption surfaces." Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 161E. Perturbations in Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Flows "On the Distribution of Perturbations in Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Flows," by M. N. Kogan, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladn a Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, pp 530-536 In earlier works of the author (EM, W123, No 1, 1959; PMM, Vol 24) No 1, 1960), it was shown that in two-dimensional flows of an ideal gas with infinite electrical conductivity, there are either two or four valid characteristics, along which the ratios are determined. In computing the flows according to linear theory, it is necessary to know along which of these characteristics the perturbations decay as they recede from the body to infinity. Here a study is made of the distribution of the pertur- bations from discontinuities in the line of flow. It is shown that shock waves can emanate from angular protuberances. On the other hand, at angular depressions, a reverse flow can occur with waves of the Prandtl- Meyer type. An analysis of the distribution of perturbations is applied to the study of the character of flow along bodies with the magnetic field( at small angles of incidence in relation to the velocity of the approach flow. Mechanics 165. Effect of Random Forces on Gyroscopic Instruments "On the Motion of Gyroscopic Instruments Under the Effect of Random Forces," by Ya. N. Roytenberg, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladn a Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 6o, pp 463-472 The motion of shipboard gyroscopic instruments under conditions at sea generally has been treated under the assumption that the rolling and pitching of the ship occur in accordance with a sinusoidal law. In the works of A. A. Sveshnikov (Trudy 1- Mezhvuzovskoy Konferents. o Gidro- skopii [Works of the First Inter-VUZ Conference on Gyroscopy], 1956), it is shown that the rolling and pitching of a ship can be considered a stationary random process, and the correlation function and spectral density of this process are given. This article considers the motion of a strong gyroscopic stabilizer, of a two-dimensional gyroscopic pendulum, and of a gyroscopic compass under conditions of irregular ship motions; the dispersion of the angle of stabilization of the strong gyroscopic stabilizor and of the gyroscopic pendulum are determined, and an expression is derived which describes the intercardinal deviation of the gyrocompass. - 103 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 166. One Form of Routh-Hurwitz Criteria for Stability Problems "On One Form of the Routh-Hurwitz Criteria," by V. 0. Kononenko, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni e Tekhnicheskikh Vault, Mekhanika i Mashinostro- yeniye, No , Jul Aug 60, pp 125-128 This article considers a form of the Routh-Hurwitz criteria in which the geometric properties of the right sides of the equations of motion are explicitly reflected. The use of this form often leads to simpler and more descriptive results. It is assumed that a previous analysis of the problem of stability has indicated a direct application of the Routh-Hurwitz cri- teria. An example shows that the use of the criteria in the form described facilitates the solution of the stability problem and affords the possibil- ity of establishing a connection with the stability of a degenerate system. 167. Secondary Resonances in Systems With Periodically Changing Parameters "Constrained Nonstationary Oscillations in Linear Systems With Periodically Changing Parameters," by Ye. G. Goloskokov and A. P. Filippov, Kharkov; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Mashinostroyeniye, No , Jul Aug 60, pp 129-131 The problem of the detection of the amplitudes of oscillations during the transition through resonance in linear systems with constant coeffi- cients has been solved for the case in which the frequency of the pertur- bation forces is assumed to change in accordance with both linear and parabolic laws (FYlippov, A. P., Kolebaniya Uprugikh Sistem [Oscillations of Elastic Systems], Kiev, 1956; Trudy Khar'kovskogo Politekhnicheskogo Instituta, Ser. Inzh-fiz., Vol 11E, No 2, 1956; Izv. AN SSSR, OTN, No 12, 195 This article considers the transition through resonance of a system, the motion of which is described by a Mathieu equation with a right side. This corresponds to the case in which rods, plates, or shells are subjected .to a transverse force with varying frequency in addition to a longitudinal force with a frequency of 2SZ. The good agreement of a usual solution of the problem and a solution obtained with the aid of the MPT-9 analog com- puter confirm theoretical conclusions regarding the existence, in systems with periodically changing parameters, of secondary resonsances, the amplitudes of which can be considerable. