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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'I 0003000'I -6 vn ~ IND~, 'RIAL AFFAIRS i MARCH i979 CFOUO 3r79) i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8298. ' 1 March 1979 . ~ TRANSLATIONS ON EASTERN EUROPE ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL NFFAIRS a~~ CFOUO 3/79) ~ _ . , U. S. ~OINT PUBLICATION~ ~ESEARCH SERVICE FOR OFFI CI AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 NOTE - JPRS publicueions coneuin informaCion primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, bue also from newA agency j Cransmiseions and broadca~Cs. Materials from foreign-language sources ~re tranalaeed; those from English-language eources ~ are transcribed or reprinted, wiCh the original phrasing and . orher characteriseics rerained. 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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 SIOLIOORAPHIC DATA 1� Rapat No.JPRS L/ 8298 Z Recipfeot'~ Aece~oioa No. iH!!T . t e~ c e epocc �ee TRANSLATIONS ON EASTERN LUROPE - ECONOMIC AND YNDUSTRIAL 1 March 1.9 79 - AFFAIRS, ( FOUO 3/ 79 ) - 1. Aa6or(~) Notfamina Or~~ait~tlon R~pt, 9. Ptr(ormins Oc~~aia~tioo N~ae ~sd Addr~a 10. Pro~ect/T~~Ic/~ar{c Uait No. - Joirit Publicatione Re~earch Service ~t, cooc~.~~ Gnat No. lOQO North Glebe Road Arlington, Virginia 22201 ~ 12 Spoa~alef Or~wls~tioo Neme aod Addre~~ 1~. Type ot Repocc tc Perfod Covered As above t~. 1S. SupPlament.rr Nae~ - 6. �enet� � The serial report contains articlea on econoanic~theory, orgenization, planning and management; m.ajor agreements on aad development of trade ~ithin CEMA and outside the Bloc; articlee on all aspects of ~he marerials, aervicea, machineL ~ electronics, and precision equipment industri.~e; and concepta aod attai~nments in egriculture, for~stry, and the food induetry. . Cer a~~od Doeomenc Aa~ y~i~. De~cclptots X InternaCional Affaira Bconomias _ Albania . Technological ~ Bulgaria - X Czechoelovakia X Eaat Gera~any ~ - Hungary Poland Romania Yugoslavia 17b. Weotilien/Opeo-EAded Teesa . 17e. COSATI Fit{d/Gcoup SC~ 13I 1~. t~il~bilitr &~t~~eet ..R ~rt; Cl~s~ (t6i� Z1. o. ~45�s~� For Official Use Only. Limited Number o� Copies Available From JPRS. �~ur z2. r~� - P~ e rowrMTi?w asei uscow..-oc ~a~a~~~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ ~'OR OT'FICIAL USL ONLY JPXtS L/829 8 - 1 March 19 79 J - TRANSLATIONS ON EASTERN EUROPE , ~ ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS ' (FOUO 3/ 79 ) - CONTENTS PAGE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIR$ _ Poland's Participation in CEMA Multilateral VenCures ~ Reviewed ` (Tadeusz Wrzaszczyk; EKONOMISHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, Na 3, 1978)......... 1 J Pollah-Soviet Production Specialization and CooperaCion = Discuased. ~ (Jan Ptaszek; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO ' STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 3, 1978) 7 Electronization of Poland's Communication Network CEMA Cooperation Noted : (Edward Kowalczyk; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 3, 1978) 16 _ Poland's Participation in CEMA Invention Programs Noted (Jacek Szomanski; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 3, ~.978) 24 - CZECHOSLOVAKIA - Need for Rational Use of Fuels and Energy Stressed (TECHNICKA PRACA, Aug 78) 30 Government Program, by Slavo~ Odehnal, Josef Koutnik 5ervice Industries, by Sohumir Tejnicky Reasons for High Use in CSSR, by Eugen Zunko EAST GERMANY Economic Problems Seen Lead~ng to Rerorm - (CAPITAL, Dec 78) 42 - a - [III - EE - 64 FOUO) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OF~ICIAL U~E ONLY It~iTERNATIONAL AFFAIItS PULAND'S PARTICIPATION IN CIIKA MULTILATERAL VENTURES REVIEFIED Moscow EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV in Russian No 3, ~978 PP 2-5 [Article by Tadeusz Wrzaszczyk, candidate member of the PZPR Central Commit- tee Political Bureau, deputy chairman of the Council of Miniaters and chair- man of the Planning Commission of the Council of Ministers] _ [TAxt~ One of the factors in the overall development of the Polish's Peo- ple's Republic is ~;he constant development and extension of its economic re- lations with the fraternal countr3es which are members of CE~iA. Theae rela- tions are helping considerably in performing the socioeconomic tasks out- - lined by the sixth and seventh PZPR congresses, and they are conducive to thp country's dynamic development and to improvement of the living ccn~ii- tions of society. Poland is making aJweighty contribution in line with its economic potential to create ever stronger integrative relations among the _ C~IA member-cc+untries. This is convincingly evidenced by the mere fact that ~ Poland holds second place (after the Soviet Union) in the volume of trade among the CEMA member-countries. The ~oerdinated Plan of Multilateral Integrative of the CIIKA Mem- _ ber-Countries in the Period 1976-1g8o, which was adopted at the 29th Meeting of the council's session in 1975, was one of a sequence of steps taken to ~ make cooperat~on wit$in our coaunonwealth more intenaive. Implementation of this worthahile initiative, which was advanced by Comrade A. Kosygin at the _ 27th Meeting of th~ CII~SA Session, opened ug opportuni.tizs for closer linkage _ of multilateral progz�am~ being carried out under auspices of the council with ttie n~.t,ional~-economic: plans of the vai�iou~ CE~i!s member-countries. The coor'dination of plans covering the period 1976-1980 took on a qualita- tive]y new character thanks to the drafting of the Coordina~.:.~d Plan of M~1- - tilateral Integrative Programs. That coordination now covers not only for- ~ eign trade, but also the production sphere as Well as scientific-technical - cooperation. F-~rformance of the multilateral integrative programs in ~oint construction . or reconstruction of ma~or production facilities has given the countries of 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAi, U5~ ONLY the socialiat commonwealth new cap~ci+,ies for the production of pulp, asbes- tos, ferruginous raw materials and ferroalloys, gas, nickel and other min- _ erale. Thie will make it poesible to eatiefy'more the needs of the developing ecanomiea of thq C~IA member-coun`tries, and it will be conducive - to expaneion and intensification of economic cooperation, to a strengthening - of integrstive relations aa?ong our countries, and also to increased trade among the CE~SA member-countries. ' _ Performa.nce af the mutual obligations in the domain of apecialization and cooperation arising out of the agre~ments included in the Coordinated Plan guarantees each of the countries optimum and efPicient utilization of ex- isting production capacitiea and a growth of mutual deliveries. This ap- plies to the specialized production of e7.ectronic computers, chemicr~l.s for ' plant pest control, the equipment of the contuitier transport system, equip- _ ment for nuclear power stations, su~omobiles, roller bearin~s, drilling rigs an.3 equipment for crude petroleum and gas production, synthetic cLyes and other products. It is quite significant that the plan includes impor- tant problems in the domain of science and technology such as development of up-*o-date production technologies, research and planning-and-design pro~- ects, industrial application of the most recent achievements in science and technology, and development of prototypes of up-to-date machi,nes and equip- ment for a number of sectors of the econoa~?. Solving these problems will create opportunities for further economic development of our countries and for intensificatio~i of socialist economic integration. Poland is tr3king part in almost all the programa included in the Coordinated - Plan. Since we have insufficient reserves of certain raw materials, we at- tribute the greatest importance to ~joint construction of pro~ects in the _ USSR so as to deqelop it~ raW materials and f1.ie1 base. ~!'his is eloquent]y evifleMCed,~ for example,'~y Poland's active participation 3n development of the Orenburg gas condensate deposit and in construction of the ~,~yuz Trunk Gas Pipeline in order to obtain future deliveries of Soviet natural gas to Pol~~~d. In accordance with the genc-ral agreement and also the bilateral treaties the Polish side srill receive 2.8 billio~ cubic meters of gas per year after 1980. Poland has assumed the obligation of complete delivery of the third section ~f the gas pipeline, xhich ~s 583 km long. Poland is discharging its obligations in the programs mentioned above--it is building not only the pipeline itself, but also compressor stations and is carrying out other related operations. The pipeline proper has alreac~y been built. This Work was completed 10 months ahead of schedule thanks to a large concentration of manpo~er, materials and equipment as Well as the pro- - duction coimnitments assumed by the Pclish crew. Extremely xell-quslified specialists with a great deal of experience are being sent to build the g~ss pipeline. The construction macrsines and devices manufactured in Foland and being used alongside modern imported equ3pment have demonstrated their ex- cellence. - 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 I _ : FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Timel,y completion of conatruction of the Soyu2 Qas Pipeline has very qi�eat importance to our econoa~y?. We are interested in obtaining the planned amount of nc~tural gas for the chemical indus~ry which is undergoing dynamic development, especially Por production of nitrogen fertilizers and present- day typea of plastics. - Another important problem for our econoa~r ts to guarantee the constant growth of iron ore deliveriea. This possibility is afforded ua by coopera- tion with'~he Soviet Union, which for mar~y years now has been delivering _ this raw material to Poland. The general agreement concerning Poland's par- - ticipation in developing capacities in the Soviet Union for mining iron ore anc~ fox producing certain types of ferroalloys guarantees that our country will receive about 2.5 million tons of iron-besring raw mater~.als (in terms of pure iron) in the 1979-1991 period. As part oP its participation in de- _ velopment of that industry Poland wi11 deliver various goods to the USSR, by and large mtichines and equipment, industrial goods and consumer goods. _ Construction of the Ust'-Ilimsk Pulp Mill should also be mentioned among the programs included in the Coordinate.~t. Plan which have great importance to Po- land's future economic development. Under this agreemen,t Poland is guaran- teed annu~l deliveries of 40,000 tons of paper pulp for 12 years. On ~he same basi3 Poland will receive 50,000 tons of raw materials annual]y from the Kiyembayev Asbestos Mining and M~lling Combine for a period of 12 years. ~ We are also participating in construction of capacit3es for the production of nic~Cel and cobalt in the Republic of Cubs.. In return for the credit ex- tended to that country, aiter 1980 Poland will annually receive 2,500 tons of nickel and cobalt for a period of 12 years. Poland's participation in - building the 750-~cv electric power txansmi3sion line from Vinnitsa in the USSR to A].bertirsa in Hungary deserves attention. Moreqver, Poland has ~oined other interested C~iA member-cc,untries in carryfng out geological ex- - plora~ions in the Mongolian People's Republic. Our country has assisted Mongolia with a grant of 2.5 million transfer ru- - bles. Poland 3.s also p~ying much attention to multilateral programs in the domain of ind:astrif~l sp~cialization and cooperation. The reason is that our coun- try is an important participant in practical~y all agreements included in the plan. In most cases this participation involves both exports and im- - ports. Far exauaple, on the basis of specialization and cooperation in the production of chemicals for plant pest control under CF~IA auspices Poland - will receive about 4,500 tons of various agents for plant pest control in , ttte 1976-1980 period, main~y Prom 3ulgaria, the GDR and Romania, and will deliver in exchange about 2,,000 tons of othex chemical products for the same Purpose. Thanks to our machinebuilding industry's participation in specialization and _ cooperation in the production of roller bearings and their deliveries to the 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 F0~ OFFICIAL USE qNLY, fraternal countries Poland wi11 receive 100 million bearings of another type during the current 5-year period. 7'his i.s also a good place to note the specia~ization and cooperat:ion between Poland and the USSR in building auto- mobiles, which is developing successfully and has been highly praiaed both by managers and also th~ wqrkers involved. Poland, which is receiving VAZ _ automobiles and also assemblies and parts for ~he FIAT-125, is delivering a - sizable gmount of assemblies and parts for Soviet V~,Z automobiles. In the 1976-1980 period these exports wi11 amount to 2.55 million sets o~ i9 a~.f- ferent products. _ Deliveries of c~yes on the pasis of an agreement concluded through Interkhim concerning specialization ~nd cooperation in the production of synthetic c~yes and certain organic intermediates are an importan+, item among Polish exports to the CEMA member-countries. In the 1976-198G period ~the Pol.ish - chemical industry will deliver to those countries 2,300 tons of clyes, mainly dispersed c~yes, and will purchase 1,400 tons of organic intermediates. Poland has also signed agreements on specia].ization and cooperation in the - production of equipment for the container transport system and polyisoprene - _ rubber based on the C5 isoprene fraction. Mutual deliveries of these goods are of substantial help in meeting our needs. Even,this brief enumeration of cooperative arrangements show~ that participation in these agreements has _ essential importance to the Polish economar. On the one hand it helps to - raise the technical level and improve the quality of the products our indus- _ try produces, an~l thanks to the expanded scale of production it creates con- ditions for lower~ prociuction cost. On the other'hand by guaranteeing deliv- eries of the relevant products to our partners, they are relieved from - building new enterprises and thus save funds which are needed for other pur- , poses. Recognizing the importance of scientific-technical cooperation to the future economic development of the CII~tA member-countries, Poland is actively pax- ticipating in sol:ving the problems included in the Coordinated Plan. Our ~ scientific research organizations are taking part in work on all 17 problems envisaged by the plan. Poland is acting as coordinator for some of them. These include such probl,ems as overall automation of production and manage- ment processes at coal mines; standardization of health and safe~y specifi- cations of mining equipment used in the coal industry and figuring in mutual delive:ies; development oP new methods and means of effective utilization of solid and, improvenent of existing ones, design o.f a facility for manu- facturing building materials and other valuable materials from the waste of mining and coal enrichment; research on new types of pesticides, development of biological and other�~nethods of plant pest control and interdisciplinary - stucLy of the effect of pee,ticides on the environment, etc. Poland's contri- bution is to be approximatel~y one-seventh of the total expenditures of the - C~, member-c~untries for pro~ams in the domain of scie~ic~e and technc~i~gy. Poland paid close attention to the drafting af the Coordinated Plan of Mul- ~ _ tflateral