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November 16, 2016
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January 12, 2000
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July 29, 1947
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1`'`"~--.,Approved For Release 2000%O 'fDEgMWDP82-00457R000700750001-5 CONTROL U. S. OFFICIALS OW.*Y CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE GROUP INTELLIGENCE REPORT 11 L1' 25X1 A 226/ 95856 COUNTRY French Indo Chinn DATE: 25X1 A SUBJECT Political Informations Government The Viet Aram INFO. DIST. July 1947 M 25X1A PAGES 9 ORIGIN SUPPLEMENT 25X1X 25X1X 25X1X 1. The People's Committees are roughly designed in the classic Marxist model of PeopleeDs Soviets, although there are some important differcnces. In the election of P.Za.rxist Soviets the vote is weighted heavily in favor of the city proletariat as against the other classes. The People's Committees in Vietnam, however; are Approved Sor el `s~~? 88 Y 1 2=0~ 7 ?'( O T~ 01-5 xtEE IMAM '- '~iR = u'1 # A011= The People's Committees Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 25X1A Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R0007025015 )N8!ii; cl N`MA.L J [?EI,.I.M 'IC~a elected by universal suffrage-all. raen and uoraen over 18 years of age 0 Atten- dance at elections is not compulsory, but Government pressure usually succeeds in reducing abstentions to less than 25 The elections are controlled by skillful Government propaganda, 2. The People's Committees are in theory the source of administrative power. Aecordin; to the present Vietnam Constitution (adopted 9 November 1946), Vietnam is divided, from the administrative point of view, into 3 BoNorth, Central and outho . Theso Tao are the geographical equivalent of the 3 Ky: Tonkin, iann :1, Cochinchina; but it .must be noted that the Ho are supposed to be purely adminis- trative subdivisions, not separate states like the old Ky. Each Bo is divided into a number of provinces; each province into a number of Huyon (Annarose equivalent to the Chinese Iisien) each Iluyon into a number of Xa (comet nes or villages). Each of those divisions elects its oim People's Co u ittoe as follows: a. Xa: population of each Xa elects People's Codnmttee for that Xa by direct popular vote. bet IIuyen: populxstion of each Huyen elects People's Committee for that U~Lyen by direct popular vote. co Province and I3o: sane as Xa and Iluyen0 There i3 no iridirect election of People's Comnh ttees o In addition to the People's Committees C:hich exist on the four different levels enumerated above,, there is the National Assembly v-hich is the equivalent . of a People's Committee for the ti?rhole country; also elected by direct popular vote Article 59 of the Constitution states: "Tire People's Committee (on each level) maker decisions on local problems 3 There decisions must not be in oppoc Lion to the directives of the Committees on the hi.;lier levels.". It is this in- conspicuous provision in the Constitution which pormits a complete negation in practice of this theory of power ster7r i.n ; upLvmrd iron. the people through the Cor_ A. "ttees to the ^xoverniaent; and in fact reverses the flow of power, changing it into one from a central dictatorship do Ti to the level of the individual. The Pcoplev~Cor~nttees and the iccutave Cor;m3ttees The implementation of this reversal of the flow of potrer is through the t: ,e of Executive Cor1nittees on each level. Article 59 of the Constitution cont_:nucs: 'The Executive Committee is charged urith these duties: (1) to execute the orders of the Comm mittee on the next higher level; (2) to execute the de(l.sions of the Peoplovs Committee on its oT;j:i Level, ,ft,c.r these decisions have I:?-)en approved by the Comrdttce on the hi., ,hor level; and (3) to direct the adr.?inistration of the locality." Article 60 stag;:: The Fx3cutive Cor:uitttee is responsible both to the Committee on the next hi ;her level and to the local People' Conui ittee o" Article 61 at?ates: "The details of the organization of Poopl? v s Comndttees and of Executive Conmiittees will be fixed by Goverrsraent decree," 25X1 A An example of such a decree (based, of course, not on the present cons a u ion but on a similar provision in the previous one) - appears in the Official-journal of 23 July 1946 and provides for the creation of a "Special Re;ion of Ho3ay" (107-05#20-57),, in which the Executive Corry i.ttec of the People's Coi nii tt ce reports directly to the People's Committee of .13ac Bo (Tonkin) rather than to that of the Province of 'luanr; yens Hord ay is an 1portant coal mining center). 