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54~r ved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 01 00150001-6 PB 131632-14 SOVIET BLOC INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR INFORMATION May 16, 1958 U. S. DEPART MNT OF COMMERCE Office of Technical Services Washington 25, D. C. Published Weekly from February 14, 1958, to January 2, 1959 Subscription Price $10.00 for the Series Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 PLEASE NOTE This report presents unevaluated information on Soviet Bloc International Geophysical Year activities selected from foreign- language publications as indicated in parentheses. It is pub- lished as an aid to United States Government re,$earch. SOVIET BLOC INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR INFORMATION Table of Contents Page I. General 1 II. III. IV. Rockets and Artificial Earth Satellites Upper Atmosphere Oceanography 16 V. Arctic and Antarctic 18 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 IGY Work in Georgia, Kirghiz, and Tadzhik Republics CPYRGHT The scientific organizations and scientists of the Georgian, Kirghiz, and Tadzhik SSRs will participate in the program of the IGY. The work for each is described in a scientific periodical. The work of the Georgian SSR is described by Academician Ye. K. Kharadze, Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR, and V. V. Kebuladze and A. V. Bukhikashvili, Candidates of Physico- mathematical Sciences. K. 0. Otorbayev reports on the work of the Kirghiz SSR. P. V. Babadzhanov, Candidate of Physicomathematical Sciences, Stalin- abad Astronomical Observatory, reviews the work of the Tadzhik SSR. The scientific organizations and scientists of Georgia will actively participate in observations according to the program of the IGY. The basic complex of those participating is centered in the Institute of Geophysics and the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR, and in the institutes of the Administration of the Hydrological Serv- ice. According to the IGY program the work in Georgia will be coordinated by a committee of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR under the chairmanship of N. I. Muskhelishvili, president of the academy. The plan of investigations of the Institute of Geophysics provides for the study of the fields of geomagnetic and geoelectric perturbations and for the investigation of variations of the intensity of cosmic rays. Fixed observations according to these problems are conducted in the Dusheti Geophysical Observatory And in the Tbilisi Cosmic Ray Station. The study of the field of geomagnetic perturbations in the Dusheti observatory is conducted by means of continuous 21+-hour recordings of var- iations of H, Z. and D elements of the Earth's magnetic field. The regis- tration of variations is accomplished at a feed rate of 20 mm per hour in parallel by magnetographs which are set up in the variation pavilion Con- tinuous 21+-hour registration of variations of the east and west components of electrical earth currents are also made parallelly in two electrotelluric devices with feed rates of 20 and 80 mm per hour. Continuous round-the- clock recordings of short-period variations of the vertical components of the geomagnetic field and the east and west components of regional earth electric currents are made using fluxmeter galvanometer devices. Investigations of variations in the intensity of cosmic rays have been conducted since 1 October in the ionization chamber of the Tbilisi Cosmic Ray Station. Observations with a neutron monitor and a stereoscope telescope will begin very soon. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 The working of the problems described presents an opportunity to study the reason for the appearance of the different types of oscillations and perturbations of the Earth's magnetic field, to investigate variations of the intensity of the various components of cosmic rays, and to deter- mine the mutual connection between these and other heliogeophysical phe- nomena. Investigations of the photospheric and chromospheric formations on the Sun and the physical parameters of the Earth's upper atmosphere are traditional for the Abastumani observatory. The experience of numerous observation, developed methods, and results obtained from previous op- erations ensured the fruitful participation of the observatory in ful- filling the IGY program. A new instrument for solar investigations, a photospheric-chromospheric telescope, was mounted in a specially built tower with a rotating cupola toward the beginning of the IGY. This instrument, together with a spectroheliosc ope -heliograph and a small meniscus photoheliograph, provides systematic photos pheric -chromospheric service and chromospheric flare patrol. Radioastronomic measurements of solar radiation on a wavelength of 1.5 meters are also conducted. Works on the study of the properties of the upper atmosphere is based on observations of night sky brightness, photometry of twilight skies, and ozone content measurements. These activities are accomplished by a whole series of