Integrative Programs, and it looks upon its own obligations in ~ 4 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL USC ONLY fulfilling it as the principal y,~rdatick for ~udging efforts mad.e ta inten- sify and improve the process of socialtst ~conomic integration. Guided by the decisions of the 27th and 29th meetings of the CE~IA Session, we worked out a syatem .for incorpora~ing t,he tasks contained in the Coordi- nated Plan into the Nationsl Socioeconomic Plan of the Polish People's Re- - public for 1976-1980 and later into pir;ns. From now on Polish plans wi11 reflect not oniy exports and imports, but also tasks performed as part of ,joint integrative programs, industr.ial specie~.l.f~ation anc2 coopera~tion, scientific-technical coopex~ation, credit taken and extended, and so on. ~ ~ In summary form they haire be~n defi:a~~ in the plan of Poland's integrative programs with the CEMA member-countrias for the 1.976-1980 period, which is a special appendix to the Decree of the Polish Counci,t of Ministers on the National Socioeconomic Plan for ,~','76-1980. Provision has aiso been made for solving these problems in th~ vasious sections of sector and industry plaals for production, product dis~i3but~on and foreign trade. _ _ On that basis specific tasks have been formulated 3n ;,he national-economic plan for the relevar.t agencies so as to guarantee ~,ilfillment of the commit- _ ments arising out of the ~QOrdinated Plan. To be specific, they consist of - the follow-ing: i. furnishi,ng the necessary fluids in the plans of departments and minis- ' tries for f~11 r~alization of con~racts and agre~ments that have been con- cluQed on cooperation, both bilatera]. and multilateral; ' ii. assurance that co~mmodity deliveries under the commitments assumed will _ be made by the dates envisaged in the contracts and agreements; - iii. setting up continuous monitoring and ane.]ysis of progress in perfor- - - mance of the tasks arisi'ng out of the Coordinate Plan both in pY~ysical and value terms. In strivir~g fpr the ~'urther development of higher forms of cooperation co~1- ducive to the development of integrative economic relations and to planned : formation of c~nditions and op~ortunitie~ for mutua.lly advantageous contacts between individual sectors and industries in the economar of Poland and the oth~er EEMA member-countries, we are maiting preparations For drefting the - plan of multilateral integrative programs for the next 5-year period. This - has already been refle~eted, to be specific, in the relevant orders issued to ministries and depar~ments in our national-economic plan for 1978. We at- _ tribute great importance +,o this work, since we feel that the future saccess- ~ ful development of the CEMA member-countries necessitates no~ on~y saund - fulfillment of certain measures and the mutual obligations assumed by all ~ the partners, but also time~}r steps to define f~ture tasks. - = The multilateral srill be carried out mainly on the basis of inten- sified economic cooperation with the Soviet Ui~lon. Its role in Poland's economic developmeiit is very great. 5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 , _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The friend7.y meeting between Ca~nrade E. Gierek, first secretary o~f the PZPR Central Couunittee, and Comrade L. Brezhnev, general secretary of the CC CPSU and chairman of the Pres3dium of t~e USSR Supreme Sovie~t, which took place ` _ in August 1977 in the Crimea was a~articularly important factor in the de- velopment of cooperation and economic 3ntegration between the Polish Peo- ~ - p1e's Republic and the USSR, The deci~ions made during that meeting ape- - ~ cifically call for the drafting of progr.qms for development of industrial speci.w~],ization and cooperation over the pe~ri~d up to 1990. ~ The visit to Moscow this January of P. Jaroszewic2, chAir~?an of the Polish Councfl of Ministers, is evidence of the consietent implementation of the ' decisions of our leaders during the meeting 3.r. the Crimea and did a great _ deal toward further development of Polish-Sovieet cooperation and improvement - of its princ3ples and mechanisms. This visit w~as further evidence of the ~ fraternal relations between the two - During the v~sit an estimate was made of needs and capabilities in the _ sphere of mutual e~onomic reiations in the upcoming years of the current 5- year period and als~ an assessment of the main lines of cooperation for the period fol.lo~~~ng ;L9A0. A determinati. , was n;aae of those fields in which there are especiall,y broad prospects for development of cooperation. They specifically include cooper- - ation in the productiaa oP agricultural machines, trucks, equipment for nu- clear power stati~ns; ships and platforms for prospecting and developing offshore petxole~ and gas deposits, complete manufactu��ing installations, _ as well as ~ooper~�i~n in the aviation indus~ry. Perfor~ance c~f tiiis program of cooperation between our countries was highly praised at the next meeting betwe~n Comrade E. Gierek and Comrade L. I. - Brezhnev, whiclx took place in April 1978. It is of n~~ount importanc~ to Poland that the outlines of cooperatian with the USSR in the 1981-1985 period are beginning to be sketched even now. Many Polish industries have come into being and developed as a~result of their relations kith the Soviet market. That is wY~y long-range definition of the lines of mutual cooperation is an essential factor contributing to tY:e development and improvement of Polish planning. The Moscow t,elks demonstrated that the Soviet side has also shown a keen in- terest in incensifying economic relations Kith Poland. Achievements in this domain have been well received; at the same time the tXO sides have ex- - pressed a readiness to intensify their relations, specifically on the basis of the development of industrial specialization and cooperation. COPYRICHT: Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimpopomoshchi Sekretariat Moskva, 1978 70~+5 - CSO: 1823 - 6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS POLISH-SOVIET PRODUCTION SPECIALIZATION AND COOPERATION DISCUSSED Moscow N;.;~NOMICHESI{OYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAAI-CHLENOV SEV in Russian No 3, 1978 pp 56-60 [Article by Jan Ptaszek, adviser to the Polish permenent represPntative to - CEMA] [Text] Especiall~ good results have been achieved in the last decade in the domain of Polish-SoviEt industrial specialization snd cooperation within the _ sector or indus~~ry. This is indicated by the relative~}r high share of products coverec~'by i,~dustriel apecialization and cooperation in Polish trade with the ~oviet Union, which in 1977 was 23 percent. Polish industry is now an attractive and valuable partner in mar~y fields, and our capabili;ies in the domain of economic cooperation will be growing every year. The,1968 signing of the agreement on cooperation in a~ztomobile production - was a step of great ecc~nomic importance in the domain of the division of la- bor. Mu1;ua1 deliveries of parts and assemblies for the FIAT automohiles manufac- - tured in both countrles were worth about 370 million excha.nge zlotys in the , 1970-1975 period. This agreament was ext~nde~l to cover the current 5-year period. It specifi~- cally provides for aruiusl sPiles to the Soviet Union of 400,000 sets of parts for the ~b.iguli automobile; this is one-third more than in the 1971-1975 Pe- riod. The list of orders covers 13 items: for exataple, stora~e batteries, - headlights and re ar light~, thermostats, license plate lights, automobile dome light fittings, and so on. Pol~~nd is receiving from the Soviet Union - ~,lass, bearings, door hancLles and other parts for the FIAT-125p automobile. ~ Provision has slso been made for annual deliveries to the USSR of 110,000 sets of parts for the new model of the Zhiguli automobile in that period. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ1 QOQ3QOQ1-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The next important direction in the intensificatic+n an~' expansion of cooper- - ation between the two countries in the motor vehic].e indus~;ry was the agree- ~ ment signed 7 May. 1975 on collaboration and cooperat�on~in the prodaction of trucks. It calls for long-term deliveries from Poland to ~he USSR of com- - plete brake systems and push-button awi�tches for trucks manufactured by the Kama Motor Vehicl~ Ylant. In exchange for the products delivered to the USSR Polaaid will be reaeiving - - KtsmAZ trucks . The value of the bilateral deliveries under that agreement will ~e about 1.3 billion exch~nge zlo~ys 3n the 1976-1980 period, i.e., 650 million exchange - zlotys of exports and the same of imports. ThanY.s to this agreement P~land is becoming one of the largest producers of brake systems in Europe, and the USSR is able to reduce its production cost. We should add that this cooper- ~ ation will continue .after ~980. - Recommendations are being prepared concerning tr.E conduct af ~oint experi.- - _ mental design work to develop the construction of an up-to-date truck in the - 1.5-3-ton range. - An understanding has already bzen reached on use of 550-HP diesel engines in - BelAZ trucks, which are~to`be manufactured in Poland on a compen~ation ba- sis. _ Industrial cooperation with the Soviet Union is looked upan as a strategic ~.nd long-range directian in developmeiit of the Polish motor vehicle indus- _ try. pr~~ects in this field sho~.Lld bring about an expansion of the forms of cooperative agreements. - _ Our countries are developing cooperation in the machin~ tool building indus- = try. A cooperative agreement has been carried out since 1969 concerning de- - liveries of electromagnetic clutches for machine tools from Poland to the - " Soviet Union and of inetal-cutting machine tools frem the Soviet Uni~n to Po- _ land. The agreement ca11s for mutual deliveries of products worth approxima.t ely - 450 million exchange zlotys in the present 5-year period. It creates the basis for large-series production and further specialization of our indus- - try. In thP 1970-1975 period Poiand sold the USSR 1.25 million electroma.g- - _ netic clutches worth 250 million exchange zlotys. Poland as a result became a~a.,jor world producer of electromagnetic clutches. Poland is the only foreign supplier of this product for Soviet machine tool _ - building. - Under agreements on industrial specialization through CEMA we ar~ importing _ a number of models of custom-built machine tools from the USSR. On the ba- sis of a bilateral agreement signed in ly~l3 the Soviet Union is specializing in the production of 19 models, and Poland 5 models of machine tools. ~ , , ~ 8 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ , ~ ~OEt O~~ICIAL USC OtJLY mhe p~.ant for lathe nttr~chm~n~s and chucks in Beldstok has broad prospects ~ - for increusing dellveries; in the 1472-1975 period it delivered to ~he US3R under a long-term cooperative agreement 75,000 precision--msde ~athe chuck~ whnse v~lue toteled about 44 million exchange zldtyg. The~e ~greements ~tere extended and expanded by the 1975 eemeiit on spe- cial.izat3on und cooper~tinn in the mnchine tool building and too].muking in~ _ duatry in the 1g76-19$0 perind. Polrind ia praducing 10 types of machine tools ~nd the Soviet Union 50 types on t'::.~ basis of specialization. In connection with the considerable expansion of the :list of products pro- duced under the framework of specia7.ization, the va,lue of mutual deliveries , of these prnducts in the current >-year period ig increasj,ng and w311 amount to about 1.6 billion exchange zlotys. Thanks to the modern production and scientific research potential of the So- viet Union and Poland our countries are now we11 prepared for extensive co- operation in the production of construction tnachines. Si~~ce 1970 Pol3sti industry has become a supplier of c~ number of gssemblies - und part~ fbr construction machines, mainly to the USSR. The capacity of the Soviet ~rket and the stability of relations kith Soviet partners gua- rantee the profitability of our production. For u number of yearg now the Huta 3taloWa Wola Combine has been delivering to the Soviet Union gearboxes for heavy construction machines. They are manufactured on the basis of So- viet documentation. In accordance aith the agreement nn specialization and cooperation the USSA has ceased production of gearboxes for these machines ~ and is using the Polish product exclusively. In 1975 our exporta of gear- boxes was 13,000 tons. In the current 5-year period their deliveries will reach 70,000 units. Cooperation is developing on 3 similar basis in the production of front and rear axles for excavators, which the plcint in Radomsko has organized. In the 1976-1980~period 30,000 units ~rill be delivered to the USSR. Under another agreement on specialization and cooperation that has been in effect for 3 years Poland is delivering universal ,~oints for lift trucks to the US~R. ` ~ The present complexion of cooperation has created the foundation for trade agreements which are based to an ever greater degree on cooperative arracyge- ments. During the economic exhibition held in Moscox in August 1974 and dedicated to the 30Lh Anniversary of the Polfsh People's Republic, another agreement Was signed on cooperation in the manufacture of construction machines in the 1976-1980 period. Mutual deliveries on the basis of that agreement amount to about 3.5 billion exchange zlotys. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ ti ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~'OR O~~ICtAL U5~ ONLY ~ ~ ' ~ ~ - ~ Co1l.aboration in this field ig reinforced by the ~cientific-technica]. work which ig exte~in3vply carried on and which is having an ever greater impact on cooperativ~ arrangements. ~'he best exampl.e of thig might be the activity of two mixed F'olish-5oviet degign teums in c~eveloping a line of new designs of t~ydrr~til.ic self'~-propelled cranes with 1i.fting capacities of 25, 40, 63 ~nd 100 tons. Their production _ wi11 muke it possible to meet the needs of the economi~s of Poland and the ` Soviet Union and also of the other CF~4A countr3es for up-to-date high-c~pac- ity machines of this type. ~xpansion of cooperation in the production o� electronic computer equipment - should be recognized as an important achievement. The agreement signed in - thig field in June 1971 has conaiderebly promated the development of nne of the most up-to-date industries in Poland. We are exporting to the USSR 25 , models of peripheral equipment for computers, auch as storage, reading and , printing devices. In June 1977 Poland and the USSR signed an egreement extending cooperation - in this field to 1985. It envisages a broad program of scientifi~-technical cooperation, specialization in production and cooperative deliveries of com- puter control complexea, including minicomputera, peripheral equipment and other hardware. The Soviet Union has extended us every kind of technical assistance both in deaign and technolo~r and also in deliveries of equipment and certain mate- rials iniportant to series production of the integrated circuits of T,o,gika-2 systems. 