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November 9, 2016
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December 9, 1998
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November 29, 1948
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25X1X6 25X1 A2g DATE DISTR. NO. OF PAGES 29 .Iovet 'ter 194 NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) 25X1 X6. SUPPLEMENT TO C/4 t"HRARr REPORT NO. Lt,ran, t+n ai; ie Police iiscussion The exact strength of the . police in the Soviet Zone cannot: be stated with absolute accuracy.. This is due primarily to the con7tantlyr changing personnel picture which results from the continual pu.rg- of pol:itiealiy unreliable elements on one hand and from the forced recruiting program on the other. Even high officials of :he GAI INFORMAT, COU.FY Gerrmny (Russian Zone) k82-0045FWj"0 SUBJECT Strength of Police Forces in the Soviet 2?R 1 A6a arr,aay PLACE ACQUIRED DATE 01 117C publicly but will be retroactive to 1 October 1,9 yaeoA half of the 1948 fiscal year. c, Appropriations for the police budget not only. prescribe the total amount which may be expended for police purposes, but state pre- ^i_sely (just like the appropriations for the US Army) thee, number of 'slots"? positions prescribed by the Tnhles of Or,geni- nation, which must be paid from the appropriated fu- On ti 'y police, which has not yet been nnounced ~ increase for the Ss3viet Zo_!fa 48 4 the aecanct Approved For Re ffwLi qAW2 GL+ASSIFICATION ..:s ('"ighest headquarters of the police in the Soviet r_ .one) hive no means ref es the exact number of policemen. in sex-vice on a given day. Generally speaking the most reliable guide on the numerical strength of the Soviet Zone German police is the police bs_cdget submitted by the Chiefs of Police of the five Soviet Zone Lander in conjunction with the GAT and the German Economic Commission (DWK) and approved by the Directorate for Internal Affairs (UVD and the 'Financial Directorate of the Sj> Ae There is ample documen- tary evidence showing that the appropriations for the police boil- get are cons idei ed final by the SMA and that the GAI must make no expend. it~.res ;,n excess of the appropriated amount except with the approval of the St)'A, (The possibility of secret 'police funds , appropriated for tu-ider? another heading is discounted completely by reliable German and Soviet sources.,) During the fiscal year additional appropriations were made for the Border Police 1048 , 1,J for the additional funds needed to cover the general salary. CLASSIFICATION S*:RI:T 0 CHANG WARMING NOTICE: THIS DISTMUTION LISTING iUST BE r~HCZAAI I ci~gp 6EF991 FOLK REl As QF DDA P~i0461F2 OaO~--- Approved For Release 1999/09/08 JCIA-RD Approved For Release 1999{: CIA_RDP82-00457R00210 70Q002-3 basis of the T/0 allocations in the police budget for the fiscal .r 1948 (1 April 194B to 31 March 1949)= the following 8 the authorized (but not actual) strength of the police in the Soviet Zone. Brandenburg .:r L: xi LE'iLL)11Y?~` 7, 5CC Saxony 179000 Saxony=Anhalt 13,000 Thuringia 9000 Total for the five Lander 57$00 Railway Police 59000 German Adm. of rn? interior 800 (Including clerical staff, Police Academy, and Criminological Laboratory) ~~,;~} syr of T/O Positions appropriated for in budget for fiscal year 1948 -- 63,300, excluding Border and Paramilitary Police and the J 'rlin mast Sector. d. The organization and strength of the police in the Soviet Zone was naturally affected by political developments. This resulted in an Increase over the total appropriated T/0 strength. The first of these major changes occurred in February 1948 when the German Admini: tration of the Interior, acting upon orders of the UVD, SMA estab- lished a specialized Border Police force consisting of 3,700 men, drawn mostly from the Schutzpolizei (Uniformed Constabulary) of the major cities in the Soviet Zone, This force was expanded in the last week of March when the strength of the Border Police was established at around 10,000 men. The Border Police was organized along military lines and was better paid and fed than the ordinary German police Nevertheless, the proximity of the border represented an attraction which many of the border policemen apparently could not resist, As a result, the force undergoes a constant attrition through. desertions and its present effective strength is estimated by a very reliable source as 6,700. e, A second major development affecting the strength of the Soviet Zone police wa.i L=ie virtual integration