5, In practice -.lraost the sole function of the People's Convattee is to elect the T xecutive Cor_ri ttee on its oVVrn level. This election, litre the others, is ;guided by skillful propaganda fromi above., After havir7 elected the ' iXecutive Conaai.ttee, the People's Cornuittee tends to disappear from si ;ht a It is Supposed to rioet every sic months to approve or disapprove the actions of the .ecutivo Committee a As a rule those ratifications are perfunctory. Special meeti_n s of the Peoplo's Comr7ittee are soraetixies hold in order that they may be rec;Orred to assurie outward responsibility for an action -uhhich is sufficiently unpopuJ`?.r to cnamse the ?'xeciitive Committee to hesitate--a scanessoat functions ffr TF-'~Y~~;'7-14 L Jf:t3t', i.7W L I I.S,. OFFIC TfU ONLY Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RD W6~f~d~~1BRaRV Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 3- 25X1A The Executive Committee 6, The Executive Committee on each level consists of a President, one or more Vice-Presidents, and a Secretary. Often the President and Vice-Presidonts are figureheads, with the real power (such as it is) being exercised by the Secretary,, All administrative power is exercised by the Executive Con mitten in accordance with rather rigid directives from above, 7. In like runner, on the National level, the. Cabinet is the equivalent of the Executive Cor.rittee just as the national Assembly is the equivalent of thu Peoplees Cor~.anittee. The Cabinet is controlled by the Vietminh. The National Assembly is as much the puppet of the Vietnir h as the Peoplea s Corariittees are puppets of the Executive Corunittees. Be=use of the true reversal of the floc, of power (described in paragraphs 3 and 4) local Government and police duties tend to bedbrne coordinate functions under the' '.-kocutive Coraraittoo and the Departmnt of the Interior Frith the latter becorzting the deciding, factor. Local Officials f a The authority of local officials is closely circumscribed. Local officials in ' iett}tinh controlled areas were useable to discuss pith source A any specialized field. of ~,overnrnont, such as education, lags enforcement., population changes, 4axation, it:hick would nominally be considered to be under the overall direction or study of the administrative officials of a city or province,. Few loco.;. officials had much knovlledre of the social, econoruic, or commercial aspec3: s of their comrunities; or if they had such knowled e, they indicated that the,- were not authorized to discuss such ratters 7a 25X1A 10, 25X1A Another means by which the local officials are kept in line is the Secret Police, rho observe their activities closely. Central ; overnnrent officials are similarly .ia,tched. The Secret Police encourage informers to report exactly vhat th;.(y see a Yid hear without comment. Source 3 trzs told by several different persons on Y;'rhort 4te had recently called that they had been visited by Secret Police ir; :odic teiy after sourcea s departure to verify their connections with hire, their conversations and their actions,, state that some local officials are arrogant blockheads but the rr jority are mere machines. It has been previously reported that 110 chi rani adrv is the lir:.ta.tions of his auUnistrative officials, for t1iich he blames the lack of adenuateeeducation and administrative experience during the French regUie. Other reports indicate that many sriall functionaries are betginnir g to iLfLtate the mannerisms and arrow _,es of forrucr French functionaries). According to source A, local officials in gene, al are young; men who have only in eleiientaxy education but pleasing personalities. In some of the hamlets the officials are the village elder:;. A great many of the local officials arc former revolutionists who had suffered prison sentences under the French; many had performed ;uerril.lna and underground activities during the Japanese occupation. Because of the narrow- ness of the directives which govern their posers as acirrinistrative off'ic ,-; ?.s, they have little initiative or opportunity for individual judgment. 4hen an 6c -ibt whey do nothing until receiving instructions from higher authorities. Thi 3 tends ,o result in apparent obstr etioniurt, U, This inability to make decisions on the spot results in clumsy and sluggish Wrt1nistration with a mmcitain, of red tape. Persons can rove from one area to another only with all the ri xni ?ole of obtaining special permission from the now authority for each succeedin step. It is irtpossiblo to visit an official --- without naicirt ; a previous appointment. A representative of the Information Depart-~ merit of the liinistxy of the Interior tires assi, to source A during part of a trps inoVietminh-controlled areas for the purpose of raking all necessary arrange- i source; but p ly oven this representative had to --o through all the usual red tape. '.henever he succeeded in arranging a ncotin , he seemed ex renely excited as.though it were suite a. triumph. (See par. ?9) Difficulties of administration are increased by tyre lot?,-noss of coruitunications. 