2' Soviet documentation and deliveries of equipment We have Leen able in a short time to organize the production oP the Rubin-707 color television aet. Expanaion of tap~ recorder production in Poland and the large-series nature ~ of this production have created the possibility of annual deliveries of 1.5 - million tape recorder heads to the Soviet Union. Cooperative arrangements have also been established for the 1g76-1980 period in the production of automation equipmen~ and measuring apparatua. They have especial importance since they are making it possible for Polish indus- try to reduce the assortment of products produced, to a large series, and thereby to reduce production costs. We are exporting to the USSR manometers, pneumatic position regulators, saitches and tor~ion balances, keyboard units for Iskra calculators, anfi poNer assemblies Por cash registers. ~ Poland is importing from the USSR Iskra calculators, Sxeda cash registers, and monitoring and recording devices for process control. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ ~OR O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY An agreemen~ has ~lgo been s3gned on production in our country nf computer- ized process control syatems in the m~nufncture of eulfuric acid and in the sugar industry. The U9SR is apecializing in the production of control sys- tems for the fuel and power inc~ustry and also for ferrota~ metallur~y. An agreement wss sigmed~in September i975 on`speciel3zation in the production of electronic products, r~dio measuring appsratus gnd line communication ' nquipmer~t. Under that agreement 5,~~?iet industry is producing 32 different pieces of communication equipment~ Poland is special.izing in the production of 12 such products, which it is delivering to the USSR. 'xh$nke to cooperation t~mong specialists of the two countries who are mak3ng design changen 3n the Penta~konta automatic telephone exchan~ea (designed for 10,000 ~ubscr3bers), ahich are manufuctured in Poland, Poland will be deliv- ~ring these exchanges to the Soviet Union. Our countries are algo p~.anning to engage in cooperation in the deve7.opment and production of automatic cen- ' tral offices using the crossbar and electronic systems. ~ The agreement signed by Poland and the USSR on specfalization in the elec- _ trical equipment indus~ry has great importance to that industry's develop- ment. Under it 18 models and groups of electrical products are to be pro- duced in the USSR, including 500-megawatt turbogenerators, electric road 10- - comotives, asynchronous electric motorg, "bldc" transformers for 500-mega- ~tatt turbogenerators, etc. Polish industry Wi11 specialize in the produc- tion of s~x models and groups of electricel products, including eomplete mo- bile substations, dfstribution insta11at3ons for agric~il.ture, power sKitch- board and fuse boxes, etc. Three countries--the GDR, Poland and the USSR--have concluded an agreement to build a plant at Novovolynsk in the Soviet Unio.i for the production of specialized maniifacturing equipment for the electrical equipment industry. The ,joint construction makes it possible ta save considerable funds khich would otherwise be spent if this enterprise xere being built by only one country. Bilateral cooperation is also developing in the production of machines and ~quipment for the food industry. Poland is specializing in the manufacture of 39 product~ and is delivering them to the Soviet narket. International socialist division of labor is also developfng effective~y in the field of textile machines, Which W~s initiated by the DQcember 1971 signing af an agreement on specialization and cooperation in the production of looms. The Polish textile machine industry has organized the production of five as- _ semblies for shuttle-free looms on the basis of Soviet documentation and xith the technical assistance of Soviet specialists. In exchange for them xe are receiving from the USSR finished looms for our light industry and 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 F'Ott d~~ICIAL US~ ONLY aeaembli~e for their production. 7.'he vulue of mutue~l deliverieg ln the i97~-i976 P~r~ioa w$g ii5 miiZi.on exchange z~.otys. r This agreement has been ~xtended to 1g76-1g8o. In the current 5-ye~~ period mutual del3veries.c~re to be tripled over the previous 5-year period. Their value w311 be nearly 480 million exchange xlotys. 3oviet industry is sp~cielizing in the product~nn nf 73 machines. mhe m~- ~nrity are representatives of hip,h-output equipmer~t: Si$ loomg, spinning - and tWisting frames, production lines for short flax fiber, and so on. - Our industry ai1~ ~pecialize in the production of 11 mnchines and piecea of equipment. They ~onaiat of up-to-date prepar+~tion and gpinning equipment for the cotton inclus~ry and also certain machines for dyeing and finishing. Our country signed a particularly important a~rreement on cooperation in the production of tractors and farm mact~in~~s on 17 November ~971. It defines the principles and scnpe of industri~l. specialization and c~ope:ation and also of ~joint design and research program~. Under the agreement, for instance, Polish industry has ceased the production - of crawler tractors, since Polish needs for them are t~eing met by Soviet suppliers. Poland in turn ia supplying Soviet agriculture complete equip- ment for crop-drying operat;ons and the like. &~cause of the good results in cooperation a decision was made to extend the life of this agreement Por 1976-1g8~. Mutual deliveriea of machineo during those years are ~lanned in the amount of 1.9 billion exchange zlotys. The Soviet Union rrill specialize in the production of tractors in the 0.6- ton and 6-ton class, plows and harroWS of various types and also cultiva- tors, ahile Poland Will~specialize in the production of potato diggers, clover hullers, and so on. Technical and industria~ cooperation are developing successfl~lly in the avi- ation industry. An agreement signed in 1971 concerned ~oint design develop- ment and organization of the production of nex ,~et airplanes for use in ag- riculture Which rrill be manufactured in Poland aad exPorted primar3ly to the - Soviet Union. At the transport equipment plant in Mielec in the spring of 1973 Polish and Soviet designers developed e ne~a model of this aircrafl:, desfgnated the M-15. The most recent design features of xorld aeronautical engineering are being used in the production of this up-to-date aircraft. Thauks to cooper- - ation, the aircraft rras c:eated in record time, ~+hich xill make it possible for our country to hold second place in the xorld among producers of agri- ~ cultural aircrsft. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 . ~OEt O~~ICLAL U5~ ONLY Coopera~ion in the production of tlte I1-86, a~50-pr~naenger medium-ran~e ,jet uircraf`~ co~,led the air~ bus, representn a new lev~l of cooperation in the avi~tion industry from the standpoint of scnle ~nd technina~. cnmp~.exity~ = On the basis of a Soviet de~ign Polish enterpriaea wi11 be manuf'ecturing - tail and rudder units, element~ of the wing mechgnism ~nd acrew-type (v3n- - tovyye) mechanigmg ~'or this aircraft. - Paliah industry wi11 ~il.go go into the manufacture of the An-2$ pess~nger plane on the basis of Snviet documentation. Cooperation in the production of equipment for nuclear poWer stations, which ~ is based on an intergovernmental agreement, hgs ~~gential importance to our econou~r. The term~ of cooperation defined in that c?greement also crexte op- portunities for use of the Soviet Union's achievements and ebundant experi- - ence in the organization af production and training of personnel, as we1~. ~s interaction in developing gcientific-technical research. An agreement on specializution and cooperation in the production of mining _ mnchfneg and equipment up to 1980 will have great importance to development of the coal industry in both cnuntries in vieW of the tasks of increasing - coal mining and the need to f~trther improve working conditions in this in- dugtry: � ~ , ~ Over the last 5 years there xas considerable progress in the division of la- bor in the industry of the txo countries. - Under an understunding on specialization of production covering 70 products in the 1971-1975 period, 17 products Were manufactured in Poland and 53 in the Soviet Union. Cooperation is continuing to develop in this field in the current 5-year pe- riod. The total value of chemical products involved in trade during this period is about 4.3 billion exchange zlotys, Which is near~jr double the vol- ume of trade in the 1971-197~ period. During this 5-year period the Soviet chemical industry is specielizing in the production of 51 chemical products and the Polish chemieal industry 31 products. We should emphasize thut this type of cooperatioc is dfctated by the needs ~ for profitability of producti~n, since in present-dey chemistry production engineering is going in the direction of large-capacity units, s~hich im- proves the efficiency of capital investments considerab~}r. The fevorable examples we hevr~ given to illustrate the division of labor be- taeen our two countries in the manufacturing industries do not, ho~ever, ex- hauet the possibilities that exist for cooperation. 13 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ? ~ ~ ~'Oft O~~ICIAL USE ONLY , ; ~he bas3c principle governing fu~ure pro,~ecta in the dom~in of ap~cializa- tion e~nd cooperation ~hould be the denire to produce above all those ma- ' chinee and pieces of equipment, part~ and asaemblies which are not yet being : manufactured in the socia].ist countriee or are be:tng produced in insuff'icient queu~tibi~~ . A great economic benefit can be nchieved through participation in the divi- ston of lgbor in connection with the construction of ~oint indu!:tri~.1. facil- ities both in the socialist countrieg ~nd also in th~ cspitaligt countrie$. Considere?tion can be given to the following: the degigr~ of the pxo~ecta, agreement on mutu~l deliverie~ of m$chines and equipment, and al$o partici- pation in the installation and startup of the pro~ects being built. - There are sizab~.e opportunities for special.ization and caoperation in the field of industrial consumer gooda. Achievement of exteneive divinion of labor in production of this grQUp of products is a11 the more interesting and advantageous because desi~n capacity is reached more quickly in the pro- - duction of these products than in other industrfea. The p~yoff period for productive outlays is ahorter, and guarantees of effective del.iveries r~nd _ sales prospects sre better. In accordance with 3ecrees adopted in August 1977 during the Crimean meeting of Comrade Gierek, first secretary of the PZPR Central Committee, with _ Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, general secretary of the CC CPSU and chairman of the _ Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, the miniatries of t,he two countries undertook to draft prospective programs for industriel specialization and - cooperation covering the period up to a990. These programs wi11 have funda- mental importance to development of division of labor between Poland and the ~ Soviet Union. They aill comprise a set of interrelated programs correspond- - ing to the mafn lines of economic developa~ent of the two countries. The programs rrill include proposals concerning the follo~ring: i. the possibility of developing and intensif~ring specialization in the production of specific products developed on the basis of an ana~ysis and assessment of the effectiveness of economic relations and of prospects for their development, including f~ller utilization of the results of scientific research and pro~ect planning and design Work done in the tWO countries; ii. initiation or expansion of the production of articles in short supp~jr and also articles which at the present are being purchased on the markets of the capitalist countries, as Well as achievemen~ of ~oint production in = cases when it is ,~ustified; iii. possible directions for coordination of capital investments in order to develop the relevant production capacities to provide for mutual deliv- eries on the basis of industrial specialization and cooperation, assuming optimum efficiency in utilization of existing production capacities and thefr modernization and reconstruction; 14 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ' ~'OR OF~ICIAL U5~ QNLY iv. measures directed to~rard preparution of the production of ~iroducte,cov- ' ered by ap~cializstion, including th~ neqessary~,aci.entific=technical r~- search, drafting of technical docwnentatinn, m~terial and technical sypply, and also nssesement of the needs and ponsibilities of ineeting them; v. organiz~tidn of 3oint research and pro,~ect plunning and deaign officett; - � vi. pdssible forms of cooperation on the mr~rkets of ~hird countrieg with a view to selling deliveriea of products manufactured under industrial spe- cialization and cooperation between enterprisea of the two countries, in- cluding complete manufacturing lines; ` vii. programs to speed up standardization arxd adoption of standards govern- - ing production of induatriol products involved in or scheduled for indus- ~ trisl sper.ialization and cooperation in individual Industries of the two countriea. _ These programs will include the problems of cooperation defined in the pro- tocol of the ta].ks betrreen Comrude P. Jaroszexi.^z, chairman of the Polish Council of Ministers, and Comrade A. Kosygin, chairman of the USSR Council - of Ministers, 30-31 January 1978. It was decided to give priority to the task of developirig cooperation in the production of equipment for nuclear power stations, taking into account organization of cooperation wfth the _ other CE~IA member-countries and a feasibility atuc~y on setting up a special ~oint administration to develop the technology for manufacturing that equip- ment, cooperative production of large-capacity dump trucks, organization of the production of ships and platforms for exploration and development of offahore p~troleum and gas deposits and a number of other branches of ma- chinebuilding. ' Problems arising out of the long-range special-purpose cooperative programs among the CF~1A member-countries jrill elso be stated in concrete terms in the programs for industrial specialization and cooperation being drafted ~oint]y. The sum total of these pro,~ects oug,ht to make for further progress toward ` ,~oint solution of essential problems in economic cooperation between Poland ~ and the Soviet Union~and should enlarge opportunities for establishing ef- , fective scientific-technical and industrial cooperation in certein indus- - tries of the two countries. COPYRIGHT: Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi Sekretariat Moskva, 1978 7045 Cso: 1823 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~OR O~FTCIAL US~ ONLY ~ INTERNATIONAL A~FAIR5 ~L~CTRONIZATION OF POLAND'S COMMUNICAmION NE~F10~2K CII~IA CQOPERATION NOTED Moacow EKONOMICHESKOYE SUTRUDNICHESTVO STftAN-CHLENOV SEV in Russian N'a 3, i978 jp 6i-64 [Article by Edward Kowalczyk, minister of communications of the Polish Peo- ple's Republic] [Text~ Adoption of the Comprehensive Program has marked the beginning of a new atage of cooperation Within CEMA. The ma,~or problem of production, sci- ence and technology are noK crucial to mutually advant~geous and highly ef- _ fective relations. An ever greater number of scientific--~~chnical problems _ are being Worked on ~ointly by interested countries. The sphere of activity _ - of coordinating centers and other organizational forms of cooperation is ex- panding. The results of the activity of the Counc.i? for Mutual Economic Assistance is - indicative,of the tremendous rale Which this organizatiQn has in the process of the developmettt, intensification and improvement of econanic and scien- tific-technical cooperation among the CE~SA countries and dev~~lopment of so- cialist economic integration in all sectors of their economies. . The Standing CE~fA Coammission for Communications and Postal Service xas set up in 1~71 under a decree of the 