of the Berlin Last Sector police, under former Police President Paul Markgraf, into the ;astern Zone police apparatus, The strength of the Berlin East ,!actor police is estimated as 8,641, fa The third,, and perhaps most significant, major increase in the strength of the Soviet Zone police resulted from the organization of the so-called Polizeibereitschaftena referred to as "Alert= Police", "Kesernierte Polizei", or paramilitary police. This organization, recruited predominantly from among former German prisoners of war in Russia and led to a large extent by professional o'fi ers including former German generals, came into being during the late summer of 1948. Since its initial appearance it has be- come a subject of intense controversy, rumors, and exaggeration, Its strength was spoken of in terms of hundreds of thousands, actual, or planned. The facts, as usual, are not quite so spectacular. While the organization of this paramilitary police force is most significant (and, incidentally, definitely contrary to the Potsdam Declaration) and may herald the organization of a "People,?s Army" in the Eastern Zone of Germany, the present strength of the organization is somewhat less than ZC1,060 men, although an ex- pansion to 15,000 is planned in the very near future, g, Since the paramilitary police has become a subject of such Intense on the police controversy, it may be well to review basis of which the present strength of force is estimated at less than 10,000: the the Information paramilitary (1) A copy has been received of a letter from Vice-President Seifert of the German Administration of the Interior to Lt. Colo Golovlev of the Internal Affairs Directorate, SPCA Berlin?Karlshorst. The letter (dated 4 September 1948) is a request on behalf of the German Administration of the Interior to S!A, for the relaxation of Approved For Release 1999/0RDP8'2 0041R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 19JW : CIA-RDP82-00457RO9X'IA9 002-3 SKRF CENTRAL 11TE L AL Budget Regulations, and its subject is: "Temporary Financing of the Paramilitary Police from the Budget for the Fiscal Year 1948". The following is quoted from the body of the letter: "The German Administration of the Interior 's at this time faced with the urgent task of organizing and developing the Polizeibereitschaften (paramilitary or alert police). In order to pay the newly employed personnel of the para- military police we must utilize all unused appropriations which were to be expended during the budget year 1948 for the payment of police personnel. These unused appropria- tions are available because the police is well under strength; It has been. established that roughly 15,000 positions prescribed by the Tables of Organization are presently unoccupied, a ,s a result of the great difficulty we are encountering in finding the appropriate number of personnel. for the police service. "As it stands, however, the budget regulations do not per- mit the full utilization of the unexpended appropriations. Under the regulations, payment of an individual must be made only on basis of an available Tb0 position. Most of the available T/O slots however: call for the grade of Wachtmeister (patrolman) - thus a considerable proportion of the now-to-be-employed Alert Police cannot be paid from these T/O appropriations beta-ase of their higher rank, including generals, who require pay in excess of the appropriations." Vice-President Seifert's letter then discusses ways and means of arranging transfer of unexpended appropriated police funds but states that nothing can be don-- without the approval of the.Finance Directorate of the S!AO (2) The above letter warrants the following conclusions: (a) The police in the Soviet Zone was on 4 September 1948 15,000 men under the strength authorized by the Tables of Organization for the Fiscal Year 1948. (b) The number of paramilitary police foreseen on 4 Sep- tember 1948 was certainly less t?