Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 9, 2016
Document Release Date: 
March 19, 1999
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
April 14, 1951
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8.pdf792.13 KB
acturent Mo. a ?S Doclassiflo, lass. Chankid HR ate: r ?4o. Approved For ReleaS T-et IS S C ti- 0.3hi By: civtt.3 ;1.1a,JECT the Na 25X1A ktifigtheckiEfiititahieu? RIMATION REPORT CD NO. 4gricu1ture and 1.'orestry of Republic of Montenegro , DATE DICTR 14 APT? 51 NO. OF PAGES 6 NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO 25X1X REPORT NO. 7"-e organization of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the National Republic of Montenegro is As follows: Title Minister Assistant ninister Assistant Minister for operations Third Minister General Director Nam Lomnen Cerovic Jasha Novakovic i;.111jaca Sava Vujacic Dustin Vuckovic Chief of Reforestation Engineer Dimitrije Pogo Chief of Care for Engineer Vladimir Ljovin kOrests Remarks From Titogradoformerly a teach a. in charge of general affairs. In charp of draining Lake rkadar. Chief of general forest surveys. In chorge of exploitation and protec- tion of wooded areas. leforestation section, care of forests and regulation of flood. 2. Until the beginning of 1950, the Ministry contained a control division which was headed by Assistant Minister 'Luke Zaruvica as President. In 1950 this section was eliminated as were other control commissions in other industries, and now only one control commission attached to the government of Montenegro exists. The commission, in addition to other sections, has i section for forestry, heeded by Milorad Djurhovic, a forestry engineer. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has under its jurisdiction the following five Forest Managements: FTAIE Ev !ARMY CLASSIFICATION r, DISTRIBUTION 1 Approved For ''Fliie-6 .1999/09/0 : CIA2R6P82-00467R0674606'50008-8` Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 ? linTITEAL INTELLIO7NCE AGrUCY - 25X1A ss or srJenseenent: Niksiet ;eirmetor,t Petnr lijuskovic; Assistant eleseeser fesee Cakic, eininoer or "srestry. , Giese iseeinenont: Ples17e; Direotre: rsdovan Jalsle; Assist5n'-. siseeieer: aE1,0 Prelieeic. engineer of forestry. _ssee, fleaees ent: nolnnenx DirectQr Hkic. &snail?, enoinesse of eese es-1z re. ent: Berle (Ivangrad); Director: e?' _'ereeeese heststent Director: Peter eeee-, Kot-or- Director: Grigoe, -.ieeeeer: le, inie Neven. eneinner of forestrs. ? Obred 2,arubica. Otosevics engineer; Assiseant Each of tie above maeaeements has from 5 to 6 sonloyees at the most, and ke-Al 10 tO. 15 :iernermen. The mosiority of lunbermenr are party menbene, and oely from 2 to -sr cent ere non.nerty members. The lanistry of re!riculturs and Foreetry and the Minister who heads it do vele deternincond are not in charge of, forestry policy. They also have to doviUseeking -Important decisions. The person within the '21-1.5try in charm of forestre policy is Dusnn Vuekovielllnhe lacks ability eed interest for this type of merit. as entire job is one of blind sub- mission.. and he brks only to carry out orders and directives, formerly :sod by the Planning Commission, and now issued by the lade:stria...1 Council the National Tepublic of ;Iontenegro. This does not nenn that the lunter two bodies are independent o? the "inistry of the Montenegrin T,sopublic in the field of forestry. The Republic Planning Coemission, form- erly, and now the Industrial Council ore under the jurisdiction of the Federal Planning, Comnission from which they receive orders arid directives coverine uorl:, in the forestry field. Thus, the Central (Federal) Govern. eene is ia charge of forestry policy of Montenerro. At .