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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000'1000'10030-6 ~ ~ ~ ~ - \ i6 JANUARY i979 - * i OF i , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JpI?S L/8223 16 January 1979 ~ TRAi~SLATIONS ON LATIN AME~tICA CFOUO 2/79) ~ . ~ U. S. JOONi' PUBLICATIO~NS RESEARCH SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 Nd7.'L' J~'~5 publicaCiong cnnr~~in in~drm~Cion ptim~rily from ~or~ign n~wspapery, pcriodicals and books, buC ~lso from n~wg ~g~ncy tr~ngmissions ~nd bro~dc~sC~. MttC~rittls �rom ~nreign-l~nguag~ gources are Cr~nslatecl; rtiuse ~rcm Cngligh-l~nguug~ gources ~re Cr~ngcrib~d or reprineed, wirh rh~ nriginal phr~ging ttnd deh~r eharac~erigei~g r~C~ined, Headlineg, cdiCorinl reporeg, ~nd maC~ri~l enclosed in br~ckees (J Mre supplied by Jptt5~ Prdcegging indin~tors SUCI1 ~s (T~xC~ or ~Exc~rpr.) in thp Firgr line of ~~ch iCem, dr fdllnwing Chp last line o~ ~ brief, indicat~ how ehc original informaCinn w~s processed, W'here nn processing indicnCor is given, Che infor- mneion was summarized or exrracted. Unfamiltar n~mes render~d phon~Cicall,y or er~nsliCer~ted are enclosed in purenCheses. Words or n~mes preceded by ~ queg- eion mark ~nd enclnsed in p~renthegeg were nnt clear in ehe original bue h~ve beett supplied nsappropriaCe in context. Other unatCribuCed par.entheCical nores within the body of an iCem origin~Ce wiCh the source. Times wiChin irems.gre as given by source, The contents of this publication in no way represenC ehe poli- cies, views nr aCtieudey of the U.S. GovernmenC. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE TNAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 OIpLIOGRAPNIC DAYA i. Hepun Na, 2. Ite~ipient'~ Aece9~iun Na. SM~BT Jt~ks t,/ 8223 ~ t e�n , u tu e 5~ t~epun a~tr~~ TMN,Si,A'CInN5 dN LATrN ~rt[;ItICA~ (I~'OtJO 2/79) ~n ~x 1979 6~ r. AutAor(~) 8. F?erfoeroing Orgrnizrtlon kept, No. 9. Petlotroia~ Otsrai:~efon N~me ~nd Addte~~ 10, i~}oje~t/T~ek/Wotl~ Ueit No, .loinC Publications Research S~rvice 1000 North Clabe Rnad Cantt~et/Gr~nt No. ArlingCOn, Virgini~ 22201 tZ Spoa~orin~ Otau~I:atioo ~ame ~od Addtesr 13. Type oE Itepo~t ~ pe~iod Coveted As above t~. 1S. Supplemeoe~ry Nae� 16, unec~ ~ The aerial report coneains nrCiclea on political and sociological developmenCs in major areas o� Latin America, as reporred primarily from LaCin American newspapers and periodicals. IC also includes information on ma3or segmenCs of Latin American economy, geography, culture, and eChnography, . Key pad~ and Daument Ae~lriia. 17a De~ceiptors Political Science Tnter-American Affairs Guyana Sociology ~Argentina Haiti Economics Barbados X Honduras Culture Bolivia Jamaica Ethnology Brazil Mexico Technological Chile Nicaragua Geography Colombia ' pgng~ Costa Rica ~ Paraguay ~Cuba Peru 17b. ideotffien/Opea�~od~a r~r~, Dominican Republie Trinidad-Tabago Ecuador Uruguay E1 Salvador X Venezuela Cuatemala . 17a COSATI Field/Group SD~ SC, SK 18. A~~il~bility Statemeot 19..Secutity Cl~ss (This 21. ~o. oE Pages For Official Use Only. RePo~e~ ~ 17 Limited Number o� Copies Available From JPRS. ��~r; 22,p~;� Pa e H L SSIF F.D ro~M ?.Tiri~ rio-~o~ u~eo~a.~�oe ~ou~�v~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 l~'(~Ct O1~'f~' I C'il1l~ U;~i~ ~Nr~Y JpRS L/~223 1.6 January 19 79 TRANSLATIONS ON LATIN AMERICA (FC?UO 2/79) CONTENTS PAGE ARGENTINA Noted Columniets Focue an Rivex Plate Sasin (Variou~ sources, 4, 5 Aec 78) 1 Effects on Forei~;n Relatians, by Estela Araujo Need for Cooperation 5rressed, by Rodolfo Pandolfi CUBA Fr~nch Writers Diacuss ~olitical Prisons (Cian Franco Vene; L~EUROP~O, 10 Nov 78) 7 HONDURAS ~ ' PCH Leaders Comment on Domestic 51tuaCion, Cuban Revolution - (PItELA, 31 Dec 78) 14 VENE2UELA Briefs E~tginea for Tanks 16 . - a - - [III - LA - 144 FOUO] F'OR UFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 t~'Ult Oi~'FICIAL US~ ONLY - ~ A~tG~NTINA NOTED COLUMNISTS