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t RrM i3i8-T UNCLAS I F r ED-SC ENT i F I C I NFORMAT 1 N s aanrt?ed - Approved ror rteiease : ciH-KUNssz-uu141 K"(nj* 1 or, DECEMBER 1960 . 1 ?F. 2 apitlzea - Approvea i-or Kelease : C:IA-KUIIt$Z-UU141 KUUU1 UUbt UUU1-J CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY &j*U1LJ i'1'lt'1C; INFORMATION REPORT 2 December 1960 Distributed Only By U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES WASHINGTON 25, D.C. Issued semi-monthly. Annual subscription $28.00 ($4 additional for . ~mmrrr;, f,?Cf ~r~lr,., j ~,~ foreign mailing). Single copy $2.75. J025 sox Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 ~,~ . Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget July 31, 1958. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information extracted from recently received publications of the USSR and Eastern Europe. The information selected is intended to indicate current scientific developments and activities and is dis- seminated as an aid to research in the United States. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION REPORT Table of Contents P_ I. Biology 1 Biochemistry Botany Microbiology Radiobiology II. Chemistry Fuels and Propellants Geochemistry Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials= Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Radiation Chemistry Radiochemistry III. Electronics Communications Instruments and Equipment Materials Wave Propagation IV. Engineering Aeronaut-Leal Engineering Atomic Power Computers and Automatic Control Engineering Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering 13 13 17 20 31 J3 31f ?y 39 1+o 43 47 40 1+g 49 50 51 52 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Pair Approximation Theory Differential Equations Numerical Analysis Probability Series Miscellaneous Behavioral Science Cardiovascular Diseases Epidemiology Geriatrics Hematology Immunology and Therapy Oncology Pharmacology Physiology Radiology Miscellaneous VII. Metallurgy VIII. Physics Magnetohydrodynamics Nuclear Physics Solid State Physics 54 54 54 57 58 59 59 6o 90 90 98 99 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 I. BIOLOGY Biochemistry 1. Enzyme Activity of Ribonuclease as Related to Structural Changes Due to the Effect of Ultrasound Waves "The Effect of UP__trasound Waves on Ribonuclease," by I. Ye. El'piner and 0. M. Zorina, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Biof'izika, Vol 5,, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 573-578 The purpose of the research described was to investigate the exist- ence of any correlations between the enzymatic properties of a protein and the characteristics of its structure. Since ribonuclease is an en-, zyme and a much-studied protein compound, it was selected for these stud- ies. On the basis of their research, the authors present the following conclusions. 1. Ribonuclease which has been subjected to ultrasound treatment (10 volts/cm2) does not lose its enzymatic activity. No loss of activity was observed following ultrasound treatment of the enzyme either in the presence of hydrogen or in the presence of oxygen. 2. However, the ultrasound treatment of ri.bonuclease is accompanied by significant chemical transformations in the protein molecule, which is evidenced by the separation of low-molecular peptides or, amino acid resi- dues from the protein molecule. Furthermore, in the ribonuclease which was subjected to ultrasound treatment in the presence of o..ygan solutions, a decrease in the maximum absorption band in the ultrwriolet spectrum was noted. 3. With regard to ribonuclease which was subjected' to ultrasound treatment in the presence of hydrogen, as increase in the molecular weight of the enzyme (on an average of O_50 percent) was noted wider the swine conditions. I+. An analysis of the above-mentioned phenomenon makes it possible to consider that the breakdown of the cyclic amino acid residues of the ribonuclease molecule does not lead to a decrease of its enzymatic actin" ity, as is the case with the proteolytic enzymes. Ultrasound action is not reflected by the enzymatic activity of ribonuclease or by the low- molecular fragments of peptides or of amino acids which separate from the molecule. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 2. DNA Studies on Cell Surfaces "A Change in the Surface Properties of Irradiated Desoxyribo- nucleoprotein and Desoxyribonucleic Acid," by A. M. Tongar and A. G. Pasynskiy, Institute of Biochemistry imeni, A. N. Bakh; Moscow, Biofizika, Vol 5, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 517-522 Nucleic acids and nucleoproteins, as well as lipoproteins, play a significant role in various intracellular structures, and. in the forma- tion of molecular surface boundaries In the protoplasm. These compounds, especially the nucleic acids, decompose wider the effect of irradiation, as a result of which chemical and structural changes occur in the prop- erties of nucleic acids and nucleoproteins, and in various internal sur- faces of the cell boundary. With these facts in mind, the authors studied the capacity of desoxyribonucleoprotein (D.NP) and desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to form monolayers and the effect of x-irradiation on the properties of these compounds in the monolayers. The authors present the following conclusions. 1. Monolayers of DNA were prepared (by the method of spreading solid granules, and monolayers of DNP were prepared (by the method of spreading from solutions) on a 38% aqueous solution of (NH02SO~4. It was shown that the monolayers formed from the preparations of various molecular weights were 20-23 A? thick, which indicates that the molecules in the monolayers are arranged horizontali,y. 2. Curves representing pressure versus area of the monolayers which were obtained from natural preparations and from preparations which were destroyed by x-irradiation, (doses ranging from :.OT -106 r), coincide quite closely, which is characteristic of an essentially identical density of filling of the monolayers by convolutions of the polynucleotide chin, or by large fragments of this chain at a given lateral pressure. Botagy 3. A Review of the Physiological Role of Micronutrients in Plar.Ts "The Physiological Role of Micronutrients in Plants," by M. Ya. Shkol'nik, Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvesti~a, Akademii Nauk SSS'~-Se:r. a biology - cheskaya, No 5, Sep/Oct pp i-. 7C _ This article i'eviews the recent studies of the physiological role of micronutrients in plants. Particular attention is paid to metal-contrin- ing enzymes, as well as to the effect of micro-nutrients in different en- zyme systems. A more detailed discussion is given on some recent researches Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 on micronutrient participation in flavoprotein catalysis. In view of new findings concerning organometallic compounds and metal-containing enzymes a new approach to the problem of ion antagonism is suggested. The reader is referred to various data on the relationship between micronutrients and other chemical systems regulating vital functions, such as growth- promoting substances and vitamins. A detailed review is presented of micronutrient action in oxidation-reduction processes. The paper discusses the role of micronutrients (especially that of Mn) in photosynthesis %nd in chlorophyll synthesis as well as in carbo- hydrate, phosphorus and protein metabolism and in transfer of organic ? substances. Much attention is paid to the effects on micronutrients of unfavourable environmental conditions and diseases. The problem of micro- nutrient interactions in metabolism and of absorption and translocation in plants is discussed. 4. Tsnnin-Bearing Plants "High Mountain Plantations of Tannin-Bearing Plants," C PYRG nsigned Article); Alma-Ata, Kazakhstansk ya Pravda, May 60, p 4 "Semipalatinsk. A sovkhoz for the cultivation of tannin-bearing plants, the first of its kind in the country, was organized in the Dzhungarskiy Alatau Mountains. The sovkhoz will cultivate snakeweed, a tannin-bearing plant which grows in a wild state on the mountain plateaus, at an altitude of 1.5 to 2 kilometers. The roots of the plant weigh as much as 16 kilograms and contain up to 25 percent of tannin substances. The Kazakhstan hootanists developed a method whereby the wild plant can be regularly cultivated; they also developed a method of processing the plant. The high-mountain snakeweed cultivating sovkhoz is subordinate to the Semi- palatinsk sovnarkhoz which is constructing a processing plant which will be the largest in the country (the tannin extract is used by the leather industry). By the time the plant is completed, about 2,500 thousand hectares of land will be seeded in snakeweed." 5. Report of Russian Botanist's Trip to China "Chinese Botanical Gardens," by M. V. Kul'tiasov; Moscow, Izvesti a Akademii Nauk SSSR-Seri a Biolo icheska a, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 798-807 The author has reported on his visits to botanical, gardens in China which took place from 23 Decemb ' 1958 to 7 February 1959. The article presents a detailed account of his visits to six of the eight existing botanical gardens in China. The author who made the visit according to Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 a plan for scientific cooperation between the Academy of Sciences USSR and the Academy of Sciences of the People's Republic of China, was ac- companied by a former otudent, Li Sheng-ch'cng, now a scientific assist- ant of the Peking Botanical Garden. Microbioloa PYRGHT 6. Plague and Pseudotube: cuios,.s Antigens Studied "A Study of Antigens of Plague and Pseudotuberculosis Bacteria by the Method of Precipitation in Agar," by S. I. Zaplatina, Tr. Astraithansk. Protivochumn. St., (Works of the Astrakhan Anti-Plague Station, No 2,2, 1957 (1958), pp 100-108 `From Referstivn~ry Zhurnal Biologiya, No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract No 74970, by M. Krylova) "Protein fractions A, B. and C of both microorganisms were investi- gated in the diffusion precipitation reaction performed according to a ?nodified Oakley and Fulthorpe method. Ring precipitation appeared most rapidly in 0.3% agar (on the second day); dilution of the antigens pro- longed the time of appearance of the precipitation zone. The complexity of antigenic structure of the plague and pseudotuberculosis microorganisms was demonstrated. The A fractions of both pathogen species were found to be strictly specific. The B and C fractions had a complex structure and had antigens common to both species. Nonspecific antigens were not ob- served." 7. Organism Resembling P. pestis Isolated From Rodents "The Question of Pestiform Cultures Isolated From the Small Suslik (Preliminary Report)," by 1. M. Vorona, Tr. Astrakhansk. Protivochumn. St. (Works of the Astra- khan Anti-Plague Station , No 2, 1957 (1958), pp 163- 177 (From Referativnyy Zhurnal Biolc, t a, No 16, 25 Aug CPYRGHT 60, Abstract No 7 ?9 ,8 by A. Shapiro) "Culture 1843, isolate" from a small suslik, wes examined. Morpho- logically and biochemically it differed slightly from Pasteurella pestis and P. pseudotuberculosis rodentium. It had common antigens with P. pestis No 17 and P. pseudotuberculosis No 6, but not with Escherichia coli communis. The culture was found to be pathogenic for white mice (subcutaneous and int rape ri toneal administration), weakly pathogenic for guinea pigs (subcutaneous and intraperitoneal introduction), and completely Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 ` I &IITApproved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 cQM nonpathogenic for gerbils (subcutaneous introduction). The phage of' this culture lysed slightly virulent P. pestis cultures No 1 and No 17, and virulent culture No 708. The author suggests that the isolation of culture No 1843 is the result of a P. pestis mutation in vivo." 8. Effects of Various Factors on Pasteurella "The Resistance of the Pasteurellosis Pathogen to Certain Abiotic and Biotic Factors," by I. A. Dari'shev, Tr. Sara- tovsk. Zoovet. In-ta (Works of the Saratov Zooveterinary Institute), No 7, 1958, pp 72-76 (From Referativnyy Zhurnal C PYRG HT Biologiya, no 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract No 7 9 0, by V. Roykhel') "The viability of Pasteurella was studied in 1% and 3% solutions of carbolic acid., coal-tar creolin, lysol, NaOH, KOH, formalin, a 5% solu- tion of a sulfur-carbolic mixture, and a clarified solution of calcium hypochlorite. It was shown that Pasteurella is not very resistant to the action of disinfectants. Sunlight ki11t:c1 Pasteurella within one to 2 hours; the organisms remained viable for 12-24 hou:'s in diffused light. Pasteurella survived for 3-15 days during drying under conditions of weak or insufficient illumination at a warm time of year. Viability was 12 days in liquid manure, feces, soil, combined fodder, grain, decomposed hay, and water under sterile and unsterile conditions. The &uthor suggests that the feeble resistance of Pasteurella to environmental factors is a species characteristic and does not depend on the individual character- istics of the different strains." 9. Filterable Forms of Bacteria Studied "The Role of Filterable Forms in the Modifiability of Bacteria," by Ye. I. Zhitova, Nasledstvennost' i Izmen- chivost' Rasteniy, Zh.ivotnykh i Mikroorganizmov (Hered- ity and Modifiability of Plants, Animals and Microor- ganisms), 1959, pp 294-298 (From Referativnyy Zhurnal l CPYRG ogiya. No 18, 25 Sep 60, Abstract No d4776, by G. "The author calls filterable forms a special form of existence of bacteria as a result of their natural or a;-tificial decomposition. Upon regeneration, filterable forms develop colonies: (1) by an incomplete process of development, which is distinguished by its morphology and by increased requirements for the composition of culture media; (2) by a complete process of development, which differs in some respects from the original. The first were repeatedly isolated by the author by seeding filtrates of aerated cultures on serum, yolk, and blood media, and media containing 'fodder.' They did not grow at all or did not grow very well Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPSla~keTd - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 on simple media, and grow well on media containing serum albumin or yeast autolysates. Morphological, cultural and antigenic characteristics of similar cultures of different enteric bacteria are presented. It is noted that common characteristics of weakly growing cultures regenerated from filterable forms do not depend on their species; this, in the author's opinion, is a manifestation of a common mechanism of formation. The author considers that in the course of the formation of filterable forms, more new enzyme systems which determine the species distinctions are injured, phylogune tic ally, and the systems which determine the vitally important functions are preserved. In serial passages of these cultures, on culture media and in the animal organism, they either die, recover the character- istics of the initial species, or form altered strains. Cultures with altered properties, seldom typical or identical with the initial proper- ties, are frequently isolated from filtrates. The author subdivides the altered cultures into: (1) those differing from the initial cultures in antigenic properties; (2) cultures with decreased biochemical activity and inactive with respect to carbohydrate and alcohol; () pigment-forming cultures, which are distinguished by different properties. The nature of changes in enzymatic manifestations are approximately identical in differ- ent species of enteric bacteria. Antigenic complexes which differ from the original species are formed in the altered cultures; the antigenic species distinctions are also maintained to a known extent. As a rule, they are not virulent, not toxic, their properties are stable, and re- versal of characteristics of the original species occurs only in isolated cases. In the author's opinion, the general direction of the course of mutation after regeneration of filterable forms is expressed by saprophy- tization. Filterable forms are the initial material for the formation of cultures with altered properties, but the process of their regeneration is one of the most mechanisms of mutation." 10. Spirochetes Examined Under Electron Micros ope "The Structure of Pathogenic Spirochetes Under the Electron Microscope," by A. P. Shcheu].ov, Izv. ANUzSSR, Ser. Med (Bul- letin of the Academy of Sciences Uzbek SSR, Medicine Series), No 5, 1959, pp 79-86 (From Referativn Zhurnal Bioio%i a, CPYRGH1o 18, 25 Sep 60, Abstract No 749) "This article is a review of Soviet and foreign literature on elec- tron microscopy of C.ristispira, Treponema, Borrelia and .Z~eptospira begin- ning in 1945." Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Radiobiology 11. Chemical Protection from Radiation "Protective Action of Unithiol in Radiation Affections in Experiments on Rats and Rabbits," by S. Ya. Arbuzov and V. P. Korotkova; Yezhegodnik Tr_In-ta Eksperim. Med. AMN SSSR) (Yearboolc Works of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR)], 1958, L., 1959, 433-437 (from Referativn Zhurnal-Biologiya, No 16, CPYRg 60, Abstract No 7920, by K. Dubinina} Unithiol intraperitoneally administered to rats in doses of 200 to 400 milligrams per kilogram body weight half an hour before irradiation (1000 to 1200 r) increases the resistance of the animals to the effects of radiation this is manifested in the increase in the percentage of survival) an increase in the average life-span of the animals, and the more rapid recovery from the injuries caused by irradiation. Unithiol administered to rabbits (50 to 100 milligrams per kilogram body weight) one half hour before irradiation (1000r) increases the survival rate of the animals by 20 percent over that of the control animals. The pro- tective action of unithiol and its doses vary depending on the species of the animals." 12. Pre- and Post-Irradiation Use of Bicillin Effective Against I.adia- tion Sickness "Bicillin in Different Variations of Complex Therapy and Prophylaxis of Acute Radiation Sickness in Dogs," by N. V. Rayev . and I. N. Usacheva.; Moscow, Patologicheskaya Fiziolo i a i EkS rimer_tal?naya Terapiya, Vol 4, No 4, Jul Aug 60, p 74+ Bicillin was administered intramuscularly (600,000 units) in com- bination with streptomyscin and chlortetracycline to dogs prior to and after their irradiation (by 600 r from x-rays and 300, 400, and 600 r from gamma-rays) for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. A certain degree of positive action due to bicillin was evident since the life span of the treated animals was prolonged by 2.5 days, and the symptoms of acute radiation sickness were less marked in the treated ani- mals as compared with the control animals. / Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 13. The Use of Ciin in the Therapy of Radiation Sickness "Ciin and its Combination with Antibiotics in Acute Radiation Sickness in Mice," by Z. V. Yermol'yeva, G. Ye. Vaisberg, N. I. Givental?, and T. N. Likina, Laboratory of New Antibiotics with the Chair of Micro- biology, Central Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians; Moscow, Antibiotiki, Vol 5, No 4,Tuly- Aug 60, pp 37-41 Albino mice were used in the experiments which were carried out to determine the effectiveness of ciin, a polysaccharide of bacterial origin, when used in combination with antibiotics for the therapy of radiation sickness. Ciin was administered to the animals intraperitoneally in doses of 300 gamma per mouse of a 0.2 milliliters of a physiological salt solu- tion. Control mice were administered only the physiological salt solution. Within 18 to 24 hours the animals were expose to X-ray irradiation in doses of 450 to 600 r, Ciin in combination with strepotmycin and bicillin was administered to some of the animals after the irradiation. The experiments established that a single administration of ciin sharply reduced mortality of the animals from radiation sickness; a single administration of ciin in combination with streptomycin and bicillin 24 hours before the irradia- tion almost completely prevented the death of the irradiated animals. It is assumed that the effectiveness of ciin is due to its capacity to increase the resistance of the organism to a number of harmful effects caused by radiation. 14. Aminoethylisothiuronium Effect on the Organism "The Protective Action of Aminoethylisothiuronium Against Ionizing Radiation," by I. Belokonskiy, Voyen-Med. Delo (Bulgaria), 1959, 14, No 3, 13-17 (from ferativnyy Zhurnal-Biolo i a, No 18, 25 Sept CPYRGHT6o, Abstract No 88881 by S. Stefanov) "Experiments which were carried out on mice, rats, and guinea pigs established that aminoethylisothiuronium (I) (intraperitoneally and sub- cutaneously 10 to 30 minutes, and by mouth two hours before irradiation) prevented the death of 30 to 60 percent of the animals (100 percent mortality of the control animals) and increased the average life-span of the animals. The effective doses of I are considerably smaller than the toxic doses. The application of I 5 minutes before the irradiation pro- duced no effect." Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 15. Plasma and Serum Protect, Erythrocytes Against Radiation Damages "Changes of Erythrocyte Radiosensitivity," by A. M. ICuzin and K. S. Trincher, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Biofizilca, Vol 5, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 533-538 A method of detecting radiation damage to erythrocytes suspended in physiological solution gamma-irradiated by 500 r from radiocobalt has been developed. The method is based on the following formula: 1 (5oo)(i.6 x 1012) (50 x 10-8) (200 x 10-8 ).130 radicals; where 500 r I. the irradiation dose, 1.6 x 1012 is the number of ionizations in aneml of water, 50x 10-8 cm is the free path of a radical in the water, and 200 x 10-8 cm is the surface area of an erythrocyte. The various protein molecules of blood plasma exert a protective effect against penetrating radiation action on "structured" protein com- plexes of the surface layer of erythrocytes. This protective action is evident following the action of irradiation doses as high as 3,000 r. A hypothesis is expressed by the authors on the radical mechanism of radiation damage to the cell surface which has been irradiated by very low doses of penetrating radiations. Results of these studies,in- dicate that erythrocytes under normal conditions are highly radio-resistant cells as a result of the protective effect of blood plasma. However, fol- lowing a sharp decrease of the blood serum, the in vitro erythrocytes diluted by a factor of 200 beconn very radio-sensitive, and radiation in- jury becomes evident after irrad:i.ation by 500 r. 16. An Analysis of the Action of Agents Which Modify Radiosensitivity An Analysis of the Action of Fundamental Physical Factors Which Change Radio sensitivity," by L. Kh. Eydus and Ye. E. Ganassi, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sci- ences USSR; Moscow, Biofizilca, Vol 5, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 523-532 Taking into consideration various factors which modify radiosensiti- vity, the authors attempt to compare the results of experiments concern- ing the irradiation of biological objects in vivo and in vitro with data obtained by using the method of electron paramagnetic resonance; they present the following conclusions. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Following irradiation, unpaired electrons which are subject to the action of a aeries of agents can be detected and may remain for long periods in macromolecules and in biological objects. Later, the fate of these unpaired electrons differs. In the presence of sufficient moisture, a number of them disappear and thus cause no damage. The protective role of water is linked to this fact. The effect of oxygen on a second part of these electrons causes in- jury ('oxygen effect") but only when water is present. Injury by heat ("thermal" sequelae) is linked to the action exerted on the third part of the unpaired electrons, and the injury resulting therefrom is possible only in the presence of water. However, the pro- tective role of heat which has been observed in a number of experiments depends on a change in the interrelationship of the action of various agents which modify the damage. The fact that the injurious action of all three agents discussed by the authors, i. e., heat, oxygen and nitrogen oxides, is brought about only through the participation of water, deserves attention. In the authors' experiments with protein solutions, the disappearance of the unpaired electrons under the effect of the modifying agents was accompanied by an irreversible loss of enzyme activity. Since the zone of localization of the unpaired electrons evidently is at some distance from the enzyme centers under normal conditions, these processes must involve migration of a charge and energy. The presence of water is as essential for this as is the action of the modifying agents themselves. It should be considered that water may play a double role in this case, i. e., the role of a substance through which migration occurs, and also the role of a factor which stabilizes the structure of the macro-molecules and thereby creates the possibility of migration through this structure. A consideration of the physical mechanisms of the action exerted by agents which modify radiation injury does not enter into the scope of the present review. The authors point out that one should consider possible mechanisms of the action of modifying agents on the unpaired electrons which are preserved in the macromolecules, and on the protein structure itself in connection with the affect of the water which enters into the hydration of this structure. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 17. The Effect of Radioactive Phosphorus On Aseptic Inflammations Caused by Burns "The Second Azerbaydzhan SSR Conference On the Application of Radioactive Isotopes and Nuclear Radiation" by A. M. Maznedov; Moscow, Atomnaya Ener ,iya, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, CPYRGHp 338-339. "At the Sector of Physiology, Academy of Sciences Azerbaydzhan SSR, the effects of a phosphorus isotope on the course and nature of aseptic inflammations were investigated. It was found that the radioactive phosphorus isotope p32, when introduced 20 hrs before and 2 hrs after inflication of a burn trauma, changes in a significant manner the course of the inflammation process. It was established that under the action X-rays the strength and character of interoreceptive exchange reflexes is significantly altered. Whereas irradiated animals do not exhibit any noticeable changes in the composition of the blood (as far as the sugar level is concerned), significant changes can be detected in the character of the interoreceptive exchange reflexes. This finding is of practical importance." 18. Excretion of Radioactive Substances from the Organism "Methods of the Excretion of Radioactive Sulfur of Mercamine From the Organism of Irradiated and Non- irradiated Animals," by S. Ya. Arbuzov, V. A. Bazanov, I. Ya. Nekachalova, V. N. Patalova, V. V. Petelina, and E. K. Shamova; Yezhegodnik (Tr. In-ta Eksperim. Med. AMN SSSR) [Yearbook (Works of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR)], for 1958, L., 1959, 419-424 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal-Biolo iya, No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract No 79209, CPYRGHty K. Dubinina) "A solution of mercamine S35 (100 milligrams of mercamine with an activity of 100 microcuries) was intraperitoneally administered to con- trol and experimental rats (60) in a dose of 2.5 milligrams per kilogram body weight. Half an hour later the animals (30) were irradiated with 1000 r, and the activity of S35 in the urine' and feces was determined. During the first 24-hour period the s35 was excreted mainly with the urine; a n increase of the excretion of S35 with the feces was noted dur- ing the second 24-hour period. Less s35 was excreted by the experimental animals than the control animals; diuresis decreased. Mercamine increased the excretion of ester-sulfur compounds with the urine, a fact, which apparently points to the intensification of the detoxication process." Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 19. Electrical Conductivity Correlated With Autolysis in Hepatic Tissue Surviving Irradiation "A Study of the Electrical Conductivity and Autolysis of the Hepatic Tissue of Irradiated Animals," by Ye. V. Burlakova and I, M. Parkhomenko, Biology-Soil Faculty of the Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov; Moscow, Biofizika, Vol 5, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 55P?557 The purpose of the research described was to correlate the autoly-tic processes in the hepatic tissue of irradiated animals with the changes occurring in its electrical parameters. The change of high-frequency and low-frequency (0.2,"2, 10, 50 and 100 kc) and 1 megacycle) resistance values and the dispersion of resist- ance in the hepatic tissue irradiated in vitro by gamma-rays from cobalt, and also the change in the resistance value and in the autolytic processes of the surviving hepatic tissue of mice subjected to in vivo gamma- irradiation from radiocobalt were studied. 1. It was established that, following gamma-irradiation from radio- cobalt by doses of 401000 and 50,000 r, there is an increase in the values of dispersion of resistance and of low-frequency and high-frequency resist- ance in the surviving hepatic tissue of rats. 2. It was evident that the autolytic processes (determined from amino nitrogen) in the surviving hepatic tissue of mice subjected to gamma-irradiation from radiocobalt by doses of 800-1,000 r were inten- sified. 3. A direct correlation between the intensification of the autolytic processes in the surviving hepatic tissue of the irradiated mice and the increase in the value of low-frequency resistance of the hepatic tissue was established. The value of the correlation ratio of these two processes was 0.88 for the first hour, 0.86 for the second hour, and 0.81 for the third hour. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 II. CHEMISTRY Fuels and Propellants Dome reroxIae Radicals "A Semiempirical Method for Calculating the Heats of Formation of Hydroperoxides and the Conjugation Energies of Some Peroxide Radicals," by G? I. Likhtenshteyn, A. L. Buchachenko, and Vo I. Vedeneyev, Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 133, No 5, 11 Aug 60, pp 1102-1104 In the oxidation of a great number of organic substances in the gase- ous, liquid, and solid phases, hydroperoxides play an important role as chain-branching agents. To calculate the energy of reactions in which hydroperoxides participate, it is necessary to have data on the heats of formation of these compounds. A satisfactory method for calculating these heats of formation was not available hitherto. A semiempirical method for this purpose is proposed. By using this method, it was estab- lished that with the increase of the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the growth of the degree of branching, QR0-OH increases in a regular manner from 32 kilocalories for CH300H to 39 kilocalories for tert-C5Hll OOH. An equation is derived which makes it possible to calculate the conjugation energy of peroxide radicals. This equation was used to calculate the conjugation energy of the radical that forms after irradia- tion of teflon with gamma-rays in the presence of oxygen. By using this equation, it was possible to analyze the structure of a number of poly- oxygen compounds. Specifically, it was established that the true structure of ozone corresponds neither to a biradical nor to a three-membered ring. 21. Initiating Effect of Nitrosyl Chloride in Oxidations "The Initiating Effect of Nitrosyl Chloride in the Oxidation of Propane," by Z. K. Mayzus and N. M. Emanuel', Institute of Chemi- cal Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 133, No 3, 21 Jul 60, pp 627-629 Controlled oxidation of propane 1.1 the presence of nitrosyl chloride was investigated. It was found that addition of NOC1 -:~Jt only increases the rates of formation of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in comparison with the rates at which these products are formed in the presence of nitrogen dioxide or in an oxidation that has not been initiated by a gaseous catalyst, - 13 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 but also raises the maximum concentrations of these two substances? Further- more, the catalytic action of nitrosyl chloride is effective in lowering the temperature of spontaneous ignition of mixtures of propane with oxygen, When the oxidation of propane 19 catalyzed by nitrosyl chloride or nitrogen dioxide, the principal nitrogen-containing compound that is formed during the oxidation is nitropropane, Practically all of the nitrogen contained in the nitrosyl chloride is transferred into nitropropane. With equal quantities of NOC1 and NO2 added, the rate of formation of nitropropane is greater in the reaction catalyzed by NOC1. From the fact that the maximum yields of nitropropane in the presence of NOC1 and N02 are the same, one may draw some conclusions in regard to the mechanism of the action of NOC1. If the catalytic effect were due solely to the action of N02 formed from NOC1, as has been assumed for the nitrosyl chloride-sensitized reaction of hydrogen with oxygen, the action of NOC1 and N02 must be the same in the systems under consideration. Actually the catalytic effect of NOC1 is much greater than that of equivalent quantities of N02, Consequently, in catalysis with NOC1, an important role in the initiation of oxidation chaina must be played by Cl atoms formed as a result of the decomposition of nitrosyl chloride, 22. Conversion of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas and Production of Hydrogen From Natural Gas "Conversion of Natural Gas With Water Vapor on Iron-Nickel Catalysts," by Yu. I. Ibragimov, N. P. Grebenshchikova, Ya, Yu. Aliyev, and S. A. Sigov, Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Uzbek SSR; Tashkent, Uzbekskiy Khimicheskiy Zhurnl, No 4, Aug 60, pp 49-54 A very extensive supply of raw material is available in the form of natural gas at the Bukhara Oblast? of the Uzbek SSR. Conversion of solid or liquid fuel does not make it possible to produce at a low enough cost synthesis gas for the production of ammonia and organic synthesis. By converting the hydrocarbons of natural gas, the cost of synthesis gas can be reduced considerably. At present, natural gas in the USSR is converted principally by the catalytic method, Nickel is used as a catalyst in the process applied. Although nickel is sufficiently active when the gases do not contain sulfur, it is too easily poisoned (sometimes irreversibly) even by traces of sulfur compounds, For this reason, the development of new low-temperature, highly active, mechanically strong, sulfur-resistant, and cheap catalysts for the conversion of natural gas is of particular importance. Catalysts on the basis of iron appear especially promising from this standpoint, - 14 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 A. A. Baykov proposed as early as 1933 that iron ore be reduced directly with natural gas. However, no such process has been applied on a technical scale as yet. K. P. Lavrovskiy and A. L. Rozentalv developed a continuous process for the production of hydrogen by the reduction of iron ores by a fluidized solids method, using water gas and, later, natural gas (Trudy Institute Nefti AN SSSR, 8, 1956; p 134). In the opinion of Lavrovskiy and Rozental', the iron ore transfers oxygen taken from the' water during the oxidation stage, i.e., it functions as a chemical reagent. I. M. Artyukhov devised a novel method for the conversion of hydro- carbons on catalysts containing 15-50% of iron (Gazovaya Promyshlennostf, 5, 1958, pp 36-40). T. 0gawa and coworkers established that it is feasible to apply an iron oxide catalyst for the conversion of methane to synthesis gas (cf T. Ogawa, U. Matui, and H. Senco, Chemical Abstracts, Vol 33, 1939, P 3327; Vol 34, 1940, p 5627) In the work described at present.. Bukhara natural gas containing 95-97% of methane was converted together with water vapor in the tempera-' ture range of 600-900? on a catalyst consisting of the oxides of aluminum, iron, and chromium. It was found that this catalyst exhibits only a low activity in this type of process. Its activity could be increased con- siderably by adding nickel; it reached a maximum at a nickel content amounting to 10-15%. A method proposed for the heat treatment of the catalyst eliminated settling at the temperatures used in the experiments. No data on the poisoning of the catalyst due to the presence of sulfur compounds are given. 23. Thermodynamic Treatment of Experimental Data on Vapor Liquid Equilibrium in the System Oxygen A---- "Thermodynamic Treatment of Experimental Data on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the System Oxygen-Argon," by G. B. Narinskiy, Institute of Oxygen Machine Building; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 34, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1778-17$7 Experimental data on vapor-liquid equilibrium in the system oxygen- argon for the temperatures. 90.5, 100, 110, and 120?K (1) have been sub- jected to thermodynamic analysis with the objective of testing their validity. - 15 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 On the basis of the general Van-der-Waals equation, using the equation of state with the second virial coefficient in its precise form for the vapor phase, a relation has been derived between the total pressure and the composition of the equilibrium phases of liquid and vapor at constant temperature, The equation is of sufficient accuracy for tae pressures occurring in the experiments, The deviation of the experimental data from the equation has been determined both for the entire range of con- centrations and for individual regions, and it has been shown that the deviations fall within the limits of possible errors in the determination of pressures, temperatures, and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases. The activity coefficients of the solution components have been calculated, and it has been shown that the oxygen-argon system may be regarded as belonging to the class of regular solutions. 24, Investigation of the Separation of Nitrogen Helium Mixtures bar Diffusion Through Porous Membranes "Investigation of the Separation of Nitrogen-Helium Mixtures by Diffusion Through Porous Membranes," by M, G. Kaganer, All- Union Scientific Research Institute of Oxygen Machine Building; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskov Khimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2005-2012 The diffusion of three helium-nitre 'en mixtures containing 4-20% helium through porous partitions with po ) sizes of a few tenths of a micron has been investigated. The effect of the pressure in front and behind the partition, of the mean pressure, and of the fraction of the gas having passed the partition on the separation coefficient has been determined. The experimental data deviate markedly from the theoretical, The relation between the ratio of the theoretical and experimental values for the enrichment coefficient and the pressure difference has been found to be described by a straight line in the region from Oo5 to 3,0 kg/cm2. 25. Arrangement for Determining the Compressibility of Gases at Pressures to 200 Atm and Temperatures in the Range of 0 to Minus 200 C "Arrangement for Determining the Compressibility of Gases at Pressures up to 200 Atm and Temperatures of 00 to minus 2000C," by I. A. Rogovaya and M, G. Kaganer, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Oxygen Machine Building; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskov Khimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 609 pp 1933-1937 An arrangement has been developed for measuring the specific volumes of gases in the ranges of temperatures from 00 to minus 2000C and pressures up to 200 atm with an accuracy of approximately Oo05%, The arrangement was designed to measure the specific volumes of air, argon, oxygen, and - 16 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 other atmospheric gases. The specific volume of air has been measured at temperatures of 00, minus 500, and minus 1000C and pressures up to 110 atm(absolute). The results obtained are in good agreement with the data of Michel et al. Geochemistry 26 a. Distribution of Germanium in Coal Components "On the Character of the Distribution of Germanium in Coal Components," by I. So Sofiyev and I. N. Semasheva; Moscow, Geokhimiya, No 6, Aug 60, pp 541-543 Investigation of a section of a coal deposit that is considerably enriched in germanium and is described in some detail indicated that germanium was present in all components of the coal, including fusain cf I. S. Sofiyev, I. N. Semasheva, and D. To Zabramnyy, Doklady Akademii Nauk Uzbekskoy SSR, No 8, 1959). It was apparent that the gelled portions of structural vitrain had a greater tendency to accumulate this element than other coal components. However, there was no connection between an increased vitrain content and accumulation of germanium in every region of the deposit; some sections were rich in vitrain, but poor in germanium. It is concluded that the distribution of germanium between sections does not depend on the petrographic composition of the coal in the sections, although there is a distinct correlation between the germanium content and individual petrographic components in any particular section, The determining factor in the distribution of germanium between sections of a coal deposit is apparently not the petrographic composition of the coal, but the total complex of physicochemical conditions that have con- tributed to the migration of germanium from one section of buried peat to another. Enrichment of germanium within sections in individual coal com- ponents must be regarded as a consequence of subsequent redistribution due to the characteristic properties of the coal components. 26 b. Migration of Rhenium-From*Molybdenites. "Specific Characteristics of the Migration of Rhenium From Molybdenites," by D. Ye. Morachevskiy and A. A. Nechayeva, All-Union Scientific Research Geologic Institute, Leningrad; Moscow, Geokhimiya, No 6, Aug 60, pp 543-545 The rhenium content in a molybdenite deposit that had been investigated was found to vary widely (from traces to 170 g of Re per ton). In some other molybdenite deposits, the content of Re reaches 0.1% and more. The - 17 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 content of water-soluble rhenium and molybdenum in molybdenites and the content of molybdenum and rhenium in molybdenites of some deposits as compared with that in the waters correlated with these deposits were determined. It was established that rhenium goes into solution much more readily than molybdenum and migrates with greater facility. The compounds of rhenium formed from molybdenites are more soluble in water than the corresponding rhenium compounds. Rhenium is oxidized more easily than molybdenum. The relative content of thenium increases with the depth of the deposit because oxidation is less pronounced at greater depths. Notwithstanding the greater tendency of rhenium to migrate, rhenium and molybdenum may occur together in iron ochers, which have a good adsorp- tion capacity for both of these elements. 27. On Interrelationships Pertaining to Rare-Earth Elements and Some Peculiarities of Rare-Earth Separation in the Processes of Endogenous Mineral Formation "On Interrelationships Pertaining to Rare-Earth Elements and Some Peculiarities of Rare-Earth Separation in the Processes of Endogenous Mineral Formation," by L. S. Borodin, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Geokhimiya. No 6, Aug 60, PP 506-517 The study of variations in the composition of rare earths in a number of minerals of a different genesis (monazite, rinkolite, sphene, apatite, perovskite) with the aid of a correlative "lanthanum" graph shoirs that in many geochemical processes, a division of the rare earths into two groups, those of "more basic" and "less basic" elements, is observed. Being determined by concrete geochemical conditions, the composition of the indicated groups is not constant. Only in some cases (when there is approximately equal activity of ceric and yttric earths) do these groups correspond to ceric and yttric earths. The change in the composition of both groups takes place in a con- jugated manner which is displayed in a constantly observed multiple correlation -- direct and inverse -- of all the rare-earth elements. The composition of the group of rare-earth elements which separate from the solution determines the possibility of the appearance of a selective or complex composition of the rare earths in minerals of the same paragenesis. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 28. Composition of the Rare Earths in Gadolinites From Deposits of Different Genetic Types "Composition of the Rare Earths in Gadolinites from Deposits of Different Genetic Typos," by Eo Ye. Vaynshteyn, I. Tc Alexandrova, and N. V. Turanskaya, All-Union Institute of Mineral Raw Materials and Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chem- istry imeni V. I. Vernadskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Geokhimiya, No 6, Aug 60, PP 498-505 The distribution of rare-earth elements and yttrium in gadolinites from deposits of four different genetic types was studied with the aid of X-ray spectral analysis. It is shown that the character of the distribu- tion of elements in gadolinites (belonging to the number of so called ' complex minerals) strongly depends on the conditions of their formation. The most enriched in yttrium are the gadolinites, the formation of which is connected with granitic and alkaline pegmatites, The richest in cerium are the accessory gadolinites. If albitization processes are developing in gadolinites, an accumulation of yttrium and ceric rare-earth elements and a removal of yttric earths occur. 29. Neutron-Borometric Surveying "Neutron-Borometric Profiling,tt by V. I. Baranov, V. K. Khristianov, B. V. Karasev, and S. S. Korobov, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry imeni V. I. Vernadskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Geokhimiya, No 6, Aug 60, pp 490-497 Detectors of neutrons and gamma-quanta combined with amplifying schemes are arranged together with a hydrogen-containing reflector of neutrons symmetrically in relation to a Po-Be neutron source. The re- flector, together with the rest of the arrangement set on metal runners, is pulled by an automotive vehicle with a speed of 6 $ 8 km/h. The readings are automatically recorded. A concentration change of the boron oxide in the soil by 0.005 percent causes a change in the count- ing speed of the neutron counter by 10 percent relative. With the aid of a simultaneous recording of the density of the neutron flux and the intensity of secondary gamma radiation, one succeeds in fol- lowing changes in the boron concentration in areas of chloride saline accumulations (salt domes), The arrangement described is of use in detect- ing deposits of boron minerals and accumulations of boron in waters cor- related with-petroleum deposits. Neutron-borometric surveying was found to be superior to surveying by the boron-metallometric method. - 19 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Construction Materials 30. Extraction of Uranium by Adsorption From Slurries and Solutions "Extraction of Uranium by Adsorption From Slurries and Solutions," by Bo N. Laskorin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9s No 4, Oct 60, Pp 286-295 It is brought out that ion-exchange processes are used extensively in the uranium industry. Adsorption from acidic and carbonate solutions and slurries is applied in the treatment of uranium ores and in the production of pure uranium compounds. The fundamental relationships underlying these processes are discussed. The characteristics of different types of ion- exchange resins which can be used for the selective adsorption of uranium are given. USSR cation-exchange resins employed for this purpose are described and compared with US, British, and GDR resins. The behavior of elements accompanying uranium is described. Information is given on variations of the flo sheet for an adsorption process by which uranium can be extracted from a slurry containing up to 40% of solidso It is pointed out that further improvement in technical adsorption processes can be achieved by using ion-exchange agents which exhibit superior kinetic characteristics and have a higher selectivity with respect to uranium. The article is based to a considerable entent on the authors awn work in this field. 31. Existence in Solutions of a Monoacetate Uranyl Complex "The Existence in Solutions of a Monoacetate Uranyl Complex," by V. P. Nikon-skiy, Vo V. Kolychev, A. L. Grekovich, and V. I. Paramonova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya,'Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 330- 338 By applying the methods of ion exchange, pH measurements, and spec- trophotometry, it was established that in acetate solutions at low con- centrations oc the ligand (not exceeding 3.5 X lO-3, 1)s only the complex ion [U02 Act is presents in addition to urany]. ions. It was also established that at concentrations of the ligand higher than 3.5 X 103 M, complexes with a higher content of the liga~nd are present in solution in addition to the cationic complex LU02 Act e' The value of'the dissocia- tion ("instability") constant K1 for the complex cation [U02 Ac] / was established by all three methods mentioned above and found to be equal to 3.5 x 10-3 on the basis of ion exchange data, 3.8 xx.0-3 on the basis of data obtained by pH determinations., and 3.7 X 10-3 on the basis of spectrophotometric data. Because in the calculation of the constant K1 the possibility of partial formation of complexes with a greater number, of ligand groups than one was not considered, the lowest value obtained, Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 io e., 3.7 X 10-3, must be regarded as the lower limit of the value of the constant. Actually, the stability of the complex may be somewhat lower than that corresponding to this value, 32. Solubility Product of the Hydroxide of Tetravalent Uranium "The Solubility Product of the Hydroxide of Tetravalent Uranium," by M. Ao Stepanov and No P. Galkin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, pp 282-285 The solubility product of U(OH) has been calculated. 'Knowledge of this product is necessary for the efficient carrying out of processes of uranium conversion and methods for the determination of uranium, As a basis for the calculation, experimental data have been used which were obtained by the potentiometric titration with alkali of a hydrochloric acid solution of tetravalent uranium, The pH was determined by using an LP-5 tube potentiometer; the active concentration of U4+ was calculated from the analytically determined concentration of tetravalent uranium under consideration of hydrolysis and the ionic strengths It was established that the solubility products equals (l l0 ? 