-ho same time. the Federal Commiesion is instructions end sete up neeeaction plans :''or the Ministry of Industry which is, likelise, in esiorge of the l'ool Industry. ?or tlis? approval or agreement of the Minietry of Agriculture and Forestry is not resTired. Accordingly, the work of the aleietry of Forestry, orkm6re sreciseiY., the Ministry of Agriculture consists rainly in reforestation. There is cause to fear thet under such srandiose plans end such criminal exploitation, Montenegro will within five years be radioed to nothing. PcInicies regarding forestry for :on- tenogro and for the other republics, are mainly formulated along the lines of thong-et of Boric Kidric, who, in one of his s'Atemento made before Yunoslav forest specialists, said: If the socialist management demands, that is to sry? if policy so &mends, we shall cut down all the trees ard aeein reforest the land.1' This statement rade by. Udric is beine suecessfully adapted. everywhere in forest economy ith ho abve nttltudeit'w)re wria 174,:) no ncrn ferosts at the end of the first five veers. An answer, made by a pecminent forestry specialist offlonteneero, to Kidric'e statement was as follows: '1ThepoLitical management of country ie better informed than err specialist." V 1 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 Approved For Release 99 IA-RDP82-00457R0 7100650008-8 CENTRAL INTELLIUNCE AGENCY ---/ 25X1A The work of the ilinistry of Aerieulture and Forestry thus consists mainly of reforestation projects. The Five Year Plan provides for the reforest- ation of 2,500 hectares of barren Nontenegrin land. The plan was changed in 1950 and the number of hectales for reforestation raised to 3,500. Considerine the reforestation of barren land would mainly cover the rocky (Karst) areas, it is impossible to consider that even the initial plan of 2,500 hectares can be carried out since neither nevem/or nor necessary tools are availableg The example of the mountain reforestation project to Trobjest? near Viksic, is the best proof of the type of results that can be achieved, During the occupation, the citizens of Niksic, then under Partisan control, stripped the forests of Trebjese down to the roots, neforestation of this area uas already begun in 1946. The Trebjese (wood) area covers approximately 200 hectares. The plan provides for the annual reforestation of from 50 to 60 hectares, nach year reports state the plan has not only been carried out, but even exceeded. But after four years of constant reforestation of the Trebjese area, 80 hectares are still void of trees. Thus, according to ?facial reports, the project of reforestation has been carried on from 1946 to 1950 each year, and each time 50 hectares have been covered with trees. This would mean that Trebjese has 250 hec- tares. But it acteelly only has 200, 120 hectares of which have been reforested. Os Nevertheless, plans have been surpassed and graphs have been dram. False reports are submitted, and articles written up in the newspaper. A forester who can lewdly write submits a written report to the director of the nanagenent based on a viene3 survey of the area reforested in one day. These daily reports are summed up in 10-day reports and from these month- ly reports are rade. The reports are then forwarded to the Planning Commission and from here to the Control 'Commission if the plan has not been exceeded. If the plan has been eeeeeded than everything is in order, and the reports are sent to the Federal Planning Commission. Nobody ever checks to verify the reeorts. For this reason arrr manager who wishes to advance in his poeition or to be reworded exceeds the plan by means of felsified and incorrect documents. If ever any check is made, it is made by people who are not specialists. The.commission is only interested in having protocol and bookkeeping in order, and never actually cheeks the figures in the books. 7. The greatest actual amount of reforestation is being done in the vicinity of Titograd. However, considering the climate (draught), and the hardness of the soil (conglomerate) the success of the project, and of newly planted trees which do not die amounts to Iron 10 to 15 nor cent at the most. The percentage in the area of Cemovsko lolje and other parts of Velje Brdo is from 25 to 30 per cent. ,. The number of poreanent workers engaged in reforestation is very srell, and, in each forest eanagenent, amounts to between 10 to 20 men at the most. ech management has at least two specialists. The main, if not the entire; job falls on the Pront labor brigade. Convicts and prisoners are terrcrer- ily employed in the vicinity of Titograd. The Front Labor brigades are headed by brigadiers who submit a report to the specialist with a