FOOUB ON RIVER PLATE BASIN Effects On Foreign Relationa Buenos Aires LA GPIN~ON 3.ri Spanish ~ Dec 78 p 8 [Article by Estela Ar~u~o] [Text] At a dinner organizod by the Colegio de Escribanos in the city of La Plata, Adm Emilio Ddu~rdo Massera announeed a fex goals in our for~ign pollcys "We rrill not obtain that wealth if we do not act in a systematic, rational xay~ united by common interest. We will have no common interest as long as xe refuse to acaept that production is a tool of geopolitica." The geopolitica,l vision of Ar entina cou~d become triangular (as in the plan adopted by Gustavo Cirigl~ano~i it could be based on a north-south axis inclu- ding the River Plate Basini it could be based on southern sovoreigntyj or it could be centered in Cordoba-Tucuman. ~lhatever the priority region~ it should be based on a model in xhich geopolitical decisions take precedence over eco- nomic deciaions. The subordination of one to the other establishes the proper nexus that xill stimulate our nation to achieve greater heights. The econoa~y can ne�ier be the key to the fate of a country~ 3ust as ~he economic xell-being of a family cannot have priority over the moral des+,iny and unity of that family. The River P1ate Basin is~ from the geopolitic:sl point of vi~~w, one of the key areas in 3nternational relations. Argentir.a's representation there marks the difference betxeen a country that can only look on f~om xithin its borderst and a country that is open to the f~ee play of alliances and cc+;nmoi: in+,~ ests that began xith independence. The fluvial policy of the Basin is the undeniable nexus among the five countries. Brazil, tacit].y~ Nants to cut it off. The i3razilian nexspapers themselves re- cognize this xhen they say~ as did the JOR:~fAL DO BRASIL (11~10~78~ in the arti- cle entitled "Ii;aipu And Navigation"i "'Nill they commit the enormous error of cutting off navigation i ii the rarana River, as has alrer~d,y been done in other cases, on other riv~rs? Will Ke always remain blind to the future, see- ing thin,gs only through the p~ism of p~esent reality? Itaipu xill be raisted 1 FOR OFFICIAL iISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 f~'Olt U1~'l~'ICIAI., U5L ONI.Y ~~eat bexrio~ to impedo the continuou3 flow of cargo, with the tremendou~ n~o~~i~m~ that ~re inherent in any t~~nsshipment~" It seems~ fin~,lly, that Argen~lna h~a d~cided to recg.ll the old geopolitical p~ans of the 1880's and uso th~ navigabili~ty of tho Parana to tranaform it in�to ~ polnt oF union--as 5armiento said--th~t will connect us xith Paraguay~ Uruguay and Upp~r P~i�u ~ The present goal Ss no longer that of operating in favor of a single port (Buenos Aires)~ as it was in 1880~ but to utilize the v~rt~larae of a river ~ system that begina in Zan3a de1 Tigre~ on the border with Bolivia~ and goes through the Canal of the Berme3o Riv~r, the Santiago del Estero Canalo arid the Zbera aystem~ with ita outlet through the Corrientes River to the Pa- rana~ to create a navigable complex enclosed in three triangle~. ~ , ~'he first would be formed by the Middle Parana to Yacyreta~ an:~ the of Ibera Lake into the Corrientes River~ to the ~'arana. The second would con~ist of the Aerme~o Canal~ the 5antiago Canal and the Mid- d1e Parana. The third would bo formed by the Uruguay River, the Ibe~a system--Corrientes River--Mirinay and the Lower Paran~. Brazil ca,n close it off above the Parana and block off Itaipu inatead of making it a vein of communication. But the barriers that could prevent the circulation of wealth wi11 not be easily accepted by the trade that usually f~ds a xay to overcome obstacles. According to Hicolas Boscovich in LA OPINION (9~30~78~~ "The countries xith common border~ are no~t isolated compartments, nor can the influence of ~eat pro~ects and of the plans to order the physical apace in other countries be ignored. Ferieriro Ratzel, precursor of geopolitcs, said that tl:e