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December 20, 2016
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October 9, 1952
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Approved For Release 2007/02/23: CIA-RDP82-00457RO14200360006-3 FEB i952 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CLASSIFICATION SECRIT SECURITY INFORMATION INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY USSR (Crimea Oblast) SUBJECT Grain Sovkhoz imeni Kalinin near Simferopol THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, WITHIN THE MEANING 01= TITLE.18, SECTIONS 793 AND 794, OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REVE- LATION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. THE REPRODUCTION OF THIS FORM 15 PROHIBITED. DATE DISTR. 9 Oct. 1952 NO. OF PAGES NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. 25X1 THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION NAVY STATE NSRB DISTRIBUTION AIR LARMY FBI 1. The Sovkhoz imeni Kalinin, located about 40 km north of Simferopol in the Crimea, is a state grain farm. Its size, about 1O,000 hectares, is about the average for a grain sovkhoz. Previously,, this area, as is true for all of the Crimea, was inhabited by national minorities, mostly Tatars, and foreigners who had settled there. In 1911 , however, they were all moved into the interior of the USSR and replaced by Russians from the central parts of the European USSR.' 2. A sovkhoz is headed by a director (director) instead of a chairman (predsedatel')., as is the case in kolkhozy. Th1s'difference in title is quite marked,as exemplified by the fact that, should a director of a sovkhoz be a poor manager, he is deprecatingly referred to as a redsedatel. The director,, who is invariably a Party member, is selected by the Crimea Oblast Trust for Grain Sovkhozy and serves as long as his work is satisfactory. Assisting the director in managing the sovkhoz were a deputy, a chief agronomist, an accountant, several mechanics, and about 15 to 18 other people. The so vkhoz was divided into eight sections for administrative purposes,and each section was headed by a chief (upravlyayushchiy) and about five or six other helpers including a bookkeeper, an agronomist, a time clerk, a storage clerk, and a brigadier. All the above people., including his own staff and the staffs of the eight sections., were selected by the director with no interference by the Oblast Trust for Grain Sovkhozy. Approved For Release 2007/02/23: CIA-RDP82-00457R014200360006-3 Approved For Release 2007/02/23: CIA-RDP82-00457RO14200360006-3 ,.. E`T'/ 8EC JRITY INFORMATION A Party organizer (partlvnyy organizator - Partorg) was assigned to the sovkhoz by the Rayon Party Committee to check on the efficiency with which the sovkhoz was run, Although the Partorg could not remove the director from his poet he was in a position to recommend disciplinary action; it therefore behooved the director to maintain friendly relations with him. A - union (Profsoyuz) also existed and about half of the members of the sovkho-.z belonged to it. The head of the union, called Ra.bochkom ( ,reds(o=d.atel rabochego komiteta chairman of the workers' committee, was elected each year by members of the un.t_on N !l ther the Rahochkom nor the union had much say in administering the sovkhoz. 4. Each of the sovkhoz's eight sections was divided into seven 25X1 for purposes of crop rotation _ y 110000 ec eras o: a soy. oz s . an weto used fo?.' winter wheat and shout 13J,000 hectares were used for other grains. Winter wheat was the principal crop raised on. the scvk.oz. Some spring wheat was also raised but considerably less than winter wheat. Among the other crops raised were rye and oats and lesser amounts of barley, corn e r r fodder, and sunflower; 25X1 1 -11 The vie per hectare about _ cen .ners (IOZ7rciloarams per ner) for winter 25X1 wheat, About one- quaarte .ge was perm. , e to lie fallow or was planted with various grasses. Each of the sovkhoz's eight sections had an agronomist. but their advice was not taken very seriously by the sovkhoz workers, who preferred to rely on their 25X1 own experience and intuition. Most of the el Rht sections had some 25X1 cattle and sheep but only ore section had fowl., aeriverea to ea State ~}nrme wa - retained for seed and, if there was not sufficient seed for any x a,rti cular year, the Government supplied whatever was 'e.eaerl.ee3. Combine and tractor operators received the uu ?1 7 as tys ftu lafilled the plan set for it, Practically all the grain was about Pour centners each whether or not the plan was fulfilled, but they were the on:i_;v ones to receive grain from among the sovkhoz workers. After the plan hss been. fulfilled, however, the director may receive permission from the Trust to sell, some grain to sovkhoz workers at a nominal, price,' The inspection commission from the Trust =at 1.arves time, arrived to hasten the harvesting. 6. The sovkhoz had from 1,000 to 1,900 people working during the year 25X1 25X1 and this number was increased to onwards of 2,000 during harvest time, when use was made? of emery available person. Most of the workers labored in the fields. There were from 100-1rO tractor operators, about 70 combine operators. approximate]. 50 workers In the repair shop, about 20 truck drivers, some clerks in the sovkhoz store, a number of watchmen, and some warehouse workers; Unlike the kolkhoz, payment for work: on a sovkhoz i . ade In money Instead of a"el" U 25X1 25X1 per month, the combine operators earned the most money, from seven to nine thousand rubles a year. Tractor operators were the next best paid, receiving approximately 7.0OO) rubles a year. As mentioned above, each combine and tractor operator also received about four centners of grain. The rest of the sovkhn.workers earned from 2,006 to 4,000 rubles annually. Sovkhoz workers were assured of receiving money regardless of the harvest. every type or work. 25X1 rates are a erm.nea by the amount of work one,, eg, a fixed amount of money for plowing a. certain area of land, a fixed amount of money for. loading a certain weight of grain, etc. Next to the sovkhoz director, who received about QOO rubles Approved For Release 2007/02/23: CIA-RDP82-00457RO14200360006-3 Approved For Release 2007/02/23: CIA-RDP82-00457R014200360006-3 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION Tractors: About 50 prewar among them: a Kharkov wheeled tractor; a Sta:D..I.ngrad treaded tractor; Universal I and II wheeled tractors: three heavy Stalinets (S-60) tractors operated on gasoline a which were manufactured in Chelyabinsk; eight heavy Stalinets (3-65) Diesel tractors, manufactured in Chelyabinsk, one for each of the sovkhoz is eight sections. In 1949, several new sT"Z tractors, manufactured ' in Stal , arrived 7. The sovkhoz had its own tractors and combines and therefore did, not have to rely on the services of Practically all the equipment 25X1 was pre?D but in 1949 some new equipment had arrived and more was expected, The tractors, operated fairly well during the summer and were overhauled and repaired during the winter. The combines frequently broke down, necessitating repair either it the field or in the repair shop and causing rather frequent delayo in the work. Split sleeve bearings always became loose and had to be tightened every day. Spare parts of every kind were always in 25X1 short supply, but for a while were obtainable from wreekages 'of tanks 25X1 left from the war. F-lau- these wrecked tanks by the Government, 8. In 1949, the sovkhoz had the following