Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3.pdf2.62 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000'I 0004002'I -3 6IOMEDICAL AND 6EHAVIORAL SCIENCES - 9 APRIL i979 CFOUO ii179~ i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100044421-3 ~OR OFFIGIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/8385 9 Apr~l L9~9 r _ 1'RAPdSIATI~NS ON USSR SCIEMCE AND TECHNOLOGY $:OMEDICAI. AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (FOUO 11/79) l~. S. JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 NOTE JPRS publicationa conCain informaCion primarily from foreign ' ttewopapera, periodicals and books, bue also from news agency tranemiseione and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are CranslaCed; those from Engliah-language sourcea - are tiranscribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characterietice retained. Headlines, editorial reporCs, and material encloaed in brackeCs are aupplied by JPRS. Proceaeing indicators auch as [Text] or [ExcerpCj in the firet line of each item, or following the last Yine of a brief, indicate how the original information was procesaed. Where no procesaing indicator is given, ehe infor- mation was summarized or exrracted. _ Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or tranaliterated are enclosed in parenthesea. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parenrheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an i.tem originaCe with the source. Timea within items ~re as - ~ given by source. - The contents of this publication in no way repreaent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRI(~iT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GO'VERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF TEIIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. - ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . JPRS L/8385 ~ ' 9 April 1979 ~ TRANSLATIONS ON USSR SCIENCE AfVD TECHP~OLOGY BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES . (FOCro ~~/~9) . CONTENTS PAGE ECOLO(~Y Radioecolagy of Forest Organiem~ (R. M. Alekse,khin, M. A. Naryahkin; EKOLO(}IyA, No 6, ~978) ~ ENC~INF.F~tING PSYCHOLOGY Organizing Operators~ Wo~k (V. F. Venda, et a.l.; ORGADTIZAT3IYA TRUDA ~ OPgtATOROV ( INZ~IdO-PSIICHOLOGIC~QYE ~o~r~r), 1978) 4 ~ - GENETICS Experiment al Substantiation of the Principles of (3ene - Mutation Monitoring in Man - (N. P. Dubinin, et al.; DOIQ,ADy AKA,DENIII NAUK SSSR, No 5, 1978) 21 - ~ PtJB~LICATI0N5 . _ Computera in Neurophyaiological Research (V. D. Trush, A. V. Karinevskiy; PVM V NE'YROF'IZIOIAGICHESICQgi ISSLEDOVANIYAI~, 1976) 28 SCIENTISPS ~1D SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS USSR Academai~ioP Science Announcements of Medals and Pri2es ( VEST1vI~{ ~ Air.ADF~lII NAUK ssffit, No 10, 1978 ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 Hero of 3ocialist Labor Qold Medals and Coa~emorative Prizes - 8- [JII - USSR - 22 S6T FOUO) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -_I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 I FOIt O~FTCIA~ USE ONLY � ~ L(;U LO(.i Y -i ~ RADIOECOLOGY OF FOREST OR(3ANISMS - Sverdlovsk EKOLOGIYA in Russian No 6~ 1978 pp 97-98 _ IReview of r:~nograph by R. M. Aleksakhin and M. A. Naryshkin: "Migration of Ra~!:oac::i:e Nuclides in Forest Biogeocenoses"~ Moscow, 197?] _ (Text] Forest redioecology has been successfully d~vel~ped in the last twenty years. Periodicals have published many studies on this probl^m~ and by now there hAS developed a real need to analyze end generalize the accumulated materiel. This problem has be:en solved by the authors of the book being reviewed~ who have mRde a great personal contribution to the formation and - evolution of forest radioecology. Research conducted with the participation of these authors was used as the basis for the book. Furthermore, a great deal of literature is analyzed and the leading role of Soviet scientists in sol~ring the " _ problems is reflected. - The book devotes much attention to a justification of the practical and scientific - significance of forest radioecology as an ind~:pendent scientific trend; the - specifications of interaction between precipitated radioactive contaminants and ~ forest l~ndscapes are given. Particular attention is called *.o the exceedingly high retentivity of the arboreal floor for radioactive preci~itation. Specific deta - are given in tfie book to describe the rate of purific~tion of plant and tree tops from retained radiunuclides and tr~nslation of the latter to tne surface af the forest floor and then to the soil. These data form the basis for evaluating ~ irradiation doses to which many orgac+isms are Qxposed within the for~st biogeocenosis. One c~apter in the book is devote~ to a discussion of quantitative aspects of the ~ distribution and migration of man-made radionuclid~s in forest soils. Forms of discovery of long-lived fission products are examined: Sr90~ Cs137, and others; and the transformation of these forms in time due to in their biological accessibility for the root systems of vegetation. The role of forest soil as an avcumulutor of r~dioactive substances rPaching the ~urface of the soil from t!:. tops of vegetation and from the atmospl~ere is noted. Par*.icular attent?.on is ' focused on the important role in biogeochemical migration of radionuclides of - the corresponding natural ehemical macroanalogs--alkali metals for Cs13? and alkaline-earth for Sr90. This situation is illustrated by a wealth of factual meterial describing the distribution of mobile forms in the most common soil types of the USSR of such natural elements as Na, K, Pb, Ca, Mg~ and Sr. - Results of experiments are cited on the ei'fect on the speed of vertical migration - of Sr90 leached from the soil by water and by solutions of compounds of its ` _ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 _ FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY " ehemic~l ~na~log, calcium~ The datc~ in this chnpter are of interest not only to radioecologists, but also to speciAlists in forest man~gement. ~ A large section is dedicated to a description of the p~zttern of transition of - major fisslon products and their chemical analogs into forest vegetation from the ' soil. The uuthors justifiably ~mphasize that it is, in fact, the soil pathway of ac~ess which defines the content of a radionuclide such as Sr90 in timber. Based - on their own experimentul data~ the authors discuss in detail the relative migrational ability of man-made radionuclides nnd the corresponding natural analogs~ expressed as so-called magnitud~s of observable ratios of related element pairs. The kinetics of formation of a quasi-equilibrium state in the distribution of radionuclides and element analo~s in the biomass of forest - vegetation is examined for the element pair Sr /Ca. Detailed discussion is - g~ven to causes of altered content of Sr90 in forest vegetation in time following single introduction of a radionuclide under the forest cover. The factual data cited make a substnntial contribution to the biogeochemistry of fission products and natural nikali metal and alkaline-earth elements. In the concluding chapter of the monograph, the distinetive features of distribution in forests of ~rtificial radionuclides are considered in their zonal ~ ~spect. The initial factual data are presented as the results of experimental reseerch and encompasses the basic forest regions of the USSR. A comparative evuluation of the content of fission products in the biomass of woody vegetation _ $nd other components of the forest cenosis revealed significant differences in the concentrations as a funetion of the specimen sampling site, biological aspects of the test objects, and the physical and chemical properties of the - radionuclides. These materiels permitted the authors to make several important = generalizati~ns and to spell out the leading factors responsible for the - distribution of radionuclides throi:gh components of the cenosis and its time chang~s; quantitative parameters were obtained to describe the retentivity of the foresi floor for individual radionuclides. It should be noted, however, that the numerical data cited in the book concerning the distribution of radionuclides through forest components varies greatly according to the research region. UnfortunateIy, the authors did not give this a convincing explanation. _ ~ The tbtality of experimental data on the d~stribution and migration of Sr90 in the forest served as tiie basis for construction of a mathematical model of - mi~ration ~f this radionuclide and a definition of the coefficients of transfer of - Sr between various components of the forest cenosis. A good correspondence - was found between the proposed model and factual data~ providing grounds to , use it to predict the distribution of Sr90 in the forest in the remote future. The principles of mathematical modelling set forth in the monograph may be used to = construct a model of migration in forests not only of radioactive elements~ but - also of naturel stable ones~ and for that matter, any contaminants entering the forest cenosis due to the discharge of industrial wastes into the environment. --a ~ --1 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ N'OR ()CFICTAL lI5E ONLY 'fhc rnuterii~l5 presented in the book, as u wl~ole, permitted the authors to formulate important generalizations which show the specificutions of dIstribution ~nd mi~rntion of radionuclides in forest biogeocenoses. It was found thut the overhe~d portion of the forest floor, especially in coniferous forests, is characterized by a much greater ability to retain radioactive contaminants wtiich h~ve precipitated from the atmos~here than herbaceous plant com- munities. A major portion of the radionuclides retained in the veget~tion tops ~ remuins there for quite a long time: this can cause a rise in the irradiAtion dose _ of the assimilating and reproductive orgAns. The authors formu~ated a thesis on - the exceedingly important sanitation and hygiene role of the forest which is _ m~nifested in u reduction in intensity of wind and water mi~ration of r~dionuclides beyond the boundaries of a contaminated territory after translution of their bulk under the cover of the timber floor. The vital nature of this monograph goes beyond the framework of purely radioecologict~l problems. The information presented in it can be useful for predicting the consequences of forest pollution by other toxic substances of non- radionetive nature, to evulu~te the sanitation and hygiene role of the forests _ undcr conditions of environmental pollution by industrial wastes. The book may offer certain interest for radioecologists, forest management _ specialists, hygiene specialists and a wide range of other experts engaged in the elaboration of the problem of protecting the environment frotn man-made pollutants. Reviewed by F. A. Tikhomirov, Moscow State University imeni Lomonosov COPYRIGHT: Izdntel'stvo "Nauka", "Ekologiyu", 1978 ~ 8617 CSO: 187U r - ` c 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOR OFFICYAL USE ONLY ! ~ ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY ORGANIZING OPERATORS' WORK Moscow ORGANI2ATSIYA TRUDA OPERATOROV (INZHEN~itNO- r PSIKHOLOGICHESKYY~ PROBLEMY) (Organizing Operators' Work: Engineering Psychology Problems) in Rusaian 1978 signed to ~rese.22 Mar 78 pp 2, 192-211, 223 [Annotation~ Cab1e of contents and conclusion of book by - ~ V. F. Venda et al, Izdatel'stvo "Ekonom3ka~" 15,000 copies, 224 pages] [Text] Thie book is devoted to the engineering psy~chological - aspects of organizing operators' work in different sectora of the national economy (machine building, the metallurgical and - chemical industries and transportation). Special attention is devoted to an analyeie of the processes of information proceas- ing by man and of the int~eraction beCween the operator and com- puter; specific recommendationa are cited for selecting the charac~erietice of operational monitoring and control equipment. The authora deacribe the engineering psychological methoda for evaluating and increasing the efficiency of control centers in - order to increaee the efficiency and reduce the level of tenaion _ - in the operator's work. ~ - The book is intended for specialiste in the fields of scientific organization of work and management, engineering psychologq, ACS [automated coritrol syetema], ergonomics and equipment deaign. Table~of Contenta PaBe - Introduction 3 Chapter One. Engineering Psychology's Reaearch on . the Man-Operator's Activity ~ 1.1. The Task of Engineering Paychology in _ - Organizin~ Operators' Work 5 1.2. A Paychological Analysis af the Operator's - _ Acti.vity 22 ' 1.3. The Distribution