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July 1, 1960
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ForlReleal NG4w : WiIFSPLF L EDm5o0l-N F O R M A i' O N ON SOVIET, Y BLOC ?INTFRNRTiONRL GEOPMYBICR;LiCOOPERATION .Approved ~r1 Ap roy,~,dF:a ease 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 nWOgMTjgj ON BBINTERNATIONAL Q $ICAL COOPM ..= July 1, 1960 U. S. Department of Commerce Business and Defense Services Administretion Office of Technical Services Washington 25, D. C. Published Weekly Subscription Price $12.00 for the 1960 Series Use of funds for printing, this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, October 28, 1959 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 IlQFCRMATION ON IlQTERIQATICNAL OEOPMICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM -- SOVIET-BLOC ACTIVITIES Table of Contents I. Rockets and Artificial Earth Satellites II. Upper Atmosphere III. Meteorology IV.. Seismology V. Arctic and Antarctic Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 I. LOCIOT3 AND ARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITES Review of Article and Book by Be Danilin, Candidate in Technical L3ciencea The following are brief excerpts from a full-page article in the popular-consumption journal Nede . The author is Be Danilin, the author of the book that is reviewed below: tCPYRG[IT -4 new step has been flight space. Instead of ansatelllite with only a small airtight cabin, we have put a giant spaceship into orbit; its cabin alone weighs more than 2.5 tons. "I i respect to satellites capable of carrying a man, the most optimists computations of American scientists indicate that the test launching of such satellites can be accomplished in that country no aoonei' tr n in 1961. Moreover, they are talking about a cabin that will weig only 980 kilograms. We may recall that our spaceship, put into orbs on 15 May, had a total weight of 4.5 tons and carries a cabin we ping 2.5 tons. "B sides the equipment insuring an uninterrupted regeneration of air, a sorption of carbon dioxide and exceosive vapor, the cabin must have a reserve supply of oxygen for use in case of loss through leakage. Within the cabin there should be special instruments auto- matically regulating temperature, humidity, gaseous composition and air press e. Another group of instruments should provide the cosmo- naut with information about flight conditions and course correction for the a ceehip. to immense velocities of flight and the colossal distances of interp etary travels substantially limit the possibilities of a man in h role as a pilot on a spaceship. The speed of a man's re- action to change in surrounding conditions requires no less than 1.5 secon during this time the spaceship will travel 12 to 15 kilo- meters. wing at-such an immense velocity, a man cannot react in time to t appearance of a large meteor in order to change the course of the s eship. ? "A great heights the direct rays of the Sun are not attenu- ated, the are almost unscattered. This leads to sharp contrasts be- tween the haded and lighted surfaces. The absence of ordinary points of orien ion gives no sensation of depth and makes it impossible for a in to timete sizes distances and the relative velocity of other bodies." rest Road Ahead, by Be Danilin, Nedelya, No. l2, CPYRGHT 15-21 May 1960, p. 2) The following is a brief report on a small book written by Be Be Danilin. It is entitled "The Beginning of the Space Era" (Nachalo Kos- micheskoy Ery), is 47 pages long, and was published by the.All-Union Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CiA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 CPYRGH this publishing house. Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Know?.edge. It carries a pub], iuhing date of 1960, wens y inted in 26,000 copies, and sells for 75 kopecks. It is port of a popular aeries issued by Eras" by Boris Uteganovich Danilin, Lzdetel'atvo Znantye, 47 pp., ill., Moscow, 1960) "Nauka i. Zhizn" Publishes Fascinating'ov1:]ar Article an Plight to the Stars The popular acierrbific perio.tcal Vaalm i Zhizn' has published a highly interesting 3,000 woad article dealing with problems associ- ated with a flight to the stela. The authors, V. A. Bronshten and I. D. Novikov, members of the Council of the Moscow Division a the A11-Union Aetrogeodetic Society, point out that such a flight i3 ii*oasible except by means of the so- called photo:l rocket. The principle of u*ach a rocket is then described. They indicate that the technical yrob:4eias associated with the construc- tion of a photon rocks, are still unsolved -- but they believe that a photon motor can be developed and give the rocket a velocity close to the speed of liglat. A large part of this a ticks is devoted to a discussion of the theory of relat'!vity as operatim- during a fl3ght to a distant star the explanatiou in on a level suitable foe the ;jolv2a r sac ience to which it is directed. he titles o the sections of this ~ rtic:le are a clue to the over-all contents : luto the Coomos -- On Rays of Light; Is It Possi- ble to F?,y rastex? 