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For Releastjwqkwi&:13OC98;(tT14J2tLoLdl1V30001k 14 r 0 K rl R T I O N 0 rl 0 Y. I G BLOCINTERNRTIONRL GIEOPNYSICRI.C:OOPERRTION -- 1960 ; _ ` : ` .1 OF COPY ved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 PB 131632-102 INFORMATION ON SOVIET BLOC INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL COOPERATION - 1960 January 22, 1960 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Business and Defense Services Administration Office of Technical Services Washington 25, D. C. Published Weekly Subscription Price $12.00 for the 1960 Series Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, October 28, 1959 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM -- SOVIET-BLOC ACTIVITIES Table of Contents I. Rockets and Artificial Earth Satellites II. Upper Atmosphere III. Meteorology IV. Seismology V. Oceanography VI. Geomagnetism VII. Arctic and Antarctic 14 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 I. ROCKETS AND ARTIMCIAL EARTH SATELLITES New Books on Soviet Suace Achievements A number of new books recounting Soviet successes in the field of space conquest appeared at the beginning of the year. Among them were the following. Beaprimernyy Nauchriyy Podvig (Unprecedented Scientific Achievement), issued by the State Publishing House of Pliysicomathemati- cal Literature, presents a detailed account of the three Soviet cosmic rockets. Issued by the same house is a revised and supplemented edition of Ari A. Shternfel'd'a Ot Iakusatve kh S utnikov k Mezh lane Pol- etam (From Artificial Satellites to Interplanetary Flights). A third book, Sovetskaya Raketa Issle t Kosmos (Soviet Rocket Explores the Cosmos)) by V. I. Levantov, V. A. Leshkovtaev, and I. Ye., tells the story of the first Soviet cosmic rocket. Problems of space flight and research are covered in: it in some detail. ("un- precedented Scientific Achievement"; Moscow, Promyshlenno-Ekonomiches- kaya Gazeta, 23 Dec 59, p 4+) New Magnetic Spectrometer Developed at Armenian Acadern' of Sciences One of the principal methods of investigating comic rays in the USSR involves using the Alikhanyana-Alikhanova magnetic mass-spectrometer. De- scribed. as possessing a number of advantages over other methods (high re- solving power in pulse measurements, the determination of the sign of the charge of the particle, etc.), the magnetic mass-spectrometer became the standard apparatus for the study of cosmic rays in a number of laboratories and, in particular, in the high-mountain Aragatskoy station,of the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences Armenian S SR. The Bol'shoy Elektromagnit Laboratory of the .Arsgatskiy station de- veloped a new form of the instrument of removing the hodoscopic-collectitg device under the magnetic field and replacing it with a large rectangular Wilson chamber. Later, a second Wilson chamber was added above the instew ment. This made it possible to, not only identify a particle and investi- gate the character of its collision in the plates of the lower chamber and, its subsequent behavior, but also to obtain information on whence the par- ticle came -- whether it came from outside or tether it was formed as the result of some process in the matter in the upper chamber. The principal parts of the instrument are a magnetic spectrometer of high resolving power for measuring the pulses of the charged cosmic par- ticles; a large rectangular Wilson chamber (620 x 280 x 180 millimeters) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 positioned close up under the poles of the magnet; an upper Wilson chamber the same size as the lower one but different in that in each expanding heed the movable grids move separately, independent of each other, whereas in the lower chamber, these are 1,inked together; and several electronic con- trol units. The instrument has ben further improved by the development and build- ing of a new five-layer proportional counter which permits measuring ioni- zation with high accuracy in addition to measuring the pulse and travel of the particle. At present, the laboratory is developing an anticoincidence circuit for inclusion with the instrument which will increase the effec- tiveness of recording high energy nuclear fissions. A very essential im- provement will be the transition to a two-layer coordinated series of coun- ters and a change to higher intensities of the magnetic field. These measures will make it possible to introduce new tasks in physical rese%mh and to study nuclear introductions of particles with energies up to 10 electron volts. ("The Alikhanyana-Alikhayava Magnetic Spectrometer With Two Large Wilson Chambers," by A. T. Dadayan and G. V. Badalyan; Yerevan) Izvestiye, Akademii Nauk Armyanskoy SSR, Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk Vol 12, No 4, 1959, pp 109-119) III. METEOROLOGY Weather Modification Studies Being Conducted by A=erien. Institute