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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'100040038-5 ~ ~ . i7 APRIL i979 CFOUO 2i1T9~ i OF 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~ i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPR5 L/8402 ' ~ ,~i ',`1 ' 4 'I ~ ~ 17 April 1979 ~ \ _ TRANSLATIONS ON USSR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - PHYSCIAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 21/79) U. S. JOiNT PUBLICATION~ RESEARCH SERVICE _ FOR OFFICItitL USE O~ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 NaTE JI'RS publicattons conCain information primarily from foreign _ newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from newa agency ' tranamissians and broadcs~sts. Materials from foreign-language _ sourcea are trAnslated; thoae from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinCed~ with the original phrasing and - ' oCher characterisCics retained. _ He~dlines, ediCorial reporCa, and material encloaed in bracketa [j are supplied by JPRS. Procesaing indicators euch as (Text] ~r [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the - last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicaCor is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracCed. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- Cion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropri.:Ce in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items~.~e as given by source. The contents o~ this publication in no way represent the poli- _ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. _ ~ COPYRIGHT LAWS AND R~GULATIONS GWERNING CWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PTJBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ - - JPRS L/8402 �17 Apr3.]. 1979 ~ TRANSLATIONS ON USSR SCIENCE AND TECNNOLOGY Pl~YS, I CAL SC I ENCES AND. TECHNOLOGY . (FOUO 21/79) CONTENTS PAGE _ GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND SPACE . iiaried an~ ~:~portunt Role of Satellites (M. I. Shtern; KOSMOS-ZENII,E, 1976) J. Radiation Hazard F~om Sola.r Flares in Near-Earth Spe,ce (V. M. Petrov, et al.; KOSMICHESKIYE ISSI,EDOVANIYA, ~979) 79 PUBLICATIONS ~ - Ebgineering, Psychological of Automatic Control - - Systems - (A. I. Galaktionov, et al.; ~SNOVY INZF~N~- - PSIKHOLOGICHESKOGO PROYE'KTIROVANIYA ASU TP~ ].978~)..... 86 - Electro~agnetic Devices i~ RadioelECtronic Appexatus (Leonid Alekseyevich Kazakov; ELEKTROMAGNITNYYE USTROYSTVA RADIOELEIQ'RONNOY APPARATIktY, 197a) 102 - ~ P~lycrystalline Semiconductor Films in Microelectrunics (Vladimir Mikhaylovich Koleshko, Aleksandr Adamovich Kovalevskiy; POLIKRISTALLICI~SKIYE PI,EIQKZ _ POLUPROVODNIKOV V MIKROELEKL'RONIKE, 1978) 104 . : Computer Methods and Programming (Numerical Methoda in - Problems of Electrodynamics) - (V. I. Dmitriyev, A. S. Il'inskiy; VYCHISLITEL'NYYE - METODY I PROGRANIl~IIROVANIY~:: CHISLENNYYE METODY V ZADAZHAKfi ELF~CTRODINANBKI, 1978) � 108 - Magnetic Hydrodynamics ~Yu. A. Birzvalk~ ZNANIYEy MAGIVITNpyp GII7RODINAMIKA, SII2IYA FIZIKA, Feb 79) 111 , -a- IIII -USSR-23S &T FOUOj FOR OFFICIAL USE 0'VLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 F~JR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY COiVT~S (Continueci) Page , - Wire Detectors of Elementexy Particl~e - y (Yu. V. Zanevskiy; PROVOLOCHNYYE DETI'~QRY ~rrraHrrn~ cxasTrrs, i978) ii4 Magnetic-Nl~dium Logic Units With Controlled Movement of - Doma.ins - (M. A. Poyarchenkov, et al.; LLC)GGICHESIQ'lE USTROYSTVA ~IA MAGNI~NYKH SREDAHIi S UPf~VLYAYII~IYM rnriz~xrxn~ Dor~vov, 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii7 Contactlesa Logic Circuit Teating and Simulat3on ' (S. V. An~ik, et al.; STENDOVAYA PROVF~tKA I _ MAKETIROVANIYE BESKONTAIQNYKH LOGICHESKIKH SKHEM, i978) i2o New Book on Antenna Eagineering ~d. Technology - (A. A. Pistol'kors.; ANTEN.'~TY, SBORNSK STATEY, ~978) 122 - - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 i ~!'iR l)i~:'~C~.1L USI~ ONI,Y GIIOPHYSICS~ ASTRONOMY AI~ SPAC~ _ r~ VARIED AND IMPORTAMT ROLE OF SATBLI.ITES - _ Mo~coar 1CO~MOS-ZSt~.B in Ru~aiaa 1976 pp 13-15~ 37-40~ 76-89 sr~d 97-182 ' ~ SelacCicas fras ths book "Koa~os-Zs~i~" b9r N. I. S6t~rn~ OSSR ,r1~sd~r of - Scisoc~a, S~riss "Problru o! Saiuu~ and Tech~nical Progr~ss~ "IzclaCSl~ stvo - r~�ka ] - L~p 13-127 - LTezt] Laboratory in ~pace ~ The th3rd Soviae aat~L~ lit� in tht full sense of tha ~rord ~oe?s an atutasatic eci~ntific labaratorq in apnc~. A~ccording to its t~i~cal data. aAd ths - au~bar of ~zparia~snt� conducted it asce~d~d its pr~dacesaore .by a gxeat d~al. Ita wight ~oss 1,327 kg, incinding th� wigLt of th~ sci~ntific and _ - a~asuring appsratus t~gathar Mith tbs po~rr soarc~a--968 k,g. ~ Th~ duigning of the satel~lite todc into consid~ratioa n n~ber of ~p~cific - - raquis~sats aasociat~d vith th~ cc~eductiag an it of diff~svnt sci~mtiPic axpexi~ent� aod the plac~nt of a larg~ quantity of aci~atific aud 'saeuriag apparatus. Th~ po~sibility of r~ciproeal inflwact ~f iadividnsl sci~ntific ~ inst=vwnts r~quir~d th~ tboraagh stndy a~f la4ront o! t6~ sciaitific apparatns. = The oiaia portiaa ot ia~tsvaeats for the ~cieatit~ic atudi~s tog~ebsr ~rith tb~ gcwsr ~ourca~ Mas pliced nithin th~ sat~llit� ~a w in~trtwot traw locat~d ia its ant~riur partion. The pla~cwnt of a~naitiv~ �l~ats (ga~s) of tb~ appara~ue wns d~torsiusd by tluir purposs. ~'hua, tb~ vagiataNt~r ~sa piac~d in tta antsriar ssctioa of t1~ ~at~liit~, in order to syaovr it t1r ~ssiwa diatmcs fras tt~ ra~aining spgaratus. The cos~ic rap ~et~rs Mssti ~staii~d - - xithin ttN ~at~llit~. All eh~ otl~r gag~a wr~ plac~d outsid~ th~ herNticail~- sa~led hcuaing. Tbua, th~ phota~�nltipliers that serv~d to sycos~d carpuscular solar rediatian ~r~ fe~atw~d oa ths mt~rior sactioa of th~ hoasing. Oa~ sagn~tic and tMO ionizatian ~o~ters that ~sasured pr~s~urs in th~ app~r - laq~rs of tlN atrospbar~ ~r~ iastalled ic cyliadrical cas~o wld~d iato ths sh~ll again of th~ ent~rior po~reion o! the eatellit~. Th~ training _ apparatus ~aa pla~c~d n~sr tL~. A~tebla tewperatuiy wi.i;hin the satellite was guaranteed by a s~stem _ of th~YSOregvlatioa ~ich Was cos~aid~rablq p~rfected ia ca~pari~on to that us~d oa ths fiYat sstsllitaa. Th~ temperature was regulated by chan~ing th~ ~oYC~d circulatioa of gasscu~ nitrogw, ne ~wll ss bq cbaagirig t~ _ 1 FOR OFFICIEw IJSF. ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ' f~OR ON'CICIAL t151: ONLY - cosfficiant af natarnl rediation of ite surface. For this,adju~tabl~ louvers _ - coaeieting o! 16 indiv3dual e~ctions ~+~ero inetall~d on tha la~~re~l eurfac� of th~ sete~lite. T'h~q ~ra cp~ned and ciosed bq ol~ctric driva~ controllsd bq = th~ a~pparatus in th~ th~~cmar~gulation aystec~. ~ T~ u~~ of' ~o1ar Uatteric~ :~s ~ power source a~eds it poseibl� to obt~in scian- = tific iafos~aation for a icmg tic~~. The soldr s~cniconductor batt~ry wae ~rYang~ in t~u !om of individue~l sactioas aa the surface of th~ hou~it~g. - Four ssall sectioa~ arrs inetalled on the anterior botta�r~ four on the lsteral surfac~, snd o~ c:~ tha rear bottom. Sucb placeo~~nt of tha e~ctioae of ths aolgr battery gwrauntaad it� aorral oporatioa r~gardlass of tha ori~nCation of t~ saC~ellit� in r~latiaa to tha sun. _ T1i~ ~aultipl~-chnwc~l radiotelaa~tric aqstem of ths Cbird sat~llite differed - ~iA ite bigh reeolutioa. It could transmit to oarth a large volum~ of iafor- - mation on tbe reeulto of tba sciaatific meaaurenents. To reco~d high energy particlee a luninescont m~ter ~ras us~d co~nsieting of a crys tal oP sodiua iodide and n photoaultiplier with a photo aathod~. The meaeur�aente reeulte shownd thet in all ca~as without ezception ahen th~ . - eatallite eat~rsd a band of letitudes 55-65� botb in the Narrhara aud in t1~ = Soutb~rn 8ea~isphere s~harp iacrt~as~ no~s obsarved ia the brnking x-ray radi- aCioA~ gov~rn~d bq the bosbardment of Cha hou~ing ~rith �laetrons vith ~rgy on the order of 100 k~V. It Waa sloo eetabliohed that th~ radiatiou int~n- sity increaass ~rith aititudn. BoCb of tYc~se thinge wre a coasequ~uc~ of tha entrnace of ~ntallita intn s zone of intai~iv~ rediatioa u~hich oooa rac~ived the nam~ astarnal zoae of tha radiatioea b~lt. ~lith th~ h~lp of the pbota~ultipliara designed to racard t'!