25th Meeting of ttie council's session. Its = creation has facili�~ated improvement and expansion of cooperation of CE~SA member-countries in thi~ field. In a comparative~jr'short time the co~ission has ~orked out the main lines and tasks of cooperation in the sector of communications and the postal ser- vice. These directions Were approved at the 27th Meeting of the council's _ session as a supplement to the Comprehensive Program for Further IntensiPi- - cation and Improvement of Cooperation and for Development of Socialist Eco- - nomic Integration of the CF~fA Member-Countries. Qne of the fluidamental ~pects of cooperation in co~unications and the postal service is noW the question of setting up the VAKSS (multipurpose in- terlinked computerized cou~unications system) of the CF~iA member-countries for traasmission of all typea of information. A very importaat task in this 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~'OR OF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY connection ie to create the communic~tiona sygtemn, equipment e~nd epparatus. includin~ the equipment and apparatus necee~ary to the creation of tha VAIC88 _ e~nd the nationa]. co~cunicatione networka of the CEMA member-countrieg, . The cooperation of thene countries ia taking place 3n the context of the ~ scient3fic-technic4l~ revolution. Equipment is devel.oping at a fast pace, _ and nex technologiea cire b~ing created. A typical feature thia procesa - ia the rapid development $nd ~ver broader use of electronics in mar~y aectors of the econo~r. _ 7'here are of course , , progressive trenda in the extensive use af electronics in the cc~amrunicatinns f'~eld, which hag given rise to many ideae in this field of enginwering. This applies above all to the question of elec~ronizing the communicr~tions net~ork, that large technical ~ygtem in which every aucceas- ~ ful techanical and organi~ationci]. innovation can be of inestimable use to so- ciety and bring a large economic benePit. ~ By eleci;ronization of the co~?unications network we mean initiating the pro- ' ' duction and operation of apparatus that incorporates the moat r~ecent techno- ingieal achievementa of electronics, above a11 up-to-date electibnic elements and assemblies. This gives rise to problem~ (main~y in ~;he switching field) of replacing traditional electromechanical devices by electronic assemblies, ~f using integrated circuits in the production of communications apparatus, ' for example, in teleDhon,e apparatus for various usea, and also of introduc- ing computer-based automation of ineasuring and monitcring proceases. - It might be asked: Is it spund to incorporate the most recent technology - int~~ the production of comm~unications equipment if there are difficulties in obtaininQ the required amount and assortment of electronic components, when consumera using traditionul apparatus do not iam?ediately feel an increase in the volwne or improvement in the quality of services, nor a drop in service charges? Af`ter all, the present co~unications apparatus by and large @oes - _ meet all the needs for services (in corresponding amount, of course), it is relatively cheaper, more accessible materie~ls are used in ~.ts manufacture, and the manufacturing methods were mastered long ago. This is in fact the view that some specialists take on the matter. But it is difficult to agree ~rith this approach if xe take into accnunt the pros- pects fo:r development of cav~nuni:ations techniques. There is no question that the r~ght Wey of solving the problem is to xeigh the economic prereq- uisites and on that basis determine the rate of introduction of the new equipment, which Will efPectively bring about technical-and-economic and so- cisl progress. There shauld be no flindamental doubt about the actual need for full elec- = tronization in the aense of application of the most recent technology and extensive introduction of present-de~y electronic components in the prnduc- tion of co~unications apparatus, since it affords the folloxin& possibili- ties: 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' i. 3mproyed saving on material; ii: reduction c��. ~:qufpment eize and weight; . 331. higher rellability of' equipment and greatQr regiatance to the effec~ = - o~' externel conditiona; iv~ greater technologica]. homogeneity in mar.ufacti.ir3n~; v. eventuaY reduction of the cost of apparatus; vi. automation oP the operatic.n of devices, of attending them, of mon3tor- - ing and of ineasurements, and alsc~ of their operation without preventive me~3ntenance or repsir; _ vii. adoption of digital trarismission and switchit?g systems whicY} offer re- liable interaction of communications networks with electronic computer sys- ems ; viii. realization of a unified and integrated communications network encom- - passing telephone, telegraph, phototelegraph and telemetric communications , and radio and TV broadcasting; ix. use of new technical and organizational forms of operation that ensure, for example, automatic control of data flows, message aWitching and auto- matic attendance; x. the rendering of new typea of servicea, includiilg the posaibility of man-computer dialog; ' ' - xi. more rational use of the electroma&netic apectrum by achieving the nec- essary electromagnetic compatibility of communications equipment; - xii. creation of a unified scientific research, production and personnel capability for production and operation of all types oP data processing and transmission equipment; xiii. achievement of high flexibility in th~ use of nex circuit and system designs. All of this argued in favor of the decision to gradually adopt 3n Poland the most recent achievemerits in the Pield of electronics, and especially to electronize s~ritching apparatus. Production oP Ye-10 electronic automatic central telephone offices has begun on that basis. Polish scientific re- search organizations are now conducting pro~~cts related to electronization of telegreph offices, telephone sets and also on development oP various types of co~unications apparatus incorporating integrated circuits of vary- ing degreea of integration. Multichanuel co~unications systems and radio and TV broac':castfng transmitters manufactured in Poland are being modernized. - 18 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The relevant induatrial enterprises are undergoing reorganization to app~jr the newest technologies under foreign licenses. ~ The process of intensive modernization of the communications network muat, ~ however, be accompanied by serious action to inprease the acale of produc- tion. This compels ua to use a7.1 possible potential, including equipment - that is atill suitable and productive though scheduled for gradual ret3re- ment. This sit�aation ia having atx impact on the methoda of planning the fu- ture development of communications, in which the interests of the near fu- ture and more distant Pt,tture must be reconciled with today's capab.ilitiea and needs. - In addition to giving first consideration to the optimum needs of the rres- ent, we muat at the same time have a clear~}r defined goal for the future. That goal is to build on a national. scale a single integrated communicationa network, which woutd be the integrated technical facility for transmission of various forms ot information so as to meet the needs of administrative � agencies, the Pcononqr, culture, the general public and public and political. , information. It woulci have good links with the international VAKS~, which has been designed and is gradual]y being get up by the CF~iA member-co~antriea. - The outlines of the future electronic, digita]. and integrated communications - network are sketched out distinct~y enough, and i~s advantages are unques- tionable. Yet this is a fa, off goal whose achievement will telse several. decades. At the same time, ~n a situation ~rhere we have an electronic switching system coupled with digital transmission systems, we alreac~y have ~ the possibility and rleed to u~ilize these advantages. ~ So far neither Poland nor probably the other CE~IA member-countries has a completely crystallized conception oP how to go about setting up a network - that would use the principle of gradual penetration of promising technology into the present c:o~mmunications network, ~hich for mar~y yeara yet will be meeting th~ country's needs. Development of tnat conception is a good topic for cooperation ~rithin the framerrork oP the 3tanding CE~+IA Caa~mission for _ ~ommuriications and Postal Service. The main problem in this connection is to defiae and introduce an optimum mode of penetration of digital electronic equipment into the complex organ- ism of the existing co~runications network, rrhose operation and constant de- velopment ~rould not be interrupted. The unified and comprehensive nature of the netxork predetermines every de- cision pertaining to its development and is having an important impact on a11 the plans for construction and operation. Not a single facil:~ty or com- munications installation can operate separately and independentl~v; full in- terlinkage of the entire co~unications net~ork is obligatory. So, if some particular section of the netxork is improper]y fit~~ed into its overall structure, the local benefits obtained will be considerab~}r smaller. ~ 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY Network etructure ;a a peeul.iar3ty of co~unications, x'he fac3lities making it up do not operste independently, but w3thin th~ Pramework of e single eystem, and services in this ~ie1d are the reault of the operation of the entire network and noi: ~ust of its individua]. facilities. _ In the coam?unicati~ns field it is the unif3ed netwurk that ~.a the sub~ect matter of planning, and the comprehensive approach is a necesaity in plan- E~rery communications Pac3lity must be fitted into the overall network with respect to a whole number of indicatora. - To plan dev+elopment of coamiuntcationa ~rithout this approach woul.d be to run ~ the risk that the new Pacilfties wou].d not be able to in~;eract and effi- - ciently perfcr~,: their fl~netions; in one section there might be a sharp drop in the network's traffic capacity. Thia means that in planning development of the coam~unications network we must be able to foresee the role and place of every new facility in the network not only in the very near, but a].so the remote future. After all, ~he operating capabilities of the network depend now on a number of factoris and decisions tal~en in the past and manifested in the specific form and condition of the present equipment. Likewise, the de- _ cisions we make now determine possibilities Por our actions and the actions of our successors over the next 10-20 years. By introducing d~gital electronic equipment xe are trying to fulfill an im- portarrt condition for reconciling near and more distant goals. But it is conaiderab~}r more diffici.Llt to retain the principle of fluictional and tech- nical unity in a nec,rork consisting of old and new equipment. As the new ap- paratua is introduced, it must be adapted to the devices alreac~}r in opera- - tion. All adaptations are quite expensive by,tl~eir nature, so that the new equipment to be introduced must be capable oP the greatest flexibility and ability to fit a variety of conditions. In planning the use ond development - of electronic central offices with the Ye-10 syatem we must take into ac- ~ount aa.l the areas in which they might be useci: local and zonal, intsrcity _ and inte;national, as xell as subscriber and internal systems. We should note, however, that the cost of srritching equipment both for qua- sielectronic and also electronic systems is now far greater than that of sWftching equipment of crossbar electromechanica.. systems; the advantages are realized in construction of the network itself. It is supposed that as - _ the technologyr improves for production of the components and parts there ~~ri11 a substantial reduction in the cost of equi.pment for the Ye-10 sys- - tem--this trend has been observed throughout the field of electrottics. At the same time, we should not expect a substantial reduction in the c~st of - equipment Por the crossbar electromechanical system--its prices are rising throughout the ~,rorld. A feature of electronic switching offices is that they are linked with digi- - tal transmission systems. Consequently, these offices can be used ration- - ally only j+hen combined With such systems. As a result We ot~tain a qualita- tively new telephone netWOrk and its construction costs are reduced even at - 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY - ~ , ~the preaent cost of electronic switching equipment, which ia ~til1 rela- . - tively high. Some specialista feel that it is sti11. too early to introduce � ftitll electronizat3on and give preference to quaeielectronic systems, which do not have these characteriatics and there~ore do not yield a subatantial benefit when the network ie built. The total cost of networke based an ' - electronic systems is lower than for quasielectronic systems whenever decen- tralization of the network is ,justified. This ia becauae the . - cost of quasielectronic systems is now rather hig~, but they do not~ af- ford higher efficiency in util3za~ion of �the network. From the standpoint - of rendering services, the.electronic and quasielectronic systems can todqy be regarded as almost equival.ent, but 3n the future the advantage is on the side of the former. That is wl~y the quasielectronic systema ahoul.d be looked - - on as a tranaition. , By wey of confirmation we might mention that in many cases the quasielec- tronis systems are being reorgani~ed as electronic systems with a switching field built on the principle of time-div~sion of channels. _ r The CII~IA member-cour~tries which have Qdvanced electronic equipment can also introduce it bol~7ly ,in the com~nunications fi~eld. Electronic switching systems are now being developed in the Soviet Union in cooperation with the GDR. The reaults of these pro~ects are vexy promiaing, - and in a11 likelihood they'will become the basis of experimen~s =n the us~ of certain typea of switching devices. In the industrial~y ~adv~anced countries of ttie world we see todey not on~y an interest in the electronization of equipment, ~ut. al~~�~ intenaive practical - activity in t~:~at dire~tion. In France, West Germany and England ext~nsive plans are being carried out for development an~ ~roduction of electronic _ syatems. Much attention in the United States ig being paid to devElopment of the conception of the city which has a multipurpose communications net- - work. A multic~fPice system of dig~ts~7. commutetora interconnected with digi- tal transmiasioi, systems using optical transmission lines is thought most auitable for aur:h a netWOrk. The American li~terature also ~ontains an example of a typical rural area in which a digital netc~~rk made it poasible to reduce the number of offices _ from 195 to 70. Mar~y well-known Pirms throughou~ the world are putting electronic central offices into production uaing recen~ tecl~nological achievements. - The electronic time switching system, combined with digital transmission syatema, is nox making it possible to create a communications network with integrated technolo~r. Even row regior~l ttetworks embodying this principle - can be set up and linked to one another by analog transmisaion lines. We ehould mention in this connection that every electronic akitching system can interact with ar~y other syatem in the transitional period. 