0o72).lO-52, 33. Determination of the Composition of Nitric Acid Solutions of Ur yl Nitrate on the Basis of Specific Weight, Electrical Conductivity, and Refraction Index "Physicochemical Properties of Nitric Acid Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate and Determination of the Composition of These Solutions (on the Basis of Specific Weight, Electrical Con- ductivity, and the Refraction Index)," by To A. Slepyan and So Mo Karpacheva; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 369-376 The specific weight, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and re- fraction index of the system uranyl nitrate-nitric acid-water have been investigated in the concentration range from 0 to 2 M with respect to uranyl nitrate and from zero to saturation with respect to nitric acids It was found that the specific weight can be calculated by using the formula d = do / 0.317 CU ,L 0.029 cH with a precision reaching Oo5% re- lative. It was also established that the refraction index can be determined by the formula n=n 0 / 0.0339 cU / 0.0067 cH with a precision approaching Oo2% (relati-re), On the basis of the physicochemical,char- acteristics that have been studied, a method was developed for the deter- mination of the composition of the tricomponent system uranyl nitrate- nitric acid-water, Diagrams relating the specific weight to electrical conductivity and the index of refraction to electrical 'conductivity have been constructed that are to be used in determinations of the composition of this system. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 34o Infrared Spectra of Organic Solutions of Urarnyl Nitrate Hydrates in the Region of Frequencies of Deformational Vibration of Water "Infrared Spectra of Organic Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate Hydrates in the Region of Frequencies of Deformational Vibration of Water," by V. M. Vdovenko, Do No Suglobov, and Ye. A. Smirnova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 296-300 On the basis of data obtained by investigation of the nature of changes in spectra of solutions of uranyl nitrate dihydrate in some organic solvents and also of spectra of ether solutions of uranyl nitrate with varying con- centrations of water taken in the region of frequencies of deformational vibrations of water, it was established that the water coordinated with uranium is polarized and that there is formation of a hydrogen bond between the water of hydration and molecules of the solvent. It was also estab- lished that unequal values must be ascribed to the positions of the first two and ^ubsequent two molecules of water in the coordination sphere of uranium. By comparing spectra of uranyl nitrate solutions in mixtures of ethyl ether-carbon tetrachloride with spectra of solutions of uranyl nit- rate in ethyl ether at varying concentrations of water, it was established that the apparent reduction of the average degree of hydration of uranyl nitrate with increasing proportions of carbon tetrachloride takes place as a result of changes in the quantity of freely dissolved water and water of the second solvate layer,, Even at high concentrations of car- bon tetrachloride, the hydrogen bond between the water of hydration and ether remains unbroken. 35o Improved Method forthe Coprecipitatiora of Uranium From Natural Waters "Organic Coprecipitants; Part 14 -- An Improved Methcd for the Coprecipitation of Uranium From Natural Waters," by V. I. Kusnetsov and T. G. Akimova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 4, Aug 60, pp 426-430 It was established that uranium can be coprecipitated quantitatively with methyl violet thiocyanate from natural waters containing only 0.02 y of U per liter when the pH is no higher than 3-3.5. At a PH N .5 coprecipitatior. of uranium proceeds to the extent of - 80%. It,was found that when diethylthiocarbamate of sodium, ammonium thiocyanate, and methyl violet are used together, coprecipitation of uranium takes place quantita- tively from water with a pH of 7o8-8.6 o Procedures are described for the coprecipitation of uranium from acidified and and nonacidified natural waters. A method has been developed for the preparation of samples on which fluorometric determination of uranium is carried out. The experi- ments described have been conducted with a sodium chloride solution, water from the Moskva river, and water from the Pacific Ocean. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 36. Determination of the Solubility of Ammonium Plutonyl Carbonate in Different Aqueous Solutions "Determination of the Solubility of Ammonium Plutonyl Carbonate in Different Aqueous Solutions," by L, Ye. Drabkina; Leningrad, Radiokhimi_ya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 377-37F In an earlier paper, the isolation of ammonium plutonyl carbonate (Nil )4[Pu 02 (CO3)3 ] in the solid state was reported (cf. L. Ye. Drabkiha, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, Vol 3, 1956, p 1109). Its characteristics were described. In the investigation reported at present the solubility of this salt in aqueous solutions of ammonium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, and mixed solutions of ammonium carbonate and ammonium nitrate was determined. It was established that in all of the solutions mentioned, the solubility of ammonium plutonyl carbonate changes in accordance with the solubility product law. 37. Extraction Capacity of Neutral Organic Substances Containing Oxygen "The Extraction Capacity of Neutral Organic Substances Con- taining Oxygen," by V. G. Timoshev, K. A. Petrov, A. V. Rodionov, V. V. Balindina, A. A. Volkova, A. V. Yelekina, and Z. I. Nagnibeda; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 4, Aug 60, pp 419-425 The extraction capacity of neutral oxygen-containing organic sub- stances is characterized on the basis of distribution coefficients of uranyl nitrate and of the nitrates of plutonium (IV), zirconium, and niobium. A great number of distribution factors, particularly between aqueous solutions and organophosphorus solvents, was determined, It was established that the extraction capacity depends on a number of parameters, particularly the chemical composition and physical state of the extracting agent and also the displacement of electronic density toward the oxygen atom which functions as a donor of electrons during the formation of the coordination complex which is extracted, This dis- placement of the electronic density is affected both by the chemical compo- sition and the physical state of the extracting agents It is shown that the most generally valid relationship affecting extracting capacity is the displacement of electronic density in the molecule of the extracting agent or solvent, - 23 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 38. Coprecipitation of Tetravalent Plutonium With Organic Reagents "Organic Coprecipitants; Part 13 - Coprecipitation of Tetrava- lent Plutonium," by V. I. Kuznetsov and T. G. Akimova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 357-363 A method has been develop Ad for coprecipitatiog plutonium in the form of the nitrate anion Pu (NO )6'- with the nitrate of the butyl ester of rhodamine B (butylrhodamine'). It was established that coprecipitation of plutonium takes place quantitatively in such a manner that this element is separated from large quantities of any other elements that may be pres- ent, with the exception of U (IV), Th, and Ce (IV). It was found that at an appropriate value of the pH, plutonium can be quantitatively coprecipitated with precipitates formed by stilbazo, arsenazo, phensulfazo, and chromo- trope 2 B when these reagents are reacted with methyl violet or methylene blue. 39 a. Properties of Nitric Acid Solutions of Pluto yl "Properties of Nitric Acid Solutions of Plutonyl; Part 3- Stability of Plutoriyl in Nitric Acid Solution," by V. B. Nikol'skiy, M. Ye. Pozharskaya, and B. G. Pozharskiy; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 320-329 It was shown that during the storage of nitric acid solutions of plutonyl, there is radiolytic reduction of plutonium, the rate of which diminishes with increasing concentrations of plutonyl. It was found that during the radiolytic reduction of dilute nitric acid solutions of plutonyl at pH = 2.15 - 3.55, pentavalent plutonium is formed. Hexavalent plutonium is reduced in the form of a plutonyl hydroxy compound. The re- action takes place according to the equation PuO2OH / t H;xAPuO2 , H2O The reduction of plutoryl is accompanied by an increase in the con- centration of hydrogen ions formed as a result of the radiolysis of water and also because of the ionization of hydrogen formed in radiolysis due to the action of the a-radiation emitted by plutonium. Accumulation of hydrogen ions may lead to the formation of tetravalent plutonium by the reaction 2 Pu02 / 4 H/~Pu02 / 2 H2O The assumptions are made that in weakly acidic solutions hydroxy compounds of plutonium are reduced and that the reaction of the dispro- portionation of tetravalent plutonium takes place according to the equation - 24 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 3 PuOlf3 Pu02/ / 2 Pu3/ + 1120 Pu (011)2/ ions and possibl,;' Pu (0111)3+ ions may participate in the dis- proportionation reaction. Pu (01I)4 molecules do not participate in the ,disproportionation because they undergo polymerization. 39 b. Solubility of Double Sulfates of Zirconium and Plutonium in Saturated Potassium Sulfate Solutions "Determination of the Solubility of Double Sulfates of Zirconium and Plutonium in Saturated Potassium Sulfate Solutions on the Basis of Data Obtained by Applying Radioactive Tracers," by V. N. Dobrova; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 364-368 It was established that the double sulfates formed by zirconium and plutonium with potassium are difficultly soluble compounds. It was found that a double sulfate of zirconium and potassium of constant composition can be obtained by agitating for a long time the originally formed double sulfate together with the saturated solution of potassium sulfate in which it had formed. The data that have been obtained on the double potassium-plutonium sulfate indicate that there is no hydrolysis of this plutonium salt in the solutions used in the experiments. The compositions of the plutonium (IV)-potassium and zirconium-potassium double sulfate prepp,red under the same conditions are different and can be expressed by the formulas K4 Pu (SO) 4 and K2 Zr (S04)3. We Separation of Boron Isotopes by Exchange Between Boron Trifluoride and Fluoroboric Acid "The Separation of Boron Isotopes by Chemical Exchange Methods," by Be P. Kiselev; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 2., Oct 60, pp 312-313. The chemical methods for the separation of boron isotopes are briefly reviewed and compared with distillation methods. The author's experiments on the separation of boron isotopes by chemical exchange between gaseous boron trifluoride and fluoroboric acid according to the equation B10F4 + B11F3 r~,. BllF4+ + B10F3 are described. It was found that B10 concentrates in the gas phase. The separation factor was found to be le028 ? 0,008, which is a higher value than that obtained in the separation by distillation of BF3. The experi- ments described were carried out at 20-30OC. - 25 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 roved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 Emission Method by the Thermionic "Isotopic Maas-Spectrometric Analysis of Boron by the Thermionic Jinission Method," by A. M. Kolchin, V. F. Malakhov, and G. M, Panchenkov, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khmii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2124-2125 Determination of the isotopic composition of boron in oxygen compounds of this element by the method involving conversion of the boron into boron trifluoride is cumbersome and not precise enough; the method of thermionic emission, which can be applied directly to the oxygen compounds, is prefer- able. By using a single filament ionic source with sodium borate as the emitter, ionic radiation beams with the masses 88 and 89 (corresponding to the ions Na2B1002+ and Na2B1102+) are obtained, Comparison of the intensities of the two peaks makes it possible to establish directly the B1j/Blo ratio. It was found in the experiments described that the inten- sity of the ionic emission from borax increases with increased reducing capacity of the metal employed ae material for the band serving as carrier for the borax; according to the me+7,aurements made, the emission increases in the sequence Pt < Ni W03(0) - 32 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 was found to be about 800?C. The standard thermodynamic Characteristics for the low temperature modification were calculated from the experimental data, their values being: L H298 = 203.0 kcal/mol 2298 = - 184o7 kcal/mol S298 = - 61.6 eouo 5298 = 20.0 eouo 530 Solubility and Properties of Tellurium Trioxide "On the Investigation of Certain Physicochemical Properties of Tellurium Trioxide," by M. S. Sarsembayev and V. D. Ponomarev; Alma-Ata, Vestnik Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoy SSR, Vol 16, No 8, Aug 60, pp 69-78 Results of the experiments which were conducted to determine the solubility of tellurium trioxide in water, solutions of caustic soda, and solutions of sodium carbonate are reported. The experiments established that the solubility of tellurium trioxide depends on the temperature and concentration of caustic soda and sodium carbonate in the solutions; at the same temperature and depending on the concentration of caustic soda and sodium carbonate in their solutions, sodium tellurates of different compositions are formed; on the basis of the experiments, it was possible to determine the solubility coefficients of the solubility of tellurium trioxide in the solutions of caustic soda and sodium carbonate; a method for the derivation of tellurium trioxide from the tellurium elements was established. Radiation Chemistry 54. Intermediate Products of the Radiolysis of Water "Concerning the Intermediate Products of the Radiolysis of Water," by M,, A. Proskurnin and V. A. Sharpatyy, Institute of Physical Chemistry imeni L. Ya. Karpov; Moscow. Zhurnal, Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 34, No 9, Sep 60, pp 2122128 The transformation of nitrate into nitrite in aqueous solutions containing conjugated acceptors (A:g. glycerin) was investigated. On the basis of curves expressing the relation between the radiation yield of -33 -- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 nitrite and the concentration of nitrate and that between the yield of the transformation of the acceptor and the concentration of the acceptor, conclusions are drawn in regard to the manner in which water molecules are excited and the nature of the action of acceptors. It is assumed that two types of excited water molecules participate in radiation- chemical reactions: those which are dissociated and those which are not dissociated into radicals. Conjugated acceptors promote the separation of water molecules into radicals. According to V. V. Voyevodskiy, the action of acceptors is exercised over a distance, being channeled along hydrogen bonds. In order that this action take place, the excited water molecule must merely form a link in a chain of molecules at the end of which conjugated acceptors are located. For that r9ason, the concentration of acceptors may be very samll (of the order of 10- M). By using acceptors, the action of excited water molecules can be discerned in some radiation- chemical reactions. Radiochemistry 55? Disproportionation of Americium (V) "Disproportionation of Americium (V)," by A. A. Zaytsev, V. N. Kosyakov, A. G. Rykov, Yu P. Sobolev, and P. N. Yakovlev; Leningrad, Radiokhimiyya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60,, pp 339-347 The kinetics of the disproportionation of Am 02 / in perchloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids were investigated. The reaction velocity constants in all solutions in question were determined. In the cases of perchloric and sulfuric acids, the dependence between the velocity con-- stant of the disproportionation reaction and the hydrogen ion con:;e.ntra- tion was established. The dependence of the reaction velocity in perchloric acid on the temperature was determined. The changes in the thermodynamic values for the activated complex that is formed in perchloric acid were calculated. 56. Kinetics of the Reduction of Americium (V) With Hydrogen Pei-oxide "Kinetics of the Reduction of Americium (V) With Hydrogen Peroxide," by A. A. Zaytsev, V. N. Kosyakov, A. G. Rykov, Yu. P. Sobolev, and G. N. Yakovlev; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 348-350 The kinetics of the reduction of Am 02 / with hydrogen peroxide in 0.1 M perchloric acid were investigated. The dependence of the velocity constant of the reaction on the temperature was determined. - 34 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 The energy of activation of the reaction and the change in the enthalpy of the activated complex were calculated. The data obtained are of interest because the radiolytic reduction of Am 02 f in aqueous solutions is ascribed to a reaction with H2072 formed as a result of the decomposition of water by the radiation emitted by Am2410 57. Oxalate Complexes of Trivalent Americium "Investigation of the Formation of Complexes by Am 3 /' With Oxalate Ions," by I. A. Lebedev, S. V. Pirozhkov, B. M. Razbitnoy, and G. N. Yakovlev; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 3, May 60, pp 351-356 The composition of the americium oxalate which separates from solu- tions in the temperature range of 20-900 was determined by chemical analysis. It was found that this composition corresponds to the formula km2 (C2204). 9H20. On the basis of the solubility of americium oxalate in perchloric acid at 50, the solubility. product of this compound was determined and found to be equal to 2.2 X l0-31. By aasr}}al.yzing the solubility curve, the., existence of the complex ions Am (C204 )f, Am (C204)2, . and Am ' (C20 ),1 was establislvd. Their step-wise dissociatio constants were calculated and found to be equal to 5.0 X 10-0,.6.9 X lo--,., and 1.6 X 10-1 for zero ionic strength. 58. Determination of Boundaries Between Petroleum-Bearing and Water-Bearing atrata by Usink Electron and Photon Beams "On the Determination of Boundaries Between Petroleum- Bearing and Water-Bearing Strata by Using Electron and Photon Beams," by V? I. Gomonay, I. Yu. Krivskiy, N. V. Ryzhkina, V. Ao Shkoda--Ul2yanov, and A. M. Parlag; Moscow, Atonviaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, pp 313-315 Because water and petroleum contain isotopes with different thresholds of the (;r, n) reactions, irradiation of water and petroleum with electrons or photons of a definite energy results in the formation of different numbers of photoneutrons in these two media. This is illustrated on the examples of radiationat tt e thresholds of the (y~, n) reaction for deuterium, C}"', C13, 016, 01 , and 018 under consideration of the content of these isotopes in water and petroleum. The conclusion is reached that the boune:xios between petroleum-bearing and water-bearing strata can be determined by employing electron beams with energies of the order of 8 mev and higher. To apply the procedure proposed by the authors on a practical scale, small-dimensioned electron accelerators of a high intensity will have to be developed. - 35 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 59. Concentration of Radioactive Cesium in Glauconite Ion-Exchange Columns "Concentration of Radioactive Cesium by Using Ion-Exchange Glauconite Columns," by S. Z. Roginekiy, 0. V. AlVtshuler, M. I. Yanovskiy, Ye. I. Malinina, and A. Yea Morokhovets; Leningrad, Radiokhimiya, Vol 2, No 4, Aug 60, pp 431-437 A great number of natural and synthetic adsorbents was investigated from the f~andpoint of their suitability for the adsorption of radioactive cesium Cs I from solutions containing large quantities of salts other than those of cesium. Glauconite was found to be the most suitable adsorbent for this purpose. It was found that cations can be arranged in the following order so far as their adsorbability on glauconite is concerned: Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Sr2+ < Nat < La3+ < NHS < K+ < Cs+ It was established that the lower the energy of hydration of the cation, the greater is the force with which the cation is adsorbed on the glauconite. In the region of microconcentrations of cesium and macroconcentrations of other cations, the adsorption of cesium does not depend on the pu within the range of pH = 2.7-13. By adsorbing Cs on glauconite and desorbing it with an ammonium carbonate solution, concen- trates with a high specific activity can be obtained. It was found that further concentration of the cesium can be carried out in columns filled with porous inert materials such as carbon, silica gel, etc. that have been impregnated with the double ferrocyanide of nickel and potassium. 60. Radiochemical Investigation of Ion Exchange on Swelled Exchangers "Radiochemical Investigation of Ion Exchange on Swelled Exchangers," by A. M. Trofimov and L. N. Stepanova (Leningrad) Radium Institute imeni V. G. Khlopin, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 34, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1837-1842 Relationships pertaining to the exchange of ions of various valences on swelled ion exchangers have been investigated by a radiochemical method. A relation has been established between the distribution coefficient of the ions of the radioelement, the specific capacity of the exchanger, and the specific volume of the latter. This is expressed by the following equation: Zi - a.y ?2 = const gZl/Z2 -36- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 whore zl and z2 are the valences of the exchanging ions.; On the basis of this equation, with the aid of two resin specimens of the same specific capacity but greatly different swelling powers., one can deter- mine the magnitude of the charge of the radioelemsnt in solution? 61~ Work at Scientific Institutions of the Azer'bayLdzhan SSR on the Application of Radioactive Isotopes in the Petroleum Industry and Investigation of Semiconductor Materials "The Second Azerbaydzhan SSR Conference on the Application of Radioactive Isotopes and Nuclear Radiation," by A. M. Mamedov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 49 Oct 60, pp, 338-.339 The Second Azerbaydzhan SSR Confere: ?e on the Application of Radio- active Isotopes and Nuclear Radiation was held at Baku in March 1960. Thirty-three reports that originated at different, scientific institutions of the Azerbaydzhan SSR were presented at the conference. Discussion of these reports demonstrated that progress was made in the fields under consideration during the time that had elapsed since the first confer- ence on the subject, which was held in 1957. By using radioactive isotopes and also sources of gamma and neutron radiation, problems are being successfully solved that are, involved in the. study of effects produced by irradiation of seeds before soaring on the growth, develop- ments and yield of cotton plants; the effects cif prolonged action of a radioactive source ("factor") on the condition :,f the blood and. some biochemical indexes; the effect, of phosphorus ; soo topes on the course and character of aseptic inflammations; the determin.=ttion of the tension of saturated vapors and the behavior of impurities during the distillation of semiconductor materials; determination of diffusion coefficients; determination of the water content of petroleum crudes; study of the circulation of catalysts applied in industrial processes, investigation of the protective properties of concrete; etc. The Azneftegeofizika Trust applies on an a-evenWive scale methods based on radioactivity in geophysical well logging. Gamma and neutron methods are used to identify petroleum--beaming and gas?-bearing strata in the cross-section of wells whenever electrical. methods do not work and also in the examination of old wells. Radioactive isotopes are being used in the investigation and exploitation of petroleum deposits, The Institute of Petrochemical Processes, Academy of Sciences Azerbaydzhan SSR, has developed methods for the investigation of transformations of hydrocarbons, the mechanism of the action of additives to oils, and control of various processes by applying isotopes. By using tracer atoms, the catalytic cracking of alkyleromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons that are typical constituents of petroleum crudes was investigated. The course of primary and secondary cracking reactions .- 37 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 was studied? The role of individual parts of molecules and individual classes of hydrocarbons in the formation of coke deposits on catalysts was investigated The active part played by the side chain of alkylaro.