The study of' the problem of artificial atmosphe:Lc precipitations oc- cupies a prominent place among the investigations conducted by the Insti- tute of Power Engineering and Hydraulics of the Academy of Sciences Armen- ian SSR. The work during the last 2 years was conducted jointly by the institute and the Main Geophysical Observatory (Leningrad) in the region of Lake Sevan. The characteristics of cumulus congestus clouds at an altitude of 5-8 kilometers were studied., and a series of experiments on the action of carbon dioxide on the cloud were conducted. As a result of these experi- meats, rains of rather long duration were caused. ("Artificial Atmospheric Precipitations"; Moscow, Vestnik Akademii Nauk. SSSR, No 7, Jul 59, P 70) Sixth All-Union Conference on Clouds The sixth conference on the problem of studying clouds, precipitations, and weather modification was held 15-20 June 1959 at the Institute of Ap- plied Geophysics, Academy of Sciences USSR. The conference was called by the Coordinating Council on the Problem "Physics of Clouds and Precipita- tions," under the Department of Physicomathematical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR. Representatives of 44 USSR scientific research institutions Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 and representatives of the Academy of Sciences, Communist China, took part in the work of the conference. Sixty-eight reports on the results of in- vestigations in the field of aerology and aerosynoptics, cloud physics and weather modification, the electricity of clouds, and special instruments were given. A considerable expansion of scientific work in the field of cloud physics and precipitations and weather modification was noted in the period since the fifth conference (February 1956). Some shortcomings in the conduct of tae investigations were noted. The lack of efficient coordination of work in view of the ever-growing volume of investigations in the USSR was decried. A member of resolutions were accepted. These emphasized more work on the problem of weather control; more work on cloud studies, in particu- lar., cumulus congestus and the cloud belts above and below that of the noctUucent clouds; more work on the chemistry of water aerosols and their modification; further development of instruments making use of telemetry and electronics; the organization in 1962 of an ".ill.-Union Cloud Year"; future improvement of the coordinated activities of the Academy of Scien- ces USSR on the problem of "Clouds and Precipitations"; and the need to call another conference on th9 c:pD;=e= in 1961. The works of the current conference will be published by the Institute of Applied Geophysics, Academy of Sciences USSR. ("I5in h All-Union Confer- ence on Clouds, " by E. L. Aleksondrosr; Moscow, Izvestiye~ Akademii Nauk SS SR, Seriya C-eofizicheskaya, No 10, Oct 59, pp 1526-1527) Study on Influence of Updrafts on Shower and Hail F1o:^mations and Hail Pre- vention studies of stratocumulus and cumulus congestus clouds were con- ducted in 1956-1958 in the Transcaucaeue and Cau,c! sus for de?t,4nnining the influence of vertical, wind eui nts on the formation of intense showers and hail. The studies showed. that tht velocity of the vertical, currents increases with altitude, reaching a maximum in the upper part of the cloud, after which it quickly decreases; that the temperature in the cloud during its development is higher than the surrounding medium on the same level, while it is lower in the upper part of the cloud than the surrounding medium dur- ing the stabilization and dispersal of the cloud; that the water content in the front-top part of the cloud increases sharply, while the water con- tent and spectra of the cloud droplets in the lower and middle parts of $e cloud change very little; and that the detection on the radar screen of a pulsating and growing zone of reflection is explained by the increase in the water-bearing capacity in the upper part of the cloud. This zone of -3- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 reflection is located above the level of maximum var-tical wind current velocity. The lowering of this zone coincides with the lraginning of the fall of intense showers. Drops are retarded in the upper part of the cloud where the veloci- ties of the lpdrafts are low and, the main growth of the drop or hail oc- curs in the front-top of the cloud. If the top part of a cumulus conges- tus cloud is at temperatures above freezing, the cloud remains liquid. When the temperature of the top of the cloud, is lower then freezing, hail forms. The final size of the hail depends very little on the vertical mass of the cloud. The principal parameterx;date mining the final dimen- sions of hail are the water content of the .air masses entering the cloud, the height of the zero isotherm, the magnitude of the maximum wind veloc- ity and its stability with time, and the graiient velocity of the vertical