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February 21, 1949
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FORM NO. 5 1.4A SEPT.1948 Approved For CLASS] LON SE COUNTRY Peru PORT CD NO. SUBJECT Activities of Peruvian Commsts during 25X1 A6a October 1948 PLACE ACQUIRED DATE OF IN 25X1X6 PATE PI$TR? 21 Feb NO. OF PAGES 8 wit t The following report. covers the activities of the Communist Party of Peru (PCP) during the mon h of October 1948 up to the time of the outbreak of the Arequipa revolt on 27 October 1948. The hopes of the PCP reached a high point when the Bustamante government out- ltwed'the Aprista Party after the abortive Callao revolt of 3 October. With their chief rival thus eliminated, the Communists hoped to make great progress in a. fields, particularly on the labor front. The ineffectiveness of these attempts served to.demonstrate once again the overall weakness of the Communists iu 'erue The =12.60L ME on to the Callao Revolt 11 saw Ln the governmen"tts action against the APRA their chance -um gain LIM .. % , V _, ___.... m,,- ur?v ~aQ t-,a fi,-gtt Peruvian volitical party The immediate reaction of the POP to the Callao revolt was one of elation, for The first disillusionment came when no newspaper printed the statement the follow- t. d ti to i j'W V1-U vJ. U&J. ~.w wa.... 6 ---- to ue a statement condemning the revolt. This statement was prepared and dis- tributed in leaflet form by the Political Commission the evening of 3 October. s epu es fin although it had been distrib1ted personally by the Commun Party ea ers~to mean that whereas the right needed them in iias fight ettgb his assurances that no action was contemplated against the Party. They Ja Jed to await the return of Jorge del Prado, a fellow Arequipeno and personal frie . of Bvgtamante who they believed, of all Party leaders carried the most weight with the -President. +9444 '- y against AAA, and willingly published their statements, after the fall of the A,p.stas, they would be dropped by the right and by the government as well, The feared that the next step might be the outlawing of the PCP and planned to a-ttitence with Bustamante to remind him agaih of his obligations and to 25X1A2g pl&Ri 82-004 RF Approvedti lease 2001103/05: CIA-RDP82-00457ROO2300660003-5 25X1A2g The PCP was also disconcerted by the statement drawn up by the Convencion de Partidos Democraticos on 4,October, condemning the revolt, and in effect, No placing the Convencion at the disposal of the government in combating it. ;sresentative of the Communist Party was consulted by the Convencion before ,e,statement was issued. Although angered and annoyed at being by-passed, Perty leaders did not dare to protest public3.y, lest the government construe aty such protest as being in favor of the revolution rather than as directed against the Convencion. The fear that they would be outlawed is the theme of a statement issued by the National Control Commission on the i0C anniversary of the Party on 7 October. pressure toward that end on Yankee imperialism, on APRA, on the feudal reactionary oligarchy, and on Juan P. Luna and his followers, the Control Com- eal to "all honestly mistaken comrades" to return to the de an a _i ia pp n ma .ss fold and to .close the Party's ranks in defense of its legal existence. A new propaganda line began to appear soon, in which the Communists restricted their attacks on the APRA, pointing out that the people had been deceived by false leadership. The Callao revolt was a result of this disorientation, and the PCP called on the masses to seek new leadership,- i.e., that of the Communist Party in their struggle against the right wing. This new propaganda line is clearly seen in the second Manifesto on the revolt, drawn up by the Political Couds.sion of the POP on 8 October, and published in Labor of 10 October. positive results from this effort were reported during October and there is no aVidence that the Apristas showed any signs of accepting Communist leadership or of moving toward the Communist Party during the month.. The Callao Local Committee drew up a leaflet attacking the Sechura Desert petroleum contract. This once favorite object of attack had not been mentioned for some time, and this instance appeared to be an isolated resurrection of the formerly popular theme. The government communique, dated 14 October 1948, expelling Alexander Koseleff, his wife., Elizabeth Fuchs de Koseleff, andEudocio Ravines from Peru for"Narxist activities of an international character" caused great concern in Party circles in Lim. The Koseleffs were known as strong Communist sympathizers, but they were not particularly active Party members. The POP feared that if individuals at this level were objects of government action, it was a sure sign that the government had finally determined to make the Party illegal, in a step to fulfill the Bogota agreements signed by the Bustamante government, 10, A meeting of all Party leaders in the Lima area was called on 18 October to dis- cuss preparations to be made in case the government should declare the Party illegal. Matters discussed were the mechanics of meeting underground, assigning pseudonyms to all Party leaders, continuing the publication of Labor in mimeograph form. Source stated that no definite action was taken at this meeting, which had been called for the purpose of discussing possibilities. 