of Functions in the "Man- Machine" System 36 � - ~ FOR OFFICIE+L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1.4. Organizing the Exchange of Tnformation in - the "Man-Machine" Syatem 39 Ch~pter Two. Tk~e Problems of Engineering Peychology~s ~ 'Analyeis and Planning of Control Centers f,or AuComated Control Syetema 48 2.1. Methodological Iesuea oF Engineering Psychology's Analyeis and Planning of = Automated Contro~ Systems 48 - 2.2. Deacribing and Evaluating the E~~iciencp of Human Engineering Syatems 60 - 2.3 Setting Norms and Standardizing the Require~ _ menCs of Engineering Paychology 74 _ ,i Chapter Three. En~ineering Paychology's Developmen~ of ~ Operational Monitoring and Control Equipment 78 - 3.1. Eng3neering Psychology's Study and Evaluation - of Elementa of Information 78 3.2. Types of Operational Information Diaplay Syetema in Automated Control Systema 108 3.3. Psychological Principles fur I~mproving Infor~ - mation Syatema 121 3.4. Employing the Principlea of Engineering Psychology in Planning the Operators' Genters 132 Chapter Four. The Economic Efficiency of Engineering Peychology's Developmental Work 171 4.1. General Principles for Determinirig the Economic Efficiency of Engineering - Psycholog,y's Developmental Work 171 4.2. The Economic Efficiency of Enginee::ing _ Psychology's De~velopmental Work 179 Conclusiori 192 Conclusion Long Range Problems of Engineering Psychology in Automated Control Systems The immenae importance of further increasing efficient management of the economic eystem and of increasing the efficiency of deci- sion making was pointed out in the deciaiona of the 25th CPSU - Congress. Engin~ering psychology ~s called upon to play a - significant role in implementing theae decisions. Puring a short period--20-25 yeara--a eufficiently firm theoretical foundation has been created for the science and rich practical ~ experience has been accumulated. Several stages can be distinguished in the development of engineer- inR psychology. During Che first stage, the processes of - perceiving the individual elements of inatruments (needlea~ dials, scalar forms and f3gurea) were the aub~ect of reaearch for engineering psychology; during the second stage, the ~ 5 FOR OFFICIl~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY perception of instrument readings as a whole was sub~ected to etudy; later, there was a traneition to the analysie of ' the perception of information from information dieplay syateme with multi~ple components. Modern engineering psychological reaearch ie devoted to the problem of optimizing the man- = operator,a interaction witih complex information syetems which not only include the diaplay equipment but also the methode, ~ alg~rithms and facilities for preparing operational information, including computer programs and Cerminals. At Che same time, it ia necessary to recognize that~ with the exception of thoae rare cases where peyc:ho~.ogists direcCly .participate in the planning of complex information aystems, - the ma~oriCy of the research in engineering psychology is - lagging behind the rate of development and dissemination of ' new control equipment and syetems. The enormous acale of the acientific, Cechnological and engineering developmental ~ work in the field of automatpd control aystems, the expansion = of the operatore' functions and the reduction in the time for making responsible deciaions have brought about the requirement _ ~ for an in-depth psychological basis for this developmental work. The ever increas~ng complexity of controlling theae systema ; requires an optimal organization of interaction between oper- ators--operatora who are ~ointly accomplishing th~ control tasks-- _ by means of the collective formation of an adequat;e psycholog- ical model of the actual system. The psychologica~l aspects of the problem of an optimal organization of intex~action between different specialista who are ~ointly creating a multi-faceted - model of a somewhat� complex reality are not only of current - interest for making control syatems more efficient buC also for solving complex acientific problems (for example, on environmental protection), creating large--scale projecta and in many other cases where the solution of a problem is con- nected w~ith the synthesis of large amounts of diverse infor- mntion within limited periods of time. A reduction in the efficiency of control syatema.and work of scientific and de- sign groups frequently occurs due to a loss of information when it is transmitted from one echelon to another. .When solving an operational pr~blem which has arisen--in reference to control systems--the goal of engineering psychological planning consists of the optimal combination ~ and utiliz~ation of all its a priori experience which is recorded. in the instructions, machine programG and the structure of the information.display systems and also of the potential pro- - feasional and creative abilities of the collective and of each ~ operator based on the selection and coordination of adequate _ � professional (detailed) and universal (integrat~d) languages and - interactive equipmenr. - 6 FOR OFFICII~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOR OFFICIAL U5C ONLY - ~ The selection of the interactive structure and the technicaY ~ equipment for the operatora' work must be di.rected at optimizing - the importnnce o� psycho:logical factors of work complexity when the mo~t responsible functiona are being accompllshed. When organizing interactive and control equipment~--as a�hen optimizing - the information display systems--it is advisable to combine probability methods and ~aultilevel adaptaCion for the purpose of enauring that the co].lective functions as a socio~technical system of adaptive interactive communication (hybrid intelZi~ - gence). The following are characteristic of such a aystem; --an anthropocentric s~ructure; --a dynamic level of interaction; --a flexible hierarch3cal aCructure; --common responeibiliCy and prestige; --the individual adaptation of the interactive functione~ _ atructure and equipment to the active participants who are pereonally performing in the aystem; --the selection of active participanta by primarily con~ - eidering the divergenC or convergenC phases of the work or the common pupoee of ~~he system; - --the collection and analyais of information and the formation - of an integrated model of the ob~ective situation or the theoretical task which is being ~ointly conducted by all the _ system's participants; --the optimization of individual and systemic psychologic$1 criCeria and factors for the level of difficulty of the solu- tion; --the open nature of the system, maximum utilization of all . - the accumulated knowledge and experience, active interactive communicaCion and a wideapread exchange of experience with other systems; --the existence of highly developed equipment for collecting, storing, transmitting, proceasing and diaplaying information-- equipment which is built on the basis of the principles of multilpvel adaptation to the participants of the system; --the existence of a common, universal (integrated) language _ along with narrow, profesaional (deCailed) languages; --common :~cces~ibility to the information and primarily to the - - inCesrated information. We must immediately stipulate that, bv hybrid intelligence, we primarily mean systems of intellectual interaction between em- _ ployees, including the interaction between scientists and their historical predecessors, and not complex man-machine - systems. It is nece$sary to take into account the fact that the historical wisdom of mankind is not ~ust concentrated in books ar other specialized sources of information. K. Marx pointed - out that "the history of industry and ;.he ob~ective existence of 7 FOR OFFICIlw USE UNLY = APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOIt OFrICIAL USC ONLY _ indueCr.y whlch hc~~ dc+vclopad ttre the opon book o.f rutin's eaeen- _ - ti~l forces which prasent themaelves to our senses as ~man's paychology."* T~ is of interest that~ as i~ 3us~ifying the need for a branch of paycholagy like engineering psychology, K. Marx wnrned in the sam~ place that the psychology to which thie book-�-that ie, the m~st senaitive to our sensea and mosC accesaible parti of history--ia c~osed cannot beco~me a truly aubatantive and real seience." _ We cited the anthropocentricity of iCs structure as the firet feature of eyetems of hybrid intelligence. On numerous occas~ aiona, B� F. Lomov hus emphasized the importance of developing and - employing an anChropocentric methodology for engineering psychologtcal planning of a11 "man-machine" syatems, Based on the methods for conetructing them~ systems of hybr~d intelligence are the exact oppoaite of systems of artificial _ intelligence. Paychologiats sometimes criticize the designers : - of systeme of artificial intelligence for their exceasive = "machinocentrism." However, in our opinion, this approach is an adequate ideology for this specilization whose goal is the creation of autonomousmachine programs for solving intel-- _ lectual problems. At the same ti~me, it is not assigned the goal of madeling psychological procesaea; the design of the - programs may be based on other principles than man's process . of thinking and, moreover, it may surpasa the research on the _ psychology of thought. It is not assigned th~e goal of optimiz- - ing the peychological structure of the activity of a person interacting with a system of artificial intelligence since - the person's presence lxere is considered a temporary, compulsory , phenomenon--until programa are designed to automatically accom- pli~h all functions. The strategy for the problems of arti~i- - cial intelligence is one of improving the machine and its intel- lectual potential. _ To the contrary, in all the veraions of the systems of hybrid intelligence, including the man-machine versions, man always r.emains the central f3gure and the machine components of the - - system are oniy the means for his work. The strategy of the problems of hyb rid intell,igence is one of improving man, in- creasing his cxeative and thinking potential. Thus, by their very nature, the systems of hybrid intelligence are anthro- pocentric in contrast to the machinocentric systems of artifi- - ~ cial' intelligence. - *K. Marx and F. Engles. "Soch.," vol 42, p 123. ~ 8 FOR OFFICIEu. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY " ~ In syateme of hybrid inCelligence, the technical equipment ie ~ an auxiliary elemenC which assisCe the individual in hie work. In contrast to thie, in ~he man-machine vereiona of eyaCems ~ of artificial intelligence, the individual is frequen~ly either _ an extenaion of the machine components employed to back them up in case they break down due to insufficient reliability or a supplement Co t!:e machine in case the need ariaea to accom- plish an unfnrseen task or a taak which hae not yet been put into algQrithms. It is necessary to emphasi.ze thaC the syateme of hybrid and artificial inCelligence are not ~ust exact opposiCee bu". they _ also dialectically merge into each other. For exampl,e, ~.f the group of creative taske being accompl3ahed by the individ- ~ - ual in a system of hybrid inCelligence becomes narrower and if the experience accumulated for their accompliahment ie sufficient for a formal description, then reducing this formal - description to machine programs assiated by an individual can - be formulated as.a new task of the system whose work must be ~ reorganized according to the principl~a of artificial intelli- gence. . , ~ On the other hand, premature attempts to design a syatem of , artificial intelligence for functions which are far from being _ complEtely described by alg~rithms are very frequently observed. ~ The individual's partic~pation in such systems is unavoidable and proCracted and it is connected with the a~ccomplie7~ment of f complex creative and responsible taska. At the same time, the machinocentric approach employed for the system which is con- - sidered ae an artificial intelligence provides for a divie:ion of functions between the individual and the machine which is . primarily based upon the functional capabilities of the machine. The functions are included in the duties uf the individual as an auxiliary, temporary component of the aystem = .