currents according to altitude. The principal condition leading to quantitati,reJ.y new results in com- parison with proceeding investigations on the growth of ha;.1 particles con- sists of the caaculation of changes in the vertical. component of the velocity of air currents according to altitude, on which the following conclusions are based: Accumulations of large reserres of water droplets and hail occur in the front-ton ::one of the cloud, wb.ich also explains the g:. at intensity and short duration of intensive showers and hail. The action in the upper part of the dewtloped cumulus c ngeStus cloud, with a maximum velocity of the vertical cur:'ent (Wm) approaching the critical velocity (Vg) with surface-active and bygros-opic substaiaces, does not give a positive effect. Such action can cause precipitations and of cumulus clouds having a small mass and insignificant verti- cal currents. The prevention or reduction of hail is passible by means of com- plete crystallization by injecting,liquid dzvplets, of v s.tpercooled frac- tion 1o tha cloud. This prevents the gravitpt9.o,aal grccutb. of ?tbe hall. If the time and place of formation of the focus is known, then to prevent hail by means of continuous crystall.izat'.on, 4-10 kilograms of silver iodide wuld be m. zquired.. However, s:baae the-as parameteda a:.'e not kmvn, the amount of matter z quiz d for the pravn:ntion o:? brad.]. iss 2-3 timtis greater. The conduct of f xture work in the following directions is considered necessary: 1. The study of cumulus ccngestus and hail clouds with the aim of rapidly determining the cloud pp.:_-ameters (temperature, the velocity of updrifte, and water content) and discovering the bai]. foci. - . - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 2. Development of a method for the continuous introduction of rea- gents into a specific zone of the cloud. 3. The search for newer, cheaper crystallizing substances and also for means of retarding the natural crystallization of cloud particles. ("Influence of Changes in the Vertical Component of Wind Velocity on the Formation of Intensive Showers and Hail," by N. 3h. Babilashvili, A. M. Zaytseva, V. F. Lapcheva, A. A. Ordzhonikidze, and G. K. Sulakevelidze, Elbrus Expedition of the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Dokiady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol 128, No 3, 1959, pp 521-524) New Method for Determining Horizontal Atmospheric Transparency A new method for determining the horizontal transparency of the atmo- sphere, developed by V. A. Gavrilov, is described in a current Soviet sci- entific periodical. This method is connected with certain pecularities of visibility meters and is marked by its simplicity and its sensitivity..Nha- surements made by this method, which is called the relative brightness method, showed that the determination of meteorological visibility range is possible with a value of z ^ 100-120 and even 150. The system makes use of two absolutely black voids (polosti) [black boxes with the open ends facing the viewer] placed in the same line of sight at different distances. The size of the voids are such that one of them, the nearer is projected on the background of the other which is larger in size. With high atmospheric transparency, when no smog is noted against either void, the nearer void blends into the background of the far- ther one and cannot be seen. But the presence of the least trace of smog on the farther void causes it to seemingly grow lighter and makes it pos- sible to distinctly see the nearer black void against the lighter background of the second.. The basic principle of the relative brightness method is that with any atmospheric turbidity or, in other words, with any value of bright- ness of the smog on the farther void, the nearer void must always be bladt. that is, its brightness must be taken as zero. Use of the two black voids in conjunction with the IV-GGO [an instru- ment for determining the visibility range of actual objects], which uses a prism arrangement similar to a range. finder for superimposing images, makes it possible to superimpose the images of the two black voids on the background of the sky near the horizon. The brightness of both voids in the instrument's field of view will change proportionally to the value of the superimposed brightness, i.e., the proportional brightness of the smog near the horizon. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Expressions for the contrast between the nearer and farther voids and the farther void and the sky near the horizon are given. A table of val- ues compiled on the function of readings o_" the inatr ment by taking some threshold value for the contrast sensiti,,.qty and used with the instrument, i,s given. The error of measurement is said to be much less than that. for conven- tional instruments. ("New Method of Determining the Horizontal Transparency of the ALi1osphere," by V. A. Gavrilov; Moscow, Meteo:,rologiya i Gidrologiya, No 11, Nov 59, pp 53-57) New Automatic Weather Station Developed in Rumania A new automatic weather station for use in inaccessible areas has been developed by F. Patrichi, engin:-er, of the Meteorological Institute of the State Water Committee, Rumania. The station will be used to report temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind velocity by means of coded signals which are transmitted every 3 hours. Each message is repeated once and is preceded by a warning signal. Range is reported to be 300 kilometers. Electric power is provided by a large battery which is kept charged 4* a completely automatic wind gen- erator. The station is said to be capable of opezating for 6 months. ("Automatic Meteorological Station"; Bucharest, aominia Libera, 7 Nov 59, p 2) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 0 Soviet Seismoocope Improved As a result of changes in the design of the UZS-2 seismoscope and the addition of a high-frequency generator, the possib:.lity of using the instrument for modeling seismic wave proc?:sses and determining the elastic properties of rock formations has been enlarged considerably. The pass- band of the amplifier has' been enlarged from 14-70 kilocycles to 11+-760 kilocycles. More complex experiments can now be conducted, particularly those involving low-intensity waves which require a more sensitive seismo- scope. The sensitivity of the seismoscope in the average operating fre- quencies of 130-150 kilocycles has been increased 25 times. Recordings have been obtained which are of use in a frequency analysis with the ap- paratus described by 1Ciudzinskiy and Melamud ("A Station for the Frequency Analysis of Seismic Waves," Izv. AN SSSR, ser. geofiz., No 9, 1957)? ("Improvement of the UZS-2(31) Seismoscope," by V. A. Obukhov, Institute of the Physics of the Earth, Academy of Sciences USSR; Moscow, Izvesti a Akedemii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geofizichesk ya, No 10, Oct 59) pp 1513-1516) Development of the Seismic Service in the USSR Systematic observations conducted by continuously operating seismic stations are the principal scientific research tool in the study of ea th- quakes. There are 70 such stations in USSR territory. Thirty of these belong to regional seismological organizations and 40 to the Institute of the Physics of the Earth, Academy of Sciences USSR. In addition, seismic service is conducted by a number of geophysical observator',es and tempo- rary expeditionary stations located in seismically-active regions of the country. The reorganization of the control of the people's economy carried out in recent years, which broadened the rights and possibilities of local administrative-economic organs, created favorable groundo for further in- tensification of the republican (border) seismologic. scientific research institutions and the exoansion of the station networks belonging to them. At the session of the Council on Seismolopr of the Academy of Sciences USSR held in Moscow on 19-21 March a plan for a new Regulation on a Single Seismic Service for the USSR (XeSS) was discussed and accepted. According to this regulation,, seismic stations are subject to the scientific institutions of the Aced rpr of Sciences USSR., the academies of science of the union republics, and the ministries of admix1ittrations --of the terr..tories in which they are located. -7- 0 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 The regulation specifies that the institutions heading the republican network of stations bring about a Single Scinmic Service of the USSR on cooperative bases. Unity of the service is ensured ly the, application, without tail, of sttuzdard apparatus and unifox conditions of operation, by the fulfillment of a single program and method of making observations and processing of their results, and by maintaining a single form of seismic bulletin. General supervision of the servioQ will be headed by the Council on SeismoloCy. The principal attention of the riession was focu:3ed on the problem of standard apparatus for the stations (report by D. P. Ki.rnos, and the re- port by I. P. Pasechnik and N. Yo. Fedosoyenko). The future development of both theoretical and appl*t,ed se~.smology requires the development and mass introduction of nezr types of seismic apparatus, primarily of highly- sensitive seismographs operating in. different ranges of the spectrum of ,:seismic oscillations, seismographs for recording and analyzing strong soil movements, new clock systems, etc. , A number of other problems were also discussed at the session which are connected with a specific accomplishment of the new regulation (for on the creation of archives for seismograms and the working out .~Y rules for their preservation, duplication, distribution, and dissemina- tion to scientific workers.) It is proposed not to include all seismic stations operating on the country's territory in the YeSS, but only those v.