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 168. Pressure in Ideal Liquid for Near-Isentropic Case "Determining the Pressure in a Half-Space of an Ideal Liquid for the Case of Approximate Isentropy," by A. G. Bagdoyev and E.M. ,Nersisyan, Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR, Yerevan; Moscow,'Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Mashinostro~,ey niye, No Jul/Aug 0, pp 3 The pressure distribution is considered for a compressible ideal liquii', assuming pressure isentropy. The flow of the liquid behind the front of a shock wave is represented as a simple wave for the case of supersonic automodeling distribution along the boundary. The shock wave and the pressure on it are determined for these conditions. The same result is obtained by a geometrical representation of expanison waves produced at the boundary of the liquid. The pressure distribution at the shock wave is also determined for subsonic flow. 169. Simplified Theoretical Scheme for Determining Impact of Drops on Solid Surface "On the Impact of Drops on a Solid Surface," by M. I. Khmel'nik, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni a Tekhnicheskikh Nauk Mekhanika i Mashinostro- yeniye, No 14., Jul Aug,.0, pp 180-L81 A simplified theoretical scheme is considered for estimating the in- fluence of the impact of drops on a solid surface, namely, the impacting of an infinite liquid cylinder on a solid surface, the liquid assumed to be ideal and incompressible. It is also assumed that, at the moment of impact, the cylinder is deformed in such a way that its cross section represents a semicircle. It is found that, if an elastic impact of a solid cylinder with the same dimensions and density were produced on a solid wall, the impulse would be greater than that of drops of liquid by a factor of only 3.4. 170. Motion of Vortex Under Surface of Liquid "The Solution of the Problem of the Motion of a Vortex Under the Surface of a Liquid With Froude Number Close to Unity," by I. G. RLlippov, Moscow; Moscow, Priklad- n a Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, pp 14.7, - 90 An approximate method ie presented which affords the possibility of describing certain peculiarities of flow, on the basis of which a more rigorous solution can be devised. - 105 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 171. Problem of Explosion Over the Surface of a Liquid "On the Problem of an Explosion Over the Surface of a Liquid," by V. M. Kisler, Institute of Mechanics, Acad- emy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Prikladna a Matematika i MF.:nanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, pp 496-503 The problem is considered under the following assumptions: that the effect of the external explosion on the free surface can be substituted by a nonstationary pressure on a surface area changing-with time; that the problem of the motions of the liquid is considered linear, in view of the great difference between the surfaces of the liquid'and the gas; and that the liquid is incompressible, which is all the more valid an assumption, the lower the velocity of distribution of the shock wave along the frae surface of the liquid in comparison with the velocity of sound in a real liquid. 172. Motion of Ideal Media During Point Explosion "On the-Properties of the Motion of Certain Ideal Media During a Point Explosion," by N. N. Kochina, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May Jun 60, pp 504-510 A point explosion is considered in an ideal medium, the properties of which are close to those of an ideal gas with an adiabatic index T : 7. The unknown functions are expressed in terms of power series with respect to time, whereby the form of an arbitrary term of a series is determined. 173. BESM-1 Calculation of Problem of Flow Around Axially Symmetrical Body "On the Calculation of the Flow Around Axially Symmetrical Bodies With a Receding Shock Wave on the Electronic Computer," by 0. M. Belotserkovskiy, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladnaya Matema- tika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, pp 511-517 The problem is set up to be solved by a method which would be uniquely applicable to the case of receding shock wave for both two-dimensional and axially symmetrical bodies of various configurations (smooth, irregular, combined), with various values of the adiabatic index X(2(> 1) and Mach numbers for the approach flow (1< M" dm) The two-dimensional problem was considered earlier by the author (PMM, Vol 22, No 2, 1958). The method and results of calculations for certain simple bodies (ellipsoid, sphere, disk) are given here. The BESM-1 calculation concerned the flaw around ellipsoids of rotation (with relative vertical to horizontal - 106 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 semiaxcs 6 b/a = 0.5 and e = 1.5), a sphere (8 = 1.0), blunt-nose bodies (,-) co) for various Mach numbers of the approach flow (M co = 3,4,6)10,0o),X c 1.40, and in differnt approximations (N = 1.2). Tables give numerical results of a calculation for flow around a sphere for MW 0 1F.0 andx a 1.1iO at N = 2. 