11any officials corric-nted on t d~' ff ' cults Approved For ReteaL~ o~ i {. Nb'Adfff ties OTLt U1 Y v35 I A Approved For Release 2000/04/18: CIA-RDP82-00457R00070 because of officials being scattered and communications being poor. 12. The national ~..elfare Associations are not elected. In every case, their membership in each district comprises nearly the whole class of persons t whom he Association is applicable; for examples the I=IJortenZ s Association or '13ational ',~elfare" includes practically all the women in the district. Membership is theoretical ly voluntary, but propaganda and pressure make it nearly compulsory. Jusi; as the I'cop oIs Committees exist on. various levels, so do the National Welfare Associations. The activities of the Associations are directed by Executive Committees of the Associations, who are chosen by meetings of the members of the Association under suitable "guidance" from above. Unlike ?: he People's Committees, which tend to disappear.in practice, the Associa- tions nre very active; but are naturally under rigid control by the Executive Committees of the Associations Just as in theory the i xecutive Committee of the People's Committee is jointly responsible to the People's Committee itself and to the Executive Committee of the People's Committee or.. the next.. higher level, so in theory the Executive Comrai.ttee of the Association is jointly responsible to the members of the Association itself and to the Executive Committee of the Association on the next higher level. In practise, the Executive Committee of the Association is solely responsible to the Executive Committee of the Associa- tion on,tho next higher level; and the general activities of the Associations are governed by the Executive Committee of the Association in question on a national level. On this high level, the Executive Committee of the Association is in close touch with the various Ministries, which g! eot or request (they do not order) the. Association to conduct given activities in connection with the responsibilities of those I.iinistries. Wiese might include, for exuample, a public health program undertaken under the joint auspices of the Liinistry of Public Health and the Department of Information, Public Works programs, etc: Mien the program has been agreed upon, the Executive Con,. ittee of the :association on the Rational level gives implementing directives to the Executive Corzaittoos of the Associations on the level of Bo,, Province, Iluyen, and Xaaa On each level, the relationship between the r ecutive Committees of the People's Committees and the Executive Committees of the Associations is merely one of liaison, not one of authority in either direction. There are three main types of Public elf.'are Associations: (a) By categories (age, sex, or religion); (b) By profession, business,, or trade; (c) Cultural and allied associations. Associations bey Categories. l3. Examples of Associations by categories are: Public ':.elfare Associations of Children, Youth, Young Lien, .;omen, Old People, Catholics, Protestants, Buddhists? These Associations differ among one another in organization and function. 14. The members of the Boys' and Girls' Associations are Inrovan as 41Bas boo Shoots" who will one day grow up strait ,ht and strong as bamboo trees. They are divided into two groups, those under 11, and those over 11. no children are encouraged to sing popular revolutionary sons as well as the old songs of the country, They are encouraged to write and perform skits and plays; catching bandits and killing traitors are the themes of their games. They have bonfire parties in the moonlight; and go on picnics to the country where emphasis is on discipline and know ng the country in order to be good ,guides. They are taught sor.phore signaling and how to send up fire balloon signals. These children's -groups are enthusiastic and CONFID:11hTiAll /COIJTROL U.S. OFFICIALS ONLY Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 Approved For Release 2006/04/1 : dli~-R682-00457R0007 serious. T"any of the children have been guerrillas for several years, They learn about arms and. about security measures and they are encouraged to be daring. They also serve as ,volunteers for the Red Cross, riorale-builders for the Army (a sort of "Special Service"), cooks for army messes, and makers of clothes for the needy? 