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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 20U7/02/08: CIA-R~P82-U0850RU00'1 OUO'1 U020-7 ii JANUARY i979 CFOUO 2179~ ~ i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 FOK OFFICINL USE UNLY srRS L/ezL3 Jan~gry ~9~9 , ~ TRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 2/79) . U. S. JOINT PUBLICAZIONS RESEARCH SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~C'I'l: .IE'RS publiCat~~~~~, cureain information prim~rily from foreign newsp~~tpers, rr~rir~c' ~nd books, but rals~ Lrom news a~enr}~ tr~nsmi~sivns n~td brondcasts. i~~CCY~~L5 from foreign-l~n~;uag~ sources arc translated; thosr from English-language so~rces ~re transcribed or reprinted, with the ori~inal r'~rttslC;~ ~.?nd other ch~racecristics retained. Headlines, edttc+ri,;l reparts, ac~d m~7Cerial enclosed in brttckeCs are ~~.;pc,li~~:1 by JYEt5. ~'rocessing indicntors sueh ~s [TexCJ ;~r (~:xcerpCf in the firse line of e~ch item, or fallowing ehe last line of a brief, indic~re how Che driginal informaCion was processed. Where nn pro~essing indicAtor is given, Che infor- m~Cion was summ~rized or exCrncC~d. . i'nfamilier n~mes rendered phnneeicnlly dr tr~nsliCerared are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by Ei qll@9- Cinc..,~rk ~nd enclosed in p~rentheses were not clear in the nriginal bue have been supplied asappropriaCe in cnnCext. Other unaetribuCed parenehetieal notes within the body of ~n iCem originaCe witfi the source. Times within iCems~are as given by source. ~ 7'he conCents of this publication in no w~y represent Che poli- - cies, views nr aCtiCudes of ehe U.S. Government. . .":i i' :~ta;, :�~i~ SrGL'I,:ITIJSS COVER~II;iG OWNERSHIP OF ''.1'~' ~ L': 5.�.EP: ~1~CC�n t{EREIh R~QUIRE T'EiAT DISSE:~II~ATION ~".'3:_ICATiCi~ IsE RESTRICTED FOFOF~ICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 BIBL106RAPNIC DATA Rcport No~ 2~ Recipient'b Accean un Nn, SNEET JPRS L~e2i3 ~ U u an ~,u c it e S. epatt ate TEtANSLA'1'ION$ ON USSR MILITAItY AF'FAIIt5, (FOUO 2/79) ~ 6~ _ 7~ Au~hnrf+l 8. Pertormin6 qra~nization Rept. No. 9~ Pe~l~xmfng Orgrni:atiun Name ~nd Addree~ 10, Proiect/T~i~/Wotk Unit No., JoinC Publicetiona Reeearch Service 1000 North Clebe R06d 11. Contnet/Gnnt No~ _ Arlington, Virginia 22201 , 12, Spon~dring Organizuion N~me ~nd Addree� 13. Type ot Repott ~ Period Covered As above 14. 1S~ Supplementary Nocei 16~ Abst~~ete ' The r~pore contains information on the 5oviet military and civil defense establishments, leadership, docCrine, policy, planning, political aFfairs, ~ organization, and equipment. 17. Kcy wocds and Daumenc An~lysi~. 170. Desetiptors USSR Military Organizations ' Military Facilities ' Military Personnel ~ . 17b. I~Irntif~rta/Open�1?nded Terms 17c. c ~?,n'f~ I~frw/GrouP 15C 18. Ava,l.~biluy Statemcnt 19. Security Class (This 21. i~o. of Pages NOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. Limited Number of R~pOt1~ 35 Copies Avaflable Fron JPRS . Securiey ass ( his 22. Priee � Page I;NCLA55 F~ED r O~IM Nf1�i�IS INtV. 1�)21 ~JSCOMM.DC ~~07I�P17 THtS fORM NAY BE REPRODUCED APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ' ~ ' I~'OR 0~'~'T~IAL U5E ONLY ~ ~'..rr ~ JPRS L/821,3 ~ ~ ].l January 19 79 ~ TRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 2/i9) CONTENTS PAGE History of M{1.i~ary Topographera Bketched ~ (B. Ye. Byzov; GEODEZIXA I KARTOGRAFZYA, J'u]. 7$) 7. Zhi~tomi.r Radioelectxonic Air Defens~ School (Nikol.ay Yakovlevich Golova.nov; ZHITO1~t3K0YE ~ KRASNOZNAMENNNOYE Il~NI LENINSKO(~0 KOMSOMOLA, ~977) a Book Diecuases Method.ology of Military-Scientific Cognition (T. Ye. 3havrov, M. I. Galkin; METODO?,OGIYA VOYENNO- NaucxivoGO po�, i977) i~ Book Describes Ar~r Operati.or~s in Great Patriobic War (A. I. Radziyevskiy; ARM~'YSISIYE OPE~tATSII, 1977) � . � , . � � 29 ' a' IrII - USSR - 4 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OR O~FICIAL USE ONLY vnc: 623.~i HISTORY OF MILITAR'.( TOPOGRAPHERS SKETCHED Moscow GEODEZIYA I KARTOGRAFIYA in Ruasian No 7, Jul 1978 pp 1-6 - [Article by B. Ye. Byzov: "Glorious Path of Military Topographars"] [Text] Thia country's geodetic community extenaively ~ celebrated the 60th anniversary of the Soviet Army Military Topographic Service (MTS). During the years which have passed since its establish- ment the MTS, succesafully performing ita tasks in the � area of topographic-geodetic support of the USSR Armed ' Forces, has made an enormous contribution toward aarto- _ graphic study of the territory of our homeland. Lt Gen Tech Trps B. Ye. Byzov, Chief of MTS, discussea in thia article the gloriaus road traveled by our military topographera. The Military Topographic Service celebrated its 60th anniversary oa 8 May 1978. Its formation and development are inseparably linked with the hiatory of establishment of the Soviet Army, in the ranks of which the Military Topographic Service has traveled a great road and at all stages of which has honorably performed its assigned tasks, has made and is continuing to make a worthy contribution toward the cause of atrengthening the defense capabil~.- ty of our humeland. In the span of six decades generations of military geodesisCs, topographers and cartographera have come and gone. Each contributPd its own glorious pages to the fighting and labor chronicle of the Military Topa~raphic Ser- vice and to the cause of improving the thoroughness of topographic-geodetic coverage of our country's territory. We offer warm greetings and congratulations to all veterans of the Military Topographic Service, who have made a great personal contribution to ita development and topographic-geodetic support services for the military, all military perscnnel, workers and engineei-technician personnel who th~ough their daily exemplary labor are doing their part toward increasing the combat readiness of the Soviet Army. 1 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE 0:~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ; FOR OX'FICIAL US~ ONLY ~ ~ The mgmory o� thos~ milyC~ry geode~igrg, topogrnphers gnd cartiographers who g~ve eheir liveg fighCing for the �reedom and ind~endence of our home- land w~.ii remain forev~er in the hear~a Qf our people. The~.r courage, , steadfxgtness and unswerving will to carry out their mil~.t~ry duCy under ~ any and A11 conditiotte consti~ute a vivid expreasion of their total dedica- tian to the sociali,aC homeland and the cause o� the Communist Party. ~ The revolueionary and lnbor rraditions of tihe military topographere were born during the Civil War years. Under the extremely difficult condi- - tiona of that tiime, miliCary ~opographers noC only performed tasks perrain- ing tio topographic aupporti for Red Army combat operations but also ' frequenCly fought the enemies of Che Soviet Republic with weapon in har.d. A high degree of courage and valor was d;isplayed by the personnel enrolled in the firsC Petrograd Military Topography Course in defending the cradle of the R.evolution against the White Guardises and in~Cerventionists, as wpll , as in putting down the counterrevo~utionary mutiny at ICronshCadt. We are ~ proud of the fact th~t maps produced ae ChaC time by military topographers ' _ and cnrtographers were exCensively utilized by the founder o~ the Communist Party and our state, V. I. Lenin, who dir~cted ehe defense of the young . Soviet Republic. Many maps and atlases ~.~roduced by the Military Topographer ' Corps are preserved in the V. I. Lenin office and quarCers museum in the Krem].in. , Up to Che spring of 1919 the Military Topographic Service was the sole or- ganizttCion in Che Soviet Republic per�orming Copographic-geodetic and carto~raphic services. On 15 March 1919 V. I. Lenin signed a decree order- ~ ing establishment of the Higher Geodetic AdminisCration (VGU, now the USSR Council of Ministers Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography), which signaled the beginning af organization of a civilian topographic-geo~ietic and cartogrgphic service in this counC~y. After the Civil War came to an end, during the years of peacetime construction and particularly during the first five-year plans, Che Military Topographic Service ~~ndetwent development and improvement togeCher with all Soviet Army arms and services. Of ~reat importance in its further developmenC and ~ mobilizati~n of personnel for successful accomplishment of assigned tasks was the military topographers congress held in April 1924. In those years military geodesists and topo~raphers performed importanC tasks connected with elevation measurement on Che Trans-Siberian Mainline and linking the levels of the Baltic 5ea and Pacific Ocean, as well as topographic surveys in border areas, in the site areas of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly and the Dneproges construction pro3ect, and participated in high-mountain ex- " peditions of the USSR Acader~; i~ Sciences and in establishing Cogether with enterpr~~es of the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography an astro-g~eodetic network over a considerable portion of the territory of the USSR. Considerable work was performed t~ improve the equipment and organizational structure of MTS units; motorized topographic detachments, geodetic units 2 FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE 0\'LY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~ 1~OR O~~ICIAL USE ONLY , ~ and g scienri~ic r~se~rch ingtiCut~ were egtia~].ished. Trgining of of�ice~c ~ c~dres was improv~d. In 1925, at Che initiative of ~he t4i11eary Topograph~.c Adminiseration and eh~ Main AdministraCion of Geodesy and Cgrtography, an ofE:tCial pexiodical.�,~as eet~blished for Soviee geodesieCs and Copographers the ~ournal G~ODEZLSZ', Che EinesC traditiona of which are being continued ~oday by the ~nurngl GEODE~IYA I KARTOGRAFIYA. From i924 through 1932 mili- ~ Cary enginesr-geodesiats received Craining at the Moscow Institute o� Geodesy, Photo~raphic Aerial 5urvey and CgrtogYa~hy ~ngineere, and beginning in 1932 at Che Military Engineering Academy imeni V. V. Kuybyshav. - 13y 1941 the Military ~'Topographic Service CoseCher with the Main Administra- tion of Geod~sy an~:~, Cgrtography had accompliahed the impnrtiant work nf producing topo~rap'~ic maps of the border areas of Che USSR. They were un- ab:Le, however, to compleCe large-scale surveys covering the entire country, and ie w~s neceasary to produce maps of g numbeY of areas during the harah years ~f Che GreaC Patriotic War. The Gre~C PatrioCic War was the gre~tese rest �or the Soviee sCaCe and its Armed Forcey and for the entire 5oviet peop~e. The road eo victory was trying nnd dif�icult. In batCles of unprecedented scale and intensity against the ag~ressive bloc of fascist states, our people and their fi~hC- ing men, under Che direcCion of the Communist Party, gained a world-his- toric vici:ory. The Military Topographic Service, which provided topographic-geodetic data aud cartographic materials in support of 5oviet Army combat operations, also passed with flying colors the severe test of the war, particularly in the iniCial period. During the years of the Great PatrioCic ~1ar MTS units, ~ointly wiCh the enterprises of Che Main Administration of Geodesy and CArCography, surveyed and ground-reconnoitered an area in excess o� 5 mil- lion square kilometers, produced tens of ehousands of original topographic and special m~ps, and printed approximately 900 million copies of maps for , the military. Military