- matic hydrocarbons in the formation of coke was established. The data obtained are of value from the standpoint of the selection of catalysts for the cracking of different types of petroleum crudes. By applying tracer atom procedures, the action of the AzNII-7 and TsIATIM-339 additives to oils was investigated at the Institute of Petro- chemical Processas. A new device was designed by means of which the quality and mechanism of the action of oils can be investigated either with or without tracer atoms. The additives AzNII-7 and TsIATIM-339 were subjected to comparative evaluation. The kinetics of film formation, the solubility and stability of additives, their anticorrosion characteristics, the conditions under which films form, and the participation of individual components of the additive in the formation of films were studied. Further- more, a method for determining rapidly and precisely the content of water in petroleum and a procedure for estimating precisely the velocity of the circulation of the catalyst in catalytic cracking (by employing a catalyst sphere containing Co u) were developed. At the Isotopes Laboratory of the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Azerbaydzhan SSR, equipment has been designed for measuring the tension of saturated vapors with a high degree of precision by using radioactive isotopes. The saturated vapor tensions of thallium sulfide, thallium selenide, and selenium were determined. It was established that Tl Seqq decomposes on being evaporated from the solid phase and changes into T12Se. By using a suitable isotope, experiments were carried out to establish behavior of some impurities in the vacuum distillation of selenium It was found that mercury which is present as an impurity volatilizes together with the selenium in vacuum distillation. By using Se ..rr the effect of bismuth present as an impurity on the self-diffusion of selenium was studied. It was found that the energy of activation of self-diffusion depends on the bismuth content. 62r. Atoms for Peace Conference CPYRGHT "Chronicles" (unsigned article): Moscow, Nauka i Zhizn?, Vol 27, No 6, Jun 60, p 80 "An All-Union conference on the utilization of radioactive isotopes and nuclear radiation for peaceful purposes was held in Riga. About 600 specialists in the-field of utilization of atomic energy in the national economy of the country, as well as representatives of national economic councils, took part in the conference. An exhibition, t"Atoms for the People," was organized at the Riga Home for Scientific-Technical Propaganda. Here visitors were able to familiarize themselves with different types of equipment, instruments, and devices, models of atomic power plants, and the route of the first voyage of the ?Lenin,?t the atomic icebreaker." _38- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 III. ELECTRONICS Communications 63. Multichannel Radio-Relay Systems "Radio-Relay System R-600," by N. N. ICamenskiy; Moscow, Elektrosvyaz', No 10, Oct 60, pp 53-61 The radio-relay system R-600 is designed for six high -frequency wide-band communicationr; trunks with transmission range up to several thousand kilometers. Each wide-band communication trunk can accommodate 600 telephone channels or one television program. One of the communication trunks is generally reserved as "hot" redundancy trunk, thus a six-trunk system is able to handle up to 3,000 telephone channels. However, for the present, the most probable number of trunks assigned to each R-600 relay system will be three (a telephone, television, and redundancy trunk). All the intermediate relay points are controlled from the terminal stations. The total frequency range for all six trunks is 400 Mc; the six receiving trunks are grouped in one half of the frequency range and the six transmitting trunks are grouped in the other half of the frequency range. For better separation of adjacent trunks, a different polarization is employed. The. system utilizes horn-parabolic antennas with traveling- wave ratio of about 0.95. The system operates on the frequency-modulation principle. 64. Recent Soviet Patents in Field of Communications "Authorship Certificates" (unsigned article); Moscow, Radiosvyaz', No 10, Oct 60, pp 74 Class 21a1, 3204 No 125811. L. G. Semenov. A Method for Obtaining Rectangular Vibrations of a Mechanical System. 1 Class 21a , 3220. No 125812. I. K. Malakhov-Kamartan. Device for Transmitting Two-Color Television Images. 1 Class 21a, 3235. No 125277. B. V. Krusser, V. I. Konchin, and R. Gaynulina. A Method for Neutralizing Residual Charges on a Super- Orthicon Target. Class 21a1, 3412. No 125278. B. I. Rappoport. A Method and Device for Automatic Regulation of Illumination in a Super-Orthicon Transmitting Tube. - 39 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Class 21a3, 631~0. No 125819. S. S. Nedosekov. Low-Frequency AC Pulse Generator. Class 21a4, 8b2. No 125585. S. I. Berger and L. M. Gribanov. A Method for Automatic, Frequency Adjustment. 4 Class 21a , 10. No 125821. P. G. Pozdnyakov. Piezoelectric Resonator. Class 21a4, 4869. No 125826. Yu. F. Shuleshov. Fast-Acting High- Frequency Switch. Class 21a4, 6602. No 125823. S. I. Tetei'baum. Diffraction Antenna. Class--21a 69. No 125827. B. A. Kravchenko and V. N. Yakovlev. Device for Automatic Tuning of Circuits. Instruments and Equipment 65. New Cesium Frequency Standard Developed "Model of a Cesium Frequency Standard," by M. Ye. Zhabotinskiy, L. V. Levkin, Ye. I. Sverchkov, and V. R. Fetisova; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, Vol V, No 7, Jul 60, pp 1173-117 A brief description is given of a model of a cesium frequency standard developed at the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of aciences USSR. The apparatus consists of a copper tube with a diameter of 12 mm and length of 1,200 mm under a high vacuum. To decrease the effusion of cesium, the source has a narrow slit of long thin channels of corrugated f6tl-leaves. At the opposite end of the tube is the beam detector. In the middle of the tube is a thin copper ring holding.a collimator diaphragm. A U-shaped resonator providing.the resonance frequency is soldered to sections of the tube. The sideband level of the resonator is at least 70 db below the carrier level. This is made possible by the use of a new frequency multi- ,,,plier circuit developed at the institute. This circuit is intended to decrease the errors introduced by the RF circuit used in the "Atomichron" device developed; by. the National Company of Malden, Massachusetts. The spectral. line may be observed by very slowly changing the frequency of the quartz oscillator with the aid of aa'reactance tube, to the grid of which is applied a s'awtooth voltage.'..-The signal from the output of the detector is fed to an oscillograph where the spectral line, having a width of 300 cycles, is fixed on the screen. -40 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 66. Radioactive Isotopes Applied to Study of Cathode Electronics "The Application of Radioactive Isotopes to the Study of ProceseeA in Oxide Cathodes and Other ProbleMs of Cathode Electronics," by G. N. Shuppe and V. P. Vasil'yev; Moscow, Radiotekhnika I Elektronika, Vol V,, No 7, Jul 60, pp 11 5-1144 A description is given of recent studies carried on at the Chair of Electrophysico of the Central Asiatic University imeni V. I. Lenin and the Tashkent Electron Tube Plant involving the use of marked atoms for the study of processes in oxide cathodes and other problems of cathode electronics. These problems include vaporization of metals, diffusion of some metals into-others, diffusion of nickel and barium into coatings of:an?oxide cathode, and distribution of material of a getter flash and vaporized material of different parts of an electron tube throughout all of ltd elements, I. e., grids, anode, beam-forming shield, etc. An autoradiographic method is used to study the distribution of certain ,3ub- stances in a? tube with an oxide cathode. It is concluded that a true oxide cathode has. a very complex structure, including an unequal distribution of barium, porosity of the cathode and the presence of an "intermediate" layer immediately beneath the base in which are found atoms,of the admixture and base nickel, a compound of the oxides of alkali earth metalls,, etc. The role of all of these factors should be considered in determining the emission properties of the cathode., 67. Light Modulation at Superhigh Frequencies Shown Possible "Light Modulation With Superhigh Frequency (1010 (.'ycles)," by G. S. Simkin, V. P. Naberezhnylth, and I. V. L,.zkin; Moscow, Izmeritei'naya Tekhnika, No 8, Aug 60, pp 41-43 An account is given of an experiment performed at the Kuar'kov State Institute of Measurements and Measuring Instruments on the possibility of modulating light with a frequency of 1010 cyles ( ). s 3 cm) by means of a Kerr cell filled with nitrobenzene. Two rectangular wave guides, tapered toward each other and connected to the Kerr cell with flanges, serve as the basis for the instrument. The value of the Kerr constant for a modulation frequency of 1;10 cycles was found to be approximately. 3.10-11 seconds, while the modulation depth was equal to 1% at an oscillator power of 50 kw. Modulation depth may be increased by the optimum selection of the dimensions and design of the cell, an increase in the power of the pulse oscillator, and cooling of the cell, during operation. . 41 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 The authors conclude that the described method of determining; relax- ation time of nitrobenzene may also be used to determine the relaxation time of other substances. 68. Bolometer Heads for High-Frequency Power Measurement Described "Bolometer Heads for Measuring Power at,Frequencies up to 1000 Mc," by V. I. Krzhimovskiy and V. V. ICshimovskiy; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 8, Aug 60, pp 38-40 Two types of bolometer heads are described which are used to connect bolometers to high-frequency channels to measure power. The heads were designed for use in a standard measuring device having an error on the order of 1% which was developed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Metrology imeni D. I. Mendeleyev. The first is a wide-band bolometer head with one bolometer having a voltage standing wave ratio of not less than 1.15 v in a frequency range of 450-1100 Mc. Efficiency of the head at 1000 Mc is approximately 99.7%. The second is a wide-band symmetrical bolometer head with two bolometers which divides the input power !.iito two approximately equal parts. The head has a voltage standing wave ratio of 1.15 v in a range of 30-2000 Mc and an efficiency of approximately 99.6% at 1000 Mc. 69. Circuits for Indicating 90? Phase Shifts Categorized "Methods and Apparatus for Accurately Indicating a:90? Phase Shift," by P. P., Ornatskiy, Yu. A. Skripnik,and N. F. Suvid; Moscow, Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No 8, Aug 60, pp 24-29 A general classification is made of various devices used to indicate 90? phase shifts, such as compensation phase monitors, electromechanical phase monitors, devices based on phase-sensitive circuits, and thermo- electric phase monitors. The app;ications and limitations of each type of device are discussed. Also mentioned is an automatic rectangular- coordinate recording compensator ("avtograf"), used to take amplitude- phase characteristics of automatic control systems operating at very low frequencies. - 42 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Materials 70. High-Purity Tellurium for Electronic Use "Refining of Tellurium by the Zone-Melting Method," by N. F. Shvartsenau; Moscow, Fizika Tyerdogo Tela, Vol 2, No 5, 1960, pp 870-873 Vacuum distillation is suitable only for preliminary separation of tellurium from the oxides of heavy metals or highly volatile admixtures. For further refining of tellurium the zone-melting method should be used. An experimental zone-melting was carried out in an atmosphere of hydrogen. A 250-gr sample of tellurium was secured from the Pyshma electrolytic copper refining plant; the sample was 99% pure. The width of the fusion zone was maintained at about 3 cm, and the speed of zone travel was 6 cm per hr. Since the chemical and spectral analysis for impurities did not provide accurate results, a method of estimating tellurium purity by electrical resistance at the temperature of, liquid nitrogen was devised. After a repetition of the zonal melting nine times, a sample 99.9999% pure was obtained. The described method of zonal-melting of tellurium is now widely used at the Institute of Semiconductors of the Academy of Sciences USSR. 11. Electrical Conductivity of Sputtered Germanium Layers "Electrical Conductivity of Sputtered Germanium Layers," by P. P. Konorov and 0. V. Romanov, Leningrad State University; Leningrad, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, Vol .2. No 8, Aug 6o, pp 1869-1873 Preparation of thin germanium layers and investigation of their properties have a bearing on practical applications such as the production of p-n Junctions, the development of light ("optical") filters and bolometers, etc. The conductivity, structure, and light absorption of thin germanium layers were studied. These layers were prepared by sputtering germanium in vacuum onto a glass support from either a tungsten spiral or a quartz crucible coated with a layer of graphite. All freshly applied layers of germanium had an amorphous structure. It was found that the energy of activation of conduction for these layers depended on their thickness and comprised 0.5 ev for layers with a thickness of the order of 0.05 microns and about 0.9 ev for layers with a thickness of the orddr of 0.6 microns. When the layers were heated to a temperature above 1200 C. crystallization - 43 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 took place. This crystallization was accompanied by oxidation if the heating was carried out in air. The characteristics of layers sputtered from tungsten differed from those of the layers sputtered from graphite. It is assumed that in the first case alloying of germanium with tungsten takes place. During the crystallization the tungsten separates from the germanium crystals. Changes in the energy of activation of conduction which occur in the germanium layers and depend on the heat treatment to which these layers are subjected correspond to changes in the position of the edge of the spectrum of light absorption. 79? P-N Junctions in Photosensitive PbS Layers "On p-n Junctions, in Photosensitive PbS Ii yers," by V. F. Zolotarev and V. N. Larichev; Leningrad, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, Vol 2, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1741-1750 The volt-ampere characteristics of PbS layers that were prepared by chemical precipitation and vacuum sputtering were investigated. The dependence of the volt-ampere characteristic on the temperature and illumination of the layers was studied. It was established that there are p-n junctions in layers sensitized at high temperatures in air. 73. Seignettoelectric Properties of Solid Solutions in Terna Ba( i, Zr, Sn O3 System "Seignettoelectric Properties of Solid Solutions in the Ternary System Ba(Ti,Zr,Sn)03," by M. M. Nekrasov and Yu. M. Poplavko; Leningrad, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, .Vol 2, No 8, Aug 60, pp 168i-1684 This investigation deals with problems pertaining to the preparation ofseignettoelectric ceramics which exhibit a high nonlinearity and a low dielectric loss. Results obtained with some solid solutions in the system Ba(Ti,Zr,Sn)03 are reported. For the optimum composition a re- versible nonlinearity Np - -0.9 cm/kv was obtained and a ratio of Z max/ S min = 20 at tg 8 0.03 when the intensity of the field is low and at tg = 0.15 when intensity of the field is high. The optimun composition was determined and found to correspond to the formula Ba(Ti0.85'Zr0.11,Sn0.o4)03' Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 74. Bridgman Effect in Bismuth Telluride Crystals "The Bridgman Effect in Bismuth Telluride Crystals," by P. I. Baranskiy and S. L. Tomkevich, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Leningrad, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, Vol 2, No 8, Aug 60, pp 1714-1722 Semiconductor materials exhibiting high values of the differential thermal EMF and electrical conductivity at low values of the heat conductivity are best suited for the direct conversion of heat energy into electric energy and also for the conversion of electric energy to produce high temperatures or low temperatures in refrigeration. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was found to be a semiconductor which satisfies these require- ments rather well. Single crystals of bismuth telluride, because they belong to the hexagonal system, exhibit anisotropy of different characteristics. it was found that anisotropy of electrical conductivity, the thermal EMF, and other characteristics is observed not only on Bi2Te3 single crystals., but also on polycrystalline samples. When bismuth telluride crystallizes as a polycrystal, the individual crystals orient themselves with their slip planes along the direction of the growth of the polycrystalline sample (this direction coincides with that of the maximum thermal current), while their crystallographic axes become oriented in a direction perpen- dicular to that of the growth of the,sample. The heat evolution (heat'absorption) was, investigated which arises when a current passes through the volunle?of,polycrystals of bismuth tel- luride of the p-type in regions that' correspond to transitions from a direction along slip planes to a direction perpendicular to them (~~ - _?(-) The linear dependence of this heat evolution on the electric current made it possible to identify this evolution with the Peltier effect at (I1 - J_ ) transitions, e.e., with the Bridgman effect. It was established experimentally that when an external temperature gradient T i:; applied to parallel-perpendicular transitions, a thermal ENF all - j i;; gen rated which corresponds to the Bridgman effect mentioned above. It w-Ms also established that there is a linear dependence between the over-a11 value of this thermal EMF ( I) = a ) and the temperature ' gradient in the actual region of E I) -1 -1? T'. - 45 -- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 75. Adsorption of Some Metal., Ions in Etching and Washing of Silicon "Adsorption of Some Metal Iona in the Etching and Washing of Silicon," by V.'S. Sotnikov and A. S. Belanovskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii, Vol 9, Sep 60, pp 2110-211f~ It has been shown that during the etching of silicon in a mixture of hydr oClouric and nitric acids, adsorption of Cu, Ag, Au, In, and Sb ions takes place on its surface. The magnitude of the adsorption is 101' - 1017 atoms/cm , when the content of the above elements in the etching bath is 1.10-3 - 1.10-4 %. It has also been shown that as a result of washing silicc.a with later, adsorption of Cu, AS, P, Fe, Zn, Rb, Na, Sb, In, and Au ions (1.10 1.10 17 atoms per cm2 silicon surface area) takes place. Adsorption of Ag and Au is directly proportional to their initial concentration in the etching bath. Repeated treatment of silicon with boiling bi-distilled water practi- cally does not lower the number of adsorbed AS and Au tons on the silicon surface. The use of complex-forming agents -- potassium cyanide, dithizone, and methyl cyanide -- leads to a sharp fall in the number of atoms of the above impurities adsorbed on the silicon surface. 76. Electrochemical and Corrosion Behavior of Semiconductors in Electrolyte Solutions. "Electrochemical and Corrosion Behavior of Semiconductors in Electrolyte Solutions; Part 3 -- Dissolutions of Germanium in Contact With Other Metals," 0. G. Deryagina, Ye. N. Paleolog, and N. D. Tomashov, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khlmii, Vol 34+, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1952-1959 The behavior of germanium in contact with other metals (In, Sn, Cu) in 1N NaOH solutions containing various amounts of hydrogen peroxide has been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that the rate of dissolution of germanium in contact with the metals is determined by the rate of spontaneous solution and by the rate of solution due to the current of the germanium-copper couple. The contribution by spontaneous solution of germanium has been shown to increase with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration, becoming predomi- nant in pure hydrogen peroxide. All results were confirmed on actual diodes. - 46 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Wave Propagation 77. Wave Propagation in Wave Guides of Complex Shape Studied "Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Wave Guides With.Complex Cross Sections Containing a Cross- Magnetized Ferrite Plate," by N. M. Kovtun, Kharkov State University imeni A. M. Gor-kiy, Chair of Superhigh- Frequency Physics; Moscow Radiotekhnika I Elektronika, Vol V, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1426-1430 The, author examines the propagation of electromagnetic waves in wave guides-having H-,TT - and L-shaped grpss sections and containing cross-magnetized ferrite plates. Equations for determining the propagation constants in such wave guides are derived. 78. Operation of Backward-Wave Tubes With Ridged Delay...Systems Examined "Experimental Study of Backward-Wave Tubes With Inhomogeneous Delay Systems," by L. P. Lisovskiy; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, Vol V, No 9, Sep 60, pp 144p-14T7- Results are given of a study of the properties of a backward-wave tube with a delay system in the form of two "combs" or ridged delay structures, the teeth of which are offset by a half step relative to each other. The electron beam passes along the slit between the ridges in the longitudinal focusing field of a solenoid. Conclusions are that the use of a delay system with Slowly changing geometric dimensions does not lead .to a substantial change in the relationship between the frequency of generated oscillationv and voltage and does not increase the total range of the backward-wave tube. The trigger current in a tube with an inhomogeneous delay system sharply increases, particularly in the short-wave region, as the length of the ridges increases. On the basis of these results it is assumed that the use of inhomogeneous systems will contribute to the elimination of self-. excitations of traveling-wave tube amplifiers operating on inverse har- monics. -47-. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001-00680001-9 79. Cross No!.ces in Tropospheric Propagation Analyzed "On the Theory of Cross Distortions in Long-Distance Tropospheric Propagation of Ultrashort Waves," by A. V. Prosin; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, Vol V, No 7, Jul 60, pp 1052-1064 The article examines a method for computing cross noises originating in multichannel long-distance communication systems with frequency modu- lation and frequency-division multiplexing due to the interaction of direct and scattered fields at the paint of reception. Among the con- clusions reached by the author are: 1. For relatively large delays of the direct component of the field and the use of highly directive antennas in the communication lines, it is possible to determine cross noises using a model of two-beam wave propagation. 2. Cross noise intensity increases with an increase in the direct- ivity of the transmitting and receiving antennas. 3. The statistical characteristics of a turbulent troposphere influence the value of cross noises. 4. There is an optimum distance between the transmitter and receiver at which the value of cross noises will be a minimum. 80. New Directive Couplers for Superhigh-Frequency Lines Described "Directive Couplers for Surface Waves," by D. I. Mirovitskiy and G. G. Valeyev; Moscow, Radiotekhnika i Elektronika, Vol V, No 7, Jul 60, pp 107U10 Results are given of an experimental study of new types of directive couplers and multichannel wave-guide splitters for super-high frequency transmission lines based on the principle of directive coupling between intersecting lines. The experiments were made using dielectric wave guides of methylmetacryle.te with a cross section of 0.4 ). 0 x 0.92 ? 0' Studies showed that the energy diverted to the auxiliary tract is determined generally by the time lags in phase velocities of the surface waves in the lines, the angle of intersection of the lines, and the distance between them. The simplicity of design, high directivity (greater than 45 db) in a wide frequency range, and low level of attenua- tion at the junctions of the lines indicate the possibility that direc- tive couplers may find application in the development of various hybrid and balancing devices, phase inverters, and other superhigh-frequency elements. -48- anitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 IV. ENGINE "RING Aeronautical Engineering 81. Flight-Information Recording Instrument "Three-Component Recording Instrument for Altitude, Velocity of Flight, and Plane Overloading" (unsigned item); Moscow, Byulleten' Izobreteniy, No 13, Jul 60, p 57 CPYRGHT Class 42d, 310, No 129842 (643987/26 from 12 Nov 1959) Post Office Box 828 Enterprise "A three-component recording instrument for altitude, velocity of flight, and plane overloading, which contains an altitude sensing element, for example, in the form of an aneroid box; a velocity of flight sensing element, for example, in the form of a manometer chamber; and a sensing element of plane overloading in the form of an elastically suspended weight. It also contains a registering system, time recorder, tape mecha- nism with a gear box, stop mechanism, and electric heater. The distin- guishing feature of this instrument is that, in order to reduce the weight and size of the recording instrument, the tape mechanism and the altitude and velocity registering units, mounted on an elastically suspended platform, are utilized as the elastically suspended weight for registrating the overloading." Ajomic Power 82. Gasp-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants "Analysis of Thermal Efficiency of Gas-Cooled Nuclear Electric Stations," by L. S. Sterman, V. V. Petukov, V. P. Protsenko, and A. V. Chikilevskaya, Moscow Power Engineering Institute; Moscow, Teploenergetika, No 9, Sep 60, pp 6-L2 Several nuclear power plants with gaseous coolant will be put in operation during the next few years in the Soviet Union and in certain of the People's Democracies. The article gives an analysis of thermal efficiency of gas-cooled nuclear power plants for several temperatures (340,. 