history of a country is always part of f,rie history of its neighbors. Argentina should ~ draw up and cazry out plans for its basic inf~astructure~ bearing in mind the transnational realities that will inevitably create a distorsion in the inter- nal space if the necessary p~o~ec~s to maximize the use of its xater basins ~ are not implemented. With efficient transportation methods at low cost and with unlimited capacity~ abundant energy at a low cost, guaranteed supply of ~ f~QSh rrater for human consumption, the use of factories and settlements, it will be possible to fill the vast interior vacuums with industrial, mining, forestry and livestock activity~ and to integrate these backward regions not just economically but also socially." The navigability of the Parana as a system to circulate wealth requires the - implementation of the following projectss a) The Middle Parana. On 20 November in Moscow, an agreement with the 5oviet ' organization Te~hnopromexport was signed in order to stuc~y the executive pro- 3ect for the multiple utiliLation of the Parana River in its mi3dle stretch. : 2 FOR OrFICIAL L'SE O~v'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 I ~nK or~rzcznr, c?sL orri,Y 'I'ho coat oi' the p~o~jnct ha~ bd~n eu~t~.matnd E~t r~bout $2.4 billion. '1'ho Mlddle P~an~ pro~eat goon ~'rnm P~~o do 1~ P~txi~, ( ln the provineo Cf Corrientes) to tl~e subfluvial tunnel ~th~t ,joins Santa ~'e with Pcarana. Two com- � plementary f,ronta~, and la~taral dam~ will provide hydroeloctric energyt the northern one with various alternate locations, and the southern ona to be ~ located on the island of Chapeton. Bo~;h plant~ W~.ii t~~~ a c~pacity of 5,600 meg~wat~s, which will put the Middle Parana System in sixth p:la~e in tne wo~ia, Navigation locks are planned~ to allow the ascent and descent ot' foreign ves- - sels ~f ~ draft of up to 21 feet~ so that they may enter Corr3.entes. S~nta Fe could accomodate vessels of a draft of up to 30 ~e~t, and the sea~ ships could ~o in as far as 1,000 kilometers f~om Buenos Aires. b) Master Plan for the exploi~ation of the Bexmejo River. In the c~ty of Oran (Salta)~ Argentine and Bolivian repreaentatives signed an a~eement in mid November to 8raw up the energy and irrigation plan for the navigation of the Bermejo. The approximate location of the fuiure Zan3a del Tigre dam was also established. The l~teral canal of the Bermejo could be complement~d with the Santiago del Estero Cana.l. They will empty into the xiver at Resistencia and Santa Fe~ reapectively. c) The Argentine-Paraguayan binational entity of Yacira:�ta. It is eatimated that thia pro~ect will generate as much as 2.7 mill;o.r, kilowatts~ but it xas designed to have a total potential capacity of 4 millfon kilowatts~ In addi- tion to financing problems~ the feasibility of achieving a greater utiliza- tion of the navigation of this part of the iJpper Prarana is being discussed. � d) The mathematical model of the hydric balance of the Ibera system. This project dates back to 19?0; it was designed by the Undersecretariat of Hydric Resources. It presents various alternatives for the regulation of the Parana by means of the Ibera 7~ake, with three ba,sic variationss an outlet to the Pa- rana through the Corrientes River in Argentine territory exclusj.vely, and two outlets to the Uruguay River, one in Argentine-Brazilian territory (Aguapey Rivor) and another in Argentine-Uruguayan terrltory (Mirinay River~, almost on the Brazilian border. The joint navigation and energy projects that propose a revitalizing geopoli- ~ tics of the Samiento vein must necessaxily be complemented by a system of superports which surpass the port of Buenos A3res, enriching the Argentine part of the Basin. The superport of Punta Medanos will expa.nd the maritime coast of the Basin, as will the project for the Uruguayan superport of Rocho. ' The superport Qf Rio G~ande, on the other hand, will detract from the impor- tance of the great river by means of transversal canals (the Ibicuy-Yacuy) and horizontal routes. 