spectral and electrophotometric instruments set up, in a specially constructed 1A-meter tower, in what are actually laboratories for complex investigations of the upper atmosphere. A photoelectric photometer made in the observatory, consisting of a bismuth-cesium photomultiplier, a direct-current amplifier feeding the optic, a device for changing the light filters, and a galvanometer,,-serves to measure the intensity of the basic emmissions of the night sky, oxygen emissions (5,57'( and 6,300 A?), and sodium (5,893 A?). Another electro- photometer with an oxide-cesium photomultiplier and a set of light filters is intended for investigating the intensity and spectral composition of the twilight sky. Systematic measurements of the quantity of ozone in the stratosphere, the seasonal variation of its content, and variations of the altitude of the layer are conducted with the aid of a new series photo- electric ozonometer. Observations and measurements of the coordinates of the artificial earth satellites complete the cycle of work of the Abastumani observatory according to the work of the IGY program. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 CPYRGH workers of the Academy of Sciences important problems of contemporary glaciation of Central Tien.Shan? Work trated on the base of the Tien Shan ation, which is one of the basic points the USSR during the IGY. Both fixed re conducted, In the period of the IGY tt: Kirghiz SSR must solve a number glaciology in the instance of th on the study of glaciers is cone High-Altitude Physiogeographic for glaciological observations i and expeditionary investigations Lily toward the study of the processes Lnd melting of ice in relation to the Earth, the explanation of glaciation es of old glaciation and the geological .ogical observations. As a result of 's of the progress of the present glacia- y be explained and the direction of the arate physical-geographic regions of The work is directed princi of accumulation, transformation, heat balance of the surface of t and climate, the study of the tr activity of glaciers, and meteor these Investigations the basic 1 tion of the Tien Shan will probal evolution of the glaciation of si the republic established. cal investigations, besides their theo- tical value for explaining the effect he water regime of rivers andibrsolving ric power station construction, irri- in soils with permafrost conditions. The results of the glaciolo retical interest, have a more pr of glaciation on the climate and problems connected with hydroele, gation, and building constructio: m of the IGY, the Stalinabad Astronomical nces Tadzhik SSR will conduct investi- e investigations are conducted by photo- In accordance with the prog Observatory of the Academy of Sc gations in meteoric astronomy. graphic, radar, and visual methoi titude, velocity, and brightness of e physical parameters of the upper r altitudes of 60-120 kilometers. In aphs of meteors gives valuable informa- ers, their diurnal migration, etc.. Photographic studies of the meteors permits determination of layers of the Earth's atmosphere addition, the proceusing of photo tion on the radiants of meteor sh ms of the collection of statistical time intervals necessary for the eval- ors and solar radiation in the ionizatio meteors are recorded by the radar ap- Radar observations pose prob data on meteor activity in specif cation of the relative role of me of the E layer. A large number o. paratus of the observatory. It possible to Judge the directio lavers of the easing. (Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR CPYRGHT and velocity of air currents in the upye ns, together with photographing, make e which give information on the drift ted with the aid of high light-gathering Visual observations are cond of meteor trails. These observat power binoculars of the "Asembi" obtained are confirmed No 3, Mar 56, pp 56-58) CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Stalinabad Observatory Completes 25 Years of Service The Stalinabud Astronomical Observatory has completed 25 years of operation. During this time its workers have conducted a great amount of work on the observation and'inv3stigation of meteors, meteoric dust, variable stars, and comets. The observatory's archives contain about 20,000 photographs. These are used by the workers of many of the ob- servatories in the Soviet Union. Tadzhik astronomers have studied the physical properties of more than 1,000 'variable stars. N. I. Gur'yev, A. V. Solov'yev, and A. M. Bakharev have discovered three new stars and one comet. The collective of the observatory actively participates in the work of the IGY. L. A. Katasev, Candidate of Physicomathematical Sciences, has obtained important results from studying the upper layers of the at- mosphere. P. B. Babadzhanov, Candidate of Physicomathematical Sciences, is investigating the connection between meteors and comets. The government of the republic hag decided to renrganimn they n'h- ory into an astrophysics institute. (Moscow, Izvestiya, 27 Apr 58) CPYRGHT New Yugoslav Organization Will Study IGY Data CPYRGHT Engr Abdulah