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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'1000'10040-5 r ' i979 ~ 3? ~ 1 ~F 1- . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFr~~1N~ uS~ UN~Y JPRS L/8233 19 January 1979 ~ TIZAHSLATI ONS ON USSR MI LI TARY AFFAI RS - (F~UO 3/79) U. S. JOINT PI~LICAT101~~15 RESEARCH SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 NOT~ JP[LS publicatione contuin informntion primarily frnm foreign ` newspapere, periodicals and books, bur glso from news agency transmisaions and broadcr~ses. Materials from foreign-language sources are eranslated; those from English-language sources are tranacribed or reprinCed, wiCh the nriginal phrasing and other characterisCics retained. Headlinea~ editoriel reporCa, and material encloaed in brackets [J are aupplted by JPR5. 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In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be cited. . Current JPRS publications are announced in t;overnment ReporCs Announcements issued semi-monthly by the National Technical Information Service, and are listed in t~?P Monthly Catalog ~f U.S. Government Publications issued by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Indexes to this repor~ (by keyword, author, personal names, title and series) are available through Bell 5~ Howell, Old Mansfield R~ad, WooacC., Ohic+, 44691. Correspondence pertaining to matters other than procurement cnay be addressed to Joint Publications Research Servi~e, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 1. Repor~ No. JPRS L/8233 ~ Reeipient'~ Aece~einn No. SHEET 1, u~� ~n , u ~ it epoet ue TRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY A~~AIR5, (FOUO 3/79) 19 January 1979 6. 7~ Author(s) 1. Pertormin` Or`~nis~tion Rept. No. 9~ Perlormin~ Oreanit~tion N~me ~nd Addres� 10. Proj�c~r..~/~otk Unit No~ Joitlr Fublic~tion~ Research Service 1000 North Clebe Road 11. Contnec/Gr~a No. Arlington~ Virginia 22201 1~, Spontotin` Or~~ni:~tion Nuse ~nd Addte~s 1~. Type ot Report k Period Coveted Ae above ' t~. 1S. Supplemenary Noct� 16. Ab~tnet~ The report containe information on the Soviet military and civil ~efense establishments, leadership~ doctrine~ policy, planning~ political affairs, organization, and equipment. 7. Kcy s'ord~ ~nd Daument Atuly~i~. 7a Dearipcor~ USSR ~ Military Organizatione Military Facilities Military Personnel 17b. Idem~lirrs/Upen�l?nded Tctm~ , 17c. c c?~A7~1 Nirld/C~rouP j5C If. Avs~l~bili[y titatement 1. Secutitr Class (This 21. n'o. o( Psjes ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. Limited Number of R`P�"~ 62 Copies Available From JPRS p~ ~+~~1 s+ " 1 UNM Nf1f�111Nlr. ��~i~ THLS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED '~seo...~-oe ~~~et�o~a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FO~t OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/8233 19 JAnuary L979 TRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 3/79) CONTENTS PAGE Book Preaents Sociological Study of SovieC Military Engineer (M.P. Shendrik; SOVETSKIY VOYENNYY INZHENER (SOTSIOLO- GICHESKIY OCHERK), 1977) 1 ' a - [III - USSR - 4 FQUO] FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL ,USE ONLY ~ BOOK PRESENTS SOCIOLOGICAL ~TUDY OF SOVIET MILITARY ENGINEER I~foscow SOVETSKIY VOYENNYY INZHENER (SOTSIOLOGICHESKIY OCHERK) in Rusaian 1977 aigned to press 18 Feb 77 pp 1, 2, 3-5, 40-111, 196-198, 199 [Table of conCente, annotation, introduction, chapter II, conclueion of book~ "Sovetakiy Voyennyy Inzhener (sotsiologicheskiy ocherk)" published under the general editorship of Col M. P. Shendrik, doctor of philosophical aciences, profeseor, Moscow, Voyenizdat, 1977, 199 pages] [Excerpts] Title Page: Tit1e: "Sovetskiy Voyennyy Tnzhener (sotaiclogicheskiy ocherk)" (The Soviet Militarq Engineer [A~Sociological StudyJ) GeMeral~Editor: Colonel M. P. Shendrik, doctor of philosophical aci~n- ces, professar. Authors: Engineer-Colonel A. F. Volkov, can~didate of philosophical aciences, docent; Lieutenant Colonel V. S. Gorbunov, candidate of philosophical sciences, docent; Lieutenant Colonel V. F. Kovalevakiy, candidate of philosoFhieal eciences; Colonel N. Ya. Lysukhin, candi- date of hiator~rql aciences; Lieutenant Colonel Ye. V. Malafeyev, candidate of military sciences, docent; Colonel I. V. Malyshev, doc- tor of philosophical sciences, docent; Colonel Yu. I. Rachev, can3i- date of philosophical aciences; Colonel G. S. Tkachenko, candidate of philosophical sciences, docent; Captain 2d Rank V. F. Frolov, candidate of philosophical eciences; Engineer-Colonel Yu. G. Fokin, doctor of technical sciences; Lieutenant Colonel E. p. Utlik, candi- date of psychological sciences; Lieutenant Colonel I. S. Shatilo, candidate of philosophical s~iences; Colonel M. P. Shendrik, doctor - ~f philosophical aciences. Publisher: Ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni Voyennoye Izdatel'stvo Miniaterstva Oborony SSSR ~ Place and year of publication: Moscow, 1977 ' Numbers of Copiea published: 20,000 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Signed to pres~: 18 ~ebruary 1977 MnotnCion: The increase in Che number of engineers and technicians in the arm~ and navy is one of the most important manifestations and reaults of the revolution in military affairs. At Che presenC Cime, ~lmost half of the officera, and more than SO percent of Chose in the Strategic Migsile Forces, are engineers or � technicians. It has become necessary Co thoroughly etudy the place and role of the engineer wiChin the atructure of the military organization and to pro- vide a thorough description of hia peraonality, which is depicted by the com- bination of hie ideological-political. social, prof~ssionsl and psychological qualitiea. This book attempta to clarify Che peculiarities of Che social make-up of the Soviet military engineer. It was written for~the officer eorpa and for a broad range of militAry readers. Table of ConCents: Page tntroduction 3 Chapter I. The Socialist Nature of Soviet Military Engineering Personnel 6 1. Methodological Principles for Classifying the Soviet Military Engineer's Personality 6 2. The Communist Party's Work to train and Indoctrinate Soviet Military Engineers 23 Chapter II. The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Professional Qualifications of Engineering and Technical Personnel of the Army and Navy 40 1. Augmentation of the Requirements Made of Military Engi- neers in Connection with the Scientific and Technological Revolution 40 2. The Make-Up and Nature of Military Engineering Work 49 3. The Military Engineer as a Technical Specialist 58 4. The Operational-Tactical Training of MiliCary Engi- neering Personnel 69 5. The Military Engine~r as the Organizer and Indoctrina- tor of the Men Under Him 75 ' 6. Career Selection for Military Engineering Personnel 90 Chapter III. The Soviet Military Engineer's Intellectual World 112 1. Ttte Main Features of the Soviet Military Engineer's ~ World Outlo~k 112 2. The Soviet Military Engineer's Moral Make-Up 120 3. The Esthetic in the Mi1:Lrr~:y Engineer`s Life and Work 132 4. The Military Engineer's Thought Frocess 14~ Chapter IV. The Social Activity a~d Respansibility of the Soviet Mili- tary Engineer 152 2 ~ FOIt OFFI(:IAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1. The Nature and Substance of the Social AcCivity of Pgge Milirary Engineering Peraonnel 152 2. The Military Engineer's Socio-Political Activity 157 3. The Military Engineer's Profeasional Activity 167 4. 'Phe ReaponsibiliCy of Military Engineering Person~nel 179 Concluaion 196 Introduction: While persiatently and ateadfastly purauing a policy of peace, the Communist Party constantly concerna itaelf with strengthening Che nation's defenaive might. In the report, "The CPSU CenCral Committee's Report and the Party's Main Tasks in the Area of Domeatic and Foreign Policy," which Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, general aecretary of the CPSU Central CommittQe, preaented at the 25th Congresa~ he statea the following: "our party will do everything possible to see that the glorious Armed Forcea of the Soviet Union continue to have at their dispo8al everything necesaary to perform their reaponeible task, Chat ' of guarding the peaceful labor of the Soviet people and serving as a bulwark of universal peace.i1 The formulation and the performance of this task clear- ly reflect the class, aocialist nature of the party's foreign policy and t}?e concern demonstrated by the CPSU for the creation of favorable foreign poli- ~ f tical conditiona for Che auccesaful building of a communiat society in our nation and for etrengthening the forces of socialism, peace and progreas throughout the world. The offic~r corpa has an active role in the accomplishment of this task. The task of st.rengthening the power and combat capability of the Soviet Armed Forces depends to a considerable degree on their successful work. Soviet officers are active agents of party and government policy in the army and navy and of the class, revolutionary and military spirit of the army and its combat traditions. Between the time they were created and the present, Soviet military personnel have undergone great changes based on the profound social and spiritual pro- cesses taking place in the development of the Soviet socialist society and in the improvement of the Armed Forces, which has been based on the achieve- ments of science and technology. The successes achieved by developed social- iam, the rapid flourishing of the socialist economy and culture, the unprece- dented ide~log3cal-political and moral unity of the Saviet society have been ~ reflected in the social,ideological, moral and professional make-up of Sflviet military cadres. The revolution in military affairs has al~~ grea~ly affected the structure and make-up of the work performed by army and navy personnel. An increase in the number of engineers and technicians in the army and navy has been one of its most important results. The large specific proportion of military engineers and technicians in the Soviet officer corps is one of the significant features of the Soviet Armed Forces at the contemporary gtage. At the present time, almost one half of the officers are engineers or~ techni- cians. More than 80 percent of the officers in the Strategic Missile Forces are engineers or technicians. Their numbers are tending to grow in all ser- vices of the Armed Porces. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The number of ~ngineering peraonnel in the army and navy, which has had a coneiderable effect with respect to further improving the Armed Forces of the USSR, has also brought about Che theoretical problem of study- ing the Soviet miliCary engineer's personelity. The Soviet military engineer's peraonality is a combination of all the ao- cial, ideological-political, profesaional, moral and paychological qualities which make hitn like the reat of the officer corps and the SovieC socieCy, of which he is a full member, and at the same time, reflecC his specific charac- teristics, which are peculiar only rn this group of military workers. Using a syaCemAtic approach, th~ auChore analyze Che problem of Che Soviet military, engineer's personality in a comprehensive manner. Such an analysis also re- quires clarification of those features of Che Soviet military engineer's per- sonality, which are common and identical for all representatives of the Soviet , officer corps (apecifically, the social-political, ideological and moral quali- ties). Without such an analysis, however, it is impossible to creaCe an inte- gral social portrait of the Soviet military engineer. The sociological aspects of the Soviet officer's personality in general, and that of the military engineer in particular, have still not been adequately explained. A gen~ral description of Soviet officer personnel is provided in a number of worka, but they are primarily of a historical nature. In the in- terest of a comprehensive approach to the analysis and elaboration of thi~ problem, we r.eed a broad study of the social, mental and professional quali- ties of Soviet officers. Even less has been writen about the Soviet military engineer: Che list of works on this subject consists of articles published in military ~ournals and newspapera. In an attempt to�analyze the Soviet military engineer's personality psycholog- ically, the auChors of this book have relied on the basic principles set forth by the Marxist-Leninist classics on matters of military organizational develop- ment and engineering work and on guiding docwnrnts provided by the CPSU, which I formulate the most important principles of tb.e party's cadre policy at the , sCage of developed socialism, the scientifi:.� and technological xevolution and : thE: contemporary revolution underway in m~litary affairs. ; The authors are cognizant of the complexity and of the multifaceted nature ' of this sub~ect. A number of issues, which require further study and investi- ~ ~ gation, have naturally only been mentioned in this book. ~ ~ ~ i i 4 ' ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . , , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chepter II: THE REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS AND THE PROFESSIONAL QUALI- ~ FICATIONS OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL P~RSONNEL OF THE ARMY AND NAVY 1, Augmentation of the Requirements Made of Military EnginePrs in Connection WiCh the Scientific and Technological RevoluCion The procesa of creating and developing a miliCary engineering corps ia pre- aently taking place under conditions created by Che scientific and technical revolution underway in our nation and the closely linked revolution occurring in military affairs. It would therefore be impossible to properlyunderstand the causea of the fundamental changes presenCly occurring in our engineering , personnel, the nature of those changes and the trends apparent in them,withoLtt analysing the manner in which these changes are affected by scienCific and technological progress and the revolutionary transformation of military affairs. Army and navy engineering personnel form a special category of the naCion's engineering cadres, on the one hand, and an integral part of the officer corps of the Soviet Armed Forces, on the other. Scientific and technological pro- gress can therefore a�fect ?~~?itary engineers both directly and indirectly. In the former case, this inftuence assumes the form of general changes occur- ring in the nation's engineering cadres as a whole, a result of the scientific and technological revolution. In the latter case, it is a matter of specific changes occurring only in military engineering personnel, changes brought about by the revolution in military affairs, primarily the qualitative trans- formation of the Armed Forces' technical military base. In both cases, an analysis of this influence includes the disclosure of certain aspects of both the scientific and technological revolution and the revolution occurring in military affairs. Since this sub~ect has been thoroughly covered in the lit- erature, we shall diacuss it only briefly. The contemporary scientific and technological revolution constitutes a spe- cial phase, a concentrated manifestation, of scientific and technological progress, and represents an enormous advance in the understanding of nature and man's application of its laws, an advanc~ characterized by the transfo~n- ation of science into a direct productive force for society and the reform of the entire syetem of productive forces. The substance of this revolution is formed of the sum-toCal of scientific discoveries and technological schieve- ments, which are of world importance, historically speaking, and have brought about the use of basically new machines and tools of labor, technological pro- cesses and materials in the production sector. The peculiar nature of the modern scientific and Cechnological revoluCion lies in the fact that it is developing with unprecedented speed, as a singly pro- ceas embracing all of science and all of technology, transforming science into a direct productive force for society. Among the trends in the development of the modern scientific and technological revolution, special mention should be made of the development of the energy base and the growth of the power supply per production unit, the qualitative changes occurring in the production of materials, the improvement of tools of labor, based on total mechanization and automation, and the adoption of progressive new technology. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE :1NLY 'Phe scientific and Cechnological revoluCion has significantly altered the conditions and the nature of public labor. An intensive process involving _ the ahifting of a number Qf man's direcr producCion functions, pximarily - those involving heavy, monoConous phyaical labor, to machine complexea and automated systeme. In the procesa, man is dropping out of the technological cycle, rising above it, as it were, performing obaervation, phyreical conCrol and regulation functiona. Specific aociological sCudiea have shown that ~lie amount of time apent by akilled personnel on operations requiring predominat- ly physical labor is frequently reduced by up to 20 percent at enterpxises thoroughly outfitted with modern equipmenC. From 70 to 95 percent of the time is spent, ad~uating and regulating the equipment, and on the performance of analytical computations and oCher, primarily menCel, work.2 Z`his means that the scientific and technological revolution is leading to the saturaCion of physical labor with inteJ.lectual elemenCs and bringing the ~ work performed by kolkhoz and other workers into line with that performed by the engineer and the technician. ~ All of this is making the work not only more producCive but aLso more crea- tiv~ and attracCive, changing people's attiCude toward work and helping to transform work into a prime inner need for all membere of society. At the same time, these circumstances are making iC necessary Co further develope pub- ~.ic education and canstanCly elevate the technological aophistication and the occupational skills af the workers. The introduction of universal secondary education among the youth, improvement of the occupational system and the implementation of a planned process of raising the workers' skills, taking the requirements of scientific and technological progress into account, are all having a profound influence wiCh respect to elevating the general and work standards of the workers and the training of skilled workers for all sec- _ tors of the national economy. Suffice it to say that more than 76 p2rcent of the workers employed in the national economy today have a higher or secondary (complete or ineomplete) education.3 The problem of providing the national economy with highly skilled engineers and technicians has also been reformulated. The process of co~bining science with production and adopting new technological processes, automated systems and modern equipment is making the work performed by engineers, acientists and technicians considprably more important. A new system of training engineers, acknowledged by the Fntire world, has been created in our nation duririg the years of Soviet governr:ent. While a total of only 8,000 specialists wi~th a higher education worked in tsarist Russia's in- , dustry prior to World War I,4 9,441,000 specialists with a higher education ; and 13,306,000 with a secondary specialized education are presently employed ! in our national economy.5 ~ ~ It is not only the absolute number of engineers and technicians which is grow- ing, but their relative strength as well. That is, their specif ic proportion is increasiag both among production personnel in industry and among all specia- lists with a higher education. The scientific and technical intelligentsia in our nation has begun increasing in recent years at a rate outstripping that 6 FOR,OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY any other social group, netween 1950 and 1970, for example, the number of workers increased 2.1-fo1d, while rhe number of engineers and technicians grew 2.9-fold~6 The engineering profession in the USSR is also the moat - common among apecial ists with a higher educat ion. While en~ineers accounted for one fifth of the total number of specialists with a higher education in the 1930's~~the proporeion had increased to more than one third by 1970.~ At Che present time, more than 40 percent of the studenta attending Soviet WZ's are studying to become engineers, and almost o~e out of every two scien- tists deals wirh problems in the technical sciences. Another important point to be stressed is the fact that until recently the VUZ's mainly concentraCed on increasing the number of engineering graduates, - whereas, dispite Che continuing increase in the need for engineers, the focus of importance is switching to the quality of their training, based on the de- mands of the scientif ic and technological revolution. The engineer now per- forms as a designer of machines, structures, instruments and mechanisms, as a mathematician utilizing high-speed computers, as a technologist creating and establishing progressive production methods, as an organizer and economist, as an operator and, finally, as a researcher utilizing Cheoret3cal achievements for practical purposes. Engineers and technicians are the ones directly involved in combining science with production, developing, creating and introducing new equipment, studying and perfecting production control systems, investigaCing possibilities for transferring non-crearive production functions to automatic machines, and per- forming the work of improving production organization and introducing scier?ti- fic organization of labor at the enterprises themselves. The main effect of ti~e scientific and technological revolution on engineers is thus manifested in two dialectically contradictory and interdependent trends. In the first place, by contributing to the growth of the scales and complexity of production and the equipment, the scientif ic and technological revolution is thereby placing new and greater demands upon the quantity and caliber of ~ engineering and technical personnel. In the second place, by altering the na- , ture of public labor, ~nserting creative elements into it and contributing to the elevation of the Soviet people's general education and their cultural and technological sophistication, the scientific and technological revolution is thereby creating the conditions and expanding the possibilities for satisfying man's need for knowledge and creative activity. These trends are reflected in specific form in the work of military engineers and technicians as well. ImprovemenC of the Soviet people's welfare, their cultural standards and tech- nical sophistication, which has resulted from party and government efforts during the course of the cultural and the scientific ac..; technological revolu- tions, has resulted in the preserit situation, in which more than 75 percent of the fightingmen in the army and navy have a higher or secondary education. The young people entering the military service have a sufficiently broad technical perspective, a good general education and specific technical skills. More than 84 percent of the draftees have acquired one or another civilian specialty, and this applies to the technical specialties as well. Many of them also have 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL~USE ONLY experienc~ in working with Che new equipmenr. Every third draftee has ac- quired a military akill in a DOSAAF training organization.9 At the presenC time, personnel of the Soviet Armed Forces have every oppor- tunity to masCer rapidly and successfully the new miliCary equipment which the Croops are receiving, to compeeently service and maintain it in a con- stant state of trouble-free perform~nce, to take an active and productive part in invention work and that of improving efficiency. In order for mili- rary engineers to rcalize these possibilities effectively, they muat possess - a great deal ot knowledge, a good general education and gond.oner.a~~. stand&rds, a broad political and m3litary perspective, and a high level of professional and ped~gogical skill. The development of the scientific and technological revolution, in con~unction ~ with other factors, has resulted in a situation in which the engineering spec- , ialty, particularly that of the military engineer, has become one of the high- ly intellecCual and creative lines of work. Combined with the population's high general educatio~ level, this has resulted in the availability of a J.3~.rge group of young people who not only desire to link their lives and work with ttie Armed Forces, but who also possess an education adequate for becoming a cpecialist in one or another military engineering field. The foundation for creating and replenishing the corps of military engineers is thus consCantly expanding, which makes its possible to provide the personnel on a more goal- oriented basis, selecting candidat~s who satisfy to the greatiest degree the . presenC large requirements made.of military engineers. Furthermore, many young specialists holding diplomas Qnter the army directly from higher civi- lian educational institutions. We have now described the main trends in the area of the scientific and tech- nological revolut3on's immediate influence on the development of engineering and technical cadres. The direct effect, however, describes only one aspect of the matter,.an analysis of which makes it possible to reveal only certain general elements r_haracteristic of the changes occurring in aii engineering cadres, without considering their specific field of endeavor. And it is im- porCant for us to explain the specific nature of those changes occurring pre- cisely in the area of military affairs. This is only possible with an analy-. sis of the scientific and technological revolution's indirect effect on mili- tary engineering cadres (those occurring as a result of the revolutionary chan~es taking place in military affairs). The nature of the present revolution in military affairs is revealed in the ~ qualitative changes b~eing made in military weapcns and equipment, in the en- ; tire materi~l and equipment base af Che forces, forms and methods of cunduct- � ing combat ogerations, the or.ganizational struct~�re of the Armed Forces and the caliber of the personnel. One of.the most im~ortant peculiarities of the present revolution occurring in military affairs, as noted above, is its close interrelationshiF with the scientific and technological, which is transforming ~ the military base of the army and navy. . 