375, and 400?C) of gas at the Inlet to the steam generator. Cases of thermal cycles with dual-pressures and one pressure are discussed. The gaseous coolant considered in this case was carbon dioxide at a pressure of 15 atm. - 49 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 The purpose of the analysis was to determine the operating parameters for maximum thermal efficiency with various coolant temperatures at the outlet of the reactor. Vacuum of 0.05 atm abs was maintained at the steam condenser. Comparison of a one-pressure cycle with a two-pressure cycle has shown that the former allows for a higher temperature of the gas at the outlet of the steam generator. The relationship between the power consumption for circulating the gaseous coolant and the temperature of the coolant at the inlet and outlet to the steam generator i's.formulated in the article. Computersc;d,nd, Ahtomatic f Control Engineering I ' 11'll I. 1111 ' .. 83. Study of Nuclear Reactor Performance With Electronic Simulating Devices "Simulating the Start-up Processes of Nuclear Reactors With Electronic Analog Devices," by B. Ya. Kogan; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR OTN Energetika i Avtomatika, No , Jul Aug 60, pp 3 - Electronic simulating devices have found wide application in investi- gating the dynamics of nuclear power installations, the processes of reactor poisoning, isotope composition, etc. However, the study of proc- esses occurring during-the start-up of a nuclear reactor has encountered some difficulty, primarily because during the reactor start-up, the, neutron flux and the concentration of nuclei emitting delayed neutrons may fluctuate in a very wide range; i.e., from 0 to 1010. Since dynamic ranges for even, the best components of electronic analogs do not exceed 10-p the direct application of electronic analogs to the solution of reactor start-up equations is limited. For problems of this type, the method of solution by section with automatic transfer from one section to another is more accurate than the method with logarithmic representation of the reactor power. The author thanks F. Ye. Tranin, V. F. Kondakov, and A. I. Kaz'min for assistance. - 50 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 O P . 1-;1rctron:Lc Computers to control Power W.otribut'Lon in Electric 0yutenrc, ---- I "Certain Possibilities for Application of Computers in Power Systems," by V. M. S:Ln'kov, Gosplan Institute of Automation, Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Elektrichestvo, No 10, Oct 60, pp 7-12 The use of computers to control power flow in electric systems is very promising; at the present state of electronics development. The problems that could be solved with the aid of electronic computers are varied, ouch. as computation of economic-engineering factors, determination of reactive and active power flow, estimation of static and dynoziic sta- bility for parallel operation of several turbogenerators, etc. An experiment conducted in the boiler room at one of the Kiev electric stations has, shown that the distribution of load mainly on the basis of nominal steam-producing capacity of the boilers may lead to appreciable waste of fuel,. For economic distribution of load between the turbogenerators of an individual station, the following computers may be successfully utilized: the "Uran" computer designed at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electrical Power Engineering and the contactless device Ekran-5 designed at the Gosplan Institute of Automation of the Ukrainian SSR. A problem of great interest will be the utilization of computers for controlling the speedy restoration of normal operating conditions after emergencies. The All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Complex Automation is now working on the problem of incorporating into a 1:Lnc;le electronic computer the functions of regulating, controlling, and signaling for each boiler-turbine unit. It is believed that computer devices trill noon be perfected to such an extent as to alloys the proper distribution of the load among the indi- vidual units of an electric station and among different power plants of the same cystem. Electrical Engineerin 85 . Mobile Electric Power Plants "Electricity in the Diamond Taiga" (unsigned item); CPYRGH1occot'r, Elconomicheskaya Gazeta, 8 Oct 60 "The Urelyakh diamond mine, located in the vicinity of the taiga tom Mirnyy, has received plenty" of industrial current. It is no*vr on a new high-voltage, 250-kilometer electric power line from power-gencritinf~' trains. These mobile electric stations on rail-wheels were delivered via water routes on special barges and were installed on the shore at the settlement Multhtuya.. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPYRGHT "This will permit tripling the power supply to local mines, factories, and equipment, which in turn will result in a further increase of diamond mining." 86. World's Two Largest Thermal Power Plants in Planning Stage "Equivalent of7 Four Dnepr Hydroelectric Power Plants on the Moscow Sea," by I. Tsyganov; Moscow, Izvestiya, 25 Oct 60 The world' a two largest thermal state regional power plants will be built in the USSR, one at the town of Konakovo near the boundary between Moskovskaya and Kalininskaya oblasts and the'other at the settlement of Yermak (just south of Pavlodar) on the Irtysh River. The state regional electric power plant at Konakovo will have 180-meter stacks, which will be seen from a distance of 60 kilometers. According to the chief engineer of the Konakovo project, Semen S. Rakita, this station will be the largest in the world with an initial installed capacity of 2.8 million kw. The 800,000-kw-capacity turbines will be installed at the Konakovo plant. Huge boilers for these generators will produce 2,500 tons of steam per hour. An exact replica of the Konakovo plant at one-fiftieth scale, will be built now at Moscow for training of future operating personnel. The Konakovo plant will operate on cheap gaseous fuel. The plant will supply power to Moscow, Leningrad, and the new Cherepovetsk metallurgical region. The Yermak thermal plant will produce its first current in 1963, supplying power to Northern Kazakhstan, including the aluminum plant. The Yermak plant will burn cheap coal from the Ekibas-Tuz fields. The problem of automation and mechanization of these power plants was entrusted to the Kiev branch, of the "Teploelektoproyekt" Institute. Mechanical Engineering 87. Gyroscope for Inertial Guidance Systems "Gyroscope for Inertial Guidance Systems," by V. N. Timoshchenko; Moscow, Byulleten' Izobreteniy, No 15, Aug 60, p 55 Description is given of a patent by V. N. Timoshchenko, Class 42c, 2550, No 130686 (62.527/26 from 9 April 1959) - 52 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 ~a"lTApproved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 "1. An inertial-uyutem gyroscope with floating-sensing element, the r.tator of which Is fed with current passing through the flu:Lcl. Peculiarity of this device is a clearance-free suspension of the rotor, the ball ben,ri.nrs of which are subjected to constant pressure of the fluid through the hemispheres of the stator casing In order to eliminate unbalancing of the rotor clue to uneven wear of the ball bearings. "2. Gyroscope as In paragraph 1, but differs In that electromagnets are used to center the suspension of the internal gimbal ring in the flu:Lcl. These electromagnets are fixed on the housing and are situated di.nmetrically on the three axes to hold the sensing element in a central position with respect to the stabilization axis. ""3. Gyroscope as in paragraphs 1 and 2, but differs in that the gyroscope housing rotates about -the axis of the rotor's rotation so as to eliminate the detrimental effect on the rotor of the external forces caused by nonsymmetry of the construction. This can be achieved, for instance, by means of a DID-0.5 motor." ee. Conference Held to Discuss Earthquake-Proof Construction "All-Union Conference on Earthquake-Proof Construction" (unsigned article); Moscow, Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, CPYRGHT7 Oct 60, p !i? "The Academy of Construction and Architecture USSR, the Institute of Construction of the Academy of Sciences, Georgian SSR, and -the Scientific- Technical Society of the Construction Industry held an all-union confer- ence to discuss problems of decreasing construction costs in regions subject to seismic activity. The participants discussed in detail the fundamental aspects of a re-examination of active norms and specifications of earthquake-proof construction in connection with the introduction of new industrial methods of erecting buildings. The conference also recognized the necessity of further clarifying the method of calculating earthquake-proof structures." -53- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 V. MATIll';MATICS Approximation Theory 09. Logarithms of Algebraic Numbers Approximated "Concerning the Approximation of the Logarithms of Algebraic Numbers by Algebraic Numbers," by N. I. Pel'dman; Moscow, Izvcsti a Akademii Nauk S$S Seri-va Mttematicheska a Vol 24, No 1E, Jul Aug 60, pp 1175-1192 A new estimate is derived for the expression P(ln a) 1, where a is an algebraic number and P(z)*O is a polynomial with whole number coeffi- cients. Also considered is the more general problem concerning an estimate from below of the sum Jln al -eil + ... +lln % - Eml where: aj, ... , a , E1 ... ,Em are algebraic numbers. Differential Equations 90. Dirichlet Problems Compared "Concerning the Connection Between Generalized and Classical Solutions of a Dirichlet Problem," by V. A. Il'in and I. A. Shishmarev; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Mat- ematicheskaya, Vol 24, No 1E, Jul Aug 60, pp 521-530 In the present work it is proved that the classical and generalized (in the sense of yielding the minimum of the Dirichlet integral) solutions of the Dirichlet problem Lu - -f (in a region g) ulr=. 0, where L is a self-conjugate elliptic operator, coincide in an arbitrary N-dimensional normal region of g. -54-- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 91. Properrttie of Solutions of- Systems of Nonlinear Differential E uationu "On Certain Properties of the Solutions of Systems of Nonlinear Differential Equations With Slowly Varying Parameters," by 0. B. Lykova; Kiev, tfcrainskiy Matematicheskiy hurna1i Vol 12, No 3, Aug 60, pp 267-278 In a previous paper the author proposed an algorithm for finding an approximate (with precision up to a magnitude of order e) two-parameter family of special solutions of the system LlX X(T,x) e X (T ) x, e), 1 where x, X, X* are n-dimensional vectors, T (L is a finite number).. (1) met is slow time, T e [ .O,L] In this paper the existence and uniqueness of a corresponding exact two-parameter family of solutions of system (1) is proved; the difference between the exact family of solutions and its mth approximation is shown to be of the order af'em; the property of attraction to the found approxi- mate family of solutions is established for any solutions of system (1) having initial values which belong to the region of definition of the exact two-parameter family of solutions of system (1). 92. Properties of Boundary Problems of. Linear Elliptical System of Dif- ferential Equations "On Solutions of a Linear Elliptical System of Differential Equations With a Discontinuous 1?l,ee Term," by S. P. Gavyelya; Kiev, Ukrainskiy MMatematicheskiy ZhurnalL Vol 12, No 3, Aug 60, pp 235.22 2 The author considers a nonhomogeneous linear elliptical system of differential equations with smooth coefficients in the left part, but with an isolated point particularity of arbitrary (finite) order in the free term., The fundamental matrix, the existence of which is assumed, is modi-. fied in such a way that at the corresponding point, zero of the required order is formed. As a result, the formula defining a certain partial solution of a nonhomogeneous system known for a-smooth (or limited discon-, tinuous) tern is extended to the case under discussion. Conclusions are drawn as to the statement and certain properties (generalized) of boundary problem solutions for such systems. -55-- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 93. Boundary Problems of Ell. jEticul Dif ferentiul Equations Solved Numcr- i cu 7y -_- "On u New Method of Numerical Solution of Boundary Problems for Elliptical Differential Equations," G. N. Polozhif; Kiev, Ukrain- skiy Mitematicheskiy Zhurnml, Vol 1.2, No 3, Aug 60, pp 308-?323 The author proposes an effective method of solving boundary problems for equations with partial finite differences corresponding to the two- dimensional and three-dimensional problems of mathematical physics. The essence of the method consists in finding solutions in explicit form or in the form of formulas with a small number of parameters determined from a corresponding small number of algebraic equations. For partial differen- tial equations of the second order with constant coefficients, this is attained in the two-dimensional case; and in the three-dimensional case it is attained by means of formulas established by the author. 94. Inhomogeneous Equations of .hnfinite Order in Generalized Derivatives "Concerning Inhomogeneous Equations of Infinite Order in Ggnera- lized Derivatives," by Yu. N. Frolov, Theory of Numbers Chair, Moscow University; Moscow, Vestnik _Moskovskoooo~Universiteta, Seriya 1, Matema.tika, Mekhanika, No )+, .~'u1JAug 60, PP 3?-1.3 00 k Let f. (z j 1t o ak z, ak - 0 (k 0, 1, 2, ... ,) be an entire function of order P and type "V # 0, oo, satisfying the condi. tion that there exists the limit 1im k l/P, lc Wit -~oo? The equation Mk F) k '- c is considered, where n 00 D F s k E -n (Qfp )l/p . (1) bk a zk-n for Fr Z) -9o bkzk and the characteristic function (t) - C-0 cktk is an entire function of order p and type a-,. ? (z) is a regular function within some circle. In the work it is proved that (3.) there exists a solution of equation (1); (ii) if $ (z) is an entire function there exists a solution which is an entire function; (iii) if 0 (z) is an entire function of order p o C- p4J there exists a solution which is an entire function of order < ,Po" -56- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 95. Systems of Linear Differential Equations Investigated "Concerning the Solution and the Characteristic Exponents of the Solutions of Certain Systems of Linear Differential Equations Having Periodic Coefficients," by K. G. Valeyev; Moscow, Prik- ladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, Vol 24, Jul/Aug 60, pp 58 A method is presented for the solution of certain systems of linear differential equations having periodic coefficients with the help of a Laplace transformation. The results obtained are employed for the finding of the characteristic exponents of the solutions for systems close to the stationary., A criterion is given for the stability of the solutions of an equation of the second order having periodic coefficients in the case of resonance. Numerical Analysis 96. Finite Differences of High Order "Concerning Finite Differences of High Orders of Continuous Functions," by A. A. Konyushkov; Moscow,'Izvesti Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Matematicheskaya, Vol 2- No , Jul Aug 0 pp 549-566 The behavior of the ratia At f (x) and of the , k f(x) k g(x) C pair of ratios t (k;z~;?l) for the functions f and the pairs p (t) (t) [f, g], forming certain residue sets respectively in the space of continuous functions and in the square of that space, are investigated. The theorems obtained do not have exact analogs for k=1; in this case several weaker assertions hold. The set M of the space P is called a residue in the space P if the complement 1\$ is a set of the first category in P. - 57 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 97. Fourier Series of Almost-Periodic Functions "Concerning the Susuability of Fourier Series of Almost-Periodic Functions," by Ye. A. Bredikhina, Kuybyshev Aviation institute; Kazan', Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Matematika, No 5, Sep/Oct 60, pp 33-39 Several Iiheorems are generalized in the present work relative to the summability of the Fourier series of continuous 21T-per-iodic functions to uniform almost-continuous functions, the Fourier exponents of which do not have finite limit points. Probability 98. Coordinate-Homogeneity for Continuous Markov Processes "Criteria for Coordinate-Homogeneity for Continuous Markov Proc- esses," by I. Ya. Cherkasov; Moscow, Teoriya Veroyatnostey i yeye Primeneniya, Vol 5, No 2, May 60, pp 229-237 A Markov process with an infinitesimal operator A~.~.. Ai (t, x) is + Bij(t, x) 2 aX axe where x = xl) .?, x n ) is a point in the Riemannian space V. with a metric gij(t, x) is considered. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the transformation i' x . xi(t, xl, ..., xn) which transforms the operator (*) into the well-known operator At Bl J (t) 2 t ax~~-r-a x-J-~ are given. At the end of the paper an example is given from statistics, in which these conditions are applied for establishing the density of the probabilities f(t, x, "F,g) of a certain Markov process. - 58 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 99. Strong Markov Proccuoca "On the T.i'inition of a Strong Murkov Process," by A. A. Yuchke- vich; Moscow, Tcoriya Vcroyatnostey i Yeyc Primeneniya, Vol 5, No 2, may 60, pp 237-243 The two definitions for strong Markov processes given in Ye. B. Dynkinc,'f "Strong Heterogeneous Markov Processes," DAN SSSR, Vol 2, 1957, pp 261-263, are proved equivalent. 100. Permutation of Series "Concerning Series, Universal With Respect to Permutations," by A. A. Talalyan, Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR, Yerevansk State University; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Matematicheska a Vol 24, No E, Jul Aug 60, pp 567-604 00 For any basis ((Pn(-N)) of the L [0, 1] space the existence of a series _1an n (x) is proved which possesPes the following property: for any measurable function f(x) the terms of the series may be placed such that the obtained series converges to f(x). Miscellaneous 101.. International Symposium on Mathematics To Be Held in Berlin Berlin, Berliner Zeitung, 26 Sep 60 According to Prof Dr Reichardt, head of the mathematics classes of the Humboldt University, Berlin, an international symposium on mathematics will be held during the anniversary celebrations of the Humboldt University and of the Charite. Among the participants in the symposium will be Prof Dr Alexandrov from the Soviet Union, a distinguished American mathematician, and leading mathematicians from Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Britain, Prance, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia, Norway, Austria, Poland, Hungary, West Germany, and West Berlin. - 59 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Releas?I:.CIAP 2-00141 R0001 00680001-9 Behavioral Science lug. Cybernetics Applied in Medicine Vo ros Kibernetiki v Biolo ii i Meditsine (Problems of Cybernetics in'Biology and Medicine)) by' V. D. Moiseyev, Medgiz; Moscow, 1960, 302 pp The following introductory note briefly described the contents of this book: CPYRGI "Several theoretical and practical problems of cybernetics which are especially important with regard to biology and medicine are examined in popular form in this book. "The first chapter is devoted to automatic computers as computation- decision-making automats with self-organizing processes, which serve as a basis for making analogies between modern automats and living organisms and which permit relatively broad modeling of biological processes with physical imitators. "The second chapter is devoted to fundamental concepts of cybernetics itself and to the practical application of its achievements in the fields of biology and medicine, i.e., for the creation of certain analogs which model biological processes and the activity of separate organs of the living organism, for designing apparatuses which replace certain capacities lost by a human, etc. "In the third chapter, concrete examples of the use of automatic com- puters in clinical medicine are examined, for example: for diagnosing diseases, analyzing electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms, etc. "The book is intended for a wide circle of biologists; physiologists, psychologists, neuropathologists, psychiatrists, and physicians in dif- ferent specialties." A lengthy foreword by N. A. Bernshteyn, Doctor of Medical Sciences and Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, is entitled "Historical Sources of Cybernetics and Prospects for Its Use in Medicine."%, Bernshteyn traces the development of cybernetics from the ideas of Descartes and Borelli in the 18th Century, through the progress of neurophysiology in the 19th Century, to the more complex combinations of analogy with physiological processes in the 20th Century.. -.60- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 In a message which follows the foreword, the author reiterates and expands the purpose stated in the introductory' ote' and extends his thanks to N. A. Bernahteyn and F. V. Bassin for their assistance on special problems of biology and medicine. CPYRGI table of contents follows-, Historical Sources of Cybernetics and Prospects for Its Use in Biology and Medicine (Foreword) Chapter I. The Automatic Computer as a Computation- Decision-Making Automat With Self-Organ- izing Processes 1. Basic Characteristics of Automatic Computers and Living organisms 2. Mathematical Representation of Magnitudes in Automatic Computers 3. The Electrical Code of Binary Numbers 4. Memory Units 5. Fundamental Logic Connections and Their accomplishment With Elementary Electrical Circuits 6. The Accomplishment of Complex Logic Con- nections With Combined Electrical Circuits 7. Calculation, Recording of Magnitudes and the Formation of Numerical Pulses in Automatic Computers 8. Synchronization and Automatization of Internal Processes in Automatic Computers 9. Mathematical Wcrk Up of Problems and Their Solution With an Automatic Computer 10. Programming of Problems and the Use of Pro- grams in the Self-Organization of Internal Processes of Automatic Computers 11. The Formulation of Commands, Their Coding, and the Automatic Change cf The Initial Programs 12, The Input of Information Into an Automatic Computer and the Output of the Results of Its Processing Page 25 29 29 44 50 53 6o 75 82 91 98 116 R000100680001-9 CPISCC Ted - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 13. The use of Programs and Self-Organizing Processes for the Control of Artificial "Animals" page and "Educated" automats 133 Chapter II. Cybernetics and Automatic Computers in Biology and Medicine 147 14. Basic Concepts of Cybernetics 147 15. Mechanisms of Feedback in the Modern Technology of Automatic Regulation 157 16. Feedback Mechanisms in Living Organisms 17Q 17. Basic Concepts of Modeling Physical and Biological processes 192 18. Certain Analogs Which Imitate Biological Processes and the Activity of Different Organs of the Living Organism 206 19. The Use of Digital Computers With Program Control for Modeling the Brain and Central Nervous System 214 20. Information Theory and Biology 238 21. The Use of the Achievements of Cybernetics for Building Apparatuses to Replace Lost Human Capacity for Certain Perceptions and Actions 252 22. Problems of Cybernetics in the Field of the Study of Biocurrents of the Brain 261 Chapter III. Automatic Computers in Clinical Medicine 264 23. Automatic Computers -- Great Progress in Medical Instrument Construction 24. The Role of the Physician and the Automatic Computer in Clinical Medicine 25. Certain Practical Examples of the Use of Automatic Computers for the Diagnosis of Diseases 26. Prospects for Practical Application of Automatic Computers in Clinical Medicine for the Diagnosis of Diseases 264 270 273 281 Literature sources 297 - 62 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 103. Book on Cybernetics Reviewed "Voprosy Kibernetiki V Biologii i Meditsine (Problems of Cybernetics in Biology and Medicine. D. Moiseyev, reviewed by A. D. V'os.lsxesensk:iy; Moscow, Sovetskaya Zdravookhraneniye, Vol 1.9, No 9, Sep 60' pp 8-8 After a detailed review in which he criticizes various shortcomings in Moiseyev's book, A. D. Voskresenskiy points out that the book contains must information which will be of use to biologists and physicians. He considers'. the parts of the, second and third chapters devoted to modeling of neuron networks, the role of feedback in the organism, and the practical use of automatic computers for analysis of electrocardiograms and electro- encephalograms particularly interesting. The reviewer specifically dis-, agrees with the author?s final conclusion t' "in a very general case the machine will be universal and will determine any disease from every con- ceivable field of clinical medicine." The reviewer states that a basic knowledge of cybernetics and automation is not necessary to doubt the extreme optimism of this point, because at present it is possible to construct symptom complex tables for precise diagnosis of only a few dis- eases. The value of the diagnostic machine, in his opinion, is difficult to assess in the case of atypi al forms of disease. The major criticism of the book seems to be the author?s failure to include concrete instances to support such statements as "many medical workers have experiemnted.with the use of cybernetic methods in clinical medicine," which, in the reviewer?s opinion, discredits to some extent the reported achievements in this field. 