156 In some localities the specific functions of some of these Associations are rather va?ue, In the great r .jori:ty of cases,, one of the most important and conspicuous functions of the Associations is to furbish "volunteers" for various sorts of public work, principally demolitions in connection with the Scorched .,a`arth Policy, (See previous report on Viotr inh-controlled areas: Sconor?;ai.c- InfocrsLtion The scorched earth Policy) But, in sober fact though not theory, the really most important reason for the existence of these Associa- tions is to tighten the Viot. ai.nh grip on individual members; an important phase of this in to force these individuals to play a more or less conspicuous part in Vietru-nh activities, which will so compromis them, that later, even if they should wi3h to desert the Vietminh for the French or Nationalist Front., they would not be able to do so for fear of French reprisal and punishment against them in connection with these past activities under the Vietr.dah0 16. The. National '..elfare, Associations of Catholics, Buddhists, etc.., are instruments ol: similar purpose to the above? In radd3.tion to attempting to use the existing eel i -s ous -organization. to keep the people in line politically, a secondary purpose !,Lo to neutralize the e ctivitio a and propaganda, of rival organizations of the sax:le religions (for exrap1I., Christian Lea,, ue, Iioa Hao, etc) which have aligned them-- salvos with the Nationalist Front. For it is the responsibility of the leadership of the Ire tiorkml . elfare Associations of Catholics to persuade tho faithful that French Catholioo priests who denounce the Vietl: nh as Communists and anti-religious aro just plain liars, (See previous reports on AAolo of the Church in Indochina and the religious croups in both the Vietminh and the Ua.tiona.llst Front). A3sociat3 ens by ':usiness? Profession,,aorTra de? 176 Examplas of Association by Profession.- Doctor., Lawyers, Schoolteachers, ;u' ,mpl_es of Association by Business: T anicors, shophoopors, . .mpl es by Tra< e? ilwaay . orko' n, ors{ rater c, 1 Diner a PE L s ~1 ? . "T7.11 be scan that son, of them are in the natur'; of guilds or business associations; others a kind of emasculated trade union or peasantet organization. Their function is clearly different from that of their apparent pa: a.llol in democratic countries, .mss strikes arse prohibited by law and would be repressed ,by ruthless measures, the 11trade-union" associations have little poz:rer, !aach of those .associations may be~compon;nt part of more -generalized associations; for exsmple, Ralluay :.orkers, Printers, P..iners Associations are gathered to-ether in a :general, ff,orker s Association" ? Sig' .larly, h ssocin tions of Peasants, of Tenant Farmers, of Landowners, nay be gathered to- gether in National .:elfare Associations for Agriculture. In general, the purpose of these :associations is to keep the various professional, business, trade and agrio?iaitural itroups strictly in line -7.;ith Vietninh policy, In addition, they undoubtedly serve a useful purpose in aadvisin hnd coordinating commercial poll.cy a.ncix f1uc race f, i ndirectl) the educational program, and the dissemination of ; ropagaanda . 1.36 It, will be noted that any given individual can hardly escape from. belonging to at least one National ..e1fare Association. Zvon if he has no religion,, no profession or business, and no cultural attainments, he has at least a given age? In practice, individuals will usually belong to two or more such associations? A business woman for instance might belong simultaneously to the local :Jordon's Association,, the :'uddhistst Association., and the ?Lerchfantse Association. Thus the political grip of the Vietminh on individuals is tightened in a multiplicity of ways? CUNFID. ;`.', `i'1.? L ,/CONTROL 0 i- AL U.,S. OFFICIALS ONLY Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 Approved For Release QUOiO4 t8iffCU DR8t 00457R00070QT q l9 One of the m~ ghtiest political weapons wielded by the Vietminh is the National '..elfare Association for Culture. The outward purpose of these associations is to spread and popularize culture in general.. The real purpose is to spread culture of a definitely tendentious (pro Vietminh) nature a For this purpose . a number of vehicles are used, including lectures, eakpositions, publications,, orchestras., theatres, and travelling theatrical trcupeso The means of promoting tendentious works of art, at the expense of non-tendentious ones, is subtle and effective rather than blatant, Naturally, all works of art whose tendency is in any vay hostile to Vietminh policy (mention of Nationalist Front, nention of Trotskyists,, harsh criticism of Britain or America ) is prohibited from circulating, On the other hand, purely neutral :.teas (paintings of land; capes or flowers, for instance) are not prohibited froi.i circulating; they are merely given loss favor- able opportunities. In a land of scarcity of means this is quite effecti o 2O The Cultural Association on the Uatioral level, which formerly enjoyed a striking and even brilliant career at I/anoi., is no established at Tuyen 7uarag, (1O5-l4, 2l-L;.M The chief of this Association is 1IGU10 dinh Thi, a (Stalinist) Communist. This Association and its subsidiaries include the great majority of the r tional],yy known uriters, artists., and musicians now in Tonkin, as well as a nur.iber of lesser. known ones. I.Tany of these are persons of outstanding ability. 