21 ' 'FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY - All these systems will be undergoing constant moder~ization. The c~ynamic = de~elopmen�, of the prnduction of electronic componenta which has recent ly been taking place ensures the step-by-step development of the system. _ Changes related to development of technolo~r and transmiss3on syotem~ ~?il1 = bring about an expansic~n of the economical]y sound f3eld of application of the electron3c switching system. Consequently, this aystem can be the basis for the switching system of the telephone network with integrated technol- o~r . A co~unications network with integrated technolopr is the first stage. - Later the transit3on wi11, be made to integration of services--to creation of a single digital communications network consisting of digi~~al transmission channels and eleQtrohic offices with a time division switching system not - only for ~elephor~y, but also for telegraphy and oth~r types of ser�rices. The pro,~ects being carried out in Poland are aimed at stuc~ying the possibili- ties of using the electronic switching system #'or data transmission as well. It is now diffiuult to saky~ whether the future electronic switching system in a network with integrated technolo~ and services will be referred to as the Ye-10 or b;~ some other designatic~n. The essential thing is that this system _ will retain the basic features of the electronic switching system now being - manufactured in Poland and alreac~y in prazcticel use. _ The approach based on the "Y~ypothetical idEal system" which no one has yet built must be regarded as unrealistic. Opponents of electronization often . deliberately contrive that kind of idealization so as to be able more easily ta demonstrate how unrealistic it is. The Polish People's Republic, in purchasing the license for the Ye-10 elec- tronic switching system which is promising and advanced on a world scale, ' has assumed the ?nain risk involved in creating the f~ture integrated commu- nications network. The resu3ts indicate that this decision was correct. The fraternal socialist countries cati in our opinion also take advantage of Poland's experience and adopt this system as the basis of their work in set- ting up a future integrated coBnnunications net~ork. This approach will help . to speed up the creation of that network. Pro~ects in this field can be carried out not only on the basis of bilateral cooperation, but also and above a11 through multilateral cooperation within the framework, of the Standing CIIKA Co~ission for Comm~,mications a.nd Postal Service. One of the topics fnr scientific-technical research envisaged by the 1976-1980 National Socioeconomic Plan is development of an integrated digital co~unications system and the apparatus making it up. The pro~ ects under this topic are being coordinated by the Co~unications Research Insti- tute of the Polish People's Republic, a.nd scientific research organizations of the other CEMA member-countries are also taking part. At its 11th Meet- ing, which was held in 1976, the Standing CE~IA Commission ior Communications and Postal Service adopte3 as a basis proposal.s concerning the directions of future pro~ects aimed at creating an integrated digital communications sys- ~pm and the equipment comprising it. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ ~'dlt O~~ICIAL U5~ dNLY At the ~nme time the com~ninsion h~~ been gupplementing thc topiC ligt of - pro~ectg in the firnt phnge, 'I'hey consigt ot' the commiggidn'g dr~fting nnd ' Condider~tion ~n ig7~ of technic~], specifications for automatic e],ectronic ~ central teleph~,e~e offi.ce~. Adoption~ of the~e gpeCificationg by the Stancling C~MA Co~111~5g~dtl for Communicatinng ~nd Poetal Service ~ti11 make it pa~gible ' for work td begic, u~~ ~peciuli~gtion e,nd coop~r~tion in the production of au- - tom~tic el~ctronic central telephone of�iceg within the frr~mework nf the Stgnding C~1A Commis~ion for the Fiadio ~quipment and ~le~tronics Indugtry. ' We cc~n therefore sa~y thut poasibilities exist for solving thig prablem. � rtenlization of the fir~t phgge of the integrated communicgtions netvtprk in a future that is now not ~n far off dependg above a~].1 on cnmmunications ex- pert~ of the CF:~IA member-countries. pHOTO CA~IONS 1. p 63, top Ye-10 electronic automntic central telephone office in the CoIInnunicstions Institute oF the Polish People's Re- _ publi,c . , 2. p 63, b~tt~:~ production of eleetronic automatic telephone offices at the melkom-Teletra Plant. COPYRIGHT: Sovet IIconomicheskoy Vzaimopomoehchi Sekretariat Moskva, 1978 7045 CSG: 1823 ~ 23 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 - ~Ott d~~~CtAL U5~ dNLY n irrr~rrnmi~rt~ A~~nrxs ~ ~ . POLAND'S F~AHTICIPATION IN C~'MA INVENTION PROC}RAMS NOm~D Moscow ~KONOMICI~I~3KdY~ SOTItUbNICHESTVO ST~2AN-CHL~NOV S~ti in Fiu~aian No 3, ~978 pp 84-87 (Article by Jacek Szomanski, chairman of the F'aligh Patent Office and chair- - mrin di the Conference of Heads of Agencies for ~atents and Inventions of the CE~~W Member-Countries ~ ~ (Text~ Scientific-technical progress is one di the principril factors affect- ing social development. But under socialism a11 achievem~nts in the domgin of science and technology are used for the good of the entire society. V. I. Lenin attributed great importance to inventions and discoveriea as an impor- tant factor in acientific-technical progregs. Clear evidence of thig i~ the _ Decree on Inventions which he signed as ear~jr ga 1919 and ~+hich proclaims the basic principles of eocialist legislation in this field. We should emphasize that the Leninist principlea set forth in that decree - have been consistently observed in Polish laW on inventions and c~iscoveries. For instance, in our legal system provision is made for creation of the so- cial and economic conditions for development of invention and the movement of productfon innovators. Socialist legislation provides protection of the property and personal rights of inventors and optimally combines social needs and individual rights. This is an especially valuable proof of the supertority of socialist laW. Cooperation among the socialist countries in the field ~f inventions anfl protection of industrial property began in 1959� In the first stage this - cooperation consisted on~}r of organizing conferences of heads of agencies for inventions and discoveries. They examined questions pertaining to in- ventions, trademarks and industrial designs, clasaification and patent in- formation, and also matters related to international cooperation arising out of bhe participation of the socialfst countries in VOIS (Wc+rld Organization for Intellectual Property). The Polish Patent Office has taken an active pcirt in this cooperation. In 1971 a permanent CEI~lA organ was created--the Conferenr.e of Heads of Agen- cies for Patents and Inventions oP the CII~W Member-Countriea. The bylaWS of _ 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 I~'dlt Ot~'~ICIAL US~ ONLY the Conferenc~ o� lteadn af Agencie~ For pat~nt~ rind Invention~ d� the C~NIA _ Member-Countrie~ ~tnte th~t it~ m~~t impartant taskg ar~ to ~tuc~y an~ wdrk ott tnattere that pertgin td prc~tection nnd uge of invention~ ~nd algo to pre- pare proponc~ln cnncerning multilateral regulat~.ion vf thege matt~r~. mhe conf~r~nCe p~yg p~rticulnr r~ttet~tinn to improving t~~ 1ega1 bg~ig of cd- operation in the field of inventidn~ ~nd die~dv~ri~g. One of the firgt,document~ prepnred by the conferenr,e We~ the Agreement on Legal protection nf Inventiong, tndustriril Deaigng, Utility Modelg and Trede- m~rkg in the performance of economic and scipntifir.-technicgl ~ooperatfon; the poligh delegstion made a~ub~tarttial, coatribution to the drafting nf - that agreement, which Wag gi~ed in Moacnw ~n 12 April 1973 by sll the CF~fA member-countrieg. It hgs beet~ r~tified by the State CounCil of th~ Pnli~h Peopl,e's Republic and thus heg the for~~ of 14w for poland~ The agreement tduche~ upan ~ number of the mogt importc~nt 1egg1 issues cnncerning the pro- tectinn und u~e oP ,joint solution~ (inventidng, industri~l designg and util- ity models) arrived at in the process of economic and gcientific-technical cooperation of enterprigeg, gcientific re~earch ingtituteg, orgr~nizQtiona, teams, and so on. That document states thet new solutions coming about $s the result of creative economic gnd financial interection represent the com- _ mon property of the pnrticipants in coo;^~ation. Thug the ggreement facili- . t~tes the implementation of one of the D,.~ic principles o~ C~IA activity-- the achiev~ment of mutual and equal benefite. Tt definea a uniform proce- dure for obtaining protection of ~oint solutions, the equal righta of the parties, the sale of licenses to third countries, diatribution of the incom~e earned and remuneration of the originators. During cooperution Kith CF~W member-countries in the field of inventions the Polish side has attributed tremendous importance to the stuc~y and regulation of the legal issues and to improvement of national legislation in this field, regarding them as an essential factor in encouragement of scientific-techni- cal progress. The proposals for greater uniformity~and gradual atandardiza- tion of national legisletion in the field of invention, Which ~ere prepared by the Polish delegation as part of the work of the conference, were re- flected in the Ma~n Directions and Tasks in Cooperation of the CF~~W Member- ~ Countries in the Field of Invention and Patent Affairs, Which aere drafted by the conference and approved at the 69th Meeting of the CE~IA Executive Committee, and in the Measures for Cooperation of the CEMA Member-Coun~ries in the Field of Invention and Patent Affairs~ ~hich Were adopted at the same time. Those documents stated thet the CiE~+fA member-countries noa face the - task of combining the achievements of the eeientific-technical revolution _ with the advantages of socialism. Applied to the field of invention this means that by,their ~oint efforts the C~SA m~mber-countries xould create conditions for reliable protection and for their extensive use of acientific- technical achievements created during implementation of the Cor~prehensive Program. The need to speed up application of scientific-t�echnical achieve- ~ ments confronts the ~IIrW member-countries srith a number of important new tasks in their cooperaLion in the field of inv~ention, as it does in other 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 , i ~ , . ~ ~ ~'dR U~~ICIAI. US~ nNLY i ~ ~ , fieldg~ 7'he eg~ential thing here is cle~er linknge betWeen th~ field of in- rr~ntian ~nd th~ ath~r fi~ldg of c~~perationy and egpecially ~n in~i~go~.ub1~ bond with the "gcienCe--technningy--produetion--QOn~umpti~n" prnCe~~. _ mhe Mgin Lineg ~nd 'Tagks for Cooper~?tic~n m~ntion~d abc~ve en~omp~?gg the ~n- tire problem area of the a?gtivity o~' agencieg for discoveries and inventione: mutt~r~ c~neerning the nwarding of prot~ction of inv~ntionn, induntri~?1 de- ~ign~, uti~.ity modelg, nnd trr~demarkg; the problemg of pat~nt inform~?tion, inv~ntion pla~nning and economicg, the tr~ining c~f gpec3~13gtg, et~. - Improving the legel foundationg for ievention helps td ~peed up it~ c1~vel~p- ment. ~'he ~paCe dP thig ~rticle allowe us to cli$cusa onlyr the mngt important and promi~ing of the measurea envigsged. ~ On the basig of thorough analy~ig of ~xieting nstional regu].~tione and in- ternational tre~tier~ in the Pield of invention the poligh aad t3DR de~.~gc~tiong pr~p~red the drsPt of an internation~l ~greement. Aecor~ingly on 5,~u].y 1g75 eight C~MA member-countries signed sn agreement in Lei~zig on stand~rdix~tion of requirementa for the preparation end submittal of pgt~nt ~pplicationg, Which makea it e~ier to compile document~tion ahen applicetiong are filed _ to obtain authors' certificaten and other certificates of protection in sev- eral countriea. The agreement on mutual recognition of authors' certificgte~ and other cer- tificates of protection of inventions, which were signed in December 1976 in Havana, is algo ~xing it easier to obtain certificates of protection. The Polish delegation has participated With the Soviet and Hungarign delegations in this field in developing the conception of standa?rd regulatioas on inven- tions, Which s~ould be conducive to further improvement of the national leg- islation of the CE~1A member-countries in thia fie~.d. The constan~ grorrth in the number of applicationa for patents and the re- lated increase in the amount of Work to be done by the relevant agencies have made it necessary to take steps simultp~~^��Qi~ i?+ 4A~ral or even all the CF~Il1 member-countries to improve the procedure for obteining certifi- cates of protection of inventions. At the pre~sent time an applicant Who wants to protect his invention simul- taneously in several countries has to submit applic$tions to each of those _ countries, and their agenciea for discoveries and inventions must make an evaluation of that same inventian. This means that the xork of both the ap- plicants and Qlso the agencies is duplicated. _ On the initiative of the USSR delegation the Main Directions and the Measures mentioned above included the topic of preparating a multilateral agreement of the CIIrW member-countries on a single certificate to protect inventions. This task was assigned to the delei3ations of Polaad and the USSR. The rec- ommendations for ar~ agreement which they drafted and also the draft of the agreement cslled for the filing of only one application to an international 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~Olt UH'~I~IAL US~ dNLY agen~y which Wou1d evaluate the gpplication, anuld publigh it ~nd would i~- ~ue patent rightc~ or nther ~.~rtificntet~ of protection th~t ~rould be valid gimultaneou~ly in g~veral or a].~ the CF~Il1 member-countrie~. Such sn agree- ment w~uld be very aortt?while, in the fnlldwing re~pectg: i. it would mc~ke it eanier for applicnntn fr~m the CE~IA memb~r-cnuntrie~ to obtain certifiCeteg df protection; ii. it aou],d make it pa~giple for egencieg for inventiong er~d digcnverieg td gave ~n the lnbor c;nd gt~ff df highly qualified gpe~ia].igt~, ~ince ~11 _ the time-conguming xork, egpeci$11y the petent gearch and evaluation, Would be donp by th~ international egen~y; iii. it aould sp~ed up e?cce~g to inform~?tion nn a11 appliCntiong fbr prn- te~tion and ali golutidn~ prdtected in the CF~tA member-countrie~ by meang of ~ gingle internatidnal publication; it vtoul.d facilitate expert ev~lustion gg to the pr~tent "purity" of exported prdductg c~nd r?auld make it easier to get ane'g bearingg in a patent ~itustion When a decinion is being made on inipnr- tant capital invegtments; iv. internationgl economic orgariizations of the CFI~IA m~mbe:-cawitries and interngtional gcientiffc research and pro,ject plar~ning and design teams would be able to c~11 upon the internationel agency for inventions and dis- coveries to make an evalustion and conduct e patent information search for the purpoaeg of their pro~ects and thus take advantege of the most recent technical golutions in the vorld. - Achievement of these gosls neceasitates a deteiled ~nelysig of a number of esgential 1ega1, economic gnd technical questiona ao that the decisions made contribute the ma~cimum to implement$tion of the Comprehensive Program and thereby to raising the level of prosperity of the xorkers in all the CEMA member-countries and to the building of advaaced socialism and communism. The Polish delegation is taking an active part in the stuc~y of all these questions and in the preparation of solutions. At the present time much attention is being paid to i.mprovement and expan- sion of cooperation in the field of patent information as well as coopera- tion of national patent information systems with the International Patent Information System (MSPI). Performance of these tasks Will have great im- portance not only to agencies for inventions er~d discoveries, but also for sectoral standing CE~IA cotmmissions and for their performance of tasks envis- aged in the Comprehensive Program and in the long-range special-purpose co- operative programs. The standing Cfl~iA co~issions, using patent documenta- tion for pro~ect planning and design pro~ects or for purposes of industrial apecialization and cooperation, are the most important consumers of patent information. The MSPI, as a specialized system within the frameWOrk of the MSNTI (Inter- national System of Scientific-Technical Znformation), Will help to increase 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~dlt O~~~CIAL US~ C~NLY further the l~ve~. o� gcientific re~e~r~h rind pro3ect planning ~nd de~ign aa k. Moreover, MSpt aill give consumer~ readi~r ~cce~~ td dd~wnentation gnd make it more up-to-date, wi1~. mglce it po~aible to reduce the cogtg of obt~?ining ~nd proce~~ing information thankg to the int~rn~tion~l divigion ~f 1~bc~r, t~t?d Wi11 alno promot~ c~ ri~~ in the effectiivenese of inform~ti~n ~etiv3ty. mhe MSPI will include g nwnber df gubsy~tems in ahose development the poligh gid~ i~ t~lcing gn gCtive p~rt. One of them ia the ServiCe for Computeriz~d Proce~ging of Bibliographi~ Information (AS$A). 