~ co~rpiaeculer - aolnr radistioa far tha firat ti~s electrona ~sr~ fo~md directiq rith an~rgy ~ o~ tbe ord~r 10 keV. A strsem of thes~ elackroma Was record~d at 8ltituds fram 470 to 1,880 iu. Their intea~ity during the day Mas greater tt~m at = - night, vherebq it coatiauously chan~ged wfth aa incraas~ in altituda and - - gaaa~agnetic latitud~. Since th~ poeition (orientatiaa) of th~ adtellits was - ~ kao~m~ thea th~ dir~ctiaz of ~overeat of the particles link~d to tLe str~aea ` o~ elactrana wns auecosafallq d~teravin~d. It aaa found tbat they~ aa a rule, move per.pendicular to t6e directioa of the nagn~tic force line. T6sir valocity ~ of mov~nt azceed~d a groat dsal the valocity of solar corpusal~s, measured - frc~ oba~rvstioa of the a~nrora boraali~. ` D~ts~iaatian of ths daatity of tha ~apper atmospharn this tima otas m~ds by obs~x~viieg the cbenga in th~ parewit~r of the aatollita orbit due to th~ bre~iccfn~ aad recording of pre~suro vitb tb~ holp of iooizatioa and ~agn~tic aano~etera. - - A s~udy af ~h~ pareua~t~ra of the ionoepher~ pas nlso ~ade by differeat Nthoda: obsa~cvatioa of tha eprea~d of ra~dio raves evitt~d by the po~rful redio traa~- mitter of tha satallite. a~d ~rith the heip of the appa~catus iastall~d a~ it, so-call~d iocd traps for the diract maaeuremeat of tbe coaceatration of posi- ~ ~iv+a ica~ aloag th~ ~atsllita orbit. Is~ additioa, ~rlt~ tbs ts~lp of a rsdio- frequeACy nasa spscrraoetsr ths caapoaitiea~ of the positiv~ ions ~as atudied. 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~ FOk Ur'I~ICTA1, U;~l? ONi,ti' In order to c~a~eoure Che cneagnetic earth ~iald nt great nltitud~e a s~lf- orienting ~agnetWOet~r wma inetnlled t1~C meaoured the canpleto intensit~r of the magne+t~c ~Lald at ~ha altittade of the satollita's orbit. On th~ third satalli.te th~ in~sneity of tha prf'mary coauic rqys w~te aleo recorr,f~d~ and mxp~rimente ~re e~t up to d~te~tvvin~ tha quenCity of heAVy nuclei in apac� radiaCion. S~viral gag~s racorded ia~pecta of ao~icramatmor - particles. _ Th~ launching of th~ tbird ea~tellit~ thar a~cieted over 2 qeara and , sade ovmr 10~000 r~voluLions around the earth pet~itt~d tl~ Soviat sciantiata to coi~duct etudiea on All poiats of tho corr~apoodiag s~ctior~ o~ tiw progrma of Intes~ationel Geophysical Y~ar. - Lpp 37-~+07 - . - Chapter 3 Ob~sct of Studi~s--the Ptoca~ . Spaco Laborntoty F ~ The closest celaetial body to us, the oaly natural �atellita o~ Ea~rth, the aoon long before the onset of tt~ ~rn of epacefliglhts Mas conaidared the most atiudied body in tbe solar syatew after our piaaet. In tt~ nost e,dvnnced tnle- . acopee oae could dietinguish on the l~unar surfa~ce detaile aith cross dimen- eioa of 1 km nnd evan leas. With the help of pbotaaeters and sp~ctrographe tha smallest nuencee in ite reflecting abilitq talbedo), color awd ~nch nore _ ~rsre recorded. Whea aft~r tha Soviet awtame~tic atatioa "Luns~l" dozeAS of - otheY spac~craft ru~hed to the eaoon the possibilities of studying iC grae reoarkably. ' :rha moon with ite cratare and ring i~rmations, mounk~in crasCa, "aeas," and "bnqs" heie easentially becama e g;aat aciantific leboratory. ~ Why is man draun toWarda the aoon? Whnt explains ths intero~t of scieatiats in our ags-lo~g eat~llits? - Ia auch qu~stioas oae oftea refers to nan'a atriving to taaw hia surrounding ~rorld. Thia is w~disputably ~o. Bnt in t6e nctual striving for knoaledge th~re liee aa ob~activ~ n~c~asity for the furthsr fnvastigation of . lawa of natarn ar~d the uas of th~n for the good of people. The gue4sing of eecrete which the wrld of etars sad plausts bid~e ~11 hsip to solve saay, - esmiaglq, purely terreetrial problems. It is difficult to iaagine life of modara mau, ths tacbnology of todsq vtthoat the ~xtaneive use of minernls. Vasq gr~at resourees are szpeadwl for ttl~ir - prospecting. E:ploratioa of neW fi~ida ~?ill becasa oore effectiv~ if ~rn have - - a better r~cognitios~ o! ttu orgawization of o~r plaa~t. First of all it is nec~eeary to obLain detailod ddta aa the caeposition and atructnre of the _ d~ep int~rior of tta ~artb, aa wll as iafot~t~oA on X6~ early etages of euisteACa of tbe enrth. Ao~rsv~r paradaricsl, the an~er to tb~ qwstion of hoW the earth is or~aaized cnn be obtainsd as a result of etudyiag t6a ~wot~. _ A,ccoxding to modern ideae, the a~oo4, appe~s~wtly, is s r~aidue of solid pre- - planetary bodies~ t~at ~rere aot anco~paas~d by Barth ira the proeeas of its _ - 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 = ~~uFi orrr.crn~, us~ c~Nt.Y formatibn. Thraughout its history Che ~noon hae besn oYpoe~d Co smallsr - _ geologica~ changes thsn ~rtih~ Mara aod v~eAwe. Ths procesaee oF evolution _ left ma~y txnc~s on tbe lunar eurface--cratexs of diff~rmt si~as. Sane �ciantista ar~ pro~a~ to bolieviag that in tha aa~oriCy of ca~aa tt~ crater� Msr~ fornsd as reaultr of impects oF meteorit~0 on the ~u~ar eurface. One c:sn hopa thnt on the ooou a cwasidorable numvber o~ tre~ceu of ~volutioa are preaerv~d that r~Elact tha enrly hia~ory o~ the aoler spet~m. ~rom this viev- ~ point the ~oon is ewA of greater i,aportance for studi~a than th~ plansts. Thus~ atudy oi tlu ~oa~ is fnaepardbiy li~d to ths probleme og in~autigatiag Enrth, ita history and ~volution, etructurm and campositica~ of the intsrior~ _ cheoical and geological proc~ssee accuxting in it. - Nhe~t, for axempls, ce~n aa 8n~lysis of sau~plse af lunar rocke s~nt to Earth ~ prwida? Aftsr d~teYaining in tb~ the concantrstion of different radioactiyb - = elemmta and producte of thsi.r breakc3c~va the epeaialiata 4atablish ~n th~y Mera foxmed. Thi� uiakes it possible to revealsuppliea o� lataat radioactive - ~aargy in tlui deptbe of the ~?c~on. A to~tal cherical ana?lyefs of tba eemplas - and data on tb~ contsmt i~ them of a nrunber of acattored alemaats ehow Mhich - procoes~a r~sultad in th~n formation of this eubataac0. waa it in A liquid, aa~lted foum or dfd it remain aolid~ c�rysCalli~ae. Speciai studiea iadicate Whic~ tempermturea and prassuree act~ed ~n the subatance and what natuza th~s~ factora ~d. Analqaia of the lanar substance wi~l help to open slightly th~ curtain over the sarly etages of p~.anetarq fo~tion. - The far sid~ of the m~oon also int~ereated th~ acientiate, for even rha eaallesC ~ diff~reacne ia tha structura of t:t~ vi~ible and far 6miapberas of the moon me~lce it posaibi~ to undereCaad t~he naturs o~ thn finsl etag~ in tha breking - of this celeetial body-�"th~ ap~eci81 poiat," whan as a canaaqueac� of ths tidal frictioA slicit~sd bq Enre~h the period of a~cial rotatioA of tbe moo~a becawe equsl to tbe period of ita~ rotatiaa nraand ~.artb. - Tha ~ooa~ opens enor~aans perap~ctivas bofore astronomers. - - On tha mo~n r~h~re there is no atmosphers the entire range of eloetramagn~tic radiatios~ "is op~" and acc~e;ssible to direct obearvaCio~ ead inveatigation. The reeults obtainsd l~re m,~ks it poseible to judge ths p~sicsl co~diticc~s, _ content of hydrog~a aAd ter4p~erntura at different points in tha eolar coroaia, _ nnd the chraaosphsre, the pbrysic+~l proc~ases in the fntarpldnatary aadiw, as well as in ttu 1ono~phrir~~ aad atmoaphera of E nrth. - Oa a luaar observatory azu can sak~ a apsctroecopic detesviaation of th~ - _ chaaical caapoeition of tha planets ia th~ eatire range og ths spsctrw, ia order to fi~c linea of gt?s~e aad aleawsats that aro iaaccsseibla to obaerWation fsom Eartb. - - Tha moon ia au ideal pla~ce to study tha primarq cosmic raqs all th~ *raq to ` energles in tbe biZlioae of billioos of electson-volts. S~cb a poaaibility - for studying higb ansrgy particls~ will p~~ait sciaatists to peuetrata d~ep~r into th~ �~cr~te of tha structurs of matt~r~ aad mare succesafnll.y solve t!u - probles of coatrolling th~tmonuci~ar procassea. Pi~ysiciats vi~l obtaia on ~ ths moon tha moat ~aar~ous laboratorq ~ith an ideal vacwws, and lo~ tampar- _ sturea. _ 4 FOR OFFICIEw USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~~uit c~~'rT:C1A1, us~~, c~Ni.r ~ Aa Che artificim~ eaC~llitad have ohoMn a ccmeiderm~le nuaibe~ of t:orraetrial pxoblaa~ cea bo r~olvod only ~.n space. Baing raany ~hou~ande of kilan~roxa _ frcw ~ho surfacs of the earth ~hs inetrumettte already tu~v~ d~scoverad in th~ - sAae arid aa dry lend certain rseourcea thet t~r~ hidden ~rom th~ obaarv~erp loeated an Earth. Fratt tb~ aoo~ oae ean obe~rve the eartb~ ob~octe ia eize up _ ~o s~v~ral te,na of m~tore�-hundreds of tiarae ~cnaller tban thoea ~hieb a� cna eea on ~he caoon fr~ ~irth by using th~ seaee inetrr~me~ts. This ia explsined - by th~ facC rhaC the ataasph~re of Enrth thaC is du~ty and in r,oontinuws n~tioa is in diraat proacimiey to ita earfQC~. " Fi,nnlly, witliouC breaking apay ~rero the real potentialities o� scie?