*'nich are necessary for recording earthquakes in a given region beginning with a certain specif --ad intensity level. Weaker earthquakes will be studied with the aid of tempo- rary or permanent high-sensitivity stations built in accordance with Vaese or any scientific problems. Similar investigations are already being con- ducted in many regions of the country at present, for example. in Central Asia, where impol-tant scientific results were obtained by the Tadzhik Complex Seismological Expedition of the Institute of the Phys:Lco of the Earth and the Institute of Earthqualteproof Canstruci ton and Seismology of the Tadzhik SSR. Ttie selection of this standard will also determine the number of YeSS stations necessary for this or any region, At present, the provision of seismic stations for the various seismically-active r+agions is not equal. If the Caucasus and Central Asia, obviously, as~~ close to saturation, then, in Altay, local stations do not exist at all. Me brrprove.nent of the list of stations for each region is the next task of the Council on Seismology and the republican institutions. One of such lists (presented by the Siberian Branch of the AcadeW of Sciences USSR) has already been considered and confirtncd at the session. In the next 7 years, 37 new stations must be opened in Siberia. Of these, 13 will be in the Baykal region, 8 in Altay, and 7 in Yaluitiya. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 It is possible to expect that the new Resolution on the Single Seismic Service of the USSR will stimulate an expansion of the volume and increase the quality of scientific research work conducted directly in seismically- active regions, which is the principal condition for the future development of seismology in the USSR. ("Development of Seismic Service of the USSR," by S. L. Solov'yev; Moscoor, Vestnik llkademii Nault SSSR, No b, Jun 59, pi, 121-122). Fifth Voyage of the Mikhail Lomonosov in the Atlantic Ocean The expedition of the Marine Hydrophysics Institute of the Academy of Sciences USSR aboard the expeditionary ship Mikhail Lomonosov, conducted operations according to the IGC program from 17 April to 10 July 1959 in the Atlantic Ocean. Taro main profiles were completed during the voyage. The first . from 60 N, from the Faroe Islands to 30 W, and the second along the meri- dian 30 W from the Greenland continental shelf to 22 02 S. The meridional profile -crossed a number of natural regions to which the region of north polar waters, the region of drift currents, two calm regions, two trade current regions located on both sides of the equator, and the equatorial current regions belong. In addition a number of stations were made.-at the approaches to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and in the region of Dakar (Africa). Sixty-three deeprater stations were mate, among them, four 24-hour anchor stations in depths up to 5,000 meters, with measurements of the elements of currents being mode with an anchored buoy. There were 198 baGhythermograph observations mode while the ship was underway and at the stations. A record of the radiation balance and its components, continuous depthfinder readings, aercaneteorulogical observations, launchings o:Z 120 radiosondes, and weather forecasts serric:'.ng the expedition were made during the voyage. The results of the observations made on this voyage are the first systematic complex oceanographic data permitting detailed investigation. of the basic features entering into the distribution, of Lydrophysical, aero meteorological, geological, and biological conditions along the longitudinal axis of the Atlantic Ocean from the north polar. waters down to the central part of the Brazilian, Basin and revealing chm ges in these conditions in the various physic o-geographic zones. mit consideration in greater detail than heretofore possible of the nature Prow and interesting scientific. and practical materials were obtained by the expedition. For example, the data of current meter observations per- -9- Approved for Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 and velocity of currents in the mass of waters for certain points in the northern hemisphere. A comparison of hydrological data obtained by the expedition with the materials of past years' observations shows good sta- bility of the boundaries and properties of the water masses in the ocean and little changes in the characteristics of the mass of waters below 2,000 meters. The materials of hydrological observations also make it possible to study peculiarities in the vertical structure of the waters of the occca for different physic-) -geographic zones, to consider the character, properties, ? and boundaries of the water masses, and to explain differences and similarities in hydrological conditions in various lati- tudinal zones. Original material on the chemistry of the sea was collected, which makes it possible to consider the distribution of biogenic elements in the entire profile along the 30 W meridian. Material was collected on soils, and submarine photography of the sea bottom was conducted. Pictures of a lava flow at a depth of 2+30 meters were obtained. Biological investigations permitted the division of three different regions on the meridional profile according; to the qualitative and quanti- tative composition of plankton and. benthos.