174. Hypersonic Gas Flow With Exponential Shock Density "On the Theory of Hypersonic Flows of a Gas With Exponential Shock Waves," by V. V. Sychev Moscow; Moscow, Prikladnyaa Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60-, pp 16-523 Two-dimensional and axially symmetrical hypersonic flows of a gas with exponential shock waves of high intensity are considered. On the basis of a study of the high-entropy portion of the flow at the surface of the body (subject to shock waves of given form), it is shown that the use, in flow problems, of explicit solutions for the corresponding non- stationary self-modeling motions of the gas necessitates a more accurate determination of the thickness of the high-entropy layer. A procedure is suggested for obtaining such a refinement and for plotting the con- figuration, of the body, to which a pressure distribution, obtained on the basis of the theory of small perturbations, must be applied. 175. Water-Film Cooling of Cone in High Temperature Gas Flow "Experimental Study of the Flow of an Evaporating Liquid Film Over the Surface of a Cone in a Gas Flow," by V. M. Polyayev, Moscow Higher Technical School; Moscow, Izves- tiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zayedeniy, Mashinostroyeniye, No 5, 1960, pp 140-146 A study is made of a method of protecting a hot wall by applying a liquid film on its surface. The results are given of an experiment on the flow of a liquid film along the smooth surface of a cone in a high- temperature gas flow, and recommendations are made for producing a liquid (water) flow along the surface of the cone without separation. Formulas are derived for determining the initial velocity of flow of a liquid (water) film in relation to the velocity of the gas flow. The installation described and illustrated by a flow chart produced gas flows of 150-450 meters per second and tempertures (friction) of 600-1,250 degrees centigrade. - 107 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 176. F.Lows of Physically Different Gases Past and Through a Porous Sheet "Study of the Laminar Boundary Layer on a Porous Sheet With Heat and Mass Transfer Taken Into Account," by V. S. Avduye? vskiy and Ye. I. Obroskova, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleni e Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Machinos- troyeniye, No i., Jul Aug 60, pp 25-34 A ritudy is made of the laminar boundary layer on a porous flat sheet around which a compressible gas flows and through which a second gas is forced with physical properties differnt from those of the main flow. In the treatment of the basic differential equations, the expression for the diffuse flow, neglecting thermal diffusion, is taken from Hirschfelder and Curtis (Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids) John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., 1955).- 177. Atomization of Liquid Jet in Gas Flow "On the Influence of the Atomization of a Liquid Jet, Introduced Into a Gas Flow, on the Flow Parameters Behind the Mixing Zone," by S. D. Malyuzhenets, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni a Tekh- nicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Mashinostro eni e, No , Jul Aug 60, pp 19-2 The problem of the influence of the fineness of atomization of a liquid jet injected into a one-dimensional gas flow on the flow para- meters in the zone where the velocity of the gas and of the liquid pellets can be considered equalized'is solved by introducing into the equations of conservation of energy a term which defines the surface energy at the boundary between liquid and gas. To simplify the calcu- lations, the solution is obtained under the assumption that the velocity of the liquid in the Jet can be neglected. The results of the calcula- tions show that the breakdown of the jet into droplets has practically no influence on the flow in q estion, if the mean radius of the atomized particles is greater than 10- cm. 178. Heat-Exchange in the Two-Dimensional Problem of a Gas Lubricant "Computing the Heat-Exchaneein the Two-Dimensional Problem of a Gaseous Lubri.cant," by A. I. Snopov, Mordovskiy State University, Saransk; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni a Tekhnicheskikh Nauk Mekhanika i Mashinostro en- iye, No , Jul Aug 60., pp 35-40 The case of a two-dimensional motion of a viscous gas between two rotating coaxial cylinders was treated, by L. G. Stepanyants (Trudy LPI) Energomashinostroyeniye, Tekhnicheskaya Gidromekhanika, No 5, 1953) and -108- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 G. L. Grodzovslciy (PMM) Vol 19, No 1, 1955). This work presents a study of the motion of a viscous gas between two nocoaxial cylinders, assuming the gap between the cylinders to be small. The Reynolds equation (see N. A Slezkin, Iiv. AN SSSR, OTN, Mekhanika i Mashinostroyeniye) No 2, 19595 is used as a basis for the study, which provides an approximate solution of the problem for calculation is practice. 179. Capacitive Probe for Measuring Nonstationary Short-Lived Heat Flows "Capacitive Mehod of Measuring Nonstationary Short-Lived Heat Flows," by N. A. Anfimov and A. P. Shevtaov,,Moscow; Moscow, Izvesti a Akademii Nauk SSSR Otdeleni a Tekhnich- e, No , Jul Aug eskikh Nauk Mekhanika i Maohinostroyeniy 60, Pp 163-165 A description is given of a method of measuring nonstationary heat flows down to 10 microseconds duration by means of a capacitor with silver films as plates and a ceramic dielectric. The method is based on the determination of three factors: (1) the change of capacitance with time (determined by oscillograph); (2) the density and specific heat of the dielectric, and a beta-factor, a constant which characterizes the die- lectric material; and (3) the thickness of the dielectric (determined during the preparation of the device). The best dielectric for the purpose was prepared by the Laboratory of the Physics of Dielectrics of the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR. In samples containing 90.4 percent SrTi0 plus 9.6 percent Bi220 ? 