~c~, and _ only e19.ght1;~ entor~qg into tba r~alai of fantasy cme can raiee the que~t ion: _ - I~as the time no~ cane ~?hen people, having sp~t saa+e iaportsx~t roianxetls iu th~s e~r~h' a deptlh+~ a?nd havxng found th~n on the mcwn wi.ll comsider it ex~d2~nt , to deliver tihesa mia~arals to Farth? It is true ~hat apparsntly ir will ba _ ino~cpedient ~to ~raasport them fron t6ore ia their antural for~s. But rhe - - po~eibility io not exclud~d of convarting tba min~ral raw ~a$terials of celea- ~ tiel bodies into typs~ of a~eitter and energy co~ve~ie~nt f~or transpurtitag. Ae Academici~ar~ C. P. Koro~ev noted, argani::atior. om thn mooia of a peswan~nt sciantific stntion, and aubsequontly an indu~trial fe~cillty ~rill permit ttw usa of untauched nnd as yet unknoMn rea~aurces of tbie graat csl~etiai body clo8� to us for scieuce anci the nntiaaal econany. Wa note tha~ thn vol.uae and divarsity of aciontific informa~iozi ubaat the moczi which e~cience todaq poaaeases thanke to spac~ rasea~ch are detott4ined first of all by tha poCeat~.aliti~s o~ th,n scien~ifi~ app~ra~us inetalled aboe~rd the a;paca eCations. And th~ae potentinlAtioa, in tura, are governed - by the ~reigtat and overall ~imensiaai limi~tatioao, enargy resaurcas, lengCh of exietanccs of the etations, pciculiarities of thsir movenant a1oAg tha txajactory, and tha natura of th~ infonoatia~n tramsmiesiozi. Ti~e taaks fulfill~d wAth the belp of apaca statioas can b~ verq divsrse. Tha studias ~ conductad by them rautually supplemant oac6 other, and ~nrich our kaoaledge about t~ie~ m~on. Daring tho ~slapaed yeara astronautics has achiav~d out- etandiug sur_ceases in thie directioaa. - LpP r'"' j~1 ~ ' Orbital Sci~eatific StaCioa "Salyuz�1 - The neut st~~ga in Sovint opace rasearah was the creation aad lauAChing iuto orbit of th~s atation "Salyuc"--~ vultipla-purpoee orbital ~ci~ntific etaticn " capabl~ of nolving a broad re~nge ~f tsake i.n tb?e n~r-enrth aattr. �pace. Tht creation of tha station and it~ prep~txa~tioA for l~auncfning to e~ great eutent wns pra~ot~i by the e~cperience of developiag aad taeCing the naa~d epaca- - crafts iA ttae ~ariea "Soquz." During the :Eligbt of the long-term arbital scisntific atatio~ "Salyut" two a~ain probla~ns r~maintKl to be solve~d: atudq of the possibility of mau~ s leagthy stay in space, a~si the conducting of a broad pragr~e of eciantific exgeriments. - - 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~UR Ot~rr.c:TAL (fSE ONLY A large progrma of madicaZ aud blolagical o:c;~~rimenta wiCh th~ ~artf~ipetian - o~ the creN mambore of th~ statian mae envioa?~~od ta mo1We~ the first of th~es _ probleo~. A a~t of asa~ur~~ vae dav~alopod tn guar~ntsn ths coaprehoneive pbyeical Crsinfng of tho~ co~o~aut~ i~ ~pac~,~ ~inco t~ physical load maiko� ft - posribla to a csrtain d~greo to caw~anoate Qo~ tha ab~~ACa o~ gravit~tQanal forces whmn man ependi a lcmg tiwn in rv~sightle~enoae, ~d croet~e the coz~di- _ tione !or acc~leret~d raa~dap~ation of tha organism aftcrr rotura to tha eerth. In ord~r to eolve the eaco~tid prablc~ it waa n~ec~ssnry ro p!.naa ia the modules _ of the etatioa a la~rge m~b~r of acia~ntific irn~enwieanta whoge total w~eight e~ccseded 1 ~ 200 kg. _ In tho plnnning of tho etation it wme~ also kapt in caind thst tho fu3.fillment of a eatareted progr~ oP ecimutific a,ad exparinmits and testa of - _ ~he ac?~bo,~rd eyotrm~ and aggregator uz~der complc~c carditioas oF a lengthy epaceflight aill provide th~ fi.rot ~cperi~nce o� opere~iag epace apparstue of - a nsw ~ype--ma:unad orbital atati~~. - The devalop~rs of ehs station �'S~iquC." wr~ro f~cad with th~ problem of cr~sating ~ n ecientific laboratory ~cietin~ for a long time in space with changeabla , cr~a. The uos of spacncrafra ian t~e seria~e "'Sayuz" wae mvisagod for the - _ da�iverq aad return of crewe, and tl~ trainsportfng of individual cavp~onaats - of equipment, objects and rsaults of reseerch. _ In the crantios~ of "Salyut" it waa~ ~?laaaed to con~ct sc~eat~fic atudiea oa = it wt~ile m~,nr~ed whao tha tra~naport craft docks ~rith the orbitsl = - bloak of tha atatioin and th~ crew ic locat~d in ita ca~partmenta, as ~rall as - during the flight of the arbital blayck of the etatio~a in au autaaatic mode _ without n creW. According to the plan a portion of the obeervatioa result~ conducted aa the - atatian wst bs t:asasmitt~d to enrtb by a radiatelemetric ~yatem~ ~fiile it _ - Wae pravidad ttut auother portion be dolivored ia a tranaport epacecraft. Thus ths poasibility vaa gueraataed for transporting from orbit to e~rr~h ueed phuto end movi~ ma~srisls, photo emuloion blocks~ containara biological - " ob;jecte, aa-board log~ ori~h aciaa~ific obsarvatioss of ~h~ cosmoneuts. In thA compLex of the orbital atation crsated for nesr-eart~ orbft of 7 Jan~+ 1971 - ~+ie;:e iucludsd: the orbitsl block put into orbit witbart a crea, and tha tr~snsport craft Mi.tb crva to bo dccked on orbit `+itb tha orbi~al block. Th~ fi::et crw iacluded casmandar G. T. Dabravol~skiy, flight onginser V. N. _ Vo.lkov, auid toating suginaer V. I. Patsaqov who ~rorked aa the atatioa for 23 days. The totnl w~eight of tho station after docking wae 25.6 T, includiAg ths Meight _ of ths orbital block aEter it Nas puC i;;to orbit--~8.9 T~ aAd the ~igbt of - - the tranaport craft in orbit--6.7 T. Thmra wrre ovar 1,300 individual instru~ents and nggregatsa or, board the etstio~a. 'ft~.e geaestric cturact~ri6tics of the sta+tiont total leagth ttn ~cbm dock:.,1 ccr~ditio~a 23 m, length of ths - orbitai blacks 16 a, saxianr~ dia4otor of the orbftal block 4.15 a. ~ua~ciat~m - cro~s diwAaion af ths statioa with opaa solar batteries lls. Ia ordsr to 6 FOR OFFICIl~L USE OvLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~ Nok cir~~IC:rnt, USC (1NI.,X = fulfill sci~nti.fic axperinonta~ Wieual obeervetian, aad photo aind movio photo- grapt~y kbers w~er~ 27 illuntnator~ in thr modul~e of the eCation. In order tc transgar th~ creM fram tha tYSnsport craft to th~ orbitnl block and back theze ia a dackiag ~unction. Aft~r dockin~g the cxev csn vork aAd - ros~ both in the awdul~s o~ the statioa~ aad in tba arres o# tha tr~n~port _ craft~ by transfsrring dit~ctly througb tl~ docking tinit without going out into outer epace. - On the atetion "Seslqut" for th~ first tine ttw posa~biliCy ~e provid~d of _ rapairimg and raplacing appe~ratn� and oquipue~at in flight by ettis creM. Tha - pl~cecient aad 1,4qcut of ~qui~n~at ewd instruwspt~ ~nera c~de aith regard xor th~ poesAbilitq of e,~cae� to t6~o in the case o~ eary decae~ges or cealPunctior~e. ~Oa board th~ ataticn thera is a~~t of tools, att~c~ats exd ca~rtain epar~ ' . parts. - - Ths raaulte of the ec3anCific and technical studia� �ulfilled on the statian "Snlyut" ero vetq eocten4ive. A praain~nC placs in theai i,s occupi~d by _ - nodical and biologicnl atndies, a~~trophy~ical etudi~s, ea w~ll as a cc~pre- - bnasiv0 photogrnpbic expsr~ma~t M61ch belaags to one of tha aaat.urgent dirac- tios� of C6e npplied use of astronentics--study of tha emitoaaent and naCural - rssourcea of E arth. The findiag~ graphically iedicat~ th~ high ~fficiency of spac~ pbotography for solving nany scier,tific and ne?tioa~ai ecaaaaic problana. ~ Of great ia~portenca are: tha firet ~xperin~eat in uctra-ataospheric sstronc,~- ical atndies ~ith thn }~salp of a stellar tel~scop~ controlled by tl~e coaaooauts "Orioa~" atudy of camnic ra,ys uaing a photo-~awleion block th~n eun~ to ~rtL in a tranaport crnft, rwd, a man~r of sci~ntific and techn~eel mxparin~ent� to - _ ~rork out undar full-ecnl~ ~v~di~ci~na systems a~d aggxegatas aecessery for _ - deeigning spaae apgarntus. _ , - The especial role of n~adical and biological a~ndiss co~dnct~d oan board "Salqnt" is deteraiined by ths pziacipln impartaaca for tha devalopaent of astronautic8 ~ of guareunteeiag o~an' e lengtby staq under co~nditi~na of a spaca ~ligbt. On tbs stetioa for xhe firat time a e~t of resourcaa vas tested to caa~panseta - - for r,hs ahorte~g~ oi pqysicnl load on the organiea of tha e~troaauts uader - - coaditioag of zero gravity tbat�includ~d a xviming tre~ck, losd enite, aad certain other compoaente. The biologicai exp~rimeats ez~cuted by th~ astro- - _ naut~:e~are directed towas~s aolviag a au~bex of qaestions li~ked to the creation of cloeed ecological systa~s of Iifa sugport for spac~c~caft of tha future. - Tha first fligbt of th~ atatian "Salyut" m~da a graat aoatributioo to tttr devalopebeat aad pe~rfactioa of spaca tschaology, ~?as th~ first azp~ri~sant iA - _ w~orid astranautica to creat� los~g-tetti orbital seatioaa, ead graphically = aho~ed their great potentia~bities as multiple-purposa apac~ laboratories capable of providiag the ~olutia~ to ~anq nrgeut probl~e in the intsresta ~ of wankind. - ? - FOR OFFICIA;. USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 f'O[Z OI~FICTAL (151: ONLY ~ In Dec~ber 197~+ the ata~foiu "Sa~.yuL�-4" wao~ puC ~.:ato orb~t. Or~ ~he~ 258th oruit after 2~~1cs of fl~gh~ of tho e~atioa it do~kad aith "S~ayux-17~" and coemo~au~ta A. A. Gube~xav etad G. l~. Gr~c~atco ~~~44~ed to tho atati~n. For a~ - mo~tb of ttu fligh~ ~6~ ctraw �ulfillud a!a?rg0 volumaa oC studi~s and a~:~r1- menta. Upon coapletion o1~ thc~ ~rlc th~ coemca~eu~o tre~n,~~2e~md to a pnt~arn of cone~rvetioa certaia aci~atiPic ~.neCrum~ats eund a sauwber of ~ho aervico - eystems, i~ncluding tha eyetem of lifc~ aupport. Th~ 8tatioa again b~gnuu to opernte eutonaaouely. Thro~ aud a halg uaonths paaead thus. Thon tho ~~con~i - craw--P. I. Klimuk nnd V. Y. Sevaet'yne~av w~arked aboard ~t+im sta~iaa for mor~ - tl~ea 2 nonthe. During the ~ntira ti~ tha sqete~aa oY the atatiore ~actioned = flawlasaly, w~d �tudi~~ w~ere conduc~c~d according to th~ aeeigned prog~cao?. A considarable volwQa of 4cientific r~~aarch wae carried out. Th~ts 9.ncludes fu1fi11r~enC of m~dical er~d blolo~ical, tschnical, as auAl cts a larg~ canplex of epace-phy~ical escp~rimmnts d~a~g~aed t~ ~olv~ u~any quoetione o� astrr~physias~ _ - aolar-t~rrsebdsl boada~ gaophy~fce~ and raseaxch o~ tha earth~s natural _ reaourcaa. ~ The expediency of Che roalizr~t~o~ of c~artein spac~e stiudi~as on tha orbital - ata~ion "Salyut-4" wa~ aamprob~nsively dfscu~sed by ~h~ scfeatists. Rore both = - the import8ac~ and th~ sign~.ficaiace of t~a exg~aixi.m~a~ vere comsidered, as ~sll as the poseibility o~ iCs reliab~e insttvn?ent analysis. _ Over 100 diff~rsnt axpezimants w~re s~l~cted, end ~hey atll ere af great imp~r- tance for diff~re~t �ialds of scie~ce, tiechnology, and the aetional economy. _ - "Salyut," in particular�-an excallentl.y ~quippacl agtxoanomical observatorq, _ _ ~quipped with apparatu~, ca?pnbl~ of parcaiving almoet the antire~ sp~ctrum of elecCro~agnetic emisstona. Can~idarabl~ aCtentioa Wa~ focused ozi an inveaCi- _ _ gation of the ultravio;,~t eolar radfation with the ~?elp of an orbftal solar talescope ~nd d~fraction spectraa~eter~ and tt~ conducting of astr~no~ical - observations ia ttw x-ray regio~ of tbe ~pactrum. Dozeue of snlar sp~.ctra wrers obtained mafnly fram regians of flares ou a3z stnr. The Eindiuga make - it poasible to inve~tigate ~ls~ diatri,'outioa~ of conditioa of iaaizatioa and excitatfon of etewe, and other physi.c~l ciaaractnristics of = thase important and intere~stiry~ far~atio~as on ~'t~ solar sur~ace. Ttbe cwa~o- - naut~ were assisted by scfentfata of tne grarnd astronamical obsergr~tories. They aada reca~m~sendati~s on th~ ael~ection of objac~s of observatfon, and - the operatiag pattern of tbe on-board apparata~. = Stuclies of x-ray astroaaay aroard Che station "Salyut-k" were csrried out with the h~lp of tFro x-ray tale~copes--"Filin" ax~d "RT-4." "Filin11 was dseign~d Co sCUdy x-~ey radAatio~ in the x~giaea of ~avelengths fran 1 to npprazimntely 60 It was record~d by faxr d~t~+ctors. Tlae - telescope hed a epmctrometer with c~igbt energy c~ranx~~la to analqze tha racordable rediatica. The mena3.tivitq of th~+ t~lssc~~e ~a~chod roughlq 0.01 ~ quantua per 1 cm2/s~ i.e., practfcally vaa suffici~mc~t to iavestig+ste all the _ knaon eources of a-ray r~diat~c~c+,. - The attachmsnt of tha optical a~cie of the t~alescope ~o th~ steliar sky W8a - provided bq t~ro stellar photawt~rs that reco~cd~d radiation of th~ stara in the blus and yellaa regio~ns of the sp~ctr~. - 8 - FOR OFFICIA;, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 - l~t)it UH{'IC1AL UtiE UNLY Of s+np~cial velu~? wa~ in#ot~oatirna tec~iWed fraou ttw x�ray aoura~ ~.n the ~ ~ouat~llatio~ Cygru~t. Thi� ~our~c~ i� locatsd in a biaixy ~y~Cer conri~tiaQ of o ma~sive nottinl ~tar and ae~ ob~ect invisibla in opt~c Yrp?s. Mhaa� iaaae is ` = clo~~ ta lA ~aar~so og th~ aan. Pos~ibly thl~ is s"black hol~." Its luli - anarg~tics i~ indicatad by CtuC ta+ct that t!a lum~~osity of this x-ray saur.c~ is L0~000 tiw� high~r tha~n that of th~ wn. ~ Tbe aYprr~aeal ,~tudy of sucb ob,~~ct~ a~rict~� cwr knarled~~ about tb~ �v~- _ lutioa of �tars and th4 ~uad~tal pro~wYCia� of spaa~ ard tiu~s--t6~ ~ai.. ` iaw of nat~r~. IA t6o aa~roa~ of C1u "bla~ck b~ol~s" the p~ysical coaditians , ara so unuraal tha~ ca~p)s~oly nea ~e, cw be fannd Chat ara not repra- duc~d und~r ttrrsrotri~l c..alitians. Th~ task of s~rinsnts aitb "RT-4" includ~d study ot osissioas in tlu~ soft x-ray ~rsgioa. Z?,e fect ig tt~at aoft radiatian i� strangly ~.b~arb~d by the filn of ths iaput opeaing of ths met~r. 8o~ver eh~er~ i~ aaotbsr ~aq?--coil~ce Y-ray radia~ioa !ry sp~cini qpt~lcs and direct it ro a~mall rster of phaKoas. Tho coilecting optics can be very ~ct~nd~d parabolical airroxs. ?hey ~ra also ~w eoccellaat fiiter thet dou _ not tranes~it tt~ hard :-ray radiatioa. Coswooa~uCe A. A. Guberev erid C. ti. Gr~eblco ob~t~rrr~d tv~o reiidu~s of "sup~r- navu": ane ia th~ con~tellatian V~la. t1~ otb~Y--ia t~ ccaetaliation Carina. _ ?he brightaot of tb~ noival �tar� Mas also ob~~rved. P. I. Kitauk and V. I. Ssvnst'y~ao~v Pocus~d prisary attsation oa stars that +~re lais bright. but - pos~~ss~d e rnmbsr oP op~cific fsatur~o, in particul~r irragulnrly lla~hin,g stars. Duriu~ tbs ~cpari,reat tb~ li~t o! ob~~cts of observaCivas vaa altar+ed bas~d ~ oa data of tbs grouad ob~ercatoriaa about tlu a,ctivity ot th~ atar~. In dddi� tion, in tha proces� of aoalysing ths coll~cted 1Afo~stioa so~aC L~as it boce~ oecasaary to obtai~ cartnin ~dclitia~el data, and to recheck tt~ s~wlts ~ of pr~vious obsetvetiona. Th~a tLe cos~ooa4auts ~rsre givnn a correct~d assign- owat . ~or the rough direction of the teleacope axis vn th~ studi~d �ource tha crsv first oriantad, the atatia~ in apaca, and tbeA sai~taiaed th~ sssigned orisn- tatim for Che entir~ 4ss~ioo of observatioas. Por the furthsr fioe ad~utt- _ mant ttw telescope itaelf nas eqnipp~d with a�p~cial tyetm of control and astro-oriwtetion. ~.or,g the gaophy~ical studi~e fulfill~d an "Salyut-4," ona should prioarily naa~e the ex~erissnt "Spektr" aed "F}~issiya." The ta~k of "Spoktr" included measureoant of the par~wtera for thi uppar ntmoaphar~-�dnnsitq, caapositioa, teopsraturn. ~ud iarastigatian of the iat~r- actiou of ttu a~viroamant ~rith tb~ spececraft, ` During the f ligtat of ttr~ �pacacrafta ffie app~aiaace o~a t6~ir howiag of a potar~tial relntiv~ to the plssss ~rrotu~ding it e?aa aoted ~asrous tira-- the apparetu~ eae~iagly Naa ~lectrically c.barged. Ia ordsr to lat~rpr~t t6s ' oaasarements aade oo ths eat~llits, aad !or th~ norsal fuactioaiog of t6~ on�bo8~cd syeteme it is v~ty iaportaat to knov th~ aaoaat of this poteatial. Tha positively (or nag~tivsly) ch~rged hoaaing vill r~epulse (or attre+et) ieas nad, coaaequantly, uad~restimnt� (or av~reeti.w~te) the seasur~d ioa - 9 FUR OFFICItiL ;~SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 _ t~cak ~t~ t~ rc; ~ n~, ust. oNt.Y concsntretion~. Having ostablished the? 1aF+s govarniag tt~s appcar+nac~ and the ~~unt of tt~ potantial it iQ ea~? tQ caneidor arrors iatroducsdi by Cbom into meaaur~meata~ aud provida high e#Pici~cy of corCain o~-board ~yetam~. Ow of ttw taske of the 8pac~ atudiqe--to axplain tbe goatures of inCeYactioa of particl~s in rarafi~d etmoephars ~rith the sstallitea. The wYgace of tha �t~tion "Salyut-4," for sxe~ple, wae coc~Cinuously banb~:dsd by auch perticl~s. M individual ixpact eccou+panied by g rebound (raflaction) of Che aras or aolacule cazmot provid~ perceptible rosults, but continuoc~o impacte result in tha d~c~leration of spac~craft by the rerefi~d stmasphere. In sam~ cns~s thi� d~caleret+on limits ehe tLae of existenc� of the apparatu~ _ in orbit~ rsquiring can~id.rsble of ~aargy to coope~~e~Ce for its effece. Ia other essse-�it pravaa u~u~ul ancf ie uec~d to return the lo~g-rasaga epsca - prob~e t~o aarth, and duricag th~ir lenciing o~ the pleAat. I~ is clsar r.hat for a preci~e calculeCion of d~calemtioa . it la im~artent to heve n good know- l~dge of the laWS governing auch collieior?e of t~a parCiclss vith Cha aurface of the eppuratue. Tbis iy e~pncidtly important in t6e dev~lopmrut of rocket- epnce eryste~d for multipl~ use. - , The numerous ntte~pts to �tuc~y iu the laboratory th~ ~ffect of rarefied atao_ apherean the nov~meat of a eatellita (ia the aans way as eirplane model� nrs tested ia nerod;memia tunasls) encountered iaaunnountable difficulties. The priaary ane is linlc~d to the n~ed to craate stream4 Mrith velocitide rsaching 30 ~000 ia~/h ar~d ovar. Moth~r is govern~d by ths sharp diffnrc~ce in r6a ceopoaition of the upper atmoephere froo the surfac~ atmospbare aad its varia- bility. It re~ained to mova the atudies to th~ actuel apacecraft in ord~r to inveetigate th~ procass of nsutrel particlas bitting ita eh~ll. Tbe experimont consi~ted of foro~ing beams of atmospheric p~.