geodesists and topographers, working ~ointly with the artillery topographic service, determined approximately 200,000 fun- damenCal peodetic points. Working jointly with the Air Force aerial photo- topographic service, more Chan half a million aer3al photographs were photoinCerpreted. For purposea of troop control, the topographic services of the fronts prepared a large number of reconnaissunce, relief and coded maps, river and lake maps, as well as many other special maps and graphic combat documents. Throughout the entire war ~ITS officers performed a great dPal of work in the area oi ~Loop topographic Craining. We have a great deal of respect for all milit�ary geodesisC~, topographers and c~rtographers, workers and employees, all Chose who bore on Cheir shoulciers the brunC of Che labor involved in topographic-geodetic support of Soviet Army combat operations, those who by their selfless service to the party and our socialist homeland made a concrete contribution to the _ common c~ause of victory over the bitterest enemy of mankind German fascism. We should mention in particuiar the personnel of the topographic 3 FOR OFI'IC7AL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~ i ~ ~Ok O~FICYAL iJSE ONLY ~ - ~ service~ of tihe Eronts, which were headed by ehe most ~xper~.enced of~icera ~ ~nd genergl officere of tih~ MT5: A. M. Aga~.akov, A. N. Ardayev, S. P. Bogankov, V. A. Vasil'yc~v, I. G. Dorofeyev, L. L. Ivanov, I. I. Martynov, A. B. Migunov, M. 5. Mondrus, S. S. Nikonenko, Yu. M. Orletgkiy, A. M. ; _ Serdobi,nCsev, V. G. 5tepanov, Ya. Sokolov, V. Yg. Tereshchenko, K. N. ~ Kh~rin, and other~, as well ae the peraonnel of the General Staff MiliCary Topographic Admi.nisCratiion, headed by Lt Gen Tech Trpe M. K. Kudryavtsev. ; The Communise Parey and SovieC Government highly eaCeemed the military and labnr accomplishmenta o~ the personnel of Che Mili~ary Topographic Service ~ during ehe Great Paeriotiic War 23 units were decorated, and Chousands of officers, noncommissioned officers and enlisted personnel received decorations and medals. The wealth of experience acquired by the Military Topographic Service 3n the GreaC Patriotic War is being exCensively utilized in peaceeime �or , further development and improvement of topogr~phic-geodetic support ser- vices for the Soviet Army. On tihe basis of a critical analysis of this ex- ~ perience, Che requisite praceical conclusions have been drawn, direcCed ; - toward prompt and uninterrup~ec~ supply of topographic-geodeCic data and cartographic materials eo the troops and staffs. In the postwar years the Military Topographic Service has taken part in ~ producing, ~ointly with Che Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography, : a 1:100,000 scale map of the USSR and particularly its northeastern regions, and in projects to establish an astro-geodetic network for the Soviet Union, with the scientifically-subsCantiated layouC and program of execution of handled by eminent Soviet geodesist, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences USSR Professor F. N. I~rasovskiy. This network, unique in scale and nccuracy, serves as a fine foundation for the conduct of a11 subsequent tapographic-geodetic and cartographic work and for solving basic sci.enttfic problems of geodesy. Geodesists and torographers are called pioneers, and this is clearly ~ustified. Performing tasks assigned by the homeland, they are among the first Co reach the cloud-towering heights, to cross the Caiga and the burning sands of the deserts. And it is not surprising that many geographic features have been named in honor of geodesists and topographers. In 1.952 _ a large team of military topographers was awarded the USSR State Prize for ~ producing top~graphic cnaps ~f high-mountain areas in the Pamirs. They in- clude V. M. Vasilevskiy, N. Ya. Gamaleyev, A. I. Kozlovskiy, Ye. N. - Kanovalov, V. G. Kustov, A. I. Makarov, A. K. Makarov, A. P. Makovskiy, ' A. S. Mel'nikov, D. F. Svetovidov, A. I. Simenyuk, and V. M. Grushnikov. In 1947 the scientific council of the USSR Geo~raphic Society awarded mili- tary topographers N. Ya. Gamaleyev, A. K. Koshkarov and P. N. Rapasov the _ P. P. Semenov Grand Gold Medal for discovery, survey and determination of the height of Victory Peak. A ma~or contribution toward solving many practical and theoretical problems during this period wag made by officers and general officers M. K. Kudryavtsev, 4 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE Oti'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY A. S. Nikol~yev, I. A. KuCuxov~ F. Ya. Geraeimov, Yu. V. Sergovgkiy, V. G. Stepnnov, I. I. Mare'ynnov, D. A. Popov, B. G. Afanas'yav,N. N. Mineyev, V. G. Dmitriyeveki.y, M. R. Kuroah and oChera, as wel~. as the follawing eminenC scienCists: Honored Scientista and ~ngineers G. V. Itomanovak.iy, A. N. Lobanov, A. V. Mazayev, lloctors o� Technicgl 5ciencea N. A. Urmayev, N. P. Lavrov~ P. A. Gaydayev, B. A. LiCvinov, F. F. Lysenko, N. P. . Makazov~ V. P. Morozov, and many others. ~ In con~nection with tihe rapid advance of the acieneiftc and ~echnological revo~.ution, furnishing of modern wegpons and combat equipment to the army and navy, as well as qualitaeive changes in Che composition of the Armed Forces, new and h3gher dem~nds are being made on topographic-geodetic support of tironps and combat readiness o� the Military 7'opographic Service, and it is b~coming necessary to revise and refine previous views and to ~ find a differenr solution to many problems. 'Phe tasks of the Military Topagraphic Service have changed substantially and become more complex, , and ie now plays a greater role and has greaCer responsibility in matters of comprehensive and fu11 support of troops and seaffs with r.opograhic- geodetic data and cartographic materials. Totally new kinds of geodetic, ~ photogrammeCric and cartographic equipment are b eing developed, and ad- vanced methods ansl processes of performing special ~obs are being developed and adopted. A signiFi.cant contribution toward thia has been made by SCate Prize winners B. G. Afanas'yev, V. I. Korablev, N. N. Mineyev, I. Ya. Pleshakov, A. A. Khoman'ko, G. ti. Uatinov, the officers and general officers of Yhe Military Topographic Administration and Military Engineering Academy imeni V. V. Kuybyshev, chiefs of the topographic services, commanders and off3cers of topographic units. - Modes of troop support are tested and impraved, possibilities of shortening the time required to ob tain and procesa topographic-geodetic data are sought, of MTS units for operation in a complex situation is improved in the course of command-staff, tacCical special tactical exercises. The Military Topograhic Service today possesses everything requisite for suc- cessfully accomplishing its assigned missions. MTS units and establishments contain well-trained cadres who are dedicated to the Communist Party and socialisC homeland. More than 90% of officer personnel are Communists and Komsomol members, while more than 60% possess higher military and special- ized education. A mr.~or contribution toward Craining cadre officers of the Military Topograhic Service is being made by the Leningrad Higher Military Topographic Command School and the Military ~ngineering Academy imeni V. V. Kuybyshev. Graduates of the Moscow and Novosibirs:; Geodesy, Aer.ial Photographic Survey and Cartography Engineer institutes are doing a fine job in MTS units and a~ MTS enterprises. The Afilitary Topographic Service is accomplishing many practical and sci- ` entiFic tasks pertaining to establishing and updaCing geodetic networks, producing topographic maps, developing new instruments and modern processes in close conCact with the Main AdminisCraCion of Geodesy and Cartography and its scientific research and production subdivisions. 5 FOR O~FICIAL L'SE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , ~ox o~r~cr~. ust~ ornY , i. Implementing the re~ol.utiona of the 25th CPSU Congr~ss, the persnnnel of the . Milirary Topographic Service ar~ working very hard and with a high degrea of responyibiliCy ~.n 1978. A speci~l role in all tasks ia ~ plgyed by party-poliCicnl work and Che efforts of party, Komsomol and trade ' ' un~.on nrgan3~aeions in mobilizing the pexsonnel of MTS units for succesa�ul, high-qualiCy nnd efficient accompl.ishmenC of the combat and political training program, apecial pro3ecCs, and indoctrinaeion of personnel in a spirit of deep ideological conviction, Soviet patirioti~sm and proletarian inCernationalism, as well xs constant readiness to defend th e interesCs of ~ our socialist homeland. , Mili~ary topographers are celebrating their 60th ann3versary with new suc- cesses in combat Craining and in accomplishing gssig::~d tasks and socialist ~ pledges. The high praise for the military labor o� the defenders of the homelgnd con- ~ tained in the CPSU Central Commititee message of greeCings in aonnection with the 60Ch anniversary of Che USSR Armed Forces and 3n speeches by Leonid " I1'ich Brezhnev during his trip to Siberia and the Far East and aC the 18th ~ Komsamol Congress have generated a new upsurge in political and labor ac- tiveness by military personnel, civilian workers and employees of MTS units. - For a number of years now 16 enterprises have mainCained Cheir title of Conununist labor collectives, while 5 units have been awarded the title of Excellent Labor Organization and ProducCion Enterprise. Worthy examples of j a Coromunist attitude toward labor are shown by senior technician-cartographers A. I. Bogatova, who had met her own personal five-year plan target by the 60th anniversary of the USSR Armed Forces, Ye. I. Ushenina, V. A. Shapovalova, S. A. Struchalin and many others, who have complered four annual targets each. Excellent, stable performance in training and labor has been shown by ~ _ the units under the command of N. N. Voronkov, G. F. Shapovalov, E. K. Shurpitsl:iy, B. S. Gavrilov, G. L. Lyakhin, A. G. Pavlovskiy, and others. Ia connection with Che 60th anniversary of the USSR Armed Forces, a large number of Military Topographic Service officers and warrant officers have , been awarded decorations and medals. One of the best MTS units was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. These decorations attest to recogni- tion of the contribution made by the personnel of the Military Topographic Service toward increasing the combat readiness of this country's Armed _ Forces. At the same time they oblige us to work even better, tirelessly itn- proving ~:~e quality and efficiency of all our work, not resting on our . laurels but concentrating attention on new tasks and unresolved problems. ; "Strengthening and improvement of the army and navy," states USSR Minister ' of Defense Mar SU D. F. Ustinov, member of the CPSU Central Committee { Politburo, "is a complex,, Innovative process, in which there can be no place for stagnation. That which was new yesterday today becomes a routine achievement. Herein lies the essence of the dialectic of military affairs." ~ 6 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE O:vZY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY The CommuntsC party and 5ovieti Government are doing everyehin~ necessary ~o preserve peace and the secur~.ty of peoples. The entiire world ie aware o� the beneficent influence of ehe peace-seeking foreign policy of Che Leniniat partiy and the vi~orous activitiea toward this end by CP5U Central Commi.ttee General Secreeary f;omrade L. I. Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the US~R Supreme SovieC. There etill exist in Che world, however, forces of reaction~and aggreasion, forces which are vigorously in operation, opposing ~ d~tente and disarmamenC. Theae �orces are maintaining focal points of tens~.on, a~e inciCing miliCary conf~.icts, and are escalating Che arms race. Under theae conc~itiona Che CPSU CenCral Commi~Cee and Soviet Government are devotin~ constant attention toward strengChening Chis country's defense c3pability and n level of Armed Forces combaC readiness guaranteeing an im- mediate rebuff Co any uggressor. It is the du~~; of militsry topographers promptly and fully to provide the troopa with tiopographic-geodetic data and _ carCographic ma~terials, to work persistently to improve the means and methods of accc~mplishing the tasks assigned the Military Topographic Ser- _ vice ar. the present atage, and tu improve organizaCion and discipline. For 60 years the Military Topographic Service has honorably carried out its duty to the homeland, succeasfully accomplishing its assigned tasks. Mili- tary topographiers, ind~ctrinated in a spirit of total dedication to the Communist Party and the Soviet homeland, are making and will conCinue to make a worthy conCributi.on to the cause of increasing the combat might of the USSR Armed Forces and strengthening the defense capability of our aocial- ist staCe. - COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", "Geodeziya i kartografiya", 1978 3024 cso: s~44/o~+95 7 FOR OFFiCIAf. L'SE O~V'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 i FoR or~zcraL c~s~ orrr,Y ; ~ i ~ , . , ~ . ~ ; , ~ ~ ~ ZHITOMSR RADIOELECTRONIC AIR DEFENSE SCHOOL ~ , Moscow ZHITOMIRSKOYE KRASN02NAMENNOYE IMENI LENINSKOGO KOMSOMOLA ; :i~? Russian 1977 signed to press 1 Apr 77 pp 1-4, 230-232 . ~ _ [Annotati~n, table of contents, author's introduction, and conclusion of book by Nikolay Yakovlevich Golovanov] ~ [Excerpts] Title Page% ~ Title= ZHITOMIRSKOYE KRASNOZNAMENNOYE TI~IENI LENINSKOGO ~ KOMSOMOLA (the Zhitomir Red Banner ~Radioelectronic ; Air Defense School] imeni Leninist Komsomol) ~ Publisher= Voyenizdat Place and year of publication~ Moscow, 1977 � i Signed to Press Date= 1 April 1977 ; Number of Copies Published~ 30,000 ~ Number of Pages% 232 ~ . , i Annotation~ The book contains a discussion of the history of one of the country's oldest military schools--the Zhitomir Hi~her Command Red Banner Air Defense School. imeni Leninist Komsomol, the graduates who have performed ! glorious feats in defense of the motherlarld. The author places great attention on illuminating the work of the teaching staff and of the ~ school's party and Komsomol organizations in the education and indoctri- i nation of officer cadres, ; ; The book is intended for a broad circle oi readers, especially for youths ~ who dream of becoming officers in t1:e National Air Defense Forces. Table of Contents ~ ~ Author's Introduction 3 8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , . . s , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~ ~Ott OI~~ICIAL USE ONLY ~11Apt~~ 1 � Comm~ncl~ra-antiiairer~fc ~CC~1~.~3$y?i11E3fl � ~ ~ � � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � � ~ ~ ~ � � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~`t1l It~d A~tr?y 8W7~1~~~ ~.ti$ ~ammandetis~.~~~~~�~�1~~�~~~~~~~~~~~1~~~~1~~~~� ~5 Mf)~COW~p@~fi0~~~f~~Jr@V~~~Op01~ ~~~~~~~~~~1~~~~~~~��A~~~�1~~~~~~~~~1~~~�� ttKKA ~Work~rs' ~?nd Peasants' R~d Army] Antiiaircr~ft Artillery Sc~ool . 22 V~ZUlitip~~9 ~~~~~~~~~~~~����~~�~~~~1~~~~1~~~~1~~��1~~~~1~~~~1~~~~1~~~~1 3~ S~v~stop~l' AritiairCr~ft Artil].~ry School~~...~ 41 011 ttl~ @VQ of war.......�~�~��~~�~~~~�~~~~~�~~~��~~�~�~~~~~~~~~e~~~~~� ~17 Chapt~r nU~~.lp. C~le ~El~~B O� ~~V@1"~ C@8~8~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~�~�~~~~�~ _ In defense Ot Jr@VA9r.0(~0~.~ �~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~�~~��~��~��~~~~~~~~~I~~~�I S3 t1~ep ~aiChin ~tl~ COUtltirY. P~trovak-Ufa �~~~~�~~��~~~~~1~~~~1~~~~~~~~~~ Sg In t~lE first battles �~~���~�1~~~~1~~~~�~~~�1~~�~�~~~�1~~~~1~�~~1~~~~� 6~ ~~~~':lF'3~ Of til'1Q C8p1~$~. �~���~I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~��~~~~~1~~~��~~~~1~~~�. 66 'The c~adl~ of Che revolu tion is inviolabl~ 70 D~~enders o� Odessa 7Z - The le~endary 365th Battery 74 U~f~nding railroad junctions 79 ~~'1~' tl$~~~.@5 ~t Voron~xh a0 At SCalingrad 82 The command~r of th,~ ~~Young Guards" 85 The ~xperience of t~a,r--into the trainir~ process 91 The t~~ttery imeni SUZA [SevasCopot' Antiaircraft Artfllery School] ~t the fronC 105 Yassy 109 Liber~tion of the Baltic area 113 The schooi is awarded the Order of Che Red 8anner 118 On the Berlin axis 122 ChapCer 3. Beneath peaceful skies The first post-war years 128 Assimilation of nea equipmenC 136 Military indoctrination 143 Ties LO troop units 148 Chapter 4. True to traditions Based upon a new configuration 152 Communists in the forefront 156 The cause Khich you serve 171 For quantity and mastery in sports 176 They serve in model fashion in troop units 179 Chapter S. To new heights To the ranks ot the highest 184, Imeni Leninist Komsomol 193 Ideological Cempering . 195 ~ The school�s SOth anniversary 201 The year of the Leninist jubilec 204 Creatcd by the people--to defend reliably 210 They were Che first 215 TO riCN heights 22~ Conclusion 230 9 FOR OPPICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 . ~ H'0[t O~I~tCIAL U5~ AN~t.Y ' i Author's InC~oduc~idn [Text] This book is the tal~ o� eh~ Zhitomi~ High~r Command Red Sanner ~adio~l~ctronic Air U~f~nse School i~n~ni I,~ninisC Komsomol and its ~lorious � pa~C which ~indg it~ rdot~ in the ye~~g af th~ Civil War, of Che school's ~e~iviti~g dw~in~ ehe ~trug~l~ tie build seGi~li~m in ~h~ USSR, ef ~h~ hiseori~ d~ed~ of its ~raduates d~rin~ the y~ar~ of severe tiests, of Che post-war d~velopment of one of the Sovi~t A~n?y's oidest forge~ o� of�fcer cadt~s. Ar~hi.vxl documents, memoirs, and matArial~ from school students ov~r many , ~ y~ars serv~d ng tt~~ basis for tihis book. ~he names of many prevfously unknown heroes and meritorious graduates of the school were discovered in - the process and numerous documents and photographs were collected. A C~mbat Glory Museum ha~ been set up at ~he sehool. When he visited tl~e : school in 1970, MSU i. I. Y~kubovskiy, t~SSR first d~puCy minist~r of defense, wrote the following in Che visiCor's r~gister= ..the valuable materials coll~ct~d in ~he school's Combat Glory Museum, constLVCtion of a memorial to th~ gradu~t~s who fell in baCei~ for th~ moCh~rland, and Che earth soaked _ with the blood of the troops from the hero-citfes Chat has been laid here with lov~, give witness to the fact Chat th~ scY,ool sacredly reveres the memnry of the heroic deeds of iCs graduates." Army Gen 5. M. Shtemenko, Nho graduated from the school in 1930, wrote= "with great saCisfactfon, emotion, and joy several years ago I visited my old school where I began my military path almosC 50 years ago. It was Chen called the Sevastopol' Mtiaircraft Artillery School. Much water has flowed over the dam since that time= nefther the ~qu ipment nor the peo ple are Che same, ~verything has changed just as our mo~heriand has changed unrecognizably during these yegrs. It is a joy and pleasuxe to recognize and see progress everywhere, including the growth and improvement of Che school. It noW trains first-class commanders aith an engineer's education Who knoW the complex , eq~aipment Co perfection, equipment Which we Were unable to even dream." 6~ith na prr.tense of having fully depicted the glorious history and combat Lraditions of the school, the author strived to Crace Che more ~mportant events in the chronicles of its military affairs from its day of birth until the present. 'The author expresses sincere appreciation to :taj Gen Arty Ye. Ye. Poluektov, chi~f of the school, Cols V. F. Burlachenka and F. V. I1'in, chiefs of the political section, Col M. M. Shashunov, former secretary of the school party committee, Bngr-Col p. A. Zyukanov, and Col B. P. Nabokov, deputy chiefs of ' the school, v. M. Plitenchuk= to the veterans of the school, and to its ~raduates ~rho provided assistance in the collection of materials linked aith the activities of the Zhitomir Red Banner School. io FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~oR o~~~ct~t, us~ ornY Gonelusion The Zhitomi~ ~ed Bann~~ Schdol has erained officer cadres for Ch~ Arm~d Forc~s for appsoximaCely 60 yea~s~ Iti has cov~red a glorious combat path durin~ this time. From ite aa118 came a large pleiade of military commandare Whc mad~ a~ignificant contributS.on to the d~velopm~nti of militi~ry sffai~~, ~~peciaily in th~ developm~nt and combat employm~nC of antiiaircrafti artiillery and of the SAM ~roops. Thousands ot the school'g students con~inue to s~rve in troop units and m~ny h~v~ become general~. And, reg~rdless of. whe~e a graduate of th~ srhooi serv~s, r~~ardless di the posC h~ occu pi~s, he aiw~ys with great warmth and sincerity recall~ his old school, which providpd him the cred~n- tials for the long snd difficult military 1ff~, Which indoctrinated in him love for the motherland and for the turbulent but honorable and interesting military prof~ssion. F'rom day to day, from year to year, the school'~ collective lives and labors. Cnming in to r~plac~ the graduates a~e nea youths Who have dedicat~d their lif~ to the difficult and responsible profession of officer. Great and responsible missions face Ch~ school at Che contemporary stage. Thes~ missions have been stipulaCed by the general policy of our Communist Party and th~ decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress. Being continually concerned about improving the defenaive capabflity of the Soviet state, the party is guided by the behests of the great Lenin. His words "any revolution is only worth something if it is able to defend itself" have become ~he true program of CPSU activities in the field of military organizational developtnent. And even if today ou r army possesses new more improved equipment than it did 50 plus ycars ago, even if the tactics for conducting battle have unrecognizably changed, the spirit of the glorious veterans, their paCriotism, courage, and military ability, their unforgeCtable deeds and feats performed for the ~lory for the beloved motherland, for the glory of the Combat Banner of the units ` [chast'] ahere the school's students serve live eternally in the hearts of their young heirs--the studenCs and officers of the 2hitomir Red Banner, tiho are prepared at any moment to come to the defense of the great conquesCs of OcCober. COPYRIGHT= Voyenizdat, 1977 786J CSO= 1801 ii FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ; FOR OFFICiAL USE OI~fLY ( . ; i . ; ; ~ ; ~ ' i ~ BOOK DISCUSSES METitODOLOGY OF MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COGNITION ~ Mo~cow METODOLOGIYA VOYENNO-NAUCHNOGO POZNANIYA in Rusaian 1977 pp 1, 2, ~ 429-432, 3-7, 8, 87, 128-129, 203-204, 310-311; 425-428 (Book edlted by Army Gen I. Ye. Shavrov, Co1 M. I. Galkin] ~ExcerpCs~ Title Page: Title: METODOLOGIYA VOYENNO~-NAUCHNOGO POZNANIYA (The MeChodology of Military-Scientific Cognition) Autliors: Army General I. Ye. Sha~~ror, Colonel M. I. Galkin, et al. ' Publigher: Voyennoye izdatel'stvo Miniater8tva Qborony SSSR Place and year of publication: Moscow, ~.977 Signed to Presa Date: 19 May 1977 ~ Number of Copies Published: 18,J00 _ Number of Pages: 432 Information on Authora: A group of authors of the General Staff Ac~de~y? of the Armed Forces USSR imeni � K. Ye. Voroshilov: Professor and Arnry General I. Ye. Shavrov; Honored Scientist of the RBFSR and Doctor of Military Sciences, Profesaor, Major _ General I. I. Anureyev; boctor of Military Sciences, Professor, Major General - N. I. Reut; Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Docent, Colonel V. K. Abramov; Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor, Colonel I. N. Vorob'yev; Doctor of ~ Philosophical Sciences, Professor, CGlonel M. I. Galkin; Doctor of Philoso- ; phical Sciences, DocenC, Colonel V. T. Login; professor, Colonel V. I. Morozov; Candidate of Military Sciences, Senior Scientific Fellow, Colonel I. V. Rybolovskiy; Candidate of Philosophical 5ciences, Docent, Colonel K. V. � Spirov. . 