3TiO2 and 96.5 percent S_rTi03 plus 3.5 percent Bi20 ? 3TiO2, the be;a-factors were 3.20 x 10-3 and 1.51 x,10-3,,respect ve].y. For the first sample, the density was 5.33 grams per cubic centimeter, and the specific heat, 0.130 plus-minus 0.005 calories per gram/degree. 180. Vortex Separation in Supersonic Flow Around Rectangular Wing "On the Lift of a Rectangular Wing in a Supersonic Flow With Vortex Separation," by M. D. Ustinov, Moscow; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdeleni a Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, Mekhanika i Mashinostroyeniye, No , Jul Aug 60) pp 174-175 A recent article by Mangler and Smith ("A Theory of the Flow Past a Slender Delta Wing With Leading Edge Separation," Proc. Roy. Soc.,?Ser A, Vol 251, 1959) treats the problem of the influence of vortex separation by a method analogous to that published earlier by the author (Izv. At SSSR, OTN, No 9, 1958). , -1o9- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 91 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 In the solution of formulas given hero, the value of the lift, In the presence of vortex separation, is about 85 percent Lhab given in r.iccor(!~j.ncc with linear theory. This discrepancy rouults from the substitution 61' a flow of an incompressible liquid in place of the actual flow of a gas. It is shown that the influence of the vortex separation in the flow regions considered is considerable and must-be taken into account. 181. Cojp;r of Hall's Tetrahedral Press Tested "Concerning Hall's Tetrahedral Press for Obtaining Pressures up to 100,000 Atmospheres at a Temperature up to 2,000?C," by L. F. Vereshchagin, V. A. Galaktinov, and V. V. Popov, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta, No 4, Jul/Aug 60, pp 106-109 An analysis is made of the construction and operation of a tetrahedral press which was built on the basis of Hall's design for investigating a method of obtaining pressure up to 100,000 atmospheres at a temperature up to 2,000?C. It was established that it was possible to maintain a pressure of up to 70,000 atmospheres in a substance at a temperature up to 2,0000C for a period of several hours. Hall's design was conceded to be sound, but certain dift4cluties were encountered in synchronizing the movement of the four hydraulic cylinders, in anvil binding, and in finding the proper anvil material which limited achieving pressures above 80,000 atmospheres. 182. General Plasticity Theory "Questions of the General Theory of Plasticity," by A. A. Il'yushin, Moscow; Moscow, Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekh- anika, Vol 24, No 3, May/Jun 60, pp 399-411 The article elaborates certain aspects of earlier work of the author regarding the connections between stresses anfl small deformations in com- plex media (Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 18, No 6, 1954, pp 6/+1- 666; Acts. Mechanics Sinica, Vol 3, No 3, 1959, pp 191-206). The discussion includes an isotropy postulate; isomorphism; certain consequences of the isotropy postulate; elastic-plastic properties in the case of loading along a broken straight line (with one point of discontinuity); deforma- tion anisotropy and expressions of elastic deformation through stress; and the surface of loading, secondary plastic deformation, and certain partial cases. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Nuclear Physics 183. Accelerated Relaxation "Relaxation of Elastic Stresses Under Neutron Irradiation," by S. T. Konobeyevskiy; Moscow, Atomnaya Ener iya, Vol 9, No 3, Sep 60, pp 194-200 The author discusses results of testing the effect of neutron irradia- tion on the relaxation of elastic stresses in flat springs from alloys of uranium and molybdenum and on the relaxation of microstresses which cause broadening of lines in the X-ray diagrams of rolled uranium. Theoretical and experimental data are compared. 184. Measurement of Neutron Age "Measurement of Neutron Age in Graphite by a Pulse Method," by Z. Dlougy, Institute of Nuclear Problems CzSAN, Prague; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiyaa, Vol, 9, No 3, Sep 60, pp 182-188 The method of a pulse source, located in a prism, was used for meas- urement of thermal neutrons from reactions d-d and d-t in graphite. The ratio of thermal neutron density to time was used for computing the effec- tive age of d-d neutrons Teff = 355 ? 9 cm`-, converted to graphite density) equal to 1.6 gr/cm3. The slowing down of d-t neutrons in graphite may be approximately expressed by means of two groups of neutrons: neutrons which underwent at slowing down only'one inelastic collision (T eff = 600 c m2) and neutrons which underwent several inelastic collisions ( Teff = 240 c:?