~ In the distribution of bottom fauna, a gradual lessening of biomass from north to south was observed. Between these three regions, there are areas characterized by very high indexes of bonthos biomasses.(especially in the north trades and in the region of the Brazilian Basin from 10 to 20 S). A group of geophysicists from East Germany worked, on the ship. This group's program of work included observations on the heat balance, tempera- ture and salinity of the waters, currents, and electrical phenomena in the atmosphere. _ During stops in foreign ports, the menribers 'of the expedition visited some scientific and scientific-engineering institutions. A number of foreign scientists in Rio de Janeiro, Dakar, and Liverpool were familiarized with the work of the expedition and inspected the laboratories of the Makhail Lomonosov. Scientific associates of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences USSR, the Hydrometeorological Service, and the All.-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Fishing Industry and Oceanography (ArPI ) took part in the expedition. The expedition was headed by A. A. Ivano?-r, Doctor of Physico- mathematical Sciences. ("Fifth Voyage of the Expeditionary Ship Mikhail Lon-or_osov in the Atlantic Ocean," by V. A. Lednsv; Moscow, M teorologiya i Gidrologiya, No I I , Nov 59, pp 69-70) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 RO Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 VI. GEOMAGNETISM Tree U-tin Trcrida in Soviet Electromagnetic Sounding In the period 8-13 June 1959, the Institute of the Physics of the Earth cued the Council on Methods of Geophysical Prospecting, tinder the Department of Phyuicomathematical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, held a special conference aimed at a broad discussion of the present status and future promise of the application of electromagnetic sounding methods to geophysi- cal prospecting. Associates of interested Soviet scientific and industrial organizations and representatives of the People's Democracies took part. '.I\rc:aty-nine reports were read, illuminating all three trends in the utili- sat:Loi: ofi' alternating electromagnetic fields for sounding. This article ,s~u;mar: ?.es briefly these three trends. 1. Emergence of the steady state of an electromagnetic field (transient Dresses): It has long been known that, in electrical sounding by direct cureent, the excited field emerges only after a certain interval of time (from a fraction of a second to several seconds), depending on the spacing of the electrodes and on the geoelectrical cross section of the media. This causes considerable difficulty in electroprospecting in the field and has often led to errors in earlier (potentiometer) methods of measurement. Inasmuch as the emergence of the steady state of the field depends substantially on geological-geophysical conditions and lasts for a consider- able time, the idea arose of utilizing this emergence process as an auxiliary .a vertical electrical soundings. In other words, the idea arose of utilizing the interference. As recent investigations have shown, this idea has been very frui''ful. Whereas electrical sounding by direct current (after the field has emerged) at a given point of observation gives only one value (of the ap- parent specific resistance), a recording of the transient process gives a curve -- the time function. This has been the basis of the hope that the utilization of the process of the emergence of the steady state of the field will considerably widen the information on the structure of media which is obtained by the ordinary method of vertical electrical sounding. Calculations of the process of the emergence of the steady state of the field for a number of types of geoelectrical cross sections and experi- mental field work under various geological-geophysical conditions have con- firmed this assumption. It has been shown that the transient process (emer- gence of the field) may be utilized in an independent prospecting method to provide a solution of structural problems in petroleum geology. In par- ticular., the utilization of the process of emergence of the field affords the possibility of narrowing considerably the principle of equivalence. Furthermore, whereas, in the interpretation of data obtained In a direct- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 current sounding, it is necessary to draw upon supplementary information, the utilization of the .nechanism of emergence of the steady-state of the field affords tbc? possibility of interpreting without drawing upon external parameters. In prinr,.J,nle, such a "parametcrless" interpretation has great importance; it is extremely economical, since, in a number of cases, it dispenses with the necessity of conducting supplementary research Involv- ing great expense. This year, the method of utilizing the emergence of the field has had practical application in the field work of several geological prospecting teams. The data obtained by these teams have contributed to the evaluation of the possibilities of this method and of the areas of application of its various modifications. 