3 F`OR OFFICIAL L'SE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 I- ~~~V[~ ~~~~~~yyLLf\l~ VJL hNLY . But th~ t'luvial pollcy w11:L not ba camplementod ~ust by port~ and nav~.gabl,e watarway~~ The trannt'ormation W~.ii ~merge as d result of new forms n~ river . transport~,tion~ If the nuperports ~n h~,nd in h~,nd rrith large ships (super- tankers for grains a,nd petrol~um) and superports for imports and exports~ the new river port~ and navigable waterways have found an ~ntormediate system which wi11 reduce the cost of transpo~ting 1.arge cargoes~ 3uat as the superports do. The lash ships~ containor and ro-ro system will soon be seen on the river. - The container ships ase normal sized vessela that hav~ been ada,pted to trans- port container~ (which hold ~oods and are de~igned for repeated use ~.n trans- porta~tion). These containers carry tho products from th~ exporter to the im- _ porter~ ~am door to door~ using either land or water tr~,nspo.rt, The lash ships fir~t arrived in the port of Buenos Aires in 1973~ Their fun- dfunental characteristic is a steam turbine ttiat can tow as many as 74 bax~,, ~s carrying up to 150 cont~iners each, for a total of 40,000 tons. It is a veri- table rivez� railway~ in which a veasel with a draft of 8 feet serves as a loco- motive or tugboat, the barges being rai]soad cars. � The floating route~ or ro~ro system (roll-on~roll-off) is complemented with highway routes. The ahips that transport railway cars act as l~idges or con- nections between the two routes. The ports that havo been built and ahall be built to complement the hydroelec- tric p~ojects on the Parana and the Uruguay, as we11 as the great fluvial com- plex of tho River Plate Basin, seom to be a geopolitica,l dream. The goods p~o- duced by the low-cost energy and the convenient me~ns of communication will ensure that the wealth will flow through the magnifice:~t Parana, recognized axis of the River P1ate Basin. Need For Cooperation 5tressed Buenos Aires LA OPINION in Spanish 5 Dec 78 p 1 ~ [Article by Rodolfo Pandolfi] [Text~ The Tenth Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the River Plate Basin began yestorday. As dusk fell on Punta del Eate~ the two main commissions in which the five ministers have divided their functions (National Resources and Inf~a- structure~ and Economic and Social Issues) ~egan work. At that time the behind the scenes work in the corridors of the Hotel San Rafael gave the first indications. In a conversation with *_he LA OPINION correspondent, the Bolivian foreign minister indicated that the Southern ' Cone "was experiencing a very special moment" and rhat this had accentuated the urgency of a division of labox in his country between the political and military teams. "The institu~ionalization plan," he remarked, "is now more ~ than ever ~,inked to Bolivia's national defense needs." The foreign minister of that nation repeated that Bolivia is in ~ull solidarity with Argentina concerning the southern conf].ict, indicating that there were some who wanted ~ to cut off Argentina's feet so that they could not rest on Antarctica. Later the following dialog ensued: ~ FOR OI~FiCIAL i'5E OtiLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 rnii orr~~rr.tnt, usr~. oNi,Y ` Wh~,t is your poi.nt of view rag~rd i;o ~ha work th~~t i~ done by ~ho Upp~r Berme3o River Basin Commission? CAnswer] The studies ~re pr~gxessing sat:i.sfactorily~ S focus on the problem ~..hrough one of it3 aspectsi our access ~n �thQ Atlant~.c~ ~'or tha~t reason, I etressed the need to m~k~ tha wnters o~' the Paraguay Rlver botween Porumba, and Riorto Busoh n~vigab~.