11. Preparations were also made to direct attacks against the American Ambassador if he should appear to favor APRA in any way in his statements, or afford asylum for escaping Aprista leaders. The Ambassadorts attitude, however, was considered scrupulously correct by the Party, and no steps were taken to implement this pro- posed campaign. Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA- P82-00457R002300660003-5 Approver Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 25X1A2g ventral Committees National Secretariat 12. Complaints and murmurs against the new Secretary General, Manuel Ugarte Saldana, had 'become so general that a special meeting of the National Secretariat was cal ,.ed on.13 October to `warn Ugarte of these rumors and to make. suggestions for dealingwith them. Ugarte made a spirited defense of his position, stating.that it was;, a mistake to feel that the Secretary general of the Party should be a pro- fess' oran intellectual. A laboring man had so much better an under-- standin the problems of the workers that this advantage outweighed these of the wider contacts a professional man might have. He continued his defense by statin& that.'he did not, however, work alone, and that his decisions were the product of the opinions of people of all strata of society whom he consulted. 13. Ugartes statement is said to have satisfied Party leaders, but there is increas- ing evidence that'3orge del Prado remains the brains and the true leader of the orthodox PCP.: 14. During the absence of del Prado, now National Secretary for Organization, his offs ce hiae been in charge of Carlos- Arbulu Miranda. The latter sent out a crc';1r on YC October to all Party orjanisms which had not been in recent contact with Part head uarters.n Lima, reminding them that with the fall of APRA, the Party must intensify its efforts to win-over both the masses and the elite of APRA. rtmental Committee ~~eea G ~ .~.~c~mss." 15. Segundo'del Mar'was selected at a'meeting of the full'Lima Departmental Committee on 4 October to replace Jose Marcos Godino as Secretary General of the Committee. Max'ts.'had'receintly been designated a member of the National Control Commission ah w:s unable to x:11 both positions. This meeting also approved a letter to be sent to se.ected Party members, 'soliciting funds to enable the Party to rent the apartment adjacent to Central Committee Headquarters,'669 Colmena. 25X1 A2g 16. The talk'on'agrarian reform which was delivered to the Party by Antonio Chaves Bedoya on 11 September 1948 met with such success that members of the Lima Depart- me4t . Committee had the text mimeographed for wider distribution. omment. C *61 Bedoyats report doss not embody the extreme suggestions generally expected in Co jet proposals on this subject.) rnr , National Svnd'i.ca1 Commission 17. The leaders of the PCP believed that the Callao revolt and the subsequent suppression of the APSA presented the Party with an ideal opportunity to attain control of the CQ ederacion de Traba5adores del Peru (CTP), which until 3 October had been firmly, in the haic)s of APRA; 18, With the imprisonment of many,Aprista labor leaders after 3 October and'the flight or disappearance underground of many others, the National Syndical Secretariat of the PCP imm*diately laid plans to take advantage of the leaderless state of-the CTe and put the Communisto back into control of the Confederation.. 19. The" failec3n this for two reasons. First, the state of siege forbade all labor meetings consequently "activitywas restricted to plans, and individual conversations, and no dportant positive steps were possible. Second, the split in Communist and pro-Communist labor prevented any concerted action by labor as a whole which might conceivably have been effective in spite of the state of siege had unified action been possible. Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 25X1 A2g 20. As it was, rivalry between the del Prado-led "Colmena Communists" (the orthodox PC,P),_the dissident Luna-Communists, still calling themselves "The Lima Depart- mental Committee of the PCP" and the group of ex-Communists and fellow-travelers, led '[y`Jose Senites and organized in the articulate but numerically unimportant Frente de Unidad e Independencia Sindical (FUIS), prevented any unified action by anti-Ap'rista labor. The three weeks and three days between Callao and Arequipa quickly ran out with little accomplished except talk. 21. Like all other groups, the Communist Party found itself severely handicapped by the state'ofsiege for, having strongly condemned the Callao Revolt, they did not wish to be caught violating the government's dispositions against it. Conse- quently they were"limited in their activities to plans and correspondence in anti- cipation of the restoration of constitutional guarantees. 