2. Electromagnetic sounding with alternating current: Although the promise of using alternating current has been lanoun for more than 30 years, this method has P,ot been perfected, primarily because of the absence of the requirod processed data, which now have become easier to obtain with the advent of new computing techniques. At the present time, the methods of electromagnetic sounding using alternating current are being developed intensely according to an approved plan (within the framework of the Council on Methods of Geophysical Pro- specting) of three principal organizations: The Institute of the Physics of the Earth imeni 0. Yu. Shmidt, Academy of Sciences USSR; the AU-Union scientific Research Institute of Geophysics (V11IIG), Ministry of Geology and the Preservation of Mineral Resources USSR; and Leningrad University. Recently, several other organizations have joined in this area of work. To date, as a result of research, a general method has been de- vised for calculating the electromagnetic fields induced by an electrical (or magnetic) dipole in .?tratified media; a universal prograra.has been estab- lished for calculating e geolalectric cross section frith electronic compu- ters; calculations have been made of the fields of a number of two-; three- and four-layer cross sections for the purpose of detexmining the resolution and characteristic peculiarities of the elements of the field under one con- dition or another; studies have been made of the electromagnetic field in the remote zone; a model has been designed and built of a field electra- magnetic prospecting station capable of recording the electrical and magnetic components of the field with respect to amplitude and phase; expcrirental methods of field work have been established; an apparatus has been devised for simulated study of electromagnetic sounding wider laboratory conditions; a study has been initiated of the fields in heterogeneous and, anisotropic dia; and methods have been devised for interpreting the results of the research. The work already done reveals the great promise and effectiveness of electromagnetic sounding with alternating current. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Die utilization of both the electrical and the magnetic components of the field, both with respect to amplitude and phase, and also the possi- bility of using a wide rcaigc of frequencies guarantee that abundant data will be obtained. The varied electromagnetic field affords the possibility of coiundin.,, structures which are located below extensive, practically non- conducting strata. It has also been shown that it is possible to discern structures in a manner similar to that of the direct-current method. Finally, as theoretical observations have indicated, the varied electromagnetic field affords the possibility of discerning anisotropy, even in the case of hori- zontal stratifications. In comparison with vertical electrical sounding by direct current, the method of electromagnetic sounding has not only the preference in principle, but also a considerable technical and economic advantage. In particular, the above-mentioned utilization of wide-frequency ranges affords the possi- bility of employing the so-called "frequency sounding" method at one point of observation only. In sounding by direct current, on the other hand, the observation site has to be moved, which requires considerable time. The data accumulated so far are not sufficient for an exhaustive an- alysis of all the possibilities of electromagnetic sounding, but are certainly worthy of great interest. In a number of regions of the Soviet Union, experimental work has been done on electromagnetic sounding with alternating current and on the study of the utilization of the process of the emergence of the field for the purpose of determing the prospecting possibilities of these methods (partic- ularly, for cle?termining the depth of the crystalline basement when inter- stitial nonconducting strata are present). Electromagnetic sounding by alternating current has been used, for example, in one of the regions of the -Moscow area ;'their, at a certain drill- ing site, the crystalline basement lay at a depth of about 1,800 meters, while at a depth of 300 meters, there was