-). For determining the age T the relative contribution of both groups was as- sumed at, respectively, 0.65 and 0.25. The third group consists of neutrons slowed down only by elastic collisions. These neutrons may, in first ap- proximation, he neglected because their contribution is small (about 0.1) and their age high. 185. Beam Storage "High Frequency Beam Storage in Cyclic Acc,;lerators," by A. N. Lebedev; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 3, Sep 60, pp 189-193 In the theory of high-frequency beam storage in accelerators with a constant magnetic field, the taking into account of perturbations of the stored beam by the consecutive acceleration cycles is of importance. The perturbation is basically reduced to an increase of energy scattering of the stored particles and to a variation of the mean energy. The general setting of the problem is presented and some particular solutions given. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 186. S chrotron Oscillations "Experimental Study of Electron Oscillations in Cyclic Accelerators, "by E, A. Kc.vvaieir, A. G.,Yerahrnr, sndO.F. X;,tLilrv, Moscow State University imeni Lomonosov; Moscow, Dok-, lac Ak it Nauk SS3R, Vol 13i., No 2, Sep 60, pp 314- 317 _r..._,._.~._ An experimental study of electron oscillations was carried out on the synchrotron'- C-60 of the Physics Institute imeni Lebedev of the Acad- emy of Sciences USSR. The synchrotron is of the race-track type with a maximum energy of 660 Mev. Its characteristic data are: R m 198 cm; Hmax = 11000 oersted; the magnetic field drop exponent n r 0.655; and acceleration time t - 0.6 sec. The pe6uliarity ok this synchrotron is its two-stage electron acceleration. Iii the first stage, the resonator accelerates the electrons up to 185 Mev. At 0.12-0?16 seconds after in- jection, this resonator is switched off and the electron bunch captured again into the synchrotron acceleration by a second resonator. The time interval between switching off and on of the resonators is called "re- capture." Experimental results, were compared with theoretical formulas. The oscillation attenuation was found to be faster than by the adiabatic law, ,but slower than by the exponential formula. 187. HunLsimne DDeveL.op IVew Sir t.ew.. for Measuring Diffusion Ien t at' Neutrons. "Measurement of the rsiffubion Length of neutrons," by Gyula Csikai and. Kalman rrede, Atomic Nucleus Research Institute of the 8ungarian Academy of Sciences, ebrecen; Budapest, Ma;'ar '4 a. zikai Yolroi rat, 'Vol 8, No 1, 1960, PP Authors developed a stationary system, using a small quantity of material, for determining the diffusion length cf hydrogen?~containing mediums., The serviceability of the system was controlled. by measurement of the- diffusion length of water. A result of L = 2.73,1- 0.08 centimeters was arrived at which agrees well with the results, of the most recent meas- urements, as well as the measurements made by the authors in a continuous medium. The system is especially suitable for investigating neutron dif- fusion parameters of organic moderators. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 183. Hun ariaus:TuviesttpatePolarized Positrons. "The Annihilation o1' Polarized Positrons in Magnetized Substances," by Irstvan Lovas, Central Physics Research Institute, Budapest; Budapest, Magyar F'izikai Fo1roirat, Vol 8, No 3, 1960 pp 187??197 ? As a result of measurements made after it was discovered that parity was not conserved, it was round that particles resulting from bet: decay are longitudinally polarized. Knowing this, the author decided to i;nves- tigate the annihilation of pooi.?crons in magnetized substances for two reasons: (a) to make a detailed. study of said longitudinal polarization of positrons; (b) to learn about the electrons' participating in the irradiation. The author first determined theoretically how the angle correlation function, of annihilating radiation depeiids on the tion of the positron and the electron. He then made a series of measure- ments using ferromagnetic iron (Armco), ferrimagnetic magnetite, and copper as the "annihilators." CPYRGHT CP YRGH'e concluded that: udinally magnetized; t of the positron pulse. 'tion. The rate of 3-d radius of the iron ion 189. Hungarian at Dubna Investigates ?he ~d. aba ; .c p~ F tic C^o:Li.ny~ Process ?`- "Positrons resulting from beta decay are longu- e direction of polarization points in the direction The 3-a electrons also participate in the irradia- ] ectrcn partic'.pation is about 5 percent. The S 1 A fit "The Adiabatic Magne 1ji.c Cooling Process, " by Istvan Kirschner, Joint 'Lnstitute, fti r Nuclear Research, 8, Dubna; Budapest,, I zikai Fol ro rat, vol. No 2, 19960,, pp Some modern nuclear physics and solid body phys?Lca1. measurements require the establishment of very low temperatures ;T _5 1".K ,l . The procedure for bringing about said temperatures invol.-re?s -tie adiabatic demagnetizing of paramagnetic salts having an initial temperature of about 1?K. We imtestigated the demagnetizing procedura, tt.:e s obtainable in the case of an Ideal paramagnetic; and the pr:,blem of entropy and energry changes. 