'I'hi~ sygt~em coll~barbt~g rrith INPAI)OK (Internntic~n~l Petent Dn~um~ntet~on Center), and Ke thereby ob~ _ tain on m~chine-reac~able data ~arri~rg inform~tion on the mo~t r~cent patent inf~rmation publi~hed in the industriell.y ~dvan~ed countries of the Wor1d. The Poligh deleg~tion ig taking en sctive part in development ~nd exch~ng~ of thia information on m~gnetic cgrrferg and elso in d~velopm~nt of ~oftw~re for th~ ASHA. mhe infbrm~tion ~btgined in this wgy ig e~ go~d bggig for set- ting up gector inform~tion retrieval. gy~temg. Sn, thig activity helpg to meet the n~ed ~?hich the ecdnomies nf our countries have far inform~tinn con- cerning the ma~t recent technical ~chievementg in the rtorld. That aim ig ~lso served by the system Which hgg been developed c~nd introduced for ex- change df information on the mogt important inventions in the CE~IA member- . countries. ~ ' ' Agenaies for discoveries and inventions have been given important tagks in atimulating creative initiative and performance of programa to help to meet the most urgent needs of the econoap? concerning disseminetion of technical achievemente and their planned use. Attention has also been paid to these queations in the Main Lines Which rre mentioned above. In Poland there are certain xorld-reco~ized achievements in development of official edministration of invention affa;,rs aad also in application of 1e- ga1 and economic incentives to ~ncourage lnventive creativity and the fi- nancial motivation of enterpi-ises and their staffs to create and apply in- ventiona. The Polish side is sharing its experience in thia field With the _ other CET~A member-countries. For instance, it ~oins the Hungarian delega- Lion in working on matters concernfng the formg and mechanisms for finattcial incentivea to encourage technical progress. - One of the principal tasks of the Canference of Heads of Agencies for Pat- ents and Inventions is the aid extended to the Aepublic of Cuba and to the Mongolian People's Republic by the other CII~fA member-countries. Poland, represented by the Polish Patent Office, has actively participated in all sesaions of the conference and also in a11 meetings of groups of ex- perts assigned by the conference to do the xork of preparing materials and draft$ of the decisions of the conference. The Polish People's Republic has - also been the author or a coauthor in the ~rork doae on certain problems in- cluded in the annual plans of the conference. , , . ~ ' 28 , , FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 t~'~it O1~'i~'IC tAL US~: ~NLY All we have ~aid concernn only a few oi' the mont importnnt problemn in coop- erotion of the CF9NA memb~r-c:ountri~~ which the poli~h nide hu~ ~ pnrticu].ar interedt in spl�~n~.~ A~ the same time the I'oligh side in participa?ting in work c~n u numbcr ~f other pr~blem~ r~l~ted td protect:lon of the aChievementn of technica]. progresn cind their use. Joint stuc~y and solution of those problem~ in multiplying the uchievementu af thone cauntrien. , It ig ulaa very importgnt to Coordinc~te the viewpdint~ of the C~1 member- eountrien itt connectinn wi~h their pregentation to the World drga?nization - for Yntellectur~l property.' In December 1977 the Conference of }leuda of Agencies for patents und Inven- tiionn held itn 13 meeting at Which import~nt d~cisions were mnde on further couperution in the field of invention und pntent nffdirs. 7'he conference di~cu~yed the tesks nrising out nf the decrees of the ~:xecu- - tive Cotmnittee of the council pertc?ining ;~pecifically to preparution of = drafts of long-rt~nge specia?_-purpose cdoperative program~ and further im- provement of the effectiveness of cooperation in the field of invention. buring the sen:~ion con~ideration Was ~iven to the draft of an ogreement on mutual legfil. protection of indications of origin gnd names of origin of cbm- modities, the draft of a standnrd regulr~tion on inventions and a repnrt on prep~ration of u dre~ft of an agreement on a single certificate of protection of inventions of the CEMA member-countries. - J The conference approved the Method for Conducting pntent Nesec?rch, Whirh makes it eusier i'or agencies for inventions rind discoveries nnd other orgu- nizntions of C~T~A mem}.,er-cotuitrie~ to conduct patent research in orde: to raise the technicnl 1eve1 und competitibility of netr technicnl contributions . being developed, recommeudatfons to ~tandardize the title page of the de- scription of inventions in the CE~SA member-countrie~, and proposals concern- ing use of the results of preliminary patent reaearch conducted by orgrsnixa- tions~ in the process of government evaluation. Further steps rrere outlined toWard setting up the Intern~tional Patent Information System of the Cfl~SA member-countries. In 1978 the Polish 3ide dirr_cted its activity in accordance aith the rules of prucedure of the conference. We made every effort to 3Lep up activity even more in order to make our contribution to implementation of the resols- tion of the Seventh PZPR Congress, which ~toted: "The Poliah People's Re- public will continue to ,~oin Lhe other CFT~SA countries in advocating expan- sion and enrichment of the process of socialist economic integration cind faster c~,rnamic socioeconomic development di the entire co~monWerilth and of euch country individually." COPYRIGHT: Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi Sekretariat Maskva, 1978 7045 CSO: 1823 29 FOIt OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 I~OIt 0~'I~I~IAt, USL ONLY - C~~CNOSLOVAKIA N~~D FOR Rt~TIONAL U5E OF' ~U~LS ANU ~N~RGY 5TIt~SS~U Government progrnm Bratislava T~CHNICKA FttACA in Cz~ch Aug 78 pp 11-12 [Article by ~ngrg 5lavoj Od~hnbl, C5c, and Josef KouCnik: "The 5taCe Program for it~tinnglizing the CongumpCion of ~uelg and ~nergy"] (TextJ In comparison with a number of countries~ our economy ig quite _ demanding in terms of energy; average coneumption of fuels and energy in a number of branchea and sectore gurpaegeg the amount cuetomary tn indus- trially developed countriea, partly becnuse of the composition of our fuel and energy regourcee~ beeed predominantly on solid fuels utilizable basically wiCh lower effectivenesa; in addition, there are the etructure of production and the eize of productive caparitiea. But it is nnt pos- eible to ~ay chat thrift regarding fuele and energy is on a good level and that thug there do not exist genuine preconditione for lowering con- sump[ion. The 14th CPCZ Congresa already was concerned with these basic questions, _ and on the basig oE its conclusions the State Program for Rationalization - in the Coneervation of Fuels and Electric Energy Which the CS5R govern- ment issued in F'ebruary 1972 was formulated. With this program, gystema- - tic care Was eatablished for lowering the energy demandg of producCion in all decisive branches of nur economy. The state was based on the principle of ensuring savings of fuels and electric energy through the planning of rationalizing programs in indus- _ try, orienting efforta toward the solution of selected societywide sig- nificant problems directed at lowering the energy demands of th~ productive and the nonproductive spheres, and formulating economic instruments and measurea to suppor[ the rational use of fuels and electric energy. Along aith gpecific measures wi[h potentials for implementation in the course of the Fifth Five-Year-Plan, it contained a number of tasks of a more long- term character ~o nqing the,preconditions for loWering the energy demands of production and raising the level of coneervation in the utilization of fuels and energy in the long run. 30 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~dit O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY ~ ' For orienCing produ~tive and nonprnductive ~ph~r~~ on ehe real3z~tidn of ~nci~tywid~ aignificgnt meggure~ bringing ~ eeving of fuelg gnd ~n~rgy, pertial rgti~naliz~Cinn progre~n~ w~re formul~t~d aiming nC: --moderniz~Cidn df ~elected energy-d~manding conaumere auch as boilerg, fuel ~ncl ~1@CCt~~C furna~ee, CbtppregtlOr~~ di~rribueing tr~nsform~r~, - pump~, v~nCilatorg~ gnd ele~rric moCorg; --the uEie of seCOndary gourceg of pn~rgy, e~peciglly wg~te heat in metal- - lurgicnl and Chemicel industry gnd fr~m compreseor gtetion~ nf tran~it pipeline~; --Che implementgtinn of h~~vy-current gemicottduc:tor technology in rramwgys ~nd railrogd trar.gporC~Cion gnd in indugtrial mech~ni~ms; --rei~in~ the techttical level nf burnera for the anmbuation of gas and - - liquid f�elg; - --raiginEL the quality of lining materials for industri~l furngceg to lawer the loes of heat; --raisin~; the technical level of the h~ating systems of cenCral heating, equipment for individu~l heating and warming up of warm water in the non- productive ~phere; --protection of chimneyg against Che corroaive effects of condensates riaing daring the burning of gae and liquid fuels; --raising the heat-inaulating capacities of the outer surfaces of buildinga. It is necessary further to intensify systematfc care for the conaerv$tion of fuelg and energy. Aware of this fact, the lSth CPCZ Congresa resolved in the Guideline for the Economic and Social Development of the CS5R in ? the Years 1976 to 1980 to ensure eavings of fuels and energy at least in ` an amounC of 2 to 2.5 percent and to mobilize for the attainment of this goal technical meana in the aree of production Cechnology and energy con- sumers, and thereby eyatematically loaer the average congumption of fuels and energy. Qn the baeis of this basic directive, an updated state program of rationalization of consumption of fuela and energy for the Sixth Five- Year Plan vas drarm up and approved by the CSSR government in December 1976. This program contains a collection of technical and economic measurea in the area of industrial production, transportation, communications~ and agriculture, as well as houaing and community economy. It proceeds from the fact that the decisive ahare of savings af fuels and energy, the attainment of Which is anticip~9ted in the Sixth Five-Year Plan, will be taken care of by the 1.mplementation of rationalization measures above all in industry vith the help of the atate plan; thus, large measurea are to 31 ` FOR OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 - I~OIt d~1~ICIAL U5~: ONLY be pur~ued in the nnnugl implemeneneian~l plnn~. 13enldeg thi~, it cnnrgine directives gnd meaeure~ both in productiv~ gnd nnnproductive greg~ which _ r~pre~~nC poCential ~ources df ~avingg gnd orienC efforCe dn Cheir formu- 1gCion gnd implpmenra~idn in the plans of the Econnmic Production UniC~, ~nt~rpri~~e, and plants. It includes not only thp rationalixatLon of exi~t- - ing productive c~pa~ities but g1~n meaeureg regerding the new conetrucCion uf producrion capacitieg and the introduction of new technnlogies wiCh g 1dw~r coneumptiun of energy which would ~n~ure Che lowering of energy d~mgnd~ of rhe naCional economy a whnl~. In comp~rison with the conceptualizntion in Che ~ifth ~ivP-Year Plgn, the program ia subg~tantiglly expanded in a number of directidna; for inetance, iC attempCa Co formulate long-term limite of the consumpCion nf fuels and energy for indugtry, coneCruction, trangportgtion, attd ~griculCure; it graepe the ldw~ring of ~n~rgy demends of newly modernized productive and - nonproductive pro~ects already in the eCa~e nf preparatory documentation; it linke up with rhe preparation of rationalizatinn measureg and with con- trol o� Cheir f ulfillment by indu~Crial production directed by Che naei~nal commiCteee; it makes new meagures for inauring a unified long-term energy policy in the sector of conatruction ~nd operation nf insCallations for - supplying indugCry and the population with heaC; it insures the working _ out of the proposal for the optimal supplying of housing setClements with individual energy carriersfor the Seventh Pive-Year Plan and Che longer _ run; it increaseg the utilization of the tasks of the atate plan for the development of ecience and technology with a goal of lowering the conaump- tion of fuels and energy in industry and in the nonproductive sphere. On the baeis of the state p~rogrem, annual plana of rationalization measures are being draWn up for lowering the consumption of fuels and energy with a goal of reaching and surpassing the task 8et by the CPCZ 15th Congress. In the past 2 years of the Sixth Five-Year Plan, we have all in all suc- - ceeded in surpassing the planned savings of fuels and tnergy; but the goals set were nat attained everywhere nor Wae a thorough implementation of the measures set down in the gtate program eafeguarded. Thus, in the period to come it is essential that rationalization of the const~mption of fuela and energy become one of the baeic elements of management 3ctivity on all levels in induetry,'transporta[ion, construction, agriculture and ~ the housing and community'area. The taeks connected aith safeguarding the rational conservation of fuela and energy are not small and easy, but they have a key significance for lowering the preseure between resource and consumption on a statewide level; thus their realization goea beyond the interests of plants and enterprisea because a sufficiency of fuels and energy is one of the basic conditions of the further well-proportioned groWth of our economy. In connection with the preparatory work for the period of the Seventh Five- Year Plan, principles of activity were worked out aiming at the further systematic lovering of the energy demands of all key branches and manu- factures. Ne anticipate that individual production departmenta will 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~O~t nFFICIAL US~ ONLY verify, in Ch~ course nf this year, the av~rage conaumption of ~11 energy- . demanding production ~nd on Che bg~i~ of detailed ~nalyaie and wiCh the uCilizaCion of compgrieone and experiences from gbrnad wtll propo~e for indi~idu~l y~grg of thp S v~ntih ~'ive-Year plan aets o~ technical and organ- izgtion~l acti.on~ ~or euc~e~eive realizaCion, eapeci~lly on an invegtmenr charecCer, leading to a systematic lowering of the avergge coneumpCion of ~ fuels gnd energy. In drawing u~ rhe propo~gl~ for m~asur~g~ th~ d~part- m~ntg will proceed