2very Iluyen has its Cultural Associations, In ti?c towns, she chief activities of the Cultural Associations are the rsar?na? ement of expo aitions, concerts, lectures, theatres, and receptions for VTT R a; in the villages: lectures., discussion groups, travelling theatrical troupe, and :;roue sin;ingd ;.... R!' DINS ,TI>r; ~ ~7~, ? , e.T? y. a I4? ,., J a VJ..' 11 J_.al T , i-. .lR C ~I Ilu..,1 s ' 25X1 A Note: Previous reports have indicated that such dissatisfaction wd ts; the diverse elements---the French and their satellites., the Nationalist Front., the Trots],-yists, and possibly the Conservatives of the Vietr_.nh-have already made use, or will shortly make use, of this dissatisfaction for their own end the hard- ships attendant upon the Scorched Sar th Policy (see previous report on t r`%s policy) and the wholesale displ a.cea_cnt of populations constitute an over present threat to 25X1 X Vie ;'seta Binh hold, on the people),, 25X1X ^ 21 '.7itiiout exception every business s?L:.n and every business woman n E: by source in Vietrminh-controlled areas was unhappy about the present situation. Their antagonisn toward the Government varies. I.Ierchants in Cao Bang were frank in their crib casrao As to the irin mate future., it is normal that business ::ion take a poor vie;,, of the business stagnation which results from. lack of i=ports and exports., imeosition of restrictions on transport, and other lir..tations. For the longer tern, point of view, it seems unlikely that business interests will necessarily become a group opposed to the Vietminh, unless the Government makes sent --- -- r- vent has laid dorm no clear policy concerning private business. 25X1A The Constitution provides that "private property shall be respected.`' Under present conditions this clause is of little value). No clear lisaitations of the Coven .dent's proposed competition with private business nor of a possible policy of national- 25X1X izat-ion have been promulgated. aorz.e business men' therefore suspect the worst, 22. Despite the general feeling; of fear and uff~rillinO ess to criticize the Govern- ment openly., one ti?rell-educated Government official spoke to source with :urpri- sing frankness. He said that Goverment officials gc.aerally 'Vlore a die ya.ce to the country poorly informed, incompetent, and powerless /to act on behalf of the welfare of the people/? (See paragraphs 8-1l) . lie stated that the pre- sent government is Coxmmi list and 1_.Dny people fear the extension of Coruna rd.sm in C()II?L''.~2'1 ./COIUTI~OT - It OI{` "ICIAIS ONLY Approved For Release 2000/04/18 PCIA-R I . Approved For Releas 2 I041.191 14"J 1L'00457R000700 _7- the country even though the present pattern of government has not yet many similarities with that of the USSR. He said that everyone was watched; and ' in particular if two or more people gather together their activities 25X1 X are under rigid surveillance; every one lives in fear of the Secret Pol.ice8 23. Source met. a number of persons who find trouble hating the French and who asked if source believed the Vietminh stories about French atrocities. Many of these people had pleasant associations with the French in the pv.. t and 25X1 k inevitably look to France for guidance in cultural and economic matters. A small group even considers the French, as individuals, to be wonderful people. 25XlXote: ridiculeb the last two sentences but also states that as terrible as life vine un er the French, many people feel that the rreser t. is far worse and look back wistfully upon the orderliness , o. the e~.rench, , ?iM,e however unjust it was. Source D states that logic suggests' that there is a ;-rov~i ng number of persons in Tonkin for whom the French seem the lesser of two evils and that these persons include those of wealth., culture and influence). i;TNN.1: TT' ORISIT 25X1 21, The most striking feature of life under the Vietnam Government is the pervading sense of fear. Source found it a relief to return from this Near-ridden country to the comparative freedom of Kuomintang controlled China;, In Tonkin no one dares to raise any question or to express himself freely. Officials are even more cautious than private citizens. Because the secret police are everyvihe e,, in- formers do a thriving business. People are at all times subject to arbitrary arrest and interrogation. The sense of fear is greater than in the Cow tinist-control..led areas of China. Although many people tend to excuse this Vietminh terrorism on the basis of rrar-time necessity., they resent it more strongly than the -terroristic methods formerly employed by the French and later by the Japanese because Viet- minh terrorism is more efficient and is done by their own people rather than the foreign conqueror. This sense of fear among the population is regretted by the Vietminh;? it is not Itself a fixed policy but is the inevitable result of the terroristic methods used for the purpose of keeping the population under control. 