1~2 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE Oh'LY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , FOR OFFI~CIAL U5~ OI~fLY Mnot~tion The book di~clo~eg ~p~cial features in the ~mp].oyment o� MarxisC-Leniniet methodology in miLitary-ecieneific cognition which are determined by the epecific nature of war and the conditione Ear ite reflection in militatiy knowledge. The central place in the book 3~ occupied by an analyeig of the characterieti~ featiureg 3n the etudy of ineterial and epiritugl asp~cta of war, thelogicalfun~tiion~ of rhe laws and categor3es of dialectics in miLitiary- ~cientific coguition, the eseence of mi.l3tary prac~ice and ita role in im- proving military theory, and other important quesC3ong~ Th~ book also con- tain~ recommendations to increase the effecti.venees of mil~tary-ecientific - studieg. A critici~m of rh~ metihodological basea for bourgeois military concepts i~ provided. The work is intended for off3cer~, generals, and admirals of the Armed ~orcea and for all readera who are interested in the methodology o� scientific c~g- nieion. TABLE 0~ CONTENTS Page Yntroduerion 3 S~CTION I. THE ~SSENCE OF THE METHODOLOGY OF MILITAR'~t-SCIENTIFIC COGNITION Chapter I. Marxiam-Leninism--The Methodological Foundation ~f Military-Scientific Cognition 9 . 1. The concept of the methodology of military-ecientific cognition - 2. Objectivity and party spirit in military-acientific cognition 18 3. Marxist-Leninist philosophy--the theoretical basis for fiethods of military-scientific cognition 21 4. Criticism of the methodological bases of bourgeois military theory 30 Chapter II. The Content and 5pec3al Features of Military-Scientific Cognition 43 1. The essence and basic trends in military-scientific cognition - 2. The special feature~ of war as an abject of cognition and conditions for its reflection i:~ military-scientific knovledge 51 3. The level and basic featured of the contemporary stage of military-scientific knowledge and thefr effect on the process of military-scientific cognition 58 ~ FOR O~~ICIA[. tIS~ 0~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , , ~ FOR OF'~ICZAL USE nNLY _ , ~ ' i ~ Ch~ptar ~II. Th~ Cr~at3ve Nature o~ Mfii~~ry-Sciene~fic Cogn~.tion 68 1. Methodological baeee of m~li.eary-scient~fic creativ~.ty - ; 2. The creative nature of tha mil~i.tary-ec3entif3c reaearch procees 74 ~ 3. The come~nd~r'~ ~x~~r~,viey in a anmb~t gieuatiion and weys of ` molding ~.t 79 ~ S~CTION II. T:'3 BASIC PROBLEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COGNITION ' i Chapter IV. The Materialieti~c Approach ro an Underatsnding of War ~ and its Regular Lawa 88 ` 1. The struggle of mater3aliem and 3dealism in the development of military thought - ' 2. The ma~erialistiic approach to the etudy of war 101 Chape~r V. The Dialect~cs of the Cognition of Material and Spiritual Factors in War 108 ~ : 1.. M~~~rial ~nd $piritual factorg in war and their relationship.. - . 2. A materialistic approach to an underatanding of the relation- ship between man and technology in war 112 The effect of material and apiritual factora of war on the forme and methods for the conduct of military operations 119 ' SECTION III. TNE DtALECTICAL PATH OF MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COGNITION Chapter VI. M1litary Practice and its Role in Military-Scientific I Cognition 130 _ 1. The corter.t of military practice, its special featurea and ~ basic types - 2. The role of military practice in molding the thinking of command personnel and their combat skill 137 ~ 3. Military practic~ a3 a gnal and the basis of military- _ scientific cognition and development nf Soviet military science 142 ' Chapter VII. The Sensual and Logical A~pects of Military Scientific ; Cognition 154 ~ 1. Sensual cognition and its forms. Special fe~tures of sensual cognition in a combat situation - 2. Logical cognition and its form.s. The co~ander's thinking in a ~ combat situation 161 : 14 FOR 0~'FICIAI. tISE Ob2Y . . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY ~ ChapCar VIiZ. '~ruth ~.n M~lieary-3c~~nti~ic Cognition 179 1. Ob~ect~,ve truth of mili~ary-BCientific knowledge--the ~eosr imporeant condieion for succ~es in practical mil~tary - activity - Z. Special featur~s of rhe relarionehip of th~~relative and ehe ~b~oiut~ ob3~~e3~eiy trv~ ~~i~t~ry ~owiaage 186 ' 3. Military practice--the crieQrion of tYUth in military knowledge. 190 ~ 3ECTI~N IV. TH~ MLTHODOT.OGICAL FUNCTION OF D?ALECTICS IN MILITARY- SCIENTIFIC COONITION Chapter IX. Dialectice as ~.ogic and rhe Theory of Military-Scientific Cognition 205 1. Thg unity of dia].ectica, logic, and the thaory of cognition and its manife~tation in military-ecientific cognition - 2. 1'h~ comprehergivenes~ of examination of military process~~e 212 3. Cognition of military proceseeg in their change gnd development. 219 Chapter X. The Methodological Function of the Basic Lawa of Dialectica in Military-3cientific Cognition 229 1. The dieclosure of contradictione, their development, and methode of reaolution in the very essence of military proceesea. - 2. The unity of quanCitative and qualitative analysea in military- gcientific cognit3on 242 3. Dialectical negation in military-ecientific cognition, continuity in Che development of military eheory 256 ~ Chapter XI. Categorie~ of Dialectical Materialism as Reference Points of Military-$cientific Cognition 269 1. Gontent and form - 2. The ahole and the part 272 3. Eseence and phenomenon 277 ~ 4. General, epecial, individual 2g1 5. Cauae and effect 286 6. Necessity and chance 290 7. Poasibility and reality 294 Chapter XII. The Relationghip of Pormal ar.d Dialectical Logi~ in Military-Scientific Cognition 297 1. Formal logic and ita relationship with dialectical logic - 2. The laae of logical thinking and their role in military- acientific cognition 301 ~5 FOR OrFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 _ ~r ~OR OF~ZCIAL US~ Ai~fLY j 1' ~ i,, { 1 3ECTION V. FORMS AND M~THOD3 0~ DEYELOPMENT Ok' M?LITdRX-SGZFNTI~IC ~ ~ tQ~10WLED0E ' , Chepter XIII. ~orma of Developm~ne of Military-3c~enti~fic Knowledge, , Logical Sequence of the Reaearch procese 31~ Definiti~oe and formuX~tion o� a militiaryr-ecientiif3c problem - 2~ Discovery of facte of m~litary real3ty, their explanat~.on end gen~ral~,zation 317 3. Formulation and substantiatian of a~military-acientiific hypothesi~ 323 4. The conseruction of mil~ta~ey ehenry gnd determinaCion of ways for its practical realization 329 Chapeer XIV. Employmenc of Ganeral Scient~fic Meehoda in M3litary . Rsaearch 337 1. Observation and experim~aat - 2. Andlysie and synt~iesie 341 3. Co;aparis~n and generalization, ascent from the abaeract Co thF, concrete 344 ~ 4. Historical and logical methods in military-ecientific cognition 352 S. The method of ~xpert eatimates 358 6. SyPCema approach in atudies 362 Chapter XV. Mathematicgl Methods in Military~Scientific Study 372 1. Moet important fields for the employment of mathematical methoda in military affairs - 2. Employment of probability theory in military affairs 375 3. Employment of queueing theory in mtlitary affairs 384 4. Employment of mathec~atical programming in military af~airs 390 ' 5. Employment of game theory in military affaira 394 Chapter XVI. Special M~thode of Military-Scientific Study 398 , 1. Troop and experimental tactical exerciaes - 2. Command-post exercisea 404 3. The solution of tactical quickie proble~s, the conduct of field trips (reconnaissance) 414 4. Range and troop tests 419 Conclusion 425 ~6 FOR O~FICIAL USE Oh'LY . : _ ~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 . F0~ OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTRODUCTION , A characteristic feature of the contemporary era ie the unprecedentedly awift development of acience and ita increesing influence .on all aepects of the materigl and epiritual life of society. The r.o1e of science ia especial.~,y growing under socialism. It~ accelerated development is one o� the chief factors in the succe~eful accomplishment of tasks for commun~st con~truction. "�~�mhe sc~entific and technical revolution finds Che direction which meeta the inrereete of man and society only under the conditions of socialiem," stresses L. I. Brezhney in .the aummary report of the Central CommitCee CPSU to the 25th Party Congress. "In turn, the final tasks of the eoc~al revnlu- _ tion--the building of a comm?unist society-~can be accomplished only on the basis of the accelerated development of science and technology."* ScienCific and technical progress is also exerting decisive influence on all ' fields of military affaira, on all component elements of military arC-- strategy, operational art, and tacCice, on military organizational develop- ment and meaeures coaducted in the Armed Forces to maintain their high level of combat seadinesa, and on the methods for training and indoctrinating the troo~s. In strengthening the military might of our motherland, the Communist Party is constan*.ly guided by V. I. Lenin's instruct3ons to the effect that a modern army cannot be built without science and that it is impossible to control troops and attain victory in modern war without reliance on military-scientific ~ knowledge. The auperiority of Soviet military science and military art was one of tliesmost important conditions for the victory of the Soviet Armed Forces over fascism in the Great Patrioti.c War of 1941-1945. The contemporary period of military organizational devplopment is characterized by the heretofore.unprecedented intensity of renewin~ the mean:, o~ war, the appearance of qualitatively new types of weapons and equipment, and searches for thoge forms aad methods of strategic, operational, and tactical actions which no army of the world ever employed. New methods for the conduct af mili- tary operations and new ways to improve the organizational structure of the Armed Forces, meChods for their combat .training, and to increase combat readiness *"Material,y XXV s"yezda KPSS" (Materials of the 25th CPSU Congress], Moscow~ 1976, p. 47. 