from the chief direceiveg of r~Cionalization, orieneed ~n the implem~ntation of new techncringy, the utilizgtinn of gecondgry energy anurc~s, the raiaing of the efficiency of machines and equipment, the la;~ering of los~es of energy, technological innovatinns ~n Che produc- tion processes and the liquidatinn of outmoded operations, the implemenCa- Cion of ineaeuring and reguluting technology, the optimalization of the - regime of fuel gnd ~nergy cnngumptinn nf fuels and ettergy in eel~cted energy-demanding production procesges will become binding taska of Che ~tgte plan ~nd an effective economic incentive for the leading workers will b~ inCroduced for their lowering according to plan. In the period of the Seventh Five-Year Plan we temporariLy gnticipate a new stat~ progran~ of the rationglizaCinn of the consumption of fuels and - energy which will proceed from the fact that individual rationalization measureg wi11 be firmly anchored in the correaponding parte of the atate plan of growth of the naCional economy and there will be above all a view toward large breakthrough measurea, in the impl~mentation of which a greater number of departments, national committees, or other organs and organizations will take part. Service Industries Bratislava TECNNICKA PRAGA in Czech Aug 7g pp 13-16 (Article by Engr Bohumir Te~nicky: "Rationalization of the Consumpeion of Fuels and Energy in the NonproducCive Sphere"~ (Text~ The nonproductive sphere ia a significant elemenC of the national economy not only from the viewpoint of its aignificance for the ~rowth and regeneration of Work potential but also on the side of the conaumption of fuel and energy resources. The conaumption of fuels and energy in the nonproductive sphere is deter- mined by the needs for the fund of housing mainly for the parposes of - heating and the heating of Water and for other goals such as cooking, inessential electricity, and individual motoring, but also by the need for hoc;sing settlement and supersettlement facilities, including community transpor[ation, public lighting, the consumption of offices, stores, aervices and crafts, healti~ services, schools, cultural, recreational, and b~dybuilding installations and other nonproductive conaumption. The share af the nonproductive sphere in the final cons~umption of the entire national economy is constantly rising and in comparison with 1960, 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~Ott 0~'~ICIAL U5~ ONLY ~ when iC amounted only to 24 percene, it is Codgy ~bout 32 percent. As a re~ult of Che ri~e in living standards, we can expect a furCher growth for Che future. By 1980~ it is expect~d ehat the area of the nonproduc- tive aphere will gttain the level of caneumption of 20.6 million tmp/r, of which the increm~net during ehe Six~h Five-Year Plan will be 3.5 mil- lion Cmp, which signifies exceeding the guideline by 46 percent in thie period. Becauee Che safeguarding of the needed fuel t~nd energy resourceg for the d~velopment of the nonproductive sphere under consideraCion ia _ ever more difficult for the ngCional economy, it is necessary in a fundn- menCal way Co lower energy demands in this area. - State Progrnm for Che Period of the Fifrh Five-Year Plan The problems di the rationalization of the cottaumption of fuels and energy = in the naCiotuil economy of our republic han come ro the fore of the inCer- egt of a wide public since the CPCZ 14th Congresa. WiCh a view Co the fact thaC Che solution ~f all the Connected problems is a hasic precondi- tion for the successful development of the economy of Che CSSR, the . federal government accepted, by ita resolution No 51/72, the State Program - for Rationalization in the Conserva~:ion of Fuels and ElecCric Energy, which became the basic inaCrument for the'developmenC of organizationnl, managing and creative work for safeguarding the rational utilization of fuels and electric energy. This sCate program for the Fifth Five-Year Plan also contained specific material measures for the rationalization of the consumption of fuels and energy in the nonproductive sphere, measurea which were to create the condi[ions for the further efficient development of this area and safe- guard the preconditions for comprehensive solution in the sector of tech- - nical policy to heating and heating water, the rationalization of heating systems, the insuring of optimal regulation and measuring of the consump- tion of hot water and hot nonpotable waCer and the improvement of heat - insulation qualities of outer surfaces o~ buildings for the minimalization of losses of heat in their heating. In the sector of technical policy, Che FMTIR [expansion unknown] drew up a working schedule in 1972 of tasks safeguarding the rational utilization of fuels and electric energy for heating in the nonproductive sphere in- cluding the preparation of hot nonpotable water. The working schedu?e - became an inseparable component of the material measures of the state program and provided a solution of these problems: --the setting of the fundamental criteria for the optimal utilization of individual forms of energy for heating and the preparation of hot nonpotable water and for thei~ implementation in the proposal of the regional concepts of energy supply for the nonproductive sphere; --the carrying out of the classification of the territory of the CSSR - according to degree of pollution of the atmosphere with harmful substances ` from combustion processes; 34 " FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 - FOR OF~TCIAL USE ONLY --the formulaCion of e comprehensive concept of Che production of boilerfi of the output series 0.016 eo 3.5 MW (9.01 to 3 kcal/h); --Che comprehenaiv'e eolution of heating sysCeme of central heating for _ the modernization of existing buildinga and new housing and ci.v31 consCruc- Cion; --the execution of the analysis of the technical and economic level of selected individual coqsuroers of domeatic production ;~nd imports for heating and the preparation of hot nonpotable water including tlie proposal of inea- sures for their level; � _ --the elaboration oE a Comprehensive program of improving the heat- inaulating qualities of Che outer surfaces of buildings; --Che evaluation of ex:isting methods and Che elaboration of proposals for ~ the proCection of chimneya in housing and civil construction against cor- rosaive effects of condeneaCes arising during the combustion of liquid and - gas fuels. - In the cours~e of the Fifth Five-Year Plan we did noC succeed in finishing a program for the production of ineasuring and regulatory technology for heating systems consonant with the needs of new conatruction and the - modernization of existing construction, including insuring servicing serv- ices and the production of replacement parts. For this reason this set of problems was ahifted forward into the new state program of rationalization of the consumption of fuels and energy for the period of the Sixth Five- Year Plan and th e longer run. As an implementational measur~ of the state program for the Fifth Five~ Year Plan, i.n C~CD Dukla [Ceskomoravska-Kolben-Danek, National Enterprise (Heavy Machinery Plants)] Nationbl Enterprise the leading workplace for scientific-technical development for the area of heating systems of central heating was created with statewide competence which, despite initial diffi- culties, is fulfilling the tasks set and is successfully seeing to the solution of problems of the consumption of fuels and energy in heating systems. T~omestic and foreign cooperation of this sort ia ever developing _ and the re~sults obtained testify to the fact Chat in this'sector the tasks are t,~ell taken care of . A basic measure aiming at~the problem of implementing the measur3ng of the - consumption of heat ana hot nonpotable water and the regulation of the , temperature of heating and nonpotable water in apartment houses and in projects of civil amenities was the publication of FMTIR Guideline No 3/74 "Several Measures in Capital Construction for Economy in the Use of Heat in the Housing and Community Economy, with Effectiveness from 1 January 1975." The insufficient implementation of this guidEline in new construc- ~ tion is connected with the failure to insure the production of ineasuring and regulatory technology in the needed amount on the part of FMHTS and FMVS [expansion unknown], as will be explained furtY~er on. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~OR OF~ICIAL U5L ONLY A significant conCribution for impraving Che heat-insulation qualities of outer surfacea'of buildings wus ttae comprehensive economic evaJ.uation of consCrucCion expenditures on pro~ecCs wiCh optlrnally insulated outer sur- - face againat sav3nga in inveatment and operational expenditures for heating, drawn up by the CSR nqd SSR construction miniatries in 1972. The conclu- siona of Chis evaluation aimed at a further development of building struc- tures for the mctss implementation of types of buildings a~td gradually are - penetraCing into Che innovating programs of the material production base _ of construction. But innovation is a long-term affair and is not Caking place aC such a~te that we can be content� For the proCection of chimneys against corrosive effects of condensates ariaing during the combustion of liquid and gas fuels, tlie licensed pro- - duction of special fireclay segments has been introduced which will be employed in new construction and in the reconstruction of existing chimneys. State Program for the Period of the Sixth Five-Year Plan The deteriorating situation in regard to insuring an increase in fuel and energy resources and the growing disproportion between resource and con- _ sumption have led the 15th CPCZ Congress to establish the guideline for the Sixth Five-Year Plan, among other things, the necessity of more ef.ficiently conserving and evaluating all kinds of fuels and energy, of _ pushing through the holding to norms in the consumption of fuels and energy, and of orienting ourselves on making the energy economy more effi- cient. In harmony with this guideline, the CSSR government ordered the - = formulation of a new state program of rationalization of the consumption of fuels and energy, which was approved by enactment No 287 of 9 De~�~ber 1976. For the nonproductive sphere this state program contains binding measures - in the sectors of: --modernization of energy consumers for heating and the preparation of hot nonpotable water; - --regulation and measuring of the consumption of heat and hot nonpotable water in housing and civil construction; - --protection of standing chimneys and new ctiimney construction; --cuttfng the losses of heat by the outer surfaces of buildings; --rationalization of the consumption of electric energy in lighting - technology; ~ --supplyi:ig of industry and population with heat; ---optimalization of the energy supply of housing and settlements; -�-rationalization of the consumption of fuels and energy in transportation. - 36 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~Oit ~~~ICiAI, US~ ONLY Modernizatton of ener~y consumere far henCing gnd Ch~ prepgr~Cit~n of hot nonpdCnble w~eer ig t~ken r.are of in h~rmdny with the ~egmented rgtion~- lixgtion progrgmg el~bor~t~~1 by the ~MTIR~ The evaluting connnissidng d~ _ the atate t~~ting lgbc~r~enrie~ in Prague and Brno emplny in Che ~xecuCion of etaCe t~geing, in keeping wiCh lgw No 30/68 Sb., elabc~rate clasgificg- tion crit~ria with progres~ive pgram~C~r~ e~peciglly from the vi~wpnint of Che efficipncy of consumere gttd thu~ contribute to raiging th~ir 1eve1. - Fnr implementing regulaCi~n and meaeurem~nC of the consumpCiun of hegting and hot nonpotable wnter, Chp F'MHTS gnd ~'MV5 were directed eo put forward ~ progr~n for ehe procl~~.~tion of the necegsgry? inetrumenr~tiongl CeChnnlogy for the extent of glgnned new construction and moderniz~tion of C~ngtruc- Cion in the Sixth Five�Yeut plgn. In view of the fnCC thgt n~iCh~er de- parCment pregented the proE;rams in thc Cime gllocg~ed, it wag necegsery to include the annual tolunie of production of the main instrumente and installations into the gt?i~leline for the preparatinn of Che plan for 1979, which was approved by CSSR government decree No 314/77. The F'MTIF ia discuasing the handling of production in the volumes for 1979 and the longer run gt the pi~Aent time directly with the two engineering depgrtmentg. ~or insuring the protection uf chimneys, the Czechoslovak ceramica plante are expanding the variety,and content of the production of chimney lining gnd molded bricka from special fire clay. To Cake care of repairs afCer accidenCs of chimneya in old construction, the poseibility of importing - flexible steel chimney lining from the Hungnrian People's Republic ie beir_g examined at the present time. Cutting zhe losses of heat by the outer surfaces of buildings is a very complex problem, connected partly with insuring building conetruction cor- - responding to heat-technological qualitiea and partly with maintaining technological discipline in the actual construction of buildings. The - following were established as the atate program: the elaboration of plans for the production of mineral, ceramic, and glasa fibers, and of products - from them for heat-insulation purposes, expanaion of the production and application of layered aurfaces with heat insulating fibers, eventually _ of further2newly dev~loped structures with hea[ resiatance of a minimum of Rl0.95m .