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April 5, 2000
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May 5, 1949
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CLASSIFICATION CO T1A 25X1 A2g Approved For lg9WMp 4. IM ghtfop 82-00 0 _ ' ORATION REPORT CD NO. COUNTRY Peru DATE DISTR, 5 t;AY 1949 UBJECT Communist Activities During December 1948 / 1/1 NO. OF PAGES 11 25X1A6a PLACE NO. OF ENCLS. ACQUIRED (LISTED BELOW) DATE OF IN SUPPLEMENT T 25X1 X6 REPORT NO. jjEEjE 10 Whereas the month of November 1948 cans spent by the Communist Party of Peru (PCP) in defensive measures, fending off the blow of illegality, December found the Party taking stock of its position and discovering it was not as badly off as might have been expected. The Party felt that prospects of tak- ing the offensive once more were in the not too distant future. 2. Once the Junta was established, the attitude of the Odria Military Junta appeared to be not very different from that of the Dustnmante government. This position was that native Peruvian Communism could and should be clearly distinguished from "International Communism"; that the former, unlike the latter, was a rela- tively mild thing, not for the moment dangerous; and that "Comunismo criollo" might even safely be used by the government in its effort to eliminate the last traces of APRA from organized Peruvian labor. 3. In consequence, it appeared that the Peruvian Communist Party's froedom from persecution would in all probability continue and the end of the month found the PCP able to breathe more freely than at any time since 1 November 19VI. 4. The."trial balloon" sent up by the Military Junta to determine the possibilities of working with the Communists in developing labor support, emphasized once again the differences that exist between the orthodox PCP and the dissident group led by Juan P. Luna. The uncompromising doctrinaire attitude of the orthodox Comramist Party of Peru was seen during December in sharp contrast to the more wily approach of Luna, willing to compromise with any group in order to attain his own ends. A. T 0rtho ft Coamruni5t art_v_lf P Attitude de f t ae 0dria P?Ii t rv Junk toward th POP 50 Four incidents indicative of the attitude of the Odria 11ilitary Junta toward the PCP were reported from Communist sources during the month of December. The first of these concerned Luis Lovon, secretary of the Cuzco Textile Workers Union.* Lovon was flown to Lima from Cuzco via Faucett Airlines on 28 November at the orders of the Ministry of Government. A large delegation of textile workers accom- panied him to the Cuzco airport and threatened to paralyze the city in a protest strike in spite of the state of siege if Lovon did not return within a few days. CLASSIFICATION rm NSR6 DISTRIBUTION 1 -1 - 1 1 Document No. Class. CHANGED TO: TS DDA Memo, 4 Apr 77 NO CHANGE in Class. 0 DECLASSIFIED Auth: DDA REG. 77/1763 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP84 6 8 Q03'~_ Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 25X1A2g o. Lovon arrived in Liter the same afternoon and was held overnight at the Jefatura de Investigaciones. He was taken directly to the Presidential Palace the follow- ing morning, 29 November, and interviewed personally by General Odria. The following account of the interview was given by Lovon to Party friends'in Lima immediately afterwards. 7. Odria first asked him Nether he was a member of the Communist Party of Peru and he replied that he uas. Odria then asked him his purpose, as a Corununist, in holding various positions in the Federacion de Trabajadores del e;uzco as wen as the Secretaryship of the Textile Workers Union. Lovon replied that the progress of APRA in Cuzco, with the aim of gaining control of all organized labor, had obliged the Coramulists to take positions of responsibility and leadership wherever possible In defense of the laboring class. In that way, they hoped to prevent labor from becoming the slave of APRA which, through false labor leaders, in truth nothing more than disguised agents of imperialism, was attempting to exploit the riches of Peru. The ideal and aim of the Peruvian Communists, on the other hand, was to "Peruvianize" and nationalize foreign-hold interests, said. Lovon? They took as their example the action of Mexico with regard to foreign-held petroleum interests,, g6 Odria expressed interest in this program and asked whether it were true that the Party was receiving aid from abroad in these matters. This was hotly denied by Lovon, who emphasized that the Peruvian Communist Party lived off its own meager funds. He added that the life of extreme poverty they led was full proof of their humble station and in itself gave the lie to imperialist propaganda that they re- ceived outside aid. 9. Lovon stated that when he talked of imperialism.. Odria smiled and answered that it was inadmissible that foreign interests control the life of Peru and of Peruvians. Peru was for those born on her soil and that as such all citizens should work for the good and for the unity of the country. Odria said that is what his government would work for if it had the support of the workers who are the actual producers of the country o s wealth. 