--ticl~s, dir~tir~g them at differeat anglea at tha target, aad measurin~ tha cturacteristics of _ th~ atreaa reflectad fram i~. The 6pperatua u~ad to fulfill ttw ezperia~,nt cansieted of tw subsqstams: to nnalyze particlee of the epproach stzeem nnd thos~ acattering after impact with tba target. Thes~ includad analyzere~ electr~a trlocka, aad e apec~l alectra~achanical d~vice that guarnnreed msaaur~aant of the apatial distri- _ butioa of the particlee flyiag off fro~ the tnrget. The eaergq of the par- ticle� in the undisturbed stmospheira waa meaeured by au t~obile analyser. w6oee longitudine?1 exi� coincided aith th~ dir~ctien ot mav~t of th~s station. Her~ ths setbod of changiag tbe inbibitiag stress on th~ aetvork of tha aaalyz~r ~ras aoed. Tha range of poseible energiee xas divided into a Au~ber af sectians. The atraame of pertielae vera saa~ured sueceesivelq in ea~eh of tbeo. Theas data oadn it poasible to detern~ine the of eaergiaa of partieles in tbe apprasch atr~. Th~ ~eark vaa conducted nlt�rnetoly fitst aith iaae, thea vith neutral particlea (preliriinarilq iocsized ia the aaalyzer). Thue. tbe main physical cbetracteristics of th~ ioo nad a~tutrnl ccoipanems of the ntaospb~ra n~ere s~aeur~d indepaadernlq, aad it bacame poesible to raliably _ deteYSiue tt� aaount aad chaages both in tt~e t~eperstwn of thsae casponenta s~d in ths potaatisl of tha craft in ralation to tb~ surrounding ionoaphsric plaesa. 10 F'OF. ~FFICI/,~ UtiF ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 - t~Uft UF'~trtAr, ttst, c~Nt.,Y _ The fentur~s aF th~ ~cperi~anC "Spektr" al~o ~aclud~ tho fnct that it p~rmitt~d a practicnlly nimwlCan~ous iav~atigatioa by one ia~Csv~~urt of th~ ctu~ractor- ietic� of ttu ruutxal end ias~ caripoa~~nta of thai atso~phere. The high rat~ _ ta~c~ in one sscoad) of aaaour~snti o~ede it poseibl4 to find na~ll-~cele ~ noaus~iforraitiea in tb~ etraclur~ of tbs nt~osptrr~. Langthq coatiauoa� wasur~- asnCS cxeat~d Ch~ pr~zequi~iC~s for fiading larg~-~cal~ aaiuaifostilCies. And , tla ats~di~e vith r~fl~ct~d gar~:icl~s in~ ga~~ral wsra ~~t up for th~ first tia~. - Th~ axp~rin~ant "Spnktr" brought osw info~stia? ~ich pr~viau~ly vas inacce~- sible to th~ r~~earch~rs. - The ~axperl.m~nt "F~ai~~iya" wae n~~to linbced to an inv~stigeticx~ of t~a np~r - at~w~phsric le~q~s~ priia+arily th~ plaa~tarp diaCributicn of thair tao~p~rature ano ite chnngee duriag a magn~tic stonr. It i~ no~t coavani~at to ~udg~ th~ te~p~raCura of a gaa fros the width of it~ _ sp~ctral li~s, linked to rhs velocities of tlr aoitt~d atv~~. in ord~r to wa~ur~ ths temperaCNrs of ~t?~ upp~r ntoosphar~ it proved awst coavanient to usa th~ rsd line of sto~ic oacyg~a. Th~ iAtan~ity of ita ltmineecs~oce ov~r th~ surteca of tta plari~t is naounifosti. It is �tron~r in th~ polar r~giana, but it~dividael brighC spot� app~ar alao at lvwr !.atiCudea, aspecielly in tt~ = sons of incr~a~d coac~ntratica of ~lsctraa~ nanr tha aquator. The luAioasc~nc~ - of th~ Ysd lina is int~n~ified duriag ~agueCic e~to~r~a. Accordiag to its ia~w- eity on~ caA trac� hav after a mag~tic ~torm fro~ tt~ polar leeitudes to tbe equator vavy oscillatioas in tb~ uppaz strwsph~re ar~ ~pre~d, w~ich eacampass tbvusands of kilaaetere. a Qf great Laportan~c� i.s ths location of ths banda for intwsificatiaz~ ia t6~ r~gion of tha equatorial io~oap~ric aaomaly, ~r61ch ba~ a stroag effecC an _ th~ opread of rufio Wnvas, a~od aa radio caruAicetiee~ b~t~ tbe Nartbare aad Soutturn Hrispheree. xt is iaportent to lu~ar bw the t~aporaturs and inten- eity of luminescence in the nppar stsospLers ara distributed in ard~r to ca~ntrnl ~aaaed ep~a:~crafta. The intensity and ~ridth of th~ rsd lina haw b~a ~a~ur~d fran ths aarth's surface for ~q qnars. Optic obs~svatiocs froo satvllites hav~ noticeably enp~ead~ tb~ir rna~~. Bafosy t1� fiig~t of th~ statiou "Salyut-4'~ sci~nc~ had d$ta on tb~ plsaetaty di~tributioa of tasp~ratnra ia t~ uFper ataosphare and ite changes during ~agn~tic stos~s ;a the psriod of aaziaus solar activitq. Ia tbe period of th~ miQi~as, i.~., v6aa tha stetion "Salynt-4" vas llying ths a~aaophor~ was coa~iderably cold~r aad its h~ating duriag sa~n~tic rtorss occurrsd under differeat co~uditiaaa. ?6i� is M!ry it Mni isportaat to coatinua such saazur~antt in ord~r to r~Y~,l the ecopd of oacillatioeu in _ tha di~tribntian of t~peratura in tt~ npp~r atnoophnra aitb n r~la~ivaly wak influx of anargy fra~ t6s stm. Far this r~asoa th~ esp~ristnt "~iaaiya" ~res set up. The s~asuring apparntus ca~si~ted of a pbotoslsctric pbotas~t~r to d~t~t~iu~ _ th~ intansity o! t~ r~d liu~ es~d aa intsrfararet~r xith sph~rical qnarts - plstes ~ansariag it� ~ridtb. Hultipl~-laprr disl~ctric coattags wr~ appli~d to the piat~~. One of th~s vai iasobil~, tta othrr wsa fsst~d to a pi~so- ~l~ctric c~t~ic to vh~ch en nlt~YSating voltag~ v~a fed that altmd tL~ - distar~ca bet~re+ea the plnta4. H~re ths vavalsagth wu altersd ef tb~ ligbt treae~itted by tb~ f,ntarf~re�wt~r, Mhicb p~t~ittad rsear,~diag of tha coatours 11 r�oa ()PFIC Il,~ usF ~~rr~.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 FUk Ul~l~ ICI~I. U5l? ONLY of t1u liae and a det~~inaCi.oa of its widtb. Before tha atsrt of the nes~ura- - - ssuts the co~onewte ia~tell~d tta in~trunaart o~ aa i1luAinaC~r a*.d oim~d it at s~n aceiCting ley~r. - Th~ fia~ ezp~ria~e~at~l t~chniqu~ prapo~~d a thorough ad~uetmont at~d veriPicatiao of ths charut~ri~tic� of th~ iatorPeraa~~tor. Th~ sdjuitneot of tbi~ appa- Yatus fram th~ ~aYtb va~ carri~d out Mith th~ l~lp oP a la~ex. Ia flight in order to co~trol tLe tuaing ther~ Mes ea oa-board optic peaaddrd that witt~d liaes vith asaig~d charact~ristica. Th~ verificetio~a of ths apparatus i+ith th~ h~lp of this standard ~ ae ~11 ari eimiag oF th~ i~aetrua~aat t;o+~ard� ths regiou of luaiwscanc~ ~ e~p~ciellq during aoag~tic atomr, requir~d ttu parti- cipati,oas of tha coeaooaats. Ths crew of the orbit~l atation "S~?lyut-4" aas faced with th~ probla�~ of obee~cvisg and p6oto~raptiing the earth's surfeec~ and ocsa~a in tho intrre~ts of sciaac~ aAd th~ aaticoal ~caaary. As s rotult e larg~ numbsr of black and N6ite, color aAd apectrosoaal photogrnpbs With varying ruaolntioo onr~ ~mt to ~artb. 'Th~ ph4tograph~ eacowp~ased ~anq miilicns o� squar~ kilaoNt~rs o~ differa~t r~gioa� of cur cous~try. ~ Tha flight of ttu station "Sslqut-4" auce again abawd with ~cll coaviocinga~s~ the prcp+ising natura of tb~ ioain path for tba arrolutiofa of a~tz^anautics--tta crention of orbitel ~tntione ~+hicb have not caly u~or~ous ~ci~atific but also - ~v~r gr~at~r practical importnr~ce~ by pramoking the eolntica of the most isporteat eco~asicnl ~ ecologicnl and oth~r tesks facing c~er~cind. At first g1aAC~ it caa ae~ atrsngo that in the ags of highiy davelop~d t~h- nology, auta~atica nad r~ote c~trol that a~aa ahould bo oz? board a svnca- - Craft~ especially since automatic machines have demonstrated their merits fairly convincingly aad oftsn alao sdvantagss. It ia no sacr~t tl~at an isweatigsticn of out~r speca ia lisilc~d to a great outlay of rasonrce~. Md in tbis resp~et Lhe autasatic apperatus ar~ cousiderably ~ore suitable~ �epacially for studyiaa the voon sAd plarist� in ths aolar syst~. Saturated vith diveres sci~atifie - appsrstue tt~y maka it po~sibla to obtaia, aod thsa~ to trmaoit to esrth oa redio t~lesetric aad tal~viaiaa chat~twls a larg~ volttae of iafos~atioa abcut thss~ region~ and ths pbcyaical procssses occurriag tLar~. In our couati^y autaoatic apparatus of th~ rsturnabls typa havo bs~a creat~d i+hicb us capabla of d~liveriag rewlts of s~~sur~sasat~ to eart6 for t~eir subs~qwut proc~s~iu~. - When th~ paqload of tha spe~ce ob~ects iocluda th~ t~r~igbt not oaaly of aaA bi~- s~lf~ but of all the life-support systems, tb~ fra~ework of the acisatific progre~ is inavitsbly coastrict~d~ and tha qwAtity o! etrictly reaenrch - _ instruveata ia liaited. Coaa~idqratioaa far a randou ~der~r avait2ag saa in spac~ aro alwaya eddsd to thras discus~ions. _ - Ho+~var all of this atill ~ioas aot a~ea~: that oA~s caa ga~rally do viehoat sen in spec~ f ligbt~. Th~ oaia tnsk link~d +to panetratioa into ~pace, at lsaat in the near fntmc~, coa~iute of ar ~v~r daep~r knawledg~ of tt~s wrld surroundiag ns. Bvta noa out~r ~pece has bNn coav~rted into am inporteat lsboratory of aod~rn ~ciaac~, ahers aa~ cm aalce d~tail~d �tudisa of differeot prac~osee and pt~oMaa, includiug thosa not y~t kaawn to sciontista. But this ~eeas that aa space is 12 _ FOR OFFICII.I. USE ONL'f I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 1~Ult UI~}~ LCIAL U5ls ONLY penetxnCsd the rsrsarc6sr~ in~vitably ~will L�aao morr o~ter~ prnbl~ue vhich w~c~s aot fornulet~d previously~ and th~refore in ardar to �olva Ch~m ~ bs~ic411y n~w epprouh i� r~quir~d ~v~ry tiw. Yn thi� r~~p~ct aan po~o~p~~~ uniqur ~ potantislitie~, Ona should not fcng~t al~o about thn uubcooaci.ona activity of tha buman brain. abauC intuiCioa +rhich li~a bsyond tth potu~ti+~liti~~ of cyb~rnetic c~achiaea. - For both the etibcoq~CiOU~ and inCuitl,an play m uctrrwly iaportant rol� in - - tha proc~~s o~ ths ecientigic rtudq of n~tuty. Only saa caa ~ftectiv~ly atudy the unkaarm. ~ po~~~ase� the uniqu~ cApabilities of aor oaly obeervirig~ but al~o accuiwlatiag sad analq~ing tha ob:ained