Muminagic, secretary of the Yugoslav National Commissio for the IGY, has announced that a special organization composed of geo- physicists will be founded for the study of data obtained during the IGY. The decision to found the organization was made on 14 March 1958 at a meeting of the Secretariat 58, p ~) (Zagreb, Borba [Zagreb edition],22 Mar CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 II. ROCKETS AND ARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITES CPYRGH Use of Satellite for Ionosphere Study An article titled "On a Method of Investigating the Ionosphere With the Aid of an Artificial Satellite of the Earth," by Y. L. Alpert, does the following: 1. Discusses the disadvantages of vertical rocket launchings to obtain ionosphere data: 'Our information on the ionization balance and croprocesses in the io sphere is very contradictory. Various values given for these processes, for example, the coefficient of recombination and the cross section of hotoionization obtained from a treatment of exper menjal results and heoretical calculations, often differ by as much as 10 -10 and more." CPYRGHT 2. Considers a method of investigating the ionosphere with the aid of an artificial satellite moving at a rate of approximately 8 kilometers per second in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in the F2 layer (250-300 km) and apogee at an altitude of approximately 800-900 kilometers ("above the region where the maximum electron concentration of the F2 layer occurs"). For the radi method and the utilization of the Doppler effect, a frequency f (107-10?) cps is chosen as most favorable, since the Doppler shift, even in those directions which form an angle T^--/8o-850 with the direction of radiation, amounts to values of / f - 1.00-150 cps, and may be recorded with great accuracy. 3. Points out that, from an analysis of the results of measurements based on the utilization of the Doppler effect, a number of values for ionosphere parameters can be obtained for a region above the point of observation extending in a horizontal direction for a distance of several hundred kilometers (assuming that each observation lasts 60-90 seconds, during which the satellite flies past at a distance of 250-300 km)- 4. States that a direct measurement can be made of the total number of electrons in a column with a cross section of one square centimeter extending from the lower limits of the ionosphere to an altitude zo of the satellite in its passage over the point of observation, i.e.., Np (zo): \\ Ndz, and points out also that this method is used in addition to determine the value of the radial velocity ro of the satellite in the direction of the observer. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 5. States that, under certain conditions (in an undisturbed ionosphere), the value of electron concentration at the altitude of passing satellite, No = N(zo), can be determined as an average value of electron concentration in a column several kilometers high. 6. States that, iti a number of cases, it is possible to determine the values mo and AO, i.e., the dimensions which characterize the fluctuation of electron density and the linear dimensions of nonhomogeneous formations along the flight path of the satellite. 7. Discusses the analysis of the results of measurements for the case where N= N(z), i.e., when the electron concentration depends solely on altitude, and for the case where N (x,z) = N(z) I i -h m cos 2 TC x i.e., where the variability of the ionosphere, caused by slight inhomogene- ities varying from dozens to several hundreds of meters in size, are taken into account. 8. Considers certain evaluations of measured dimensions and the accuracy of their determination. 9. States the following conclusions: "Complete pertinent data cannot be obtained with modern facilities in a single experiment (either directly or indirectly); thus several similar experiments-point the way toward a greater possibility of studying the ionosphere. "It is evident that, during a period of active disturbance or increased ionization in the ionosphere (for example, of the sporadic layers), it will be hard to obtain, from measurement data, information on all.. .para- meters. The duration of these disturbances usually fluctuates from several minutes to an hour, with the maximum reaching several days, and these dis- turbances do not take place at the same time over the entire Earth. For this reason, such disturbances scarcely upset the measurements during the total period of flight of the satellite; and, if suitable sources of power are provided, the possibility of producing an observation extending over several weeks' time will be afforded. On the other hand, the data obtained at the time of these disturbances will, when compared with the results of vertical soundings, give new and interesting information on '.ne character and structure of the disturbed ionosphere. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 CPYRGHT CPYRGH "Nato-ally, any experiments w the simplest method of measurement, sh The... experiments can be conducted wit Measurement and design problems which th sa..tell:Ltes, even in the case of uld be precise investigations. ut special technical preparations. rise may be solved with the aid of (Uspekhi r izicheskikh Nauk, Vol 74, No 1, Jan 58, pp 3-14) Sputnik Contributions to Geodesy The advent of the sputniks has given man the possibility of conducti observations of the cosmos from the vantage of interplanetary space for th first time. Among the wide horizons opened to science is that which stand before geodesy and the whole complex of science, the study of the shape of the Earth. A. A. Mikhaylov, Corresponding Member of Academy of Sciences USSR and director of the Main Astronomical Observatory, gives his reviews on this aspect of the use of the sputniks in an article titled "What Will Sputnik Observations Give to Geodesy?" The orbit of a sputnik, the determined size and angle of inclination to the equator, are fixec' beforehand. The elements of the orbit depend on the velocity and direction of the sputnik's launching. The launching of a satellite into a given orbit is a complex technica problem which requires great accuracy. The satellite's velocity must be maintained within a certain percentage of accuracy, and the error of its launching angle must not exceed 1-1 1/2 degrees. Soviet scientists, engineers, and designers have successfully over- come all the difficulties of launching sputniks and launched them into orbit within the prescribed limits of accuracy. But this orbit does not remain unchanged. Its change is due to two causes, air drag and the force of gravity. The resistance of the air plays the role of a unique brake, by which the great axis of the orbit is decreased and its eccentricity is reduced. The orbit, elliptical at first, approaches a circular one, coming closer to the surface of the Earth, and the orbital period decreases. The braking effect is impossible to calculate beforehand, since the density of the air at these altitudes is not known to scientists. Now that the sputnik reports on the density of the upper layers of the air; the effect of the atmosphere can be discounted and the notion of a sputnik will depend only on the force of gravity, which is not the same for all points of the Earth. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 CPYRGHT d For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 ,sputniks can be given different orbits. They can be made to travel along the equator or from pole to pole, or counter to or in the same direction of the Earth's rotation. Each of such sputniks possesses its own advantages and disadvantages. For geodesy, the most favorable is the polar sputnik. The equatorial sputnik, traveling mainly over the equatorial zone, will give much less information in this respect. "The selection of the orbits' inclination., 65 degrees, was not accidental. Moved thus, a sputnik spends a maximum of time over the territory of the Soviet Union, which it flies around in all directions, and therefore reports the largest quantity of information on the distribution of gravity in it to us. "In the future it would be of great interest to launch a sputnik farther from the Earth. If it were caused to move above the Earth's atmosphere (at altitudes of more than 1,000 kilometers), its influence would not be felt and it would be unnecessary to include it in calculations. A so-called "twilight" sputnik which is always visible in the rays of the setting or rising Sun is especially remunerative in like observation. It is easier to observe by optical means, and visual and especially photographic observa- tions are more accurate than radar methods. It is especially important to observe the sputnik at the end of its life when it is nearest of all in its approach to the Earth, and at the time the transmitter batteries run down. It is wrong to imagine, says Mikhaylov, that several flights of a sputnik around the Earth are sufficient for scientists to know the exact shape of the Earth. Hundreds of measurements, proofs, and new observations are required for this. At present it is important to accumulate as many observations of the true motion of a sputnik as possible. After this, as these data are assembled and carefully worked over, figuratively speaking a new level of science will be achieved and definite conclusions will be made. to be done in this field. (Znaniye - Sila, No 3, Mar 58, p 35) Simultaneous Photographs of Sputnik II Made in Czechoslovakia CPYRGHT The observatory of the Institute of Astronomy (Astronomicky ustav of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Ondrejov has achieved the most important success to date in observing the earth satellite [Sputnik II). Z. Ceplech, Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat ved), from the department of interplanetary matter, was successful in photographing the second earth satellite simultaneously from two places on 22 January 1958. The two places are usually used for the photographic observation of meteors. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 To take the photograph, two sets of cameras were used concurrently. One set of cameras is located at the observatory in Ondrejov and the other 40 kilometer,, away in Prcice. While the satellite was passing over, the cameras in Ondrejov were closed for one second every 4 seconds so that the track of the satellite appears broken., The great importance of the photographs comes from the fact that the position of the two observing stations is precisely known, and consequently it possible to define the path of the satellite very exactly. The question, however, arises whether the relative distance of 40 kilometers is not too short, considering the height of the satellite. Therefore., the construction of another station further from Ondrejov is being considered. The fart i4 that this nhntnnranhing of the ss.te1lite is, from a scientific viewT)oint, the most important accomplished ho o-!rakia. (Prague, Obrana Lidu, 4 Feb 58, p 1) CPYRGHT Chinese Plan 12 Earth Satellite Tracking Stations Urumchi is one of 12 artificial earth satellite tracking stations being set 'tp in China by the Academia Sinica. On 3 November 1.957, 1714 hours Peiping time, the earth satellite [not further identified] passed over T'a-ch'eng at 1850 hours on 3 November and at 1821 hours on 5 November 1957. talks on earth satellites and intercontinental bal wave (Urumchi, Sinkiang Jih-pao.9 5 Nov 57, pp 1, 5) Urumchi Ch'en Te'-huang, director of the Mathematics Institute, and Li Chih-hui director of the Physics Research Institute, both of which are in Sinkiang, listic missiles at Soviet Officer Describes Ballistic Rockets CPYRGHT "They (the Soviet satellites) were launched, as is known, by means of multistage ballistic rockets," says Engr-Col K. Malyutin in a newspaper article which, for the most part, is a repetition of Soviet press and periodical information on Soviet satellite achievements. Malyutin, after making the above statement, continues with the follow- ing description of ballistic rockets;, but makes no conciate reference to them as being of Soviet type: A ballistic rocket is a cigar-shaped wingless object with a pointed nose housing the pay load. Farther below are arranged guidance instruments, fuel tank, and power plant. On the lower (first) stage, as in modern air- craft, are external air stabilizers and rudde-,s which control the course of the rocket up to altitudes of 30-40 km. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 CPYRGHT In airless space, control is effected by means of gas (exhaust) vanes made of high-temperature alloys. Certain ballistic rocket designs sub- stitute a gimbal mounted engine in the place of external stabilizers and vanes. Rockets traveling at 8,000-9,000 Ian/hr could attain a skin temperature of 600-7000 C owing to air friction and disintegrate as a result of loss of strength. To combat aerodynamic heating, rockets are given a highly finished streamlined form and the head portion is made of high-temperature alloys or, "as it is explained in the press," special compounds of phenol resins with ground asbestos. Sometimes the shell is made of laminated plastics, the layers of which successively burn away during severe aero- dynamic heating. For better cooling of the rocket's surface, the liquid cooling (sweating) method is sometimes employed. In this case fuel is forced openings through minute shell. and cooling results through eva oration. (Moscow, Sovetskiy Flot, 8 Jan 58) CPYRGHT Slovak Newsnan~r Writes of Ion Propelled Interplanetary Rockets A short unsigned article in an issue of the Slovak edition of the daily newspaper of the Revolutionary Trade Union Movement discusses the theory of ion propulsion which would allow space velocities of 200 kilo- meters per second in interplanetary rockets. The article is accompanied by a rough sketch of such a rocket, "with- out any aerodynamic shape, weighing 600 tons and with a pay load of 150 tons." The following key to the drawing is contained in the article, with A at one end, B in the middle, and C, D, and E clustered at the other end of something which looks like a parasol with a flat disk D on top instead of a convex curve. A -- Atomic reactor (globular with a small disk tangential to topside). B -- Ion motor (slat shaped, centered on shaft, with longitudinal axis perpendicular to the shaft of parasol shape). C -- Electric power generator (inverted truncated cone centered on shaft, with base abutting disk D). D -- Disk-shaped cooling surface (centered on shaft, with diameter perpendicular to shaft axis). E -- Passenger and crew space (a low-altitude, large-diameter cylinder, centered on the shaft, with its base resting on D). (Bratislava, Praca, 9 Mar 58, p 6) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Interferoueter 3tudie:3 of Su?ercorona in Crimea Investigations of the properties and effects of the oupercorona have been conducted at the Crimean 3cientiCic Station of the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences USSR. The no-called interference radio recep- tion method war applied, using nca and double antenna interferometers. According to V. V. Vitkevich, Candidate of Physicomathematical Sci- ences of the Physics Institute imeni P. N. Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR, the Crab Nebula was selected as the source of radio emissions. This source has radio emissions of very high intensity (about one tenth that of the Sun) and angular dimensions in the radio range equal to 6 x 6 angular minutes and is particularly important because of its proximity to the ecliptic. The direct radioscopy method could not be employed because ordinary radio telescopes have rather poor directivity, receiving radio waves com- ing in from a large solid angle of about 20 x 20 degrees. Thus, energy from radio emissions from the Sun. would accumulate during simultaneous re- ception of energy from the Crab rlebula. As radio emissions from the Sun vary with time and are at least ten times more intense than radio emis- sions from the Crab Nebula, it was obvious that the separation of these two sources of radio emissions would be very difficult tnd could not be accomplished by the direct method. To divide the radio emissions emanating from the source and the Sun; it was proposed to make use of the condition that, in radio wave range, the angular dimensions of the Crab Nebula are considerably smaller than those of the Sun (equal to 40 angular minutes). It would be possible to "see" a source with comparatively small angular measurements on the back- ground of a source with large angles by so-called interference radio recep- tion. Observations applying the above principle were conducted in 1951 at the Crimean Scientific Station on 4 meter waves. The radio receiver an- tenna of the sea interferometer was installed on Kastel' Hill, which is not far from the shores of the Black Sea and at an elevation of 420 m. The width of one lobe of the interferometer picture was 17.6 angular min- utes. Daily observations of radio emissions from the Sun during its rise from beyond the sea and also those of the Crab Nebula were made throughout June. Characteristic curves were obtained for the intensity of both pure and interference radio waves. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 (u 1?, and 16 June, when the Sun approaches the Crab Nebula, observa- Hunts were diutrrrbed by violent processes on the Sun. Powerful additional (!rriue,iont) Cauaed by sunspots and coming from regions with very small angu- dinu2nu,ioru, (t,evcral minutes) resulted in interferometer registrations of these regions of radiation. However, after the source of radiation had moved about 2 degrees away from the Sun, it was possible to process the reuultc of those measurements for the case when an interference picture of only the Crab Nebula was observed at the time of sunrise, before the Sun had actually risen. Processing of the data showed that the intensity of radio waves from the Crab Nebula, in particular on 18 June and in part on 19 June, was somewhat smaller than on other days. In attempting to explain the above phenomenon, Vitkevich said, "From one point of view, it could have been the effect of the outermost regions of the solar corona at distances of 12-15 solar radii. At that time it was difficult to consider this assumption as being true, since it could not be considered probable that such distant regions of the solar corona were weakening radio waves with a length of about 4 m. "Another possible explanation was that the weakening of intensity t caused by ionosphere effects." To decrease the action of the ionosphere, which strongly affects ob- servations near the horizon, subsequent observations were conducted with a radio interferometer consisting of two antennas joined by a high-frequency cable and connected to one radio receiving set. Such an apparatus performs measurements during the time of culmination and has a multilobed picture of radio reception. Lobe width is determined by the same formula used for a sea interferometer (d F =2 1211, where A v is the angular of one lobe, II is the antenna height above surface of the sea, and 1 is the wavelength) except that in place of H it is necessary to set half the distance between the two antennas. Such a form of observations which decreased the effect of the iono- Gphere were conducted at the Crimea station in 1952 and 1953. A similar method was used at Cambridge, England. Both stations established that at a distance of 10-15 solar radii from the photosphere the solar corona definitely caused an essential effect on the propagation of radio waves. The intensity of radio waves from the Crab Nebula begins to decrease when the distance of the source to the Sun is as much as 15 solar radii. As the source approaches the solar corona and the Sun, its intensity decreases more rapidly. Then, as the Sun begins to move away from the source, the intensity of the source increases and acquires its former value. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000200150001-6 Corresponding calculations were conducted to explain the principles i i the effects observed. On the basis of a number of considerations it wtm possible to form the hypothesis that the effect observed is the re- ault neither of the absorptions of radio waves in the outermost regions of the solar corona nor of refraction or diffraction, but is the zem t of