104. Physical Culture to Aid in Training New Soviet Man "The Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee of the VLKSM" (Vsesoyuznyy Lenlnskiy Kommun;.sticheskiy Soyuz Molodezhi; All-Union Lenin's Yourg Communist League) (unsigned article); sc w, Teor.tyra j Prakt:Yk,,9, Fiz;icheskoy KulAturv, Vol 23, No 10, 1960, pp 721-724 The eighth plenum of the Central Committee of the 1II M decided to sponsor more social, cultural,, and athletic organizations and to make each one of them a "beehive" of activity. All these organizations are expected to help in preparing the youth of the Soviet Union for life in a Communist Society. This decision was inspired by the fact that the Soviet Union has made considerable progress in agriculture and has. expanded heavy industry. The country has moved ahead in science and technology and all main, indi- cators show that the general economic condition of the country improved considerably during the past 1 1/2 years. .-'63 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Abolition of .all taxes by the Supreme Soviet USSR and transition to a 7- and 6.- hour day is expected to increase labor productivity. All this is expected to be accomplished without a decrease in take-home pay? In his speech before the &I-1--union conference of teach;:rs, N. S. Khrushchev stated" "Our aim is twofold -., to establish P. material and technical base for Communism, and to train a new man. Both aims are part and parcel of a single process. If we fall behind in the education and training of the Soviet people., then the entire effort of building Com- munism will inevitably be retarded." CPYRGH 105. Reorganization of Education in USSR "Psychology ?-- in the Service of Communist Education," (unsigned article); Moscow, Voprosy Psikhologii; Moscow, No 4, Jul/Aug 6o, pp 3-8 This article states that the All-,Russian Congress of Teachers dddieei banded on July 1960 after discussing in detail what preliminary action should be taken before the Soviet educational system is reorganized. This congress was called in response to resolutions of the 21st Congress of the CPSU and proposals advanced by the Central CommittteCCPSU,y the Council of Ministers USSR, and the law requiring the promotion of a stronger bond be- tween schools and life. The First Secretary of the Cntral Committee CPSU and chairman of the Council, of Ministers USSR, N. S. Khrushchev, spoke at one of the meetings. He amplified in his address Lenin's principle that education must be linked with work. we are resolving at present two historical problems," IQartish- c ev Said. ess two problems are the establishment of a material and Ttechnical b . on which to build Communism, and the education of the new man. Both p'-se problems actually are part of a single process. If we fall behind I; r. the education and indoctrination of Soviet people, then the entire effo directed toward the building of Communism will inevitably be delayed. is is why, in formulating the program for increased Com-, munist cons traction., the party and the government have directed their attention toward strengthening the bond between school, aid life and :Lm,- proving pub.i education." "The S v .et system of education must be geared to the needs of a Com~- munist soci t , The Soviet school, is called on to offer Soviet youth a general and a scientific and technical education, and to contribute to their indoc r nation in the spirit of socialist patriotism, proletarian CPYRGHT - 64 -- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPYRGHT .Lnternationaiism,i'riendship among nations, and profound love for work and participation in social activities. The general aim of Soviet education is to develop a generation of courageous, strong, cheerful, ideologically hardy people with deep convictions in the ultimate victory of the great cause." To impart knowledge is only one function of the school and teacher, the article continues. To be cure, it is of paramount importance. But knowledge alone is not enough. The Soviet school must graduate enlightened members of the Communist society who have a Communist view of proper con-, duct and behavior. The education of the new man and the formation of a material and tech... nical base on which Communism can be built requires a new psychological theory, a theory of the development of a well-rounded, well-developed pers. ~;iclity. The Communist Party and the government of the Soviet Union are making great demands of pedagogical science in general and of psychology in particular. This reliance on the science of psychology becomes even greater as the country moves forward on the road to Communism. The solution of the essential. problems of the reorganization of edu- cation in the Soviet Union will. elevate psychology to the position of an important basic science? The article says that shortly before the All.-Russian Congress of Teachers, the Bureau for the RSFSR of the Central Committee CPSU examined the activity of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences RSFSR; a report by I. A. Kairova, president of the Academy, was heard, and a special reso- ti l u on of the bureau and the Council of Ministers RSFSR was aar\n1-r_.A Institutions." It was noted in resolution that "the~Academy of Pedagogical Sciences .tas recently improved its work somewhat." CPYRGHT ._ 65 -- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 (" Diseases 106. Therapy of Hypercenssion ? CPYRGHT "Effect of T:.iph:u on Arterial Pres ,ure," by R. 1. Mangushev, Tr. Orenburg. 0b1. Otd. Vseros. Nauchn. 0-va Tera evtov (Works of thie Orenburgslcu,ya Oblast Branch of the All-Union Society c.i' Therapeutists), 1959, No 1, 55-61 (from Referativn y Zhurna]. Biologiya, No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract No _'[90)b.) "The effect of thipken on arterial, pressure was studied in 154 patients suffering from different diseases of the car io-vascular syjtem. The subcutaneous administration of th!he' reduced arterial pressure within 15-30 minutes, occasionally wt-ttn 1-2 hours after the injection (by 50-60 millimeters of the mercury colimm in hypertension). The duration of the effectiveness of the drug was 2??3 hours, occasionally 6 hours. A re- peated administration of thiphen produced a considerable reduction or arterial pressure. The reduction in arterial pressure and the cessation of stenocardia attacks do not always coincide." 107. Therapy of Atherosclerosis "On the Problem of the Therapy of. Atherosclerosis," by V. IT. Gorbachev, Chair of Hospital Therapy, Minsk Medical Insti- tute; Minsk, Zdravooklhraneniye Belorussia, Vol 6, No 8, Aug 60, pp 14-18 For therapeutic purposes 83 patients suffering from atherosclerosis were divided into three groups. Group 1 was administered sunflower oil in doses of 60 grams in 24 hours, in three to four administrations; the patients of the second group were given pyridoxine in a dose of 50 milli- grams in 24 hours; the third group of patients was administered a 5 percent solution of iodine. Observat?ons established that the best therapeutic results were obtained by the administration of sunflower oil : modifications in the cholesterine content, in the relation between lecithin and choles- terine, lipoproteins, a-lburins, and beta- and gamma- globulins were noted. The administration of pyridoxine produced. results similar to that produced by sunflower oil. Iodine was found to be the least effective of the three preparations used. - 66 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 108. Atheronclerog 3 "Epidemiology of Atherosclerosis," by Z. I,einis, D?, Zoulek, J. Mectan, K. Soukupova, J. Hrabane, and J. Konrad, Casop. Lek. Cesk. (Czechoslovakia), 1960, 7-8, 231-2110 (from McLLtsisltiy Rei'erat~,~m Zhurnal, Sect on 1, Vol 11, No 8, -Aug Abstract No 19 9,, by L. 1. Gnesin) "A comparative study of the age, '4It`'i `tit, cholesterinemia, phospho- lipidemia, general lipcmi..;, ',load content of alpha-, and beta-lipoproteins, character, occupation,, anal. sanitary living conditions of a group of Czech peasants living in twc villages and a group of Koreans and Vietnamese was conducted. Some 222 clinically healthy persons (121 males and 121 females) in the ages of 20-79 were investigated in Czechoslovakia. A total of 108 persons (61 males and 47 females) were investigated in the areas of Chongjin. (Korea) and Haiphong (Vietnam). Considerably smaller quantities of cholesterine, lipids, and phospholipids were found in the blood of the inhabitants of the Far East than in the blood of Czech peasants. The .inhabitants of the Far East consume 400-700 grams of rice, 50-100 grams of fish! 10?-15 grams of vegetable oil (peanut), and 250-500 grams of vegetables a day; almost no animal fats are consumed, while milk and dairy products are seldom eaten. Sanitary-hygienic con- ditions are at a lc.w level in, the Far East. Atherosclerosis is rarely a cause of death emong the yeople of the Far. East, while about 200 persons per 100,00 in Czechosicvelria in the ages of 55.64 die from atherosclerosis. About 1.10 grams cf fate a day are consumed in Czechoslovakia. The mortality rate from atherosclerosis is particularly high in the US, where more than Coo persons per 100,000 die from the disease. The daily consumption of fats in the US is about 1110-150 grams a day.. The lowest mortality rate from atherosclerosis is found In Japan (about 50 persons per 100,000 of the same age groups as above); a.oit 20 grams of fats a day arc consumed in this count.ry.. 109. Nutrition and At?heros2lerosis "Nutrition. as an. Epidemiological. Factor in Atheroscleros.i,s," Z. Rei nis. D. Zoulek, J. M;:stan., T. Konrad, and. J. Hrabane, Ceskosl. Gastrc-err.ter.jam?, (C', 1.960, 3, 213-216 kfrcm Eefer; ti.vnyy Zhurnal, Section 1, Vol 4, CPYRGHTNov 8, Aug 6o, .Ahst,r. acr. No 11991 by L. T. Gnesin) "Investigations of the epidemiology of atherosclerosis in, the people of the Far East (K:;rea, and Vietnam) were conducted. A definite relation- ship between the compvsitlcn of the food consumed and the development of atherosclerosis ?c,ras established. The lipid level in the blood. of the people of the Far East eras found. to be considerably lower than that in the blood of the people of Czechoslovakia. Wh_.le mox+Ki.ity from Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPYRGHT atherosclerosis in Czechoslovakia was as high as 25 percent of all mortality cases, in the Far East it was a minimal figure. Thrombo- embolism was rarely enco'.intared in the Far East. The data obtained in the investigations coincided with those of Kiys who held that the consumption of fats is the main etiopathogenic factor in the develop- ment of atherosclerosis. In Czechoslovakia, fats make up about 35 percent of the food calories, while in Korea and Vietnam, about 10 percent. In addition, the food rations in Korea and Vietnam contain little sugar, while in Czechoslovakia the rate of sugar consumption is considerably higher. With the conclusion that nutrition is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the authors points out that occupation, living conditions, bioclimatic conditions, etc. are contributing factors to the development of the disease. Observations of a group of native Far East students who have been studying for 2 years in Czechoslovakia established that their bio- chemical blood index began to approach those of the native-population of Czechoslovakia." Epi demi ology 110. Achievements in Control of Cora] sous Diseases in Rumania "Sixteen Years of Great Success in Combating Contagious Diseases in Rumania" (unsigned article); Microbiologiia, Parazitolo iia, idemiclo ia, Bucharest, Vol 5, No 4, fJul Aug 1960, pp 289-290 _. Increased medical personnel., scientific research, available medicines, and party and government interest have solved most of the problems of contagious diseases in Riunania. Moreover, the morbidity of such widespread diseases as tuberculosis and syphilis has been reduced greatly. Malaria has dropped from 210,000 cases in 1948 to a frt,? hundred cases in 1958, the disease is now disappearing. Rumania is considered a model in antimalarial organization. Typhus has dropped 99.,E percent compared with 1948 and is now on its way out. Typhoid fever has dropped 77.6 percent compared with 1945, and the present morbidity in Rumania is among the lowest in Europe. The morbidity of diphtheria is continually dropping and now stands at 44 per- cent.less than 1948. Relapsing fever has been eliminated. Mortalities from contagious diseases dropped 80 percent between 1944 and 1955. T;rphus fever, formerly fatal in 20-50 percent of the cases, is now broken in 48.72 hou.', and fatalities have dropped to zero. Prior to 1950, the mortality rate from typhoid fever was 14 percent; it is now 1-2 percent. -68.- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 The diminution of cont.ragtouo d.i.soaaaaec; has contributed to low,ar general and infant mortality, General mortality, which stuycd at the high level of 20 percent In the past, fell to 8.7 percent in 1958, th,?s putting Rumania in a class with France, West Germany, Belgium. Italy, etc. Infant mortality has fallen from 17.18 percent to 6.9. Geri. a*r:L cs 111. Effect of Novocain on ink Orr~sm "Investigation of Age Biology. V1. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanism of the Action of the Hydrochloride of p- Aminobenzoate of Diethyl.a.minoethanol in Aging Rats," by C. 1. Parhon, S. Oeriu, I. Tanase, M. ~aliano-Serban, and S. Saceanu, Studii si Cercetari Biochim. Acad, RPR (Rumania), 1959, 2, No 3, 237.N243 ' from Raferativnyy Zhjxnal -- Khiniiya, Biolo .. lcheska a Khi.mi ya, No 31., 10 June 60, Abstract No 160 04 , by CPYRGHTthauthors) "Following the intramuscular administration of novocaine in quantities of 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight for a period of 30 days it was found that the concentration of thioaminoacid.a and oxidized glutathione in the blood serum remained at a ncrmal level. Novocain increased the methionine content in spleen tissue and the q,steine content in the liver and kidneys. In the opinion of the authors, some of the properties of novocain are due to the presence of paraaminobenzoic acid which is freed by hydrolysis. See Report V in Re.ferativnyy Zhurnal Khimiya -- Biolo.. gicheskaya Khimiya, No .3. 3561."r ~ "~ Ilamatology 112,. Role of Hypoxia in Res-iration and Gl col' sis "The Questionof the Role of Hypoxia in the Mechanism of Blood Regeneration," by B. V. Aretinskiy, Tr. Sverdl. Med. In-ta, No 21, 1958, pp 75-81; (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biol, No 9, 10 May 60, Abstract No 41092, CPYRGH L. S. Rotfel l d) "Studies in which the Warburg method was used were conducted on the changes in respiration and in glycolysis which occurred in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and the diaphragm muscle of normal and anemic rabbits maintained for 8-10 hours in a high-.oxyen-containing chamber. Some rabbits were made anemic by acute blood letting or by a single -69_ Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPYRGHT San s at I1 pvLe .2qC5O Rat 1e GIJLTi 7't$?ofiQrirtlh Cc'91%9a$9PA 1- 1 A the 4th day after blood lotting, and those with acute radiation sickneou died during the 3rd-4th week after irradiation. Normal rabbits placed in the high-oxygen chamber showed decreased respiration and gl.ycolysis rate in the bone marrow, which is explained as a result of the inhibition of orythropoiesis. In this case there was a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, and in the quantity of hemoglobin and reticulocytes. The coefficient of tissue respiration, Qo2, in organ tissues was increased. Qo2 and glycol.ysis were higher in the bone marrow and spleen of rabbits made anemic by blood let- ting than in normal rabbits. Respiration and glycolysis were somewhat diminished in the liver. When the bone marrow tissue of the rabbits that were made anemic was placed for a certain period in the high-oxygen- containing chamber it was able to absorb oxygen with greater intensity than the bone marrow of control animals. Glycolysis in organ tissue changed in a line parallel to Qo of these organs. The author interprets this increased oxygen demand by he bone marrow as due to intensified regeneration." 113. Storage Period for Blood Materials Reduced in Czechoslovakia "Changes in the Storage Transfusion Preparations"; Prague, Vestnik Ministerstva Zdravotnictvi, No 6, 1 Mar 60, p 75 An instruction of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Health, dated 11 December 1959, states that the expiration period for erythrocyte mass has been set at 21 days from the day the blood was collected. The expiration period for resuspended erythrocyte mass, even when saccharose has been used (in the resuspension process), has been set at 16 days from the day the blood was collected. This change is a result of research work of the Institute of Hema- tology and Blood Transfusion, in the course of which a study was made of the posttransfusion vitality of red corpuscles in whole blood, erythrocyte mass, and resuspended erythrocyte mass. The results of this study in- dicated that the previous expiration period, which had been established on the basis of literature dealing with the subject, did not correspond to the actual preservation of the quality of stored erythrocytes and that a change in the storage period was required. The instruction orders all blood transfusion centers to comply with the new prescribed storage period. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 unolo~y and 'nip ,= 111. Bacteriophage Testad in E:C,perimeT.tal `5 ,Ihoid "The Action of Bacteriophage on Experimental Typhoid Infection Under Conditions of Altered Reactivity of the Organism," by L. M. Lezhankina, Material1 2-go Plenuma Sibirsk. Fit. 0-va Patofiziol ovDattc, on the Second Plenum of the Siberian Branch of the Society of Patho.. physiologists), 1958, pp 50-53 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biologiya, No 17, 10 Sap 60, Abstract No 79839, by Y'a. C PYRG HlRautenshteyn ) "White mice were infectrWd with a one-day culture of typhoid bacteria isolated from the blood of a patient. Polyvalent typhoid phage was intro- duced once or twice intraperitoneally immediately after infection, or one day before infection or six hnu.r,a after infection. One group of experi- mental animals was subjected to the action of a soporific (urethan), and another, caffeine. The effectiveness of the phage was evaluated according to survival of the animals and the rate of elimination of bacteria from the organism. It was established that uurethan-induced sleep retarded typhoid septicemia, but at the same time diminished the therapeutic effect of the phage; caffeine did not reinforce this effect and facilitated a more rapid freeing of the organism from bacteria, which was not observed in urethan-induced sleep. It is concluded that the action of phage on the infection process in the organism depends on the functional con- dition of the central nervous system." 115. Therapy of Paranoid Forms of Schizophrenia "Comparative Investigation of the Results of Largactil and Serpasil Therapy of Patients Suffering From Paranoid Forms of Schizophrenia," by A, Jug, Ye. Broszkiewicz, K. Gerard, W. Kozaczewska, Neurol. Neuxichir. ur. i P.s~-chiatr. Polska (Poland)., 19 59, 9, No 4, 511- 52 + ( from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- CPYRGH iologiya, No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract Na7991 "Largactil was administered to !6, and serpasil to 27 patients with a history of the duration of the disease from several days to 20 years. In the author's opinion the degree of improv'einent depends on the duration of the disease and the character of its course prior to therapy with largactil and serpasil." anitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 116. New Antibrotic "Dihydrostreptomyci.n" (unsigned article); Moscow, Meditsinskiy Rabotnik, 13 Sep 60, p 3 Dihydrostreptomycin is a new antibiol.,ic obtained by the reduction of streptomycin at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Anti- biotics. It is indicated in some forms of tuberculosis, tubercular meningitis, in diseases of the urinary canal, tularemia, acute forms of brucellosis, and endocarditis induced by penicillin-resistant microbes. The effectiveness of the drug was established in clinical tests. It is only slightly toxic and is well tolerated by the patients. It can be administered in combination with other antibacterial drugs. It is administered intramuscularly in doses of 0.5-1.0 gram to adults and 0.2-0.5 gram to children. The drug is now being prepared at the Moscow Plant of Medical Substances No 2. 117. Inoculation of Pregnant Women Against Infantile Paralysis "Inoculation of Pregnant'. Women Against Infantile Paralysis"; Prague, Vestnik Minister-stva Zdravotnictvi, Vol 8, No 12, 25 May 60, pp 139-140 On 23 April 1960, the chief hygienist of Czechoslovakia issued a reso- lution requiring special protective inoculation of pregnant women against contagious infantile paralysis. In accordance with this resolution,?kraj hygienists are to immediately order such inoculation for all pregnant women. The inoculations are to be planned, organized, directed, and supervised by kraj and okres hygienists in accordance with instructions of the chief hygienist of Czechoslovakia and performed by physicians providing outpatient care for women. The inoculations are to be given between the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and are to consist of two injections. The first injection is to be made not earlier than the 20th week (and no later than the 32nd week) of pregnancy, with the second being given 2-1+ weeks later. The inoculations are free and related costs will be paid for by the state. Health departments of the kraj national committees are instructed to initiate a program to familiarize the public with the significance of the inoculations. All health personnel who will administer the inoculations and all who will maintain records thereon are also to be informed of this order. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 The resolution exempts the following classes of pregnant women from the inoculations- (1) 'those with serious anamnesis (habitual abortion, diagnosed or suspected latent infections, erythrob].astosis ); (2) those with Rh isoimmunization; and (3) those with delayed gestosis. In correctly administered inoculations there should be no compli- cations. In very rare cases, allergy to penicillin or streptomycin, which is added to the Salk-formula vaccine, may be manifested in a rash. 118. Aeroionotherapy Used 'to Treat Gastric Ulcers in Rumania "Research and Practical Application," by Dr L Florea; Bucharest, Muncitorul Sanitar, 22 Oct 60, p 1 Dr H. Straus of the Cluj branch of the Institute of Hygiene and Public Health has been outstanding in the field of new treatment of gastric ulcers with aeroionotherapy. Aeroionozation has been studied in many population and industrial centers. However, lack of adequate apparatus has held back the detection of the small and even large ions which affect the purity of the atmosphere. The modification of the Eberth apparatus has permitted the extension of studies on aeroionization and the identification of the ions which affect the body. Research has shown that small, negative ions have a calming effect. This discovery was the basis for, aeroionotherapy relieving some af- flictions, such as gastric ulcers. Successful experiments were carried out on animals and humans. Aeroionization improved the trophic changes of the gastric mucus in cases of gastric ulcers. Aeroionization has been helpful in some cases of poisoning, such as gasoline poisoning, in silicosis, and generally in pneumoconiosis. It is difficult to study the reactivity of the body through physio- logical methods. Laboratory animals exposed to unfamiliar conditions often endanger the accuracy of the results. Dr. Tiberiu Fritch developed an apparatus to register pneumoplethys- mograms which, by an optical system of recording, permits the concomitant recording of the pneumogram and cardiovascular investigations. -73- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Oncology 119. Rumanians Experiment With Sarcol.ysine Bucharest-,, Muncitorul. Sanitar, Vol 1.1, No 37, 17 Sep 60, p 1 The Synthesis Laboratory of the Oncologric Institute in Duchareu t, has prepared the Rumanian drug sarcolysine, which ha.n-been used with good results in experiments. This laboratory is also using other cytostatics in experiments on animals. 120. New Oncological Hospital in Ploesti Bucharest, Muncitorul Sanitax, Vol 11, No 37, 17 Sep 60, p 1 The new oncology section of No 2 hospital in Ploesti, Rumania, was recently put into operation. The section is located in a new pavilion and is equipped with all installations necessary for good hospitalization and adequate treatment. It has a capacity of 50 beds and will largely meet the regiune's hospitalization: needs for patients with various malignant tumors. RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Pharmacology 121. Organophosphorus Poisoning of Warm-blooded Animals Studied "Changes in the Organism of Animals Following Poisoning With Certain Organophos horns Insecticides," Yu. S. Kagan and Ye. I. Makovskaya Kiev, Kiev Scientific Research Institute of Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases (director; L. I. Medvedt); Moscow, Arkhiv Patologii, No 9, 1960, pp 44-49 The authors present materials on the clinical course of poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticides: mercaptophos -- both thiolo and thiono isomers, preparation M-74 (disyston) -- ((C2H5)2P(S)SCH2CH2SC2H5, preparation M-81 (ekatin) -- (CH )2P(S)SCH CH?SC2H5, and preparation M-82 -- (CH 3)2P(S)SCH2CH22SCHq . 'he morphological bhanges developing in mice, rats, cats, and ratbit3 following administration of these insecti- cides by various routes are also depicted. Fatal and toxic doses and concentrations of these drugs cause intoxications by the excitation of the cholinoreactive systems with considerable vascular disturbances, and dystrophic and focal necrobiotic changes in the cerebral nerve cells and internal organs. The morphological changes revealed in experimental animals are not specific for the action of organophosphorus insecticides. 