1.13 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 190. Hungarians D eli rri Ahl Efficient Boron Counter "High BF3 Counters Suitable as Detectors for Neutron Diffractometers," by Janos Gordon and Pal Szabo, Solid (state) Physics laboratory, Central. Physics Research Institute, Rudapest; Budapest, Maur F.zi.kai Folyirat, Vol 8, No 3, 1960, pp 211-21.6 Authors constructed a Fowler-Tunnicliffe-type BF counter of the kind described in literature for use with neutron diffractdmeters. They also constructed counters of their own design. These differed from the Fowler- Tunnicliffe'type in that the cathode cylinder consisted of two metallically connected parts and that the glass window was placed at the point of con- tact of the two parts. The main part of the cathode cylinder was filled with BF3, while the "attachment" part communicated with free air. As a" result of this, there was practically no neutron absorption in the attach- ment. The main effect of the attachment was to make,the electrical field in the vicinity of the glass window .practie^lty the same as it was deeper within the tube. Thus, the ionization was ven in all parts of the main tube, and there was no appreciable counting '_oss. Measurements showed that while the two counters were equal in most respects, the counters designed by the authors were 1.6 times more effi- cient than the counter built according to the Fowler-Tunnicliffe specifi- cations. 191. Conference Held on !.Dr cA "Conference of High Energy Physics" (wisigned item); Magdeburg, .folksstimme, 19 Sep 60 The Sixth international working conference on high-energy physics was opened in Weimar on 18 September. The conference was attended by noted physicists from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, China, and East Germany. Organizer of the conference was the. Nuclear Physics Institute of the German AcaderrT of Sciences. - '.14 ... Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Solid State P si.cs 192. Luminescence of Alkali Halide _PHItals "Mechanism of Recombination Luminescence of Activated Alkali-Halide Crystals," by Ch. B. Lushchik, G. G. Liydya, I. V. Yaek, and E. S. Tiysler; Moscow, 0 tikes i Spelctrosk a, Vol 9, No 1, Jul 60, pp 70-76 Experimental results are discussed of recombination luminescence and photochemical transitions in alkali halide crystals, activated by the ions Ga+, Ge++, In+, Sn++, Ti+, and Pbq-f., at excitation by X-rays and photoexci- tation in the region of exiton and activator absorption bands and "zone- zone" bands. The role of electron, hole, exiton, and sensitized processes was analyzed in recombination phosphorescence of this class phosphors. 193. Luminescence of Zinc Oxide "Luminescence Properties cf Selenium Activated Zinc Oxide," by L. Ya. Mtirkorrskiy and N. S. Orshanskaya; Moscow, 2ptika i ktrosko2iya., Vol 9, No 1, Jul 60, pp 77-82 Data on luminescent proper-Lies of zinc oxide activated by Se are presented. It is shown that Se introduction into ZnC provokes the appearance in the spectrum of cathodic luminescence of the specif':.c band of wave length about 610 mu.. "r"e maximum brightness of this band may be observed in the case of a double zone luminopher containing 0?.2% Se and having, besides the Se zone, a zone of super stoichiometric zinc. 194. Luminescence of M?'Centers "Light Absorption.and Luminescence of M'-Center& in a Macyoscopic Approximation," by V. L. T,inetskiy; Moscow, Ogtika i Spektrosko tea, Vol 9, Nc 1, Jul 60, pp 64??69 Computations were carried out of absorption bands and luminescence for a model of M-centers in macroscopic approximation. The obtained results were used for attempting a macroscopic analysis of T2 centers in alkali halide crystals by means of the variational method.. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 195. Luminescence of Na htalenne "Influence of Impurities on the Luminescence of Crystalline Naphtalene," by M. T. Shpak and Ye. F. Sheka; Moscow, Optika i Spektroslt ya Vol 9, No 1, 3u1 60, pp 57.63 Studies of the effects of impurity concentrations and of the tempera- ture of the specimen on the luminescence spectrum of crystalline naphtalene were carried out. A series of test showed that molecules of beta and alpha methylnaphthal.enc, as well as of beta and alpha naphthol, form two types of emission centers in the case of imbedding into the crystalline lattice of naphtalene. 196. Radiation Receivers "Threshold of Sensitivity of Radiation Receivers,""by Ye. S. Ratner; Moscow, Optika i Spektroskopiya, Vol 9, No 1, Jul 60, pp l01.?-1.07 The relation of the threshold sensitivity of radiation receivers, determined by the fluctuations of efficiently absorbed quanta, to the value of the constant background and tc some characteristics of the system receive r??,ampl.ifier-.recorder was studied. 'Theoretical Physics 197. Hurl a2:--;,ns Evolve Stationar7 So1utio:rl to the Boltzmann Equation "The Relativistic Bcd.tzmann Equation and Its Stationary Solution," by Ivan Abonyi , Theoretical Physics Institute of the Lorand Eotves University of Science, Budapest; Budapest, Magyar ' I . z i k a i 1Ft i i rat, Vol 8, No-1, 1960, pp 13-20 The author supplemented the relativistic form given to the Boltzmann transport equation with a non?variable impact integral. The stationary solution of the equation formed in this way was determined., and from this, the relativistic form of the Maxwell distribution of velocity was arrived at. ?