�C. kW ) and limiting the production of construction pieces - not ettaining this value, testing the efficiency of the application of triple glass windows, the propos~nQ of inethoda of random checks of the heat-technical qualities of construttion pieces at production and utiliza- tion places and the ateady application of thermovisual tests for mass- pr~~duced types of buildings of comprehen~ive housing construction in - various material varieties and in all cases of experimental construction. A steady transirion in the production of construction pieces while main- taini?Zg established heat resistance is being carried out. The analysis carried out of the.efficiency of triple glass for preaently manufactured windows has incieed demonstrated the possibility of obtaining heat savings - in the amount of about 810 kWh (0.7 Gcal) per housing unit per year, 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 FOlt Q~ICIAL US~ ONi.Y i 1 although before fin~t d~Ci~ion about ita implement~eion tt ig nece~g~ry td work out a more ~dvnntggeou~ cnngCrucCion re~ule and CegC the pogsi- bility of including its in~reased priCe into expenses for the apartment~ Th~ method of carrying out r~ndom conCrols of the heaC-technical qug11- - Ci~s of outer conetruction pieceg at the producers'is normally ~grried ~uC; et the utilizer~' ir ig prpp~red from 1979 on. Thermovigual tegtg in the suggegted extent of conCruction h~ve alregdy provided g number nf positive resultg which contribute to imprnving the technology of produc- ridn gnd the gctual ~onsCruction of buildinge. ltgtionalization dE the congumpCinn of electri~ energy in lighting tech- nnlugy gtrikeg, among other place~ in the eector of the modernizaCion nf public lighting, up ggningt the insufficient production of progreggive _ light eourceg nnd luminarea, which muat be taken care of in Tesla Holes- ovice National ~nterprtse and Elektro~vit Nove Zamky National ~nterprise. The problems of supplying indusCry and population with heaC, which is to do awny with the present lack of coordination in the construcCion and operation of energy sourcea and provide a uniiied plan for the management of this important part of the energy economy of the atate, is the sub~ect - of a apecial report which the FMP~ and FMTIR will present this year Co, the C5SR gnvernment. ~or the optimalization of the energy supply of houging setClements, the FM'fIR gnd FMPE warked out on the basia of a task set by CSSR government decree No 123/76 in Che past year nn extensive study in which an anlysis - was carried out of the previoua methods of energy supply, the chief causes for heat lossea and their extent were ascertained, and the possibilities for a rational aolution for newly built residential groupings were pro- posed including neoessary meseurea for implementation in the Seventh Five-Year Plan and the longer run. They are at preaent working the re- sults of the study into the proposal for the C5SR government decree on the optimal`tec~nical and,economic solution of the supply of fuels and energy to housing settlements built. - In the sector of the rationalization of the conaumption of fuels and energy in transportati'on,'the thyristorization of T3 tramways in urban mass transit and the replacement of rotating convertors in converting stations of transportation enterprises with silicon ones have been lag- ging behind the schedule set in the state program. The causes of the lag in realization of the measures ordered are complex and do not lie - only in [he insufficient capacity of the producers. In cooperation with - the CSR Urban Council and the SSR Urban Council, regional national com- - mittees, and production departments, the FMTIR is handling the situation that has developed. Meanwhile the problem of the development of trolley- bus transport in urban agglomerations, which merges into the problem of _ insuring the production of trolleybuses with thyristor regulation, re- - maina unresolved. ~ 38 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~Ott OF~IC~AL US~ ONLY , Th~e in the nnnprnducti~n ~ph~re rhere ~xist gignifiCgnC reserves, ~ especinlly in h~gtittg and the preparation of hot nonpoCable water ig g known fget. '~hrdUgh the~m~ggure~ of the atate progrgm of the rgtionali- - zaeion nf the coneumption of fuel~ apd energy, the fulfillm~nt df which ~ the CSSR governm~nt nrd~red by its decree, condition~ are form,tid for r~~ching a decieive turnground and the gradugl removgl nf the dispropor- tion b~Cween dpmand gnd need nf energy resources. In order rh~t an ineufficienCy of energy may not bEC01II0 a brake on the furCher devel~p- ment of Che nonproductive ephere, it is neceesary to mobili~e g11 forcea for �ulfilling the e~t~blished meaeure~. Rpagons for High U~e in C55R Bratislava T~CHNICKA PRACA in 5lovak Aug 78 p 36 [ArtiCle by Ur ~ngr ~ugen Zunko: "Regsona for High Use of ~nergy in the C5SR"j [TextJ In comparison with some indusCrially developed countriea, the CSSR is marked by a substantially higher demand for energy per individual inhabitant. In comparison with the C5SR with 100 percent average fuel- energy demand for a single inhabitant, the GDR has 95 percent, the FRG 82 percent, the U5SR 71 percent, the PPR 68 percent, France 60 perceni and AustXia only SS percent. The high demand �or energy in the CSSR derives mainly from the composition of the primary sources of energy and.from the structure of Czechoslovak industry. The analysis of the demand for energy shows ita cauaes and simultaneously provides a stimulus for proposals for reducing it. In the composition of fossil fuels, solid fuels predominant in the CSSR with a larger ahare of brown c;al and lignite, i.e., fuele with lower heat output, for instance, b�~ 1990 the heat output of brown coal from the Sverma Basin will decline ~o :;0,600'1. The combuation of brown coal and lignites with a lower heat output repre- sents, compared with liquid and gas fuels, on the average 20 percent higher conaumption. Through the modernization of boilers, the construction of new central economic sources of heat, the use of fluid combustion of less valuable fuels, the curtailing of losses in combustion, especidlly in small boilers, the automatization of combustion processes, and the improvement of serv- ice and upkeep of combustion inatallations, we are inauring savings of fuel. , The composition of industrial production in the CSSR is based on branches that are energy-demanding. These are metallurgy, engineering, electro- technical industry, chemicals, the production of cellulose and paper, the - production of construction materials, glass, ceramics, and so on. The 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 , ~'Ott O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY - ~h~re of energy ir?~~xp~nditure~ on engineering producC~ i~ insignificant, ~lthough in Che meCglg uged~ en~rgy form~ ~ bggi~ ~h~re of expendiCureg. W~ ae~ obtaining ~gvingg of energy thrnugh innovative programs in the pro- du~Cion of maC~l~, rolling mat~rigl, in ~h~micgle in the production df eulphuric and nitric ecid, ammonia, conetrucCion mgt~rigig, plgaCics gnd fiberg. , Lower technological gnd energy efficien~y ia conn~cted with the existing technologicel production proceaseg and with energy consumera in the pro- duCCive attd nnnproductive spherpg. - We mu~t in~ure energy savings through the modernization of technologicgl equipment, for in~tence of induetrial furnaces, rolling mill~, drying kilns, gglvanizing and other insCallations. ~nergy userg in Ch~ prnduc- - tive gnd nonproductive spherea ahould meeC the gtrict~et requirements in their efficiency and meet the top ~tandarda of production in the world. Insufficient utilization qf waste hegt in Czechoslovak industry. This involves the utilization of waste he~t fr~m technolagical processes, waste oils and gases, bio-gasea, reactor heat, and combuaCible wastes of every kind. Increasing Che eavings of fuels and energy will arise from the application of heaC ~umpa in the utilization of low-potential heat, and aleo of waste heat from compreasor statinc~ and from cooling tawera, especially in condensation poWer plants. Un~ustified high consumption of hea[ in central heating is connected: --with incorrect dimensions of heating systems without their correct servicing and upkeep; --with ineufficient automatic equithermal regulation of heat; --with unsuitable measurement of the conaumption of heat in heating, with - the measurement of hot ronpotable water and the regulation of ita heat, --with insufficient insulating qualities of buildings. _ Through the removal of Che mentioned shortcomings, savings will be obtained - in the consumption of fuels. Inadequacy of sources of light for illumination in industry, transpor* in the community sphere and in households. NeW rational sources o_ light, the development of which is already complete, should be rspidly - brought into production. / Insufficient applicatLon of semiconductor technology. Savings of energy will arise thxough the introduction of thyristor pulse regulation of directed drive phases, rolling and paper machines, in railroad traction, in urban mass transit, in the transistorixation of signaling technology, - and in other equipment. 40 , ~ ? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 I~OR 0~'I~ICYAt~ USL Ot1LY ~ ~ The eize of some Czechoelovek engineerin~ ~nd ele trntechni~gl prnducte i~ high and doe~ nnt ~CCgin th~ worldwide ataadar~. A larger eiz~ me~ns a greeter ~hgr~ of ~nergy in prdducte. It ie neces~gry to ineure th~ technical gnd qu~lity p~r~metere of Czechoslovak produnts during the ~imultaneoue curtailing of their ~iz~. ` The nped to raige th~ tpchnical, techn~logicgl, nrggnizgeidn, and manage- m~nt level of Cz~choslovak production gnd npply megeuring and re~ulating technology to g gregter exCent. We muat utilize bagic eCock~ better, in- creeee Che productivity of labor, ~nd exploit exieting reserves to incre~ee Che volume of production. The high d~mand for energy and th~ pggaive energy balance of primary resourcea of energy and fuela in the CSSit, together with an annual in- creaee of the need for theae resourcea of around 3 percent, demands the realization of proposals mentioned here and elsewhere for the s~ving of fuel~ and energy. 'The relative annual saving of fuele and energy in the _ Czechoglovak economy ought to hover around 2 percent. The State Program for the Rationalizatio,n of Conaumption of Fuels gnd Energy~ approved by Che C5SR government for the Sixth Five-Year Plan, also calls for inauring savings of fuels and energy. For Che attainment of savinge of fuels and energy, it is necessary to utilize in industry, Cranaportation, agricul- ture, and itl thle communit~l ~phere an improvement campaign and the activ- _ ity of brigades of socialiat labor. COPYRIGHT: TECHNICKA PRACA, 1978 9105 CSO: 2400 41 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ 4 + ~Ott OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY ' ' 1 1 ~ ~.AST G~ItMANY ECONOMIC PROBLEMS SEEN LEADING TO It~~'OItM Hamburg CAPI~AL in Gexman No 12, Dec 78 p 315 [Unattributed article: "But it Is Moving--The GDR Is Tinkering with a New Economic lteform") i , , , (Text] Life as a debtor of the West cannot ~o on for the CDR. After the to's und fro's of their dictated economy the ruling party ia now trying with a guarded liberalism, to achieve higher production. E111 Knickelbein of the state cable works in Schwerin ia the name of the _ latest heroine of the SBD. The GDR-lady insulatea cable, not only in large quantity--40 kilometers per shift--but also so well that ehe has for the third time been awarded the honorary title "distinguiahed quality worker." As usual, whenever the economy of the GDR begins to flounder, the SED lets pioneering heroes of labor emerge from the masses of its proletarian army. And as usual, this 'presages imminent radical changes--and this is the case in this instance as well. It is now necessary to achieve "a change of the national economy from a predominantly extensive type of pzoduction to a predominantly intensive type of production," as Prof Otto Reinhold, rector of the Academy of Social Sciences of the Central Committee of the SED, expressed in classical globbledegook. "To express it even more clearly," his party chief Erich Nonecker added, "the question in- volves not a regard for quality and effectiveness, but how to make these factors the deciaive criteria of action." The necessity of all of this was in the final analysis also made clear at ~ the Eighth Congress of the Central Committee of the reigning party, held shortly before the current 5-Year Plan's half-time. There Erich Honeckert Prime Minister Willi Stoph, labor union boss Harry Tisch, and top economic functionary Guenther Mittag let fly such complaints about the GDR the likes of which are usually relegated by the party to the realm of "anticommunist agitation." ~ 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 I~Oit OI~F~ICIAL U5B ONLY For ingtanc~: --"In m~ny ~~cCora nur production i~ eti11 Coo ~xp~n~iv~"; --"5hoddin~g~, waeCe of effort and ab~enteeiem are irreconcilabl~ with work eCh1c gnd ~ocigiigt mnrality"; --"The amourit of exCengiVe investment pro~ecCs ie sCill Coo high; inCOm- plete invegtmenta continue to be too high." This offici~l ~cknowledgement has much in cnmmon wieh the critici~m voined by the GDR dig~ident Rudolf Bghro, who has begn gentenced to 8 ypar~ itt prison--n~mely, that ~uet about everything that hae been undertaken hae - been characterized by a"characterisCically poor relationship between investment and~reeults." Well-known economieta of the party see the cgu~~ for Chis in the currectt syatem of economic management and planning. Indeed, even the "balance of ~ succesaful years," recently compiled by Honecker, poinCa to difficulties--when it is supplemented with suppresaed , daCa. These data ahow that in the first 7 yeara of the rule of Ulbricht's succ~seor, from 1971 to 1977, Che GNP climbed by some 42 percent. The rate of growth Was thus not greater than during the last 7 yeare of Ulbricht, from'1964 to 1970, in spite of a more favorable initial position. However, under Ulbricht~the favorable balance of trade amnunted Co almost 4 billion valuta marks. Under Honecker trade deficits have grown to the - tune of eome 19 billion valuta marka. This debt-path, along which the SED leads its people into a better life, cannot be trod indefinitely. Thus, Hanecker concluded perceptively, "the development of importa as well _ as exports conc~rna vital queations of our national economy." "Of vital intereat to our nation," would be the task he assigned, a"rationalization in large measure." _ Similar thinge have been hp.ard from East Berlin on many occasions, but basically nothing has changed. For example, the Council of National Economy declared in the aummer of 1963 that the state economic management would lead "to wastages and violationa of economic laws, and would thua slow our economic and social development." Aid would be forthcoming from the "aew economic syatem," an economic reform, which, however, had to be prematurely abandoned as unfeasible. Indeed, in 1965 the party expert for economic questions, Dr Erich Apel, committed suicide. Thus the GDR workers trundle on in the manner that the party has crammed into them for years--plana had to be fulfilled according to quantity; quality was unimportant. And when ~uddenly quality was demanded, the ton-ideology in production could not be liquidated. Prof Harry Nick, director of research of the Academy of Social Sciences, xecited a list of effects that would result if "the planning of the G~R is directed too single-mindedly toward quantitative growth in produc[ion." For example: 43 ' ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6 ~ FOIt O~ICIAL US~ ONLY --"Divergence b~twepn gupply ~nd d~m~nd"; --"Nogrding of r~gnurce~"; --"Exc~geive operative mgn~gement expen~~~"; --"Ov~rCime coupled with drnmtime." . Of courae, the workerg make g hefey profit within the aocialigt reality. Next to their p~y th~y receivE a bonue for the qu~ntity produ~ed, but - not fnr quglity; th~refore, they produce in lc~~de. It ig thug obvioug _ that in Chis vexed eCOndmic gitugtion plgnning methodg thaC only yegter- day were considered eacred, even though they limited prngre~s, muet be congidered particularly irritating. Changes have Chua be~n initiated. To brin~ the problem Co a comman denominator it is deemed necessary to decentralize economic decision-making that has nestled high up in the pinnacles of the state. Profita, which have to be turned over to the staoe, will in the future play a mor~ important role in Che evaluaCion of a plant'e achievement. mhis meana lega for the etate and more for the plant. Of courae, thie presuppoges that the inflexible price formation would nn longer be a taboo of the party. Such auggestione leave the im- presaion that the party ie after all moving to~?ard reforms, or at least is bringing reforms under diacueaion. por, as Honecker etated, the ques- tion involves probably "t~e moaC far-reaching improvement nf the organiam of our national economy." "Improvement" has thus become the new slogan for reforms. In the aummer of 1953 there was talk o~ a"new courae" end a decade later of a"new economic syatem." Even then, under Ulbricht, slogans of "decentraliza- tion," "profit,"~and "price formation" enjoyed wide popularity, but hardly aaything has changed. NoW theae good old acquaintancea ere experiencing resurrection under Honecker. Thus, Within the GDR ehere are plans against plana. What was the song of Bert Brecht, who venerated the GDR ayatem? "Yes, make me a plan~ and be it but a great show, and make me a aecond plan, neither of them will go." COPYRIGNT: 1978 Gruner 6 Jahr AG ~ Co 240 ~ CSO: 2300 ~ 44 FOR Of.'FICIAL USE OHLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030001-6