infot~atioa. oCoring it in 63s aie~ory aAd usiug it for th~ rapid ralciag of a cotroct dvci~ioe~ ia unfare- a~ cnrcuaatanc~~. Tt~ety i� ao w~,chi.a~ ~a~d~ by husa,o haads thet is capabls yeC of doing thia. The ~wdsrn auta~aCic oacbinea cannot stt~r that ~hich baaicslly ca~mot ba - reduc~ci to en altyady obt4insd kaarl~g~. T'teecy ar~ capabla o! etudying only - suc6 proaees~� aad ph~aaw~ea tbat ara al~sady fuiliar to man ia tluir aata f~ature~. It is tru~ thet r~c~atly th~ tai~ati~t~ hav~ csrri~d aut axtaasive vork on tha craatioc~ of so-call~d h~uri~tic pt~qra~s for ~l~ctronic cmput~ra. _ D~tailed progr~as sra beiAg d~velop~d oa t1~ besis of n g~er~lizaCiaa oF th~ r~s~arch activity of p~ople. In tba ideal ~chi~u, �quippsd ~?ith � h~nri~tic ~ prograa~ the proc~aa og scisatific r~saarch in s cortain fi~ld Must b~ iapl~- oantsd ind~pandaatiq. H~owvsr tl~a real pot~tialiti~a af snch progr~~ ar~ still coe~paratiwiy wll. ido ~rill return to epacific exe~plee. Talc~~ Por ~xsspl~, th~ proble~ of ' atudying Aoinr Plnres that pla~?s a prirarq role in th~ pr~dictioa of radia- - tian ~afety of space ~ligbts. llar tb~ss studi~s ar~ csrri~d out witL tbs help of autooatic instsvo~ats. Us~slly t~ autaoatic ~aehis~s ia gaid~d ucordiag to tha optic cont~r of ths flars, N6icla oft~a hao a very fantaatic - and lndtfinita etu~pe, a~d caA fall fron t6a fi~ld ~f vision of th~ ia~t:vaant. S~etinos in differaat regione of tty sua eiaultawously tao-tbre~ #laraa dawlop. The eutomatic oacbin~ r~cord� aa~sthing avsrngad, a~d th~ into~r- aatioa will b~ ineccurato. T!~ co~aonaut an th~ baai~ of psr~oaal ssparience md creativa initintive cen ~ak~ aa opsretioae~l cbaag~ in tha progYa~ of atudias~ aad provide a considsrabiy ~rs ca~pl~te pictura o! t6a aptic obs~r- vatioa, det~=aiw tha a~ction o! g~wratioa of th~ ~lar~, �tndq th~ conca_ nita n t phaoa~saa, aAd sa lotth~ On~ �hould also aot~ tha asp~cial rol~ of t1~s cose~vaaa~�sciaatist in stad~ing _ ~hort-t~is irragular proc~~sa~ ia ~pec~. Hl~n c~ly antadatic ~acbin~� obns~ws th~ raay data caA ba lwt e~ong t~ laag-ta~ iafar~ation. T6s ~p~ciali~t not anlq focuaes ~t~antioo au tb~~ but also aa~cbsa th~ caocaait~nt pheno- mena in t~~ ca~pluc of atudt~a. Evan th~ nosaal visual ob4ervatioas fr~ apace havs a~ocapeiaqal ~rits. ?h~ ~ vorke=s of agricultur~. fc-~ ezapl~. t~~ interssted in tha coaditian of t~ soil in th~ prapla~ting p~raed, it� ~oi~tnru coe~teot, t~ratur~--and all of this os~ gisat territorisa. Sailora ar~ iat~rast~d ia tL~ c~ditioa o! the oc~a surfac~, !ta Mave a+ction, and fisbax~-�ia th~ pr~s~nc~ of fi~b in a c~rtein r~gioon. At tha saue tirs th~ iatos~atiaa wst b~ rapid~ ~spsc i- ally if this caacerns data o~ differ~at ~l~tary p6ana~na. A~d in thia 13 FOR O~FICII,L IISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I - ~0lt UFC~TCIAL U5L ONLY ~ re~p~~t th~ pr~w~c� of a�p~ciali~t aboard the cr~g~ ia iAValnabie. f~lor oaly aill h~ ia~tentiq ~v~tu~?t~ th~ oitciatiiaa~ buk nl~o nak~ qu~liti~d canclu- �ioas oa t~ d~v~lops~at of a cortain aatoozological procoaa~ vill gi~ro e �tat~ wrniag. aad ~o foYth. The cow~auwt-~oi~ati~t caw a~k~ rapid chang~o in Ch~ program of �tudi~~ Prco _ - th~ vi~point o� ~~l~cting ~tudied obj~ets. Hy nsiag diwYao a~nd fsiYly cawpluc apgrratur lw pro~vid~� s coneidasably gul~er p~licture of ths optic obs~r- vstica. t~li vill giw auch an a~cmpls frar th~ fi~ld of r~atearalogy ia oxd~r to axplain. One of th~ fundas~ntai probleas facing Acionc~--~rgntics of tbs eartb, i.~.~ th~ i:?flux aad a~nditura of h~at of. our pia,~st. Tha aci~atists sra inter- �~t~d iu bov ~u~h ~olsr radi~tion is sbaorbad in different r~gions of tb~ ~arth, Low it i� distribut~d ovar ths sarth~a surfnce~ aad har oucL ~n~t~y th~ earth ~ive� o!f inCo ~psco. ThAs i~ thst iafosmatian thaC ~t~oro~ogy ~ctr~seiq ns~d4, pracia~ly eh~ - influz ead a:panditur~ of w.xgq d~C~sv~iw tlu ciianges in watL~r and cliaat� ov~r tb~ ~atir~ alob~. Th~ aain barrior to tuat ~iso~aa--tbe cloud cov~r of - th~ plan~t. Thsrator~ it i~ u~ce~oary to mak,~ a tboraugh inve~tigation of t1w - optic prop~rti~a of its differ~t ~o~~. Dailq th~ aat~llit~s ia th~ ry~ter "t~taor" ~upply us ~? an ano~oue quantitq og iafora~aCioo in tbs farn of _ televieioa and tt?~ itifrared i~nag~g of the cloud caves. SaNever not all the fon~a oP clcud~ can be clsarly recordsd oa tb~s~ photographa. Thus, cir:v are aLrost oot uotic~d an rbem, end eilver clouda are noC r~c:orcled st all. Thia problea is ooly in tha realm of a qualiPi~d ob~~rv~r oa~ bo~as~d a apacs- craft. Studi~s of raceat yeers tuva ~hovn that a~rosols hav~ e~+ignificaat sffact on Meather a~d c~ipats. th~s� ar~ the eaalleat pox~iclss both of tarrestrial, ead spac~ origin tbat nrs flyiag in the atmospbars. Ow of tba soat pro~ising setbods of detariaiaing ths apatial distribatioo o~ uro~ol ia aititnd~, s~ _ ~sll aa its optic charact~ristics--observatioa a~d analqsia of th~ czwpu~cular auraol� of tl~ ata~osph0r~. T1~ solaticn o! auch a taak vitb tha belp of auto- satic ~achiswa is atill difficult. 8ers wen is aLo u~ed~d. Ths pre~u~c~ oa iroard a epac~craft of s co~a~aut i~ importaat far ~astsarolo- gists ~or y~t anotb~r reasaa. Curnatly ~ci~ntista hsv~ caa~e to such a stag~ _ = of devalop~sat of �tudyiag proc~~a~s d~t~raiiniug ~wath~r aad cliaiata on esrtb wh~r~ ans can vith th~ h~ip of araeurrsnts oada ~ro~ sat~liit~a d~t~t~aiw tbs c~wntitatiw Nteorological parartera of th~ at~c~phsra, 9nc6 para- �et~rs in tbe liret placa aro tampsratur~ and air buniditp. Ons ~hculd nots that a queatitatiw predictica--th~ �ost precis~, aod conseqaantly, tha sost praa~isi~g. Hitb tha help of sl~etroaic campaters va~ caa pr~dict Lc,N ths _ atrospbare vill b~ chang~d aith th~ss atarting dsta. I~ is aatural that ~suurrwats frco satallite~ hers have an indirect Aatur~. �i~ca they gly at an altitud~ of sev~rsl hwads~ds of kiloNt~ra. ii~ ere interutad in t6~ la4r~r of atrospbsr~ that !a ooly about 30 lan thidt, ~r~ tha ~atl~r ia "cooicsd." T'!N sitaatia~ is aaalogoas to t6a?t a:istin~ in aatropbyeios. All tbat wi kaar aboat t1~ wa aad atara has bNa obtafswd fras dats of atudyiag th~ir ~aissiau. Das to ttw sdvaocea in rocket aad spac~ tnc~mology 1t baa b~ca~s pos~ibie to lift r~au~rcb appsratua into space. Hy ~sasuriag thsra 14 FOR OFFICIA;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 - = COft OFFICIA(. USi: ONLY the er~issioas lrao~ ~arth ia dil~lereat region� of ths spectrw the ~cientiars find, ia par~icul~r, t6a pareaNt~rs they ~r~ iot~r~ot~d in. Of aourse thi� ~a a very ca~ple~c tuk. F'or ~xaipl~ dift~r~nti di~eributia~~ of - t~reture euad altitud~ cen corsv~pcind to aa e~qinC of raidi~tioa. Aad ~rvu~ sa~all st~rors ia th~ aNaaar~d ~opnt r~~uit in larg~ ~rror� io tb~ final roait~. Th~r~for~ ia ordar to obrai~ such ~acpariantai data it i� ~r~ary to ha~?~ v~ry ca~plax apparatu~~ rhat can bs controll~d bp a~kill~d ~pecialirt aa board � spac~craft. - ~ . R~gerdi~se of wh~re th~ ~tudi~s wiii b~ carri~d out��w rann~d creft or on~ auta~at' ~ otnticaa. it i� we~ssa~r to crrata sp~c~iali~d sci~ntific appa- ratu~. At ttu first stage of esploring and developia~ t~chniqaao ~,ir sesea~rch tha dirsct participatiou of cosonaut-~ciartiata Mould produc~ a great aff~ct. - The epaciali~~: oa board a~pe~c~crsft ~?ill oak~ s ca~plste apd dstail~d aA~lqaia of the oba~rv~d ph~nao~aon, nill rw~ai t1N objecCs aad pror~a~~� Mhich are of gsyatsst inter~st far tta otudy~ ~rili gmrtaliz~ the raeding~ o! tb~ i~notra- �ante~ will chang~, if seqnir~d~ th~ progra~ of ~wra~ent~. and Mill cautiswe - tha ~xp~riMAt in the nsc~~~sry dir~ctfon. Tt~ ~cientista ca~ ~tel~ct th~ optimi sppara~us nec~~sery for ~ait in ttr~ fitabl anely~i~ to caoduct dstail~cl studies, aud th~ part~t~a af it� oparatioa. As Ms ea~ tl~ active parCicipation of aan in studyiag onter spetic~ is n~ceasAry. - Th~r~for~ ths atepo und~rtak~o i~ aux conatry ~or tb~ laylaag of wwra cartain aAd reliable pathe for Aen~s peu~tration into spnc� ara ccapi~tely natural. _ LpP 91-1~~ Chapt~r 7- Some Results of Space Research ' It is icnoan that the co~t of sprrs flig6ts ia fairly high. BoMw~r ttM out- - laq~ for ~1~ d~v~lopant of apace sre not seaa~l~~~. S~cca~~as ia ita d~val- opa~eat have praooted a eharp riss in s auobsr of fislds of aci~eea and tecb- nology: biology and sedicin~, a~tronary aod a~rvdyneu~ics, Yadio ~ngitNering md auta~atica, gss dynsice aad �l~ctroaica. Ths progreaia for tba flight~ for tb~ wa~ority of Sovi~t aat~lli~� ara c14s~ly - lidced to ths aolutioa og a nu~b~r of natiooal aconaetic probl~oa--iav~ssti- gation of tbe atso~p~re and earth~a ~tic fi~ld~ ~~tabli~nt of ce~u- nicatioa tbrough ap~c~, navigation ~rith ths lNlp of ~atellit~s~ axploratioa of wiaeral~~ and ~o forth. - Nhst do~s stuc#~r of apaco giva oat~? Cosvic Baye Th~ ~arth is subjsct to t6e coe~tinuaua actian of o coatiaual atsya~ of charg~d apace particl~s, v6ose velacity of aov~t is closa to tba spe~d� of light. Our idaas on tty natur~ md prop~rti~s of coa~ic rays are b~ca~ing ,os~ snd vore cawplate. _ ~ 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 E'C)l? U{~ 1~ f C 1~11, 1151: ONLl' ~ Th~ first infoxmation an co~aic raye bfllor~e eo 1912 Whsr, ~h~ Au~Crien iiesa~ whila conducCiag oxp~rimer?tn on a ballooa advar~c~d the hypoChoeia ttiat radi- - etion o� v~ry great pen~~ratitng ability falla on t14o border og tb~ atmospha~ce - from th~ ~oxld of epa~ca~. H+a~c~ hypotu~eie wa~e eupported tan y~mc~r~ LAtQA by Millikea Mt?o cnlla~ th~ hithorto unkz~o~m rayo coauaic. A~cot~ding ~o Millikan's trypotb~ei~ coasic raye d~vslop by r~aa~ of c~nergy rolea~aaci during ttu synCh~sie _ of haavy sle+uwts fram primordial hydrogsr df~trib~ntod in thr~ univorse, and tt~oa--photous of enozmoc,~s e~a~rgy that po~eass graaC psnatrability. - Th~ ~rpaximants of Bore and Ko1~yArstmr xa~ulCad in ttad hypothsote th~t primary coaaic rediaticm consieta not of pho~ane, buC ret~8or of charged parCiclse. ~ ~ Hera ths 1aC+azaction o~ coeaic raye wi,th the eub~eance ree~uxte in caaplmx pra- a~sees within ths eubstar,c~. e~ a rouule o@ Which ~y eecandery particles are . - fon~d. The diacovery by Au~nrson ot th.