-an 15,000, but the funds required for their salary were in excess of the appropriation for the 15,CCO unfilled positions; this is due to the fact that a considerable number of Para- military police.receive a higher rate of pay than the patrolmen of the ordinary police. (c) Budget regulations must be observed by the German police: consequently Table of Organization strength, as authorized by the budget, can safely be regarded as the maximum strength. (3) A reliable and well-placed source gave the following infor- mation on the location of paramilitary police units (I3ereit schaften) Jecklenbure Rostock 2 Schwerin 1 Ktihlungsborn 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 25X1A2g Saxony-Anhalt Apollendorf, 2 Zerbst 2 Dommitzsch 1 nuedlinbuxg 1 Weissenfels 1 Brandenbur& Potsdam-fiche 1 ? lCyritz 1 Wittenberge 1 Anna hlit to 1 Brandenburg A2 Berlin kerlin? Wilhelmsruh 1 Thuringia jAordhausen 1 3bndershausen 1 lihlhausen 1 x. 1ningen 4 Gr tha 2 Ilmenau I Saxon P; 3uen 1 Zi:ckau 2 CY,i,mnitz 2 Pirna 1 Gr.)j'senhain 2 Arr ;ldorf 2 The above distribution of peram.',litarsr police strength was confirmed independently for Brandenburg and the City of Berlin by the deputy commander o* the Schutzpolizei in one of the larger cities of-Brandenbit,rg, and by a field-grade officer of the S? A For Land Saxot y. In view of these con- firmations the strength distribution for the other three Lander is to be regarded as proba'Oly. accurate. (4) The basic paramilitary police unit (Bereitichaft) consists of 25C men. Assti'aing that each un: t is filled to the re- quired T?0 strPnf,th, the following are the figures on pare- military !.olice Strength by Lander: Mecklenburg 1,000 Saxony-Anhiilt 1,750 Brandenbur; 1,500 Berlin 250 '.ihuringis 2,500 Saxony 2:500 Total 9,500 (5) As stated before, present plans c ll for an expansion of the paramilitary police to :15,000 men. It may b assumed that the German Administration of the Interior w.i11` attempt (;o reach that figure as soon as ppssib.te and that paramilitary police units, in addition to the cues 'fisted above, will be organized as the necessity arises. But a recent report from a leading official at =Iilhelmsruh to the President of the GAI, Dr, Kurt Fischer, Stated: "..o Recr,,iiting of the para. rilitary police proceedz very slowly and it is believed to be doubtful that the required number of mon, in addition to other long unfilled police strength requiltments, could be SECRET Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 sqjWi itN1f1A&L~ 25X1 A2g CE NRAL 331TELJGENCE AIMM obtained s?iort of conscription." To this one may add that the large-scale recruitment of former prisoners of.war from the USSR may be one answer, but it is unlikely that the SMk will pe:.,:iit the paramilitary police to consist exclusively of recrntly discharged prisoners of war., 2, Strength of,, =ie _Po ice Statistical Analysis Land Br8nO ,nburg Actual Strength : Administrative Police 1,500 Criminal Police 11020 Schutzpolizei =19100 Reilwa;t Police 930 .Paramilitary Police 1x500 Total 13,050 C and 'i ck1enb`urg Actual Strength : Administrative Police 890 Criminal Police 950 Schutzpolizei 41000 Railway Police 00 Paramilitary Police 11000 Total 8, 540 Land Saxony Actual Strength : Mrea1:down on the thrr?e 159180 main branches of the' police not available) Railway Police 975 Paramilitary Police 2,5OC Total 18, 655 Land Saxony?Anhalt Actual Strength Administrative Police 1998() Criminal Police 89r; Schutzpolizei 7,O8~ railway Police 850 Paramilitary Police 1,750 Total 1291560 Land Thuringia Acttval Strength : Administrative Police 11510 Criminal Police 19100 Schutzpolizei 6 i 50 Railway Police t65 Paramilitary Police 2, .,i00 Total 121025 Border Police (strength by Under not available) 61.700 City of Berlin (Eastern Sector) TIC Strength authorized by the Allied Rh}noniatura (Actual Strength is probably somewhat less but cannot be safely esti- mated) : Administrative Police : : Criminal Police 1,027. L ~~T EN~IA 919 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 CSQThAL INTELZIGEt CE AGENCY 25X1A2g Schutzpolizei 4,695 Auxiliary Police 1,300 Actual Strength: Railway Police 450 Paramilitary Police 250 Total 8,641 German Administration of the Interior 800 Total estimated strength of Soviet Zone police including th.3 East Sector of Berlin, Border, Railway, and Paramilitary Police: Following is the breakdown of police strength by functional branches: Administrative Police Brandenburg Mecklenburg Saxony (estimate) Saxony-Anhalt Thuringia Berlin 1'890 2,000 18980 11510 80, 971 ~.. 