25X1 A Note: Last sentence also reported by 25X1 X 25X1X 25o Terrorism under the French was had enough but it was not very, systematic or clever. It was chiefly' designed to suppress sedition and keep workers in Linea Execution.. ivprisonraent, torture, and forced labor were the principal r:t .thods used. Poulo Condor, although the most famous of the prisons, was by no means the most horrible. The most usual torture was beatings; the most refined was passing an electric current through the body. Terrorism under the French was only in part a matter of fixed policy; it was greatly aggravated to the brutality and sadism of minor officials, overseers, and prison guards. Note: 25X1 A The ruthlessness and brutality of the French during the old regime is v.11 docu- mented by the Vietminh; see for example the publication Temoignages, n.lblished 25X1 Xby the Vietminh in 1945. -reports that the construction of the: 'Tonkin- I.nos Ilifhvvray before the war cost many Fiore lives than that of the Bangt-ok-4,oul?' mein "Railway of Death" under condition; even more horrible; there are also evidences of the French continuing; at present to make use of brutal policies in some areas under their control. Precise details are not available and it may be that such incidents could in part be excused on the ground of military necessity. 25X1 X - states that terrorism is a necessary instrument in class conflict and exploitation, Ho real evidence is available, as to whether the French are contin- uing terrorism as a r, ttor, at least in part, of fixed policy). COW I) T;frrL /CONTROL U,,S. OFFICIALS OrLY tEFERENCE CENTER Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA Approved For Releasec MQ4fttzg&BP1 ~0457R0007007 ~I'=5 25X1A 25X1X _ 26b Japanese terrorism was more violent and more efficient. It roused the whole people to a general anti-imperialistic feeling. Before that the people had been merely antiFrench; but they came to realize that the danger of any imperialism--French,. Japanese, Russian-left little to choose between one another, The principal Japanese innovation was large-scale use of the water torture, Viotrninh terrorism is far worse than either French or Japanese,. It is more efficient and ruthless. It was more blatant during the period of the occupation by Chinese troops, ,,hen the Viotr;unh was attempting to stamp out the DD and the Nationalist Front e:Lcr::c, ,ts, Trotskyist., and French sympa- thizers. Its principal instruments were assassination by burying alive or by tying in sacks and throwing in the lake (because of the scarcity of cartrid.3es), i grrisonmont,, and torture, Its most terrible refinezncrit, reserved as a friC,>:tening example for _important political prisoners, was to dig an inclined hole in which the prisoner was buried all except his head; he would then be given just enough rice every day and his body would very slowly rot; however, such cases were fairly rare. Since the departure of the Chinese troops the technique of Vietminh terrorism has developed along more precise lines. There is absolutely no freedom of speech. Strikes are forbidden. The lot of the worker is considerably worse than even under the French regime. Although the workers tend to blame the war, there is a strong undercurrent of dissatisfaction among labor and soldiers; it is here that the Trotskyists will find fertile fields, Current Viet iinh terrorise.-is purely fascist in technique (See previous report on the Vietnam Government--Fascistic Aspects) but there is one important difference between it and the examples of Germany and Russia. In Vietnam; imprison.ient, torture and oxecutiex,, are attended with a minimum of publicity. This is in line with the Vietminh effort to appear outwardly "civilized" and "democratic." Because. of this secrecy it is impossible to arrive at an estimate of the number of persons trhu have suffered from this policy.,, "Mysterious disappear-snces" are extremely frequent and it is usually unknown :hothor the persons disappearing are imprisoned or assassinated, Beatings and other minor tortures of criminals and suspected criminals are innun-erable These are applied for the most part to petty