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Oit U~~ICIAL U5~ dNLY In ehe first plgce, technology ig being introduced in the forces in an in- ten~ive proc~~g; the quentity oC combt~C wenpnng nnd equipmeti~t is growin~; ull r~ervicee of the Arm~d ~'orc~s atid br~nches di troopg gre be~nming fully outfitted with mndhrn hquipmpnt; and Chp ~mnunt nf work performed by tt~~ fighting~en with eechnicr~l equipment is riaing. The goldier's work in the 5oviet Armed Forceg h~g be~n placed onto ~ base coneisting of Che lateeC technicel equipment in the form of highly dev~loped~ elecCrically powered fgcilities~ vnrious auComa~ic and semi~utom~tic ~ysCems~ computerg, re~er~nce instruments and mechanismg ensuring succegsful combat employmenti of the we~- pons. Naturally~ the incregse in Che volume of C~echnical equipment is nlso producing nn increase in the number of engineers and technician~. Ic~ th~ second place, the weapong and rombat equipment gre now more powerful nnd complex, and they dperete nt higher speedg than ever before. We know, of course, that a single 50-meg~ton thermonuclear bomb explodeg with a force exceeding that of all the explosives used in previous wars waged by mankind. The combaC capibilities of conventianal we~pons have grown. For example, it wa~ annaunced at the session of the USSIt Supreme Soviet which passed the Law "On Universal MandaCory Military 5ervice" thaC the total power of an arti~.- lery a,nd mortar ealvo by a modern motorized rifle divieion has reached 53 ton9~ exceeding the total force of such a salvo by a 1939 division more than 30 ti.mps over. The power supply per unit for a modern motorized rifle divi- sion hu~l increased IO-fold over thc 1939 leve1.10 Modern n.tlitary t~tchnology is such that it would now be practically impoasible to enum,erate all of tl~e sciences connected with the creation and production of weapons. The combat equipment is constantly improving and becoming more com- plex. Just 15 to 20 years ago, a technical device of average complexity con- sisted of 700-800 parCs and assemblies. By the beginning of the 1970's~ auch ~ a device contained around 1400-1500 parts.ll According to foreign data, the radio-electronic equipment carried by ~ modern bomber alone conbista of 75,000 to 100,000 various components. It is clear from this why the production of a jet aircraft requires ten times more work on the part of engineering r.,1d technic�al peraonnel than that of an aircraft wi*.~~ piston engines.iZ Tl:at which a;~plies to the produr.tion of equipment, however, applies to its opera- tion to an equal~ if not greater, degree. The complexity of the combat equip- ment and weapons and the need :o ma1:e them highly dependable and constantl~ ready for combat naturally means that greater and more serious demands must b~ made of the celiber of operatior~ of the combat equipment~ the full respon- sibility for which is borne by the military engineers. In addition, [he increase in the power of Weapons and the complexity of the equipment is causing them to cost more, and, consequently, military engineera have a greater responsibility to maintain the equipment in model condition, to preserve and care for it. Mcdern equipment is expensive. This explains why careful handling and cnreful operation of the equipment produces such a ~reat saving for the r.3ti~,na1 economy and explains why military engineers are expected to play such n major role in the matter. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~dit O~~ICIAL U5E ONLY In th~ third pl~cp~ Ch~ increa~ing r_omplexity of Ch~ equipmene ie resulting ~ in diversific~tion gnd increneing the compl~xity df milit~ry occupgtione~ eepe- cially the technical specialtieg. 1'he operaCion nnd eervicing of Ch~ modern miggil~g, s~bmarinee, miliCary aircrgfC and tanke demand specialieCS tn enginee, fuel ~nd fuel equipment~ radio and radio-electronic equipm~nt, misaile weapone~ electric-power engine~ring~ ih~trwnente gnd ~o forth. According to dat~ cnm- ' piled by American experta~ 37 specialist~ ar~ required Co s~rvicp mediuar rt~n;,g miesile~ in the field. A COCnl of 400 eechniciens and operaCorg are required for a eingle migeilp unit of 10 Atlae miseiiee It is therefore not eurprieing that there Wae a total nf only 15-20 military gppci~ltiea during World War number iecreaeir?g to 160 in World War II, but that there wae mor~ than 400 technicel specialCiee alone in the army by the beginning of the 1970's.~4 The :ncreaee in the number of specialisCe in the forces hag b~en ~ccompanied by an increase f.n the number of epecialtiee, the performance of which requires noe go much physical ~s mentgl work. The nature and a;ake~~p of military work gs a whole ie changing: it is becom~g incrpaeingly Cechnical, intellectual and creative. In the fourth place, the quantitetive and qualitative characteristice of mili- tary engineering pereonnel are being affected considerEbly with reapect to increased demanda being made of them by the proces~ of rapid application of the - letest discoveries in military affairs, the replacement of certain technical modele, and sometimes, entire weapona sysCems, with nea ones, and thoae, With even more modern ones, the obaolesence of equipement and its reduced service life. The time elapsing between the development of new equipment and its adoption for operational uee ie being reduced. A period of 35 years (1867-1902), for example, was required before radio could be used as a means of communication; televiaion required 14 yeara (1922-1936); the atomic bomb--6 years (1939-1945); and tranaistors--5 years (1948-1953).14 At the beginning of our century~ 20 to 30 or more years was required to d~velop an improved wegpon and outf it armies vith it, whereas this process i:~ the armiee of largex nations has now been ac,celerated 2- to 3-fold. Suffice it . to say that two or three generations of n~issilea have been replaced during the past 10 to 15 years in our nation and abroad, a considerable portion of the fleet of military airczaft, aurface ships and submarines has been renes+ed, ead the surface-to-air miseile and radar syatems~ control aad com~unication equip- ment have changed aeveral times. The time required to deaign this or that technical model aometisnes exceeda its service life in the armed forces. A J technical model sometimes becomes obsolete even before it is placed into op- erntional uae. While the complexity and diversification of military equipment demand greater ~ specialized knoaledge and lead to diveraification of the technical military ~ profesaions and to increased specialization of military engineering aork, the replacement of aeapons systems ie resulting in integration of the kno~+ledge required by the specialiat and demanding thorough theoretical training to permit the engineer to independently master the new equipmeat models, to rapid- - ly grasp the new technical concepts underlying their designs, and so forth. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~(7Et (3~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY 5cientific ~nd t~chnologicel prdgre~~ and the revolution in military gff~ir~ hu~?e thue cr~nCed ~~olid ob~pctive foundaCion for inCreeaing the number gnd improving the ~~lib~r of militgry engin~pr~, r~ieed the rol~ ~nd the i.r~pnr- ~ tance of engineers and technicians~ produced qualitative advancea in the ne- ture of mftitary pngineering work~ and plured new damattdg upnn the military ~ngineer'e profe~gional quglificatione. 2. 'I'h~ Mgk~-Up and Natur~ of Milf.t~ry ~ngineering Work Ln the preceeding parggraphn, we have digcribed Che factors producing the growCh nnd improvement o~ miliCary engineering pereonnel of. the 5oviet Armed ~or~eg. 'There ie yet another, equaily important aspect of ehe matter: What h~e the miliCary engin~er brought to the forces7 Thie questinn c~n be an- gwered by an~lyzing Che make-up nnd ngture of military engineering work. - The miliC~ry engin~~r's work repreeenCs Che socially conditioned~ purpogeful occupntion of the military engineering cadres, which fncuees on the creation, teating~ enelysis~ operation and repair of combat weapons and equipment for purposes of raising their effectiveneas and mainlaining rhem in a conetant state of operntional efficiency and combat readin~~g. The military engineer performs varioua functions in military unita (chasti) and militnry inatitutions. In the aub-units (podrazdeleniya) end units of engineer tr~oops~ he may design wegpons and direct the work of constructing them; at repair offices, he may be in charge of operations, develop techno- logy~ perform design work~ detect defects, ad~uat and test armament ayatemg; and at research institutea and testing grounds, he might investigate the com- bat and technical features of weapone and military equipment~ etmmarize teat results and develop recommendations for eltminating defecte and i~proving me- thods of employing the equipment and weapons for combat and operating them. Military engineers help to creat methods for atudying and programs for model- ing the veapons aysteme being deaigned, ueing electronic computers, and me- thods of e~ploying them for combat, and to compile instrucei~+r~v, quides and manuals on the operation and study of technical equipment '.~e military units. The oper~tion of comb~t and military equipment, however, is the moat prevalent type of engineer work in the Armed ~orcea. The engineer may direct the Work of crews performing varioua operatione or he may participate directly in the performance of t::e ~ore complicated and reaponsible operations involved in the technical servicing and readyin5 0: equipment~ the detection and elimination of malfunctions and breakdowns and :he control of the complex and crucial tech- nical equipment. Regardless a� the specific work performed by the engineer, his main task is one of ensur;ng technically competent operation of the com- br,t Weupona and military equipment and the timely and quality performance of measures to ensure that :he weapons and equipment are maintained at the re- quired high level of readiness for combat employment. And one should not lose sight of the fact that certain types of.weapons are so complex that in master- ing them, many line qenerals and officers become true scientists in their service field. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~o~ n~~icint. us~ ~NLY 'Chc ~nnc:ep~~ "th~ roxk~-up" and "thp naCur~" nf milit~ry ~ngineering w~rk ran- nnt bp g~parat~d, b~c~uge tihe functione perinrm~d by ;ailiCary ~ngineere de- r~rmine che gtructure, the focua and the specifi~ qu~lit~Civ~ agpecte of eheir . work. The nature of the wark is At the eame rime gr~atly influenced by ite matcrigl~ nnd equipm~nt baee, th~ lev~l of th~ ~p~aialisCs' ecientific train- ing, the ob~ective of th~ work~ and eo forth. 'fhe changes brought abdur in the make-up end n~ture of military engineering work by ecientific and technologicgl progrege in gen~ral~ and by eh~ revolu- tinn in militgry affairs in parCicular~ have been refl~cted primarily in the fnrm of greater special4z~tion by military engineere. The migsions of the diff.~renC service~ of the Armed Forcee, the peculi~rities of their military bgsie and the nature of th~ technical training r~ceived by the personnel d~- termine the specific f~atures of the Work performed by the miliCary engineer of a service of the Armed Forcea and hi~ professional characterisCice. Uepending on Che make-up of rhe engineer's work and hia functional duties~ Che military enginQer performe i~n one of the following main capacities: engi- neer commac~der, regimpntal engineer, deputy commander for Cechnical affairs, weapons engineer, engineer of the technical engineering service, unit engineer, engineer operator~ engineer programmer, design engineer, test engineer, staff engineer~ anc~ oChers. Naturally~ the nature of military engineering work i~ greatly determined by the type of engineer and hie field of W~rk, his epecialization, the position he occupies, and th~ aervice of the Armed Porcee or the branch of troops to which he belonga. The nature of the Work performed by the design eegineer, for example~ approachea that of scientist, while the work of an operations engineer is similar to that of a commander. The factors mentioned also have a ma~or effect on the diversification of functions (functional duties) per- formed by military engineers. The func~ions of the mieaile engineer in the Air Defense Forces, for example, differ significantly from those performed by a aquadron engineer of the Air Force or en engineer performing research on a weapone gystem in one or another reeearch organization. None the lesa, it is posaible to isolate several basic~ dominant functions, vhich most fully depict the make-~rp of all m~litary engineering Work. The fact is that the great variety of functions performed by military engi- neers have the same objective: to make the weapons and combat equipment more effective and to maintain them in a constant state of operational effici4ncy and combat readinesa. The task of improving the combat readinesa of the army and navy in the age of nuclear Wegpons and miasiles~ jet ai:~craft and radio-electronice ia a complex and multifaceted one. It is compr!sed of many factors and is achieved by means of an antire ayatem of ineaRUres carried out by commanders and staffs, political organs, party and Komsomol organizations, by all peraonnel of the Armed Porces. Since the Weapons and co~bat equipment comprise the material foundation for the combat readiness of any service of the Armed Porcea, cam- bat readiress dependa grEetl~ on the precise state of this e~~uipment. This circumstance is responaible fo: the enlarged role of the military engineer~ an important element of vhoa~ job of maint~ining combat readiness is none other than that of censt~nt?y eeeing to the state af repair, absolute relia- bility ~nd trouble-free ~�~ctioning of the combat equipment. 12 POR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Ott O~~ICIAL U5~ ONI.Y 'Chp etate of Che equipment d~fines only on~ g~pecC o� cnmbat readinese, how- ~ver. The cnmbat r~adinesa of the Armed Forces ig to a crucial degree de- termined by th~ p~opl~ who control th~ e~uipment, by the pereonnel directly involved in the combgt pmploympnt of the equipmene, ita operation and ser- vicing. T'he erg in whi~h we liv~ dict~tee the nepd for ~11 ~rmy and n~vy to be ~killed in the use of a]1 typee of w~apone and equipment and Co be ~ble to pmploy them wiChout delay and with m~ximum effectivenege. The military engineer~ who bears full responsibility for the combaC :eadiness of ehe equip- m~nt, mugt deal to an equgl degrep with th~ probleme of training and indoctri- nating the peraonnel in the intereeC of maintaining combat readineas. This ie an impoxCant part of his work. Finnlly, the collective naC~Ye nf mod~rn weapons demande skilful organization and effiCient conCrol of th~ work perfnrmed by the personnel operaring the equipm~nt and employing it for combat purpoeea, Che Cwo functiona being re- quired in th~ intereet nf improving cembat readinese. ScienCific organiza- tion of the work involved in op~rating, gervicing and providing material aupport for modern equipmenC and veapona ayatems consCitutea one of the im- portant functions of military engineering personnel. The main Cask of mili- tary pngineers, that of enauring a high level of combat readineas and opera- tional efficiency on the parC of the military equipmenC gnd servicing person- nel~ has thus given rise to such functiona as special professional, organiza- tional and control, training and indoctrinational duties, which are ahared by all categoriea of military engineers. These functiona are the m~st common and baeir one~~ in the first place~ because they reflect moat accurately the main ob~ective of the military engineer's Work and contribute to its achievement to the greatest degree. In the second place, they are standard for all typea and fields of military engineering work, regardless of the gervice of the Armed Forcee of ahich the engineer is a member, and regardlesa of his position or apecialization (al- though they are manifeated in a specific form for the varioua categories of military engineers). In the third place, these are coll~ctive functions. All other functions per- formed by military engineera are included in them as aub-functions. The man- ner in Which theae functions are related and correlated basically defines the structure of every type of work performed by the military engineer. In the foutth place, the totaS~ group of the functions singled out, in combi- nation,reveal most completely the basiz essence of the mili[ary engineer's Work, and the changes occurring in these functinns as a result of the seien- tific and technological revolution and the tevolution in military affairs reflect the correaponding changes occurring in the nature of the military engineer's work. A functional approach, ahich implies an investigation into the basic functions characterizing the military engineer's ~+ork, is there- fore required for extensive analysis of the make-up and naCure of military engineering work. 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Ott O~~ICIAL U5L ONLY ~ 51nce the~e functions are di~cus~ed in detail in eubs~qu~nC gection~ of Che bnok~ we ehall limit ourselveg to only g general discugaion of ehem aC thie poine. ~'h~ sp~Cial prnfeggion~l funcCion nf th~ military ~ngin~er'e work ia mani- fegC~d in the cre~rinn~ operation and combaC employmenC of military equip- m~nt~ In order Co perform iC, the engineer ad a technical specialiet must ' po~sese profound rheoretical knowledge~ good technical and engineering train- ing nnd precise pracCical ekille in ehe operation gnd servicing of Che mili- tary equipment. Tl~ia doeg noC exhanst the group of reyuirementa, however. In modern warfare, which ia diatinguished by exceptionally dynamic combat operstiona and the large scale of battles, operatione and engagemente~ Che military engineer'e operatiocaland Cacrical perapecCive end his ability en undereCand and implement Che commander's concept~ utilizing the capabilities of the military equipment, are of~greae importance. The technical engineer- ing specialist's military training becomes exceptionally importanC in this eituation. The military engineer'a organi~ational and control function is reflected in his ability to organize precieely and scientifically the operation and aerv:c- ing of the military equipment by the pereonnel and the mobilization and or- ganization of hia aubordinates for the performance of the missions aesigned by conmgnd. Previously, mattera of organization and control were not so acute for the military engineer, in addition to which he was in charge of fewer men and far fewer specialties. With the comtemporary revolution in military affaira, the military engineer~ who efficiently organizea the work of large technical mili- tary teams, and the operation and repair of extremely complex equipment, muat be able to freely use the skills, techniques and methods involved in aupervis- ing people. Organizational measurea to develop rationalization and invention Work in the forcea occupy a place of prominence in the activities of the modern military engineer. The search for more efficient meana of training the troops and operating the military equipment and weapons are of basic importance in the age of automation and remote control, radio-electronics and electronic com- puters. Good technic:al erudition on the part of the peraonnel, their talent, native intellegenre and initiative contribute greatly to the succeasful accom- plistuoent of this task. Thia is Why rationalization and invention Work forms an important element of the military engineer's occupation. Th~ training and indoctrinational func[ion of militarq engineers is manifeated in their ability to work Wi~h people, to train them in the use of the complex military equipment and to develop in them a spirit of communiat ideals, com- munist moral principles and standards, and the requirements contain2d in the military oath and regulations. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE flNLY r. r . . ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~ FOR O~FICIAL U5E ONLY The collective nature of modern weapone means thar each miliCary epecialtst determinee to one degree or another how reliably every unit and assembly operates, how well it is tuned and ad~uated, and how promptly and well the o- preventive mainCenance is performed. This meane Chat the miliCary engineer muet eake an gctive pnrt in all types of practical training clasaes, ~how Crue concern for improving the peraonnel's ratings and pay cloee attention Co the level of Cechnical military informarion work. The scientific and Cechnological revolution and the revolution in military affairs have created new and greater demands not only with reapect Co the training of the peraonnel buC also in the matt~r of indoctrinating them. The . Soviet officer today is not aimpLy an engineer or technician and noC ~uat a military apecialiet in the narrow sense of the wor~. He is also both a peda- gog and an indoctrinator. In order to properly seructure the training and indoctrination of hia men, an officer must not only have good political and technicel military training~ but he must also possess a certain knowledge of Che ecience of reaching and of technology. These needa make it necessary to provide extensive pedagogical training for military engineers, and army and navy engineers are provided with such training during their studies at a mili- tary WZ~ by the officer training syatem and by their practical service in the un:ta and sub-units. The following must ba mentioned as we complete our functional analysis of the make-up and nature of the military engineer's work. In the first place, the basic aepects of military ~ngineering work wh,'.ch we have considered are extremely fluid and dynamic. Each of them acquires greater or lesser apecific weight in comparison with the others, depending on the mili- tary engineer's field of speciaYization, the position he occupies and the service of the Armed Forces or the branch of troopa in which he ser~ves. The individual functions have specific substance, which differs considerably for the different categories of military engineering personnel. Finally, the sub- stance of these functions ie not the same for the different phases in the de- velopment of military theory and practice. In the second place, theae functions are closely interrelated; they influence each other significantly and are manifested in dialectical unity. Disregard for any one of them therefore has an immediate, negative effect on the others. In contrast, the.successful :ealization of each apecific function increases the prob~bility that the remaining functions will also be effectively per- formed. In the third place, the trend toward the convergence of the duties performed by the military engineer and those of the commander is becoming increasingly clearly defined under the effects of the revolution in military affairs. We are speaking of a peculiar synthesis of those features and qualities charac- teristic of the work performed by both the commander and the engineer within - a single individual. While there were formerly certain grounds for distribut- ing duties according to the principle "the commander works with people, While 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR O~FICIAL U5E ONLY Che engineer worke wiCh equipment~" the concepCa "line commander" aed "stricC- ~ ly ~n engineer" are now becoming archaic. Natura].ly, working ~airh people is atill one of ~'~e moet important aepects of Che commander'~ work~ ~u6t aa work- ing wiCh equlpmene continuea to be the engine~r'~ primary duty. 'Thie in it- self is no longer adequate, however. The work performed by the commander wiCh equipment, like Che engineer's work dealing with people, is no lese imporCanC. This can be fully explained., The forc~s are extenaively provided with Cechni- cal equipment, and the acomplishment of ehe taek of keeping Che unita and the sub-uniCa in a state of readiness, which is now the main aspect of the com~?an- der's work, therefore depende aignificantly on the state and performance of thar equipment. Vic~ory in a battle will also be greatly detet~r?ined by the abtlity "to exrract" from the equipment ever~~thing it has to offer. The com- - mander's performance of his operationel and tactical. mis~iona is tht.reforp linked Co hie ability to make good uae of the diverse modern equipment. Fur- thermore, Coday's commander muat noC only kno+a the technical specifications - of the combat weapone and the posaibilities for uaing them effectively under ` various batele conditiona, buC musC also pay conatant atCention Co the battle readineas of Che tech~ical equipment and deive into many of the finer points ~ of the servicing,�operation and repair work. The technical.suoport aapect of . keeping the uniCa and sub-units combat-ready must therefore be considered an important element of the coro~emporary commander's range of functional duties. On the other hand, the military engineer today cannoC keep the equipment opar- ating smoothly and in a constant atate of ;:ombat readiness or organize its operation without working with people, wirll the personnel servicing and oper- ating that equipment, painstakingly and on a daily basis. In addition. many caCegories of engineering and ~echnical personnel are directly in charge of military-technical collectives, of which they are the sole commaaders. Final- ly, and this is especially important, the contemporary engineer not oc~ly organ- izes the operation of the equipment and readies it for combat, he also has a direct role in its combat employment. Engineers perform responaible and com- plex combat tasks in the proceas of p~erforming combat alert duty in the Strate- gic Missile Forces, at the command poats of various air defense radar facil- � itiea, and so forth. In this case, the engineer's decision is at the same time the commander's decision in the full senae of the word. When he makes a decision as to the atate of repair or disrepair of the airborne equipment on an aircraft. for example, the engineer is thereby also making a commander's decision as to whether the aircraft permitted to fly, and ~?e bears full responsibility for his decision. The military engineer's range of duties ; is thus increasingly including elements Which were alWays considered the ex- ' clusive prerogative of�the com~ander. ; This proceas is reflected in the daily affairs of the Armed Forces: many engi- neers now serve as commanders, and there are engineer commaad~rs in the mis- sile units, engineer pilots in the air force, technician co~anders and mechan- ic commanders in the other branches of troops and aervicea of the Armed Forces. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR O~~ICIAL US~ dNLY ~ None of thi~ means, of courae, Chat every engineer ahould become a commander. Nor does it mean that the commander should be replaced by the enginPer or thaC Cheir functiona ahould merge completely. The dutiea and auChoriCy of each are clearly apelled nuC in r~gulationa, manuals, instructions and ordera. We are apeaking only of a certain degree of change occurr~ng in the make-up of these functional duties. The changea indicated are also reflecCed and eeC forth in the proper military documents and are defined by those docwnents. All of Chis menns Chat the modern commander muat poasess the proper sc3enti- fic knowledge permitting him to analyze problems perCaining to the operation of equipmen~ wiCh Cechnical aompeCence, and thaC the engineer musC have a basic knowledge of tactics, operational art, and so forth, eo serve him as reliable guidelinea for making proper decieiona on the combat employment of the equipment. Summing up what we have eaid, we can aCaCe that the military engineer now aerves as a well-Crained theoretician, who resolves complex scientific and - technical problems, and as a practical operator, who underatands all of the _ finer points of the equipment and gear and participaCes directly ~n the ex- tremely complex technological processes. He embodiea the qualitie~ of Che skilful organizer, scientifically directing the military team's work of aer- vicing, operating, repairing, preserving and protecting Che milita~y equip- ment and combat weapons, and of an inspired innovator, a champion of every- thing new and progressive, directing Che work of army efficiency experts and inventors and making a personal contribution to this work. Finally, he is a skilled pedagog and instructor, responsible not only for the technical train- ing of all the personnel, but also for the effective combat employment of the weapons and combat equipment entrusted to the fightingmen, and a skilful and sensitive indoctrinator bearing full responsibility for the moral-political and psychological conditioning of those under him. The researcher, the practi- cal en~ineer, the engineer inventor and efficiency expert, the engineer organ- izer, the e*?gineer pedagog, the engineer indoctrinator and, finally, the engi- neer commander--these are only a few of the main facets of the military engi- neer's work. In this secCion we have concentrated mainly on those factors which have in- fluenced the changes occurring i.n the military engineer's work and the direc- tion taken by those changes, and, consequently, on the make-up and nature of his work. The analysis contained therein was presented for purposes of demon- strating precisely what the engineer has to do, and why. Equally important is the question of precisely how the military engineer can successfully per- form his numerous and multifaceted functions, what specific set of tools he has to work with, what methods and forms of professional, or~anizational, prac- tical, training and indoctrinational work he should employ, what specific knowledge he should possess and what qualities he must develop in himself in order to achievethis. 3. The Military Engineer as a Technical Specialist The military engineer's individual qualities are manifested to the greatest degree in his activities as a tachnical specialist. It is precisely this area of work which makes it pos~ible to separate the engineer from the gen- eral group of servicemen, ta raveal the military engineer's personality as . 17 FO:: OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR nFFICIpy USE ONLY a sub~ecC of study. The technicel engineering wor_k performed by apecial- _ ~rg in Chis catggory affecCa the work of aub-units and units of the SovieC Armed Forces in a apecific manner. The individual's mnin p~raonal qualltiea can be revealed by ieolating in the military engineer's work Chose operations which he performa as a t'echnical specialist, and by analyzing the requirements made of him by this area of hia work. The main quality characterizing the military engineer as a technical apecial- ist ia his acientific erudition and the ecope of his Cechnical perspective. Thia quality is so important primarily because the wo-rk performed by the mili- tary engineer in the operation of complex modern equipment can in no way be ; reduced to a matter of carcying ouC ready inatructions alone. The engineer operator has to rapidly resolve non-standard creative problema perCaining to . the specific operating conditione of a,facility conaisting of many different , devices, Misaile facilities, for example, may include camplex mechanical ele- _ menCs, pneumatic and hydraulic syatems, electro-mechanicaa. and electronic control syatema, as well as radio, heat and chemical aystems and devices. In order to provide opCimal conditiona for all of Chese complex devicea, the sol- dier operating the complex equipment must have a high level of technical sophis- tication, and the engineer operator muat demonatrate a high level of creaCive energy in hie work. . Special atudies performed in the United States for purposes of revealing the causea of low reliability on the part of various weapons have clearly demon- strated that an awarenesa by military operatora of Che technical and creative . importance of their work constitutes an extremely important condition for im- proving the reliability of weapona and combat equipment. It would not be an overstatement to say that the trouble-free operation of the equipment is a service no less important than its development. This means that the engineer must have a detailed knowledge of the equipment and be able to apply sc'enti- fic recommendations in practice. The servicing and operation of modern military equipment, which incorporates the latest achievements of modern acientific and technical thought, require highly skilled specialists with a broad and thorough theoretical background ~ and a thorough knowledge of special disciplines, a good~i~astery o~.desiga con- cepts, a~faa~iliarity with the basic principles of the technology employed in the manufacture of the equipment being operated and of the control and mea~ suring instrumenta, and praatical akill in working on the~equipment. Given the increasing complexity of military equipm~nt and of the operating ~ ' methods, there is increasing responsibility for'the engineer's decisions, ! thorough and complete reasoning for which is provided by a detailed analysis of the specific situation and by the performance and study of a large number ~ of mgthematical computations making it possible to provide quantitative sub- ' stantiation and to adopt the most optimal decision. This is impossible with- ~ ~ out a knowledge of and without akilful employment of such quantitative ana- ~ lytical methods as mathematical statistics, the theory of mass servicing, in- vestigative theory, mathenatical planning, mathematical modeling, and game theory. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ' � , . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OR OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY Mathematical methode now penetraCe deeply into milieary eng3neering p~ac- tices and are becoming an integral part~of Che engineer's work~ MathemaCi- ca1 statietics, for exmaple, permit the engineer not only t.r. procesa infor- mation on equipment failures gcienCifically, but also to predicC the poasi- biliey of their occurance. A�knowledge of m,9ss aervicing theory permiCs the engineer to ouCline optimal plane for servicing the equipmenC, taking inCo account the capabilities of peraonnel under his command, and to properly determine the moat import~nt areas of the work. The scientific and Cechnological revolution hae made it n~ceaeary for the _ eng3t~eer to deal with an enormous and conetanCly increasing flow of techni- cal military information~ The apeed and accuracy of the Cechnical decisions adopted depend greatly on the promptneas and quality of the informat3on pro- ceasing. ~'he extenaive uae of electronic computers is becoming highly im- portant ae a result. Electronic computers, however, are only g technical means of reinforcing the engineer's capabilities and improving the efficiency of his work. '~'hey are not capable of replacing the engineer's creative think- ing, initiativ~~ or will. He alone, ueing a11 of the diverse information, in- cluding that which does not lend itaelf to machine processing, makes the engi- neering decision, assigns the taeks to the men under him, organizes and moni- tors their performance. A thorough underatanding of the peculiaritiea of the equipment being operated and the design of and the technology for servicing an element of a gi~~n type of equipm'ent or weapon, and an underatanding of the nature of the phyaical . processes occurring in the machines and mechanisms and the principles of their interaction and functioning are of extremely great importance in the engineer's practical work. Engles wrote the following: "No aware soldier should be igno- rant of the principlea involved in the designing of his weapon or of how it should perform."15 This ia all the more essential for today's military engi- neer, since such knowledge, combined with practical skill, permits the engi- neer to work expertly on Che equipment entrusted to him, to handle it freely, to perform its technical servicing well and in good time, to constanCly main- tain optimal operating conditions for the equipment, to skilfully eliminate this or that malfunction and to take timely steps to av~ert their occurrence. The engineer who lacka practical akills in working on the equipment is not .capable of efficiently directing and monitoring the work of thoae under him, of providing them with prompt assistance or of filling in for thia or that specialist in his service, should the need arise. It is one thing to know all of the mechanisms, units, assemblies and parts making up a certain tech- nical system, and another--to be able to operate it with eechnical competence, to inspect it well at,the right time and using the proper methods, to check its performance, twne, ad~ust ar.d repair it. , Practical skill requirea knowledge but~does not automatically result from it. As a rule, therefore, even military engineers with a good theoretical and technical background do not achieve good results in their work if they do not attempt to und~ratand all of the finer points and peculiarities involved . 19 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ? ~OR OI~'~ICIAL USE ONLY in operaring the equipment entruated Co them and do noC attempC Co acquire prnctical akills in aervicing it. In order Co achieve auccesa, iC is abso- ~ lutely esaenCial ~kilfully Co combine theoretical knowl.edge wiCh practical experience. In order for the military engineer to combine theory and practice in his work, he muat be able to perform well the entire range of ~obs done by those under hia command, to check and ad~uat any asaembly in the equipmene entruated to him, to detect and eliminate a malfunction even when it is not within the range nf his funcCional duties. Ir is when he ia acCually working with the equipment that the engineer checka the validity and effectivenesa of his Cheoreeical knowledge, obCaina and re- inforcea his practical akills, acquires confidence in himself and develops as an engineer. There is no other way for him to acquire those invaluable qu~lities out of which engineering intuitian and professional perceptivity ~ gradually develop and grow, and they are what help the specialist to deCer- mine the state of the equipment, Co point out a mal�unctioning part and deter- ~ mine the cause from barely discernable signs, from barely noticeable deviations in the parameCers, sometimes at a single glance and sometimes by the sound. We could give many examplQS of such professional skill. The following is ~uat ocie of them. During an exercise, the repair battalion commanded by Engineer- LC. Col. A. M. Yeromakhov was assigned Che mission of entering the area , of "combat" operations and repairing tanks which had been put out of action. One of the tanks was being repaired by a group of specialists headed by Ser- geant N. Anisimov. The vehicle began operat3ng again within the alloted time, and the commander was ready to turn it over to the driver-mechanic. Lieuten- ant Colonel A. M. Yeromakhov is an experienced specialist, however. He deter- mined that something was wrong from the rumble of the moving vehicle. When, at his insistance, all of the final drive assemblies were checked, it was dis- covered that mistakes had been made when the pinions and bearings trad been replaced. This had resulted in barely perceptible, extraneous noises, which ' had alerCed the engineering officer. ~ Or take the following case. Upon examining the causes of a drop in voltage ' in the radar ~ammer, Engineer-Captain V. I. Shishov suggested that the valve diodes in the power supply unit were bad. ; "I checked the diodes, and they are all good," Lieutenant Goroshkov ob~ected. ; "No, that is where the prablem lies," the engineer-captain repeated. Two i diodes were immediately replaced. � , "You see, I told you..." Gorshkov could not refrain from saying, when he saw that the replacement of the two diodes had not produced the desired results. . "Bring me some more diodes. These have probable been at the warehouse too ~ long," Shishov directeds and bent over the circuit again. When other diodes . were delivered and inseLted without eliminating the problem, the technician fell into a triumpha:et silence, waiting for the engineer to'~apitulate." . 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ � . . ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR O~FICIAI. USE ONLY , "We ehall ~uat have to replace them again. Do we have more diodea"? This time, to the technician's grenr surprise, the voltage rekurned to normal. - Thie is what it means to be confident of ones knowledb~e and experience. This ie what ie meana Co be a real engineer. We can only add Chat it was natural for the officer in this case to have confidence: Engineer-Captain Vladimir Ivanovich Sh~shov is one of the besC apecialists in m~i.ssile unit "X" of Che . National Air Defense Forces. During his period of service in the unit, he has received 20 rationalization proposal certificates. There has never been a Cime when Engineer-CAptain Shishov has lefC his work station without com- pleting the ~ob or has rPfused to help a colleague. He generously shares his extensive know-how with the young officers and his subordinates, and serves as secreCary of the party organization. Not so long ago, when the technical equipment was not overly complex and was relatively standardized, the technical work performed by an engineer in a military unit consiated �ln periodically checking the technical state of the equipment used and the quality of the technical servicing. Malfunctions in such equipment could be identified and there,fore, eliminated, by the battle crew, using the exhaustive instructions contained in operating documents. Zn the case of complicated malfunctions not covered in the instructions, the tech- nical equipm~nt,was aent to rnpair agencies and replaced~with~items tn working order from~reaerve stocks. The situation ia different complex equipment is being used. It is expen- sive and impractical to kee~, in the unit a complete set of parts for replacing those which break down. The great range of possible malfunctions of such equip- ment, which consists of hundreds of thousands of elements, makes it a problem - to compile doctments which list all of the possible equipment failures and their indicationa. In many cases, the time required to remove malfunctioning equipment ai:~' :aplace it with equipment in good working order may considerably exceed the time required by a skilled specialist for and pinpoint malfunctions. At th~ same time, the inCerdependence and complex nature of this equipment reduces the unit's fighting capability when individual units of equipment break down: it is impossible Co use even the good equipment without the malfunctioning unit~. In Chis situation, breakdowns of the technical equipment must be prevented by skilful prognostication, and when they do occur, the defect must be detected rapidly and the malfunctioning 3~vice's efficiency restored by adjusting or repairing it. The deCection a~ malfunctions requires competent technical diag- nosis, a thorough understanding of the design arrangement of the technical equipment and a clear understan~ing of the physical processes involved in its operation. The engineer's search for defects can be compared with emergency - treatment performed by a medic--there is no time for referring to manuals, the responsibility is great, and people expect skilled and effective deci- sions and action of the individual. Experience has shown that it takes considerably more time to find a defect than to eliminate it. The possibility of reducing the time spent pinpointing a malfunction depends mainly on the engineer's erudition and skill, on his 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR 0~'FICIAL U5E ONLY capable application of Che rules governing technical diagnosis. The engi- ' neer's akill is manifesCed in his ability ro make a decision on Che basis of a few indirect symptomq, without dismantlin~ rhe equipmenC for a direcC in- apection or for testing. Breakdowns of the complex equipm~nt cannot be prev:nted by performing the regularly scheduled Cechnical maint~nance alone. The techaical condition uf ~ the equipment being operated can only be actively controlled by care~ully ana- lyzing irregularities, determining the connection between the regular occur- rance of malfunctions and the general paCCern of irreg~:la~itiea, and perform- ing additional technical servicing measures in connection wiCh the occurrance of irregularitiea and changes in the technical performance of the equipmenC. We are essentially talking about the conCrolled operation of equipMent. The , ob~ect of control in this case is the technical condiCion of the eq~n~pnent being operated. Ttie irrelugarities dealt with are various changes occurring in the operating coitditions: environmental condiCions, raCe of consumption of ~ service life, transportation conditions and distances, and other similar fac- tors. Various types o~ ~echnical servicing serve as the controlling act3ons. , Systematic, quantaCive analysis of both the irregularities and the ~'ojc~ct's , reactions to them is required in order to creat the conditions for controlled operation. Only this type of identification can provide a aolid basis for working out and implementing control actions. As a rule, the connections between the processes are not obvious. They are revealed by determinirig how the processes influence each other. This is ac- _ complished by comparing and summarizing a large number of observations and , measurements. Only the individual with a combination of the qualities of a , practical specialist $nd a thorough investigator can make efficient use of , such a volume of information and determine how the processes influence each � , other, without "drowning in the sea of information." This information can, of course, also be generalized adequately outside the military unit--at the control center for the operation af a given type of equip- ~ ment, but same irregularities demand that fhe operator engineer take immediate ' steps to confine their effects (technical confinement servicing), to prevent damaging effects from adverse actions which have already taken place (compen- sating technical servicing) and to eliminate defects (restorative technical servicing). The situation which we have discussed graphically demonstrates how items of i weaponry have changed qualitatively under contemporary conditions. They can ~ ' no longer be regarded as simple technical devices. The technical condition of a weapon is inseparably linked with the work of the specialist servicing the , item. This circumstance fore~s us to take a new approach to the study of an object and the ensurance of its functioning, regarding it as a"man-machine" system or an anthropo-technical system. 