(until formalized algorithms are collected). It is natural ~ that, in the ma~ority of the casea organized according to the machinc~centric methods, the individual's work does not have a comprehenaive psychological structure and it is connecCed _ with a great deal of difficulty. The norms for the permissible = functions, conditions and limitations on the duration of the ~ ~individual's work in systems of artifi~ial intelligence must be developed and acknowledged. _ _ Besides the differences reviewed above in the philosophica 1 - and methodological interpretation of the machinocentric con- - ception of artificial intelligence and the anthropocentric _ conception.of hybrid intelligence, the classification of a system to one of these types also has a purely practical, organ- izational significance. En~ineering and technical requirements 9 _ FOR OFI~ICIl,L i1SE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ 1~O~t OFFICIAL US~ ONLY ~erve ae the initi~l, b~eic requiremente for the c~e~Cor~ of ~ygCem~ nf grtificial ineelligence while the requiremettCe of peychology eerve th1.e function for the deeignars of eysCem~ of hybrid int~iligence. The eyetems meChod for peychology, which _ wae developed by B. Lomov~ is highly eignificant for ~levelop- _ _ ing important aepects of the theory of eygteme of hybrid itttel- ligence.* From the point of view of our concepe of syetems of hybrid ~ntel~ ligence, the individual'e work with the compuCer is regarded as ' a pseudodialog, i.e., the individual's eecret dialog with other people during hie work~ with people who have r~corded tiheir knnwledge, thetr forecaBted xnewere and opiniotte in the machine pragrgm (Che materializaCion of the plgnner's strategy of think- ing in the gtrucCure of the infnrmgtiiott di~play eystems is regarded with the sam~ aCtitude). Moreover~ tihe machine pro- gram can reorge".ixe the initial knowledge according to as com- - plex ae plan a~ deaired. However, from the point of view of reflecting the social and biological requirements of m~n--Ch~ moet important factors for determining Ch~ taeke, the intel- - lecCual eynchronization of peopl~ and the individual effect when solving creative problems--the machine cannot add anything new. At the same time, the large capacity of the computer's memory and ite combinatory and calculating capabilities make it pos- eible to efficiently accumulate experience for solving different claseea of problema and they make it poesible to accumulate data on the individual features of problem solving by eeparate operatore and to develop optimal forme for giving each of them advice, reference data, instructione and ~artial-ansWer displays. Depending on the apecific courae of the solution and the dif- ficultie8 encountered by the operator, recommendatioas on the values of the peychological factors of complexity examined above caa be read out on the compuCer's videoterminal. AC :he eame time, in the event of a delay above the norm or obviou~ mistekes in preparing informatian for accomplishing an operational task and also in the event of large shifts in the psychn- phy~iological indicee for the operator's atate, the ambiguity in the task and the number of levels of freedom in percentual and intellectual activity are limited right up to producing an algorithm ior a certain reserve solution or even removing the - operator from hie participation in the control process. During the firat stages, advice can be preeented to [he oper- ator in the following sequence: --elemente of information relevant to the task are visually selected, thereby limiting the area for collecting information; ~See B. F. Lomov, "The Systems Approach in Psychology~" - VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII, No 2, 1975. 10 FOR OFFICIA:. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OIt U~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY --the probgbl~ criticnl elemente of the eituation are s~lecCed more preciBely; - --ehe relgeionehip~ betw~en ~lemenCe, including different typee of re]ationehip~~ ar~ reflected. ~mploying the principle�of eCru~ture [16] eerve~ to reduce the m~eking coefficient for the relationehipe; - --the loop~ in dieCrere dyn~mic interrelatinnshipg fla~h on in eequence; --dieCincCive eage are selected for the eituatione in th~ evene r.4?~re ie a danger of int~reference , Combining the elementis of informati.on into aemantically whole groupe--operative perce~Cual units--ie a epecial taek. The principles of autonomy and atructure, which we hgve described~ are the baeis of Che machine algoriChme for diaplaying gdvice nn optimizing the number of op~rative perceptual unite; in many cases, it is neceesary to displny advice on the probable priority relationshipe for eignals being perceived and Che preferred priority order for proceesing them. It i~ important to continue developing methode for vieually preaenting the algorithms for making and implemenCing a de- cision. Ueing two-way communication beCween the individual . and the computer by meane of, for example, a videotermin~~l with a"light pen" during the process of eolving experimental and actual operational taeka and using the epecial methode of the operator's own account of the couree of the eolution make it possible to efficiently carry out individual and individual- operational adaptatian of the structure for presenting infor- mation. As we already pointed out~ from the paint of view of engineering peychology, selecting the level for adapting the sCructure of information display sysCems to the functions and paycho- physiological features of the people making decislons in the automated control system ia an important requirement for im- proving the display syetema. In essential cases where especially important decisions are being made based on the information displayed~ for example, in controlling an entire sector of the national economy. the individual adaptation of information display syeteme to the apecial features of the functions and individual work style of the executives and other employees of the sector's central ataff ia required. An analysis of a number of automated control systems for sectors revealed the following typical deficiencies in the methods and equipment for displaying information at the highest levels of sector management: 11 FOR OFFICIi,L USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OR O~F'ICIAL US~ ONLY --the exceesively frgcCionated ngCure of information which hgmpere an overall, ~trategic evaluation of ehe s~ctor'e operational _ ~tatue, ehe detection of deficienci~e and ehe gelecCinn of the most efficient organizationgl and eachnological meaeure~ by the aector mgngg~ment; --difficulty in p~rceivittg eablee due to their ineufficient - clgrity gnd emall size on the ecreen of rhe cathode ray ::ube; --difficulty in eelecting Cables, comparing them to each other,and a lack of Crende expressed in an obvious form for the dynamics of production; --ineufficient conaideration for the special feaeures of the functione of individual eector executiv~s; a laek of consideration for individual peychological featurea of information perception and processing and customary and pre- ferred forme of displgying information. The enumerated defi~iencieo testify to the face that Che exiating forme of information output in the ma~ority of sector automated control syeteme need to be made eignificantly more efficiettt from the poinC of view of coneidering the peychology of employees using the information. We recommend that the methode of multilevel paycholo~gical adapta- tion of information equipment to information usera be taken as the basie for making them more efficient; at the same time, special attention muat be directed at adapting the information equipment intended fox the highest levels of the national economy's secCor management. It is primarily necessary to provide additional specifications for display equipment for integrated, summarized information and for trende in the dynamic indices ol the sector's work. The creation of additional~ integrated information equipment wiChin the sector automated control eyetems--equipment which facilitatea the general, strategic evaluation of the sector's ~ status, the trends in ita c~ynamics and the selection of critical ` linka--will facilitate and accelerate decision making in managing the seci.:w. ~s~~proving the forms for tables and t'ne conditions for perceiving and analyzing them must promote this. A.more differentiated conaideration of the fu~ctione of sector executives and employees is required when selecting the forms . and makeup of the information to be displayed; more complete proceasing and preparation of data is required to facilitate their analyeis in~the precise area which interests each speci- - fic executive. In some cases, it is necessary to ensure con- aideration for the individual featurea of the aector's senior executives in perceiving and e~o?~~s~i:.g information. Making information diaplay psychologically efficient--even when ~ FOR OFFICIlw USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OEt q~~ICIAJ. USC bNLY ~CCOmplished grcording Co this abbreviatied plan-~-will signi~ - ficantly increase the efficiency of sectar auComgted control ~yaCem utilizaCion at all levels of seceor management. - The basic eCagee of work on making Chem peychol.ogicalLy effi~ient must be: an experimenta.~ psycho~.ogical evaluatiott of ~he exiating form~ of information output; developing recommendatione for improving the form and makeup of tables and for improving the perC~pCion of them; developing pr3nciplee and equipment for dieplaying integrated (eummarized, gtrategic) information; developing principles for displaying trende in the dynamica of the sector'e work. A plan for making the information equip- ment of aector automated control eysteme more efficient ehould be developed on this basis. There i~ no doubt that coneideration of engineering peychological requirementa in making information equipmen~ employed in a11 types of automated control eysteme more efficient will make iC possible to e~!gnificantly increase their technical and economic efficiency. Thie concluaion is confirmed by the work experience of the engineering psychology subdivisions of the USSIt Academy - of Sciencee Inetitute of Peychology, the Leningrsd State Uni- versity imeni A. A. Zhdanov and the All-Union Scientific Aeaearch Ynst.itute for Equipment Deeign in developing and actually im- _ plementing the engineering peychology methods cited above for orgattizing operatora' work. The development of control systeme with a multilevel~ engineering psychology adaptation of the implements and conditione of work - to the individual will make it poesible to ~ncrease the efficiency of the operatora' work even more. The "man-computer" system where interaction is designed according to the principles of individual adaptation is unique to the systema of hybrid intelligence. The collective ie the moet common type of these 8ys+tems. In this case, all the other parti-- cipante of the hybrid intelligence can influence the peychological - factors of the complexity of the problem solution by the parti- cipant who is recognized as the temporary leader in accordance with his ability and the specific course of the solution. In - many of these systems~ ~t is neceaeary to introduce a special group of participante whose role boils down to developing recom- mendatione for controlling the interactive and decision proceas, distributing functiona, changing the hierarchical structure, - individually adapting the organization and means of labor to each active member of the syetem of hybrid intelltgence and not decision making. These kinda of functions primarily belong to the field of competence of peychologiste who participate in ~his case as meta-operatore. 