'f'.>a;: ti tht?; What is Shco~m by the 'Tory of Rela- tivity; Tra?rel Lr o t;ae :at=,e; lh Ua:tve se -Pram tl a Window of a Starahip; The of 'l'ime; ? le r 43,y to Proximo. Centaurs; To the Nebula Andromeda; When Will This Be? ("Flight to the Stern," by V. A. Bronshten and 1. D. 11ov4ov, Nauka i Zhizn'.. No. lt?, 1960, Pp. 58-Gi ) The book is divided into the following sections: he First Reconnoiterers of Space," "The First Artificial Satel:Ltte of the Sun," First Cosmic Rocket, "The it Automatic terp n ta1?y Sta- tion," "The American Satellites and Rockets," "At the Boa of the Atmosphere," "The Earth's Corona and N~ysteriec of the ME1 etic Field," and a concluding section "There Is No Limit to Daring." This is a cov act, well. written and popular presentation of the subject treated. It is a straightforward presentation without inclu- sion. of extraneous material or wasted words. Its scientific and tech- nical content has not been evaluated. ("The Beginning of the Space Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 II. UPPER ATM0f3 Abstract of an Article on Advanced Soviet Research on the Earth's Magnetic Field A 4-page article in a recent issue of the Doiady of the Acadeny of Sciences of the USSR is entitled "Fluctuations of the Magnetic Field and of Current Density in the Turbulent Flow of a Poorly Conducting Liquid." The author Is G. S. Golitsyn of the Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere of the Acadenp- of Sciences of the USSR. This article is devoted to the complex problem of computation of the spectrum of the fluctuations of the magnetic field and of the spectrum and struc- tural function of the density of the induced currents. Readers of the Journal of Geophysical Research will recognize Goiitsyn as the author of an article in Vol. , No. 32, December 1959, which farms part of the International Symposium on Fluid Mechanics in the Ionosphere. ("Fluctuations of the Magnetic Field and Current Den- sity in the Turbulent Flow of a Poorly Conducting Liquid," by G. S. Golitsyn, ? Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol. 132, No. 2, 1960, pp. 315- 318) Report on the Fallin The following is a summary of an article. appearing in the Iz- vestiya, of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaydzhan SSE (Geological- Geographical Series): At 0805 hours local time on 24 November 1959 an iron meteorite fell in the Yardymly rayon of the Azerbaydzhan SSR. Individual parts of the meteorite have been found near the villages of .Arun,, Zhiy, and Kergedy; the meteorite had exploded in mid-air. The Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaydzhan SSR organized an expedition for the study of the circumstances of the fall and questioned witnesses; the expedition was on the spat from 27 November through 31 December 1959. The collected material is being subjected to further investigation in the laboratories of the insti- tutea of the Academy. It has been possible to ascertain 'the following on the basis of research at the site of the fall and by questioning of a large number of witnesses. There were very unfavorable meteorological conditions on the day the meteorite fell. The entire region was covered. by a thick fog and the cloud cover hung low. A small amount of snow had fallen a few days earlier. For this reason the witnesses were unable to tell us about the flight of the fire ball, about the point at which it disin- tegrated, or about its trail, size, form or color. They were only able to report the sudden appearance of a blindingly bright flash. -3- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Despite the presence of the thick t'og, the flash lit up a rather large area, with a radius no less than 30 km. Pronounced acoustic phenomena were observed at the time of the falling of the Yardymly meteorite. A sound resembling that of thunder was heard for a period or 5 to 6 minutes for a distance of more than 60 km. Between 24 November and 5 December 1959 five meteorites were found in the Yardymly rayon. They weighed as follows: 11.3 kg, 5.7 kg, 5.93 kg, 360 g, and 127 kg. On the basis of the information collected from the residents of Yardymly rayon and the surrounding area, and on the basis of our in- eestigation of the sites at which the five meteorftes fell, the fol- lowing preliminary conclusions may be drawn: 1) Before disintegration the meteorite moved in a direction from southwest to northeast on an azimuth of 225-2300. Confirmation of this is the orientation of the sites at which the meteorites fell; they are oriented from southwest to northeast. It may be added that the angles at which the meteorites struck the surface are rather great -- 600 in one case and 80-850 in the other cases. 2) Although the flight of the fire-ball, was not directly ob- sery+ed, on the basis of the great radius of visibility of the light flash and the audibility of the sound effect we nay conclude that the disintegration of the meteorite occurred at a relatively great height (10 to 20 km). 