17 FOR 0~'FICIAL iISE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , ~Ott OFFICZAL US~ ONLY ~ . ' muet be ~found and eub~ti~nei~x~d th~or~t~.c~lly befor.Q becom~ng the properry o� military pr~ctice. A11 this. led to a sharp increase in ehe role of mi~ieary acience which has become a mo~t imporeane factor ~n tihe combati might of ehe ; armed forces, whil~ ~c~~nti~~.c control. of ehe tiroops is the decisive condi� ~ tion for tfie atCainment of viceory. i ~ Th~ proces~ of the continuous convergence of sci~ntif~.c: and prsctical activity by militgry persom~el now ~ccurring. The making of decis3ons for a battle ~ or ~p~ration, the organizatian of Gh~ cooperation of tihe troops and their sup- port, improvemenC of th~ �orms and methods for field, air, and aea training o� the personnel, and their ideological indoctr3naeion and psychological ' training are more ~nd more aesuming the nature of scien~ific activity and re- quiring the appllcation of research meChoda with necessary rel3ance on the 1~teat gchi~vement:s of science. Timely today as never before are Cha worda ' of V. I. Lenin to the effecC that "for us acience has not remained a dead leteer or a styl3sh phrase... so that sc~.ence actually became pgrt of our flesh and blood and wag fu11y and genuinely ~ransformed into a component el~ment df ovr wny of 1ife."* PoinCing to the aubstantial changes in the nature of pracCical acCivity under the influence of scientific and technical progress, L. Brezhnev noted in ` the summary report of the Central Committee CpSU to the 25th Party Congress: "The revolution in science and technology requires basic changes in the sCyle and methods of administrative activity, a decisive struggle against aluggish- ; ness and routinism, genuine respect for science, and the ability and desire Co congulC and take it into consideration."** This instruction also pertains completely to military ~ctivity. Without considering the achievemente of contemporary mil3tary science, success of all types af practice in the combat and political training of the Armed Forces' personnel is now impossible. The increase in the role of military science and intensification of its in-~ , fluence on all aspects of the practical activity of generals and officers a:~e now occurring simultaneously with an acceleration in the rates of its develop- ment, the change in the content of military-scientific knowledge itself, and complication of the process of miliCary-scientific cogniCion. Under these conditions, the question of increasing the effectiveness of military science arises with all urger~cy. It is called upon to provide the greatest results with the least expenditure of material resources and time and to solve the urgent problems of military affairs effectively. A mandatory condition for the effectiveness of military science, obtaining i results from military-scientific studies, and their rapid introducCion into ' the practice of military organizational development is the further elaboration of the methodology for military-scientific cognition and, on this basis, the improvement of general and special methods for the solution of theoretical and practical problems of military organizational development. ~ * ~ Lenin. V. I.~ "Polnoye sobraniye sochineniy" [Complete Works~, Vol 45, p 391. **"Materialy XXV s"yezda KPSS," p 48. 18 FOR OFFICIAL 1ISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OR 0~~'ICIAL U5~ ON~.~Y War i~ a~p~ci.a~. ob~~ct of cognition~ Algo ~p~cific gr~ the under ~ wh~.ah th~ d~v~lopmenti of mi~.itary theory occurs gnd deci~ions are mad~. Th~ contenC c~f contemporary mi~.~.eary science aleo has a substantial influence on Che proc~ss of military-scientific cognieion and the research m~thods which nre employed. Becauae of this,mil~.tary-gcientif~c cogniCion, theoret~cal weii es practical, is a apecific form of scientific cognition which differa substantially from other typ~s of cognitive activity. ThereW fore, the ~mployment ot the general propositions of Marxiet-Len~.nigt meehod- olagy in rhe developm~nt of m~.~itary-sciene~.fic knowledge has itg own pecuLigr- ities wh~:ch are refl~cted ~.n the content of the /methodology of military~ gcienCific cognition/ (3n bold�ace]. The eff~ctivenesa of military science is determined not anly by the depeh of elaborntion of the methodology �or milieary-sc3~ntific cognit3on, but also by ehe degree c?f its ggsimilation by milit~ry pereonn~l. The latter is esp~cially important gince now not only are and scienCific research instituti.ons taking part in r:iliCary-scienti�ic studies, but also m~.liCary digCricCS, ~11 operational and troop staffs, political organs, and virCually nll generals nnd officers rpgardlesa of ~he posts which th~y occupy. . Knnwl~dge of the m~thodol.ogy of milieary-scientific cogniCion and thp genergl and epecial research methods is now another decisive factor for the success- f.ul prgctic~l aativity of gll commanders, st~ff officerg, and political organs in controlling the troops in batCle, organizing combat and political Craining in the uniC~ and subunits~ and improving their combaC readiness. The Central Committee CPSU is constantly directing the leading scientific and military pereonnel toward Che maatery of Marxist-LeninisC methodology for the study of the phenomena of war, toward the creative soluCion of urgenC problema in military affairs, and toward the improvement of the Armed F'orces' combat capabilities. The book which is offered r.o the reader disclases the special feaCures in employing Marxiat-Leninist neChodology in the process of military-scientific cognition boCh in the develc?pment of military theory (theoretical m�litary cognition) as well as in thF commander's esCimate of the combat situation, adoption of the decision fo~ combat, ~rganization of cooperation and combat support, and the maintenance of constant high combat readiness of subunits, units, And large units (prnctical military cognition~. The central place in the work is occupied by an analysis of the characteristic features in the study of the mnterial and spiritual factors or war; the dis- closure of the essence of military practice and its role in improving military theory, the relationship of the sensual and logical aspects of co~nition, and empiric~l and theoretical knowledge; the disclosure of the logical function of the laws and categories of dialectics in mtlitary-scientific cognition and . the content of the forms and methods for development of military-scientific knowledge; and criticism of the methodological bases of bourgeois military theories. Special .~ttention was devoCed to questions of the commander's ~9 FOR 0~'FICIA[. L'SE Oti'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , F'OR 0~'~ICTAL U5~ ONLY ~ cr~aCivity ~.n a comb~t gituation ~s the mns.ti importi.~nt conditiion for the ~ aCCainment o� success in comb~e. The book containg spec~.Fic recommendationa ` for increaeing the ef~ectivenesa o� mi.litary-scientific studiea and the solu- ` tion of practical tasks by commandera~ politica]. organe, ~nd sta�fe in the _ procegs of the combat and political training oP the troops and their control ~ in a battle nnd operation. ; In wrieing the monogr~ph, rhe au~hors relied on the clasaical worka o� Marxism- Leniniam, the guidance documents of the CPSU, and the instruce3.ons of the Soviet MinisCer o� Defense on nombaC and politica~. Craining and military- sci~ntif~.c work in Che Armed Forces. They ue~.lized the experience of scien- ; tific gtud3es which has been accumulated among the troopa gnd in the military educational institutions. Uae was also made of published works such as, for example, "Marksizm-leninizm o voyne i armii" [Marxism-Leninism on War and the Army] (five ed~.t~.ons),"Meeodologicheskiye problemy voyennoy teorii i praktiki" ~ (MeChodological Prnblems of Military Theory and Practice] (two editiona), "Filosofskoye naslediye V~ I. 1.enina i problemy sovremennoy voyny" [The Philo- sophical Heritage of V. I. Len~.n and Problems of Contemporary War], ' "Mgrksistsko-leninskaya metodologiya voyennoy is~orii" [Marxist-Leninist Methodology of Military Kiatory], and others in which questions on th3s aub- ,~ect are examined to one degree or another. The hook is intended for generals, admirals, and officers of Che Armed Forces, ; students and cadets of military-educational instiCutions, and for all readers who are interested in the methodology of scientific cognition. . The group of authors expresses its sincere gratitude for valuable advice and assistance to Honored Scientist of the RSFSR, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, and Professor I. D. Andreyev, Colonel General A. G. Shurupov, Admiral A. T. Chabanenko, LieuCenant General I. S. Shiyan, Lieutenant General V. F. Mernov, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Ma3or General S. A. Tyushkevich, and Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Colonel V. A. Zubarev. ; SECTION I. THE ESSENCE OF THE METHODOLOGY OF MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COGNITION ~ The Marxist-Leninist methodology of scientific cognition equips military per- sonnel with an understanding of the essence, principles, and methods of cognitive activity and provides a scientifically substantiated approach to the study and solution of problems in military theory and practice. Its ; employment opens up the most expedient ways for military-scientific study and an analysis and evaluaCion of military events which have taken place. - It helps to consider the effect of various factors on the course of combat : operations and to disclose the reasons for victories and defeats in war. The complex and dynamic nature of the developn.znt of contemporary military affairs does not tolerate a stereotyped, mechanical approach to the solution . of theoretical and practical problems. Scientific methodology teaches us to see all ptienomena in their development and continuous change and in an in- ' separabl~ connection with specific conditions. It discloses the essence of 20 FOR OFFICI.~L L'SE Oh2Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~Ok OF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY crearive Chinking of mi1~.Cary pergonne~.~ ehe capnbillties and ways for scien-~ tific ~oresight of mi.1~.CarX eventa,, and Che r~la~ionehip b.etween the creative thoughC of people ~nd compuCex eechnology which ia used in miliCary affaira. The role of Marxis~C-Len~.nis~t methodology in the correct evaluation of bourgeois ~ m3.litary acience and digclosing its~ socio-political essence and react3onary ro1~ ~.s great. To know the protialile enemy means knowing not only his weapons, equipment, presumed methods for tlie initiation and conduct of war, serategy, gnd Cactice, but als~o the mebhodolog3cal bases for the cognit3on and pracCical acCivity of his military pera~onnel. SECTION II. THE BASIC PROB'LEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COGNITI01~ The basic problem of philosophy as an ideology and methodology of cognition is the problem o� the re~.ation of consciousness to being and of thoughC to m~trer. It~ firsC aspect consists of determining which is p~imary--the spiriC or nature, matter or consciousness. Materialistic philosophy recognizes matter and being as primary and, as secondary, consciouaness as the result of the influence of the ob~ectively existing External world on a sub3ect. Idealism accepts as primary Che idea and consciousness, considering them as the only reliable reality. Followingthis, a materialistic solution of a basic problem of philosophy by Marxism-Leninism is the initial methodological precondition for explaining the maCerial bases for th~ outbreak of war, the methods for its conduct, the ob3ective nature of the regular laws for their development, and the disclosure of the relationship of material and spiritual as well as objective and sub- ~ective f.actors in the development of military Cheory, in the aceomplishment of practical tasks of the combat and political training o� the troops, and in making a decision in the course of combat ope�rations. . The experience of military organizational development shows thaC realization of the methodological function for a materialistic solution of a basic problem in philosophy in military-scientific cogniCion is a task which is not only important but extremely complex. This is explained by the facC Chat in the processes of war the material and spiritual factors do not exist in isolation, in pure form, but are combined with each oCher in the most varied manner. , Furthermore, the ties between them in military activity are extremely flexible and have many levels and aspects and they may be manifested differently de- pending on the specific circumstances. AC the same Cime, only the consistent development of materialism in military-scientific cognition gives military personnel the capability not to permiC sub~ectivism in tt~e solution of theoretical and practical problems, in dir~..