122. Effect of Chlorine on the Organism "On the Problem of Modifications of the Nervous System in Acute Chlorine Intoxication," by A. A. Nersesyan, S. A. Torosyan, and A. V. Stepanyan (Yerevan), Second Clinic of Nervous Diseases of the Second Medical Assobiation; Moscow, Gigiyena Truda i Professionaltnyye Zaboloveniya, Vol 4, No 10, Oct 60, p 50 CPYRGHT "Inasmuch as the problem of the modifications of the nervous system as a pesult of acute intoxication by chlorine is not greatly elucidated in medical literature, the observations of a group of 18 persons suffering from acute intoxication by chlorine merit particular attention. The intoxica- tions were of a mild and moderately expressed character. Not a single case of pulmonary edema was noted. On a background of a general irritating effect (cough, dyspnea, nausea) the patient;; suffered from severe headaches, adynamia, tremor of the fingers, bright-red dermographism, an increase in the mechanical irritability of the muscles, diaphoresis, depression of the tendon reflexes, asthenic reaction of the pupils to light, depressed re- actions, and hypoesthesia of the extremities in some of the patients, Temporary affections of the cranial nerves (trigeminal and facial) and neuralgia of the sciatic nerve were observed in some of the more expressed - 75 - CPYRG T cases of intoxication. Loss of consciouseness, spasms, fibrillar jerking of the muscles, symptoms of meningitis, and manifestations of hemiparesis were noted in acute chlorine intoxications. The modifications were of a reversible character, and all the patients were discharged from the clinic either in a considerably improved condition, or completely cured." 123. Effect of Isoniazid and Paraaminosalicylic Acid on the Organism "Effect of Isoniazid and PAS LParaaminosalicylic Acid) on the Ascorbic and Cholesterine Level in the Adrenal Glands of Rats," by M. Kohou", and R. Krulik, Rozhl. Tuberk., 1960, 4, 286-289 (from Meditsinskiy Referativnyy Zhurnal, Section 2, No 8, Aug CPYRGH4O, Abstract No 1513, by V. G. Grigoryan) "Experiments were carried out on 150-250-gram albino rats. Isoniazid was administered to the animals in doses of 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, and PAS, in doses of one gram per kilogram of body weight. The control group was administered physiological salt solution. The ascorbic acid and cholesterine levels were determined in the adrenals of the decerebrated animals one, 3, 7, and 14 days after the administration of the antibiotics. Following the administration of single doses of isoniazid and PAS the ascorbic acid and cholesterine levels dropped. A greater drop in the ascorbic acid was noted after the administration of PAS. This: decrease continued for a period of 14 days. Fourteen days after the administration of isoniazid the ascorbic acid level was de- creased by 31 percent, and cholesterine by 26 percent. After the admin- istration of PAS the ascorbic acid level was decreased by 42 percent and that of cholesterine by 39.5 percent. The weight of the adrenals was in- creased. The decrease in the ascorbic acid and cholesterine levels and the increase in the weight of the adrenals indicate the stimulating effect of these preparations on the adrenal glands." 1249 Pyridine Salts as Bactericidals "Synthesis and Bactericidal Properties of Some Quaternary 4-replaced Salts of Pyridine," by St. Gaytandzhiyev, Sv. Avra- mov, D. Kolarov, Farmatsia (Bulgaria), 1959, 9, No 5, 25-29 (from Referativn Zhurnal -- Khimiya No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract CPYRGHTJo 66459, by the author) "The following salts possessing bactericidal properties in relation to Bacto typhi murium were obtained through the interaction of pyridine, ethylpyridine, and the methyl ester and amide of isonicotinic acid with dodecyl bromide: bromide of 1-dodecylpyridine (1); bromide of 1-dodecyl- 4-ethylpyridine (II); bromide of 1-dodecyl-4-cartomethoxypyridine (III); bromide-l-dodecyl-4-carboxamidopyrine (IV). (III) and (IV) were the -76- or Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 CPYRGHT AAA4 San ' - - - - rs to a synthesized. It was established that preparation (II) possesses the strongest bactericidal properties, surpassing those of ajatin. In respect to bactericidal properties, (II) is followed by (I), (III), and finally (IV). As compared with chloramine, the bactericidal properties of all these salts are relatively weak. The phenol coefficients of the synthesized preparations are as follows: (I) -- 94; (II) -- 218; (III) -- 140; (IV) -- 25 (chloramine -- 48, and ajatin -- 90). In rela- tion to their effect on the bactericidal properties of the salts, the replacements in position 4 in the nucleus of pyridine are grouped as follows: C2H5> H;.C00CH3> CONH2." 125. Combined Action of Furacillin and Novocain "Furacillin-Novocain Anesthesia," by M. I. Kalinin., Ivantkovskaya City Hopsital, Moskovskaya Oblast; Moscow, Khirurgiya, Vol 36, No 7, Jul 60, pp 72-73 Results of the application of furacillin-novocain anesthesia admin- istered in 2,822 surgical operations are reported. The accumulation of the data was begun in 1953. It was established that the use of the furacillin-novocain combination is highly advisable as a means of pre- venting postoperative pyosis. In only three cases was it necessary to leave the incisions unsutured for draining purposes. In all other cases it was possible to close the incisions when the combination of furacillin- novocain was used. 126. Potentiation of Succinylcholine by Proserine "Experimental and Clinical Prolongation of the Action Succinylcholine (Ditilin) With Proserine," by S. M. Zolfnikov and N. F. Mustakopulo, Laboratory of Anesthesio- logy of Institute of Thoracic Surgery; Moscow, Khirurgiya, Vol 36, No 8, Jul 60, pp 44-46 Experiments carried out on dogs established that proserine when used in conjunction with succinylcholine prolongs and potentiates the action of the anesthetic by 15-120 minutes. The effectiveness of the combined application of proserine and succinylcholine was proved in 33 operations on the abdominal and thoracic cavities. However, the authors recommend further research since as yet no correlation constant for the doses of the preparations and apnea has been established. - 77 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Saniliigfo - p p%6td f glea~p M JDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 "On the Effect of Enriching the Diet With Vitamin E on the Biochemical Changes in Working Muscles," by A. F. Makarova and N. R. Chagovets, Biochemical Sector of the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute of Physical Culture; Kiev, Ukrainsldy Biokhimicheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 32,,no 4, 1960, PP 560-565 The biochemical changes in the muscles and blood of albino rats were studied after the animals had been swimming for various periods (15 minutes and 5 hours). The first group of experimental animals was put on an ordinary diet; the second group received the daily supplement of 6 mg of vitamin E dispersed in 0.75 g of malt extract; and the third group of animals received pure malt extract (0.75) without vitamin E. The results of the study showed that the supplement to the animals ration either of highly dispersed vitamin E in malt extract or of pure malt extract exerts a favorable effect on the course of the biochemical processes in the muscles during activity of various duration. The data obtained indicated that enriching the diet of animals with vitamin E does not affect the chemistry of the working muscles. At the same time these results permit recommending malt extract as a supplementary nutritional factor when engaged in physical activity. 128. Vitamin Enrichment of Foods as a Goiter Preventive Measure "Contents of Iodine and Bromine in the Thyroid Glands of Albino Rats Dependent on the Vitamins in the Food,," by E. S. Turetskaya, Lvov Institute of Epidemiology, Micro- biology and Hygiene; Kiev, Ukrainskiy Biokhimiches y Zhurnal, Vol 32, No 4, 1960, pp 578-587 The author studied the effect of enriching food with vitamins A. B2, C. and D on the weight of and the iodine and bromine content in the thyroid glands of albino rats under experimental conditions. The investigations established that food enriched with vitamins C or D furthers a more intense accumulation of iodine and bromine in normal thyroid glands. Supplementary administration of vitamin A with the food leads to a decrease in the iodine and bromine content in the thyroid glands of the experimental animals and to an increase in the average weight of the glands. This phenomenon also takes place with vitamin B2. - 78 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Inv w of this, the author recommended the enrichment of food with vitamins C or D in quantities exceeding the physiological requirements of the organism in endemic goiter districts characterized by iodine and bromine insufficiency in the environment, such as the western regions of the Ukrainian SSR. 129. Effect of Reserpine on the Organism "On the Effect of the Modifications of the Tonus of the Automatic Nervous System Induced by Reserpine on the Protective Substances of the Serum," by L. Goreczky, G. Vajda, and P. ,Baumann, Kiserl. Orvostud, 1959, 11, No 4, CPYRGHT 433-436 (from Referativn~vy Zhurnal -- Biolo i a, No 16, 25 Aug 60, Abstract No 78976) "A considerable decrease in bactericidal activity and diminution in the titer complement was noted in blood serum obtained 3,6, and 24 hours after the administration of reserpine. In the authorts opinion this is due to the modification of the tonue of the autonomic nervous system with a shift toward parasympathicotonia, caused by the adrenolytic and noradreno:- lytic properties of reserpine." 130. New Drugs "New Medicinal Preparations," by J. Podlewski and A. Podleswka, Farmac. Polg?:a (Poland), 1959, No 12, 15, 226-227 (from CPYRGHT Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Khimiya, No 14, 25 Jul 60, Abstract No 58240, by V. Ivanova "The doses and actions of a number of preparations are described: ultandren (9 alpha-fluoro-11 beta-oxy-17 alpha-methyltestosterone); madribon (2,4-dimethoxy-6-sulxanilimado-l,3-diazine); eksult -- tablets containing 2,000 units of the extract of liver, brain, and adrenals with- out the hormones, 14 grams of cream (55 percent fat), 0.6 milligram of vitamin Bl, 1.2 milligrams of vitamin PP, 8.7 milligrams of Fe gluconate, cacao, coconut oil, caseine, cane sugar, and extract of malt; vaskulat [the sulfate of 1,1-(40oxyphenyl)-1-oxy-2-n-butylaminoethane], a sympathi- comimetic drug; nozinan [acid maleate of L-methoxr-~-(ihethyl-2 -dimethylamino-3 )-propyl-10-phenothiazine (levomepromazine)], a drug used in the therapy of psychoses and having an action similar to that of largactil; and hibitane (diacetate of chlorohexidine) used as a topical bactericidal." - 79 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Physiology 131. Conditioned Disinhibition Investigated "Concerning Conitioned Inhibition and Conditioned Disinhibition. The Formation of Conditioned Disinhibition by Adding a Supple- mentary Agent to the Conditioned Inhibitor," by K. A. Iordanis, Chair of Higher Nervous Activity; Moscow, Vestnik Moskovskogo Uaiversiteta, Seriya VI. Biologiya, Pochvovedeniyo, No 3, May/ J~O, pp 14-17 This article points out that results of the authorts experiments showed that dogs discern conditioned inhibiting and conditioned disin- hibiting excitations better than rabbits and doves. This discernment becomes more difficult when a supplementary stimulus, added to the con- ditioned inhibitor, inhibits the positive conditioned reflex and dis; inhibits the attendant discernment in the course of formation of con- ditioned inhibition and conditioned disinhibition. Results of these experiments on dogs, rabbits, and doves confirm the results of similar experiments on a chimpanzee, conducted by the author of this article. It was thus noted in the experiments conducted by the author of this article, and also in the experiments conducted by L. G. Voronin and his associates, that the difference in the degree of discernment of com- plex excitations depends on the level of development of the nervous system. 132. Phosphorylation of Thiamine at High Altitude Condition "The Effect of Hypoxia on Phosphorylation of Thiamine in Rat Tissues," by Yu. B. Khmelevskiy, Chair of Biochemistry, Kiev Medical Institute; Kiev, Ukrainskiy Biokhimicheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 32, No 3, 1960, PP 412-417 The author studied the effect of reduced barometric pressure on the ratio of thiamine to its phosphorus esters in rat tissues. In the course of the work the action of rutine and halascorbine was examined on the ratio between thiamine and its derivatives in tissues during hypoxia. Thiamine, labeled with S-35, was used in tie experiments. Isolation and identification of the marked thiamine and its phosphorus esters were conducted by paper chromato raphy. The animals were examined 24 hours after the introduction of S55-thiamine and after 6 hours in a chamber with a simulated altitude of 8,000 meters. -80- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized) ~~adff~~d~~A ~t~ng~-~~q~~~~$iq0q1r-P se in the quantity of thiamine diphosphato, thiamine monophosphate, and thia- mine were found in the hearts of these aminals, as compared with the con- trols who were kept under normal atmospheric pressures. These disturbances were less pronounced in the liver of the experimental animals. A prelim- inary administration of rutine and halascorbine, under the experimental conditions described, led to an increase in the thiamine triphosphate level and a reduction in thiamine diphosphate. 133. Proper Ultrasound Irradiation of Eyes Not Injurious to Cornea "The Effect of Ulrasound on Normal Eyes of Rabbits," by F. Ye. FAdman, State Scientific Research Institute of Eye Diseases imeni Gel'mgol'ts; Moscow, Oftaltmologicheskiy Zhurnal, No 5, 1960, pp 270-273 In view of the increasing employment of ultrasound irradiation in various fields of medicine and the paucity of literature on the effect of ultrahigh-frequency sound waves on the organ of sight, especially in connection with the therapeutic treatment of certain diseases, the author conducted a number of experiments, and presents the following conclusions on this subject. 1. A single irradiation of rabbit eyes by ultrasound with a frequency of one megacycle, within the intensity range of 1.0-2.3 watts/cm2, produces erosion in the epithelium, edema in the cornea, temporary miosis, and mild exophthalmos. 2. Following the irradiation of rabbit eyes by ultrasound within the intensity range of 2.3-1.5 watts/cm2, the above-mentioned changes were more pronounced and a unique zone of necrosis lacking in nuclei and having a tendency to develop into an inflammatory reaction at the periphery was detected histologically in the stroma layer of the cornea. 3. A single irradiation of rabbit eyes by ultrasound with an inten- sity of 0.3 watt/cm2 did not cause any stable changes; however, the daily irradiation of the eyes by the abov1-mentioned dose (5-6 treatments) produced keratosis, thinning of the epithelium, and necrosis of the anterior layers of the corneal stroma. 4. The course of irradiation of rabbit eyes with ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 watt/cm2 at 2-day intervals caused neither clinical nor morphological changes in the eyes that were tested. -81-- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release :82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 134. Index for Human Reactivity Proposed "The Significance of the Reactivity of an Organism in the Mechanism of Ultraviolet Radiation Action," by G. S.,Var- shaver and 0. M. Vil'chur, Vopr, Fizioterapii i Kurortol. (Problems of Physiotherapy and Health'IResort Study , M., Medgiz, 1959, pp 156-159 (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Bio1ogiya, No 12, 25 Jun 60, Abstract No 57749, by L. CPYRGF 1tpinerY "Information is presented on the change of skin reactivity to ultra- violet rays during various states of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The authors suggest that the reactivity of the skin to ultra- violet rays be considered along with phagocytosis of the blood and its serum protein composition as a criterion for the reactivity of an organism." 135? Shielding of Upper Third of Abdominal Region Significant in Bone Marrow Suspension Treatment of Radiation Seguelae "A Study of the Effect of Bone Marrow Injection on the Thrombo- plastic Activity of X-Irradiated Rats," by V. Ye. Pastcrc a and Be A. Kudryashov, Nauchn. Dokl. Vyssh, Shkoly Biol. N. (Scien- tific Reports of the Higher Schools of Biological Sciences), No 1, 1959, pp 80-83; (from Referativnyy Zhurnal -- Biolo i a, C PYRG HTNo 12, 25 Jun 60, Abstract No 57714, by N. Ryzhov "The intravenous administration of bone marrow suspension to rats 2 1/2-3 hours after their irradiation by 600 r did not alter the survival rate or increase the blood thromboplastic activity. Analogous adminis- tration of bone marrow to animals irradiated while the upper third of the abdominal region was shielded was accompanied by a significant in- crease (12-20%) of blood thromboplastic activity," - 82 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanjj0dx= jyVp4 ~l~ e1t M%i t i 11 a~ Q ~rit9 Exophthalmos "Progressive Malignant 'Fxophthalmos," by Prof M. L. Krasnov and Be I. Svyadoshch, Chair of Eye Diseases, Central Institute for the Advanced Training of Physicians; Moscow, Vestnik Oftaltmologii, No 4, Jul," %*)Og pp 3-11 The disease described in this article appears in literature under various names, but the name progressive malignant exophthalmos was selected to stress its severity. The authors review briefly the symptoms and the course of the disease and describe three case histories of patients treated by X-ray therapy (total doses equaled 1,150, 1,450, and 1,600 r administered over a period of 6 weeks, twice weekly). The following conclusions are presented. 1. Malignant progressive exophthalmos runs a typical clinical courses and pathologically it is closely linked with the excessive pro- duction of thyrotroph.c hormone from the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. The disease is very grave and often leads to blindness. 2. Pathological and anatomic changes due to this disease are evident in the form of dense edema and cellular infiltration of the orbital tissue with subsequent transformation into fibrosis. 3. The most effective method of treating progressive malignant exophthalmos, at present, is X-ray therapy of the orbitohypophyseal area. Treatment should be initiated as early as possible in the course of the disease before the development of fibrosis. Miscellaneous 137. Help to Underdeveloped Countries "For a Hospital in Guinea" (unsigned article); Moscow, CPYRGHleditsinskiv Rabotnik, 13 Sep 60, p 4 "A shipment of medical equipment, apparatuses, and instruments for the hospital "Donka" in Conakry with 500 beds is being sent as a gift to the people of Guinea by the Soviet Union. Included in the shipment are stationary and portable apparatuses for gas anesthesia, apparatuses for artificial respiration, equipment for the administration of uninterrupted anesthesia, improved shadowless lamps for surgeries, suturing apparatuses, and X-ray and therapeutic installations. Instruments for thoracic sur- gery are also being sent. The equipment is now being loaded in the Odessa port for shipment to Conakry." - 83 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 San1l edNa,4 p r Jf g 3g~d~as~rrs u~-~r~ ~~Qa 6 ~ of Medical Sciences USSR "Current News" (unsigned artilce); Moscow, Arkhiv Patologii, Vol 22, No 9, 1960, p 94 At a 15 June 1960 meeting, the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR accepted the report of the Department of Medicobiological Sciences and decided to create in Moscow the Institute of Human Morphology. The new institute would be created out of parts of the pathologoanatomical. department of the Moscow Oblast Clinical Institute. A committee was appointed to determine the structure of the new insti- 139. Czech Center for Exotic Diseases Established "Medical Examination of Persons Sent Abroad and Those Returning From Abroad"; Prague, Vestnik Ministerstva Zdravotnictvi, No 6 1 Mar 60, pp 71-73 An instruction issued by the Czechoslovak Ministry of Health indicates that a Center for Exotic Diseases (Stredisko pro cizokrajne choroby) has been established within the Institute of National Health of the Prague Central National Committee (Faculty Hospital in Prague 12, Srobarova 50). The center will provide such necessary services to personnel being assigned- to brief periods of duty abroad (as well as their families) as inoculations, as well as to those being assigned abroad for extended periods. Presumably referring to those going abroad for extended duty, the instruction states that they will be given basic and special examinations including dental examinations. Personnel (and their families) sent abroad by offices other than central offices located in Prague will be given basic examinations, including dental examinations, by an approved physician in the appropri- ate kraj institute of national health. An extended assignment abroad is one that exceeds 3 months in the case of European countries and 2 months in the case of countries outside Europe. Personnel returning from abroad following their tour of duty or for vacation must be immediately examined by the center or the appropriate kraj institute of national health and any necessary treatment must be initiated at once. -84- anitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 SanM22d leWAH - a~M # ibr ~ F Ai flMhUnrfi. Berlin, Der Morgen, 30 Sep 60 Under a long-range plan to be adopted by the East Berlin City Assembly in October, 1.35 billion DM is to be spent on the development of East Berlints medical and public-health facilities between 1960 and 1965. The plan calls for building 23 city dispensaries, 3 polyclinics, 9 children's nurseries, 2 old-age homes, and 50 nursery stations and for an increase of 900 hospital beds and 1,000 infirmary beds. A reha-' bilitation center is being established in Berlin/Buch. Allotments of 135 million DM have been planned for rebuilding the Charite first-aid clinic and for additional medical facilities in the Berlin/Buch Research Center alone. The plan also provides for including the, highest possible number of East Berliners in preventive measures in 1961, especially the continuation of the successful polio immunization. Under the 1961 polio immunization program, all East Berliners between 20 and 40 are to be vaccinated. The Bezirk Berlin committee of the East German Red Cross is to set up a commission for health training. The East German Magistrat, - in con- junction with this commission and the East German Hygiene Museum, Dresden, is to establish a health-training center in the New City Hall during the first half of 1961. 141. New Hospital Being Built in Gera "Gera -- Portrait of a City," by Willi Weber, Chief Burgomaster of Gera; Berlin, Stadt and Gemeinde, Vol 4, No 10, Oct 60, pp 10-17 A new hospital, the Wismut-Hospital, is now under construction in Gera as part of the Seven-Year Plan and is scheduled for completion by 1963. The main clinic (the women's and children's clinic) will contain 520 beds. The hospital complex will include a pathology institute, a Lbacteriological] culture house, large kitchens, and washrooms. The article contains a picture of the building site of this hospital on page 13. - 85 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 142. Postgraduate Medical Training Congress Opons in Leipzig Berlin, Neue Zeit, 28 Sep 60 The 1960 Congress on Postgraduate Medical Training has opened in Leipzig. Among the participants in the congress are noted scientists of the East German Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Social Hygiene, Work Hygiene, and Medical Postgraduate Training, well-known medical experts of the Geat German universities, and more than 600 physicians from the two German states. In his opening speech, Prof Dr Friedeberger, East German Deputy Minister of Health, announced that the Academy for Postgraduate Medical Training has been established in East Berlin. Friedeberger said that with the establishment of this academy the Ministry of Health has met the need for raising postgraduate medical training to a higher level. Friedeberger also reported the establishment of an East German Associa- tion for Experimental Medicine. 