3) The disintegration of the meteorite occurred between the villages of Yardymly and Arus, in any case, to the southwest of the point at which three of the meteorites fell. 4) There is a great probability of finding several other mete- orites. 5) The ellipse in which fragments were scattered would appear to be 8 x 1.5 km in size, with its larger axis oriented from southwest- to northeast (see map, not reproduced here). 6) The Yardymly meteorite is a typical iron-nickel meteorite but with the original coalescence of minerals and numerous inclusions of graphite. 7) In the direction of meteorite travel they have a conical shape, a smooth surface, and are covered to a considerable degree by a black layer as a result of fusing; at the opposite end the meteorite is granular. At the present time work is continuing in the scientific insti- tutions of the Acadeur of Sciences of the Azerbaydzban SSR on the study of the meteorite, including its morphological, structural and geochemical properitee, its mineralogical and chemical composition, its residual magnetism, etc. With our current interest in the mastery of space the se en- tific study of meteorites such as the Yardymly meteorite is becoming of extraordinary interest. Meteorites are the caly form of matter arriving at he Earth's surface from outer space and serve as a ]ney -4- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 to the unravelling, of many natural phenomena; they supplement the in- formation which we have gained from the first artificial earth satel- liteo and cosmic rockets. ("On the Falling of the Yardymly Iron Mete- orite," by M. A. Kaohlcay, 0. F. Sultanov, T. A. Eminzade and V. I. Aliyev, Izveotiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaydzhanokoy SSSR, Seriya Geologo- Geograficheakikh Nauk, IQo. 1, 1960, pp. 169-17i ) Meteorological Report on Atmospheric Fronts in Western Antarctica The following is the substance of a Soviet report appearing in the May 1960 issue of Metearologiya Gidrologiya. As we accumulate new facts about the development of atmospheric processes over the interior continental regions of Antarctica the na- ture of the changes in weather in those regions is becoming increas- ingly leas mysterious although the general picture and many details of weather formation still rennin unclear. Three circumstances make it impossible for weathermen to analyze processes over the continent with the oame degree of assurance as it is done for the coastal regions of Antarctica: 1) an ignorance CC the orography of the region; 2) an absence of a sufficient number of mete- orological stations on the continent; 3) the existence of a permanent deep near-surface inversion which makes synoptic raps almost useless for the so::rtion of analytical problems. There is too little aerological data for the solution of a num- ber of problems of Antarctic meteorology, including problems in the prediction of weather. It has seemed important to establish whether weather changes in the interior continental regions are of a frontal character or not. During the vInter of 1958 more than a few data were accumulated on the basis of which we nay draw the preliminary conclusion that the principal weather changes on the plateau around the pole dc, have a frontal character. At the same time it must be noted that there are a number of thiags'that are unclear in this frontal interpretation of atmospheric processes over Antarctica. At the same time it is difficult to dispute the reality of the existence of atmospheric fronts and their Influence an the weather of the interior regions of Western Antarctica. The article gives a detailed description of processes in Western Antarctica during the period 25 July through 31 July 1958; Figure 1 is a vertical cross section of the atmosphere over the station Amundsen during this period. Fronts are no obvious that there can be no ques- tion of their existence. In this period the two atmospheric fronts that are described in ' some detail are not the only ones discernible, Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 others were present, especially aloft, as described in the final para- graphs of the text. ("Concerning Atmospheric Fronts in Western Ant- arctica," by P. D. Aotapenko, Metearologiya i Gidrologiya, No. 5, 1960, pp. 23-26) Abstracts ofMArticlen from the Iateot "Meteorologiya i aidrologiy" (a) The ?&ctral Albedo of Natural Under3,YSurf Surfaces This 3,000 ward article, 8 pages in length, points out that the investigation of the spectral albedo of natural underlying surfaces is still in its initial stages; there is a great need for a substantial improvement in the methods of measurement and long-range accumulation of experimental data before the reflective properties of natural under- lying surfaces have been well studied. Of exceptional interest is the problem of the albedo in the infrared region of the spectrum -- a prob- lem that has resained almost totally unstudied. The various kinds of underlying surfaces are considered -- soils, barren lards, vegetation, snow and water. The artici.e represents a re- view of over existing knowledge of this subject, not an original or spe- cific