22, First concrete steps toward an effort to take advantage of the opportunity afforded by the' outlawing of APRA to control the leadership of as many unions and labor organizations as possible, culminating in control of the CTP, were taken by the National Syndical Secretariat of the PCP in a circular dated 1. October 1948, dis- tributed to Coiiiunist Syndical Secretaries throughout Peru. 23. The cIra Orr stated that a new eta has opened with the outlawing of APRA', that many Apristas- will }lave- to abandon their positions as labor leaders, union officials and the like, and that although many opportunists will seek to take advantage of this "we, the Communists, are the only ones capable of guiding labor in the true .path of .its own interests... for its interests are our interests, since the Peruvian Communist Party is the party of the working class and of the laboring population." For tFie foregoing reasons, the National Syndical Commission ordered all Communist cells within unions to be activated immediately and instructed all such reorganized cells to demand that new union officers be chosen as soon as the state of siege was lifted, 24. In choosing such new officials, the circular directed that others as well as Communists should be chosen, taking care only that the principal posts, such as Secretary General and Secretaries of Organization, Defense, and Economy, remain inoCoimuunist hands. This step was taken so as not to repeat the Aprista error of :t ned .atelygrabbyng every~tkiing:in sight. The circular directed that these new daft ates be?preserited ih the name of "Comites Democraticos Sindicales", which should not be exclusively Communist. The circular indicated that such syndical cells ("fracciones sindicales") should be made up of 3 to 9 persons and ordered t,,t every effort be made to organize such meetings before the lifting of the state of siege, then expected in about two weeks. The circular is signed by the National: Syndical Secretary, Eliceo Garcia Lazo. 25. This line of the orthodox PCP, namely, that the'CTP and the existing labor federa- tions should be kept intact, with fresh elections for new officers and newdblegates to the CTP, was consistently advocated by the Party. The policy was supported in the ` Party` news " orgah for for 23 October which reported an interview with German Aragonez Mango, a Communist railway worker, and new Secretary of the Chosica Trattic Committee of the Central Railway. An editorial, reportedly written by Eliceo Garcia, also-attacked the Luna position that the CTP should be abolished and an entirel new organization founded. Luna's position was expressed by a Luna stooge, D`esio Minaya,"in'an interview published in La Prensa for 12 October. Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 25X1A2g CELL. AGENCY Ptical Commission 26. The Political Commission met on 15 October and decided after long discussion that they would-be forced to abandon their campaign to raise funds to purchase the press on'vhich the Party organs had been printed. Juan Barrio, who had lift for the southern provinces on 28 September to seek funds for the Party press, was recalled. It is noted that the communication which announced this decision referred once again to the strength of the Party in the Arequipa.. Cuzco, and Puno areas, which are described as the only ones in a position to fulfill their`commitinefits towards the campaign. There were seven members of the Commission preserit, in addition to"the Secretary of the National Control Conmiission and the Administrator of the Press, Ernesto Rojas Zavala. 27. A second meeting of the Political Commission was held 26 October, and to avoid tket'estrictions imposed by the state of siege, this meeting was held at the hone of one of its members. A final report was made on the problem of the liquidation of the press, and all possibilities for extending the lease or pur-- chasing the press were exhausted. Ugarte reported that he saw no possibility of re,ehing a favorable agreement with the proprietor, who demanded that back rent, amounting .to 113,000 soles, be paid before any further arrangements would be con- sidered. 28. The committee in-charge of the campaign "Pro-Imprenta" under Dr. Leonidas Klinge, and including Elias Tovar, Hugo Pesce, Rodolfo Ponce Martinez, Sergio Caller and others; reported that they had. been able to raise only a relatively small amount. 29. Jorge del Prado, who had been recalled-'to Lima from Cuzco, reported that during his trip to the south he had been promised 20,000 soles in Arequipa, 45,000 in Cuzco, 10''000"in Puno and 5,000 in Sicu"i but that these sums had been promised for the I1dle of December, and could not be collected before then. 30. The" was rallied 'by' Jorge' del Prad`o, who one again showed himself to be the strongman of the Party. He pointed out that the 80,000 soles which had been pledged could be used in a new enterprise, which would emphasize the stock cone- psny'angle. He suggested that these 80,000 soles be accepted in payment for shares of 2,,bOO soles each. -A new campaign was initiated, to be known as Pro--Empresa Editorar the goal of which was to be the raising of 200,000 soles to acquire a press belonging wholly to the Party. 