13 FOR OFFICIti;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOEt OFFICIAL US~ ONLY In our opinion, developing a eheory and 1~nguggea for diaYog ~ wiChin syetems of hybrid intelligence ie one of the moae 3m- _ . poreanC probleme �or opCimizing intieraction [2G, 63, 113, 132, 133J. Among the numeroua types of dialog, Che following nre _ of primary interest: according to the rel~t~.onship in parCi- cipanes' renke--hierarchicgl, equa~., didacCic and ~.neCructive dialog; according eo the type of eignals used--viaual, oral, aud~.o-visual; according to epatigl and Cemporal parameters-- remote, direct, delayed, anticipated (hidden). Pseudodialoga, varioua typea of emotional perCeptions of the machine as an independent "partner" in interaction,are a epecial group. The problem of languages primarily ariaes in the aense of forming a common, collective, psychological model of the external world [24, 121, 129, 131]. It is especially important to study the processea of sythegizing an integrated model of the problem (for exnmple, an emergency) situation based on the detailed modela which varioua operators have of the indiv3dual atructures _ ~ of the faciliCy (for example, a topological model, a physico~ technological model, a echematir of atatic relaeionshipa, a AchemnCic of dynamic relationehipa). The experience of creating a theory of universal acientific languages may prove beneficial in solving this problem of engineering psychology. One of the central ttasks in realizing the idea of a hybird - intelligence is the individual adapCation of the work organi- - zat~.on, taeke and equipment to each participant of the inter- active syetem. Experiments have revealed a high level of efficiency for individual- and operational-adaptive information systeme equipped with a apecialized signal analyzer which dis- _ tributes them according to priorities and regulatea the overall - intensity of Che atream of information flowing to the operator depending on his individual productivity and psycho-phys3.ological atate. It is anticipated that both of these research d~rections and the syntheais of adaptive eystems will be combined within the frame- work of the general problems of a hybrid intelligence. The development of a theory of individual adaptation must be di- - rected at discovering individual psycho-phyaiological differences, atudying the special features of their manifestation in the operator's activity and studying technical methods and means for compensating for negative manifestations. The development of a common list of indi:�idual differencee and means of compen- - sating for them is an important practical and acientific task of engineering psychology. 14 FOR OFFICIlw USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OIt OF~ICrAL US~ ONLY = ConcurrentYy, a reaegrch progrnm h~~ been outlined on ehe - problem nf individual adaptaCion of work equipmenC under extr~me conditione. L. A. KiCayev-Smyk'e research has ehown that the d~chutomy of types of reactions under extreme con~ - ditione ittcreaees the apread between Che indice~ for the operaCora' behavior by innrea~ittg th~ value of adgptation of work equipment to ehe ind~.vidual featuree of the tieaction (paesive or active). At tihe same time, ehe soluCion to the problem of .edaptation ie being gimplified due to the ema11 number of types of reactione under extreme conditiona. For normal conditione, ie ie atso neceseary Co try to minimize the number of varianta of' adaptive properties of work organi- zation nnd equipm~nt for each type of aperaCor function. Fo~ example, individuals with vividly the pronounced eign~a of intro- - verta (reCicent people inclined to individual work) may be more beneficial within a syatem of hybrid intelligence aA - hidden paYt3cipante of the dialog. It ie advisable to aseign them the task of firat thinking through the aituations which the operator will AcCually come up against;. For active inter- action with his colleagues and the computer, an extrovert - (a persott inclined to inteneive eocial contact during work) ahould frequently be the operator in a ayatem of hybrid intelligence; during the co~irse of interaction, he muat report on ehe aelected decision method. Combining the processea of - thinking and social contact ia required to aesist the operator ` working on a real-time basie. In principle, individua,l adapCation of work equipment to the individual can be used: firat, inatead of vocation~al selection _ if .11 significant individual differencea can be compensated for; second, ~to reduce training time when the level of adapCation compensates for the lack of vocational ekills; third~ to expand the circle of functions accessible to the operator under extreme conditions and to improve the valuea of the criteria for evaluating the acCivity under normal conditiona. In all caaea, individual adaptation is direcCed at reducing the actual complexity of solving operatio~al problems. At the same time, the a priori knowledge on the aolution of each problem and the advice etored in the computer or modified by it muet be ~ presented to the operator with a degree of absoluteneae which is adequate for their level oE confidence in each specific caRe and in a form which takea into account the individual psycho-physiological and personal features of the operator. , . 15 FOR OFFICII~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~Olt O~F'TCIAL US~ ONLY The operatar training sy~eem for industrial faciliCiea wiCh rnpid flow proceseee ehould be one of Che areas of primary dis- _ eemination of ind3vidual-adaptive aystems. In many weatern countries, operator neuro-psychological illnessea - have become a mass occurrence. Our wideepread syeCem of training and operatora for high 1eve~.a in hi~Yarchical control syetems played a eignificane role in the fact that this _ problem does not exise in our country. For example, as a rule, people who have proven themaelves in work as controllers of rayon power engineering enter~riaes and as duty eng3neers of eler.trical power eCations become central conCrollera of pow~r systema in Soviet power engineering. Until quite recentily, - work experience ae a bo~ler and Curbine operator was a manda- tory condition for an aesignment to a ma~or power unit as an operator. This long and especially empirical method of train- ing operaCore--operators who frequently have a higher technical - - education--provides them with a broad and firm foundation, handa- - o~ experience, knowledge and aseociative relationshipa between _ the information model and the acCual processes baing controlled. When promoted. a gradual increase in the complexity, an expansion in the scale artd an increase in the degree of reaponaibility of the tasks being accomplished Cake place; the degree oY auccesa in accompliahing these ta8ke serves as the most adequate and natural factor in selecting operatore and advancing them to a higher posit3on. Let's point out in pasaing that thie method - of practical training causes a relatively low level of eignifi- cance for the atructure of the information models since the operatora use large amounts of specific knowledge about the facility, as if it were latent knowledge behind the information � model. However, thiR extensive method of training and aelection does not meet the modern ~onditione of the mass r~ature of the operator vocations. Couraes for~training executives and operatora are being set up; varioua kinde of simulators are being ~iesE:~ainatied. Undoubtedly, the use of simulators plays a aignificant role by supplementing the thE~oretical tr~ining for operators. However, ~ as a simplified and artificial model of the facility, the simulator cannot co~pletely replace training under actual . facility conditions. Therefore, upon immediately landing in high levele of the management hierarchy after this kind of _ Craining, the operators find themselves in a more difficult 4trnits when problem situations arise than do their col- leagues who have gradually been advancing to this level for a long time. 16 FOR OFFICII.L U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 rd[t UF'F'T.CIAL USC ONLY The poasibility rf spreAding neuro-paychological illneases gmong Che opert~rars u~ a result of introducing artificial, aCCelerared tr~ining meChods which give rise tio incompleCe and ~ _lnudequr~te paychologicgl modela of the facilitiee being con- ~rolled, Che computere nnd the abgCrnct dieplAy syetems makea tl~e problem of individual adapta~ion of train3ng programe and technical equipment importent to Che state. - buring the procese of creaCing n paychological theory Eor eyntheaizing syatems of adaptive interactive commutticut3on - (hybrid intelligence), it ie neceseary to solve the f~llowing basic probleme: 1. Study the princinLe~ of the atoch~atic determinarion of an individual's behavior by the etructure and equipment of inter~ ~cCive communication. The primary isauee are those of con- trolling Che operator's atCenCion and adequately preset:ting him with incomplete, a priori data and ad~vice with a limited - 1eye1 of confidence with due regard for the operator's in- - dividual featurea. 2. Create a systems methodology for diacovering the paycholo- - gical atructure and for doing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the factora and criteria on the complexity of solving conceptual and perceptual problems. Specifically, the structural-psychological concept of synthesizing the technical equipmenC for work can serve as a theoretical basis for solving this problem. 3. Discover the psychological principles for the flow of _ conceptual, mnemonic and perceptual processes under the conditions of intensive interactive communication. It is especially important to begin experimental research of the procesaea for forming multidimensional, collective paychological models of complex situationa which are beyond the scope of the individual (for example, when time ia acarce). In this way, methoda of efficient interaction between parti- _ cipF{nts in solving complex creative problema ehould be dis- covered, apecifically during the atages of divergence (generat- ing different ideas and approaches) and convergence (jointly ~arrying out the selected approach; forming the most adequate, uniform ob~ective degree of reality for the collective peycho- logical model). It ie necessary to conduct a thorough psycho- logical analyais of the experience of divergent interaction in "brainstorming" groups and of convergent interaction in "synergietic" groupa*; these groups bear some of the features of promising systems of hybrid intelligence. * See, for example, P. Hill. "Nauka i iskusstvo proektirovaniya" (Science and the Art of Planninp~,translated from Engliah, V. F. Venda, ed.. Moscow, "Mir," 1914. 1 FOR OFFICIti USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OR OFFICIAL U5~ ONLY From the pa~nt of view of ehe cdncepti of ~.neeractiive comr~unication which we have davelopedr iC ie not so imporCane ' to ~tudy isolated~, individual crQativity in the reaearch on Che psycholoqy of creaeivity as~ it is Co ana~.yze Che effece of interactive communicati,on on ~he 3ndividual's creativity. It ie neceesary to begin forming requirements for the opeima~. _ ~ methoda~ structure and ~neans t~f interactiv~ communicaCion in the creative procese and it ~e ttec~se~ry to begin preparing infor- - mation and managin~ the creaeive work of large formal and in- formal groupe. The imporCant role of mase interactive communication in ~he creative procese is epecificr~lly confirmed by the ~egular _ aequence of scientific and technological diacoveri~s.* More- _ over, tihe forecasted increase in Che number of diacoyeries required for acientific and technological progress can occur ~ not so much by tncregaing tihe personnel etrength of acienCists and material expenditurea on research as by epecifically in- teneifying and a~apting interactive communication between sci- entista, engineera and society as a whole. By organizing and managing interacCive communicaCion, time periods can be aigni- ficantly reduced for diecoverinR aignificant requiremente, aetting iwportant task4, generating a multitude of poasible approaches to their soluCion, synchronizing the thinking of many scientiete and apecialists on the most promising ideas (.the ai.tuation known by the phrase "the idea hange in Che air") and achieving the reaounding event of overcoming the next wall ~ of ignorance ae the final phase in the routine work cycle of the collective hybrid intelligence; after this, a new cycle begins with the diecovery of new problema. 4. Select the optimal levels, methoda and means for adapting the structure and equipment of interactive communication for accompliahing varioue funcCions under normal and extreme conditione. At thie point, it ie important to accumulate and syatematize factual data on individual behaviorial featur~e and to create an engineering paychological theo~y of compensa- tion for negative manifestationa of individual features from the point of viea of accompliahing functions. Solving this problem will enable engineering psychology to signi- ficantly facilitate the paycho-phyaiological selection for such a prestigious vocgtion as operator and, in a number of cases, to . replace it by iadividual adaptation of work conditione and imple- ~ments. In addition, it ia poasible to expec.t a rapid increase in the number of vocatione which were unsuitable for man or _ beyond hie endurance without thie kind of adaptation. *See A. G. Ivakhnenko. "Dolgosrochnoye prognozirovaniye i - upravleniye slozhnymi aietemami" (Long Range Foreca9ting and Management of Complex Syatems), Kiyev, 1975. 