22 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~UR d~~LCtAL USL ONLY A chnnge in tt~e dt~r~ nf a~nmplpx gy~Cem~d np~rgtinn C~n nn lc~nger b~ dia- cribed by mean~ of d~rr~rmingntg~ 'Th~ re~iprocgl influpnc~ of the proCe~~e~ rar~ anly be r~ve~lpd ~Cgti~eiC~lly by th~ cdmbined pra~e~~ing of g lgrge volump of detg nn g vgri~tion in Chp ge~te of on~ or mc~r~ obj~Ct~ dver n long period of actunl nppratinn~ ~'I~i~ t~~k c~n nnly b~ performed by u~ing electrnnic digital computere ~nd eppc~el~ m~th~maeic~l gtatietice metliods, ~nd regr~~~ion~ corr~l8ti~ci ~nd fa~~dr~ ~n~lyei~ m~ehod~. Most sp~ciali~t~ noa have flCGE!tl8 t~ thpge m~gna, du~ td ~h~ broad gv~il~bi- lity nf electroniC Comput~r~~ Clectronic computere ~r~ exCengit?ely ug~d in vgridus ~t~g~g nf the pngineer'~ work. They incre~~e Che enginper'~ ~~p~biliey with r~~pecC tn the perform- en~ce of logic, ecientific and technicgl, ~ngin~~ring and org~nizatidngl tg~ks, end ere ueed to gpeed up thp perform~nce of verioug engineering end techniCal computerione and ns elemenC~ of auCc~metie cuntrol eygeemg. By using modern computerg, the miliCary engineer cae gp~ the n~ture nf v~ri- ous effecte, whict~ permite hi:n to deliberately influpnce ehe proc~eee~ in- vcalved in the operation of weapons and military pquiproent. ~urthermnre, ~ detailed undergtanding vf the aeapone gyatemg ~nd the proc~sees occurring within their elementa, and gyetematic obeerver~on of thege proceegee permtt the skilled epecialiet Cn detecC changea occurring in the condition of the elements and to ad~uet them, deliberately and~ eometimee, intuitively. Like the artist who is cepable of dietinguiehing up to 20 gradationg of a gingl~ color or a textile worker who cnn dietinguish up to 40 ehades of black, th~ skilled engineer operator devQlop~ an eepecielly eeneitive perception aith regpect to the condition of the unit npprated. All of theee circumstances account for the fact that the dependability of weapons and military equipment is directly dependent on the skill of the per- sonnel servicing it (see table). Table. Reliability Index for Radio Equipment of Varying Degreeg of Com- plexity Operated by Specialiets aith Different Skill Levelsl6 Specielist training verage time (hours) of trouble-free opera- level ion of rgdi~ equipment consisting of n ele- ents n1~200,000 2~90~000 n3~260 Alternating personnel Who have completed brief training courses 0.74 1.7 960 Technicians 10 22 8~000 ~ngineers 70 155 56,000 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~~Et n~'~ICIAL US~ GNLY It is Cle~r frrm th~ t~bl~ th~t rh~ wnrk p~rfdrmed by eh~ pngin~~r in tih~ forceg end hi~ ekill level are n~ ~t~te import~nre, ginr~ r~iging the r~li- ~bility nf ue~pon~ eyarem~ fr~e~ capnciCipg at thp ene~rprigpg prdducing thu~~ Ny~thm~ end ~pare p~rtg fdr t1~em, ~nd thege egpaciti~g can be used Eor other production purpo~eg. 'Che e~ble ~i~a ~haw~ that the index of reii~- gbility i~ an exerpmely fmportant oppr~tinn~i fgctior. IC det~rmine~ the ec~m- bat c~p~bility of the we~pnng syge~m~ ~nd eh~ir ~1~m~ntg ~nd ig a function nnt nnly nf th~ qu~liey of th~ technical ~quipmpnt but al~n of thp ~~iiL of ehe p~rgonnel servicing th~ ~quipm~nt. Thi~ poine i~ ~noth~r graphic con- firmgtion of Che f~rt thgt modern ~quipmenC gnd thp per~onnpl eprv, it mu~t be reg~rded ~g ~~ingl~ "man-m~rhin~" ~yetem, the prop~rti~s of which gr~ d~tprmin~d by both enmponente~ Americ~n ~xp~rta believe that human error reducea th~ dependabiltty of mie- ~ile gyseem~ by 20-40 p~rcent, ~nd in som~2 cage~ improper human ~ctione ar~ the c~ug~ of more thgn half of th~ mieeion f~ilur~g A high level of pereunal digcipline ~nd etrtct obaerv~nce of technicai ~nd technn].ogical diecipline on the part di the militery engineer hgve gn organ- izing effece on thp personn~l end are one of the rhief factorg reaponsible for mnint~ining g high level af batt].e readiness and fighCing cepability on the p~rC of the troops. This ie due to the fact thet modern aeapone and mili- tery equipa~nt cen only be in a battle-ready state and perform their functions gt the required level~ When the periodic technical servicing is performed well end nt the proper time. The milltary engineer determines to a great de- gree whether th~ procedure for performing this work and for operating the ~quipment becomeB a ateadfaet laa for each technical sub-unit, for each epecialiet. Specific aspecte of military discipline~ technical and technological diaci- pline are reflected in this work of the military engineer. The former demandB the aubstantiated resolution of probleme, based only on currenC technical standardg and methoda aet forth in orders and directivea, ahile the latter requiree careful adherence to the establiehed technology for perf.orming all of the jobe. The obaervance of atrict technicai and technological discipline ensuree the precise execution of instructions contained in guiding and oper- ating documents on maintaining prescribed operating conditions for the aea- pone and militery equipment. periodic inapection and monitori~g of their tech- nical condition, timely and quality perfonaance of periodic maintenance Work and strict adherence to the procadur~ and the methodg for performing it. in- cluding proper preparation of the cambat equipment for use. Careful monitoring of the performance of all operations required by the oper- ating instructions ia a manifestation of technological diacipline. This is eapecially important, becauae chese instructione are the result of a aummari- zation of many years of experience in operating Lhe combat equipment. l~ailure to perform the operations required by the operating instructione or violation oE the set rules is a violation of the technology for operating Weapons eys- tems and can entail seriou8 consequences. 24 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Ott d~F~IGtAL U5~ dNLY N~eur~ily, th~ in~tru~tion~ ~hduld ndt bp r~gnrded g~ dogrn~. Under ehe ~uppr- vi~inn c~f cnmm~ndpr~~ p~liticnl w~rk~r~ ~nd miiieary engine~ra, th~ p~rennnpl con~t~ntly improve th~ ~tanderdg g~t for th~ dperation gnd rnmbgC emplnympnC ef militacy equipment. And thig i~ g naCur~l rrend in rhp dev~lopm~nt of th~ technicsl mi1lt~~y might of th~ Snvi~t Arm~d ~brce~. It i~ furth~red by the ~ctiv~ r~tionalizAtion vdrk c~rri~d nut in eh~ fora~~. Teehniral and ~~ehc~o- iogical diecipline muat ~leo b~ ~x~rci~pd in r~tinn~lis~ti~n wdrk, hoaever. In thi~ c~ae~ ie r~quirpg Chat r~tionglix~tion proposa~g Which h~vp be~n aorked out not be adopted until eh~ varioue eff~ct~ of th~ propog~d ch~nges have bepn Anglyz~d gnd th~y hav~ b~pn ~pprdved by the ~g~ncy over~~eing the op~r~t:on of rhe given type of equipm~nt. The militgry ~ngineer's profe~eional Cpchnical acCiviCiee ~re thug div~rse nnd multifacetpd. Th~y requir~ good perform~nce ~nd investig~tive qualitiee. initiativ~ and a creative approach to th~ aelpction and perform~nc~ of taeke~ cnmbin~d w~th thorough evalu~eion of propoealg ~nd ~trict technical and tpch- nological diecipline, per~onal t~chni~~l knowl~dge ~nd ~kill~~ end Ch~ abiliCy co urilixe the informgtinn contgin~d in nper~ting ingrrucriong gnd td expand one'~ knoaledge in a proc~s~ ~f ~ystem~tie eelf-educ~tion. The mor~ highly developed theee quelities gre in the military ~ngine~r, the ~ore succegeful ie hig profe~eional work gnd the greaCer his influence on the proc~g~ of op- erating the aeapone and militgry equipment, which provideg the Cechnical ~up- port for accomplishing the combgt mieaione agsigned the military unit and the Armed Forces as a whole. The importance and the guiding nature of the~milit~ry engineer's technical work gr~ also reflected in the fact thet the role of the engineer, who ensures the maetery~ effective uae and trouble-free employment of the weapone aystems, ie highly valued by the CPSU Central Committee and the Soviet Government. A lar~e number of militgry engineers have been awarded orders and medels for their succeases in the testing and incorporation of the latest Cypes of Wea- pona and military eqaipment. The contribution made by military engineers to military acience and to the development of military equipment hae brought many of them Lenin and State prizea and the honorary title "Dietinguished Scientist and Technician." The university degree of doctor or candidate of to;,iinical or chemical sciences had been conferred upon a large number of engi- neers. 4. The Operational-Tactical Train:ng of Military Engineerinq Personnal We f~ave alrendy said that two aspecte of the military engineer's aork, the strictly military~ commander's s:ork, and the engineering and technical aide are increasingly merging in orsanic ur,ity in his activitiea. It is already difficult to diatinguish thEm on a practical level. This situation makes it neces3ary to provide military engineers with both technical and operational- tactical training. A number of circumstances have brought about the enlargement of the role of operational-tactical training for military engineering personnel. Ie the first place, operational-tactical training makes the engineer of the Soviet 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Oti d~FICtAL U5~ ONLY Arm~d ~orces a miliC~ry ~p~ciali~t. ~n Che aecnnd pl~e~, it clog~ly link~ nll af thp forme nf hi~ woric With th~ mig~~nn~ p~rfurmed by eh~ forc~~ en m~intein combat readine~e and to preparefor ~nd conduct comb~t operatinns~ In the third plncp, op~r~tional-tactical er~ining develop~, improvee gnd ex- p~nd~ rhe milieary engin~er'A perspe~eiv~ a eommander (hi~ operation~l- t~ctiCel gcnpe) nnd tii~ dffic~r qualiti~s, gnd make~ iC p~~gibl~ for the ~ngineer and rh~ cummand~r to perform ~~ch other'~ dutiee. Good operarion~l- t~crical eratning ig esperi~lly ~~sential for guch groupg of military engi- neering ppreonnel g~ engin~~r commandprg, depuey eommanders for C~chnical dff~ir~, ~nd ~o forth~ Whut dn we m~gn by the operaCional-tgctical training af the miliCary ~ngineer? A milirgry ~ngineer'g oper~tional-tactic~l training is the syeCeeu of �114.Bary kndwl~dge, abilirie~ ~nd eki11~ nece0eary for him to eucceegfully perform the funceional duties required ~t engineerin~, cocnmand ~nd etaff po~ts for direct- ing units and sub-uniC~ during preparations for gnd the performance of combat ta~ke in vgrious situation~ ~nd for maintaining the aeapone gnd military equipment in a coneCanC state of readinese for effpctive ~mployment. It em- brnce~ ehe study of a brogd ranee ~f matters pertaining to military affairs ag a whole and to military art apccifically. An enalyeig of the work performed by a military engineer in the forcea shoas that hi~ operational-tactical training includes~ firat and forenwgt~ a kno~r- ledge of the baeic principles of Soviet military acience and military doctrine and of the role and miesions of the various services of the Armed Porces and branch~s of troops and of this or that aeapon eystem in a poasible war of th~ futurp. An extremely important are~ of military knrn+ledge for engineering personnel of the Soviet Armed Forcea is their knowledge of the combat char- acteristics and capabilities of the aeapons and combat equipment posaeeaed by units (chasti~ soyedineniya) of their aervice of the Armed Forcea (or branch of troops)~ the procedure for readying them for combat employment and methods for using them effectively in combat. . The military engineer is required to have A thorouah knoa?ledge of the organi- zation of the battle order of units in the various types of battles, of the methods and forms of combat operations performed by the troops in varioue situatione in accordance With the requirements seC forth in combat regula- tiona and menuals, of matcera pertaining to the control of unita and sub-unite in nll phases of their aork, and of the nature of ineasures providing all- ~round support for the combat operations of units and sub-units, and Ways of accomplishing them. The peculiarities of Warfare in a situation involving the use of nuclear vea- pona make it necessary to know the procedure for taking steps to protect per- sonnel against veapona of mass deatruction and to protect radio comaunicatioo equipment against jamming. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 I~OR O~FtCIAL U5~ ONLY '~h~ mt~tCnry rn~inrrr ia fnmillnr wlth rhh t~chniqu~~n ~nd rh~ nr~~nizaeinnai fnrmp n[ ereining Cdr trncl~ing thr ppr~onn~l t~ p~rform ~ki1fu11y ~nd with coordin~tion in th~ ~rdmpl3ghmpnt of Combge mi~~ion~~ A gnnd knoal~dg~ of the armed forcea of lik~ly enemi~e, rhp mili~ary-political netur~ ~nd ~he ~ubat~nce of Cheir miliCery daetrine, the methode and meane by Which the pnemy conducte and count~r~cC~ r~di~ r~cann~ie~~nc~~ and go forth, ar~ of coneiderabi~ importance in hi~ aork. . A1~ knoviedge naturally becomee valuable if it ig akiifully applied on g practical lev~~. rher~ ie a fairly broad rgng~ of ~obg, in the performgnc~ of which the militery ~ngin~~r h~~ nped of military knoai~dg~. Thie inc3:udes th! _ practic~l implebentation of th~ requirem~nt~ r~ee forCh in fi~ld mgnuale and r~gulation~ during preparatione for and the conduct of cuairaC operation~ by units and eub-units, end th~ development of practicnl control documente aed their uge ~+hen preparing for and performing combat missinn~; apprni~81 of the radiation and chemical situa~ion, and th~ deveiopmenr of propogalg for deciding uhgt action thp pereonnel ehouid takp when there ie contamination wiCh r~dioactive or toxie subgtanceg; the ~doptinn of a deci~ion to re~tore the fighting capacity of units and sub-unit~ following a nuclear etrike by the enemy; the developmenC of rpcommendetione for Che command~r aith reepect to rpeolving probleme arising during the course of combat opergtione; th~ development and performance of ineaeures to incre~sp thp gub-units' ability to ~urvive and to prepgre the pereonnel for the performance of coiabat miasione in any aituation; control of eubordinate sub-units; the planning and conduct of combat and political training classea in the units gnd eub-units, aed othere. Military engineering peraonnel receive operatlonal-tactical training both While studying in military educationai institutione and during their practi- cal work in the force$. The knrn+ledge, abilities and ~kiiig acquired by the military engineer as a result of this training form the foundation ahich per- mits him to perform hie vast and crnaplex dutiea Well at practically any post in the forces. Naturally~ the depth of the operational-tactical knoWledge required by the military engineer depends greatly on his functional duties. Along With a kno~rledge of general military affaire, for example~ it is important for the ~ngineer filling the position of etaff and armament eervice officer to have a detail~d knoaledge of the princ*_ples involved in orgaaizing�and planning combat operations and to know haw to organize preparations for them and to conduct them under various conditiona. The ability to direct the Work of subordinates is one of the Soviet military engineer's important and essential qualities, regardleas of his post in the forces. Since a12 of che work perfo nned by the commaader and the engineer in the forces involves administrative Work, ve ahall diecug~ this area of the military engineer's operational-tactical training in greater detail. 27 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 I~OR bt~F~CtAL US~ ONLY Sei~ntifiz eupetwi~i~n d� th~ trdop~ r~~uir~~ thp magt ~r~ur~e~ po~~ibi~ dcCdunting nf ~11 df Che ~dndieion~ ~nd ~ircwn~r~nceg under whi~h the uait~ nnd gub-unit~ p~rform th~ ~~gign~d aomb~t mi~~ion. "'~h~ eommgndpr'~ ~rt i~ mgnife~tpd in hia g~du~eyth~ bpsecre~uie~~in ~$giv~n ~ituaeiongt hie~nd~ie~COA~a1 tho~~ which ~ill pr giv~n Cime."1~ 'fh~ compl~xiey of ehe W~~pona ~nd equipm~ne aieh which ehp troopg gre out- fiee~d con~iderably height~ng ehe demandg mad~ of ~11 control ~gpncies ~nd offici~l~. 'I't~ey muat dpe~rmine th~ combar m~~eion~ for th~ troop~ prompely and ~~curgt~ly, in grcordanc~ aith ~hp troop~' c~pabilities ~nd thp combat ch~ract~rigtice of the v~apong, thoroughly p~gn impending combae oper~ti~n~~p gnd direct th~m continuously ~tnd efficiently. The men muet thoroughly g eh~ gg~~gned comb~t mie~ions. have a clear picture of the merhod~ to be used for conducting combaC operer;:..:~s and d~monetr~te prud~ne initiative and per- gi~tenc~ to pngur~ absolut~ and timely execution of the combat misaion. Non~ of rhis cgn be achi~ved vithout a thorough und~rgrgnding of th~ tgctic~ of eomb~t operations ~ed the rombat emplc~ynaent of varioue typps of weapons e~d of the different ~gpecte nf troop contro~, and aithout a knos~rledge of the fi~ld regulatione and in~tructiong and their fulfillmeet by all militgry engineprg. A solid underst~nding of regu~ations ~nd the abi~ity to apply them in th~ practical troop control work give~ th~ military engineer the neceegary courage, determir,ation and persistence for the performance of any mis~ion. The highly dynamic nature of combat operations today and the frequent and abrupt alteration of aituetions resulting fran the ::ee of nuclear Weapons require that the engineer, the same as the commander, be able to rapidly consider the changes, to efficieetly summarize and thoroughly evaluate in- formation on the eituation, to make tactically competent decisiona b~sed on that information, to inform the troops of those decisions aithout delay, atnd to organize and monitor their execution. All of this is achieved by skilful control and well-conceived dietribution of functions among the~sub- units and the pereonnel. The folloWing groups of ieauea~ at least, must be dec~ded by the military engineer in charge of a~ub-unit ahen organizing preparation~ for the per- forciance of a specific miesion and for ita execution. In the firgt place, he muet determine the level~ degree and extent of hia o~rn perticipation in the performance of a given mission. When several mis- sions are being performed s:.muitaneou~of~them aaditto someidegreeeChe~details hoW much time he should apend on each . ~ th~ different aspects of hie work. Yn the aecond place, !~e determines the volume and nature of the information required. 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OR O~~ICIAL U5B ONLY In th~ third pl~c~, h~ u~~~ th~ infn~n~eion obe~inpd to d~e~rmin~ eho~~ critical mompnt~ ~nd pnfnCg whiCh r~quir~ hi~ p~r~nn~l inC~rveneion ~nd d~cieion~. In th~ fdrtCh p1~Ce, he tnu~t hsve s c1eaY concept of the ~dn~e~titin b~tt~~~n eh~ mi~~ion~ perform~d by hi~ ~ub-unie Cor unit) ~nd rhe mi~~ion~ ro b~ - ~~rri~d out ae higher ~~helon~, wpll rh~~~ b~ing p~rformed by int~r- acting unite and ~ub-unite. R~~lity h~e d~mon~tr~t~d Chat th~ Chorough prapargeion nf milit~ry engi- neere for the performance of pr~ci~ply thea~ t~~kg of th~ comm~nd~r ig a eub~ atantial factor in th~ combat ~fficiency of unit~ ~nd eub-unit~. Th~ following ie one example of this. An ~xerci~e was in fu11 saing~ when the "~nemy" delivered a nuclear etrike againat one of the units, deeCroying Ch~ command poet and som~ of the pergonn~l, We~pon~ and combat aquipment. ~hie created an exc~ptionally difficult gituation. The deputy unit commander, an engineer by training, aho wae lorat~d in one of Chp sub-unitg ~t that timp, aesumed conmand. He gssetnbled all of thp nther officers, gergeants and sol- diere who Were still able to fighC, arranged for the wounded to receive aid, and took sCeps to reestablish coannunications with higher headquarters thrnugh gn adjacpnt unit. An appraieal of the radiation and chemical siCuation ehoaed high levels of radiation. Poegeseing a knowledge of the technical specifications of the aea- pons used by the "enemy" and its tactica, the offic~r ~sed a map to determine an area to ahich the pereonnel could be removed, arranged for engineer and radiation reconnaissance of the routes of movement and the terrain in the area selected, evacuated the Wounded and removed the personnel to a eafe area~ conducted partial decontamination of the equipment and decontamination of the personnel, registered radiation doses received by the personnel, and created a group to restore the ueit's fighting efficiency. After radiation levels had dropped in the area occupied, the officer took steps to eliminate the effecta of the nuclear atrike. He formed a composite eub-unit of the remaining p~reonnel. The officer-engineer kneW the missions asaigned the sub-unit, and he decided to continue their execution, using the reatored combat equipment. Despite the fact that they Were exhausted from many days of Working under stress, the personnel in the eub-unit formed performed smoothly in the exez- cise and coped succesefully With the assigned misaion. In the critique of the exercise, the director of the exercise noted the depu- ty unit coadaander's good tactical training and expressed gratitude to him and to all of the personnel. Good tactical-operational training greatly helps the military engineer to de- velop such qualities as courege, will-poirer, determination and initiative,and 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~tlEt 0~1~'I~IAL US~ ONLY form~ ehe b~~ia for hi~ dper~tinn~l-CgCCiGgl Chinking. 