~ ~ ~,Questian] Wha~t are the mnst important priori~tins established by Bol~.via7 ~Answer] The first commission is studying the plan for ~he Sucre-v~iia~on highway pro~oct~ at Bolivia's requnst. I can also say that there is an agree- ment with Argentina even on some aspects that cannot y~t be revealed to the public. Earller, the foreign minister of Uruguay~ I?r Adolfo Fo11e Martinez~ had spoken. - He emphasized ~the i.mpoxtance of tho mul.tilateral funot3on of the system. The Brazilian foreign minister, Antonio Azeredo da Silveira~ on the nthex hand, in accordanee with hls we11.-known opinion, stressed the right to undertake bilater~,l treat3es wi.thin ti~e multilateral context. ~am the theoretical point of v3ew, Azeredc's observation was obvious~ Azeredo emphasized that he personally went to all the meeting~ of foreign ministers after tho signing of the treaty. Referring to the Itaipu pro,jects, he said that he was convinced that tho future would prove that the govexnments were wise to decide to maintain tr~e spirit of the commitments made. The Argentine foreign minister~ Carlos Washington Pastor~ recalled that the , Itaipu pro~ects as well as the Corpus ones were undertaken in border regions~ which gave them a special significance. He strong?.y advocated that Bolivia's land-locked status be ended~ and stressed the need for c~ynamic cooperation . in the Basin. Paraguayan Foreign Minister A1bQrto Nogues~ in his speech, concentrated on the need to ensure that all actions in the River Plate Basin be undertaken within the f`ramework of the increasing in~terrelation with the Amazon Basin. The real topic of discussion in the corridors was undoubtedly Itaipu-Corpus. Apparently tho ministers of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay had talked informall,~, outside of the sessions, but it seems that no solution was reached. Someone ..~sked if that conversation was a mini-trilateral conference. The answer xas that there could be no talk of a trilateral conference nor of any type of trilateral negotiatons~ since no negotiations had ~aken place. 5 FOit O~FICIAL tISE OtiZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 FOR OF'I~'TCIAL US~ ONLY I i ~ �O~IVIA n~.Swni ~ ~ ~ _�K~ ww~. ~~e ~1 ` . .,,4_ ~ Me.lwt J ~ ~ � GM ._~."f ~ �tea~o~Onn1~ ialAlA i NiMMIM i ~ ~A~ ~ 1 ~N'' , r ' r~ ~ 1 ? j ~M A11~ �r.,;-~ ~ ! _ 'Z:Y, ~ . \ ~ ~7 1 ,M1~ O~nAr j a 'l. ~ s~w p~Mw -x.,~ AWKYII~ lI ~ i - ~ ~ ~ i ~Y 1'~er7M ~ ~ 4Ji ; nN ~a ~NdU i ~ ~ ~ ~OIIt1A/ . ~ OwnieAa.,~.~" i / ~ M ~ I ~ a , ~ : w , 1~ rr ~w'r na, ' F~ �AM~ ~t~If ~ It ~ ~i+ ~ ~ d~lr. ~ ~ ~ I ~ il~,i+i ~i t M MaI1V[TGN i~:< < i~ i i~ f~f' ! 1 ~'I'~' i+~ ' b I t f I~~ ~ ~ ' ' f ' i r'~�~ _ ~ irY i'iir ! G ~i ~ ~ r , , ~ y i, ~,t M{~` ; ~~"v~ VR + i~ t i~~~.t ~+i i~1 ~t ~~~,~a~'i4' ~a' ~f ~ ,~1 r ~ , ,f~; ~ + ~ ~ ii't, ~~m~'~.~f, .t~i ~ ArnnAn M~MaMN r~~' i~ i i~j~ ~ f t~~Vf i~~~`. I `~MM+1N i i: ~ i ~ ~~y('~+'; � ~ I~~t ~ ,1 ~t~ t+~ i ; au, ,E, ,t,`~~~F~: + +~-1.:: ~ ! ! i r + ~~e u J i~; ~ ~ i~, i F I * ~ ~ ' ~ i wyp ~ . f ~ ~ ~ ~ : w~Ft~r F i i ~ COPYRIGHT: La Opinion, 1''8 ~ 8926 CSO: 3010 ~ i 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' , _ i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 rOR 0~'I~'SCLAL USC ONLY CUBA FRENCH WRITFRS DISCUSS POLITICAL PRISONS Milan L'EUROPEO in Italian 10 Nov 78 pp 72-76 (Article by Gian Franco Vene: "In Fidel's Prisons"] [Texr] For the 20th anniversary of Che revolution, Castro has promised ro free the poliCical prisoners. Here is the tesCimony of a French reporter imprisoned in Havana with- out knowing why. ' In Havana a few months ago, I was wiCh some non-Cuban friends in the home of a young mAn, somewhat of a hippy, who wanted to read aloud some of his unpublished poems. The young man was very angry because he had not managed to get Chcse poems published. He said thaC they differed too much from the styles of official Cuban literature. He had very hard words_-which in uther clrciims~ances would certainly have been foolhardy--against the "cul- tural line" of the Cuban Communist Party. On other occasions also, I was in the homes of~aspiring directors, aspiring