31. Notices of the new catnpa' were drawn up and mailed out 27 October. The covering letter,`signed by the Secretary General, announced that two commissions would soon be sent to-the north and center of the country in connection with the campaign. The local committees were requested to bear the expense of these commissions. The remainder of the letter was devoted to promoting the sale of shares in the new ec-rporation to be formed by the Communists. N ytiona1 Control Commission 32. The case of SergioVelez Raygada, a newspaperman employed by La Prensa was turned o to the National Control Commission by the III National Congress of the PCP for fur'thor'action. Velez Raygada had previously been before the control commission in September 1947, for "breach of discipline"'but no further action was taken against him at that time. 33. Velez Raygada was expelled from the PCP by a resolution of the Control Commission in October, "for having betrayed the Party openly, going over to Ravinism (Eudocio Ravines faction), and becoming an oligarchic agent in the service of La Prensa,'" Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 App6Q,Ld For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 Natjona? Secretary of Economy M ry 34. The National Secretary of Economy, Sergio Caller, sent out a separ+ a and special apped to members and sympathizers for regular direct contributions to the Party Treasury. These letters', which were sent out 18-19 October, pointed out that the Party is largely dependent for funds on the salary assessment of the four Communist Deputies, and on membership fees., It referred to decisions of the III National Con so to ensure the collection of dues from all members through more rigid con- trol of`the',sc rn t system, but-stated that a regular monthly contribution in addition will be necessary from those who can afford it, if`the Party is to meet itsobliga- tions. It urged all members to enroll new sympathizers to swell the Party's funds, as soon as possible. 35. With reference to the contributions of the four Coomunist Deputies, who are required to turn.a portion of their salaries over to the Party, the authorization by the gov`ernmeiit,on 22 October for payment of the salaries of the Independent (i.e., non- Aprista) Deputies, including the Communists, was very favorably noted by the Party, for as will be'seen from the above, the Party was in its customary financial straits, and `badly needed its proportion of the Deputies' salaries. ,memmi st Youth Movement 36. No activities o October* t of Prominent Co 37. As reported above, Jorge del Prado left Lima 28 September for a "trip through theHe southern provinces, charged with several missions by the Political Commission. otated that his trip had been largely ruined by the state of siege, which prevented a1,1 public meetings. He reported, however, that before he returned to Lima on 17 October', the Communist leaders at the Quinta Eulalia, Cuzco, had staged a farewell party;in'his honor, which he was able to turn into an effective Party "pep-rally" in spite of the state of siege. 38. He stated that in'Puno, Juliaca, and Sicuano the state of siege had prevented all` public` meetings, but that he was able to meet with individual local leaders, who were,` particularly in Puno, liberal in their promises of help to the Central.Com- mittee " 's press campaign. 39. Del Prado reported that the reaction throughout the country to the 3 October uprising had been one of condemnation. 40. When the PC? National lectoral Commission was dissolved on 14`October following the goverruftiefitis postponement of all elections for the year, Juan Jacinto Paiva returned to Cuzco on 17 October for a month's vacation. Correspondence and Contacts with Communists Abroad 414 Cu A letter received in mid-October from the Communist Party of Cuba referred . 4 ___ r,.,,. +U,- 'Da> iinAwr +hw anvernment of Prio Socaas. The letter referred to him as the number one agent of Yankee imperialism whose primary' objective is the annihilation of the Communist Party of Cuba. The letter was- signed by Bias Roca. Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 sgrrpET 25X1 A CBNTP4L INTELLIGENCE AGENCY -7- 42. A second communication from Cuba arrived at Party headquarters on 26 October, t and urged the PCP to send an immediate protest to the Cuban government against? the assassination of Aracelio Iglesias Diaz of the Cuban maritime workers. T communication stated that if the Prio Socarras government lasts for another year the Communist Party will have been broken in Cuba. I116 was therefore necessary'. to demonstrate at once that the Cuban Communists are supported by the Communist Parties of all Latin America and that they do not stand alone. A communication was received from the Communist Party of Argentina 43. l,r.,ent They which, stated the position of the Argentine Communists in regard to Peron. still oppose him, but are collaborating with him in his campaign to combat "the murderous plans of American imperialism". The letter quoted a statement of Lenin's to the effect that at times it was a matter of strategy to collaborate with the enemy if the Party would eventually benefit by such action. 44. A letter arrived at Party headquarte $ on 21 October addressed to Emilia Casas from the Proteccion de la Mujer, . ilegedly an Argentine Communist-front organ- ization, In view of her present relations with the Party and the disciplinary action recommended'against,her mother, it was decided to open the letter to determine the exact nature of her dealings with this Argentine group. The letter was reportedly found to be satisfactory. 