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December 15, 2016
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March 6, 2003
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November 10, 1949
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,eSSIFICIATCO;ki Approved Fotttfiletrif g a2-00457R99z1,58FIQB? 4 - !INFORMATION REPORT 6 16 INTELLOAA la --3:14kt ussft L thuan2a) :::1JEUECT Supreme Committee for the Liberation uf Lithuania PLACE i'.CQUIRED 25X1 )ATE OF INFO. September 1949 25X1 25X1 -4 DATE DeSTR 10 NOV 49 NO OF PAGES 6 NO. ?FENCES, MISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. 25X1 .Hte HOCEItARRT CONTAINS 1147ORDAHYOZI ARMCHAIR THE NATIONAL DIPENSI C ; THU PEOTID STATER ITHIN THR nefultrio Or TBI ISPIONAOR ACT HO 2. 5. O., DI AND 2.A5 MARNORD TRIASIMSOION OR TRI REVILATIOO , OP res comma IN MR DARNER TO Ari PHARTHORITRO PERSON IS PRO. :HOLTRO RI unv. RSPRODUCTiON OP YM3 rotas IS PROMITRO ;WM THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 25X1 The oriein of the Supreme CoMmittee for the Ti of Lithuania bilrfqi The Provisional rational Government that Wes set Up by Lithuanian insurpents at the outbreak of the Lusso-German war and charped rith implementing the re-establishing of the indenendent and sovereign .;tate of Lithuania was suppressed by the razis in August 1941. Resistance apainst the new loccurder 7tis carried out, at first, by separate uneerrround ,iovements. The coordinntion of their actiVities 1,as achieved in due course by an epreement betreen the traditional political rties and the hely formed resistance moveMents es a result, the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania "Teeiausias Tietuvos Islaisvinimo Komitetast abbr. Veil-0 was created in October 1943. It issued its ftrst declaration to the Lithuanian people on Jo February 1944, the '16th eieeiversery of the declaration of Lithuania's independence. b, In the siring of 194/,most of the :Turireme Committee's members reye ariested by the Gestano enu taken to prisons and concentration camps in Germany. Their work vas continued by their Ueeuties, dater the liberation of the members by the aavencing U S. ',rmy, the Supreme Committee resureu its work in -urzburg, Germany, in the sprinp of 1945. lince October 1945, the Headquarters of the Sunieme Committee has been in Pfullinpen, French Zbne of Occupation, Cermany. In November 1946, eh !xecutive Council :as formed by the Supreme Committee. (The former may be regarded as sui generis Government; the latter, as parliament.) In July 1948, e joint meetinp took lace in Baden- Paeen, Germany, of the renresentatives of the 3unreme Committee arm the Executive Council ieith ilthe plenipotentiaries ent by the Headquarters of CLASSIFICATION sic IsTrm NAVY 1? NSRE1 LAR # AIR #FIM 25X1 r 1 Th'.is document is hereby regraded to CONFIDENTIAL in accordance with the letter of 16 October 1978 from the Director of Central Intelligence to the Archivist of the United States. Next Review_ Date: 2088 Approved For Releas.e 2003/08/05 : CIP -RD t Document No Change Xss. - Declase Auth.: FIR Date: 05- 25X1 Approved For Release 2003/08/05 : ClApAlf182-00457R003500720004-4 CEN MAL IGENCE ACt2sICT 25X1 Je ,:esistance Movement in Lithuania0 T1e act- of the Supreme Committee were prised by 11:e country's reoresenttives; the Supre,e Com Atte? 1,s once more empowered by the fighting jeopie of Lithuania to act as the supreme ?clitica authority :broad to 1,ork toward the libeation of Lithuania0 a result of internal deliberations a view 1.0 achieving the most efficient, organization of liberation activities)the Executive Council was med within the Supreme Committee itself in ust 1949. The President of the Supreme Com- tai,tfee is, at the same time the 'ref'ident of the 1-;=icative Council, The .uareme Co-mittee is composed of the follouing oartAPs and theri rennective lenders: ? r-liP Lithuanian nristian-temocratic Party represent- by rsgr. Vykolas KEUPIWInUS. At pres nt he is vcsiQent of bah the Supreme C=mittee aid the cutive Council, The Peasant Populist Union of Lithuania, represented 14-y Bronius c. The Lithuanian Front, represented by frofessor juozas The Social-lieocratio Party of Lithuania, by Profess)r juozas KAMINSKAS. reoresentd The Lithunian National Union, represented by Dalys C;JDTIUNAS. The Lithaanian Farmers' Union, re2resented by Dr. Petras :!:ARVELIS. rY, The Lithuanian Federation of Labor, represnted by Yytauths VAITUKUNAS. . The Urion of Combatants for_tho Liberty of Lithuania, revented by me6ys VAL1UKENAS, 1- The Uthuanian Unity rovement, representedby Jonas Tho Lithuanian Farmers' Party, represented Vaclovas SIDZIKAiLKK;i3. by The '-yecutive Council is formed from the folloing members of the Supreme Committee: sTAr. ykolas KRUPAVInUb,-x'resident, and hed of i.he office for fostering the national potentiality, 6, Eronius BIELIU4JiS-BPZIULIS, Vice-f'resitient Eeau of the Finance service. rofessor Juozas BRAZAITIS, Vice-Fresident, 11ec.: of the Service for Foreign Affairs, 25X1 and Approved For Release 2003/08/05 : CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4 6, Profesror ,Tuozas KAI;i1NSM,b, Vice-Preq-ident and ead of the Service for Planninp the Country's leonomic Becovery. - e. Balys GAIPZIUNeS, secretary, and Head of the Information Serviceo 20004-4 25X1 .'erty Characteristics: An accurate aseessment of the real pozit="7-0677Th of the above-mentioned parties at present extremely difficult, if possiblal[ at all. .1.rstIbecauee the last uemocrutic election in Lithuania book piece as long apo as 1926 and many shiftines in ' Lithuanian public opinion have occurred since 'then. Secone,because the tvo extreme:4 hare one eelp