actors, aspiring painters: all unknown, and probably destined to remain so. The talk was the usual kind: against the discrimination b y the party, by the government, by the Ministry of Culture. The easiest question--provocative, but also stupid--which one feels like asking in certain circumstances is: "Gentlemen, are you reall~ sure about the quality of your talents and your products?" I kept to myself this embarassing insinuation which has had and is having so many victims among intellectuals not only in the socialist or dictatorial countries but also in the liberal ones, where the unappealable 3 udgment of a manuscript is the job of the private publisher. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-4Q850R000100014Q30-6 ~ I ~ COIt U;c'CICT.AL tI5E ONI.Y Instefid, I~yked those ma~conCenrs whethEr Che cause of the lack of atten- tion by the Cuban parey and government might noC be (Among other things) Che ~bsolute necessity to save paper and to administer carefully the counCry's cultural exp~ndituCes, wh~.cti ar~ very high. (Paper is among the moat "difEicult" products in Cuba; Che policy of instruction for liCeracy ttnd oP Marxist educatton is an absolutely ~op-prioriCy decision.) The Cubana I spoke with replied wearlly: "Then one cannoC speak of freedom of expression in Cuba." Why dn I relate all this? For two reasons. The firstt among some young ' Cuban intellecCuals, iC i.s normal to encounter disconCent, frusCration, and to hear tallc of "repression." BuG this view is damaged by the far more striking specracle of the lines ouCSide bookstores by the crowded Cheaters, by the very high qualiCy of Che cinema. The second rea~on: for a foreigner witl~ even the mildest curiosiCy, it is very easy--taken for , _ grr~nted, I would say--to meet Cuban people who, without any fear, without looking, nver their shoulders, state their own cases of discontenC or ' dissent. And this does nut happen in any other socialist coutltr3~. One ~ could say mischievously that the government itself has "organized dissent" ' Co demonstrate that there is freedom in Cuba--there is no Gulag. But here we have the French photographer Pierre Golendorf, formerly a CommunisC ParCy member, recounting, in a book which is coming out in Italy aZso (Sugar-Co editions), his own hard experiences as a commun3st morally martyred "in Fidel Castro's prisons." Golendorf went to Cuba in 1967 , with the announced intenCion of establishing himself there as a phoCograph- er; he married, had a daughter, but was tremendously disappointed by th e ' illiberality and "repression" of Fidel Castro's regime. He asked to emi- grate; instead, he was arrested, and convicted of "having in~ured the integrity and security of the r~ation" and of having declared himself, in a note probably facetious or prompted by fantasy, to be an "agent of the CIA." ~ Golendorf naturally denies all. The material which accuses him is the ~ notes for a projected book--a critical book doubtlessly. And Golendorf, after 3 years in prison, expelled from Cuba,. did write the book: "Un comunista nelle prigioni di Fidel Castro" (A Communist in Fidel Castro's Prisons). It is a book which, as a contemporary chronicle, cann~t be ignored: No one has the right to close his eyes to an individual testimony which deli- berately aims to overturn the excessively opt~.mistic impression of a "different" Cuban socialism. As a political chronicle, Golendorf's book has been avertaken by events: between 1971 and today, Cuba has actually provided itself with a Constitution, it has held the First Congress of the Cuban CP, and it has established a capillary system of control from the bottom, neighborhood by neighborhood, disrrict by district, city by city, - greatly resembling "direct democracy." 