offenders, th:l- -yes; bandits, black rrarketeers, and violators of unim- portant regulations. To some extent the rich are terrorized in order to take possession of their wealth for the state. As to important political offenders, 25X1 some disappear mysteriously; but a more frequent technique is to leave them 25X1X x25X1Aat large and watch them closely. Note; Regarding the futuxx 25X1Mcommonts that it would scorn impossible to govern Indochina without terrorism as long as there is exploitation,, which seems inevitable under any re .,ne , hich is now possible; this fact will help to build up the gro in power of t.'ne Trotskyists whose propaganda is always aimed at the class struggle,). COURTS AND JAILS IN VIISMIN}I-CONTROLLED AREAS 25X1X 25X1X 27. Courts are under the control of the Central Government rather than the local government. All personnel of the courts are appointed, In ;;eneral source found the personnel of the courts to be, of good training and intelligence. The law is primarily French law, with some Chinese law particularly in respect to land. The jails source saw at Cao Bang and Thai Nguyen were reasonably clean and airy. Even the food looked decent, At Cao Bang prisoners were per- mitted to work outside of the jails in gangs on public projects, At Thai Nguyen the only job for the prisoners was maintaining the compound of the jail itself. Prisoners who have been sentenced,and those awaitin trial share the same quarters, Men , ,,omen, and c heron also Jive together, Infants, too your; to SeFx~i~~ei;ed fry ,:others, are t e~.en to ~ A _3_ n,~-';J, .;hs?i_? .ethers. Most prisoners are housed in open rooms rather than private ceee1s. Source say some people in solitary cells GO;NFIl ~ "D- L /CONT11OL .J. S. U FIC IC. 3..S ONLY Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : C W Ar- I I D fgjr U5 Approved For Release 2000104/18 :CIA-RDP82-0045780007007500 cS CBFTIThL I Ttit"'EL LIG.,rc i GROUP 25X1A which were dark and ill-smellirri Source was told that these people were confined because of contagious diseases, but source does not believe this is trues The individual cells at the Thai nguyen jail were in a separate room and on the doors were hum, rings; source was told that these were for holding extra bars across the doors but source does not believe this. Source saw no prisoners of foreign nationality. 280 )no interesting feature of the court s}rsteri is the requirement that cases nr+.st be tried within 45 days or the prisoner is released. :.hen a prisoner has been c.,afined for 45 days awaiting trial, he is automatically discharged; this provision cos _O:rthe court to try him -;:ith reason ble speed. In serious crimes a ainst the state the maximum period is 4 months? Source asked several prisoners pending i'rlal how long they had been held and in no case was their answer more than a month .,r !.I a half. Court procedure was simple, dignified and nona.busive. Courtrooms v,.x?o airy and attractive. Judges told source that there were fewer cases not and ::r~emed to expect some sort of compliment from source because of this fact, Source .;7.1t that there is no total loss of respect for the orderliness of law in Vietnam,, CONTROL IN VIST:.~ .Ii~COT 'iIOLL D x1,.Di1S q 25X1X -2 29, Sowzrces were accompanied by a representative of the Interior Department of the CP,itral Government? At each city the representative was given a local pass c .ch vra?s typewritten and gave all details of who, when,, why., etc. These passes iu-s not available for source's inspection- :.ithout the cooperation of the la .erior Department sources would not have been able to visit Vietr inh-cont:c.Aled area. The representative had to arra4ge all interviews and this was done with co isiderable difficulty, baggage and passports were examined and stamped., ln.ly 1 ..?tures taken with the approval of tho government official were permitted. Police (..'.'icers, including many in civilian clothes, frequently stopped and inspected the i _i.= i.torsl p - .pers, 25X1X ?1 30., T";u following are the flap, and insignia of the Vietminh,. - National flag of the Vietnam Republic 25X1 A? Notes It has been previously reported that the red field of this flag i of Soviet inspiration and the leaders of the Nationalist Front claim that they, trill insist on a change from this flag) b0 Shoulder patch worn by members of the V' trop National Army. c Shoulder patch worn by the i'Tu Veit {self Defense Corps), sometimes de-- srr?tbed as t"Volontaires de la Mort,. t' This document contains infarg;.ti~sn -affecting the national defense of the 'United States within the meaning of the Frp1 rage A t 509 UOS.C. 31 and 32 a windeda Is transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law, '; `l~!.~1.:?C.73J Ii r 111 1*3 ONLY "9r Approved For Release 2000/04/18 : CIA