statement as to how many DBW trees have been planted. Usually these reports are in- correct, and exarr,erate the amounts, but experts can do nothing but accept them. The Front brigades promise to plant a certain number of trees, and although this might have been done only on paper, it must be accepted, or the specialist is in danger of being merRed as an enemy of the country and of the regime The Front brigades have municipal and district units. The success of their work is nil since the people engaged in this work are employed at their private jobs during the week and then are forced to work 8 to 11 hours on such reforestation projects. Such a citizen uorhe eithout any interest; his only aim is that he be noticed by some of the unit managers. Frequently specialists find the brigade planting trees upside down with the branches planted in the earth (sic), bile young trees are bin, being transported, very little attention is paid to their csre, and the plant root is often damaged. The hole in which the tree is planted is often very shallow, and is not more than 10 centimeters deep. (For this at least 30 centimeters of depth are required.) Approved For Releffifen068P8911MfeeliffiatRagggft71100650008-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 CnNTRAn INTELLIGENCE AGENCY L 25X1A ee, Front workers who particieate in the planting project often number 600 non. They are frequently assisted by the military and by school child- ren. There is often a /ack of tools, and there can hardly be a question of giving them professional advice. Specialized personnel, who may supervise and enneee the work of eefotestation also are lacking. Dis- trict and municipal comnittees determine the amount of manpower to be sent out on thee? projects without taking into consideration the above oircumetances. The main thing in that the specialist chosen has the necoesary ausliacations, but whether he can Teenage and control the number of peorle employed is of secondary importance. 10. The forest nurseries, which exist in almost every forest management, ere the only actual and positive contribution to reforestation. Such nurseries era located in Niksic? Titograd, Bar, Kotor, Berane? Kolasin and Plevlje. Here the greatest attention is devoted to the cultivation of new &loots. Total arnual production of new shoots in all nurseries amounts to 5 million units. Shoots are largely almond and fir (black and nlpine). The majority of nurseries were built before the ear and some have been enlareed, such as the ones in Niksic, Titograd, ie:)tor,and Bar. The Ilinistry and forest ranagements devote a lot of attention to the shoots, no that any failure in reforestation should not be attributed to insufficient quantities. The forest nurseries are very well culti- vated and managed by specialiets. U. The euestion of introducing order be the forests of Ibntenegro was taken up only in the latter part of 19470 upon strict orders issued by the nederal ininistry. Up to that time, lumber camps and local committees cut down forests without orders and often without the knowledge of the forest managers. The main thing was to receive the assignmeet either fror the Planning Commission or directly from the District Farty organ- isation and the ren would go out and cut the trees which suited them most, often those alongside the roods. Since the Five Year Plan demanded that an inventory be taken over a period of two years (visual survey) at all existing forests, the inventory uas completed in rontenegro in 1949. The entire area covered with forests mounted to 489,000 hectares, This tetal can be expressed in teems of 58,680,000 meters. From this 12,604,000 meters are of fir trees and 46,076,000 meters of deciduous trees (including brushwood). Since beech is largely of a very poor (reality only from 3 to 15 per. cent of these trees can be actually esed, Ince eTereroen forests or eixed forests heee ;eon nereelv uti- Ltzed tefore the war, such as the Bjela (lora, the Somine, Vojnik? ?eeske forests, Sarenshe Forests erejhowaea, earljeva :bunhain, Soltulari, irucjel Oral Vrh, 7asl-e-fee eeente, Reyna Gore and hunjevica, the amount of evergreens 'which could be cut down after the war amounted to 25 per cent. After the