- 11.6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 198. Hungarian Physicist Relegates Antigravity to Comic Strips "Antigravity?" by Gyorgy Marx, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lorand Eottos University of Science, Budapest; Budapest, Fizikai Szemle, Vol 10, No 6, Jun 60, pp 163- CPYRGHTi65 "It is not surprising that when the hypothesis of antigravity was advanced in scientific circles, it created a great sensation. Some American aircraft manufactures even hastened to report successful progress in this field at their plants. By making a report on this interesting episode, we are complying with the expressed desires of our readers.... "Many researchers accept the hypothesis that the matter of the uni- verse consists equally of ordinary matter and antimatter. In his hypoth- esis of 1957, Bondi, the English astronomer, tried to explain why the anti- particles separated from the ordinary particles to distant parts of the universe as follows: 'Gravitational attraction exists between ordinary particles and also between antiparticles. However, gravitational repulsion exists between ordinary particles and antiparticles.' This is the hypoth- esis of antigravity.... It is an attractive hypothesis and promises the possibility of a logical explanation of one of the interesting problems of the universe.... "However, the physicists had some reservations. They did not know what to do with those neutral particles in which there is no distinction between ordinary particles and antiparticles. Light and the neutral pion field are manifestations of such matter. The great mass of these can,be neither positive nor negative. Can they be zero? Does the gravitational field neither repulse nor attract the photon? But we know that it is attracted: the light of the stars curves towards the sun! "The clarification of antigravity is very important from the theo- retical point of view because its existence would conflict with the strict proportionality of the heavy and inert mass on which the general theory of relativity is based.... However, this alone is not decisive proof that antigravity does not exist; it means merely that if its existence were proved, the geometric explanation of gravity would have to be discarded.... "Amidst.. all the speculation, L. I. Schiff came to the aid of the experimental physicists with his study, published in the bulletin of the American Academy of Science. In this, Schiff pointed out that as a result of the vacuum polarization of electric fields within an atom, a virtual cloud of electron-positron pairs is brought into being around every electrically charged particle; thus these electron-positron pairs also are involved in the mass and weight of the charged particles. If the weight of the positron were negative, this would spoil the proportionality of the heavy and inert mass at the seventh decimal place. However, Schiff - 117 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Appr5QFrtelease 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 cited measurements, made by Lorand Eotvos in 1911 according to which, in the case of aluminum-magnesium alloy, the proportionality of the two masses persisted to a degree 50 times more precise than this. Schiff concluded from the Eotvos experiment that the heavy mass of the positron had the same charge as the electron. The experiment of Eotvos disproves antigravity. "Those who believed in antigravity refused to be convinced. They argued that the measurements were made long ago, in a strange country, and were perhaps inaccurate. At the present time, Dicke of Princeton University is preparing to repeat the Eotvos experiment, changing only the shape of the weight which is to be suspended from the torsion scale. "When the question of antigravity arose in connection with anti- protons at the 1959 Kiev international conference on elementary particles, I spoke to Schiff. I told him that in 1935 in Budapest, Renner, a pupil of Eotvos, had repeated his master's experiment with an even higher degree of accuracy. He proved tha proportionality of the heavy, inert mass to an accuracy of 2.10-10 in the case of a copper-bismuth alloy. This means that not even a half-thousanrth of the antigravitational effect can exist. According to Schiff. the Americans are not acquainted with the results of the Renner experiment. However, Schiff himself considered them absolute proof." "Thus the dream vanished. Antigravity has left the pages of scien- tific periodicals and has joined perpetual motion and dreams of making gold as a curiosity in the history of science.... Scientists are still seriously debating the possibility of creating gravitational waves so inconceivably shallow that their effects are still undemonstrable today. But antigravity,' as a means of transportation based'on the possibility of reversing the gravitational force, has, for the time being, moved from the columns of the popular journals to those of the comic sheets, - 11.8 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 IX. MISCELLANEOUS 199. Polish Academy Linked More Closely to National Economy "The Polish-Academy of Sciences as the Organizer of Scientific Work"; Budapest, Magyar Tudoma y, Vol LXVII, No 9, Sep 60j'pp 553-554 Dr Janusz Groszkowski, professor, Vice-President of the Polish Academy of Sciences, gave the editors of Magyar Tudomany the following