10. After further discussion, Odria stated to Lovon that from what the latter had said, and from other reports received subsequent to his arrest, he himself was convinced that the accusations against Lovon were without foundation. Qdria requested him on his return to Cuzco to tell the people of that city that the President of the Military Junta had no other desire than to correct the errors of the previous ad- ministration and to offer an facilities and full guarantees to laboring men of all kinds. Odria also said that he had given orders that all those who had been jailed in Cuzco on the suspicion of Communist activities should be released, to continue to work in loyal support of their government. 11. Odria asked Lovon to extend his personal greetings to his laboring comrades and told him from that moment he was at complete liberty and could return whenever he wished. The general added that if he would return to the palace secretariat the following morning, they would give him free return passage by air to ;Cuzco. When Lovon left, Odria shook him warmly by the hand and urged him as a good Peruvian to work for the greatness of Peru and to exhort the labor of Cuzco to do likewise. Lovon left the Palace alone and went straight to the house of Com- munist Deputy Sergio Caller where he remained until Sunday, 5 December, when he returned to Cuzco by air. % `i2? This interview between Odria and Lovon caused much comment among Communist Party leaders in Lima, and they characterized this technique as "pure Peronismo". oV~T~ iaY 1 'Lr Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 25X1 A2 9 Peron too, they said, had frequently utilized the trick of imprisoning labor leaders, then bringing them to his palace and after a long harangue, heaping presents and promises on them in an attempt to purchase their good will and support. 13. The interview, however, at least raised the question in their minds as to what extent Odria's labor program and his effort to obtain the support of the masses might include collaboration with the Communists. On this point they decided to adopt a policy of "wait and see", and their attitude was frankly skeptical. Nevertheless the interview acted as something of a tonic as they gradually recovered from their first panic of November, and as their fear of persecution, imprisonment and deportation decreased, Governmental Feeler Extended through Ernesto More 14. The manifestation on the part of Aprista elements on the occasion of Marshal. Ureta'a birthday and the satisfaction of the Communist Party with the incident have been previously reported.** 15. Party leaders believe that the Ureta incident was directly responsible for the "feeler" extended toward the PCP by the government the following week through the intermediary of Ernesto More. More had previous ties with the Party such as financial contributions, contributions to Labor. These connections were finally terminated only when he attempted to run for Deputy for fluaacane against the official Communist Party candidate Vicente Mendoza Diaz. 16. The degree of government support enjoyed by the Mores at the moment lent weight to the supposition. Information reaching the Communist Party early in December confirmed that some deal had been made between Federico and Ernesto More and the Military Juntas Their projected newspaper Tom, intended "to defend and orient the labor and syndical movement", was expected in fact to be an unofficial organ of the Junta designed to support its labor policies and secure labor sup- port for the regime. 17, More approached Julio del Prado, brother of Jorge del Prado and, allegedly speak- ing directly on behalf of General Odria himself, broached the following points. He stated that the Junta's action in outlawing the Communist party was primarily for international consumption to facilitate recognition of the junta by making it appear as a group that would honor its international obligations such as the Bogota anti-Co munist'agreements. 18. On the other hand, continued More, the government now feared that the Communists, although much less numerous than APRA, might now join with APRA and cause sub- stantial difficulties for the Junta on the labor union level. For that reason,, he stated, the Junta wished to extend a trial feeler toward the PCP to dissuade them from a position hostile toward the government. He pointed out as well known to all members of the PCP that, unlike APRA, the Party had been unmolested and its members neither persecuted, exiled nor jailed. In spite of the illegali- zation decree, the Party had been left alone by the Junta. 19. In line with the above reasoning, More proposed that Julio del Prado himself take charge of the Syndical Section of the More newspaper, which finally appeared Friday, 17 December,, under the name of Nuevo Tiempo. He also said that del Prado's job with the Ministry of Finance would also be guaranteed, giving him complete security of position, More stated to del Prado that all Communists who were pre- pared to go along with the government would likewise be guaranteed their govern- ment jobs in return. Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 COVE 25X1A2g CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY -4- M More 'a proposition was conveyed to Party leaders by del Prado, and a special meeting of members of the Political Caunnission was held Friday,, 17 December, to consider the problem. It was agreed that Julio del Prado should be in- structed not to accept the position with Nuevo Tieanvo in view of the official nature of the publication. The Party desired to have no ties or contacts what- oever with the regime at the present moment. In spite of this decision, how- ever, it was reported at the end of December that Julio del Prado was in fact working an the staff of the newspaper, interview between General Odri.a and Re esentatives of the Bl ue Antifaseiste 214 General Odria also interviewed two representatives of the Bloque Antifascista the week following 13 December, ostensibly to sound out the position of the Bloque in the current political picture. The two representatives, Senators Jose Antonio Encinas and Luis Galvan, both well known Communist sympathizers, reported to friends and Party leaders that Odria had pointed out to them that all Com- munists arrested in Cuzco had now been released. Odria repeated the statement reported above that he had outlawed the Communist Party only because of anti- cipated pressure from abroad. He stated to them that he believed that the Com- munists in Peru were "gente de orden" and that he intended to use them in his social reform plans and as a means of holding the Apristas in check. 22. Galvan stated further that Odria believed that the Communists were numerically unimportant, but that they had proved many times that they had genuine roots Emong the people. He quoted Odria as believing that they at no time had shown themselves as anti-goverment as the Apristas, and they offered no danger at the moment.. Interview between General Odria and Senator afael A filar 23. A fourth indication of this attitude on the part of the Junta was reported to the Party by Senator Rafael Aguilar of Cuzco at the end of December. Aguilar's pro-Communist sympathies are well known to the PCP. He was elected Senator from Cuzco in 19/4.5 with the full support of the Communist Party, which in the Cuzco area commanded a substantial number of votes, and he has been considered by the PCP as a spokesman for their interests in the Senate, Senators Aguilar, Jose Antonio Encinas, and Francisco Tamayo participated in a series of conferences with Jorge del.Prado, Secretary General of the PCP in October 194?, to "clarify and confirm" the Communist political line. Communist sources reported at that time that in the absence of direct representation in the Senate, the three above- named Senators were considered as the supporters of Communist policy in the upper chamber and they have been characterized by the Party as "Comunistas sin Carnet", 24. In January 1947, Senator Aguilar was reported to have made substantial contribu- tions to a fund raised to pay the travel expenses of Juan P. Luna to the Executive Committee Meeting. of the Confederacion do Trabajadores de America Latina (CTAL) held at San Jane, Costa Rica, in December 1946. Luna was at that time a leading member of the Lima Departmental Committee of the Communist Party of Peru. More. recently, Cornmunist sources have reported that Senator Aguilar was a contributor to a fund collected by the four Communist Deputies in August 1948, to help defray the expenses of the III National Congress of the Communist Party of Peru, held in Lima during that month. 25, Although Aguilar's pro-Comaist tendencies are well known to the Party, he is known as an independent to the general public. For that reason he was requested by the Party to interview Odria if possible, to confirm the attitude of the General toward the Party. Aguilar reported to Party leaders following an hour's conference Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : ClA J 82-00457R002600480003-2 CEUTRAL ' EPrELLICENCE. AGNNCY 25X1A2g with Odria that he believed that no steps against the Party were contemplated, and that there was no imminent danger to the persons of Party leaders, prominent members, and the like. It was Aguilar's belief that Odria's at- titude as evidenced by the above-reported incidents was genuine and that the Party had nothing to fear at the momenta attitude of the PGP toward the P 1 x AW&g 26. What this "trial balloon" by the Junta might have led to is difficult to say, for the orthodox Communist Party, in characteristically stiffnecked fashion, determined not to vary their hostile attitude toward the Junta. Unlike the more flexible and more adroit Luna group or the FUIS, they stubbornly refused to consider collaboration with a government which they her? opposed from the outset. 