'I'h~ d~v~lopment ~nd ~~lf~inculcatinn di thps~ qu~litie~ r~quirpg Ch~t ehp milie~ry ~ngineer h~v~ a knowledg~ of th~ principleg ~nd th~ bgein r~n~t~ of milie~ry grt gnd of form~ ~nd m~thode of conducting eombaC oppreCion~ in varioug aiCugtione~ The better informed eh~ milie~ry ~ngineer i~ on theae m~tterg, th~ morp cor~~cCly ~nd thnrdughly w~11 he be ~bie to und~r~tand th~ ngCUre of th~ ~s~ign~d mig- ~inn ~nd to for~g~~ rhe poe~ib~e cour~p of ~v~c~t~ ~nd ehanges occurring in the siruation, and th~refore, th~ mor~ focue~d ~nd produntiv~ vi11 be hi~ op~r~tinnal-t~crical deliberaCion. A~ we hgve a?lready gtgC~d, the fuCure milit~ry pngin~pre receive operationgl~ t~crical Crgining in the procega of their ~eudy of the op~rationgl-t~ctical diacipline~ at Vt12's. Th~ programg for these disciplinea call for Cheoreti- c~l gnd practical training for Che arudenta and cadets in rhe fundamentals of the preparation for and the conduct of combat oper~tions today, of tha combat employm~nt of th~ various gerviees of ehe Armed Porces, brench~e of eronp~ and aeapon~~ end of th~ gtudy of Che hi~tory of ware and militery grt, military gdministration ~nd other areee of Soviet miliCary scipnce. The nffiner-engineer'~ training in the troopg h~s a prgctical focus. In order not to Eall behind, in order to keep up with the development of ecience and technology, individugl improvement of one's training in military ecience and mllitary art is higbly importgnC, along w~th the planned offieer training. Uetermination of the optimal model of the military engineer as both a military and a technical apecinlist is becoming highly imporCant at the present time. Thie prnblem can be resolved not by contrasting the two aeparate aspects of the military engineer, but by combining them in order for each of them to aup- plement gnd enrich the other. It is very important that both aspecta of th~ engineer's Work receive adequate attention in the training proc~sa. The military engineer's operational-tactical training~ like his technical training, is inconceivable without maintaining strict regulati~n order and the high level of demaadingness expected of a commander in all typea of train- ing and in the proceas of all the service activities of engineering and tech- nical personnel. A thorough knowledge of the regulations governing the Armed Forces~ a high level of drill training, physical conditioning and trgining in methods are eeaential to the militgry engineer, as they are ro the combined- arms commander--such ie the dictate of the era. S. The Military Engineer as the Organizer and Indoctrinator of the Men Ueder Him Defining the qualities of a modern supe:visor, the 25th CPSU congress stressed the folloWing: "The modern supervisor must organically combine partq-mindedness with thorough competence, discipline With initiative and a creative approach to the job. At the same time~ the supervisor in any area is also required to conaider socio-political and indoctrinational factors~ to be eensitive to the men. to their needa and requests, and to serve as an example in his Work and daily life." 19 These requirementa fully apply to Soviet militaty engineering personnel. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~ ~OR O~FICIAL U5~ ONLY ~v~ry miliCgry ~ngin~er, whether iti be ehe dir~CCnr of ~ milttary C~~m or ~nm~ uther ~p~Ciali~t, gerve~ on g pr~cC~c~l l~v~l ~g ~n drg~niz~r, gn indn~- trinator, ~ technical gp~ci~ligt end an gdminigtrgCnr. On~ or gnother fgceC of milltary ~ngin~~ring work unquegCidn~bly pr~ddminat~~ in egch eiCu~Cidn~ The organizaCional and indocCrinaeion~l work nf miliegry engin~erg is organi- e~11y m~rged in eaeh ca~p, however. Wp c~n differentiaee three lpvel~ df organizatinnal work performed by milit~ry ~ngineerg 20 This d~signaeion of 1~v~1g i~ arbiCrary, ~ince ie i~ vpry dif- ficult to definp th~ work of military ~ngine~rg in ehe differenC gpec3altip~ within etrict boundarie~, but it permie~ u~ to indi~atie th~ m~in groups of m3liCary ~ngineer~ and to indicate the degree tn which th~y parCiCipate in nrganizational work. The first and highest level ie Che orggnizationgl work performed by the mili- tary engineer aerving in Che poeieion af engineer commander or his deputy. Ne org~nizee Che work of individugl people and the collectiv~s, Ch~ work pro- ~eas gnd ell combaC aetivirieg, end gl~o h~ndl~e Che ~cieneifiC org~nix~tion of his own work. The eecond level of organiz,~rional work performed by the military engineer involvee arranging the procc~ss of the men'e work and the ecientific organixa- tion of hia own work. On thia level, he dir~cts the men and the collectives only indirectly. As a rule, this is performed by the chiefg of the varioue engineering and technical services ~nd engineerg epecializing in the varioue areag~ who are reaponsible for the complex and importgnt ar~as of combat readi- ness of the units and aub-units, for the training of techniciane and epecia- lieCs, for monitoring Che work of the men and the operation of the combat equipment and weapons, and for the care,- repair and periodic aervicing af ~quipment and weapnns. The third level of organizational Work performed by the military engineer involves the scientific organization of his own work and the work performed at a specific action station or unit, or on a specific combat vehicle. At this level, the military engineer is mainly concerned with performing his per$onal combat task, improving hia profesaional skill, improving the tech- niques and method employed in the work, caring for the combat vehicles and - mechanisms and maintaining them in a conaCanC sCate of combat readiness. The requirementa of the Leniniat style of work as epelled out by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev in Che Accountability Report of the CPSU Cen[ral Committee to the 25th Party Congreas fc1ly ~pply to all level8 of the military engineer's nrgat~izationAl work which we have diacussed. It states the follo~ring: the Leninigt style is a creative style, a stqle to which subjectivism is alien and Which is imbued With a scientific approach to all of the social pro- cesses. It requires a highly demanding attitude tos~ard oneself and tovard others; it precludes aillfulness and resists bureaucracy and formalism."21 The Leninist manner of working means taking a critical approach to all areas of one's Work, combining trust in the personnel with a highly demanding atti- tude, vith thorough control Fnd veriffcation of the implementation of party directives and of the decisiona made. The main element of the Leninist style 31 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~blt OFFICfAI, USE ONLY a~ work on Ch~ pert nf militi~ry p~rnonnpl i~ ehgC uf ~CCgchin~ prime iropor- t~nce tn ~t~t~ inrer~gt~ gnd perfnrming th~ ~~~kg involved in defpnding Che ~oci~lisC I~nmelgnd on the very highp~e 1eve1. `['he gcnernl pnrCy line, which cn11e for qunliey nnd ~ffeCtiv~n~~~ in the work, requireg gtriGC fulfillm~nt of Ch~ r~quir~menC for ~ high lev~l of combat r~ad- inea~ on thp part of the troops and for a level of combat and political train- ing, ~rd~r, org~nixation, politicgl attiCudea ~nd morale en~uring Chat Che Armed ~dre~g, which are ouefitred with Che very be~e equipment availabl~, are in ~ poqition to come to Che imm~diaC~ defpn~e of the homplgnd, if nec~egary. '~h~ ~rmy ~~nd n~vy'~ ~11-ar~und preparedness tn p~rform their historic mi~gion is a gpecific r~flprtion of th~ qualiCy gnd efficipncy nf the work perform~d by our cgdre~. Th~ quelity gnd ~ff~ceiven~~~ of the org~niz~tional work performpd by milit~ry enginp~ring p~r~onnel ~re manife~tpd, in ehe firge p1gc~, in Ch~ aucc~~sful perfnrmanC~ nf the duCie~ with which Chey gr~ charg~d by milie~ry rpgulations, orders and in~truariong; in the eecond plae~~ in eh~ir utilixaCion of ~very p~g~ibility fdr providing the pereonnel wiCh good training in the ar~a of wea- pon~ and combet equipment; in Che Chird place, in the organizaCion of exemp- lnry ~ervicing of the combgt equipment and in th~ quality performance uf the periodic servicing and repair work; in the fourrh place, in the application of all poeaible factora for succesafully employing the military equipment fn the conduct of combat operations; and in the fifth place, in the performance of indnctrinational work with the personnel, together with commanders, poli- ticnl workers~ party and Komaomol organizationa. The monitoring and verifi- cation of performance is an extremely important part of the organizational work performed by military engineere. They provide eesential coordination in th~ work of the military collectives and develop a feeling of reeponiabi~- ity and seriouenese on the part ~f eubordinatea. It is one of the military engineer's direct aervice duties to train the per- sonnel, to provide the fightingmen with thorough kno~rledge and solid 8kills and With a high level of technical aophistication. It should be noted that th~ revolution in military affaira has made a significant mark on this aepect nf engineering work: the training of the personnel ie performed differently, since the quantity and complexity of the combat equipment have gro~m, the num- ber of teehnic~l apecialties hag increased, and the service terms of the sol- diprs and sergeants have bej:. reduced. Since some skill ie loat When one does not aork With the equipmPnt for even a trivial period of time, regular training and periodic re?:raining is neceseary in order to maintain one's pro- fessional skills at the p~roper level. Thc treining and indoc..~.nation of the men are performed by military eagineers vhtle the sub-unite are ~eing maintained in a constant etate of combat readi- ness, and this requires a common effort and coordinated action on the parc of both the officer and the men under him. The colleccive nature of modere weapona and military equipment has sigaifi- cantly raised the role and the r~aponeibility of every serviceman. both With respect to the preparation of combat equipment for employment and to the ac- tual performance of the sub-uai2's combat miaeion. The importance of 32 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , - ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OR A~~LCIAL U5~ ONLY Cechni~~l ~nd e~chnologic~l dig~iplln~ h~~ incrpg~ed enn~id~rgbly. Th~ eroubl~-free up~raeion af Ch~ equipmpnt nnd the effectiv~n~~~ af it~ eamb~t ~mploym~nt th~rpfore d~p~nd gregely nn th~ p~r~nnnel'g knowl~dge of the eech- nology involved in gprvicing iC nnd of modern meehoda nf monitoring iC~ cun- dition. And it i~ th~ engin~er'~ ta~k Co indoctrinat~ egch speci~lisC in ~ ~pirie df ~tri~t ~nd gbeolute fulfillment of all norma, rules and requirements e~C f~rth in Ch~ manu~l~ end ingtru~Cion~ governing opergCion af the equip- ment. The gcientific and Cechnologicel r~volueien hgs been acaomp~nied by the crpa- tion of improved typ~s~of equipment wieh g high 1ev~1 of deppndgb~iliCy end durability. Space Ceehnology, in pgreiculgr, repr~gents Che fnrwgrd edg~ nE modern scientific and techni~gl progr~gg. At ehe compleeion nf a sp~ce flight, Gprmen Titov expreseed hi~ faith in the rpliability of hi~ gpgce ship in the following manner: "I hardly worrl~d ~e ~11. Uon't think thar I am an ~motionles~ individual or thgC I h~ve a will of iron, thaC I eurpr~~ged my emotion~. Thi~ ie not the explanation~ I hnd ~ gr~at de~l of fgith~ I had etudied the ~hip in aubtle deeail. I b~cam~ one wieh it, ~e though wiCh a trustworChy friend. I had perhapg greater ronfidence in thp ship Chgn in mysel I had gone through th~ erCir~ flight on th~ ground attd kne~ what Y toould be doing at any given moment. The program was a complicated and diffi- cult one, but it did noC frighten me. I wae confident thgt I wnuld Complete it." 22 The personnel have the same sort of confidence in the military equipmen*, made by the precioug hgnde of Soviet workers, engineera and t~chniciens. The experienced engineer ia able to maintain and develop in the personnel a feeling of great respect for the military equipment, to reveal to the officera, gergeanta and aoldierg the grandeur of the ecientific and technical feat per- formed by the creatars of this equipment. As g rule, a true mastery of the equipm~nt and confidence in it have a positive effect on the paychological ~ state of the fightingmen. In describing the atate of the crew on the atomic-powered submarine'Leninskiy Komsomol" during an important assignment, its commander, Captain 2d Rank L. M. Zhil'tsov, laid special atress on the fact that all of the peraonnel Were im- bued With "the moet profound confidence in the equipment created by 5oviet designera and Workers, with infinite faith in the knowledge and~~e2x~erienc~ of their superiors~ and With a feeling of great responsibility.... 'The high level of perfection of Soviet military equipmentonly creates the possibility of successfully employing it in a War againat an agrQSaor. The personnel must possess thorough knoWledge and solid skills, hoWever, in order for this possibility to be realized, and these are developed through pxten- sive Work by [he afficers, including, first and foremosc, the military engi- neers, focusing on the constant indoctrination of the soldiers, serg~eants and Warrant officers (praporshchiki), and on training them in the use and care of the complex military equipment. 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~'Olt O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY 'Chh w~rk p~rfnrmpd by e1~~ mil3t~ry ~ngin~~r to indoctrinetp ehp p~r~nnn~l ~orN nat Jiffcr bugir~illy from rhe indactrinnCionnl work p~rformed by other categorie~ of offic~re, but it doeg hav~ certein p~culiarities. In etie firet plgct~, thp r~volution in mi],ieary affgirg h~e resulted in a C~nsidereble incren~e in the role of moral-poliCie~l gnd p~ychological con- diti~ning ~f the troops, especially for Ch~ fightingmen of thoee service~ of the Armed Forces who perf~rm combut alerC dutYChe~indocCrination~ltwork~per- miseions ~ven in time of pe~c~. Accordingly, form~d by the officere, the m~~ority of which are engine~rg, has aleo aseumed gr~nr~r imporCence in thdg~ forcee. Iri the gecond pl~ce, the milit~ry engineer, more th~n any other speciali~t, mugt deal with Ch~ personnel of technic~l units and sub-units. The work per- fnrmed by mosr ~f theap peraonnel ig individualized to a certain degree (ehey ~erve ~a operatora, programm~rs~ drivprs, and so forth). 'I'he~e ie a certain d~gree of igolation of ehe personnel in th~ir work. and there has therefore be~n an incre~se in the proportion of individuai work performed by military enginper~ gnd it hae b8C01t1p highly imporeant to develop an awarenege of col- lectivism, eroop comradeship and a high level of military, technical and tech- noldgical discipline in the personnel. In th~ third place, in th~ process of servicing the militnry equipment, Che ~ militery engineer frequently has tn be not only the organizer but also the acCunl performer of this or that operaCion. Thia places him into a specific interrelationahip with the peraonnel servicing the military equipment. The range of his direct contactg with the men under him is expanding, and in a certain senae, the eubstantive aide of the Work performed by engineering and technical specialieta ia becoming eimiler to that performed by other service- men. The military engineer's technical competence and industriouanesa, his capaci- ty for creative inveatigation and his performance have an enor~ous indoctri- national effect on the peraonnel. In other words, indoctrination by peraonal example is becoming exceptionally imporCant in the practical work of militarq engineering pereonnel. No leas important ia their ability to eatablieh unin- hibited relationehips With the men, a situation creating the necessary degree of trust and good will in the collectives. All of this is Yuined, however, if the good relationships develop into familiarity and if, instead of being highly demanding of his subordinates, the military engineer overlooks all of their ahortcomings. � tn the Eourth place, some military engineera are not in charge of pereonnel. Thig amplifies the importance of self-indoctrination for the officer-engineers and alsao incresaes the responsibility of commanders and political organa for involving this category of specialists ~n political-indactrinational work in the sub-units. Experience has ahown that engineer operators, programmers, designers and other categories of military engineers, Who are not in charge of personnel, take an active part in the activities of lecture groups and theoretical seminara, in preparations for and the conduct of military-scientific conferences and in the organization of rationalization and invention ~+ork, Which performs an important indoctrinational function. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOIt OF~ICIAL U5E ONLY ~ A11. Cae~gori~~ n� engineering and Cechnical personneL thus have a pare in the indocCrinaCion of the figheingmen ~nd ~re responeible �or it, ~nd they must ther~fore pnsaeae a good knowledge of rhe meChodological ~epects of the theory nnd practice of communise indoctrination. In psychologic~l-pedagngicnl 1ltergCure, skill in working with people ia broken down primarily into three ereas: pedagogical skill--the knowledge, ~bilitiea, skille and peraonal qualities neceaeary to accomplish the tgska involved in Che training, indocCrina~ion and psychological conditioning of th~ fightingmen; eki11 in supervising Che personnel in organizational work (the art of supervia3on); ehe arC of parey-poliCical work, pareicularly skill as ~ propagandist~ Considering the high 1eve1 of specializaCion of man's work in the conCempo- rary situation, it would be unrealistic to assume that man can asaimilate variou~ typea of professional skills aimulCaneously, wiChin a pract~cally accepCable period of time~ Experience has shown, however, Chat many techni- cgl speciglists, relying on their knowledge as engineers and on their broad cultural perapective, simultaneously achieve good resules in the training and indoctrination of the men, in organizatinnal work and in other areas directly perCaining to their technical work. Consequently, with proper morivation, the engineer is able, Chrough self-indoctrinaCion and self-education and acCive, imaginative participation in public work, to develop those aspects of professional skill which are esaentisl for working with personnel. As a result, he can effectively impart his own know-how to others, influence them and motivaCe them in their work. The main faceC of the work performed by an officer--a commander, political worker or military engineer, of course, is thaC of dealing with people., The Chree gbove-mentioned areas of the work are linked together inseparably in it. The general motives underlying the work of all categories of officers are also the saate. Alongside these, however, there is a group of more limited motives characteristic of the specific military occupation. The military engineer can develop a positive attitude toward working with people on the basis of a generally concientious attitude toward his service work as a whole, concern for all the areas and facilities for which he is responaible and a deaire to make his section of the work the best and most progressive both with respect to the methods used and the results achieved. If the engineer has such a desi:e, this will inevitably cause him to consider it neceasary to raise the level of activity of the personnel in general anii to work more vigorously himself to acomplish this. Such factors as the engineer's awareness of his responsibility for the suc- cess oE the collective as a whole, his realization of his own contribution to the indoctrinational work performed with personnel of the unit and sub-unit, a highly developed feeling of social responsibility and public action, and the need to take part in public work may also serve as motives of considerable - importance for the development of a disposition to work with people. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICLAL USE ONLY . An intereaC in human �actors engineering and in an extensive range of engi- ~ neering fields not pertiaining direcCly Co technical problema buC embracing the entire "man-machine" aystem, including all o� its technical and human elemente, can aerve as an important source of motivaC3on in working with peo- ple. The engineer experiencea a desire to study the crucial element in the system more Choroiighly and to understand the human condition, the conditiona nece~sary for him to work efficiently and dependably, the degree of coordina- tion existing between his functions and those of the machine, and the exCent to which the ~oinC work performed by Che group of fightingmen servicing Che complex technical system is collecCively performed. An interest in human factors engineering helps to reveal psychological pro- blema encountered in the �aork of the technical specialists, to learn Che in- dividual peculiarities of the soldiers and the qualities of the military team, and to make certain changes in their conciousness, conduct an.d working meChods. The engineer's desire for self-indoctrination and improvement of his profes- sional training and his need to prepare himself for performing a broader range , of work in the future, work involvinA more extensive responsibility and new ' duties, including supervisory, command functions,have a definite role in moti- ~ vating the engineer in his work with the personnel. . The line engineer's work thus makes extensive demands of the individual's ~ motivation: on the one hand, he musC have highly developed technical inter- ests and inclinations, and on the other--a great interest in people, a need for contact with them, a desire to come to their assistance when necessary, and the desire to give of his knowledge and experience. A certain degree of passivi.ty demonstrated by individual technical specialists in their work with the personnel is due, in addition to a lack of the neces- sary skills, Co a ahortage of time, to their lieavy technical load. Claiming that they are too busy, some engineers and technicians request that they not , be required to work with the personnel. Each of these cases should be cr~re- fully investigated. It is well known, after a11, that an overload of work frequently results from a lack of experience, a low level of professiona~ , skill, because of which it inevitably takes more time to perform the 3ob, the , quality deteroriates, additional work is sometimes required, and the ~ob some- times has to be done over. The engineer's time is used inefficiently as a result, and some things are permitted to 3ust drift along. Unfortunately, this is sometimes the case with the training and indoctrination of personnel. Con- sequently, a high level of professionalism is an important condition for over- coming a negative aervice utilization factor. I Since pedagogical skill, the art of supervising and propaganda work are dis- cussed in detail in the special literature, it is only necessary for us to ~ discuss certain general elements of pedagogical skill, those which are inher- ent to one degree or another in all variations of the work performed by mili- tary engineers with the men: primarily an understanding of people, their intQl- ~ lectual characteristics, training and indoctrination and the process of making ; their work�more efficient. 36 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FUIt U~~LCIAL U5~ ONLY In nrdpr tn be ~bl~ tn wnrk with ppr~onnel~ th~ milit~ry ~ngin~er mugtkndw penple .~nd the p~ycholdgic~l l~w~ gnv~rning th~ ection~ nf individu~l ~oldiers nnd milit~ry ~ollective~~ primarily the pgychologic~l ppculieriti~e of collec- tivei produced by the natur~ of their mil~tary prof~sei.on. An educetion in humnn facCore engineering gnd ~n under~t~nding of Che p~ychological law~ func- Cinning within Che "man-mechin~" r~y~t~m gnd of m~thod~ of coordineting the ~quipment'~ requiremene~ ~nd the capabiliCie~ of the individual controlling it arp a~peciglly import~nt Codgy. '1'hig knowledge ie gequir~d by atudying p~yrhnlogical lit~ratur~~ through obg~rvgeion ~nd by comtempl~ting on~'~ own exp~rienre and tt~e impr~~~ion~ received from direct conegre vith peopl~~ M~ I~ Knlinin pointed ouC thet r~~ding i~ gn impartant way to gain an undprgCanding o~ people. "...If you want to be nnt ju~t an engineer-technici~n but ~ gdp~r- vieor gnd nrganizer a~ well~ you mu~t know literaCure...." Afeer ~11, every orgaoizer mu~t be able to organiz~ p~opl~~ not machinee bue living people.... A kaowledge of different Cype~ of people~ the abi~ity Co dieCinguieh them ~nd tn gnalyze each individugl nnd tn know exgctly whar h~ is like and what ie poa- gible... to make better beCter use of this or that individuai in production-- nll of rhie requirea a knowledge of litereture." 24 Since the modern technical eystems are run by increasingly Bmaller groups of eoldiers~ whose interactione are prescribed by regulat~ion~ and ~ob descriptiona, and since the intarpereonel relationahipe are resulCing in new bonds~ it ie useful for tl.