information about the recently enacted Polish Se,jm law dealing with the role and tasks of the academy. As a result of the new law, the position of the academy will be greatly strengthened and more clearly defined. It will act as the rallying institution, of scientists, the planner and coordinator of scientific tasks, and the supreme organ of the research institutes. The academy will now draw up and submit a national research plan to the government. It will coordinate this research and exercise control over the implementation of the plan. Since the academy is to become an advisory body to the government, it will work much more closely than hitherto with certain government authorities and ministries. This cooperation will take place at the scientific committee level. These committees were formerly chiefly scientific in character, but will now become the organs for plan- preparation and research coordination. Consequently, representatives from other government bodies such as the State Planning Committee, the Economic Council, and the Technical Committee will serve on the scientific committees together with the scientists. The result of their work will be processed by the scientific research planning and coordinating center. The final selection of the most vital problems from among the proposals submitted will be made by the planning and coordinating committee of the academy, which will submit its motion to the Presidium of the academy. Finally, the Presidium will transmit its recommendations to the government. The planning and coordinating committee will be made up of representatives'from the Ministry of Higher ? Education, the State Planning Committee, the Technical Council, and other ministries. According to the new law, the planning and coordinating function of the academy now extends to institutes which are not part of the academy. However, this does not mean that the academy will take over responisbility for the activity of institutes operating under the jurisdiction of the ministries. The ministries will retain jurisdiction over their own insti- tutions despite the fact that the academy will coordinate some of their research work, given them assistance and advice and, when necessary, re- organize the research so that work will progress more rapidly and efficiently. - 119 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 The fact that scientific research is being put at the service of the nation's current needs will not jeopardize the development of basic re- search: Over 70 percent of the research conducted by the institutions of the academy will be basic' research; on the other hand, research con- ducted by institutions under the authority of the various ministries is to be 70 percent applied research and 30 percent basic. The: type of research conducted by institutions of higher education will depend on the nature of the educational establishment concerned. Research topics which are directly connected with economic needs as set forth in the economic plan are to be incorporated in the 1961-1965 national plan. At the present time, research recommendations related to the state plan deal with 100 problems. Half of them belong in the field of exact and technical sciences. These research topics account for 30 percent of the research incorporated in the state plan. They will be treated as priority topics, centrally coordinated, and all phases of the research work are to be under central control. Concentration on selected research topics will stimulate research in closely related fields: work on radioactive isotopes will promote geology, agriculture, and archeology; etc. 200. Hungarian Academy Revises Award System "From the'Life of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences"; Budapest, Magyar Tudomany, Vol LXV1I, No 9, Sep 60, p 551 At its 27 May 1960 meeting, the Presidium of, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences modified the academy's system of awards. In the future, the academy will award prizes in the following four instances: Prizes may be awarded to scientific workers who achieve outstanding results in the solution of some important scientific theme which is part of the plan at their place of employment. By awarding prizes, the academy intends to promote the completion of scientific work the solution of which the academy considers important, although said work does not fall within the scope of the plans of institutes and institutions receiving special support. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100670001-0 A Presidium award may be granted to persona who perform outstanding scientific organizational or administrative work within or without the central organs and institutions of the academy, provided said work is in the interest of the realization of the goals of the academy. A small portion of this award may be set aside to reward achievements which, although significant, do not come up to the standard for the full Presidium award. The Presidium of the academy may award annually a gold medal and a ? cash prize of 15,000 forints to regular and corresponding members of the academy who, in general, are not eligible for any of the aforelisted prizes. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001000MI?-61198