18 FOR OFFICIh;. USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OEt O~~ICIAL U5~ UhLY 5. SCudy Ch~ bidlogical and aoci~l aepects nf organizing _ in~er.AC:tive communication ~nd Che relntionehipe betw~en tihem. In thi~ respec~, ie wi11 bn necESanry Co clarify Che fundamen~ Cu1, phylogeneticnlly determined properti~a of the malleabil3ty - - of Ch~ p~yche, physiology and biology of inen and animale. - The study of th~ social d~termiraCion, organiaation ~nd etimulu- tion of the processes of interactive communication when opera- tinnal (control), acientific end other creaCive problema are being solved with the aseumption of equal prestige and equ~l re~ponsibiliCy for gLi par~icipants; a atudy of the dyn~mic nature of Che hierarchical eCructure; the optimal comhinat~on of biological ttnd aocio-psychological factora--theae are the mo~at importgttt condition~ for efficient functionit~g of syetems of hybrid intelligence ~a a aingle organism in the decieion making mode. Functional ayateme theory (afrer aignificant,additior~al work) and the methoda of eocial paychology, individual psychology and differet~Cigl paychophysiology can become the atarting point for reaearching these aspecte. 6. Uevelop the paychological aspecta of a theory and methoda for etoring, reorganixing and reproducing the actual as~ecta of the knowledge (wiadom) of the human population in order to mgke - maximum use of gll current experience in solving each specific problem. The keti for eolving this problem ie undoubtedly the solution of Che sci.entific and technological problems of crea~�~ct data banka, an overall state sutomated control system, a network of computer centers, etc. However, we would like to emphasize the extremely important psychological iasues of interactive communication _ between large groupa and complex computer syeteme under apecific conditions, for example, under Che dynamic hierarchy and indiv- idual ~daptation of information equipment which are characteristic of the eyetema of "hybrid intelligence." It is neceesary to epecify that, by hierarchy, we do not mean ndministrative subordination but the primary direction for ~oint information eupport during a particular phc~ae of the system's Work depending on the specific course of the problem solution. The senrch for general principles and specific featurea of inter- active communication in menaging thc national economy~ itt aci- ence and in culture ie nf special interest. ~9 FOR OFFICIt.L USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OEt d~~'ICIAL US~ ONLY 7. The developmene of physical, ma~hematicgY~ biological and other models of adapCive interaceive communication baeed on general eyetema theory ie of definite research importance~ AC the eame Cime, tio avoid a repetition of the rapid, profound crieis which befell the eo-called eimu~aCed modeling of socio- tiechnical complexes, it is necessary to observe practical and experimental contirol cond~.t3ona �or the basic elementa o~ the models for their scope (gradually increae~ng the complexity of _ Che structure) and for their and paychological eub~ etantiation. 8. Develop an eng3neer3ng paychology theory and me~hods for synehesixing and forecasting the developmenC of syateme and equipment gor adaptive interaction. Overall, it seema to us that developing the problems of organi- zing adaptive interactive communication during the process of solving complex creaCive probleme in management, science and culture will be an extremely important and promising direction for theoretical and applied engineering paychology reaearch for the coming 30-40 years. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'sCvo "Ekonomika", 1978 9001 _ CSO: 1870 20 FOR OFFICItiL USE UNLY S APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~oR usE orr~Y G~N~TICS - UDC 575 EXpERxM~NTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF GENE MUTATION MONITORING IN MAN Moscow DOKLADY AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian Vol 243 No 5, 1978 pp 1313-1316 (Article b~ Academician N. P. Dut~inin, Yu. P. Altukhov, I. I. Suskov, R. I. , Khil'chevskaya, K. I. Afanas'yev, T. N. MalininR, M. K. Bol'shakova, A. V. Shurkhal, 0. L. Kurbatova, and V. D. Prokhorovskaya] (Text] B~cause the biosphere is being contaminated by mutagens, genetics is ~ faced with Che urgent task of devaloping methods for directly evaluating the - intensity of mutation and differentiation of different types of genetic loads - - in human populations. It has been stated that it is apparently impossible to evaluate changing mutability in the contemporary human population (1). In recent years, however, an approach that has led to opposite c~nclusions (2-6) - was developed as a result of research in population and biochemical qenetics (7-9) . This approach is based on principles formulated earlier (2,3) and requiring: 1) A search for new mutations not by mass screening of the population but rather within a nonrandom sample of newborn infants and nursing children _ deviatfng from the norm in rel~tion to a large complex of characteristics= ' 2) use, as labels of genetic mutations, of rare variants of monomorphic proteins determined by eleatrophoretic analysisf 3) use of a sufficiently large assortment of genetically polynarphic prcteins and systetns of blood groups to identify the seqregational load and to exclude cases of debatable ~~arentage. The first studies performed in accordance with this program , demonstrated its effectiveness in relation to revealing the segregational - load (6). We offer evidence of identification of de novo mutations in the present publication. They were revealed by electrophoretic analysis ot ;,~aod proteina in a small qroup of prematurely born children (50 individuals) and children (newborn - anc? up to 1 year old) with conqenital developmental abnormalities (177 � individuals) under observation in specialized clinics. The "control" qroup consisted of 500 healthy newborn infants from conventional obstetric hospitals. Concurrently we studied the mothers and fathers of all premature children and of some children with developmental abnormalities, the mothers 21 F'OR nFF'TCIAL tiSF ~Nt,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ FO~t OFF'ZCTAL USE ONLY ~ ~ of healthy children, and 1,~00 male donor~. The obtained c3ata wi11 be aubjected to de~ailed analXsis later. In thie publication we wi11 present o.n1y the main reaults of ouz~ research. _ ~ We atudied the following qene loci, which encode synthes:ls of proteins and _ erythrocyte antigens: LDHA, LDHB, MDH, PGM1, PGM2,e�rythrocy~es Es~ (4 loci), EsU, PGDH, ACP, GP~, GL01, ADA, SODA, Hb (2 loci), Hp, GC, Tf, Alb, ABO, - I~1Ss, Rh(CDE), P. Protein var3ants--ordinary and rare--were revealed by electrophoresis in - polyacrylamide and starch gels (15) with some modifica~ions. Blood groups were determined by standard serological methods. Inasmuch as new gene labels were added in the genetic screening as our pro- gram developed, npt all children were studied in relation to the entire set of loci. Tabl~ 1 reflects only some of the data we collected, the volume of which will continue to grow. It follows from the table that there are - obvious differencea between the two groups being compared in relation to the frequency of rare protein variants: While only five variants exhibiting . alterod eleCtrophoretic mobility can be found in the control group, there are 1S among pr~emature children and children with developmental abnormalities. This meana that in the latter case the average frequency of rare genes is about one order of magnitude higher than in the former case. - These data alone, which establish that rare electruphoretic protein variants are encountered quite frequently in the group of abnormal individuals, have fundamental siqnificance. They confirm the earlier hypothesis (9) that a correlation exists between genetically monomorphic characteristics and the individual's viability, and it would seem that they permit us to assert that the dnminant share of electrophoreti,cally determined rare protein variants - is not inherited from previous generations. In fact, analysis of the blood of the mother and father of a premature child with a variant genotype in relation to LDH (Figure 1) clearly showed that this variant was absent from the parents, w~ile parentage cannot be excluded in relation to 16 polymorphic loci. For understandable reasons it was extremely difficult to obtain blood samples from the parents of children with multiple abnormalities. Nevertheless we were able to study four families in which the child exhibited a rare pro- tein variant,' and to reveal that the same pattern is observed here as well: ' The~variants of erythrocyte esterase (two cases), phosphoglucomutase (one case), and albumin (one case) found in the children were absent from both parents (Figure 1). Here as in the case of mutation in relation to lactate dehydrogenase, parent- - age cannot be excluded in relation to a number of polymorphic genes (Table 2), and consequently there are substantial qrounds for believinq that the identified mutations arose de novo and were not inherited fmm previous generations. _ 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 FOR OFFXCTAL USE ONLY Table 1~ Frequency of Rare Electrophoretic VarianLs of Protein in HQalthy In~'Ants, Premature Childran, and qlildren with Developmental Abnormalities - - (1~ aAopoe~ae ~t ~~oittAeHnme ~crtt C n Ker~M ~nmtrpo~poperenec~~n �ccaoAOUniut?~o AeT~ p ~~ahren ,t ~~eAOUOmceawe 6enKN - ~ OB:IN4NH` 3~I VIICAO ~1I1~ ~ Lp:IN4NI19 ~ 3 411QJIQ Jlqi~'~~ L~9e~kH~ ~ nOANtIM UWOo(1ftH, C p@j(NII~f 88pqNHT01I 4E]I. aap~aarow (6) ~Iaxrar~ors~porennaa apnrpoqgroa 498 1 + biannrnnrnnporounaa apnTpoqnroe( ) 498 ~7 i - _ (+3) fiocc~ornaxonarnoru~qporenaaa 504 ~ + ~7 ap~~Tpoqaroe 228 2(~ (9) 3cro aan epnrpoqaTOB 4U8 i+ ''~ocl~lOPniU1SA1~TA3A 8P8Tp0I(NTO~L ~ 429 ~ 227 3t! (11) rtcnan ~?occ~araaA epr~Tpo~groe 298 103 CyIINpOHC1I,q~iICNyTe88 BpBTpOIjS- 207 ~ f43 ~ TOB~12~ O 0 - ~13~ TA pRTMOTIIT08B8T7p831C911if8A8a f58 0 82 e o (lq) i'o~orno6a8 'fpnuc~eppuacurooporx= ~15~ 498 0 22i 2 (16j 1~pytlII0Cfi01{1f(~~iqp~1~j~HOMII088HT 5~ ~ 2~ ! cr~nopor~ca 499 0 223 0 ~17~ Ar?~GyMi~ncuHOporK$ CpCAtIAR 98CTOPa 88 AOli~C 88 498 0 227 ! xunneQRyy~ (18) 0,0003f2t0~000140 0~002035t0,Q()0525 ~ * Variants discovered in the same individual. Key: 1. Electrophoretically analyzed 10. Erythrocyte phosphoglucomutase - proteins 11. Erythrocyte acid 2. Healthy newborn children phosphatase 3. Sample size, individuals 12. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase 4. Number of individuals with 13. Erythrocyte qlutamate-pyruvate rare variant transaminase 5. Children with developmental 14. Hemoglobin abnormalities and premature 15. Serum transferrin children 16. Serum group-specific component 6. Erythrocyte lactate 17. Serum albumin dehydroqenase 18. Avera e fre uenc 7. Erythrocyte malate g q Y Per locus per dehydrogenase individual 8. Erythrocyte phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 9. Erythrocyte esterase 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ ~ ~t 0~'IC7'AL t1`3E ONLY ;r,,;; _.r. I , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t j~~ ar~.rr ~f'y ~se~ ~...r ...i.... j. ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ','riY!%Itl~ ~1 ~ ~ a~ ' ' ~ 1~ ~ } 1 2 J q 3 ~ 7 ~ .i ~ . f 2 3~ 4 . :~s~rr... :::3-- _ : ~ . . $ . ; ~ e f 2 .i ~ 5 > ~ Ffqure 1. Examples of "Rare" Electrophoretic Protein Variants Detected in the Blood of Children aiCh Developmental Abnornralitiie~s a--Zymogram ~f erythracyte lactate dehydrogenase : 3--Child with mutant genotype= 1,2--child'a mother and fat}~er - respectivelyi 4--child with nonaal qenotypes b,e--symo- grame of erythrocyte esterase. Fiqure lb: ~--Mutant genotypej 4,5--child's coother and fatherf 1-3,8--norawl g~notypes. Figure lc: S--Phenotype with sharply weakened activity of one of the esterase zones (noted by *)j 1-4-- normal genotypes. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide qels d--zymoqram of erytlurocyte phosphoglucomutases 3--pheno- type with shnrply refluced activity in one sone= 1,2-- phenotyges of parents (mother and fnther respectively). Electro- phoreeis in starch qel. In all photoqrapha, the cathode is above arid the anode is below. Arra+ points ta start position. - 24 F~t OFFICIAL U3E OALY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~~ft OF'~'ICIAL U9~ ONLY mable z. Genc;~ypeg of Chiiclr~n Carryittg Mueanti C,~neg and df Their Paren~s, pc~lymorphic Loci ttec~c}t2oi~a� I 3pKtpnn~feba~e 3 tknKt kpo~N M~tc eew?R, ~ aatnrenu korop~=i obqa� ! , ~eKa r n�~'~'~" ~ uN~~ Rnaw p ~ i� v e~� ~ o e~ a (4) puGonoK $ MNe~ ccb~� Y- AA CC t=-f Ag - t-~2 t-�1 f~--2 f-f t-f (�tblt~) Atare T3 1t[?~$y ccb~~ P~ AA CC 1�-f atl t-wl t~f 2-2 t--21--1 4rea B MYe~ ocUEe 1'- AA CC t--f AA t--2 f-f t-Z 1--f f-2 Po60ebic B MNSe oobtse P+ AA CC f-f Utf 1-f I--0 - ~?paM,~ - e~ AD MNSr ocb~e P� AA CC Ir-1 If~i t-Wf 1--2 ~t A ~tN9e Ccb~e AA CG f~-t IlE3 1-12-~-2 - P~fienox A AINe~ CcUEA I~- AA CC i--2 bil f~-11--2 -w . Men A A~Nr~ CcD~u F'- AA CC t--2 Dt3 t�--f 1~~-2 ~e~l 00 ~iNe~ Ccnee P* AA CC f~-! 