143. Organization of and Plans for Experimental Medical Research Insti- tute of Hungary "Report of the Department Directorate," by Antal Babies, Secre- tary of the Department of Biological and Medical Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Budapest, A Magyar Tudoma vos Akademia Biolo iai es Orvosi Tudoma ok Osztalyanak Kozleme ei, Vol XI, No 2-3 1960p pp 168-170 The KOKI (Kiserleti Orvostudomanyi Kutato Intezet, Experimental Medical Research Institute) was established in 1953 to act as a center and director of pathophysiology and pharmaceutical research and research in the fields of morphology and antibiotics., Because its departments have been so widely scattered, the institute has been unable to attain its goals. The departments of the institute are now located in four places. They will be brought together after the construction of the new headquarters of KOKI, which is to begin in 1960 and should be completed in 2 years, To permit the expansion of the Debrecen Department of Antibiotics, the possibility of the construction of a barrabk-type building is now being investigated. On 1 March 1960, the Department of Microbiology was transferred to KOKI from the National Institute of Public Health (Orszagos Kozegeszsegugyi Intezet). Although administratively transferred to KOKI, this department, under the direction of Dr Gyula Weisfeiler,'will continue to operate in the laboratories of its original institute for the time being. - 86 - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 SanitizedlnA9f*Qvc i FDe,~aRW e~: a .RW$2iOe>~4tRA%40 ssoau.I>~gical and Medical Sciences recommended the appointment of Academician Istvan Rusznyak as director of KOKI and also as chairman of the Department of Pathophysiology, Academician Bela Issekutz as chairman of the Department of Pharmaceutical Research Academician Imre Toro as chairman of the Depart- ment of Morphology and Prof Tibor Valyi-Nagy as chairman of the Debrecen Department of Antibiotics. The most important achievements of the departments have been as follows: The Department of Antibiotics has developed primycin, flavo- fungin, and related antibiotics. The Department of Pharmaceutical Re- search has developed "gastropin" and is now working on the preparation of drugs having the effect of largactil, papaverin, and novatropin, The Department of Pathophysiology is concentrating research on the lymph system, neuroendocrinology, ands hematology. The Department of Morphology is studying the basic biological significance of the histophysiology of the thymus and of cell multiplication. The expansion of KOKI will not decrease the significance of univer- sity research. Such research remains indispensable, because the medical universities perform the major part of scientific work and will continue to do so for many years to come. "Interview From the Future," by Klari R. Farkas; Budapest, MagZar Nemzet, g Oct 60, p 5 The Experimental Medical Research Institute is to begin operating in a new 46-million-forint building on the Ulloi ut in Budapest in 1963. Dr Ervin Stark., Candidate of Medical Sciences, will be deputy director of the institute. The basement of the planned building will house the mechanical instal- lations required for research. A library., reading rooms, club rooms, and dining hall will be located on the ground floor. The management, offices, anc: guest rooms will be located on the second floor. The third and fourth floors will accommodate the Department of Pathophysiology. This depart- ment is now conducting research on the role of certain endocrine glands. The effect of the glands on various experimentally induced pathological conditions is being investigated. The Department of Experimental Morphology will be on the fifth and sixth floors. It will conduct research on the basic biological phenomena of animal cells, The result of these investigations will provide clues to the problem of cell multiplication, regeneration, etc. The Department of Pharmaceutical Research will be on the eighth and ninth floors. - 87 - Sanitized - AeRrovd For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Onc n s new headquarter, KOKI will concentrate on developing drugs to combat virus infection. Future plans also call for KOKI to conduct research on the biochemistry and physiology of the brain. 144. Rumania Sends Medical Films to Prague Congress Bucharest, Muncitorul Sanitar, Vol 11, No 37, 17 Sep 60, p 1 The following films, produced by the Medical Documentation Center, will represent Rumania at the 14th Congress of the International Associa- tion of.Scientific Films to be held 16-24 September in Prague: "Inter- atrial Septal Defects," "Research in Experimental Embryology," "Experi- mentally Induced Dystonic Motor Syndromes," and "Artificial Pulmonary Heart." 1459 Organizational Changes in Medical Academy in Warsaw "Organizational Changes in the Medical Academy in Warsaw"; Warsaw, Monitor Poiski, No 61 and 62, 4 Aug and 9 Aug 60, p 574 and p 580 On the basis of Article 15 of the law of 5 November 1958 on higher schools (Dziennik Ustaw, No 68, Item 336), the following organizational changes were authorized for the Medical Academy in Warsaw on the dates indicated: On 25 June, the present Chair of Infectious D3,seases of the College of Sanitation and Hygiene was transferred to the Department of Medicine of the Medical Academy in Warsaw. On 7 July, the establishment of a Chair of Biochemistry in the Pharmaceutical Department of the Medical Academy in Warsaw was authorized. Sanitized - Approved For Releqqg,: C ,PR?;-00141 R0001 00680001-9 ila6. New Technology for Making Bal.1-Bearing Steel "New Technology for Making Shlthl5-Grade Ball-Bearing Steel Under White Slags," by N. M. Chuyko, V. B. Rutkovskiy, M. P. Konishchev, A. G. Perevyazko, A. F. Tregubenko., I. S. Yatskevich, I. P. Zabaluyev, V. V. Kurganov, T. M. Bobkov, and G. I. Antipenko, Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute and "Dneprospetastal'" Plant; Stalinsk, Izvestiya V sshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Chernaya Metallurgiya, No 5, 1960) pp 38-47 Descriptions are given of the various steps in a new technology for making ShI16-grade ball-bearing steel which is distinguished by a shorter refining period and the use of white 'slags. The duration of a complete heat is shortened 8% and that of the refining period by 35 min. During the oxidizing period the rate of carbon burn-out is 0.140.5%/hr, whereas the maximum carbon drop is established to be 0.3-0.5%. Temperature of the metal before removal of the oxidizing slag is 1,545-1,565?C. Lime- alumina white slags are used in the reducing period and have the following composition upon removal: (FeO) L 0.5%; (CaF2) = 1-2%; (SiO 2 + A120) 31-34%; (CaO) > 53%; (MiO) < 12% and (CaO + MgO) s 63-65%. Optimum3 temperature of the metal before tapping is 1,550-1,5709C, whereby it is possible to bottom-pour a 2.8-ton ingot in 165-190 sec. Final deoxidation with aluminum in the ladle decreases the oxidation content by 30%. With proper organization and equipment, the reducing period may be reduced to approximately one hr 15 min, with a further improvement in the quality of the metal. Sanitized - Approved For ReleaseWT4FA-R'UP800141 R0001 00680001-9 Magnetohydrodynamics 147. Shock-Wave Structure "The Structure of Low Intensity Shock Waves in Magneto- hydrodynamics," by Ye. P. Sirotina and S. I. Syrovatskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp 746-753 A general expression has been deduced for the width of shoe?: waves of low intensity in magnetohydrodynamics. The damping coefficieLzt for small amplitude waves is determined, and its relation to the discontinuity width is established. Nuclear Physics 148. Triple U-235 Fission "Energy Distribution of the Fragments of Triple U-235 Fission," by V. N. Dmitriyev, L. V. Drapchinskou, K. A. Petzhak, and Yu. F. Romanov; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperi- mental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp 55 -5 2 Data on the energy distribution of the fragments of triple U235 fission are presented. It is shown that the ratio of the triple to double fission probability does not depend on the ratio of the masses. Arguments are given which substantiate the relation Ed ? Etr + E a where Ed and Etr are the total energies of the double and triple fission fragments, Ea is the energy of the long range a particle. The mecha- nism of triple fission is discussed. SarUdzecR-eA:IbMvf e;l2FOr Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R0001 00680001-9 "The Possibility of Application of the (n,2n) Reaction in Nuclear Spectroscopy," by V. V. Komarov, A. B. Kureni.n, and A. M. Popova, Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University imeni Lomonosov; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademil Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheskaya, Vol 24, No 9, Sep pn 11 5-il The reaction (n,2n) is analyzed as a pick-up reaction. By taking into account the strong interaction of neutrons at low relative energy, the pick-up mechanism becomes possible as a result of direct interaction of the incident neutron with the nucleus. By applying the reaction (n,2n) instead of (p,d) or (n,d), it is expected to obtain data on energy levels of nuclei by studying the curves of angular distributions within regions of medium and heavy nuclei, as well as at low energies where coulomb action is too strong for usual pick-up reactions. These pick-up reactions are of particular value for determining the characteristics of active nuclei, as well as for studying secondary excited levels of even-even reactions and for determining the splitting of nuclei into a series of states of various moments. 150. Te-119 Isomers "The Existence of Te-119 Isomers," by N. G. Zaytseva, M. Ya. Kuznetsova, I. Yu. Levenberg, V. N. Pokrovskiy, and V. A. IQZalkin; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheskaya, Vol 24, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1083-10 5 The existence of Te-119 isomers was revealed by the authors (Radio- khimiya No 1., 1960) during the study of neutron deficient iodine isotopes with A s 121. It was attempted thereafter to obtain more detailed data on the decay of Te?-119 isomers and the establishment of their relative yields.. The Te-119 isomers were obtained together with other isotopes from irradiation of a ICI plate by 250-Mev protons on the synchrocyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Two radiochemically pure Te compounds Te I and Te II were obtained. Te I was a mixture of isotopes formed by deep fission of iodine. Te II was a mixture of Te isotopes accumulated during the fission of radiochemically pw'e iodine. The Te-119 isomer in T II was short lived: (12 + 1) hours. - 91 - anitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 SarS A ~iiie e4"~s~~;17A-RDP82-001418000100680001-9 "New Isotopes Iridium-1811 and Platinum-1,87," by V. I. Baranov, K. Ya. Grovov, B. S. Dzhelepov, Sung Chung-pai, T. V. Malysheva, V. A. Morozov, B. A. Khotin and V. G. Chumin, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry imeni Vernadskiy, Academy of Sciences USSR, and. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seri a Fizicheskaya, Vol 21E, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1079-10 2 The spectrum of conversion electrons of iridium, formed by deep 660-Me`/-proton -induced fission of gold, has been studied by means of a Danish type beta spectrometer. A new isotope Ir-184 has been identified and its half life found equal to 3.1 + 0.3 hours. Its suggested decay scheme is given. For determining the half life of a new platinum isotope Pt-187, a fraction of Pt was separa:ced from gold irradiated by 660-MeV protons on the synchrocyclotron. Its daughter nuclide, iridium, was separated from Pt each IF hours. The spectrum of conversion electrons of the daughter iridium was studied by means of a magnetic spectrometer with double focusing. The half life of the new isotope pt-187 was found to be 2.0 + 0.4 hours. 152. Waves in Plasma "Electromagnetic Waves in a Plasma Filled half-Space," by Yu,. N. Dnestrovskiy and D. P. Kostomarov, Moscow State University; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperirnen tal'noy i Teoreti- cheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp b45-b53 The propagation of e'!.ectromagnetic waves across a magnetic field in half-space filled with a magnetoactive plasma is studied. It is assumed that the plasma is confined by a stationary magnetic field H, and the structure of this field is investigated for the case in which the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure is small, It is demon- strated that at large distances from the plasma boundary,, an electro- magnetic wave with an electric vector parallel to the magnetic field H has the form of a plane wave with a propagation constants which is specified by the equaticn for an infinite plasma. The reflection and transmission coefficients are evaluated for a plane wave striking the plasma from vacuum. - 92 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 141 0 8 ; F A !/ I fiFO?riI 1! AL W1*4 2 DECEMBER 1960 `,, 2 QF `.' Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 153. Plasma Stability "Study of Plasma Stability by Means of a Generalized Energy Principle," by V. F. Aleksin and V. I. Yashin, Physico- Technical Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp 622-826 Stability conditions are derived for a plasma possessing an aniso- tropic particle velocity distribution and located in a cylindrically symmetric magnetic field. Cases of longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields are considered. 154. Plasma Oscillations "Proper Oscillations of a Restricted Plasma," by D. A. Frank-ICamenetskiy; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimental'noy I Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp 6699- 9 The general properties of cylindrical waves in a cold plasma are considered. The results obtained are applied to the low frequency proper oscillations of a plasma cylinder surrounded by conducting walls. The conditions of magneto-acoustic resonances which ensure an effective pene- tration of the oscillations into the plasma are derived. The nature of the resonance phenomena depends on the linear density of the electrons. Approximate formulas are presented for the proper fre' i;i:.rr.ncies of a long plasma cylinder. It is shown that in the vicinity of the mean geometrical value of the electron and-ion cyclotron frequencies, purely radial oscil- lations are not feasible since even small angular deviations sharply change the resonance frequency. 155. Resonance in Plasma "Magneto-Acoustic Resonance in a Plasma," by A.P. Ashmatov, P. I. Blinov, V. F. Bolotin, A. V. Borodin, P. P. Gavrin, Ye. K. Zavooyskiy, I. A. Kovan,, M. N. Oganov, B. I. Patrushev, Ye. V. Piskarev, V. D. Rusanov, G. Ye. Smolkin, A. R. Stringanov, D. A. Frank-Kamenetskiy, P. A. Cheremnokh, and R. V. Chikin; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimental'noy I Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60,,pp 53 -544 The work is dedicated to an experimental study of vibrations of a magneto-acoustic type in a cold plasma. It is shown that under certain conditions; a high frequency electromagnetic field strongly penetrates into the plasma with an attendant resonance absorption of energy of the field. The results of investigation of'resonance at frequencies 12.5 and 50 me/s by various methods are described. The results are compared with the theoretical predictions. 93 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 156. Plasma Flow "Plasma Flow into Vacuum in Presence of a Magnetic Field," by R. V. Polovin, Physics-Mathematic Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperi- mental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3. Sep 60, pp 657-661 Hydromagnetic waves excited by disintegration of the boundary between the plasma and vacuum are investigated. The boundary velocity.(escape velocity) is determined. The amplitude of the electromagnetic wave emitted during disintegration of the discontinuity is determined. 157. Plasma Decay "Decay of a Plasmon at Absolute Zero," by Yu. A. Romanov, Gorkiy Physico-Technical Institute; Moscow, Zhurnal Eksperimental'noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vol 39, No 3, Sep 60, pp 662-665 The decay of a plasmon in a solid body (isotropic model) due to phonon interaction between the electrons is analyzed. 158. Beam Loss in a Phasotron "Beam Loss at the Limiting Radius in a Phasotron," by V. P. Dmitriyevskiy, B. I. Zamolodchikov, and V. V. Kol'ga; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiyyaa, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, pp 303-305 A resonance interaction of radial and vertical oscillations near n = 0.25 is analyzed. It is demonstrated that this resonance is much more dangerous than parametric excitation of vertical oscillations, pro- voked by the first harmonic in the structure of the magnetic field. 159. Effect of Leakage Fields on Focusing "Effects of the Leakage Fields of a Sectional Magnet on the Double Focusing of the Beam," by Yu. A. Kholmovskiy; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 14 Oct 60, pp 301-303 The effect of the leakage field on the vertical focusing of charged particles is studied. A computation method of sectional magnets with double focusing is presented with an account of the leakage field. - 94 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 160. Improved Alpha-Spectrometer "Operation of a Ionization Alpha-Spectrometer at High Loads," by A. A. Vorob'yev and V. A. Korolev; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheskaya, Vol 24, No 9, Sep 60, pp 10 -1091 The improved ionization alpha spectrometer permits work in coinci- dence with a gamma spectrometer. Spectrum tails disappear because the most intense spectral lines do not coincide. The instrument provides a possibility for measuring multipolarity and relative intensities of corresponding gamma transitions and a possibility of studying alpha-gamma angular correlations and hence identifications of levels. A method is given for raising the permissible j.oad of the ionization chamber from a threshold of 100 pulses/sec to 101. pulses/sec. This spectrometer was used by the authors for studying the alpha decay of U-235. (ibid., pp 1092-1098) 161. Magnetic Recorders "Pulse Recording by a Magnetic Tape Recorder and by an Automatic Self-Recording Potentiometer," by A. N. Silant'yev, Radium Institute imeni Khlopin, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akadernii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheskaya, Vol 24, No 9, Sep 60, pp 1165-1168 The equipment is intended for recording a pulse spectrum on a magnetic tape recorder or on an automatic potentiometer. -The magnetic tape recorder is used for measuring the emission of radioactive substances of short half life where the use of a multichannel pulse analyzer is impossible. The system described was developed for use with a magnetic tape recorder of the type "Melody." The permissible load of the equipment is determined by the characteristics of the head of the magnetic tape recorder. The automatic potentiometer is used for recording the emission of radioactive substances of low activity or in the case of coincidence measurements. Both recorders may be used simultaneously. - 95 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 162. Improved Magnetic Spectrometer "A Magnetic Spectrometer With Double Focusing," by N. G. Afanas'yev, Kharkov Physicotechnical Institute, Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR; Moscow, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Fizicheska a, Vol 2 , No 9, Sep 60, PP 1157-11611. A new method for obtaining an ideal horizontal focusing, securing vertical focusing as well, is described. For decreasing the region 'of action of the scattering field, particularly for its accurate determina- tion, magnetic screens are used at the inlet and exit of the beam. Formulas for computation of horizontal and vertical focusing, taking into account the dispersed fields, are presented. Several magnetic spectrometers based on this design have been constructed. 163. Design of a Homogeneous Boiling Water Reactor "Neutron-Flux Distribution in a Homogeneous Boiling Water Reactor," by B. Z. Torlin; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, pp 257-261 The design method of a boiling homogeneous reactor in which the density of the medium varies with height is analyzed in age diffusion approximation. For the case of a cylindrical reactor, the solution can be reduced to elliptical integrals. It is demonstrated that if the radius of the reactor much exceeds its height, the solution may be expressed in elementary functions. 164. Design of a Reflector Reactor "Effectiveness of a System of Rod Absorbers in a Reactor Fitted With a Reflector," by V. I. Nosov; Moscow, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol 9, No 4, Oct 60, pp 262-267 The conditions of criticality and distribution of neutron fluxes for a homogeneous reactor on thermal neutrons with a!system of absorbing rods are obtained in a two-group approximation. The rods are immersed the whole depth of the reactor and are located around the circumference of the active zone or around the radial reflector at equal distances from each other. The results of computations are presented. - 96 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 165. Poles Develop "Atomic" Lamp "The First Polish Atomic Lamp Is Lit"; Budapest, Technika, Vol IV, No 9, Sep 60, p 12 An atomic, or rather isotope, lamp has been developed by two young Polish scientist?, Adam Kazmierski and Edmund Strychaiski. The lamp recently demonstrated at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Warsaw, has a container filled with a radioactive gas, Krypton 85. The inner wall of the container is coated with luminophar particles which the energy from the gas causes to shine. The light of the experimental lamp is visible from a distance of 300 meters and can be made more powerful with reflectors. The lamp will shine at undiminished strength for 10 years and at half strength for another 10 years. It has no harmful effect on humans and can be used at sea or at great altitudes where regular lighting is not feasible. However, the lamp is too costly to replace ordinary lighting fixtures. 166. Establishment of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Krakow "Council of Ministers Resolution No 234"; Warsaw, Monitor Polski, No 64,17 Aug 60, p 593 The Nuclear Physics Center in Krakow, is removed from the Institute of Nuclear Research in Warsaw (organizationally subordinate to the Pleni- potentiary of the Council for Uses of Nuclear Energy LRSWEJ7 and becomes a scientific institute with. the name "Nuclear Physics Insti;ute;?.In Krakow." The headquarters of the institute is in Krakow. It is subordinate to the Plenipotentiary of the RSWEJ. The pattern for all the scientific activity of. the institute is set by the Polish Academy of Sciences through the Committee on Peaceful Use,of Nuclear Energy. The task of the institute is to carry out scientific research work in the field of nuclear physics. Costs of maintaining the institute will be covered by the budget for the Plenipotentiary of the RSWEJ. Workere of the institute will be' paid- in accordance with the law on pay for workers employed by installations subordinate to the Plenipotentiary of the RSWEJ. - 97 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Solid State Physics 167. Statistical Properties of the Electron System of Ferromagnetic Transition Metals "Statistical Properties of the Electron System of Ferro- magnetic Transition Metals," by S. V. Vonsovskiy and Yu. A. Izyumov, Institute of Metal Physics, Academy of Sciences USSR; Sverdlovsk, Fizika Metallov i Metallovedeniye, Vol 10, No 3, Sep 60, pp 321-33 By the application of the method of retarding and advancing Green functions proposed by N. N. Bogolyubov and Yu. -A. Izyumov, the statistical properties of the electron systems of ferrogmagnetic transition and rare-earth metals were investigated. It was shown that the system of interacting conductivity electrons and electrons belonging to inner localized incomplete and spin-unsaturated layers of shells of ions in crystals of transitional group elements has two types of elementary excitations, those of the Fermi type (conductivity electrons) and those of the Bose type (spin waves). It was established that two Bose branches exist. At a zero quasipulse of energy, one of the branches has an energy equal to zero, while the other branch has an energy of an order corre- sponding to exchange interaction between conductivity electrons and electrons of the inner layers. It was shown that this situation on the whole is preserved during the whole temperature range of the existence of the ferromagnetic state. The frequency of the damping of spin waves that is due to collisions with conductivity electrons has been determined. - 98 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9 168. Yugoslav Industrial Research Centers Denied Privileges of Independent Research Organizations "An Unsatisfactory Recommendation" (unsigned article); Belgrade, Fkononska Politika, Vol 9, No 444, 1 Oct 60, pp 928-929 The recent Law on the Method of Financing Scientific Institutions'' grants scientific institutions many financial privileges. For example, they do not pay.taxes on their fixed or working capital or on their real estate, they set their own amortization tax, etc. However, these privi- leges do not apply to similar organizations in industrial enterprises. Developmental laboratories, institutes, and other scientific research, organizations in industrial enterprises are treated the same as the other parts of the enterprises. Recently the Federal Chamber of Industry advised industrial enter- prises to establish developmental and research bureaus, centers, depart- ments, and other organizations for the application of scientific and technical achievements to industrial production processes. These organi- zations would introduce modern technology, automation,. electronics, nuclear engineering, and mechanization and would work on the development and production of modern technical equipment, tools.,* and their parts. The enterprises were advised to take advantage of the . possibilities?of obtaining credits from various sources such as the Savezni Fond za Naucni Rad (Federal Fund for Scientific Work), the Opsti' Investiciorii Fond; (General Investment Fund), and the Savezni Zavod za Naucni Red (Federal Institution for Scientific Work), which last finances certain projects of national importance. Industrial enterprises are permitted to found independent scientific research organizations which are bound by contract to work primarily for the benefit of the founding enterprises. However, in modern industry scientific research is an integral part of, and one of the most important factors in,'the improvement of technological processes. This work should not be separated from the work' of the, enterprise. - 99 - UscoMM-DC_61273 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000100680001-9