occupations have nrofountAlv af:ectec the eoli thinkinp of the people. One ef the effects h the spontaneous emerpence of the so-called re :-ovements (the Lithuanian Frot, the Union of ebc.)pwhich not only organize; the people's r aruinei the consecutive occupiers but also c their part in political lendeiship. forever, ileportent feet has been esta0)ishee that the eeoele at home are, in their ,resent distress the least concerned 'iith part, differences. unanimous in their ardent dere to pet rid o deadly occupation. From this vieepoint, they and fully aperove of, the unification of all common action. The parties o)nstituting the Committee have apreea to cone3ntrate their ef tie liberation of the countley end to nut asi time heinp, their factional aspirations0 stating ical s been istance Combatants, sistenee aimed the Athuanian not in hey are the request, 'orces for upreme arts on e, for the The Lithuanian Christian !emocratic Party was pre- dominant in Lithuania (in coalition vith the Lith- uanian Farmers Union an the Lithuanian Federation of Labor) until 1926. In general, its basic principles are the smno as those of 3hristion Ddmocratic Parties abroad; however, it hack::roved more progressive in the social fiela. Under the leucership of :ser. eROPAVI'IU1J, it hae cared out a redict4 aerarian reform soon after Worlu ?ur I, a Caring ad revol- utionary uneertakine at that time. The lithuanian Farmers' Union was more uonservative tho gh bused on the same Christian prnciples of soci 1 justice, The Lithuanian Feceratioe of Labor, also of Christ in allegiance, hau origivally exerted c neicerable influence over the rorkin, class, but lot it, to ,ame extent, to the Socia-LemocraLs in the election %le 1926. The strenpth of these three Christian Hurtles consieteu eainly :n the su)nort piven to them by the rural nonuluton. The Peasant Populist Unior of Lithuania poeerful liberal party, wit marked enti- le,nings. It emerged the .arest single of the election of 1926, ail came to pow coalition with the Social lemocrats am; wInian Farmers' Party (a smill right-win eerty). Folloving some Coriunist-staged -Jhich the Government failed to settle, i thrown in a coup d'etat in 1,ecember 192 earty's members continued io hold most o eositions in the country's economy. The Jas the most clerical party out r in he Lith liberal uisturbances t was over- The f the key Party's Approved For Release 2003/08/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4 20004-4 25X1 etrength lay mainly vith the small bourgeoisie. ;te. Farmers' Party was supporteo b, some intellect- ual circles. The Social Lemocrats sought the supaort 01 ineurtrial workers an exerteu some influence over a proup or small-holeinp peasants. c. The National Union, 6 nepligible party before 1926, became comparatively poverful follo'inp the coup e'etat of 19261then a single-party repime was erauually introuuced. it vas mainly supported by the country's bureaucracy. Since 1940, the Party haa renounced its authoritarian principles. The Lithuanian Front evolve in 1940-1941 from the clandestine anti-Soviet movement !morn as the Lithuanian Activist Front, vtich organizeo the revolt of June 1941. The Lithuanian ictivist Front oripinally was comprised of freedom fiphters of various political and ideolopical shadings. Later, in 1941 and after, liberal-minded activists left the npvement ano founded the Union of Combatants Dor the Liberty of Lithuania. The Lithuanian Activist Front itself was reorganized as the Lithuanian Front. Lost of its leaders. are young Catholic intellectuals bent on adaptinp the country's political ane social life to.modern reeuirements. They proclaim the principle of .cultural autonomy which would exclude political prouping accordinp to ideolopical and relipious beliefs. a. In the Union of Combatants for the Liberty of Lithuania, left-rine liberals were oripinally pre- eoainant. At present it has alipned itself pith Wie National Union. Both the Lithuanian Front and ,11t1 Union of Combatants for the Liberty of Lithuania took a leaeinv eart in the Lithuanian resistance movement uurinr the German occupation of Lithuania. Oily of their leauers enc, members fell victims to stapo persecution. The Lithuanian Unity Lovement was mainly an intellEct- uel raovement, at )resent it has alipnec itself .!.ith the Lithuanian Front, The Lithuanian Federation at Labor has also done so. Approved For Release 2003/08/05 : CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4 25X1 Approved For Release 2003/08/05 : CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4 Approved For Release 2003/08/05 : CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4 Approved F vrgA1 GNTIL rig T.bMi; 14 GE ACIEWCT 20004-4 25X1 1.eriving its authority from the political will of the 1,ithuan1an people; the supreme Com:Attee for the Liberation of Lithuania has never considered itself a fefuree oreanization. However; it has maintained close contact with the Lithuanian relugees throuph their yrpanization, the Lithuanian Refugee Community, and has been recognized and supported by all Lithuanians throughout the vorld as the su?reMe political author- ity anu the true voice of the Lithuanian people. The :Wpreme Committee's collaboration 'ith Lithuanian Legations (in -ashington, London, Paris, the Vatican, and so,th Amriea) has always been smooth and efficient. The quection tihether the Executive Council of the Supreme Committee is to become), in due time, a Government-in-exile, has so fax' been left undecided? it is up to the Supreme Committee an the Ministers Plenipotentiary to reach a je,int decision in this matter. 25X1 Approved For Release 2003/08/05: CIA-RDP82-00457R003500720004-4