8 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014430-6 ~ t~~k nrF~tr.rn~, uyc dN~.v it ig tru~: ~l~d Chat Cubu liveg mnrr firmly Ch~n nver with~n Ch~ orbie ~f the USSI~ ~nd Chut no crit~ci~m n.f ehc USSR is Ca1~r~~ed, end ].e~gr nf A11~ critici~m of Souicc cu]tur~l repre~gidn. ~ar Cuba, ehe Sdvf~t wrieerg ~of dig~pnt, like ~nyone wt~o disg~nef~ fram tli~ poli~y ~.itte ~f Che U55R, ~re ~ Crgitor~, ~gQne~ of imperi~ligm, and ~d dn, sbusiv~ly. In Y~ading Gol~nd~rf'~ bnok, if ~ne w~nCs ro r~~d iC hon~sCly, iC i~ n~ceg~ary tn di~- tinguish ~le~rly bet~?~~n ehe ~urhor'g p~inCu1 perean~l exp~rience, w}~iah there i~ no reason to digbelieve, ~nd tha w~~lrti o~ impre~gionp, nf ~ud$- menCg on Cuba'g ~iCUaCidn ~nd ~ivil 1if~~ - We have eo legrn eh~t eruth ag g~~n from ~ l~rager nr frdm ~ pri~on ~s an es~~titial a~mpon~nt in und~rgtanding eonrempurary hi~rory. Neverehelegg it g~~ems thgt Gnl~ndorf had pr~par~d, predi~pos~d :o ~oing in s~areh oE truth in prigon~ It ~m~rge~ cle~irly frdm Ch~ bdok thaC Gol~ndorf'~ neggtive ~udgmenC dn Cuba, on ~id~l, dn ~ub~n gocinli~m, gg g longing gt ehe mamenC of tiis nrresC, Now it is thnC preexisting ~uugmenC itt Gol~ndorf which ig to be comp~red with reality: not only'with r~ality as it was in the "d~rk yeaYS" of Cuban higtory (sp~cifi~ally, those ~~f thry second hglf of the 1960's, when tt~e aged Itevolution finally died :in Boliv:a and "TnsCiCutionglizatinn" wn~ still in the incubator), but With th~ r~ality of now, in which Che closest bonds ever with Che USSit are intierspersed with spasmodic ~ttempCs to make Navang the aocialist capital of the Third World. ~ The exc~rpt which we publish below from "A Communi~t in Fidel Castro's prisens" cnn lend itself to digcug$ion precisely becgug~ ir urges com~ari- son between Cuba ~s seen from the outgide ~nd the view which one has of it from prison. And bebray Was Silent ~ve ry 2 weeks, Chanks to the s tory which ~elina givea me, I can live with my wife and my daughter and follnw their upg and downs, the troubleg ~hict~ they have because of 5ecurity. ~rom her also, who had it by chaace from a boy, I learn that some cxblegraa~ hud arrived from Yaris, signed by friends and strangers a~king the reasons why I was in prison ~nd protesting against this imprisonment. F~~lina could not obtain the e7C8CC text, but the cablegrams were numerous. More than 200, the boy had said. Was a solidariCy movement starting there? I was not alone, I was nat forgotten. Neverthele~s, not everyone had t~ken this position. A friend of mine from whom Regis Debray had requested a painting to support the warefare in Latin America asked him for news of ine, whether tie had intervei:ed with Pidel Castro and what outcome his action had had. According to this friend, Debray, during a visit to Cuba. had noted the certitude of the state security official~, who said they had proof that I belonged to the CIA. 9 ~OR OFFICIAL U5r ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014430-6 ~ ~dk 01~'~ICIAL U5~ dNLY ! "'~hu~e who know hi.m knnw eh~~ ie i~ not tru~." "in ~ny ce~e, I tdld him that hp i~ ~ur~ly ~ eh~rd-rank ~g~nt. Ke ~hould noe g~t mor~ Ch~n 3 y~ar~~" ' A~~ont~hing for ~ former political prisoner, ign'C ir? I know we11 that I gm in a Cub~n prigon and ChBC th~.$ influ~nces p~ople. but did he ask td s~~ Ch~ proof? bid eh~y giv~ him ~ny? if go, wa~ he ~atisfied ic7 The d~ licaGy of "third-r~nk ag~nt" is rpally prec3ous--a kind of ' tn~it eompromi.e~ which mgkes iC possible to fi1.~ ehe Cruth ~way som~where , nnd 1e~ve the poor wreCch in hig c~11. Whiclr permi,Cs the auChority Co dn , or nor do h~ like~. gecc?uge thp probl~m is not to know whethEr I am an ag~nt of th~ first or third cat~gory~ Th~ problem i.s: am I an agent ~ nr noC? N~ve I commitiCed g crin~e or noC? ' ~ A diaturbing concnmitant incident: A1ain Jouffroy i~ sgid to have re- ceived f rom the Minigtry o~ Interior in pari~ confirmgtion Chat I am an agent of Che CIA. Th~ Cuben pa~nter Wilfredo Lam, for hie part, is said ~ to hav~ urged gil~nce, on the pretext ChBC for me, it would be the ~oet ugeful mnve. Now if for Debray