a layer of high electrical resist- ance offered by hydrochemical deposits. This layer, practically nonconduct- ing to electrical current, prevented a vertical electrical sounding by direct current. Electromagnetic sounding at frequencies of 0.07-150 cycles per second, hm-rever, made it possible to determine the depth of the crystalline basement. The primary importance in this case was that, in the interpreta- tion of the results of obserrations, there was no need to drair upon any sup- plementary information; the interpreting was done solely on the basis of the electromagnetic sotlilding data. In one of the areas of the Central Volga petroleum region, where el.ectro- prospecting by alternating current had not produced results; seismoprospecting operations (costing about 2 million rubles) were required in order to deter- mine the profile of the crystalline basement. Electromagnetic sounding - 13 - CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 CPYR4 bToved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030C@PIPRGHT utilizing th process of the emergence of the steady state of the field wa4 c,ucceoofully introduced in 1958 and produced (with an expenditure of only (:,COO ruble. ) practically the some profile of the crystalline, that obta ,Fcd with the scizmoprospect nr,,, method.. Des: to thee success of electromagnetic methods of sounding by means of alt ating fields, there is still very much to be done in the theoretical crea, in calculations and the substantiation of methods of interpretati i, in complex apparatus requirements, and in the ?t prc'Jenent ) C worljng ? ods in the field. 3. Electromagnetic rjounding utilizing the intrinsic field of the earth: Elect omagtzetic soundings with artificial excitation require a s oworful generating device in order to obtain a clear separation of the available si ials on the available background of interference caused by the intrinsic electromagnetic field of the earth (earth currents and mag- netic f:Luctu Lions) . Theoretical investigations have indicated, hcnrever; that ?~,he quantitative relationships, between various components of the intrinsic electromaGne? c field (magnetic and electric components) observed at the su:z ace of ti earth depend on the geoe2.ectrical cross section of the medi4 and:;. ?tthcrefox , can be used for the solution of the problems of atructuro1. geolca. Iv j ieto-telluric profiling has been one interesting de-velopnent in the field f raagrieto-telluric sounding. Avai able data of field investigations show the. great pa.wrdae for the utilizati n of the inti-Insin :1i f -s i ?i, ~r. os ~c tin ("Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Crust)" by A. N. T11:l.onov and D. N. Shatdisuvarov; Moscow, Vestnik Akadernii Iiauk SSSR, No 10 , Oct 59, pp 1.2-1E6) VII. ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC Antarctic Traverse Continues On 29 November 1959, the Soviet sled.-tractor train arrived at the in- terior station Vostok. The train consisted of 3 "Khar'kovchanka" snow ,,e-?, 2 caterpillar tractors, and 8 trailer sleds. On the day of arrival at Vostok, the air temperature was minus 48 degrees centigrade. The traverse had begun at th,:. station Komsomol 'skaya. The 51;L kilometers from Komsomol 'skaya to Vostok were traveled in 23 days. The 16 scientists, headed by Prof B. Savel'yev, conducted scientific observations along the way. - 14 - Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001p8YRGHT After a short stopover and a precautionary check of the vehicles, the members of the group will continue to travel south. Soviet scientists will begin complex scientific research in the central regions of Antarctica, which have not been explored before. ("Train Arrives at Station Vostok"; Moscow, Vodnyy Transport) 3 Dec 59) Tractor-Train Moving Toward South Pole On 8 December, the tractor-train continued from Vostok into the in- terior of the continent. The train, consisting of two "Khar'kovchanka" vehicles, one caterpillar tractor, and four sleds, headed toward the south geographic pole, along the eastern border of the Sovetskaya plateau. At this time `12 December], the train has stopped at a point with co- ordinates 80 14 S and 106 50 E)) 200 kilometers south of Vostok and over 1,600 kilometers from the Indian Ocean coast. The scientists are conducting seis- mic soundings at this point to determine the thickness of the ice sheet. As a result of the scientific observations made by this expedition and by previous ones, a meridional cross section of Antarctica from the Pravda Coast into the interior will be constructed. During the past few days, an IL-12 plane made a ski landing on the icy airfield of station Vostok. This was the first time a plane of this type landed in the interior of Antarctica, at an altitude of 3,420 meters above sea level. ("On the Way to the South"; Moscow, Vodnyy Transport, 12 Dec 59) 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201030001-8