~e engineer to understand and takeinto acc:ount the eocial- peychologic:~l patterns and the peychological peculiaritiea of the military collectivea~ and the various socio-psychological phcnomena ahich have a con- si~erable influence on the effectivenees of lhe ~oint work performed by the military apecialists.25 In addition to an understanding of people in general and a knowledge of t~e general laws governing their behavior, the work performed with the military peraonnel in a given collective is impossibl~ without a knowledge of that group~ thoae apecific people. The specific nature of this knowledge liea in the fact that iC cannot be acquired in finiahed form but muat be obtained in- dependently, through the persiatent and systematic atudy of the eoldiera~ in direct contact with them, by observing their actiona and their communication with each others by esaigning them control and verification aseignmente~ by tal.king with them and by studying the results of their work and other infor- mation. In order to understand man's psychic make-up--his thoughta, feelinga~ aima end actiona--it must be regarded as a r~sult of the development and the acti- vities of people in society. ThLs is made posaible by an e2tcellent uaderetand- ing of the fundamentale of Marxism-Leninism~ the socio-political and economic lawa of the Soviek society's development, current circumstances in military affaira~ important political and socio-economic measures advanced by the CPSU nnd the Soviet Covernment, the successes achieved by our people in.the build- ing of communism, the most important eventa in r.he life of the Armed Porces, and international eventa. It would be difficult to find a common language for communicating with an individual withouC an underetanding of current pro- blems of moral. cultural and esthetic indoctrination, of everything Which ie being discuased with lively interest in the military collectives. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 1~OEt O~1~ICIAL U5L nNLY 7'he knowledg~ empldy~d by the ~nginp~r fnr dev~loping and gub~tgntiating the ta~k~ eeeigned the per~nnnel playr an imporegnt role. Thi~ ie the ~c- tugl Qngineering and t~Chnic~l knouledge~ parCicularly exh~uetivQ informa- tion on the ~p~cific equipm~nt which the ~ub-unit uaes. Thi~ knoa~edge ~leo tncluc~p~ a11 of thp infnrmation esoential to the engineer for training the ppr~~nnpi. A11 of this div~rg~ information permits rhe enginper to get hie bearingg in eiCugtion~ developing in the military co1l~cCive and irn the interpergon~l r~latione of the fightingmen~ and makee it poseible for him to ~valuate uare- ~olved igguee properly~ to outline goals gnd make proper decisions. Lik~ ~ny oth~r work performed with people~ which coneists primarily in exerC- ing gn active influence on the conciousness of the f ightingmen~ motivating them to take the necpeegry gteps or reetraining them from taking uhdesirable gctione~ this work require~ cerrain ekills and abilitiee on the part of the individugl performing it. These are develop~d by meane of exercises and drille and through multiple repetition. The skilis and abilities used in working wiCh pereonnel frequently coneist in repea[ing solutione previously ueed and remembered. There arg instancea in which the engineer or technician is not aware of the need for the special elements of pedagogical ekill~ ei~ce he worke only occa- eionally with personnel. And in fact~ a certain measure may be carried ouC on the baeie of one'a general knowledge and comanon senee and the advice of the experienced commander or politicai vorker. It is an error~ hovever~ not to consider the fact thet working vith peop~e~ superviaing, training and in- ' doctrinating thQm form an integral part of the engineer's work today. Work- ing With people ia not ~ust a euperficial part of the engineer's Work~ but an intrinsic element of this work. An officer muet poesess many qualities in order to aork skilfully vith the pereonnel. Dispite their diversity, however~ they have a certain intrinsic unity: when the enaineer comes into contact with other people in a service capi- city, he deals with peychic and socio-paychological phenomeaa. Succeas de- pends greatly on ho~r correctly and promptly he ia able to analyze these phenotn- ena~ to evaluate the degree of their influence on the performance of a combat � or training taek~ to influence this or that psychic procesa and the dynamics of the psychic atate as a whole in the interest of an ob~ective. Thia means that psychological factora muet be taken into account, thoroughly and in all the eubtleties, for work'_ng with people. We are therefore intQrested primari- ly in considering thoge elementa of the military engineer's profeasional skill which make it poasible for him to accompliah this. The concept of considering psychological factors is a natural outgrowth of ' the fact that in order fur a separate technical coaiplex26 to function effec- tively and for the military Work as a whole to be effective, there muat be a certain correspondence between the total group of requirements made of the personnel by the equipment, by circumetances and by the taska being performed, and the total capacity of the fightingmen and their capabilitiea for performing 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Oft UM'F'ICIAL US~ t,VLY thebe tagke, Thi~ C~nformity ia nehieved bdCh by chgnging the CdndiCiong nf th~ w~rk gnd by mobilizing the ~ffnrta af enCh ~oldier ~nd of thp military c~ni tr.ctlvc~. peychnloKirnl pubstantlr~clun la nrnvided in t~ll cgdea, when the gupervi~or'~ deci~inn nr it~ implementatioh requireg th~C tha ~bov~ eonfdrmity be rpt~ined or th~t ie be gchiev~d. In other wordg~ the psychologicel factnre ~ nre taken into account. Thp proee~s of eubetenCiating thp milit~ry engineer'~ decision peychologically includea two groups of actione: ~ompr~tiengion and eveluaCinn for purposeg of reveuling~ eCudying and evaluating the influence of specific p~ychologicnl fn~tora in a given eituation (peychologic~l analysis)~ and utilization nf the inEormatinn provided by thie ena~ysie for purposea of adopting and i~aplement- !ng a de~ieion and their inclusion in the productive eervice work to meke it mnrs ~ff~ctive. Tt~e peychologicel analysie hag a number of variaCions~ which depend on Che tnsks facing the engineer and the circumsCances under which they are to be performed. Scientific atudies have establiahed the exietance of aC leaeC four such variationa: 1. The primary study of new soldiere for purpoaes of determining their ~ob npCitudes (their area of work in the military and their abilitiea, and Che expedien~y of teaching them one of the varioua military speci~~ties). This work is called peychological military-profesaional selecCion~ that is, aelection baeed on psychological criteria; 2. Continuoua~ systematic and comprehensive etudy of the service conditiona of the fightingmen and the functioning of the military collective for pur- poses of obtaining information neceasary for aubsequently improving those conditiona and for creating the preconditions necessary for the successful training and indoctrination of the personnel, for uniting the collective and strengthening diecipline~ and in the final analysis, for making the troops' work ae a whole more effective; 3. A goal-oriented study of the soldiere from the standpoint of the require- ments for a specific task, and evaluation of their psychological condition and capabilities at a given time. Thie is essentially a forcast of how peo- ple will function under the conditions of a future task comprehension of the new task and the aelection of soldiers suited to perform it. Consequently, this is a specific peychological selection~ which, unlike the job selection, is carried out within the bounds of specialties chosen for and aeeigned to the men; 4. Diagnosis of the behavior of a specialist in a m{litary collective (an operator, for example) after the fact: an accident, an emergency or some other event of definite importance. Determination and investigation of the psycho- logical cau8es and the the event bel,ng studicd, determin- ation of their specific importance within the total group of cauaes, summari- zation of the work experience, clarification of the motives behind a specific action~ investigation of the reasons for difficulties and lack of success in indoctrinational work, and so forth--all of these are examples of psychologi- cal diagnosis, which has an important place in the military engineer's daily work. 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOtt OFt~ICIAL U5~ ONLY A~Cudy of po~itivp pxp~ri~nc~ in Ch~ work ~f milieary ~ngin~ere ~nd techni- Cinn~ has shown th~C the r~~u1Ce of ehe p~ychological aeudy can be applied for the utilizaCion of the favorabie p~ychoiogicel conditidng cr~at~d; for Crenting the psychotogical condition~ r~quired for the ~ucces~ful performance oE tt~p neeigned mi~eion; and for cr~ating good matprial-t~chnical, operational ~nd living condiCione for the fightingman and rhe military collective in the course of their work end for thpir leisarp-timp a~tivities. P~ychological canditione are Caken into account for profeaeional and op~ra- tional selection, when the m~n arp aggigned to ~obs in accordgnce aiCh Cheir qual~ficationa and condieion. An engineer's deciaion takes into account the fact that it should be perceived by Che men as convincing, thoroughly conceived, reliable and inepired. It eometimea occurs in the service thar a decision vhich is essentially a good one is performed withoue proper enthusiaem only becauee Che men regard ie ae a casually made decieion. When performing Che engineering study of Chie or thgt decigion, experienced specinliets attempt to see that it ia coavincing and doee not creat doubta. Circumstancea permitting~ many specialiets ask Cheir subordinates to diecuse the techaical isaues~ confer with them and ~ork our, together with them~ a common opinion with respect to the necessary eteps. Another method of considering the paycholop~ical facCors is thaC of organizing the work of the fightingmen so that it involves them immediately, eneures that they achieve inapiring euccesses, even emall onea, in the iniCial atage of the ~ob, and does not involve unnecessary comsumption of energy. The per- sonnel have an agressive spirit, an intereet in Che ~ob and good motivation throughout their work ae a result of these organixational meaeures. M important way to have highly efficient work is that of distributing the personnel according to Che eocio-paychological laws of ~oint, collective Work (an eeaily perceived~ common collective goal, which is not overehadoaed by individual, not interrelated goals; interaction among the membera of the col- lective in the course of their work and good conditions for their intercom- munication; the opportunity to compete; retention of the atable structure cha�_^teristic of a given collective, and so forth). When working with personnel, it is frequently neceseary to assign t~~sks Which the men are not prepared to perform immediately (due to fatigue, nerviouenesa, a lack of confidence in their abilities, over-exitement, fear, and so forth)~ ~ because tl~~y lack experience, the required knowledge or abilities, or do not understand the importance and responsibility of the task.. In such cases, ~ psychological factora are taken into accot:nt by bringing the psychological conditions into conformity with the requirements for the forthcoming work. _ When he explaina the proeedure an~ th� situation, the engineer supervieor helps the men to mobilize their efforta, to overcome psychological difficu~- tiea and to concentrate their full attention on the assigned task. Pocused training, instruction and clarification of possible difficulties and ways to overcome them, as well as the practical rehearsal of modes of operation, as extensively practiced during the Great Patriotic ~1ar, are of great importance 40 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 t~01t np~ICIAL USL ONLY ~n pr~p~ring ehp p~r~onn~i for ~~p~Ci~ie tg~k. ~~yehnlogicgl ~ondiCinning i~ gn ~e~ential pl~ment of Chp ov~rell prep~r~tion of ~oldier~ for ~p~ci~ie opera~'ions. This is ~ combination of m~e~ure~ pprform~d to brie~ eh~ pgychic etate of the man intn conforreity With requirem~nt~ f~r th~ ta~k (renewal of etr~angth, pereonal r.d~uetment, motivation ~nd emoeinnal adapt~tion, atr~ngth- ening ~he men'~ confid~na~ in ~heir ~biiitie~, end putting them into a~tate of Combet readinegg). All of rhie W~rk ie exc~ptionally import~nt and pe~en- tielly conetitutes ehe main method of taking pgychological factor~ into ~ecounC, a method Which raquiree vigurou~ ~ceion and eki11 in tte performance op the pgrt of all officere. Thie brieE deecription of certgin m~Chode of organizing engineering work, taking paychological factore into account, ie far from exhauettve. In actu- al army work, the initiative and ereativity demonoCr~ted bq the officers constantly result in new m~thode of acCively influencing the psychological etrengthg of the f ightingmen for purposes of developing them and making effi- cient uee of Chem in the procese of pprforming the combat gnd training ta~ka. The creation of new aork techniquee~ teking psychological lavs inCo account, and Che ~mmployment of known lawe requirea a certain level of psychological educetion~ special ekills and abilities, and a vital and siacere interest in Workieg s~ith servicemen and military collectives. 6. Career Selection for M1litary Engineering Personnel The problem of choosing a career for military engineering peraonnel is cen- tral among the numerous problems created by ecientific and technological pro- gress and by the modern revolution occurring in military affairs. Thie ie a large-scale. complex and multifaceted task. In order to accomplieh the taek, it is neces~ary to thoroughly analyze the ramified mechaniam of inter- action among economic, social, political, ideological and other social rela- tione, both general and specific, characteristic only of the military or$ani- zation. This ie due to the fact thaC the individual is multifaceted and re- flecta all social relationa. The vigor, creativity and high level of profesaionalism so characteristic of today's military engineering personnel in the Soviet Armed Forces are all a natural condition and a result of their educational level and world outlook and of the scientific subatantiation of their selection and placement and their ~ expedieaC utilization. From the point of view of modern acience, ~ob selection for military engineer- ing personnel is a dual procesa. On the one hand, it ia a means of revealing and realizing the personal aspiratioas and desires of each "youth planning his life," and the selection of a profession is a complex and important so- cial process. Reflecting on the selection of a career, the young Marx xrote the folloWing: "...this choice constitutes an act which may destroy the indi- vidual's entire life, upset his plans and make him unhappy.i28 Extending this thought, the reverse is also true--it is capable of making a man's life bril- liant and intereating, dispite thousands of obstacles, adversities and diffi- culties, "becauee s~hat is life, if it is not activity?"29 ~ ~+1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~tlit O~~~CIAL Il~3L ONI~Y On thp othpr hand, Ch~ eg~k ~f ~e1~Crin~ ~grp~rg for miiit~ry ~ngi+,~~~ring p~reunn~l enn~i~ta in me~eing thp requir~m~nt~ of militgry ~ngin~~ering pt~ae- tic~ to the c?aximum degree po~eibl~~ it i~ not our go~i to aealyze ChQ fir~t ~~peeE df Che probi~~n, wl~i~h pe~tain[~ to the eelection of a ce~te~e~--thie hed b~~n dig~u~~~d with ad~qune~ ehoroughn~~~ in phiid~nphte~i-~ociolo~tc~1 1ie- ~rarur~. The matCer of rev~aling the individu~i'~ abiliti~g an~ aptitud~ ~or ~ miliC~ry career ha~ been diecueaed far ieBa thoroughly, both in th~ eheo- reCical and th~ practical respecta. It i~ g difficult ma~tter eo r~v~al ~n individu~l'~ naCural tnclingtion~. Sci~nc~ h~~ ~till not d~v~lnped adequgCe mpth~da for doing go. At the a~m~ time~ ae knou that th~ intrinsic pattern of d~velopment of m~n's qualitiee is constantly changing under the influence of his eocial environment. ~ach tim~, hoaev~r, man fiede a uniqu~ mod~ of accuetoming himeelf to the vork`. In Che proreee, eom~ traitig of Accupational importance devplop, oth~rg ar~ ~urpregsed, and ~ third category--neutral but vitally important in the aork proc~gs--ar~ prpserved. Ttrere ie no euch thing as a naCural, predesrined pattern of development of human qualitiee, and the development of man's nature is deCermined by her- edity gnd environment, the latCer being the decisive factor. In making ~ s~lection, it is therefore very impQrtant to estgblish not only the indivi- dugl's natural abilities, but aleo the possibility of developing them. This conception of man and his occupational abilities is incompatible aith the idealistic interpretation of natural, occupational predegtination. So- cialist reality hes refuted the concept of man's natural occupational prede8- tination, which ia propagat~d in the capitalist aorid. ThiB concept ie sci- entifically unsound and ia reactionary in the social respect. ~le have a dif- ferent concept. V. I. Leein taught us to find and encourage talented indivi- duals, of Which there are many among the people, to put them on their feet and advance them.30 This posture forma the moral-philosophical~foundation for the constitutional right of the SovieC people to aelect their type of work freely and guards career selection againet dogmatiam by stressing its relative nature. It would be an error, ho~rever~ to make a hasty concluaion from the preceding that people have equal capabilities and that there is no need to consider their individual characteristics in labor and military aork. V. I. Lenin noted that it Would be absurd to expect people in the aocialiat society to have equal abilitiea and capacities, that every job requires epeeial quali- ties.31 The individual side of career selection for the military engineering specisl- ties~ that is, the individual's interests, his plans and aims in life, begina to be realized at that moment when the military com~iasariat sends him to a certain military engineering institution, based on the youth's aptitudes and desires. Mother purpose, hoWever, that of determining the young individual's auitability for military service in a given specialty of thie or that branch 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OR O~~tCIAL U5~ ONLY ~f tr~ap~, ig p~rEiaily ~eeeompli~h~d ~v~n ehpn, in ~ v~ry gpn~r~1 w~y. A m~re gp~Cifi~ ~nd Chnr~ugh ~el~etidn prne~~~ e~k~~ p1gc~ uiehin th~ wg11~ nf th~ ~due~tfan~l in~eieucinn. 'Chig prn~e~e ~~genCially Cnn~i~t,~ in Edr~~gting ehe individu~l'~ guiegbility for e military ~nginepring carppr from ehp p~r~~nal trgit~ reve~led in the e~ndidat~~: mor~i-paliti~~1 qu~iitip~, ~~n~rai edue~eion, phygical d~velop- ~ent, individuel peychdlo~icgl di~pb~itien ~r?d medie~i hi~tory. Att~ching gr~aC imporCgne~ tc~ thp geipntifie orggniz~Cidn df ear~~r ~~lpction for military p~r~onn~l, M. V. ~runze ~rrdt~ bg~k in th~ 1920'~: "If ae eend ynuth into th~ n~vy, epeci~l t~chnic~l troop~ or ~vi~tion, Who gre p~y~holo- gie~lly un~u~e~b1~ fdr ~~rvin~ ~n ehdg~ ~~~V~Cp~ w~ nr~ th~r~by d~maging the eombgt repgbiliCie~ of thnge gprvir~e gpv~r~ly."~2 '~he C~~k pn~ed by M. V. ' ~runz~ ig ~ti1~ valid eoday, ahpn we ~re degiin~ wirh th~ g~l~etion of peopl~ aho aill have ~o vork Wi~h GbiGp1EX combat equipmene frequ~ntly r~quiring very ~ppcific peycholo$ical qualitie~? Many f~ctorg ro~k~ it neee~~~ry Co con~idpr individu~l p~ychologic~l charac- t~rigtic~ in gelecting the cgre~re of future military engineprg. T'h~s~ in- clude objerCive condiCinn~gtpaming from thp mnd~rn divi~inn of labor (~?hich ig ~len clearly manifeated in thp military field); the limitation~ of ped~- gngicel pogeibilities for perfnrming thig Cgsk with militgry career training alone, while the individu~l i~ serving and trgining; ~nd th~ extremely broad rang~ of military eegineering specialties, which make apecific and at the seme time, augmented~ milit~ry occupational demandg,ahich ab8olutely must be met for the individual to be auitable for a career as a military engineer. Many procedures and methods hgve now been d~veloped in the forces and military educational inetitutions, which make it pc~~gible to succeasfully forecast many of the individual'e psychoingical traitg. Specialists in the area of mili- tary engineering pgychology themfielves, ho~+ever, acknoWledge that these meth- ods are far from alaays effective. Testing, for example, ~nay provide useful information for the selection of ~unior specialists for schooling--telegraph, radio and sonar operators, operatore of various iestallations, and drivers of combat and transport vehicle~, that is, narrnWly apecialized military-technical workers. The possibilitiee of t~sting are aharply reduced, ho~rever, When it is necessary to forecast an individual's suirability for a career as ~ miii- tary engin~~r, the training for which ig extremely broad and multifaceted. The pcocedure for selecting candidates for military engineering schools in- cludes an entire syetem of inenaures, ~+hich, taken together, make it possible to determine the young individual's aptitude for a career as a military engi- neer. It is based on a dialectical-materialistic interpretation of the pat- terns of man's psychic side, an interpretation expressed in an individual approach as the basic principle of career selection. In the broad sense of the ~rord, "the personal aspect of studying psychic processes consiats in re- garding them as a form of man's activity, stemming from certain requirementa and motives and focusing on the accomplishme:it of tasks With definite impor- tance to man. The motivation level of psychic activity is the prime expres- aion oE its pereonal aspect."34 43 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Ott Ot~'r tC~AL US~ ONLY 'Ch~ per~nn~l gppr~~Ch ~dn~iaCp ~f ~n ~nder~eand3ng nf the individu~l gnd hi~ ~~~~r~t~ p~ycholdgirel featur~e ns d~t~c~~d in hie ~ctivity. in aeedr- d~ne~ with thir principl~, not ~ eingie pgychoiogical f~~ture, uh~ther it be a procese, the individual'~ fr~m~ of mind or ~ f~~tuc~ m~t~if~~E~d in hi~ ~reiviey, gnd roneequ~ntly, th~ ~eeivity irgeif ~nd itg piement~--aetg and depd~--z~nn~t b~ prop~rly under~to~d without coneidering th~ pereonality fac- eore dictating it. Thie meang~ firet ef ~11, that in determining ehe individual'~ euitability for a career a~ a military engiee~r~ a~ mueC coneider th~ individugl from the ~tendpoint of hie original grovth and development (befor~ entering a mili- tary WZ And during hi~ training). Only on thig begis can we predict hie chances of succese in a military career. ~urth~rmor~, the perennal approach aesumeg th~t the individual'e�am*confir- m~tion in t~ie choeen career repreeents an acrive, creative proc~es, r~quiring more than the eimple utilizetion of th~ individual's peraonal abilitiee and more than the mechgnicgl adaptation to peculiaritiee of the miliCary engi- n~er'e occupation. Profesaional grosath coneieta of aaare, transforming and creative work on the part of th~ p~reonne~, both with respect to the object of the l~bor and to the individual's attitude toward himaelf as a Whole and to all of his functione individually. The sepsrate features and functione revealed in the proceae of determining an individual~a suitability for a given career are not self-eufficient. They are features end functiona of the personality, related to the latter not ae pgrt of a Whol~ but rather as phenemena aith an eg$ence of their rnm. They do not dev~lop independently, but depend on the general development of the individual in the courae of his social and professional activitiea. The individual nature of the functiona is manifesCed in the fact Chat they conatitute that apecial and unique entity, the pereonality, in ahich the . comsoon element is manifested. Take the operator's epecialty, for example. One individual becomes a ekil- ful operator as a result of his rapid seneory-motor reactions and good ema- tional stimulation and his ability to rapidly establish and register instru- ment readings. Mother individual, who does not possess the abilities of the former, masters the operator's art aith equal succeas by paying cloeer attention and applying his capacity for prolonged, heavy concentration and by gaging and checking his actions. The personal