27. In accordance with this position, the PCP planned to issue a Party Manifesto, originally scheduled for release New Years Eve, which was to be strongly critical of the Junta, in keeping with what they determined to be the Party line. 28. Publication of the Manifesto was held up at the last moment in view of in- formation reported to the Party by Communist Deputy Jose Macedo Mendoza. Macedo reported to Party leaders that a series of meetings of the independent deputies was being held at which they had resolved to withhold all attacks on the Junta until the matter of Congress should be settled. Macedo recom- mended that as long as the possibility still existed that Congress might be called, the Party should refrain from releasing its attack on the Junta. He said he had suggested among the independent deputies that Congress Itself resolve the status of the deputies of the outlawed Aprista and Communist Parties. Since the Communists had been guilty of no acts against the govern- sent, said Macedo, he believed there was a possibility that even with the Party outlawed the Communist deputies, democratically elected by the people, might still be allowed to retain their status as Congressmen, as had occurred in Chile o 29. For these reasons, Party leaders held up the I'?anifesto scheduled for New Years Eve release. It was not until January, when all hopes of convening the present Congress had vanished, that the Manifesto appeared, Di. ci line= Ac?t on R q io , Qtc. 30. On the whole, Patty leaders were said to be well satisfied with Party discipline under the pressure of illegality. However, several important cases of indiscipline or betrayal were reported. 31.. 1'liseo Garcia Lazo, National Syndical Secretary and a member of both the Political Commission and the Central Committee, informed the Party that al- though he did not wish to resign from the Party he could no longer carry out his duties as a Party officer "under present condi.tlons", No reports have been received as to what action would be taken in his case 32. Sergio Caller, Communist Deputy for Cuzco and National Secretary for Economy of the PCP, informed members of the Central Committee at the end of the month that because of financial straits he was obliged to accept a position with a sales house in Lima, acting as the agent for Cuzco goods. For that reason he would be unable to continue to fill his various Party offices., Carlos Arbulu Miranda was chosen to succeed Caller as National Secretary of Economy. No further action in his case was reported, Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 CENTS IN ELLIGE NCE AGENCY 25X1A2g 33. Most notorious of all was the case of Gustavo Gorriti. Gorriti had been at odds with the Party Control Commission for some time over his attendance at a banquet in honor of Manuel Prado, and with the Secretary of Economy for non-pant of his quota as one of the Communist Deputies. Gorriti argued that since he had joined the Communist Party after his election he was not bound to make such payments and had only done so in the past as a gift. 34. On I December a letter of resignation was received from Gorriti, and an im- portant meeting of all members of the Central Committee in Lima was im- mediately called by the Secretary General to consider the matter, Giving as his forrual excuse his disagreement with the Manifesto of 28 October and accusing Del Prado of publishing the Manifesto without consulting either the members of the Political Cairn fission or the four Communist Deputies, Gorriti asked that his name be stricken from the rolls of the Communist Party and that the widest possible publicity be given to this resignation. . Tho Central Committee's reaction was one of fury and they requested the Control Commission to expel Gorriti at once, resignation from the PCP being imossible. Various members present examined Gorriti's career and began to recall several unfavorable items. There were immediate suggestions that perhaps he had joined the Party only to spy on it, acting perhaps at the instructions of APRA or the American Embassy, and it was determined to Investigate at once his alleged relatives in the United States. Other pro,sent remembered that Gorriti had originally been suggested as a Con- gressional candidate by Manual Prado, and they believed that Gorriti had joined the Party as a Prado agent. 36, Jorge Del Prado called attention to the fact that on more than one occasion Gorriti had sought membership on the Political. Commission but had been 'jected for not fulfilling the requirement of three years militancy. His request is now considered more suspicious than ever. Full investigation was ordered and entrusted to Carlos Arbulu Miranda and the Control Colt mission, Co snandenc d Con ct th Ab: 3'. Francisco Febres returned to Lima during the month of December from Buenos Aires, where he Lade contact with the Communist Party of Argentina. 