deearture of the Germans only from 3 to 5 per cent evergreens renamed in the nixed forest areas. Before the war, the amount that could be cut reached as high as 70 per cent, and was justi- fiable because the e forests were very old end had almost become jungles. Fir trees had overgrown tho beech trees to such an extent that beech trees could no longer carry out their natural task, (toclear or cat the branches of the evergreens, and thus increase the value of the evergreens Iowever, further cutting of the evergreens in the same forests after the "liberation, and the reduction of their numbers to 5 per cent means that these forests will be turned into deciduous forests, that is,into beech forests, which have no value. 12. Not only ls management of this kind conduttod in these forests, but also In forests opened for utilization after the ear, Such an example is the wood area, Ljubastice0 beneath the eoeeei &ere-eine, During a detailed 1..n7ntor7T of this mixed foreet of 620 hectares taken in 1947, it was f t S Approved For Release 1999/09/09 :,,,,cJA7RDP8M047R00711, 6b0008-8 LA 'Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 INTELLIGT10E AGENCY 25X1A eetahlished that it containel 434,000 cubic meters of trees, (130,200 cubic meters of evergreens and 303.S00 cubic neters of beech). Of the evergreens, 62,000 cubic meters (trees with a diameter of 30 centimeters and up) were available for cueting. Hoverer, of this amount only 30,000 cubic Teeters were set aside for cutting fer the survival of the forests. . In the meantime, since 1947 ap to the present date, 75,000 cubic meters of trees have been cut. TI is means that 13,000 extra cubic meters of trees, with a diameter of 30 centimeters and up, were entered in the tree inventor; The reason for this is that ehe Vukman Kruscic enterprise chopped dem the eatire mass of 62,01)0 cubic aeters regardless of the existing plan of the l!inistre which aeproved the cutting of 30,000 cubic meters of trees In this particular 'wood area. Furtheemore? in order to comply with the assicinent given it by the Planning 0elnission oi Montenegro to supply beans, the 7e1man eruscic enterprise proceeded with cutting 13,000 cubic metes of evergreens which were less than 30 centimeters in diameter. At present, the ratio of deciduols trees to evercreens is 303,800 to 55,200 which would mean 84 per cent beech and la per cent evergreen. in ten years time, beech trees will conpletely strangle remainirg slender evergreen trees and domi- nate the whole area. Thus, the forest will beceme a pure beech forest of a poor quality voted, to be used only for fire wood. Another example of poor management of the woods of Montenegro in particular, and throughout Yugoslavia in general is the following: After a conference in Titograd in the Ministry of Industry, the director of the Prvi Maj enter- prise in Niksic was given the assignment to supply approximately 1,000 area (dimensional) meters of soft cellulcsewood. without waiting for instruc- tions from the wood manageme,t in Ni sic, the director, Tripe Franjevic, gave orders that 2,300 evergreen trees, remaining from the previous cut- ting and with a diameter of 26 centimeters, be cut in the Leljini Doli lumber camp to meet the requested amount of soft cellulose wood. Upon order of Engineer Vladimir Ljovin? dace within the Ministry of Agriculture and .borestry, of the section for maintenance of order in forests, the Raion (district) forester submitted a complaint against the Front workers who were in charge of cutting. The report was later passed on to the public prosecuter in Dih-sic. During the trial, the director defended himself by feying that a ministerial friend had ordered him to out the trees regard- less of instructions. The minister defended himself by saying that be had is ued the orders as a non-seecialist, and did not realize that the lewd may not be cut without instructions Since both officials successfully "justified themselves", the chief of utilization of forests mos called to task, and fined 6,000 dinars for carelessness. :mace actually incurred, according to the books, amounted to 87,000 diners. The above mentioned director, Tripe "'ranjevic, was given a 10,000 dinar reverd by the :Ientene- erin ilinistry of Industry for successful maneremont, while the cutting brigade received the shockworkers' nerit award. Only the barren area in the Leljini Doli camp remains as proof of the careless management of state and public property. 