45. C Salvador Ocampo passed through Lima on 9 October 1948 traveling from Santiago, Chile, to Havana, Cuba via Peruvian International Airways Flight No. 10/09. No word was received by the PCP of his arrival and nothing was known of his brief stop at the airport until after he had departed. Publications 4. .~ 6. Only two issues of tieomnuriist Party organ Labor appeared during the month of October,, the first of these in honor of the XX Anniversary of the founding of the PCP by Jose Carlos Mariategui on 7 October 1928. 47. In a letter published in that issue, the change in Directorship was announced by the returning Director, Eliceo Garcia, who had held the position since May 1946. Luis;Nieto appeared as the Director of Labor on the masthead of the last issue of the month, on 23 October. Nieto is well known in Party'circles as a Cuzceno poet, writer and newspaperman. He founded one of the first Communist cellsin Cuzco and was the founder and first Director of the Cuzco Communist news organ Jo 46$. These issues oi`. or were made posaibe through the partial success of the efforts to collect outstanding debts owed to the paper. Before the end of October, the local Committees of Huancayo, Piura, Sullana, Lampa, La Merced, Huamachuco, Ica, Pisco, Aija, Chancay, Juliaca and Carhuaz were reported to have paid up their debts to Labor in full, the Huancayo Committee forwarding a gift of 45.50 soles in 25X1A addition. Comment. The presence of Piitra and Sullana on this list is of some interes , n eating, as it may, a revival of Party enthusiasm in the north.) 49, Jo of Cuzco continued to appear regularly during the month, four issues having been published during October. 50. Issues of uta, theoCommun st Party paper published in Pugtio, continued to be made available in Lima through Miguel Montoya Chacon, Communist Party leader in L L:J Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5 25X1A2g` Puruio now Director_ofathe ,pa'pe '`r ~he Alatest number to seed in Lima, l --s-so s or the III Nationa Delegae to the Congress from Puquio, who represented the Province of Lucanas. swas poem iierte e1 Lenadorn ong tn i-~impe 510 A sped-3a edition et form on d N a eru Pab o Communist by the Chilean Poe newsprint by Luis Nieto, and copies were given to all those making financial con- F, ,'butons toward the newspapers t 4r'anizationt Movimiento Democratico del Ma 1 terio 52. The @ommuhist-front teachers' organization, Movimiento Demooratico del Magisterie,~ issued a second number of its newspaper Orientaatdiuaduring the tonth of October. The, first number appeared July 194$The paper is still under the direction of in Angel 'Flores de Paz, now`Secretary of Economy of the Lima Departmental Committee of 25X1A29 the PC+P. Comment. At the time the first issue appeared in July, there were three PCP mem rs among the five officers of this organization. They were Jose Marcos ti., Secretary of Organization, Maximina Argote, Secretary of Economy, and Angel' Pl:orez de Paz.." Press Secretary.) P el 53. A series of meetings tiroughout the country was planned for I actober 1945 in honor of . the' twentieth anniversary of the founding of the PCP on 7 October 1928. Comnnuxst Party headquarters in Lima and the Cuzco departmental Committee announced plans for large c& brations. The provisions of the state of siege declared by Uwi,zoveitmi6nt on 3 October required that all these projected meetings be canceled. The anniversary was celebrated only by special editions of the newspapers Labor in tunaanl Jornada in Cuzco.` B. :LM P. and his D "ident.Grou 54. Few specific activities of the dissident group surrounding Juan P Luna were re- ported during October. Like the orthodox Communist Party, they laid their. plans for,ta-king,acvantage of the elimination of APRA and gaining control of Peruvian labor when the state 6f siege should be lifted, but like the PCP they restricted these plans to talk, rather than action. 55. Whereas., however, the PCP was in favor of maintaining the CTP, advocating only the election of new delegates'to the Confederation and new officers of that organ- ization, the Luna group advocated dissolving the CTP and starting afresh with a clean 'late to build a new organization. This now organization was to be known, perhaps, as a Congress of Peruvian Workers or some similar title.. This view was made public-by a Luna spokesman, Desiderio Minaya, of the Federacion de Panaderos "+Estrej.ladel Peru" in an interview printed in La Prensa for 12 October 1948, which'prompted an immediate attack in the pages of Labor. 56. The explanation for these two differing attitudes may be found in the fact, pre- vious 7 reported, that the Central Committee maintained control of the organized Communist Party machinery throughout the country whereas Luna had been obliged to organize his group from scratch. In view of this, the Central Committee preferred toproceed within the framework of existing organizations, whereas Luna probably ss*W more favorable opportunities in a general shake-up and reorganization. Approved For Release 2001/03/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R002300660003-5