^ting the training of the troops, and in controlling them in battle. 21 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE 0:~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 I~'Olt U1~ FIC IAI. USG ONLY . ti i , SECTION Z~Z. THE DIAL~CTICAL ~'ATtI 0~ MILTTARY-SCIENTI~'IC COGNITION The paCh to truth is. complex gnd unique in its speci~ic manifestat~.on. The developmenC of military theory and the improvement of cogn3.tive capabilities o� commanders� and staff officers are also occurring in their spec3al ways. , Altihough many reasons, conditiona, and circumstances lie ati the basis of ; these procesges, the main one is� miliCary practice. Practica~. m~.litary ~ activity comprises the basis and ma~.n goal of mi~.itary-scien~ific aognition, se~ps fortih as the criCerion of truth in scientif ic knowledge, and serves as n true index of its effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary Co begin tihe diaJ.ectical path of military-scientific cognit3on w3th a d3sclosure of the ; cantent of military practice and an explanntion of its special features and the effecC of various types on rhe development of military science, the im- ~ . provement of military personnel's cognitive capabilities, and the molding of methods for Croop conCrol in peacetime and in baCtle. The reflection of the real processes o� war and the preparation of the country and the Armed Forces for it is the dialectical unity of sensual and rational cognition. On the basis of live contemplatiion, the commander obtains data ' on the external phenomena of battle, the combat situation, and the actions of . the troops. Abstract thought provides the opportunity Co disclose the essence of these heterogeneous processes and to establish the regular laws which form their basis. To make practical decisions, it is necessary to have knowledge of the regular laws of battle as well as of specific data on the situation which has actually developed in the course of it and the co~~diCion of friendly and enemy subunits. The special features of combat situaCLons and the con- ditions in which the development of military theory occurs determine certain specific features of sensual cognition and abstract thought of military personnel. The immediate goal of military-scientific cognition consists of obtaining objectively true knowledge which is necessary for the success of practical mil~tary activity. Truth itself is the dialectical unity of the absolute and the relative. The specific nature of military science as knowledge about futu:e war, ~ust as knowledge of a comoat situation, determines a certain complE~xity in obtaining the ob~ective truth and the special features of the relationship between relative and absolute elements in it. The dialectical path of military--scientific cognition reflec~s not only the general regular laws of the cognitive process, but also the specific nature of their manifestation in the development of military knowledge. It is inherent to the cognitive activity of military personnel at all stages of.the development of military affairs. Under contemporary conditions, this process has become considerably more com- plicated and acquired new, specific features. The significance of theoretical thinking of military personnel has increased and the receipt of empirical material which predetermines the development of military-scientific knowledge , has become more difficult. The revolution in military affairs caused the necessity for the development of fundamentally new theoretical views and 2~ FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE 0~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~Oit O~FiCiAL USIi Ot~LY conc~ptg, th~ truth of ah3~ch ie ia diffia.uie to ch~ck on thn bg~i~ of p~ace- etm~ military preeeice. Ali rhi~ r~quir~d ~ furth~r impYOVemene 3n th@ eriter3a of truth in militery th~ory. 'Th~ expignation of eh~ feaeur~s in the di~l~atice of d~vplopment of contemporary militsry-scieneiEic knowledg~ ie a, n~~~g~ary condition for incregsin~ the eff~ctiven~~g of mtlitary-acientifi~ seudi~e ~nd rh~ adoption of well-grounded d~cigions in the courge of practical militgr~� activiry. S~CTION IV. TNE METHODOtOGICAI. FUNCTION OF~ DYALECTIC3 IN MILITARY-9CI8NTIFIC GOGNI'TZON bial~ctical materia~iem ia the about the gen~ral C3e and intercondi- tionaiity of th:: phpnam~na nf reality; the moet complete and profound e~aching of dev~lopmene ahich i~ devoid of of bia~; teaching ~bout th~ r~lativiey of human kn~wl~dge which givea u~ Ch~ reflection nf perpetualiy developing mattex; and the gcience of the univergal laws of thQ mov~ment and d~velopment of nature, humnn goci~ty, end thou~ht. Neith~r a congi~t~nt mateYialistic underetanding _ of nature and soci~ty, nor logic ae a teeching ebout thought which graeps ob- ~ective truth, nor a gci~ntific theory of cognition are po~~ible withaut dial~cticg. 1'. Eng~i~ c~11ed diaiectic8 ou~ b~~t tool of labor. Und@r new hi~toricnl cor~uitione, V. I. Lenin characterized iC as th~ "living ~oul" of Marxiym. Uialectics hgs univeregl, g~neral s~gnificance, but its concreCe manifestaCion depends on the apecific nature of one or anot~~r field of ob~ective reality. In pointing out the characteristic featurea af th~ dialectice and logic of "Capital" by K. Marx, V. I. Lenin etreased that "the dialectics of a bourgeois society is only a apecial case of dialectics for Marx."* Wh~n F. Engele wrote his note~a on the dialectics of nature, he had in m~d not the special dialectics ~ of nature but namely the epecific feature of the dialecticg of dev~lopment of natural processes. The epecial featurea in the manifestation of dialectics in one field or another of ob~ective r~glity aiso deteratin~ the apecific n~ture of its employment in Che procese of cognition. 7'he specific features of wgr also determine a number of peculiarities which characterize the dialectica of its ties and relations, functioning, and de- velopment. We can speak completely about the dialectice of war as a special case of dialectics. Thie specific nature of the dialectica of uar also causes thc special fratures of its cognition in a theoreCical plgne as We11 as in the courae of accomplishing practical tasks. Dialectical analysis of Che proce~ges of war alaays played an tmportant role in th~ development of milicary-scientific knowledge but it ig especially necesHary now when old th~ories are collapging und~r the influence of acien- tific ~nd technical progress, a decisive reevaluation of iten~ of importance is taking place, and a requirement for searchee for new militery-theoretical concepts is felt with special acuteness in military art. The guccesgfu~ *Lenin. V. I.. "Polnoye sobraniye sochineniy.' Vol 29, p 318. 23 FOR O~FICIAL U5~ 01'LY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , Foc~ o~~F~ctni, us~ orn.Y ' ' ~ccdmpii~hm~ne ~f eh@~~ t;~~.k~ i.~ impo~~ibl~ without eh~ maBeery of dialectical mac~riali~m by miiitsry p~r~onn~1 and their ~bility to ~mpioy iti ~n ehe ~ccomp- : li~hm~nt of th~oreti.cAL and practical ta~kg. T1~~ mnatery? of dial~ctica~ materiali~m by military p@raonnel and development of thc 8bil~ty ta employ it ~n ~he coura~ of cogn~t3ve and praceica! military ~ctivity i~ g,~ing1~~ in~~par~bly ine~r~d~neeeed prae~~~~ Ta ehink diale~tical- iy m~nne thinking in accordance with the laws of ob~ect~ve r~aliey. 3uch�tihink- ing enn be d~veloped 3n the proee~~ of co~n~.tion and pracei�~ by the trial and error m~thod. Th~ purpoge of thp con$ciou~ ma~tery of dialeceic9 here also eon~i~~g of r~ducing thi~ p~th ~nd forming the iog~c of the thinking proceas which permi~a avoid~ng ~rrors in the accompli9hmene of theoretical and prac- tical t~sks. Th~ ~ccompli~hm~nt nf thi~ task i~ Qap~c~ably neceasary at mil~tatry ~ffair~' cont~mporery gtag~ of d~velopment. This is d~termin~d by the increase in eh~ inrerconnection of all aep~ct~ of w~r, the expaneioa of its inCeraction wi~h nll formg nf ~oci~~y'~ lif~, ~nd th~ rap~d qual3tetive changes which are occurring in the d~velopm~nt of the materidl and technical meane of war. ~ Under th~se conditiong, only ~cientific dialectical tihought provides the op- rortunity to become oriented in a~ituation quickly~ to perceive what is new ! in good t~me, to discov~r trends in development, to foreaee the course of f~rthComing ev~fl and to ineroduce ~H~ ~eh~.evement~ of military science e:fecCively intn the prgctice of training the Armed Forces. SEC'fIUN V. FORMS AND METNODS OF DEVELOPMEN~ OF MILITARY-SCIENTII~IC KNOWLEDCL 5cipnce move$ in n constant contradiction betaeen an inexhaustible wealth of , . propertiea, tiee~ and r~lationa of the ob~ect which 3t studies and the degree ~ of their reproduction in Che system of theoretical knoaledge. At the conCem- ' porary stage of so~iety's development, military science is one of the moat mobile sciences. This feature is caused not only by the extreme variety of tiea and relations of the military reality reflected in it, but also by the rnpid retes of its development in connec,tion with the dynamic reproduction of the material and technical m~ans of war. The development and improvement nf military-scientific knowledge and military theory ar~ accompliahed in the course of ~cientific reaearch activity ~f military personnel. The increase in the rnle of ~nilitary science and military- cheoretical knowledge with necessity requires an increase in the effectiveness of gci~ntific investigations and the most rapid introduction of their results " into the practice of the Armed Forces. ; As t~egards its content, at the contemporary stage of development of military affairs military-scientific study is one of the most complex typ~es of creative activity. M~ndatory conditions for its success are a scientific world outlook, Marxist-Leninist methodology, creative ability~ intuition, dialectical flexi- bility in the thinking of military personnEl, and their profound knowledge of military science and the prospects for the development of military affairs. 24 FOtt OFFICIAI. USE OSLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , ~OR 0~'F~CIAL US~ AI~Y The d~v~iopm~nt of ~ci~nc~ i~ e cre~Giv~ proe~~~, ir~ ~nrichm~nt wieh n~w knoaledg~ wh3ch n~v~r ~r3~~s ~udd~nly nr, wh~~ ~.g mor~~ in compl~t~d ~orm. , The receipC of n~w knowi~dge i~ not a aimultaneou~ aet. Ir i~ a complex procese which h~s a certain logic~l sequenc~ corr~~ponding ro the progreaeive nature of ehe dev~~opment in rhe forms of ecientif3c knowiedge. In turn, ~grh of thQm alen has ire own logic of development. The logic vf scienttlic inv~~tiga~ion i~ a logical eequence of research activity, the observance of ' which should ~n~ure th~ mo~t ~ffective ~olution of a ecientific problem. 