I am an unknown (which ~ustifiea nothing), it is not the gnme for Lam and Jouffroy~ with whom I have friends in common. gut they tno seem Co have be~n in favor of ehe tgctic of silence ; recommended by Lam. All the more so (isn't iC true?) because there was , the AFP dispatch of 2 SepCember 1971 which announcea my sentence to 10 yearg in prison "for ~spionage againsC Cuba for the CYA," quoted from PR~NSA LATINA, with the added reporC, still according to PRENSA LATINA, that I had pleaded guilty to all the chnrges listed by the prosecutor, ; etcetera. i , Five Lines for the CIA Thus the Cuban lie is sufficiently peremptory to become an obvious truth ~ in gnyone's eyes. ~ Th~ bigger ~he lie.... But Debray, Lam and Jouffroy could at least have ~ gone to the Miniatry of roreign Relations to ask to see a copy of the sen- tencc. They could have apprised themselves of the value of such a docu- ment nnd made a basic judgment. They could have been astonished that a , tut~l oE only five lines were devoted to my membership in the CIA. ThaC is rather a small aaaunt for people in possession of proof and confessions. It is rather a small amounc in relation to the sentence to 10 years in prison. But here they are: "The accused was so aware of the object of his activities and of the nature of the interests which he served that ~ among the documents seized in his apartment was found the one ~hich was to be the preface of his book and in which he named himself as an agent of the American secret services, known by the initials CIA." Hence in the preface of a book which is, in a word, the result of my activities as an ` aRent~ I intended to present myself as an ag~nt of the CIA. Just two ~ 10 FOR O~FICIAL U5E ONLY . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010030-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014430-6 I~UIt Clf~'~YCIAL US~ nNLY yu~+utlui~d: ttt F.I.rr~4 H.l~~l~l~ I~ul ~~I~+u ~~fi:~~r rl~.t~~k.~nu nbUUt~ i~~ dorgn't it npp~nr dCrnng~ thnt t~ r~py ~huuld do eapionage werk, ~LndiGC~eing hig funceion in tt~~ pr~~n~Q; Do~sn't nn~ a~k whar kind uf CTA ag~nC n pers~n could b~ whn k~~ps among f~is da~~im~nC~ a Cex~ writCett itt hin dwn hand i.n which t� n~rn~~ himself n~ ~n ~~~nc2 J~~~~ t~11~ me gboue th~ a~f~ir ~f eh~ wr~.ter P~di.11~; he e~11a me ch~e h~ w~~ pr~~~?~t ~r el~e ~~maub ~e1f-cri.Cicigm sesgion, ~nd ehnt h~ w~~ imprpgg~d by it. At th~ beginnin~;, the wrirer hnd in front df h~m ~ f~w she~te which he wu~ glencing ~t; rhen, meCiculously, he ~olded th~m up and, imp~rturbable, enntinued the t~xt, whi~h he kn~w by h~art. "Whar could ~adilla huv~ d~n~7" It ig obvinug thnt he h~d no alrerngtivp. Itoeting in ~ ce11 do~~ not r~- pr~~~nt an gltern~Civ~ f'or ~nyone. As for int~ rnetional solidarity, he ig nnt so sCupid es Co ~xpece anyCh3ng~ Th~ ineellectuals represent a force in the world, but ehis force is disgipated by th~ir refusal to organize. The beh~vior of the intelleeCual~ at th~ end of this c~nrury is totally OUCdACp(I. They sti11 h~ve in their h~ads the o1d id~a of th~ ~utstanding p~rgdnaltty, of the weigl~t of ~ n~me: Mrg So-and-So, Mr Such-and-Such, the great wrtter, the greaC painCer, the great philosopher, the great scholur, with medglg and titles, if there gre any. They have this cult. They defend individualistn ~ven though there are a great many of them in the world and it has been known for sever~l decades that unity begets gtr~ngth. ~or a long Cim~ now, there should havp been national associa- tiong group~d in an international organism which would not only defend intellectuals persecuted illegally or abusively but �.~ould also conduct an ongoing cmnpaign to dE~mand, as a minimal program, the observance of ~ legality by all governments, so that pressure would be exerted on govern- ments not spasmodically, on the occasion of some specific episode, but meChodically, so that an end could be put nnce and for all to the use of torture, summary executi