38. Jose Maria Quimper arrived in Lima 12 December 1948 travelling via PIA Flight No. 11/11 from Havana., returning to Peru for a short vacation on leave from the United Nations Organization, New York. in touch with Jorge Del Prado and Jose facedo t??endoza shortly after his arrival, and Alfredo Matthews was charged with arr.ng5n a meeting of Party leaders on 2 January at the house of Dr. Hugo Peso to hear Quimper's z?epor`~. ~~~ 39. The failure of Roberto Morena's mission to Peru on behalf of the Communist. inspired American Congress for Peace and Democracy has been previously, reported.* Information concerning the Congress wa received by the PCP directly from Mexico at the end of December, and the possible participation of such individuals as Lazaro Cariddenas, Henry Wallace and Fulgencio Batista in this CTAL-sponsored Communist-controlled meeting was the subject of its terested coriiient within the Party. Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 25X1A2g CE.:TMIL LT ' LLIGC 1 CE AGEDCY 40. Althou'?i infor"{atIo - concerning; Vie Con:-tress was spread by word of Mouth among Party :-embers, i:i view of to PCP e s illegal status and its absence of publicity . edia, no nropa Tanda in favor of the Congress has appeared in Peru, iwo plans for Peruvian attondance in any capacity have been reported. 41, It is reported that during December the Porte bookstore received from Mexico, for sale and distribution in Peru, a number of copies of a 2J,3 page booklet entitled Conferee is de Info : on de 1o s Ito gee to de A --uno I a.rtidos Conunis-L?as Cele a. on, I`olonia, a Fines de :'? bomb e 1347, The book is well printed and bound, and published by "Ediciones on Lenguas E:ctranjera.s, lbseu, 194411, bearing the legend, in unglish, "Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Ilepublics," with the statement that the :.iaterial in the compilation was translated fron newspaper texts "For an enduring pence, for a popular democracy," 42. A co-miruication to the Part, fron Colombia, received early in feeerl r, was the first of tr kind for a long period. This co_-munieation, received by iiugo Levano at the Party bookstore,. tray pos tmarked Buenaventura, Colombia, although reportedly it on inated with Augusto Duran in Bogota. It stated that with President ')spina becoming weaker every day and soon to be abandoned by the Liberals, a nilitar-- coup sinilar to that recently suffered in Peru was to be expected in Colombia. The note complained that the Corriunists are still perseeu',ed and followed by the police In Colombia and are ",:opt rianacled" by the ruspension of Constitutional r-uarantees. It indicated tliat noun from Peru hap recently been received through Party conrades in 1;,,11 Local Public ion 43. First nwibers of a now four-page newspaper entitled Reconcuiata,, carrying as its slogan Vlariategui l s famous "Peruanicemos al Peru" (Let. Us Peruvianize Peru), appeared during Decemm,ber, Vol. 1 No. I bei-ig issued on `aturday, 9 December. Directors of the newspaper are Jorge Falcon and Elias Tov?ar, both long associated with the Co,maunist Part r of }-era. The address, telephone nurlber and post office box number of the Empress Periodistica 1?econcuista, which publishes the newspaper, are the same as those of the bookstore Hora del lior?bre, prov1ously' reported as the publishers of and outlet for pro- Con-mist and pro-foviet publications of all kinds. To the end of the month the newspaper appeared ultra-nationalist in tone, and no in of the Cor- -aunist affiliation of its Directors was to be observed in the paper itself. l-ioverient of Prominent Cori-iunlst Personalities 44, Marcelo Sanchez was the on1Yr prominent Communist leader reported to have visited Lima during the month, `7anchez, Secretary of the Departmental Con- mittee of Incash, traveled to Lire, during December to receive instructions on Party strategy to be carried out in the Provinces with regard to the Military Junta and its policies. lie not on "unday, 19 December, with T:anuel Ugarte and .nge1 Flores de iaz at the latter's house and was brought fully up to date. After returning to Ancash he expected to travel to other departments in the north to inform local Party officials of current Lima _Instructions and policies. ljo?oJected Cost I-art-r hLbliogtion 45. Earl-,,r in Dece ib?r a cor -nittee of representatives of Vie Political Cointission, the Press and "raps ;anda Coe -i.ttco, ond the Lka Dolmrtriental Conmitteo were appointed to co-^nider trays and r:lOQnn of the Party,, communications with foreign couturier, i1,., view of its illegal status and of the heavy censor hip of all means of corzmunication that exists tnth3n the country, Approved For Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 Approved FQr Release 2000/05/18 : CIA-RDP82-00457R002600480003-2 G01V1?I1)ENT1AZt 25X1A2g CEflTR' L IiaT"'?+T.?'GE CE AGF.ITCY 46c Thir g r o u p reconnnended on 10 December t?iat a liaison committee u t, or a dozen Party -ieribers be appointed to serve as the board of directors new r ignzine trhich they proposed to edit. I'or this, a sriall office and post office box would be hired and a commercial non-political magazine published, which would have norral contacts wi.h other publications abroad and ultiraa,tely provide a co nrUcaiio