'iM~ forn~ for ehe e~tablishment of new knowiedge ar~: ~cientif~.c problem, scieneific fact, hypoth~s~.s, and theory. The~.r d~v~lopmene and en- richm~nt also d~termin~ the logical aequence of the proce~s for military- ~ gCi~ntific etudy: definition and formulat3on of the milit~ry-gcienCi�ic prob- lem; diecov~ry of the fact~ of military reality, their explanation and gener- a1lz~eion; formulat3on and eubstantiation of a military-ecientific hypothegig; conerruction of a military theory and determination of w~y~ for itA pr~ctical r~~lization. The observance of this ~equ~nc~ atCaches hgrmony and purpogeful- ne~~ Eo regearch ~cCivity. Re~earch ~~ctivity requires the employment of not only th~ general dialectical- mgterialisCic method, but also special general-scientific m~rhods to obtain ~nd accumular~ empirical material, its theoretical generalization, ~nd the use of $pecial me~hode which are determined by the specific nature of military . science's development. - Military per~onnel's knowledge of the logical g~quence of res~arch activity and the magtery of inethoda of gcientific invegtigation are on~ of the most - important prerequisites for th~ successful development of military science. ~ CONCLU5ION A considerable complication of the process of military-scientific cognition and the development and improvement of military theory is presenCly taking place. Military theory as the basis of posgible combat activity can fulfill iCs predesCination if it reflects correctly the objective regular laws of war and diecloses the trends in the development of military affairs. Objective knowledge of military processes in the cours~ of military operations is also a most important prerequisitQ for the commander's adoption of optimum decisions. The acceleration of rates of development of military-scientific knowledge, thp increbse in the significance of the solution of basic and spplied problems of militnry science, and the specific nature of the correlation between military theory and practice with necessity require not only further improvement of the traditional methods of military-scientific research, but also the development of new nnes whose employment would provide the opportunity to achieve the greatest results with the least expenditures of inen, equipment, and time. ~ 5uccess in the uccomplishment of this task depends greatly on the methodologi- cal arsenal oE the military personnel. 25 FOR O~f ICIAL L'SE ~\'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 , Fd~t ~~~ICtAI, U~~ ONI,Y . ~ ; ; An~ly~i~ of ~h~ merhodoiogy of mi~.i,tary-~ei~neific cognit~.on ~nd 3te Aigni- f~,canep in the dev~lopm~n~ of mii3,tarX ~c3~nrific kaowiedge gho~a the necea- ; ~ity Eor a~ureher elaboration of inerhodolo~3c~1 probl~ms ~,n mil~,tary eci~nce ; on th~ basi~ of Che contemporary achi~vement~ o� Marxi~ti-Leninist philosophy end ehe lev~l of m~lltary-~ci.entific knowledge winc ~onsideration of the ; ~perifir n~tur~ ~f th~ir i~prov~m~ne. ~ Th~ ~tudy conducted by the authora provided rhe opportuniey not only to ~Qt ; forth the contiene of ~h~ bases of inethodology ~or military-~cientif~c cogni- tion, but also to di~close tho~e prob].em~ rhe ~olut3on of which wi11 con- ; tribuCe to an incr~~s~ ~n the effect~.vene~~ of Che cognitiv~ aceiviey of generals and officere. ; The ptioblems which w~re put forward by the inv~gCig~Cors in Che couree of soLving variou~ ecienttfic tasks are not eomething ~xternal in relatiion to . the work which Chey accompliehed. The value of an investi~arive work is de- t~rmine~i not only by the problem~ which are solved in it, bur also by the ; degree to which it dir~ct~ scientif~.c investigation toward the solution of new problems. The party teach~s ug consCanrly to see unreaolv~d problema and � to concentr~t~ our atC~ntion on their disclosure and elgboration. Th~ increase in the eignificance of res~arch activity by military personnel and it~ continuous complication require a comprehensive analysis o� the . proces~ of military-scientific research in irs complete form--from the defini- tion of the scientific problem to the introduction of the results of its solu- tion into the practice of the troops' combat training and the iecrease in their combat readinees. Creat experience in scientific research work has now been accumulated. There- fore, an urgent necessity exists for its generalization and propagation. The successful accomplishment of this task will be furthered by the elaboration of special methodological problems in scientific research which reflect the special features of the contemporary stage of military-scientific knowledge. Ti~~ conversion af military scfetice into e baaic scier�ce signifies that one of ~ the most important directions in military-scientific study ie the analysis of the basic laws of war, disclosure of their mechanism for operation, and the revealing of the forms for their manifestation in various types of contemporary wars. For this, there is a requirement for the thorough working out of such methodnlogical problems as the correlation of the ob3ective laws of war and the laws of military science, Che essence of the mechanism for the operation of a law, the effect of the requirements of the ob~ective laws of war on the ~ practical activity of the Armed Forces, and so forth. The combination of the basic and applied levels of knowledg~ in the content . of military science engenders a number of new methodological problems such as establishing the difference in the methods for obtaining them and the direction of theoretical knowledge's influence on applied elaborations. 26 FOR OFFICIAI. L'5E 01'LY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 FOR ~FF~CiAL tlSE ANI,Y ~ ~ Th~ incre~~~ in eh~ ~igni.fic~nc~ of foY~~i~ht in eh~ d~v~iopm~ne of ~rm~m~nE~ and th~ m~~hnd~ of waging war i~ cau~in~ th@ nec~~~iey for ~~ureh~r improv~- ment in eh~ m~thod~.for for~ea~ting, tti~ di~~io~ur~ oE eh~ corr~iaeion of quantit~e3v~ and quaiie~tiv~ an~lyei~ ~n the forQC~~ting precQ88, and the ~~tabli~hmene of c~pabilitiee to for~c~~e ~h~ futur~. The d~~ree of ~ff~ctiv~ne~s o� miiitary=sci~nt3fic ~tudi~~ d@pend~ gre~~ly = on eh~ cr~aeiv~ e~p~bilieie~ of th~ r~g~~reh p~r~onn~i. Co~~equ~nC~y, the cl~rific~tioa of eh~ meahanism for cr~et~ve ~ci~nt~fic ac~ivity and w~ys for th~ moiding ef the crea~3ve thought of g~nerai~ and oEfi.c~r~ 3~ one of the mn~t import~nt m~thodol~gical p~oblem~ r~quiring ~olueion. The cantro~ of troop~ in b~te1~ r~quir~~ that eomm~nd~rg and gt~ff offie~r~ have ~pecific cognitivp capabilities. 'i'hi~ circum~tane~ det~rminee th~ nec~~- ~ity for eh~ working out of two ina~perably ~nt~rconnect~d meehodoiogicai prabl~mg: th~ thinking logic of the commander in ehe coUr~e of making an ~sti.mat~ ~f the gituatidn and making ~ d~ci~~on; aad ehe pgycho~ogy of th~ thinking proce~~ ie a d~ng~rou~ ~nd guddenly ~hanging ~~~u~~ion. 'I'he eiaboration nf u m~thodoio~y of military-~cieneific eogn~.tion may hav~ a gubst~ntinl ~ffect on incr~asing th~ ~ffectiv~n~9~ nf regegrch activity only ~n the ca~e where miliCary personnel gre maatering it. 2t should be ~aid th~t cnnaid~rable work has been accomplish~d in thi~ dir~ctinn, eapecially recently. Mor~e works on various problems in the logic and m~thodology of military-ecientific cognition have begun to be published on the p~g~s of our military presa. It would be degirable to devote more attention to this qu~estion. This p~rtaina especially to the necegsity for publishing ~+orkg on increasing the ~ffective- ness of military science and the re~vlts of military-gcientific studies, and - to the broad exchange of work ~xp~rience in this direction. The study of the logic and methodology of scientific cognition and the methods for the accoaip- lishment of research tasks must become a component pgrt of higher military � education. The improvement of the system for training and indoctrinating military personnel is now being accomplished in the direction of strength~ning the reseaYCh ~nd cre~tive element and ~xcluding the molding of st~reotyped, unori~inal thinking. Truining is not only nnd not go much the memorizir~g of r~ady ltnoal~dg~ g~ it is dn independent apprnach to the assimilation of the material being studied. Training is, first of all, the malding of creative thought on the b~gis of knowledge which has been obtained. Td teach mean~ to giv~ kn;.wl~dge and to develop the trainees ability for its improvement as well as to shape the investigator's skills. 'fhe socialist nature of our system and the Armed Forces, thc leadin~ role of the CPSU~ a dialectical-materialistic world outlook, and a scientific 27 FOR O~FtCIAL L'S~ 0\'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 r � I ~AR OFFiCIAL U9~ ONLY ~ . i ~ methodoiogy ~r~ creat~ng ~1~ n8c~eea~y pr~condition~ �or th~ eucn~~~fu1 ~ accompli~hm~nt of taakg ~n m3litary-~c~.eneific cognieion end ~or ~ncr8~~- ; ing ehe effacti~,venese of milieeYy ecience as we11 aa ehe quel~ty of m~i~tary- ~ 4 �cientific ~eudi~e. i COPYRIQt~Ts Voyeni~d8e, 197'~ ~ i 6367 CSO: 1801 ' ~ ; , ~ ; ; ~ 28 FOR OF'FICIAL USE 0~'LY = , . ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 FOR ~~FiGiAL UStE ONLY ; BOOK DE3CRIBE3 ARMY OPERATIONS IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR Moecow ARfi~Y3KIYE OPBRATSZI in Rueeian i977, pp i, 2, 255, 253-254, 3-5, 252 [Sook edie~d by Army Gen A. I. R~dziyevakiy~ ~Exc~rpts~ Tit1e Page: Tit~e: ARMSYSKIYE OPBRATSiI (Army Operat~one. 8xamplee from the Experienc~ of the Great Patriotic War) Author: Army G~neral A. I. Radz~yev~kiy, editor Publieher: Voyennoye iadatel's~vo Ministerstva Oborony 33SR P1ace and year of publication: Moscow 19~7 Signed to Prese Date: 22 August 1977 Number of Copi~~ Publiehed: 20,000 Number of Pages: 255 Information on Authors: Authors: Lieutenant General U. K. Slepenkov; Colonels: V. V. Chervonobab, G. I. Carbuz, B. A. Kiselev, N. N. Loginov, Ye. A. Bryuzgin, V. I. Levykh, Yu. V. Ueovich, M. G. Gushchin, Z. Ye. Gudym, I. I. Pivovar, V. G. Antipin, A. M. Sazanov, P. D. Sverdlov, Ye. A. Brynskikh, R. M. Portugal'skiy, B. P. ~rolov, Ye. P. Milenin, A. M. Suprunenko, V. S. Kirilenko [deceased], F. F. topatin, G. V. Luzgin, A. A. Romanov, V. P. Khrabrov, V. I. Starostin, V. I. Chernougov; Captain lst Rank V. I. Pchelkin; Lieutenant Colonels: P. P. Ivanov, V. I. Abaturov, A. A. Popov, N. M. Romanichev. Mnotation The book presents the most instructive examples which disclose the combat composition, operationgl formation~ selection of the direction for the main effort, employment of the combat arms, aupport of combat operations, and other important questions concerning offensive operations of combined-arms armies. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE Ob'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 _ ` k - ~ ~'Ott 8~'~ICIAL USE ONLY : I ' i Exampl~~ aF d~funaive o~~rae3.on~ ar~ ua~d to ex~m3ne th~3r duraCion, m~thods for ae~uming th~ defen~ive, atructure of the defene~a, organ~zaeion of e~ti- ~ tank defense~ m~neuver, and other elemen~a of the prapaYation and conduct nf ! operaeione. ~ i Th~ boak i~ int~nded far officer~ and ~en~r~1~ w~ll far ~tud~n~a and cader~ ~n higher miZ~.tary educational in~Citutions. ' TABLE OF CONTENTS ! ~ i Page ; : ~ FOREWORD 3 ~ ; Ghaptar 1. ~ i OFFEN3IVE OPER4TION 6 L. CombaC composition of the combin~d-arms army 7 ; 2. Scope of army offenaive operations 9 ~ 3. Work methods of the army commander and eta�f when making ' the decision for an operation and assigning miaeions to the troopg il ; 4. Selection of the direction for the main effort and the maseing of inen and equipment 16 5. Organization of cooperation and control 23 ' 6. Operational formation of the army 30 ' 7. Planning the employment of Che combat arms and aviation ie the offensive 33 8. Preparation of the departure area for the attack and the procedure for its occupation by the troopa 45 , 9. Breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense 49 10. Commitment and combat of the second echelons and the army mobile groups 61 , 11. Repelling eneury counterattacks 71 ; 12. Completion of the enemy's destruction by the 13th Army in ~ the course of the Chernigovako-Pripyat' operation of 26 August - 30 September 1943 79 13. Pursuit of the enemy 83 14. Meeting engagement 89 15. Assaule crossing of water obstacles 93 ; 16. Forward detachments in offensive operations 98 i 17. Employment of airborne assaults 103 ' ~ 18. Sea assault landing operations 105 19. Combat operations at night 111 20. The capture of large cities 116 21. Attack in the mountains 122 ~ 22. Attack along a seacoast 135 23. Employment of smoke. Some problems in operational camouflage and concealment 139 30 FOR OFFICI,~L IISE ONLY ; ~ d ~ ,i . . . . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 FOR OFFICIAL U56 ONLY Chapter 2 DEFEN5IVE OPERATION 154 24. Combat compoeition o~ the army and indicators of a defeneive oparation 156 25. Aesumption of the defense by the combined-arma army 159 26. Struceure of the army's defenae 166 27. Organization of ehe antitank defense 170 28. Masaing of inen and equipment on direction of expected enemy blowe in army operationa 173 29. F3ght3ng the enemy on the approachea to the defense 1.76 ~ 30. Conduct of the counterpreparat3on 178 31. 3trike of enemy troops in front of the forward edge of the battie area [FEBA] 181 32. Fighting for the main (�irst) de�ensive zone 184 33. Maneuver of inen and equipment in the tactical depth of the defenee 188 34. Shifting the main ~ffort Co a new direction in the course of an operaCion 193 35. Launchin~ counterattacks 197 36. Arary combat operations in encirclement and on breaking out of encirclement 204 37. Defense of a large city 213 38. Defense of water obetacles 221 39. Defense in the mountains 224 40. Defenae in the Polar Region 228 Chapter 3 REDEPLOYMENT OF FO1tCES 236 - 41. Redeploymentof the28th Arnry from the Brest region to the Muriampol' region - 42. Redeploymentof the 56th Army in preparing the Berlin operation 240 43. Redeploymentof the 28th Arany in the Zagan area 244 44. Redeployment of the 8th Army of the Leningrad Front from Oranienbaum to Leningrad 247 31 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE ONLY $ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 - FOR a~~IC~AL US~ ONLY f~ FOR~WORD The exploit of ~he Soviet people in the Great Patriotiic War ie immortal. It 11ves and wi11 11ve forever in the gratefui memory of tihe peoples who were saved from the brown plague of fascism. 1'he Soviet people, who logt more than 20 million l~.vea o� their ciCizens in ` Che struggle against fascism, know whgt war is and the innumerable disastiers which it brings Co people. Nor can our people forget tihae after the end o� Wor1d War II the fires of war repe~tedly blazed in As~a, in Africa, in the Near East, and in Latin America. The party and the Soviet government con- . stantly remember thia and gre ateadily implementing the beheste of V. I. Lenin concerning the strengthening of the combat might o� our motherland's Armed Forces. "No one should have any doubt," the General SecreCary of the ` Central Committee CPSU, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, pointed out at the 25th ~ Congress of the CPSU, "that our party will do everythiag so that henceforth, ~ too, the glorious Armed Forces of the Soviet Union will havQ all the necessarq + means for the accomplishment of their imporCant mieaion--to be the guardian of the Soviet people's peaceful labor and the bulwark of universal peace."* . In rhe years of World War II, the armies of the warring states received ~ considerable experience in the conduct of operations, campaigna, and the ~ar , as o whol~. Especially great experience was accumulated in t;ie years of the Great YatrioCic War by the Soviet Armed Forces which conducted their opera- tions under the most varied conditions. Many of the operations which were conducted became cla~sics oE miliCary art and~ despi.te the fact that more than 30 years have passed since the end of the ~aar and military art has marched ' far forward, the experience of World War II even now is one of the most im- portant sources for elaborating contemporary military theory and for training military personnel. This experience must be used; one must lc~arn to delve ' into the depth of the phenomena which occur in military affairs and make bold- ' er use of the conclusions of science in his activiCy. In order to employ the experience of the GreaC Patriotic War in the accomplishment~of practical tasks now, it is necessary to make an especi~.lly attentive and careful selection ~ Brezhnev~ L. I. "Otchet Tsentral'nogo Komiteta IQ~SS i ocherednyye zadachi _ partii v oblasti vnutrenney i vneshnev politiki" Report of the Central Com- � - mittee CPSU and the Immediate Tasks of the Parr.y n the Field of Domestic and Foreign PolicyJ. Moscow, Politizdat, 1976, p 100. 32 ~ FOR OFFICI~?L tI5E Oh'LY . -br,. , , ~ . ~ ~ , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OIt O~FICIAL USE ONLY of wh~t hae noC losti ~p~eif~.e v~~ue for ehe mi.~it~ry ~re of ou~ tiime and permit~ ue Cn ~xtract l~~~on~ ~or Ch~ fu~u~e. Our victdry 3~ naGural beceuge tihe ~ceions of the Armed Forces undar Che 1~nd~rehip of tha party w~re ~upported by th~ enrire economic migh~ of the Sovi~r gt~Ce~ IC wae a v~ct~ry of rh~ Sovi~e ~aondmi,~ ~y~Cem g~ g whnl~ gnd th~ w~r ~conomy in part3cular. Th~ SovieC gy~rem provided Che be~e form~ for orgenixing the economy noe only for th~ accomplishment of naeional econam~.c t~~k~ i.n peacet~me, but ~lso for th~ mobil3z~Cion of a].1 the economic cap~- - bilities of the country in ehe period of war. Overcoming Che colo~sai diffi- cult~~s of the war year~, the Sov3at economy gupplied tihe front wiCh ev~ry- thing neces~ary for v~.ctory--we~pon~ ~nd ~mmunit~on, Eood and uniforma. During the years of the Gregt Patri.otic War, Soviet indugery produced 137,000 airplgne~, 104,OOb tankg and self-propelled ~rtiillery mounta, and 488,000 guns --mor~ of the~e typeg of weapons and combat equipment than wag produced 3n f~~ci~r Cermany.* The Sovinr economy noe nnly made up the combat 1ogg~s in ~quipmenti and w~apong, but it al~o seeadily increased the retes of output of miliCary product~.nn. It wgg primgrily this which engured the guccess in ehe of the Soviet ~ Army fn ~he years of th~ Gre~t Pgtriotic War. In our time, when the cnngtant efforC~ of the Connnunist PaYty and the Soviet geate are direcCed toward the gtrengthening o� peace, toward curbing the armg rnce, and tnward strengthening positions of goci~ligm and of all forcea which are stepping forCh for the freedom of peoples and social progress and for the mutually advantageoug collaboration of a11 states, we should not forget, ae wa~ pninted out by member of the Politburo of the Central Committee CPSU and Minister of Defense of the USSR, Marshal of the Soviet Union D. F. Uatinov, in his congratulations to the Military Academy imeni M. V. Frunze in connection with the graduation of its students, that the reactionary circles of the capitaliat countries are trying to discredit the policy of peaceful coexistence, ~re continuing the arms race, and are interfering itt the internal affairs of other peoples. This obliges the socialist countriea to keep their armed forceg in constnnt combr~t readiness. The goal of the work, "Armeygkiye operatsii," is to show by means of specific examples what is most instructive in the organization and conduct of army operations in the last war. The first chapter of the work presents examples from the offet~aive operations ` of the armies which opernted in the direction of front main effnrts. As a rule, thcse armies had a considerably gregter reinforcement by artillery and especially by tank and mechanized large units. The prepararion of offensive operations discloses the content, procedure, and work methods of army commanders * See: "Istoriya Ko~mnuni~ticheskoy partii Sovetskogo Soyuza" [History of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionJ. Vol 5, book 1, p 644. 3~ FOEt 4~FICtAL L'S~ 0\Ll' _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014420-7 ~OR O~FICIAL US~; ONLY and the~r ~CA�f~ ~nd Ch~ ch~.efg of eh~ enmbat ~rmg ~nd ~p~ei~1 ~roops in the matter of organizing rhe coop~rgrion of the combat arm~. The are o� organiz- ing control and cooperation ie ehown primar~.~.y ~n ibs rigid centrali.zaC~.on i~ combined with tihe init~ative and creativitiy of subordinate commandere ~nd ~C~f�~, nonrrete definition of mies~.ona, the~.r peraietent accompl.ishment, and the direct~leadership of the army commander (commander) and chi~fg gr a11 echelons gs Weii as eheir staffg closer to the troops. ~ The gecond Ch~pter seCs �orth in deCail tihe defense of our troope under various conditions gga~nat super~.or enemy tank and motorized infantry �orcea. Its bgsis wes the of art~llery and tanka in combinaCion with engineer obetac- le~, the stubborn retention of occup~.ed poaitiuns, and the broad maneuver of men and equipment ro threatened directione. Enemy ~anks were the moat dan- gerous targQta on thP battlefield. The difficulty in combating them, self- propelled ~rtillery, infantry combat vehiclea, armored personnel carriers, and ather grmored targetg 3a increasing ~.mmeasurably under contemporary con- ditions. CombaCing enemy armored ob~eeti~ will be dif�icult gnd strained and � will be one of Che most important missions of the troopa in a battle and opera- tion. A11 large uniCs and unita of the Soviee Army must be ready for i~. Thc third chapCer is devoted to the redeployment of eroops. Concluding Paragraph By now, decadeg arP separating us from that historic day ~f 8 May 1945 when, in the Berlin suburb of Karlshorst, representatives of the German high com- mand signed the act of unconditional surrender oF fascist Germany's armed ~ forces. During this time, tremendous sociu-political and economic ahifta occurred in the world which changed the di3position of forces in Che interna- tional arena in a fundamental manner. Postwar scientific and technical prb- gress changed the face of ehe armed forces of the world's main states. The changes in the means for the conduct of war entailed ~ust as considerable changes in the organiz~tion of armed forces and in the methods and forms for the conduct of armed conflict. At the same time, contemporary military art cannot develop wiChout considering the experience of the last war. The con- temporary propositions of Soviet military science in the field of the armed forcea' organizational development, the development of military theory, and the training and indoctrination of :he troops depend to a considerable degree on the richesC historic experience. The combat experience which was acquired by the Soviet Armed Forces in World War II is the inestimable wealth of our people. Its profound study will contribute to the development of the military horizon of the Soviet Army's officers and generals. COPYRIGHT: Voyenizdat, 1977 6367 CSO: 1801 ~ 34 FOIt OFFICI.~1[. USE O~TLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010020-7