contribution. The bibliography is made up of 31 items (all referenced in the text); there are 2 tables and four graphs. ("The Spectral Albedo of Natural Underlying Surfaces," by K. Ya. Kondrat'yev, Metaorologiya i Gidrologiya, No. 5, 1960, pp. 46-53) (b) On the Influence of Condensation Heat Release on Vertical Currents The methods and equations proposed in this 8-page article make It possible (for a given thermobaric field in the atmosphere) to com- pute the momentary values for vertical velocity and condensation in a cloud -- provided that we know the boundaries of the cloud bl and b2. It should be remembered, the author warns, that bl and b2 nay change during the prediction period. Therefore in order to use this method for prognostic purposes it is necessary to have a further development of the numerical prediction of the height of the cloud cover. A knowl- edge of change in the height of the cloud cover snakes it possible to predict precipitation in much the same way as for the numerical predic- tion of pressure. ("On the Influence of Condensation Heat Release on Vertical Currents in.tbe Atmosphere," by R. L. Kagan, Meteorologiya i Gidrologiya, No. 5 s 1960, PP, 3 -10 ) A Method for the Solution of a System of Equations for Short-Range Weather Prediction A 4-page article in Vol. 132, No. 2, of the Do~2tlai of the Acad- engr of Sciences of the USSR is devoted to a method for the solution of -6- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 a full system of etIuntiona for the short-range prediction of weather. The author is I. A. Kibel', Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the UOSR, an associate of the Institute of Applied Geo- physics. ("Finite Differences Method for the Solution of a Full Sys- tem of Equations for the Short-Range Prediction of Weather and Quasi- Geoatrophic Ratios," by I. A. Kibell, Dokia of the Academy of Sci- ences of the USSR, Vol. 132, No. 2, 19 06 , pp. 319-322) Latest Report on the Weather- Ship "A. 1. yoyeXkov" The following is a summary of a feature story appearing in the Soviet periodical Znanlye-Sila: Two special weather ships were built in 1959 for the making of all-around meteorological observations at sea. The first Soviet weather ship -- the "A. I. Voyeykov," is sup- plied with apparatus for sending radiosondes and meteorological rockets to great heights,. In the autumn of last year it made its first voyage along the route Odessa-Singapore Vladivostok. In the Red Sea the temperature of the water is about 22 degrees even at a depth of two kilometers, that is, 18 to 20 degrees higher than at these same latitudes and at this same depth in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. This., the -xorldts greatest accumulator of heat, was of interest to scientists even in the last century. However, it was not then possible to get precise data about the thermal balance of the Red Sea. Now, with modern apparatus available., the meteorolo- gists on board have made measurements of temperature, ?nunidity, and wind velocity from the surface of the sea to the very peak of the mast; at the same time they have measured the incoming and outgoing radia- tion. These observations, made on the firs' voyage of the "A. I. Voyeykov," made it possible to determine how much heat comes from the Sun, how much is expended in the evaporation of water from the surface of the sea and how much heat is lost due to scattering. It has become clear that an overwhelming part of the Suns heat is expended in evap- orating the water of the Red Sea -- to the extent of 17?mm'per day. Expressed differently, if there were no inflow of water, evaporation would dry up the Red Sea in 300 yearsl There was a brisk and favorable wind in the Gulf of Aden. The ship had entered into the Arabian branch of the Indian monsoon. During the time of the summer Indian monsoon strong southwesterly winds pre- vail in the vicinity of Socotra Island and on the Somalia coast. These winds, driving the surface waters from these coasts, cause an upwelling of cold water from the depths, thereby forming the Somalia cold current. On entering the zone of the Somalia Current it became noticeably colder and the air became completely clear; even the clouds of the up- permost levels disappeared -- those usually observed at a height of 10 to 12 km. The question arises : is it possible that the influence of the Somalia Current extends to such heights? In order to answer this -7- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R00020.1250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 important meteorological problem it will be necensury to visit the area repeatedly. Throughout the year there is ra zone of low atmospheric paesoure over the equator; this extends upward to the stratosphere and even to the ionosphere. The stability of thir zone and its ter1 itarial con- stancy have remained unexplained up to the preseirt time. There is still no answer to another problem: is the equatorial zone a favo.'