approach to an individual With Whom a certain relationship has been established or vho is the anecific object of study is, according to the vie~+s held by Soviet pSycholo~ista, an approach to the individual as a com- plete entity, ahich takea into account the full complexity of the personality, the history of its development and all of its individual characteristica. In other Words, it is an approach taking into account the entire, dynamically functioning individual structure of a specific personality.35 ~ 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~o~ n~~ictnt, u~~ drrtiY Sovi~t ~eienti~~ K~ K. Platon~v d~v~ldp~d ehp tno~e ehorough ~nd rdmplptp eon- cept of career seleGtion, based on a model of the dynamirally functioning ~tructure nf th~ per~onglity.36 Accnrding to ehie cone~pCi ~11 of the indi- vidugl'~ qu~litie~ ~nd tr~ite Can be ~~par~ted ineo four ~ub-~tructur~g. Th~ firgt ~ub-~rructur~ in~lud~~ thp individu~l'g ~ncia.lly con~dition~d fp~- tur~a: ehe variou~ for~n~ of go~i-ori~need ~nde~vor, mor~l-politieal qualiCi~~ gnd fp~linga of ~ high~r nrd~r. Motivgtinn in the form nf proppn~iti~g, pir~tiong, ine~re~t~ ~nd go~1~, the ob~ertive ~ourc~ df whieh conelaCs of neede, forroe the foundation for the p~ychological m~chaniem by vhich thig ~ub- structure functione in the individugl'g ~cCivieie~. Tn~se ~re the motive~ Which evoke~ direcC and conCrol Che aCtiviti~~ b~th of individugla ~nd of enCire goCial groupe. ~hie ig why the gtudy of eh~ indi- vidual,frnm the gtandpninC nf hig guieability for ~ miliCary ~nginpering cg- reer in our case, mu~t b~ iniCiated by revea2ing the nature gnd the level of the individual'g motivation. The firgt and chief tagk of careRr selection is nne df eetabliehing Che true motives behind the seleceion of a military engineering career and the degree of military-profeeeionel goal orienCaCion invnlved. Dedication to the principlea of communism, an awarenes~ of the great social importance of the military engineer'g work and his responsibility for the de�e:~se of the socialist homeland, patriotism and other feelinge of a higher order, Which characterize the morgl-political aep~ct of the officer's person- ality, produce a poeitive motivational level at Which the officer'g cap~bil- ities and hi$ functional resourcea and energy are manifested and utiliz~d to the fullest degree in his military Work. For this reason, good moral-poli[ical qualities are an extremely importai~t, decisive indicator of the individual's suitubility for a military engineering career. Conversely, inadequate ideo- logical conviction, political apathy and the domination of peraonal aims create negative motivation with respect to military careers and make the indi- vidual unsuitable for auch careers. Many years of experience has resulted in the development of various forms and methods of selecting candidates for schools and academiea, based on their ef- ficiency and moral-political qualities. Selection is made by sampling and studying information contained in questionaires on social origin, living con- ditions and job history prior to entering the atmy. The following methods are used for investigating moral-political qualities: familiarization aith information iasued by ~that organization of vhich the candidate Was a member; a psychological analysis of his personal history; and intervieas With the individual to clear up specific questions. M objective, psychologically efficient and thorough description (confiden- tial report) is the main source of information on the individual. It contains a sunnaary of many years of study by school teachers, workers aith military, conmisariats, and directors of public organizations on the ideological-political development of the teen-ager or young man, his public activitiea, indicationa of an inclination toward a military career, and his paychological traits. 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 Fdtt U~~ICIAL U5~ dNLY Unfnrtunetely, f~e from 811 of the de~criptions depict the candidate's pe~- ~onality thoroughiy and corr~ctiy from th~ p8ychologic~i atandpoint. They frequently cone~et of a routine, gup~rfici~i ~nd d~person~iized sketch, fr~m ' which it i~ difficult ta makp out anything ~e a11. Our t~ek ie on~ of improv- ing the eomp~t~nc~ of thog~ p~op~e charg~d t~ith th~ r~~pon~ibility for eval- uaCing th~ individual qu~llti~a of youth ~nt~ring th~ Arm~d ~orc~~, r~lying . on the ~rhi~vpm~nt~ ~f p~yehalogical ~ci~nce. A p~ychologic~l etudy of pereongl hietori~s i~ an important tool for pgCab- lishing the individual capabilities of candidat~~ for miiitary engineering WZ'~. The experipnced offic~r-t~achpr c~n d~riv~ extr~mply uaeful conclu- ~ion~ ~imply by familiarizing himeelf taieh th~ individual's p~raon~l hietorys information on Che m~ke-up of the f~mily, ~ori~l po~iCion, pl~ce of re~id~nce ~nd environment. An intervieW uith the individual by member~ of th~ ~ce~ptence commiegion and the officer-ins~ructors is an indispenaible ~nd, experi~nce ha~ aho~m, extreme- ly informativ~ method of determining a candidate'g pereonal qu~lifications. '1'he interview, folloWing a plan worked out in advgnce, a plan eneuring that thp neceaeary information on the candidate will be obtained, not only expanda and adda to the thoroughness of information ~bout hie life, but also provides a rich body of information for deciding on the candidate's pereonal qualifi- cations. The information obtained in the interview ia of value not only With respect to determining the candidate's suitability for the career, but algo as baeic information for subaequent individual indoctrinational aork vith him as g cadet or ~tudent. The second sub-group includea the knowledge, skills, abilities and habita ac- quired by the individual in the training proceas. The make-up and nature of the individual qualities in this sub-group are glso environmentally determined. Hie personal knoWledge, based on experience, in this area includes environ- mentally determined elemente, although the influence of innate characteriatics is begining to show, characteristics which manifegt peculiaritiea of the indi- vidual's psychological disposition. his abilities and occupational capabilities. This sub-structure ia sometimea referred to as the individual's level of deve- lopment or training, but it can abbreviated to "experience." It is the task of career selection for future military engineera With reapect to training level to reveal the elements forming thig sub-structure. Examinations are the traditional method of performing this type of selection. Unfortunately, the results of these examinations are only of relative diagnostic and, espe- cially, forecasting,value, because the examination methods used at best,only establish the level to Which the individual ha~ assimilated certain informa- tion, but do not reveal the candidate's occupationally important, creative abilities. This indicates that the traditional methods should be auplemented with new and more effective methoda related to the individual approach. The third sub-structure is formed of features ahich depend on the individual pec~~liarities of thinking, perception, emotions~ memory and Will. This sub- structure is ordinarily referred to in short as the individual's functional characteristics. The qualitiea included in this sub-atructure are influenced considerably by innate features. They must b~ taken into account for deter- mining suitability for many occupations. It is not enough to evaluate the 46 FOR OFFICIAL uSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~UR n~~ICIAL U5~ f~NLY - ch~rgcC~ri~Ei~~ enneginpd in thi~ gub-~tru~tur~ in eh~ ~plpctian prn~~~~, h~uever, gin~~ ehe p~r~an~liey i~ made up df ehe ~u~~=t~e~1 af ~rim~rily pnvi- rdnmentelly dptermined qu$litieg ~nd ~e~if~ae~, ~nd nnt on1y, and not ~o murh, df in~~t~ qu~liti~~. V~riou~ t~~e~ ~r~ u~pd ta r~ve~?1 individu~l p~ychdl~gi~~1 er~ie~. 'C~~eg ~r~ md~e ~nnmonly ug~d for ~~l~eting e~ndid~re~ fdr op~r~eor-eyp~ ~p~cialti~g, th~t ig~ rh~ gpe~ialti~~ whieh primarily ~an~i~t df driving co~nbnt v~hi~1~~ dr ~p~r~tin~ t~chnicgl ~y~t~m~. 'Ch~gp includp th~ gp~~i~lti~s of te~hni~i~n- op~rgtor gnd poW~r plant oppr~tor, for ~x~mplp. Uue ro th~ir ngrrowly sp~cie- lized natur~, t~ehnic~l comp~~xity ~nd uniqu~n~~s, and to the e~p~cially gr~~t r~~pnn~ibility bornp by th~ per~onn~l, eh~~~ ~nbg mak~ ep~ei~t r~quir~- men~g of the individu~l, ahich nde ~v~rydn~ i~ ~bl~ eo me~t~ ~he oper~tc~r aarking ~ control panel of ~ m igeil~ launching f~cility, fdr ex~mple, hgs to fn1].~ra the re~dingg of v~ridu~ in~Crumpnt~ ~nd th~ c~ndition of v~rious d~- vic~g. Thi~ r~quir~g ~ l~rg~ amount df knoWledge end a We11-dev~lt~p~d abili- ty to shift nne'~ atCention in order td mdve r~pidly from on~ opQration to ~noth~r. Little cgn be done tc~ makp up for a 1~ck of theg~ ~bilitiee. PgychologiCgl experimentation (testing) ig a meang of reve~ling occup~Ciongl guitability, b~epd on individual p~ychuldgiral rh~r~cterigtice. The etandard- form "compngs~" "dial," "maze," "bl~ck-and-red array~" "adjuecment trial-and- ~rrnr," and "eombinaCion l~tter-~nd-numb~r" te~tg, for example, can be used to r~veal (With varying degreps nf reli~bility) th~ gttention spAn, the abili- ty to sWitch one'g attention, v isual memory, m~mnry for numberg, perceptual range, reaction tim~, and so fdrth. Th~r~ ar~ numerous oth~r methodg of ex- perimental atudy not only of psychn-phyaiological fanctinns, but also of the specific featureg of ~he creative thought process, speech and emotions, as Well as such individual qualities as degree of ostentation, the indivi- duai's position in the social strucCure, and the dynamic facets of the person- ality.37 'The fourch aub-structure of the pergonality cdnaists of the complete group of organic featureg, or, representative features, as they are also referred to~ in which far more ia inhprited then is acquired. In speaking of inher- ited characterieticg, K. Marx used the terms "natural abilities" and "the natural being" of man. Thig is the genotype in the biological Benae, tempera- ment in the p~ycholagical, and a typ~ of higher nervous activity in the phqsio- logical senae. Using conunonly knoWn t~rminology, the inherited qual3ties are the foundation, and che acquired characteristics form the superstructure. Since theae defini- tions are entirely conditional. the ratio of base to superstructure can very: they may correspond, in Which rase We have a aell-balanced individual~ or they may be out of proportion, resulting in conflicts or, frequently, even an un- balanced peraonality. The dependencies of abilities on the foundation are not alWays apparent, but the geneticists are noa convinced that mental and creative abilities, artistic and musical talent depend on th e combination of genes. Medical experts and psychologists are convinced that che ph;�siological level of differentiation 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~dR O~~~C~AL U5~ ONt~Y b~twp~n th~ flrgt gnd ~ect~nd ~ignal syetems predetermines intellectual gbili- ti~~ to ~ gr~~e d~gree: artietic t~1~nt i~ fdund mu~t frpqupn~iy tn Cho~~ in- dividuel~ in whwn th~ firet ~igne~ eyetem ie mor~ highiy devplopQd, uhi~e pow~rg df ~b~tr~~tiun predominae~ in tho~~ in ahom th~ g~c~nd ~ignal gy~tem ddmin~te~. It i~ n~cp~$ary to r~ve~l th~ occupationaliy imporC~ne f~~eur~e in egch of th~ four eub-~trucrur~g in drder to study the individu~]. for purpo~e~ of pre- dicting hi8 tel~nt for mi~iCary engine~ring work. Thig mnkp~ it poe~ible to avoid tMe common ~rror of r~duci~g th~ aelpcCion proc~se to a consideration af cher~cteri~tic~ in eh~ third eub-~~ructur~ a1on~. An gn~ly~i~ of num~rov~ de~cription~ of th~ milie~ry engineer'~ per~on~liey in booke and Works by varioua ~uthors legde ug to ronclude that th~ per~ongl- iry "model" which hg~ t~ken shap~ in this proce~g i~ th~ moet ~uitable for u~e in ~~lpeting futurp military ~ngin~QY~ for the mo~t div~ree greae of spe- cializgtinn. And although not a11 of the parta have an indieput~ble~ logical foundation, the dynamic, funationgl ~~ru~ture of the pareonality ran be auc- r~ggfully uaed as the theoretic~l baeic for performing etudiee to determine en individual'e auitability for milftary enginepring aork. The dialectical demonetration (both quantative and qualitgtive) of an indivi- dual'~ talent for a cert~in,specifically military engineering, type of aork - is extrpmely important in caceer eelection practicee. It ahould be noted that not only ig talent manifeoted and developed in the process of performing a certain type of activity, but aithout activity it doee not exiet at all. The theory that there is no euch th~ng as "talent for activity 'X has nov become eatablished in the sciences dealing with the personality. Until activity "X" aesumes definition, the irdividual only poeeeeses inherent traits in the form of potential capabilities, Wt?ich become real only in Che procese of the epecific activity. Nhat specific abilities are necessary for military enginaering Work? We shall diecuse only a fcn~r of the Choroughly atudied ones. One of the firat groups of abilitiee has to do vith tl~e fact that the military engineer's work is intellectual. Clarifying the nature of the elemente making up technical ~rork, Soviet peycholog~st N. D. Levitov atatea that in the first place~ they primarily pertain to the thought processes; in the aecond place, they denote,physiologically,that level of analytical-aqnthetic activity at Whtch the cemplex relationahips and the non-etatic-relatione~ip between the firgt and second signal systems are aystematized; and in the third place, they include primarily those qualitiee Which are deeignated as keenness of mind (mental orientation speed)~ deliberative ability and criticality.38 Nany scientiats consider the firet component to be the iatellectual level or intellectual ability, or. and this amounts to the same thing, cognative abili- ty, the ability to understand concepta and to express one's thoughts verbally; the size of one's vocabulary; the ability to solve problema, to foresee and to 48 FOR OPPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~Ott n~~ICIAL US~ ONLY cr~nte n plgn of c~ctinn; Che gbility Cn ~pply one's experience and memory; Cha gbility eo m~k~ compuCeCinng rgpidly gnd corr~cCly; the possession of $ ~onc~pt~ ~nd the ability to perceive apgtial relaCionships and con- n~Ction~; the ability ro discern eimilarities gnd distinctions between ob- ~~cC~ and between phenomeng~ and so forth~ On~ nf Che mogC apecific abiliCies required for military engineering work is a cnpacity fnr creetivity. SCudiea performed with engineering and technical pereonnel have r~vealed a broad ~pectrum o� forms in which creativity is de- monetrated in the work, forms which at the same Cime constitute features of the personaliCy and elemenCary abilitiea which are a pare of the atructure of cr~ative work: gn intere~t in and a discriminating propenaity for a cer- t~in eype of work, gelf-sufficiency, initiative, the ability to think for oneself in the perfoxmence of specific tasks, Che need Co organize and plan one's work in the best possible manner, the establishment of good interper- sonal relationship~ among th~ workera, rationalizaCion and invention work. It is doubtful that anyone today would objece to the assertion that modern military engineering work is inconceivable without fundamental mathematical trgining. The ecience of mathemaCica hae made a considerable mark on the moet diverse Cypea of military engineering work. The mathematical abilities di the "potential engineer" is therefore one of the important career selection criteria. An analysis of statements made by scientiats on the nature of mathematical abilities shows that the latter have a definite atructure. Aceordi~ag to�V. A. Krutetskiy, for example, who is both�a.psychologist.and a�n~athernatieian and has apent many years studying mathematical ability, this structure includes the following: a capacity for generalization; logical reasoning; keenness of mind end resourcefulness; a mathematical memory; a capacity for abstraction; mental flexibility; the possession of spatial conceptions; the ability to re- verse one's train of thought; a desire to conserve one's mental effort; great endurance for dealing with mathematical problems, and so forth.39 Just how complete is this and other~~snumerations of such qua~lities? 8~~era1, _ is it possible to compile an extia~:stive list for any specific ability? And there is yet another question related to these: Must every youth desiring to become a military engineer possess the "complete set" of characteristics in- cluded in the list? With respect to providing an integral, personal evaluation of occupational suitability, it must be said that any such list and any detailed description of the structures of specific abilities, which is so badly needed, will always be only a general outline, and the individual abilities of this or that per- san Will rarely include all of them. One must always be able to identify the connection between the specific abilities and to consider their mutual influence. 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY History contains some amazing examples of individuals who posaesaed boCh ma~hemat3cal and oC'ner Calente. We know, for example, that A. S. Griboyedov, N. V. Gogol', M. Yu. Lermontov and L. N. Tolstoy (who actually worked on methode of teaching mathematica) had good mathematical abilitiea and a marked propenaiCy for mathematical activitiea. At the same rime, A. S. Pushkin "ahed many tears" ar the lyceum bue "did not achieve any noCable auccess" in mathematics, and D. I. Mendeleyev regularly received not only "D's" but even "F's" in grammar school. Organizational skills,made necessary by the preaent revolution in military affairs, are no leae essential and urgenCly needed by the modern m:~iit~3ry engineer. "If one of you were to read all of Lenin's worka at one timf:, vol~ ume after volume," M. I. Kalinin wrote, "you could not avoid noticing the enormous amount of attention Lenin devoted Co organizational matters or how he made every poasible effort to teach organization to the workers and commu- nists.i40 Referring repeatedly to organizational skills, V. I. Lenin pointed out: "...administration requires special qualities. One may be the very best revolutionary and agitator, and be absolutely useful as an administrator."41 In our philosophical and psychological literature, the sub~zct of organiza- tional abilities has been most thoroughly expounded in the works of L. I. Umanskiy, who notea 18 typical features forming the structure of organizational skill: the ability to infect and stimulate other people with one's enthusiasm; the ability Co understand and react correctly to psychological phenomena and the , mentalities of people (psychological ingenuity), the ability to spot deficien- , cies in actions and deeds, or, criticality; psychological tact; initiative and demandingness; self-sufficiency; a capaciCy for work, and others.42 Every organizer needs all of these abilities. They are not specifically engi- ~ neering skills, however, since they are also essential in other fields of pro- ~ fessional endeavor. i Closely related to organizational skills and capacities for intellectual work are the pedagogical skills, which are also essential to military engineers, ; the duties of which include training and indoctrinating the men. The pedagog- ical skills required by the professional teacher naturally differ from those ~ needed by the military engineer, both with respect to volume and to the extent of their utilization in.the practical work. These have already been ~ discussed in detail, however. There is no doubt as to the fact that a posses- ~ sion of such skills is a guarantee of successful work on the part of the mili- tary specialist. We have enumerated.certain, but far from all of the abilities required by the person preparing to choose a military engineering career. The~lists can only be recommended in part, because, in the first place, it is impossible to pro- vide them for all of the situations occurring in life, and, in the second place, because these requirements are continuously being developed and improved. ~ This in no way means that it is not necessary to analyze abilities and to . ~ 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OK U~~ICIAG U5~: ONLY del~ct the mo~t capnble individuelg fdr n career ne military engineers. According to rhe foreign preer~ for exgmpl~, thp drop-out raCe for cedets is reduc~d by more th~n SU percent and up eo e million dollare ie eaved by selecting candidates for military educatidnel ineCirution~ oa the beeis nf ability~ 'Chie mak~~ it highly imporennt far every miliCary engineering Vilz to acCUmulate gnd eummarize experience in career ~ei~crion based on ~pecific individual ~bilities. Requirements w~th respect t~ cepacities for militery engineering work are th?~~ being refined ~nd continuouely modified~ Thig ie due Co the facC Chet career selection ie a dev~loping proce~e. The acientific epproach to rhe organizgtion of career eelection for miliCery engineere, however, require~ the derermination of certnin constants, or more precisly~ lgws~ inherent in thie proceea. The general principleg of career aelection reflect these igwe, and impul~ive actione and many ~rrors caa be avoided in thia work by observ- ing them, The first euch principl~ ig rhat of eocial determinaCion of the baeis for the selection~ thaC is~ making the selection on the basis of eociety'8 need for a certain number of military-technicnl apecialists of a certain caliber. These requirements are,in turn, the reault of epecific hietorical conditions~ the military-political eituation, and th~ level and the requirements of acien- tific and technological progrese. During the first years of Soviet power, the efforts were mainly concentrated on aelecting and training varinus spe- cialista for the cavalry and artillery. It then became necessary to initiate the large-scale training of specialists for the air force, the submarine fleet and the tank troops. At the beginning of the 1960's it became necessary to fill the ranka of the Strategic Missile Troops, and this required an enormoue number of military-technical specialists. The social determination principle determinea the relative nature of the selec- tion. The fact ie that the selection criteria are not always the same. The general Crend is toward determination of auitability for a certain military career based on the top criterion, that is, on those characteriatics which can ensure excellent fulfullment of one's functionai duties. The selection may be made on the basis of criteria at the middle of the list, or even lower, how- ev~r~ depending on the military-political situation, the state's needs and the level of prestige carried by the military-technical careers. The question of how far military prepardneae can safely be reduced by increseing the number of specialists nccepted becomes highly acuCe in the latter case. The relative nature of this selection is also determined by its dependency on the level of career orientation and career consultation work. When the work is well organized, it is poseible to limit the taek of selecting those to be accepted at a WZ to an individual study of the candidates. It should be noted that this selection is relative in yet another sense: it is impossible to ensure complete reliability with the use of any of the selection methods. Finally, the limited and relative nature of this selection is deter- mined by trends in and the outlook for the development of military work. S1 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 xox o~r~ctac. us~ dNLY The ndCur~ dnd the gCructure of the militnry-technical specialties ere under- going further madifiCetion in the proceed of the scienCific and Cechnological revnlutian. 