8!l 1--1 1--t PoGenotc 00 1t11 fih+ pF AA CC t--2 - ~._2 (F~Le) Y. ~ Mntb 00 bi1l Hh* P* M CC 1-r2 ~ 2-g Otect d0 At1t Rh* P~ AA CC f-2 Po6enox A 11iN Rh" P- AA CC - f-g (�Alb) Merb 00 MN Ah* P+ Ap ~ r.. _~_Z Ore~l A MN nh* P* AA CC - f-Z Key : 1. Studied families in which 4. Child mutation was deCected 5. Mother 2. Erythrocyte antigens 6. Father 3. IIlood proteins - 'I'he fact that rare electrophoretic variants of monomorphic proteins have a neqative influence on morphogenesis and development makes the conclusion undebatable. Cases of detecL�ing de rtovp mutations in serum proteins and erythrocyte enzyme8 in larqe population qroups have not been described yet. Harris ~t al. (10) generalized the results of many years of research on Europeans in whose blood rarc electrophoretic protein vari~ts were revealed. They showed that arisal of the rare variant in the qiven qeneration could not be ascribed to mutation in any of 77 femilies, none of which were relatedj in all cases the variant was found in either the mother or the father--that is, it was inherited from 25 LV~D AL~1.~'r/~T/1T �tl~n nK?v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~'CEi 0~'FZ~ZA,L U9~ ONLY i~rnvlc~ug genQration~. 5urh v~riantig can in fa~t be cla~~i�i~d ag ~~lectiively neutral. mheir"compatibility" with dntogenegig ig poggibly ~~~gocia~ed witih - tih~ concretie RtaCe of the environment and (or) partiicular featureg of the ineegral seru~tiure of tihe genntype. mhere might algn be differences in the n~tiure of amino acl.d gubgCitutinng. 7'he auehorg (10) ~~~empted tin make a probabilf~tic esgeg~ment of th~ upper limi~ of th~ mutiation rate for genes encoding ~yn~he~i~ n~ g~rum gnd ~ryeh~ocy~p ~nxyme~, ~nd tihey ghowecl that ~ mu~~tiion rate qreaeer tihan 2.24'10 per gene per generati~n muge be ~xcluded wi~h a probabiifey of P;0.95. Accnrding to a recen~ ea~imatie made by Nei (11), who ueed Neel'g data (1~), ~h~ mutation raCe for genes rQgponeible for synthegig of blood prdteing ig abou~ 7.2~1Or6. If we asgwne tihat only five of the variane proeein typeg ghnwn in Table 2 cgn be claesified as "new" mue~tiong, then the average gen~ mu~~einn ratie fdr ehig group i,~ about 2�10'~ per locus p~r gen~ra~ion, congid~ring that dnly a ehird df tihe indivic~ual amino ~cid ~ubgtitutiona are rev~~lec~ ~leCern- _ phoretically. Thi~ estima~ mighti increa~e ag the ~et of analyz~d proteins ig expand~d. Thus while Neel (13,14) sugqeats mass electrophoretic analysis of blood - samples from hundredg of thougands ~nd millions of persong, the daea we obtained ghowed that selective screening within the framework of the formulated appro~ch (2-4) i~ all that is necesgary for the purposeg of monitoring the mutiation load in hwnan populations. This work was done with partial fin~nCial gupport from the World Nealeh Organizatinn, grant G 3/191/102. BIHLTOGRAPNY 1. Crow, J. F., CHEM. MIITAGENS, Vol 2, 1971, p 591. 2. Dubinin, N. P., and Altukhov, Yu. P., in "~eoreticheskiye i praktichesk.iye podkhody k probleme mutaqenov i kantserogenov okruzhayushchey sredy" (Theoretical and Prartical Approaches to the Problem of Mutaqeng and Carcinoqens in the Environment), Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat, 1976, p 38. 3. Ovbinin, N. P., and Altukhov, Yu. P., in "Geneticheskiye posledstviya zaqryazneniya okruzhayushchey arec]y" (Genetic Consequences of Lnviron- mental Contauaination), Moscow, Izd-vo Mysl' , 1977, p 14. 4. Altukhov, Yu. P., Dubinin, N. P., and Khilctievakaja, R. I., "Abstr. V. intern. Congr. Hum. Genet., Mexico," 1976, p 172. 5. Dubinin, N. P.~ AltukhOV~ Yu. P.~ et al.~ DAN~ Vo1 225~ NO 3~ 1975~ p 213. 6. Dubinin, N. P., Altukhov, Yu. P., et al., DAN, Vol 230, No 4, 1976, p 95~. 7. Altukhov, Yu. P., DAN, Vol 189, No 5, 1969, p 1115. 26 F~OR OFFICIAL U9E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 \ ~'O~t OF'~IC~AL U9~ ONLY ~ Ai~ukhuv, Yu, p., "~opuly~t~ionnnya ~enetika ryb" (F'i~h Pnpulatinn Gen~tiCg)~ trb~c~w, 1974. - 9. Altukhc~V, Yu. P., and Itychkov, Yu. G., ZHUI~N. OBSHCN. BIOL., Vol 33, Nd 3, 1~72, p ~81. 10. Narrig, N., et al., ANN. HUM. ~N~T.? Vol 37, 1974, p 23y. - ~l. Nei, M., AM. J. NtiM. G~N~m., Vo1 29, 1977, p 2~5. 12. Ne~l, J. V., pEtUC. NAT. ACAb. SCI. U.S~A., Vol 70, 1g73, p 3311. 13. Nee1~ J. V.~ it1 "MUti. ~ffBCts ~nvironm. Colltam.~" N. Y.~ 1972~ p 99. 14. N~e~, J. V. , MtPT. tt~5. , Vol 26, 1974, p 319. 15. Harris, N., and Hopkinson, b. A., "H~ndbook af ~nzyme ~lectrophore~is in Hun~n G@h@t~CB ~ 1976. COPYFtIGHT: ~zdatel'stvo "Nauka", "paklac~~ Akademii nauk SSS~t", 1978 11004 C~b: 1870 27 FC~R OFFICIAI, t~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ ~'01t O~P'IC IAt. U3~ ONLY PIIBY?~CA!PrONB COMPVI'ERB rN 1~tOPgY'SYOLOC~IRAT~ 1t~5~ARCg Moscan~r EVM V I~YAO~'YZIOLO(+IC~SKII~i ISSLEDOVANIY~ffi in Ruaeian ].97$ signed to pre~s 21 Jul 78 pp 2~ 3-g, 239 - ~otatio~n, iatroduction and table of contents f~om book by V. D. Trush e?nd A. V. K,oarin~vakiy~ Yzdatel~ etvo "Nauka" y 1400 copies, 239 ~?6e~ ~ex~] Thie monogre~ph is concerned With the u~e oP laboratory ' computere in neurop2~ysiological. reeeerch. Topics include the genesis and statisbica]. structure of the tar~a]. electric- al sctivity oP the cerebr~]. cor~ex aad m~them~ticel methode for its etuc~y. A detiailed p~esentation is given Por com- puter-genernted methods of ~ul.tiple apectrum correletional. sne~lyeis and evalu~tion of the amplitude-time orgaaiz~tion of cerebral paroceases according to ED~ dat~?. The ci,istinc- tiv~e features of neurophysiological research h~rdrrare and soPtWare are e1,e~borated with a deecriptiea of au operatioai- s1 systema eupervisor oriented to carry out~euch experi- ment~~ aud tihe architecture of the computer WY~ich inple- ments this syretem. 6 tables, 60 i]lustration, 496 refer- ences. Introduction Re~eerch on the brein's electrical eetivity has been actively developed for more . than five decades and is beeoming even more vitel. The foundation for this reseerch wa~ laid by the disaovery of the fluctuating voltages which comprise the so-cailed fundamental electrieal aetivity of the brain, first recorded by Prawdicz-Neminski (1925) in animals; and by Becger (1929) in humans. L.ater on, ais techniques for sensing and amplifying biopotentials end methods of re- gistretion and analysis of electrograms were improved~ a large number of forms of electrical brein activity were desecibed. In some classifications, there are - several dozen forms (Sokolov~ 1962; Kozhevt~ikov~ Mesheherskiy~ 1963; Gu- sel'nikov~ 1976). All bioelectrical activity of the cerebrum is customarily divided into two extreme groups: pulsed and total slow activity. During the entice evolutionary history of electrophysiology of the CNS, the most widely employed method of total registcation of the brain's electrical potentials _ 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 _ ~ ~OR OC~ICIAL US~ ONLY h~s b~Cn dubbed "~l~ctrnencephalogrnphy." 'lbtal registrutlon of e1~Ctrfc~l ~ voit~ges i~ used to study thc brain's ontngenesis and phylogenesis; to reveal the mechUniCy of Cdnditioned r~Cl~x ConneCtions und th~ uCtions of narcotics and other drugs; tn ~nulyze the Formution nnd interaction of the br~in's funetional systcrris whieh implement higher mental funetions; and to ~tudy and di~gnose various CNS lesinns in neurosurgiC~l und psyehiatrie elinies. The methnd of ~1~Ctrdenc~phalography is upplied to solve a wide rnnge of problems ~ulthough the list nf th~m is fur from complete)~ since it gllows us to abserve processes occurring in various sections of the humun ~nd ~nlmul nervous system ~nd is the most direct, and currently the snle~ me~ns of obteining inform~tion ~bout these proc~sses. 'Che initiul optimism expressed by researchers that simple relationships could be esti~blished between the processes of information handling and the ~~Ci was fdund to be unju~tified. In spite of th~ faet that elcetrophysinlogy is repletc with e gre~t deel of wide-ranging factual datu Aimed ~t desrribing ~EG sc~mples in different physiolc~ical stat~s, the variegetidn of th~se duta and its frequent contrudictory nature do not imbue it with the ability to reliably define genernl patterns linking eleetri~ul reactions of the brnin with th~ physiological functions of the organism, Th~ problems found in defining these patterns are particularly associated wfth the in~dequate theoretic~l und experimental level of development of the nature of tot~l electricul activity of the brain and its connected structurul links. This in turn mt~kes it impossible to extruet the most meaningful elements end fragments of recordings from eomplex and deceptive E~G curves. The compnrc~tively slow progress in resolving fundamentnl questions of el- eetrophysioingy seems to be related to the fact that the study turget is much more complicnted ~nd deceptive than that in other sciences, such as ~stronomy, physics or chemistry. In ~ddition, electrophysiology (end biology in generr~l) is much slower thnn the "strict sciences" noted above to adopt quantitative mett~ods of study. Due to the enormous complexity of the phenomena being studied, m~ny physiologists are still uncertain of the broad application of mathematical methods. For this reason, and for a number of objective reasons (stute of the grt of registering and processing large quantities of datR, devclopment of inethods af applied mathemAtics), the overwhelming mAjority of facts accumulated by electrophys{ology come from visual analysis and ora! descriptions of clectrogrnms. A natural outcome of this is the current feeble fuith in the data being described and problems of comparison. A similar situation m~y be encountered, it wnuld seem~ in any branch of scientific reseurch if we nre deuling not with evaluutions und comparisons of subjective impressions~ but with objective ~nalysis of phenomenr~ in the real world; the langu~ge of quentitative measurements and comparisons must be used, at that. No matler how strc~nge it scems, these nuturul considerations do not appear to be unconditionally evident in modern physiology+. This is perticularly cleurly shown by thc fact thet in recent yeers works have continued to be published and to enjoy poputarity in which n wide~ convincing justificetion is given for the effecti~~eness end nece~.5ity of using mathematical methods in biology in general and in electrophysiology in pArticul~r (Beyli, 1970; Fomin~ Berkinblit~ 1973). 29 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 - ~OR O~~ICIAL U5~ dNLY ~l~ctrophysinlogy, ut th~ same time, is a C1enr exampl~ of r~ field of naturul scientifie research where it is theoretiCally impossible to do without the l~nguage of muth~maties. In faCt, a rather typieal ex~mple of ~ single ~xperiment with CEC3 inspection is th~ registr~tion of hundreda of inet~rs (ut the stundnrd r~te of E~C3 r~~ording) of the more complex Curves, 1f recording is dnne _ (or interpreted) in digitul fnrm, the prublem of analyzing thes~ data contA{ns an extremely large number of Int~rrelated f~etors, ~~ch of whieh is subiect to - = variution within limits which are not always accessible to experiment~l control. Under these conditions, human intell~ct se~ms unabl~ to survey this "ne~nn of datu" and explein c~nd study the entire set of interdependent megsurements. The oral description of these observations is even less promising. progress is elearly only possible when factuul muterir~l is produced to revenl its informational value. That is, E~C3s must be objectively, quantitatively analyzed using methem~tieal methods of an~lysis. 'I'h~ tendency to use unulytie methods which allow quantitative definition of unknown funCtions aros~ at almost th~ sam~ time as the birth of ~leC- troencephulography. The initinl use of muthemutical methods was begun by I)iet~ch (1932) und Livunavu (1934) in studying the frequency composition of - I:~(3ti. Such works were, however, for a long time rnre episodes In the pt~y5iological literuture mainly due to the labor-intensiveness of the methods. '1'tie development of mathematieal methods received a significant push in . electrophysiology in the lnte 1940s when computers first eppeured. It was expected that the use of mathematical methods and high-speed computers would p~rmit rapid decoding of information contained in the EEG; ~nd a correlation to be found between the nature of electricul Activity and behuvioral acts. But progress was quite modest in this ~ree. - It appears that it is now still impossible to exhaustively explain the fact that in the 30 years of existence of the computer (a unique technical invention which is one of the most powerful and all-purpose devices in research activity) so little _ hns been contributed to the evolution of physiology. But some problems standing in the way of effective utilization of comput~r technology in electrophysiology are obvious. For example, we could show such fACtors us the need for the physiologist-research~r, when ettempting to use digital computers in his work, to solve A multitude of problems which are unfamilinr to him. In particular, for e~ch computer with a given set of technical characteristics there are problems of dAta input~ screening supenfluous meterial, excluding artifacts, a convenient method of presenting the end result of processing, progrumming~ and so forth. As A rule, physiologists h~ve been unprepared to solve these problems. Disappointment now awaits even those researchers who feel that they only need time and tedious labor to overcome problems. This is especinlly linked with a "shortcoming" of eomputer technology such as its exceedingly high speed, the frequent updating of computer types and generations, software~ and prcr gramming. This ull makes the user feel that computers are "obsolete" as soon as they start up, so you have to hurry as fast as you can not to fall behind, but you still remein in the very snme place (Hamilton, 1971). 