- able one for stable ascending currents, that in, foa? the development of a cloud cover in depth? If it is, how can we explain the arid conditions on equatorial islands situated in the midst of the oceans here? And how ce,n we explain a number of other phenomena observed at the equator which are nonconforming with theories of the general cir- culation of the atmosphere that have gained credence? Weather ships can accomplish more than research -work alone. Far from the shores of the Motherland, equipped with radar , tel emttr ic and other modern technical devices, they will send out information Eaid warnings, thereby safeguaudix g life fror: the onslaughts of raging ca- tastrophes. They can supply information to ships at sea about the tracks of cyclones, typhoons and storms, thereby it.lfilling the role of "breather, bureaus afloat," ("Weather Ships.." by R. Usmano r, Zaianiye - Sila, No. 5, 1960, p. 42) CPYRG Conference an Seismology Held in Rut inn Pct%ml.e13 Relnxhl:.c "The Acac.ent of Sciences of the Rtunataiaua People's Re microseismic observations. The compilation of seismic maps and the working out of a common method for making and genera seismic scale for the determination c the intensity c eazb by the conference t xpresnes the need for t'ae development of quakes occurring in the Cespathiane and Ballmns. A resolut:t experience in studying local lair-intensity :3e rt;`~t t takes in t Union. This experience can be used in. the Investigation of skit', I. A. Nerseao;r auad D. A. IGltaxina spoke on the:L' ma:av tion of Rumania. Vie Stet ,scientists Ye. A. I =Mali.n, S. of earthquakes o y also exhibited a matp of the s eisw1c re the Rumanian acientints G. Petras::u, i. Cavea, and Others, d cases of Individual earthquakes and pa:esente.. tb! results off' on the development of a method for dete:=::ning the ero9.cente:' garia, R=ga_ry, Poland., the USSR and (77Pchor,7.ovskis.. in the of Seismicity in the C.arpath?.ians and Ballmro. Taking pcz't Terence, beuides Rtusenian sc?entisto, were representatives sponsored iv Bucharest the First Xt te:cnatio1 a1 Confext:ace o untitled and unsigned article in Nauka i Zhiznt, No. 4 CPYRGHT b lic has the study the con- am Bul- reports ac J.bed and .46oei ionaliza- 'B of Soviet n adopted tm1xieO. 11aslzes sizing th 1960, :P. 80) Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4 V. ARCTIC AND AN'T&flCTIC Diurnal Variation in the Intensity of Cosmic Rays at Tikhaya Bay A collection of articles pertaining to the high latitudes was published in 1959 by the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research In- stitute of the Main Administration of the Northern Sea Route. The title of thin publication wau "Problems of the Arctic and Antarctic." One of the articles, abstracted below, is entitled "Diurnal Variations in the Intensity of Cosmic Rays at Tikhaya Bay." Diurnal variations in the intensity of the meson component of cosmic rays constitute an important group among the variations in in- tensity of cosmic rays of extraterrestrial origin. A detailed study of such variations can reveal the nature and basic properties of the polar corpuscular streams that cause many geophysical phenomena. How- ever, temperature variations in the free atmosphere, also having di- urnal variability, substantially distort the initial variations. Con - sequently, states the author, it is important to correctly evaluate the influence of temperature on these diurnal variations. Taking into consideration the great variability of meteorolo- gical factors in the high latitudes it seemed useful, continues the author, to measure the variations of the initial intensity of the cos- mic rays from the influence of atmospheric effects. This was done, based on data collected at the observatory at Tikhaya Bay. This sta- tion is situated at 800191 N, 520481 E, geomagnetic latitude 710301. An automatic ASK-2 ionization chamber at that station was in constant operation from December 1952 through September 1955. The principal result of this work, forming the basis for this 8-page article, was the derivation of the diurnal variations in the intensity of cosmic rays during the warm and cold seasons, based on the recording of the meoor, component at Tikbaya Bay during the period indicated above. The results show that these diurnal variations in the initial intensity of cosmic rays do not have a seasonal march, that is, for both seasons the amplitude and phase of the diurnal wave are identical after correction for temperature. The results of this research, in which several different methods were used for the processing of the data, confirm and partially supple- ment earlier derived conclusions drawn in respect to the character of the diurnal variations in the intensity of cosmic rays in the high latitudes. In this work radiation errors of the radiosonde were not taken into account; after these have been eliminated it is possible that there may be small modifications in the results. ("Diurnal Vari- ations in the Intensity of Cobmic Rays at Tikhaya Bay," by I. 0. Kon stantinov, in the book "Problems of the Arctic and Antarctic," Lenin- grad, 1959, pp. 41-48) -9- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00141 R000201250001-4