15. Forest fires reached vast proportions in 1946 and 1947 so that moat forests were greatly endangered. Listed below are areas burned and amount of damagfet, 14. Vojnik, from :Wee? to Donja (approximately 1,500 hectares) Kraljeva Gore (600 hectares) enietin brest (250 hectares) Lisac (1 000 hectares) Eavna &ore., !:etoeka, Bjelasica, end other vocla areas (approx- imately 10,000 hectares) Approximately 20,000,000 dinars 14,000,000 dinars 25 000,000 dinars 55,000,000 dinars 650,000,000 dinars Approved For Release 1999/69/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8 25X1A INTI111.G:1;01.7, :.LUETTCY nneee tires eere ceused by draught, negli,ence of lumbermen ann by neoiigent oeeeente who cleaeed their moadows by fire. flanagenent in each case threw he :,,Iave upon Chetniks n5ddea, in the forests. All burned areas were turn- ed over by the iinistry of 'orests or Ikeitenero for exploitation to the _inastry of Industry of the Lational lepubLic of Serbia, which, with this eurpose in mind, opened limber camps in Rama Gora, Glibaci, Vaskovo, and nrmeniela. This last came operates today, wherees the others ceased to operate in 1948. The :inistrv of /orestry of Montenegro permitted these enrips to cut down on)y burnt trees, which coule be utilize() for technical (-nf;ne-xim.) prrpeses? , In the reintine, the Ministry of industry of the Na ional nopuelic or eriia ani its various lumber cans cut oven the healthy trees, which had cen untooe-ed by fire, causing even greater darace to the ;:ontena.rin fore ets The cut-down trees wore thrown into the Lin and Tara riiers and t*,./E-,Led to Obrenovac and Belgrode. The . erbian -epublic was accorded the utilization of the so-callee ialoticke orests, along the uppe- nor, ehice ver- to supply the induetrial enterrrise in nosovska Ifiteovica. neo sane Corests were put at the diseosal of the nill in Rozaj, the innustriaj forest entererise Liornji lbar, underthe jurienictioe of the nonteneerim "Inistry of Industry. In ad ition to the Balotice Forests, nernia eae riven the forests of the uobrilovina monastery, on the Tara elven, the nrmija limber canp, aria the wooded nelena Mountain area to euein.y the edll in Obrenovac. Bosnia and nerceoovina wore given the nbzir and Wee wooded areas, on the Tara idver and the Vucje wooded area on the Plea River ails in Azenovac and leea were to reduce peoduction er cease ocrat,ion. Lk:cause of the or-at chaos which reigns in the forest iuither cavrost where everyti:ins is cone with a view to productional corpe- nlbion toutting the feeatest eu7ber of trees and transportino then to the -ill), fo:est utflization in eontenepro, and through Yugoslavia in genera], eight be described as mere lootine. There is no core of foreets -ehateoeven, ntuns are as eien as two meters, and the limbs are left 15inE about, hotted lor;r?, 7 to 3 years old, which heve been left behind, are to ee found ecattero6 everywhere 17. Notations s(re inveriabin nede in books that the plan has been exceeded ena that utilization of the forests is as Lich as from 78 to 90 per cent. Moueeer, when such rotted log cone to the nill, their utilization never goes beyond 7 per cent, which disproves the exactness and accuracy of the books ef various fereot enteririees and lurber carps. Because of the noresecializee and chaotic work among the lumber camps, -,ne latter have mere or less become spreaders or the forest. patIsite, 4nodkornj4k" uhiel, has taken root and spread throughout forest:. of rontenegro lear]v damn? caused by this parasite amounts to WO -illion djvars. Ilnat is even worse, the parasite has at ached young treeo. nothing at all is being done to counteioct this larasitoo because it has not yet assuncd as (neat iroportions as the blight in 1949 19, DescilatioTt which f.c befee t7r..7-trl 117 +110 lontin: indlIntry n fereetre is (-mite el716ent The only oeestion is when the remalniag fore- in ilenteneore will be destroyed. Approved For Release 1999/09/09 : CIA-RDP82-00457R007100650008-8