'Che pxtensiv~ uee of guCoroaCic ~yeCeme and devices ie conCribuC- Cv Che creation of epecialCies wiCh a broad range of functione. Autometion provid~g the materi~l b~sie for combining previouely limited operaCione into a~ingl~ proceeg controlled and direcred by man. The nnture of the interaction occurring within Che "man-machine" system is changing ae the process of automation progresses. Men ie increasingly removed from the direct combat proceee and ie increasingly performing preparaCion~ supervieion and monitoring functions~ The requiremente made of the abtlities~ knowledge and Bkills of militery- tecl~niCaL epecialiets have ~lso undergone considerable change. Abilitiee other than concrete onee are increasingly required: physical sCrength, pre~i- eion of sensory and moCor coordination~ and ao forth, as well as such quali- tiee ae e lerge etore of ~ob informati.on, rapid adaptability for the perform- ance of constently changing aeoignments~ and a feeling of responeibility for ' the equipment in one's charge. The role of political-moral qualities has in- creueed coneiderably, qusliCies which, as we know~ do not reeult from any sort of inherited characteriatics but are a product of the individur.l's social de- velopment, indoctrinaCion and training. All of thie has reaulted in a general trend in the development of Che required qualities, Caking the focus away from matters of selection to the development of ~ob ekills. Thc fact that scientific and technological progress does not encourage the long-rnnge and large-scale uae of psychon~etric methods of career selection : should not be taken as an argument against the expediency and great effective- nesa of selection based on psycho-physiological characteristice for a large group of epecialists. The need for apecial selection of people for many ~ technical-military specialties, based on individual psychological quali~ies, is still a practical and important one. This is a valid form of aelection, ; because the group of individuals learning a given apecialty includes those ~ who are not able to learn it succeasfully within the time allotted; because ' of the apecial importance of the operational tasks performed and the great poesible danger created by errors; by the large numbers of individuals desiring to enter VUZ's and the limited time available for the aelec- tion~ and the large amounts of money spent by the e~wte on their training; and by the need to aelecr the most suiCable individuals from a number of candi- datea. These conditions are essential for the aelection of future military engineers ~ to serve as operators. These military engineering apecialties require such specific qualities as the abi'Lity to think clearly, a good memory~ concentra- . tion and peychomotor skills, which are difficult to exercise, and little can be done to compensate for a lack of them. If the abilities can be easily de- veloped in the course of training~however, or if they can only be revealed . and acquired in the process of prolonged military engineering work, there is no need for preliminary selection. The above indications of the validity of selection make it posaible to define the list of military engineering special- tiea for which the determination of individual psychological characteriatica 52 # FOR OFFaCIAL USE ONLY ~ ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 I ~Ott O~f~'tCIN. US~ ONLY ig nt~soluC~ly neces~ary. We hav~ g pracCical need for such a list end for ~n nc:tuel proCedure for the aelection, backed up by proper normarive-leggl ennctmenCs. The next principle of psychoingicgl ~~lecCion is a logical outgrowth of the personal approach to the study of the individual's dynamic functionn~ struc- Cure. It ie based on the ~tudy of military career auitability gnd its active development in the firat atage of training, at the end of ehe training and~ finally, Chroughout Che entire period of eervice. In other words, psycholo- gical selection is not an act but a lengthy process, the first eignificant phase of which takea place at the firet encounter. Extended selection~ like all contemporary work carried out with peraonnel in general~ requires that the command and political ataff possess not just g familiariCy wiCh psychology and social paychology, but a thorough knowledge of them and proficiency in all of Che forms and methods of career selection nnd the training of specialists for the technical military fields. Fxte:?ded eelection makea it possible to rely upon yet another principle of military career selection--the active selecCion principle. Active selection implies organizing Che aelection in auch a way that it is organically combined with maximum adaptation of Che machine's control elements to man's functional characteriatice, rational automation of a number of operations, the develop- ment of algorithmic training systems, optimization of training routines, and the Adoption of nonspecific means of i?nproving the specialist's functional characteriatics. From Che standpoint of the active selection principle, we should atress the need and the importance of developing the imperfect psychic qualities revealed in the selection process. "Suitable," "not suitable" and "liroited suitability" are passive conclusions. Active conclusions should contain psychological, func- tional, training and indoctrinational recommendations, with the focus on build- ing up ineufficiently developed occupationally important qualities. And in order to issue such recommendations, it is necessary not only to describe the charac- teristics revealed, but also to predict how they will develop in the training and indoctrinational process (the rate of their development, their development- al peculiarities and limitations). The problem of predicting the military technical specialist's fighting effi- ciency presents the greatest difficulty. After all, the concept "military occupational suitability" primarily implies the ability to function success- fully in a combat situation. Many researchers have rightly pointed out the inadequacy of evaluating on the basis of training results. In a battle, the individual must possess a large number of psychological combat qualitiea, in addition to his occupational knowledge and skills: fighting spirit, emotional- volitional stability, the ab.ility to exert maximum effort, the ability to com- mand sub-UI1~C3 ~L1 any situation, determination and a desire to execute the combat mission no matter what. It is precisely these qualities which make an officer highly active in combat. consequently, the methods used for selecting 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOR OI~FICIAI. USE ONLY and training milieary epecialisCe mueC reveal and develop the qualitiee required not only in the eraining, bue ln combat as well. This circumetance gives ri~e to an extremely important principle of miliCary career selection~- the principle of adequacy. 'The latter ia at the same time the m~sC important principle and the moet difficult to realize: it is a difficult matter to pre- dict how an individual will behave in a battle. "Danger is an element of wsr- f~re. In a war, one ie surrounded by danger every aingle minute.i43 Paycholo- gical manifestaCions brought out by combat are of an extreme and compelling nature: more rigid criteria of milil.ary professional suiCabiliCy are in effect. The difficulty of forecasting combat efficiency is created by th~ fact that differenC peaple behave differently in dangerous aiCuations. The threat of dying or being wounded can paralyze one individual, rendering him helplesa. Anorher may feel a eurge of physical and emotional energy aC a time of dang~r. Nia imagination suddenly createa a special world in which he feels capable of deatroying anything atanding in hia way. A clasaic example of Che achieve- menC of such a atate by an individual was the feut performed by Captain Tuehin nC 5hoengraben, which was described in L. I. Tolstoy's novel "War and Peace." When he finds himself in danger, the most timid officer, one who quails when confrnnted by auperiore, may feel strong and invulnerable, master of the ar- tillery's thunder and lightning. Suddeeaful performance in a canbat eiCuaCion can only be predicted in a airua- tion approaching actual combat. The functional tests uaed in laboratories are the least effective of all. Diapite Chis, it would not be correct to con- _ clude that it is impossible to predicC a soldier's behavior in combat. Such a conclueion can only be made with a funcCional approach to the evaluation of fighting qualities, when they are regarded as aelf-sufficient qualities whict~ do not depend on the individual's other characteristics. In fact, however, fighting qualities do not exist in and of themselvea. They are deri- vative qualities, always produced by other characteristica--soldiers are not born, af ter all. A MarxisC-Leninist outlook, ideological stability, devotion to the party cause, patrioCism and loyalty to one's ~nilitary duty determine the officer's 1eve1 of motivation and constitute the decisive conditione for succeas~ both in the training and in combat. This motivation ensures the functioning of the psychological mechanisme essential for success in combat. In thia aenae, - ideals and feelinga of a higher order inspire and motivate the fightingman to achieve victory over the enemy. One must first of all determine the level of development of precisely these qualities for forecae~ting an officer's com- baC efficiency. The so-called "physical-culture" methods developed by a team of researchers headed by T. G. Dzhamgarov are the most effective of the prac- tical methods used for forecasting auccess in combat. They include the fol- lowing methods: overcoming obstacle fields with simulated elements of a com- bat situation, multi-kilometer cross-country races and military aports games. When organized properly and in a well-conceived manner, they can provide ex- tremely useful information on the level of the officer's emotional-volitional stability, initiative~ militancy, self-control and other qualities. 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OR U~~ICIAL US~ ONLY The mogt rpliebl~ wey tn know the c~det or geudent's mor~l-figheing qu~li- tie~~ however, is thnt oE etudying Che individual during hig training. ~x- peripnc~ which is being ~caumulated in Che eimulation of sCres~ situ~tion~ during exerci~~g ~nd th prgctice of making training tasks reaemble actual combar ~s nearly a~ pogeible ~re cregting incre~eingly betrer opporeunities for thi~~ IC muat be noted that, since the forecaseing of comb~C efficiency is a maCter of probgbility, we ehould conclude that it ia neceeeary, while continuing to search persietently for good selection methods, to fo~ug atteneion on nu+tters of improving moral-paychoingical conditioning, during the cours~ of which the paychological mechaniame required for combgt are developed. The task ia one of improving the work of ideological-political indocCrination of the traineee ~ and improving training methods, on the one hand, and of geeking method8 of providing conditioning for performing in atreas situatione, on the other. The paychological mechanism, by means of which moral-poliCical qualities and the trnining of the fightingmen are ob~ectively developed in combat action,. are only formed in the proceas of such practical Craining. In conclusion, ~+e would like to streas once again the need for peraistenC, continuous work to develop a military-professional orientation in the cadeta nnd atudenta ~t military engineering WZ's and departments. A fairly broad range of specialists are trained at the schools and academies. Profound and thorough theoretical knowledge make it possible for the graduates to be used in various positions, both as engineera and as commandera. Some of them see themselves in the future, however, as "purely engineers," design- ers and workers in research laboratories. And it is no secret that some young graduates of military engineering departments turn out to be psychologically , unprepared to serve as commanders: at first, they avoid the personnel and de- - monstrate no special desire to learn to work with people. The situation some- times takes a dramatic Curn--the young officer experiences a feeling of dis- appointment in hie career. Consequently, the development of u military-professional orientation and a psychological readiness to command sub-units is an extremely important task of the training and indoctrinational process. Experienced offfcer-instructora see to it that each cadet receives good military training during his school years, masters the forms and methods of party-political work, acquires solid skills in commanding a formation, and learne how to conduct classes not only on tecfm ical military sub~ects, but in all of the other types of combat and political trainign as well. It must be said that problems of career selection for military engineering work are still not being prop~rly covered in military literature and that the level of their development, especially in the methodological senae, still do not meet the requirements with respect to providing students for schools and academies. The concept of career selection for mil.itary engineers which we h~ve described naturally requires further refinement and thorough elaboration as applicable to specific specialties. SS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~dk U~b'ICiAL US~ UNLY Th~ milit~ry ~ngineering fi~1d ig, in g wgy, the "highest wgv~" uf gcieneific and technningic~l progre~g: ep~cialeiee ~r~ becoming more complicge~d, new ~nd unheard-of epeciglties are coming into being, and greater d~rngnde are being m~d~ of the l~v~l of profession~l trgining for ~ngineer8. IC ig pre- cisely for thie re~son thgr inv~~tig~tione into probleme of career ~~lection nrr becnming en ~geential elem~nC of the ~ci~ntific organiz~Cion of military wnrk ~nd ~~ub~ect of concern for the comm~nders and chiefs ~.nvolved. The gCientif ically gubatanCiated gelect3on of miliC~ry-technical ~ppciali~Cs and its improvemert are m~king it poesibl~ Co geructure Craining programg more efficiently and tn train ~pecialietg for the SovieC Armed porce~ in e mor~ goal-ori~nted manner and on a higher lev~l. 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 FOtt O~~~CIAt, U5~ ONLY CONCLUSION Soviet milit~ry engin~ering per~nnnpl ~mbndy th~ d~veloped f~gture~ nf Ch~ Sovi~t engineering and technicgl int~11l,~~ntsia and the basic features of thp offie~r corpg of the Sdvi~t Arm~d ~ore@m. ~h~ ro1~ af military enginper~ ~nd Cheir influ~nce on thp cdmbat resdine~~ of th~ Suviet Arm~d Fdreeg h~~ never been gn great. Thig i~ due, in the firgt plgcp, tn the l~rge numbpr nf military ~ngineere:evpry eecond officer in our ~rmy and ngvy 3g an pngi- n~~r or t~chnician; in the ~econd place, to rhp high level of e~chnical equip- m~nt of th~ army, whi~h hgg Curned precticglly a11 eervicpe of the Armed ~orCea ~~nd brgn~hes of trnops into t~ehnicgl trddp~; in Ch~ third plecp, to th~ qu~li- Cative chgngee which hgve occurred in army and ngvy ppreonnel, who;;�today, ~g never before, need good militgry-technical tr~ining and the ability to succese- fully uae and operaCe exnpptionally complpx miliCary equipment and weapons; and in [he fourth p1aCe, to thp naCure of modern warfare, which can begin eb~olutely unexpectedly, involve lgrgp ~r~as of th~ plgner, be extremely bit- eer gnd d~vgstating, and be conducted in the form of rapid, highly mobile and and inten~e combeC operatione. It is necessary to make max3mum uee of the military potenCial, including the military-technical potential, in order ro repel an unexpecred atCack by an agresaor, to reapond with a devastating strike, and to euccesafully rea~ize the great power inherent in the socialist system to defend the USSR and the entire socialist commonwealth vicCoriously. The successful accompliahment of this task dependa greatly on the skilful work of military and technical personnel of the Soviet Army and Navy. Modern warfare requires that the engi- neer be not ~uat a technical specialist, responsible for the combat employ- ment and operation of the military equipment, but also a profound expert in military affairs, a good organizer and indoctrinator of subordinates and an ideologically mature and thoroughly developed individual. The Soviet Army has remarkable cadres of engineering aad technical personnel. This is primarily due to the social environment, which nurtures our Armed ~orcea and their officer cadres from an inexhaustable source. The building of a developed socialist society in the USSR and the auccesaful realization of the party's economic~ scientific and technological, social, cultural and ideological programa have affected the quality of the officer corps, includ- ing the military engineera. In a class sense, Soviet military engineers are repreaentatives of the work- ing class, the kolkhoa peasantry and the socialist intelligentsia, and are linked to them by their origins, interests and aspirations. The popular nature of the Soviet Army creates an indestructable unity of fightingmen of all ranks and at all levels. In the political respect, Soviet military engineers are active participants in all areas of our public-political life. performing the responsible tasks of atrengthening the combat might of the Armed Forces. Performing in a single fc~rmation with all of the other divisions of the officer corps and guided by the Communis[ Party, the military engineers are making a large contribution 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OEt d~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY ro the c~use uf d~f~nding our hom~l~nd. The real threat df n npw world war being unle~~hpd by Che imperiallst~ ~nd Che n~ed Co de~end s~cialigm er~ raieing the politic~l reeponeibillty of Soviet military ~ngineers Co en un- prpc~denChd heighr. in the ~cieneifie ~nd Cpchnological resp~~t~ SnvieC miliCary engine~re ar~ highly ekilled appcialietg me~suring up to mod~rn military-Cechnical thought. A profound knowl~dge of Marxiet-teninieC dncerine, Che bgaic scienceg, modprn rpchnical gcienc~e and the principles and methode of ecientific cnntrol mgke tt~e military engin~~r ~n inCellectual in the true senae of the word. Our nutetanding eucceseea in the development of military equipmenC and ite auccess- ~ ful operation are an indicator of the high acientific and Cechnical eophiati- cation of our military engineering peraonnel. In Ch~ military respect, engineering and technical personnel are agenCs of modern military aCandarda. They posseea the required knowledge of SovieC military science and military arC, military regulations and manuals, and aet an exnmple of diecipline~ performance and organization. The training sygCem for militnry engineering personnel providea them wiCh operational-tactical knowlpdge and skilla and the ability Co realize these on a practical level. The developmene of operational-tactical thought comprises an extremely impor- tant precondition for the development of command and other combat qualities in the Soviet military engineer. WiChout this~ he cannot perform his func- ~ tional duties. ' In the cultural and ideological respect, SovieC military engineera are men of great sophistication and erudition, and agents of the Marxist=Leniniat outlook and of the moral and esthetic ideals of the buildera of communism. ! I Our party, as convincingly demonstrated by the 25th CPSU Congress, is focus- ~ ing all of the main efforts and resources of the developed socialist society on the achievement of that moat noble and humane goal--the building of com- munism. For the sake of thia goal, the Soviet State is attempting to strength- en peace and security for all nationa. At the same time, as documents from the 25th CPSU Congress state, "our security and the peaceful labor of the Soviet people must be reliably ensured and defended, since there are forces in the world which are hostile to detente and which re~ect the principle of peaceful coexistence as the foundation for relations between states with a developed socialist structure. We ahall therefore continue to concer44our- selves for our glorious Armed Forces--the pride of the Soviet people. Responding to the party's concern for the Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet mili- tary engineering personnel are increasing their political vigilance, improv- ing the combat training quality and maintaining a state of constant combat readiness. There is no doubt that the continued development of the indivi- dual qualities of Soviet military engineers will make a large contribution . to the work of strengthening the socialist homeland's defense capability. 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 : ~OR OFFICIAI, U5~ ONLY ~'OOTNOT~S 1. "Materialy X~tV e'yezda KP35"~Material~ of Che 25eh CPSU Congr~s~]~ Moecow, 1976~ p 83. 2. N. V. Merkav~ "Nnuehnc~-CeChniChe~kaya revolyutsiya--anali~~ p~r~pekCivy, posledetviya"[The Scientific and Tpchnological ~tevoluCion--an Analysie, Proepects, Consequences~~ Moecow, 1973, pp L80, 204. 3. "SSSR v teifrakh v 1975 godu"~Thp USSR in ~igures for 1975~, Moecow, 1976, p 17. 4. SOTSIALI5TICHESKAYA INbUSTRIYA, 9 June 1969. 5. "SSSR v taifrakh v 1975~" p 184. 6. I. S. Magutov, "Inzhener"[Th~ Engineer), Moscow, 1973, p 50. 7. S. A. Kugel' and 0. M. Nikandrov, "Molodyye inzhenery"[The Young ~ngineersj, Moscow, 1971, p 75. 8. VESTNIK VYSSHEY SHKOLY, No 12, 1972, p 6; No 4, 1970, p 71. . 9. KRASNAYA 2VE2DA, 25 April 1974. ~ 10. "Zakon SSSR o vseobshchey voinskoy obyazannoati"[The Law of the USSR on Universal Mandatory Military Dutyj, Moscow, 1967, p 35. 11. N. V. Kirichenko, "Tekhnicheskaya kul'tura soveCskogo voina"[The Tezhnical Sophistication of the Soviet Fightingman), Moscow, 1971, p 31. 12. I. V. Bushmarin, "Iasledovaniye trudovykh resuraov v SShA"(A Study of Labor Resources in the U.S.A.], Moscoa, 1967, pp 145-147. 13. Yu. M. Sheynin, "Nauka i militarizm v SShA"[Science and Militariam in the U.S.A.j, Moacow, 1963, pp 81, 82. 14. N. V. Kirichenko, "Tekhnicheskaya kul'tura sovetskogo voina," p 31. 15. G. Mekhanik, "The Scientific and Technological Revolution and its Affect on the Capitalist Economy" in MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 12, 1966, p 70. 16. K. Marx and F. Engels, "Soch."[Works], Vol 15, p 234. 17. Yu. G. Fokin, "Nadezhnost' pri ekspluatatsii tekhnicheskikh sredstv"[Reli- ability in the Operation of Technical Equipment], Moscow, 1970, 28. 18. "Voyennaya inzhenernaya psikhologiya"[Military Human Factors Engineering], Moscow, 1970, p 24. ~ 59 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100014440-5 ~OIt O~F'tCIAI, US~ ON1~Y l~). M. V. Prunrr, "tihrrinnyy~ prnixvrd~niyn"~Seipct~d Wdrk~~, Mn~cnw~ 1965, p 70. 2U. "Materinly XXV a"yezd~ K~SS," p 70. 21. Yu. I. ltachev, "Vninskiy kollektiv i ye~o rol' v ukr~plenii boy~vny moehchi Sovetgkikh Vooruzhennykh Sil"~The M1litary Collective and it~ itnl~ in Serengthening Chp Combge Might of the Soviet Armed ~orc~s), Mogcow, 1972. 22. "Materigly XXV a"yezda KPSS," p 68. 23. N. A. Mel'nikov, "Na kosmodrome"(At Che SpaceporC]~ Moscow, 1964, p 35. 24. KRASNAYA 2VEZDA,27 J~nuary 1963. 25. M. I. Kalinin, "0 kommuniaeicheakom vospieanii i voinskom dnlge"(On Com- munist IndoctrinaCion and MiliCary Duty), Moscow, v'.967, pp 255-256. 26. "Voyennaya inzhenernaya psikhologiya," pp 205~-211. 27. B. F. Lomov, "Chelovek i tekhnika," Mc~scow, 1966, pp 22-25, 32. 28. A more detailed discussinn of this followa. 29. K. M~rx and F. Bngela, "Iz rannikh proizvedeniy"(From Their Early Works], Moscow, 1956, p 1. 30. Ibid., p 564. 31. V. I. 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"prgktikum po p~ikhuingii"CAn ~xperimentgl SCudy in p~y~hdldgy~, Ma~~aw, 1972. 39. N. D. tevitov, "On th~ Pgyeholo~ie~i ~l~mene~ of T~chnicel Work," i~ VOPRO5Y I'3IiWOLOG2~, Nd 6, 1958, p 36~ 40. K. K. Platnnov~ "problem~ ~pdsobnd~e~y"~The ProblQm of Abiliei~~~, Moecav, 1972, p 174. _ 41. M. I. Kalinin, "0 kommuni~ticheakom v~gpitanii i voin~kom dolgp," pp 255-256. 42. L. I. Umanakiy~ "Who Cen Become en Organizer" in MOLODOY KOMMUNIST, No 9, 1966, p 80. 43. V. I. Lenin~ "Poln. gc~br. soch.," Vo1 44, p 210. 44. "Mnterialy XXV g"yezda KpS5," p 154. CbPYRIGHT: Voyenizdat~ 1977. 11499 CSO: 1801 END 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100010040-5