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 i~'OEt d~~ICIAL US1, nNLY 'Che ~ibundanec of ~urrent and pl~nned computers ~ls~ creates a diffi~~ult problem _ of sclecting i~ com~uter to "hook up" with one's ~tudies. The primary question here is whether to use ~a ~peeializ~d or allypurpase eomputer. The derision c~n - invnlvc ~ Compromisc b~tw~en the terhnical possibilities of the eomput~r qclected ~nd th~ ~x~~nditures of aequisition and maintcnane~. Chnoging ~n ~11- purpnse Computer in turn gives ris~ to ~n ulternntiv~: ~ labor~tory-type mini~ cornputcr or ~ l~rge centrul proe~ssnr uf the institut~ or interinstitute type7 The cert~in advantages of lArge nomputers ~evolved softwure, high speed, and m~mory cupgcity) c~n be offs~t by such defiCi~nci~s as difficulty in urc~ss to th~ aomputer, longer m~intenanC~ periods, th~ need for large umounts of cieriCUl nnd ndminiytr~tive work, problems of changing progr~ms and trunsmitting dat~ from the laboratory to the computer room, and so forth. E3ut the 5olution of A11 technicul, ~dministrAtiv~ ~nd financiiil probl~ms is only R prelude to the primury question: what ean be solved with th~ computer ~nd how? `I'he populf~r npinion th~t "computers cen do everything" is ndt olwuys c~nnect.ed with en underst~nding th~t the lack of a cle~rly stated problem cnn m~ke ttie computer (like mothematical methods in generul) useless. We sh~uld still bear in mind thnt even the most thorough farmulation nf = problems nnd ~ correct epplication of mathemntical methods wili not guu- rantee r~pid success and will not spAre researchers fram disappointment if they expect too much from thc "mechanization" of physiological research. And this _ is not r~ mntter of p~rtiAl errors and underestimates or shortcomings of the - romput~r or methods used. The main cuuse could be the wrong choice of ~ppronch to the entire problem of anc~lysis of physiologicul data. it enn not be ~xcluded thi~t ~lgorithmic methods may theoretically not be applicable to decode this kind of duta. An nn~logy is suggested here with problems encountered by researchers involved with m~chine translat{on. We know that the problems encountered huve made them totally revamp their entire approACh to ~ languiige structure (Taube~ 1967). When anAlyzing "brein language". especially - electrogrems, time may prove it necessary to make basic changes in currer~t Approarhes. With the transition to computcr anAlysis of datn, eleetrophysiology is now t~sing more or less trr~ditionul mathemntical methods borrowed meinly from the storetiousr of thc technic~l sciences: information theory, signal processing, opcrritions reseeref~, puttern recognition~ etc. The increased quantity of factuel datU is growing at very fast rates. The number of studies (articies~ dissertetions) done using computer is also rising. At some laboratories and institutes, for sevcral ye~rs since the acquisition of computers, the number of these studies hus grently exceeded the volum~ ;P research in which "mechine" methods were not employed (Ivenov, Kleshchev, .t975). It seems we cen say thut the computer has been turned from an exotic ~ievice--powerful, unfamiliar~ obedient only to a smnll group of devotees--into a common instrument of physiological resenrch. 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE OM.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 i ~01t t~~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY ~ N~v~rthelesg, in spit~ of th~ ulm~st daily us~ of camput~rs and the wider ars~nal ~ dP m~themntieAl methods, until now the pietures of E~ds ttnd the meehanics df v~rinu~ E~C3 rhythms ~ti11 r~main gr~atly unclerifi~d. tt is still unkndwn whieh ~~C~ parameters are assoeiated with information processes in the brain, and how mu~h is refleeted in elcetrogrnms of thc brain o~ "physiol+~ica1 prdvtsion nf m~ntal functions" (B~kht~r~va, 1974). ~inglly, one of th~ mein prdbl~ms in electrophysiology has ndt b~en surmounted: the absence of direct ~ffeCtnr m~nifestetions of phenom~na. Prnblems of improving methods of E~C3 annlysis, findfng more meeningful per~met~rs, studying the nnture of individunl forms of electric~l aetivity and their eonnection w{th the bnsic r~spects of CNS activity are thus ns urg~nt a~ before. Attempts to solve some of these problems were investigat~d by the nuthors for th~ pest 10 yesrs and more. This study is a generalizution ~f some of the results _ obtained in that time. The studies were not aimed at examining and edmparing the meaningfulne~s of verious methods of ~~C3 analysis ar effict~nt use of computers in electrophysiology. A more modest task wes set: to evaluate the funetional significanc~ of sp~ctrttl-COrreltttidnal pur~meters of ~~Gs end gmp- litudc-time characteristiCS of vnltnges simultAneousiy sensed from meny points on the brain. These questions were resolved by successive applieation df mcthods of spectrel-correletion~l theory of random process~s ~nd the use of a control digital computer. The results of the work presented in this bonk, we feel, r~ther convineingly prove the effectiveness of using computers to solve simil~~r problems, end ure evidence of the meaningfulness of some EEG indicators which cen only be evulu~ted wfth computer data proc~ssing. In the course of researrh many secondary problems had to be solved, of course: organization of computer data processing in real time, statement of controll~d experiments, hardware and software, studying the statistical structure of signels bcing rccorded, distinetive features and error of the vari~bles beirg anAlyzed, etc. All of these problems were refiected in this book. Diverse literary date hnvc been drawn upon in pr~senting the m~teriai. E3ut the authors have not eimed nt giving an exhaustive literery review nf all stu~ies touching upon the questions of interest. Research was carried out from 1964 to 1975 et the human and animal eon- _ ditioned reflex laboratory of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The euthors are indebted to supervisoc M. N. Livenov nnd to all the laboratory co-workers for their conslent nid and support. We feel obiiged to express our sincere thanks to colleegues who colleborated on inidividual portions of the research: T. A. Korol'kova, 1. N., Knipst, G. A. ~1'kina, A. Potulova, M. N. Zhadin, T. M. Yefrcmovu~ N. S. KurovA, L. V. Tishaninova~ i. V. Misochko~ P. N. Dubner~ A. M. Sherslov, Ye. A. Vasil'yev~ Ye. M. aelyevskiy, V. P. Merkin~ end O. V. _ Afunas'yev. The euthors also thank N. A. Lazercva for the great assistance rendered in preparing the manuscript. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~Ott d~~ICIAL U;3~ tlNLY 'I'nbl~ of Cont~nt~ intr~dueNon ~ Chapter One tiEiC1 gtructure and m~themntieai ~tudy m~th~ds g 1.1 The nature of totnt ~1~~trirel aativtty ~f th~ eerebral ~oct~x ~ 1.2 mhe history of d~veldpm~nt df mathematie~l methcxis nf ~~d ~n~ly~is lg 1.~ Spertral~~drrele~tinn methods of ~~Ci nnalysis 1.4 Sp~ctr~l evaluntidns and th~ir prnperti~s. Aspects df ~n~lysis of short r~~lizntinng 40 1.5 Analysis of the statistic~t ~trueture of el~~tric~l brnin netivity 60 1.6 Methcxis of analysis nf three-dimensional org,~niz~tion of blopnt~nti~ls q~ 1.? ~v~luation ~f topogram dynamies as m~thod of analysis ~f spnre-tim~ organizati~n df c~rebral prncesses 7g Chepter Two Organirr~tidn of eomputer pr~eessing of biosignals 94 2.1 Nardwere fdr rnmput~r processing of biosignals 94 2.2 Asperts df progrnmming of electriphysialc~gieal r~seArch 102 2.~ Algorithms for eontrol ~nd prneessing dntu of el~ctrophy- siological experiments 112 - Chupter Thcee ~veluatian of funetional signifiranee of spectral-corrclation indirutors of biopotenti~ls 3.1 Connectidn of ~pectr~l-correi~tion indicc~tors of cer~bral pot~ntials of rabbit with motor reaCtion to ~ffcrent stimulation 128 3.2 Anulysis of the nature end funetianal significnnce ~f rhythmic components c~f thc theta renge in cerebral potentials of the rabbit 139 ~ 3.3 ~lectrophysiological study of inechanisms ensuring sensomotor reArtions of the rabbit 159 Chaptcr ~our ~uuntitative annlysis of amplitude-time organization of eerebr~l electricnl ~ctivity 175 4.1 Study of spece-time or~anization ot cerebrai potentiels of thr rabbit 175 4.2 Annlysis of the funetionel signiticance of systemir changes in the magnitudes of pot~ntials of the cortex of the large hcmispheres of the rnbbit using e controlled experiment 208 Canclusion 215 Referen~es 222 COf'YK(GFIT: Izdutel'stvo "Naukn", 1978 8617 CSO: 1870 33 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 I+OR Ot~~CIAi. U~~ ONLY 9CIBN~I3T3 AND 3CIBNTIFYC ORGANIZATYONS U35R ACADBMY OI~ SCISNCB ANNOUNC~N'~S Ol~ MBDiALS AND PRYZBS ~ro of ~oci~llet I,~bor l~oecow VBSTNx1C AKADBMIx NAt1K 93SR in Rueeign No 10, 1978 pp 139�140 [Artici~: "ACademieia~ p. N. I~edoseyev, Hero of Snciallst Lgbor] [Text] For great gervicer in the develapment of the aocial aciences, for acCive social and political work, and in conneation with hie 70th birthday, Vice-Preeident of the US3R Academy of Sciencee, Academician Petr Nikolayevich F~D03BY8V wae awarded th~ title of gero of Socialiet Labor and the Order of Y.eain by the Ukase of the Preaidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet of Auguet 21, 1918. ~ P. N. Fedoeeyev ie a prominent Marxiat ecientiet, a epecialiet in the field of dialecties and hietorical materialism~ and the theory of the building of communism. fle hae made profound inveetigaticns into queatioae of l~larxist- Leniniat philoeophy, theoretical problema of contemporary gocial development, eociology, preoent day problans of the building of communist society, a~d the education of the new man. Of apecial eignificance are his works devoted to inveatigating fundamental questione aad paeterng of the development of eocialiat eociety and the struggle againet contemporarq bourgeoia ideologq, refonaism and revisionism. Acad~ician P. N. Fedoseyev has made a coneider- - able contribution eo solving the philoeophical problema of contemporary natural eciencea and strengtheaing the union of repreaentativee of ehe coa- crete ecieaces, eapecially naturaliate and philosophere. As one of the leading eoviet eocial ecientists, P. N. Fedoseyev is constantly eng~ged in aolving problane in the creative application of materialiat dialectice to inveetigating fundamental problems of social deve2opment, and, to analysis of the propertiea in the mgnifeatation of baeic Narxism-Leninism lav8 during traasition fram capitalism to socialism and during the building of socialiem. Problene of the philoeophical basis of acientific ~o~uniam, together ttith current problema of the application of Piarxi~-Leninism--se = an integral ayetem of philoeophy, ecoaomic aad social-political views--to the theory and tranafotmatioa of preaent day life, i?ere the eubject of P. N. Fedoseyev's acientific quest during almost a half ceatury of reoearch activity. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~OIt OF~2CTAL US~ ONLY Mttny ycar~ of P. N. ~ed~~Qy~v's ~chol~rly activity were devntad eo workittg ouC ba~ic caregorieg in hi~tortC~1 maeerialiem. He h~g made a gregC con- tributi~n to the developcnent of kttowledg~ on productiv~ fnrces ~nd relnCione of productinn ~nd to the resolueion of prob~.ems related to maearial condi- tion~ of soCi.e1 life, Hi~ brticl~~ and bnoke on problemg of ~onialiem and prnl~t~ri~n hum~ni,~m ~nd works on ehe hieCdrical develnpment of Marxiet- Lenint,gC i.deag and thQir rQlation to Ch~ pr~s~nt are widely known. Ma~or workg werQ noted in th~ cregtive work of P. N. Fedo~eyev during ehe 1960'g ~nd 1970's. At rhat time hig books on an~lygig nf and gener~li~n- tion ~bouC rn~3or tendencies in conteropoxnry soci~l dev~lopment were pub- lished: "Kommuniz~m i filoeofiya" [Communism and Philo~ophy], "Marksizm v XX veke" [Marxiam in the 2~tentieth Century~, "Pialektika sovremennoy epokhi" [The Diulectice of the Present ~poch] ~n~l others. Theee works are characterized by profound under~tanding of the multiform changea occurring in the world, the ability to diecern in eheir contradictory intertwining the main line of the eocioeconanic development of m~nkind--Che abolition of the exploitation of man by hia fellow man and affirmation of the free and all-around development of the individu~l--and detailed theoretical attalyeis of problems of the contemporary liberation movement. The works of P. N. Fedosoyev examine the basic taska of political gcientiets, the m~~or Crenda of the acientific quest. They touch upon the basic trends of political ~cience, from queatione related to increasing the social and econocnic effecCivenQSS of production, ~he perfecting of the mechaniam of the national economy and the introduction of program-focuaed methoda af planning, to working out of a conception of the fundamental righta and freedans of man and problems of perfecting forma of eocialiat democracy, analysis of the content and atructure of scientific ideology, and queationa of communist education and the aocialist way of life. - P. N. Fedoseyev ia engaged in important acientific organizational work. He was director of the Institute of Philosophy of the USSR Academy of Sciences, academician secreCary of the Economic, Philosophic and Legal Sciences De- partment and later of the Philosophy and Law Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1962, P. N. Fedoseyev was, for the first time, elected _ vice-preaident of the USSR Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Social Sciences Section (he held thia poeition until 196~). From 1911 to the present, Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciencea P. N. Fedoaeyev has again headed the Social Sciencea Section of the Preaidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. P. N. Fedoaeyev hae auceesafully combined reaearch and scientific organi- zational work with social, political and governmental activity. For many yeara he worked in the npperatus of the CC CPSU and was editor-in-chief of the periodicals BOL'SHEVIK and PARTIYNAYA ZHIZN' Pa~ety Life. From 1967 to 1973, he occupied the post of director of the Inatitute of Marxism-Leninism of thc CC CPSU. P. N. Fedoseyev ia a member of the CC CPSU, deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet, the chairman of the National Education, Science and 35 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~Ott O~~ICrAL US~ ONLY Culeure Commia~ion nf the Couttcil of N~ttonalieie~ of the USSIt Sur:eme 8oviet and ahairman of ehe Society for 5nviee-Hungarian Friendst~ip. _ P. N. Fedoaeyev's m~ny ye~rs of ~elfles~ work for Che gnod of our counery ig highly este~m~d by th~ 5ovier gov~rnment. He ha~ be~n gwarded ehree ~ Ordera of Lenin, Chr~e Ordera of the ~ed Banner oF Labor, the Order of ehe Pgeriotiic War, fireti d~gree, gnd many m~dalg. - p. N. Fedoeeyev'e many-aid~d activity in th~ fi~Ld of science h~e won th~ recognieion of th~ interngeional scientific crnrm~uniCy. He was elected an honorary m~+anber o~ the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the Bulgari~n, Czechoslovakian gnd Poli~h Academies of Sciencee and of - Che Academy of 9ciencee of the GDR. P. N. F'edoseyev hae devoCed all his powers and t~lents tn selfleeg service to ecience, eocial progresa and Co the triumph of communism. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'atvo "Nauka," "Veatnik Akad~mii nauk SSSR," 1978 Gold Medal~ and Commemorative Prizee - Moacow VE3TNIK AKADEMII NAUK SS3R in Rusaian No 10, 1978, pp 140-141 [Text] The USSR Academy of Sciences announcee competitiona for 7 gold - - medals and 18 commemorative prizea. Gold Medals The I. P. Pavlov Medal is awardad to soviet ecientists for their work as a whole in the development of the teachings of I. 0. Pavlov (deadline for submisaion of worke - October 24, 1978). The A. P. Karpinakiy Medal is awarded to soviet and foreign scientiats ' for a body,of distinguished acientific work in the fields of geology, paleontology, petrography and minerology (deadline for submisaion of works - October 7, 1978). The D. I. Mendeleyev Medal is awarded to soviet acientists for diatinguiahed works in the field of chemical acience and technology (deadline for submis- aion of worka - November 7, 1978). - The S. I. Vavilov Medal is awarded to aoviet scientista for distinguished works i~ the field of phyaica (deadline for submission of works - December 24, 1978). The D. K. Chernov Medal is awarded to aoviet acientists for distinguished worka in the fields of the phyaical chemistry of inetallurgical proceases and caetallurgy (deadline for eubmiseion of ~,rorks - Auguet 1, 1979). 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~Ott Ob'EYCIAL USE ONLY - 7'h~ S. P. Korol~v Medal is awarded to eovieC ecientiis~s ~ogeCher w~ith a monatary prize of 2000 R for disCinguished worke in the field of aero- ep~ee t~chnology (deadLinQ for aubmiesiona - September 30, 1979). The A. N. Tupolev Medal is awarded Co soviet sci.entiata togather with a moneCnry prize of 2000 R for diaCinguiahed worke in the field of aero- n~utic aciencQ and technology (deadline for eubmiesion of worka - AugueC 10, 1979) . CrnmnemoraCive Prizea (awarded Co soviet acientiats) The I. P. Pavlov Prize (2000 R) ie awarded for the beat acienCific works in the field of phyaiology (deadline for aubmieaion of works - October 24, 1978) . ThQ A. P. Karpinekiy Prize (2000 R) ia awarded for distinguished acienti�fc workg in Che fielde of geology, paleontology, petrography and minerology (deadline for aubmisaion o� works - October 7, 1978). The K. M. Bykov Prize (1500 R) ie awarded for scientific worka in the fielda of phyaiology: cortico-viaceral phyaiology, the phyaiology of digestion and balenology (deadline for submisaion of worka - October 21, 1978). The V. V. Dokuchaev Prize (2000 R) is awarded for distinguiahed acientific worka in the field of soil acience (deadline for submiasion - December 1, - 1978) . - The S. A. Chaplygina Prize (1000 R) is awarded for the best original work - on theoretical research in the field of inechanics (deadline for aubmisaion of worka - January 5, 1979). The K. A. Timiryazev Prize (2000 R) ia awarded for the best worka in thQ fields of plant physiology and general biology (deadline for aubmission of works - March 3, 1979). The V. G. Belinskiy Prize.(2000 R) is awarded for the beat acholarly worka . in Che fields of literary criticiam, theory and hiatory�(deadline�for sub- ~ mission of works - March 13, 1979). - The N. G. Chernyshevskiy Prize (2000 R) is awarded for scientific worka . in the social sciences (deadline for submission of works - April 24, 1979). - `I'he S. N. Vinogradskiy Prize (2000 R) is awarded for the best works in the field of general microbiology (deadline for submisaion of works - June 1, 1979). The L. A. Chugaev Prize (2000 R) is awarded for the best works in the field of the chemietry of cvmplex compounds (deadline for submisaion of works - ~ July 5, 1979). 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~ ~ox d~~i~tnt. u~~ ot~~r The A. M. Hutlerov prize (~000 It~ i~ awarded for th~ be~t trork~ in the field of organtc ehemi~e~y (deadline for submi~~tdn of aork~ ~ Ju1y ~0, 1979) . The A. ~ersmgn Prize (100n R) ie ~t~~rded for the be~t gCi~nCific vork~ in the field of mitternlogy and geochemi~try (de~dlilne fd~r submi~~idn of work~ ~ Augus t 8, 197 9) . The P. N. Yablochkov prige (2~00 it) i~ gward~d far the begt aork~ and be~t new coneCruCtione in el~etrdteehnology (degdline for subtaie~ion c~f aorkg - _ Augu~t 17, 197g). The A. 0. Kovalevskiy 1'rixe (1000 R) ig aaarded fnr the b~gt aork~ in the fielda of general~ comper~tive~ de~cripeive gnd ~xperim~nt~l ~nbryol~gq of invertebrete~ gnd verrebr~ter (d~~dline for eubmi~~idn ef ti?ork~ - ~ Auguat 19~ 1979). Th~ N. I. Vavilov Prize (2d00 it) ie aWarded for dietinguighed re~earch in the field of genetics, eelection and plant breeding (deadline for submie- - sion of worke - Auguet 26~ 19y9). T',~e G. V. Pl~khanov Prize (200~ R) is ~t+arded for the bear work~ in the field of philoeophy (deadlin~ for ~ubmi~~ian ef t~orks - September 11, l97'9). _ ~ The N. S. Kurnakov Prize (1000 R) is aWarded for dietinguiehed worke in the field of inorganic chemieCry, phyeico-chemical an~lysig and it~ ~ppli- catione (deadline for eubmiesion af aorka - Sept~mbQr 6, 1979). The E. S. Fedorov Prite (1000 R) ie aaarded for digtinguieh~d vorka in cryatallography (deadlin~ for aubmisJ,ions - September 22, 1979). General Provieions With a view to encouraging acholers for distinguiahed acientific aorke, scientific discoveries and inventions having great aignificance for ecience _ and practice, the USSR A~ademy of Sciences aaarde gold medals and prizes - commemorating diatinguished acientiets on the baeie of competitiona. Gold medals are awarded for distinguiahed acientific works, diacoveries and inventione or for a body of Work of great acipntific and practical significance; individuals may participate peraonally in the competiCions for gold medals. ~ Commemorative prizea are awarded for the beat individual scientific arorks, discoveries and inventions and also for a aeriea of scientific c~vrks on one aub~ect; as a rule, the Works of individual authors uiay be submitted in canpetitioa for theae prizea. When collcctive Works are preeented, only the principal authore are indicated~ but no more than three peraons. 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 ~dit d~~ICIAI. US~ C7NtY 'T}ie right td nominate CSric~~(~QC~A in the cdmpetition for gold m~del~ ~nd C m~memor~tive prizee i~ gr~nted to; ac~demicinns and aesociate m~mb~re c~f th~ US5Et Academy of Sciences ~nd o~ the ac~demie~ of ~cienc~~ of tha union republic~; eCientific instttutione, inetttutinn~ o� higher educa- tiott; t~tienCifiC gnd engineering mocietie~; ~cientific and technical eoun- cil~ of gdv~rt~nental commitee~s, minigtri~~, deparbnentg, technical coun- ~ils of industrial enterpriseg; de~ign offic~~; ecientific councilg nf Che U55it Academy of Sei~nc~a nnd other d~partm~nCg nn major problemg o� 9C~~ttCe. In nnmitt~ting g candidgte for compeeition for ~ gnld medgl or prixe~ nne mugt ~ubmit to the USSit Academy of Sciencea (117901, CSP [Special City Po~tal 5ervice], MoecoW 8-71, Leninekiy Proepekt, 14) no 1nCer than three month~ before the award daee~ With the eupergcripeion "For rhe Comp~r.ition for the Goid Med~l (Prize)": a) Itegeone ft~r the ~ubmiesion, inCluding the acientific character of th~ - wdrk, itg eignifican~e for the development of science gnd the ngt~onal economy; b) The published scientific work (eeries of worke), mnteriale of scientific diacovery or invention, itt triplicate; c) Infotmation gbout the author (liat of basic ecientific works, diecover- ieg~ ic~ventions, place of work and position held, home addreae). ~ Worke aWarded the Lettin Prize, the USSR National Prize and commemorative prtzes of the academies of sciences of the union republice and branch acgdemies are not accepted in the competition for gold medals and prizea commemorating distinguiahed acientists. Scholat8 awarded gold medals and prizes are granted the right on publica- tion of the worka to note in the headline "Awarded the Gold Medal (Prize) of the USSR Academy nf Sciencea for 19_." Bach of these medals and prizea are awarded once every three years on a significant date in the life of the acientiat whom the medal or prize canmemoratea. The deciaion of the Preaidium of the USSR Academy of Sciencea on the award- ing of gold medals and prizes and ahort annotations about the works awarded - gold medals or prizea are publiahed in the VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUi~ SSSR and IZVESTIYA AKADErII I NAUK SSSR of the corresponding aeries. VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR conCains portraite of the scientists awarded gold medals and prizes. _ The published scientific works examined during the aesaion of the Preaidium which are awarded gold medals or prizes are transmitted for keeping to the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciencea. ' 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3 t~01t OI~'IC~AL USB ONLY The gold medgl~ end ~w~rd ~ertific~te~ for g~1d med~lp ~nd pri.xeg ere - pr~~enC~d at the annu~l Genergl Au~~mbly o~ the USSIt A~gd~my of S~iences (during the firet 10 dgys in M~r~h), COl'Y~tYQH1': Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," "Ve~tnik Altademii ttguk SSSR~" 1978 9380 CSO: 1870 END 40 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040021-3