8 8 799 Criminal Police Brandenburg ".ecklenburg Saxony (estimate)' Saxony-Anhalt Thuringia Berlin Schutzpolizei Brandenburg Mecklenburg Saxony (estimate) Saxony-Anhalt Thuringia }3Arl in Railway Police Brandenburg Mecklenburg Saxony Saxony-Anhalt Thuringia Berlin 8,100 4,900 11,395 7,085 6,050 4,695 42,225 800 975 85o 865 4 50 Border Police Distribution by Lgnder not available Paramilitary Police Bra ndenburg 1,500 4,870 6,700 SECRET Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 jpjL 25X1 A2g CENTRAL IN'TELLIGEN03 AGWO! '1ecI. cienburg Thuringia Saxony Saxc,ny-Anhalt merlin l,coo 2,500 1,7 0 2 50 9,500 800 Gorman Administration of the Interior Auxiliary Polict? (in Berlin only) 1,300 It should be emphasized, however, thai. these figurt-s on the strength of the Soviet ,one German police must be consideret:l tentative to the extent that they cannot take into ;onsideratiof the unbelievm ably rapid tu'M-over of police personnel. As stated before, larger, scale disrnisials and mass recruitment cat future police personnel front factori(!s and prisoner-of-War camps' are daily occurrences and wou:.d necesritate a daily revision of t'.e strength figures. , obviously, cannot be undertaken. It is probable, however, that the.mass rocruitmont of personnel Just -e bout covers the mass dis- micisals. thus,.whil+. there may be as much as 15% difference either gray betwe,ln the strength figures given aiove and the actual strength on a certain day, it is believed that thc- over-all figure given above a margin accurate figure 3% Soviet Zone must: alwaysobecconsiderede 3ithougl. a margi a possi(:ility. Ar mm_lt of Police a. Thp armament of municipal (including Land) police consists primarily of semi-automatic pistols of various calibers and rnauuA'acture. As an example, in 9 letter to thr President of the th'rman Administration of the Interior, the Chief of the raxo;ty-Anhalt police stated that his force was equipped with pistols of 72 different manufactures and 4 different calibers. b.` The; Border Police are equipped wi-~.h the K 98 German Army in- ffntry cLirbine, semi-automatic pis-.o1s, and subm& shine guna. l tter are partly old Russian ftartridgP?drum type weapons ;partly the all-metal MP 44 used by the German Arm- in the last ;;cages of the war. c. The paramilitary police also has as 1..ts basic weel,on the K 98 carbine. There are also two NP 44 ~obmachine guns for every ten-man squad and 10 110810 heavy macl'_nt' guns (waive cooled) for every "Bereitschaft" unit, theT/O s,reriZth of which is 250 men. The introduction of the 80 mm .heavy mortar for these units is planned but not yet accomplished. ,I. To date the German police (including paramilitary nxnits) have neither artillery nor armored cars or tanks a. thou(;h the intro- duction of such offensive weapons is frequent..1:r discussed unofficially even among high-ranking officials of ;he German Administration of the Interior. 'F.e > rumo,s sal out German armored units may be safely discos rated. 40 Armed Oraanizations in the Soviet Zoi\e in A d .c?n t; the Police In addition to the "regular" police organizations; discussed above the Ger;. an Administration of the in''o-erior in con,)unction with the German Fconomic Commission (DV1,) is presently ena 'agFd in organizing a uniform and centralized factory security systen.... ICI place of . jENT1AL Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3 25X1A2g 5T Aix; CENTRAL INTTsF CE individual security arrangements made by each factory, sith locally hired night watchmen, the GAI plans to introduce a uni-? form "Fabrikschutz" (factory protection) throughout the Soviet :Lone. P'xisting factory guard units and those night watchmen who are physically fit will be merged with the new organization, which will be equipped with weapons and uniforms. Eventually all reliable members of the SFD are expected to join a "Fabrikschutz" (factory protection) organization, In this connection a leading official of the German Administrai:ion of the Interior stated that while the above measures are in a preliminary stage the "Fabrikschutz" when fully organized may be considered as auxiliary police and might logically lead to the organization of an armed workers' militia, Present (very tentative)plans call for a strength of 65,CCO men. Planned Increase in the Strength of German Police in the-Soviet Zone The German Administra+:ion of the Interior is making plans to in- crease the strength of the Soviet Zone police to nearly double its present size, Ir view of the shortage of available manpower in the Soviet Zone afd the obvious reluctance of the popuiatiof to accept the police as the "People's Police" which Communist propa- ganda claims it to it appears to be extremely dubious that the ambitious plans of he GAI could be fulfilled in the foreseeable future, In any case,, no reliable estimate on the proposed strength can be made until work on the new police budget commencer-,. This is expected to be s)metime in January 1949. SECRET Approved For Release 1999/09/08 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002100070002-3