~~ pouitron vaa a c~usidetcabl� advanc~ in thi� direction. In the opfn2on of Dirac this particla could not previously be fvuAd ee a consequence of i~s very ehort l.ife. kfien a positron ~neete nca ulecCraa~ boeb Cha parCicle~ ar~, er~ihila~tsd, thsir _ mes� is transferrsd into energy ~inich ~to em~itted iu tt~ fozm of photonu. Carlao~ and Oppenheiw al~aoet ai~ult~naouely expluinud tha nature of aha~rera of co~ic raya. A~ccordi~ to thair theorq the d~valopvant of a eho+~r occurs , by oresns of the birth of pair~ bq pbntona end a~iasion by pboCoon~ by alectrons _ during braking in a field of uuclei. Theae proce~ae~ occar nenr tha ataa~ic uucleua, without producing che~ngeo 1~n ite struc~ura. In each elemeatary nct = only tta particla� develo~, 8~ad ~lthou,gh tbe ~hcywe~-fomnit?g radiatioa~ consistei of al~ctrons and photoans~ th~ psrtic~ae +thnt poseeas grent p~aetrability caa- not b~ coneidered �lectrona. NMideraei~sr propoaed thet theee aro new par- ticles ~rlth a eingls ctiarge nnd mae~ gr0ater thaa ths nasa of a notmal free alactron, but coaeidarably smaller thaa tho raaae of a proton tconeequently theq Mere cal led ~1-~oer one Tlu c~ost Laportnat at�e?ge in the inv0etigatian of the r~w a~rld of particl~a _ began in 1947 wit4 tt~ discovery of tha ~r-meaon which provod to be parantal _ in rslation to the previoualy known ~~meson. In the deetsucCion oE tho ~r -mes on ,~n additian to w-~~ on enotherr neutrsl partic le ia born. Tbe vaes - of the leCter ie ouch amallek tt~en the ioe~ea of the elactro~. There arn t~to such nsutxnl particleQ ~it6 p~ract~ically zoro raaaa--th~ photon and the nsutrino. ~ It ia extr~nly cac~plicntsd Cu rind thc~ neutrino~ since 3t intdracta ~rith aubste,nce~ vsrq ~+~sakl,y; tt~ photana aro recordsd accordis~g to ths secandary alsctrons ea?~ttocl by thmm in thn praceas or fo~,tion of paire. After not finding pboton~ amca~g th~ producte of �-uwa on braakdaR+~a the phqsicists drow the conclusiva; tbe nQUt:al particlo urith zazo ~~itt~d du~iAg the brealc- - dare of ~-~sone ia tbo nwtrino. _ In the saca~ y~a: Oppeabein adv~cod a hqpothenis thst subsequmtly provsd correct: the a~utral m~sone cesi be rapidly bcoiten do~n into phota~e tbat _ Qra include?d in the compoeitiou of cos~nic raye obeerved iu the ataoaphera. - Tha a~w aocp~r4m~t� shc~sd that the coamic particl~e that interact [be ~ost _ strongly in th~ ~tmoephsra ar~ protone, aeutrons aad tt.~~e~ns that did not succa?~d in bsealcing doirn into �-me8 ona. 16 FOR OFFICII,L UtiE ~NI.'; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~UR UT~ I~ IC IAI. USL UNI.Y The nwaber of proto~s, neutronm aad n-mesons x~pidly incr~aeas ~i~h alti~cude~ th~t~efar~ in order to study nuclear iatarnctioaa stC~ept� ~YO aoado to coaduct e~cpe~xi~C� es higb na poseibla. Appa~aCu� of eonndiag belloo~� wa~ p~rg~et~d~ tl?ar trailad for dqys th~ sir a:ean at altitud~� up ~0 30 lcs. Hi~r~ th~ raNtk- sbl� diverei.ty ia ths pzevioa~ly uoktio~ short�liv~d "a1NSa~ary" pe?xticl~s = Mas ~xpleined. In 1953 they wta divid~d iACo tvu groups th~t rec~ivad tlw ~ naae oP iuavy Aaeone ~wd tq+p~roa~~ aher~by both couid be noatiral, ae ~sll aa cha~rg~d. N~vy aeaone� sre lighter tLsa protoaa~ but henvi~r the~n ~r�~e~ane; - h~?p~ron� nro twavier thea protans. Ia tha 1950'~~ as if suaring up tha n~in lanc~marks in th~ ~volutioo af the phy~ic~ of cowie rays a eingl� patt~rn of all ph~AOO~na link~d Co th~o~ rqy b~ga~ te ba fosbed. - NoN it could b~ fairly co~fid~ntly �tat~d that a m~a~b~r of ebe hypottusdo - - liot~d abow Mars erronsou~. At tb~ aa~ tiM eaauy conclusioe~s Mera co~nfi~~d: C~e~a wrre th~ ~rsru~c~ in Ctw ~awposieioa of coaic raara in tha ataosph~r~ of electrons and prota4s of gr~e,t eASrgy~ th~ asNrtim in r~latiou to t6s _ birth og sa~ on~ in tZu etsoaphnce, and the ~ociaC~nc~ of dif~'~rset tqpss of wsone. The launching of a~rtifi~ial ~rth sat~llit~a ope~wd uniqn~ potsatidllCi~s for the setting up of ba~ically nsv ~xp~ri~snta i~n out~r spacs. It becaa~~ pos- sible to go beyond tlas 13nita of tha ~tno~pl~r~~ ~ad then slao beqaad ~he linite of th~ ectiva of ttie ~erth'a ~tic field, aAd to imn~tigate ths p~'Laary ca~ic z~rdiat ~ve~ dir~et ly. A5 w~r~ al~�eady ~tated, in outer space there are particles of practically any ~aergy. 'I'he bneis of the priaary coa~ic r~yrs is protons~ �l~ctrana, wd ia aaallar quantitiea�-nuclsi of ataaa of different chsical ele~at~. Accardia~g - to tb~ wadern id~a th~ traj~ctoti~s o~ th~e~ pdrticle~~ ia appsvacbiag th~ ~ar~h, sre bsat by the sarth~s ~tic field. Hb~a th~y collids ~rtth nucl~~i of ataas of etao~ph~ric gsa~s breekdo~rn of bot'b tbt "sia~ii~" and tbe "targst" occura. Protcns ~uad n~utxon~ MitL big1~ ~rg~ ara fouad in tha d~cc~po~itican products, ~rhich ia tura int~ract ~rith athar rn?cl~i in the atewspbara. A portioa of ti~ a~r~? of tb~ prtaary psrticl~ goas for the fotsation of ren sbort lived particl~~ ~ nuh s~ �-N~.on e aad benvy wa ce B. Aa investigatioa of t6~ iat~rpla~a~tary field KLth t1a b~lp of apacecraft oede it po~sibi~ to rnveal a nusb~r of naw pha~a~waaa, a~d radically r.avita tba idu~s on ths proc~as~s oa~curring ia th~ anviro~ of ~arth. Ob~ervatioos fra~ iatellit~a shoMSd ttut th~ inteasity of tt~r~ low-awrgy porkioo of coeaic radiatioa ia not coastant in ti~ ead is linic~d to t~ activity o~ tb~ wn. Ttws, in the pariod of t6e grendiase f lar~ on tba sua which occnrr~d an 23 - Fabruary 1956 tha inte~sitq of comic rays rose roagbly ia 20 oinutas 25�50- fold co~par~d to th~ noimal l~val. It ia nsnmed that this ph~o~oa ~oas _ gowr~d by a�tr~ of high-w~rgy �olu coeaic rays�-particl~a, prisarily proton~, ~.+itt~d by t6r sua cl~ring ths f lu~. - F~rt6~r ~tudi~s of ttwse rprs haw tbo goal of ucplaining tbe ~ec.banin~s o# _ thsir gan~ration a~ th~ sne, conditioos of ~pread in ths 1Aterplanetasy spacs, - _ aad emerg~nc� fzan tha solar sqat~o. 17 = FOR OFFICI/.L USE ONL" APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 rOCt Ui~~TCLAL USL nNLY ~ . l0'4 - l0'd - - - I ~ ~I i ID'It ~/6 I - !D - I . I _ JO ' Ja9 1,9 i;1 /s ~l I~asrgy Sptctru~ of Priaarq Coa~ic Kay~ Aloag tha v~rticel--mu~bsr of par~icles per i m2 p~r uai~ (1 rad) Ag ~olid - angl� !n 1 s~ aloag horizoatal�~~nergy 1A ~V Coasiderably aor~ often, ~ose moathly~ thsre sra le~s powsrfui flar~s of - co~ic rays vith ~rgiu 100�500 ti~V. goMSwe t1u ~agnotic fi~ld of E~arth _ d~viat~i t!u partial~4 ~rith suc6 an~rgy, ~ar~ov~r t~wy aY~ ~traagly ab~arrb~d ia ths earth' � atao~pbar~; to r~card ti~ it is ~ceasary to csx~r~r u~wring sgparatui to grsat �ititud~,a xith t~ L~lp of balloons and sat~ilit~s. Pr~cisely t1w s~t~ilit~ appsratua ~ it posaibl� to re~ord ~olas co~mic r~rs of t6e la~aat ~n~rgy--up to 1 MaV. 8~r~ to n cassidersble oadaurs the chatg~ casposition, sad ~rg~r sp~ces-~aa and natura o! spr~a~d of ttMSa raya in ~pac~ - wr~ succ~s~fuliy ~acpiaia~ed. H~sid~s th~ ligbt ~ 6~at snc~ coasic rqys thas sua caatiaazousiy ~i~s atrea~a of hpdsog~n piaoa--solar viud. Thia atr~ of ioaiz~d gaa oP lo++ d~aity i� t6~ out~r portioa of tb~ solar coroms t11at ha~ a fairly bigb kia~tic teop~r- - - atnra. Sacap~ of plsn~s ~nsar th~ snn occurs ca~parsti~ely rlavlq (~rith wlo- citi~s 10-20 to~/s) ~ but tb~ larthar frao th~ sua tl~~ wiocity ris~~ 20�70- fold. Th~ atraa~ o! pla~sa qualitativ~ly differ~ fro~ tL~ ~trem~ o~ chargsd iadi- vidual particle~, ~iac~ in it tlss key rol~ is play~d by forcaa of �i~cCro- static int~Yaction b~t~a ioas and elects~o~. T6a plaAn ia charact~rissd by t6a lact that th~ ~argq of th~ ~lactrostntic i~taractiaa of the cLargsd particl~s ca~psi~ing it is gr~ater tban tha a~ergy of tha thessetl ~awment. ' Dsspit~ tha asall coaca~tratica of particles in aolar viad ths alectricsi ~Eield biAds t6~. Th~ aagswtic fisld also aflects th~ beha~riar of pareicl~a in plaaa. Th~ high ei~ctrical co~ductivit~ af pisioa r~~iite in a straa~g bond of tha - field ~rith the ~dia~. u a coasaquenc~ of ~icb tb~ ~~tic field can ba vi~sd as if "frosrm into" ths plaeim. Tha �olar Mind ~z~s ths nageatic fi~ld of ths suA. ast~adiag it along th~ dityctioa of it� ~At. ?h~ totation of th~ sms givas tts~ ~at~c~ liws of tb~ aagn~tic li~id the shape of Archis~ds~~ ~piral. ~g FOR OFFICItiI, iT5E ONL: APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~OR nl~I~ ICIAL USC. UN1,Y _ Thaxe~ sr~ e number of hqpotheses os~ ~tha ozigin of galactic co~cnic rays. ' Certein ocientis~s hypotb~eice that millioue of yeaYa ago ~a ttw centor o~ th~ = galaxy en atcplosion occu~cred oP enotiaious oerengtb. Its ~riexgy xae sca~Cmx~d in the fos~m of diffarent pie~ioan~t-�vioible ligbt, ra?dio aaves~ parti~leo. A ' portion of thie on~rgy w~ae tre~nnwit~ed to coaic ~ayA. W3,thin aillions of - years tho feetast of tha r~achsd Bart6. Liti~raZly in recont y~e~ra it hae been ~etabliehed that t6e age of Che galactic coimic ray doee not ezc~led 100 miilion yoa~r~, wlhil~ th~ ~att~r explosion in Cbe csnter of th~ gdle~.y oecu.rt~d no nox~ then LU a:tllian qeers aga. Oth~r scienltista ase~rt that e larga portioa of the eosmic rays ~w~sre born during lt~e po~exful ~xplo~ion~ of supar nowa exars, M6ich in the ~?wixons of ouz eolex eysteai occurr~d in s~vsxal hwadred y~sar~t. In th~ gror,oaa of ~xplosion e, queatity of eneYgy ~u rel~ae~d ~quivalout, poesibly,, to ~he ~tNrgy contained in tha entira ~aa� o~ tha sun. Ths particles ~oYfwd as n rawlr nre aaceleratad e~s s can~oqusrice of ttw el~ctxowagnatic r:oc~oo~e oimi- , ~ar to ehosa ther occur in aolar flasea. Tha ersa occupi~d by the u~etic f ield of Enxth is called tbw earth'e megaet~ o~pher~. It� bord~r in tbe cragnetically calr txaw ie located os~ the diuraal - - side at n di~t~e ebout 10 �srth redii, aad on ths Bbaded ai~d~ is rmoved a distwnce three tim~~ greutsr. . - Tbrs~ rsgioas that diffsr is~ th~ir properties atn d~fined for th4 real geo- c~agn~tic fi~eld: int~raal ~~xt~raial au~ bouAdary. - - In the em?ixona oF ~hrth tl~ aagnetic ~ield reambles an undiaturbad dipa~e field of n~inifoxmly-~agnetis~d ~pbere. Tt~ cant~r of this dipole ie shifted roughly by ;500 1a~ toaetds tb~ Eutarn Hsoieplwre. Ths gsemagaatic aais, ia addition, di~s not coincids wt,th ths iucia of revolutioo of T~rth. x'h~ r~al Qagnetic fi~sld differs fairlq 8lgaificewtly fras the strictly dipole. It is ' charectsrix~ed, in particular~ by cea~siderable lvcal ana~aliee, ~hose effact ~+ith altitu~i~ rnpidly diaappears. Iiare, aa aha~m by aeaanreoants oa the auto- - matic stnti~m~ "Lnaa" aad ast~llites, it depeonds dlso on uctssual factars. _ Daily variat:ione asy fwAd in the segnetic fi~ld, that develop maialq during the daq tso~ar vari~ticns). Thare as'~ variati~ vith psriod, ~qaal to half of a luanr cie~y ~ end ~yst~matic+~l ly c6anging with th~ phass of tha ~ooa ( Iw~ar vaxietioes)~ ~ Thsre ie thn hypoth~eia~ that the aolar-diuraal variaticas ars gaves7ned by tha elsctrical curr~nts in tha appar ateoaphara that accur aa a ccaaaquanca of itg baaCing, nhils tb~ lunar-diuraal ar~ d~tesmined by tidal toveo~nts. Ths meaaureawts hav~ ehowa tt~et starting iritb a certain dietanc~ frao th~s center of Earth t6-9 of it� ra?dii) tha magaetic fiald atrongly differs fram - the fi~ld of tha dipola~ characterized by highsr iAtensi~tq. The bouadary ares of tba ~agaetoaphsrs axtands a~varal earth radii end is diatimguiohed by a sbarp drop in field intensitq, fluctuativns, and a gradaal tranaitian to an interpla~nstary field. On the diurael side n front of 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 (~UIZ fll~ I C i AL USI: c1NLY ~teadiag iinpeYct a+sves i~ found that eeparate~ tha magn~stosphor~ from the undisturbad eolar wird. ~ At grsat dista:?css oa the diurnal ~ido Ct~ magneti,c fiald of E~srCh is squae~sd ~out b~? a strsaw of plasma of eoldr ~?ind, Cons~ricCing the Force line~ - such that on the intdrface th~ preseur~ of the streem ie ~qunlized ai,th Cha preeeure of the msgneCic fie,ld. Th~ magnetic giald of Ee~rth ou tha aoc~urnal aida is sub~ect to ev~a griater diatortiona. Ix haa basn s4tab13ahsd ~kiat etarting ~rLCh rha distaAC~ of aevaretl tens o~ thousends of k3lanatere tb~ field of Earth gxedunlly parsee into a u~agnaeic ta3T, tbee otro~ches ger - b~yrnnd th~ Iimits o~ the moon. - The geasegnetic tail is divided by thn plesma lny~r with amall iatansity of - the c~~tgn~tic field. _ Albado and Ateospbe~e oE Earth Th~ eatellitas rander great essiatance ia studying ~ho etrea~ of rediatia~ eaitting fraa~ E,arth. 1'b~ r~flocr~ and n~tural radiatian of E~arth ara dis- ~ - _ t~nguicxhed accordiag to their ep~ctral characterietics. Tt~ border bstN+een thm is wav~langths in the aren k � m. e~hereby ths nrse of larg~r wavelengths eacaapasses the nntural radiation uf Earch. Baesd on nua~aroue measuroaenta it hae currently be~n e.tablished that the - aaaount of refl~ct~d solar radiatioa talb~clo of Esrth) avaragee 35X. The _ re~aining 65X is abeorb~d by ~rator and tiLn eerth's eurtace, and ia r~~sittad ~ ia the long-wave sactian of the sp~ct~m. _ - Tha reflactiag ebility of individual sle~te of th~ earCh'a surface �luetu- - _ ates in brond i~nite aad dependa on seasoaal variationa. Soils hav~, for euaiapla, albedo fram 0.03 to 0.08, aaAd--fraso 0.25 to 0.4 i~a tha gr~ater portion of tbs visibl� reiage. The albedo of freshly fallen sao~w-=froa O.b to 0.9; tt~ elbedo of the w~hiteat clouda--up to 0.8 in the visibla aoctio~ _ of ~he epectruo~ ~rhil� bsyaud its linits dua to tht abeorpCioa bq aater and vapora it is reduced to 0.5 at wavnlength 2.5 �a. IC ia characterietic that the eoounts naued here of ths albedo have ae~ app~rozimats natur~, since thery sigaificsntly d~pand~ iEor osa~pl~, oai the ~unouat of the a~gls of incideACa - of r,tu~ incoming radiat ioa. Frau the ganarnl ueaA calculet~d aseount of albedo of the �arth roughly 70x ia governed by roflsctiqa of tho clond cavar asnslly cavoring ha~lf of Chs easth'e eurface. The reflecting abilitq of th~ aquoous surfa~e significsatly depands on the - altituds of the sua. - The canplexitq of the problem oF messuring tha eerth's albodo coneista of the - fact that tlw therioal radiation percaived by th~ space apparatue is only partiallq lidc~d diractly to the earth's surface aad clouda. Carb~ dioocfds , and Nat~r bavs strong absorption bande in that raoga o� aavai~ngths in ~ich 20 FOR bFFICIl,L U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~;i4 0, ~'(I - , , _ ! � . ----P ' 0,I6' - r ~!Z ~ - i - , ~ M'~~~ _ U,~d ~ r i _ ~~1J ~ r,u~, j~"J~r'\ _ , ,1_ - ' ~ ~ ~-3~ !_si 'l. I . , - . ~ . U~ . - ~i~ ' ` 1 1 ~ _ p .'1' /:9 Thaoretical Raflsctiag Abilitq of Aqueous Sarfsc~ in Cala~ Stat� (1), vith Light Nind (2), vith Wind about 5 a s s'1 (3), ~rith Straug Wiad t4) Alcng verticnl--asoa~t of albedo, along horiEOatal--altitude of snn in degrsee 21 = FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 FUR OFFICIAL USC UNLY ' the easth alau emite, and thus~ hns a aCrong eff~acC on thie rad~ation. In tbs area of the spectrum 8.3-12.5 �m thd ~earth~s ~tm9aphor~, hae a windoco of ~rsns- parancy, ho~raver aleo ia thie range A certe~i~~ bbnorption of radiaeian by dust and Nneer vapor i� notrd. ~ The demoephare ie a gas ahell surrounding the ee?rth. Yn tho life of wankind it ~ plqys an e~ccap~ianal r~le. W'e breatha atmoeptwrfc air~ tha air ocean protect~ ua fran the primsry ~cosa?ic raye, x�ray and ultraviol~t ra~di.a~ion of ~he sun, - - nnd mutaoritas. Fran he~ce it is u~nder~tandable ~ry th~ ocientiete are inCer- _ aeted in th~ propexti~e of the atauoepheru. In accordance ~rith the natur~ of ~he ahang~ in ~ir e~r?peratura ~rith altitude - the at~wapt~era i~ div~tded is~to m uwaabcar oP laqers or ept~rea: tro1Po~phere~ - atratosphete, ma~osphere, thmttno~pha~e, and ~cosphere vhich ara divided into trenaitiional layara. ' _ Th~ lw~eet epharo--the tsopo~phar~, arod ita upper bard~r flactuatns about 11 _ km. Tlm dan~~et air is fn eh+e tropospinare--it hets 90~ of the entire mees of tbm atmoap~ars. Hore phenanana occur w'hich fo~ th~ cascept "onaathar" primarily fo~nation of clouds end pracipitetio~. The trops~apher� is cl'are4c- tsrizsd by n decrease in tenparaCwro ~+ith nltituda--6.5� ~ur each kilam~tar. Th~ stratoepbere i� abavo. It a~re~tchese raughly to 50 Isa~. Although the _ - stratoaphar~ coataina leas than 1X of tha atmospln~ric maes, it is distinguiahsd by div~rsity oF the phyoicochem4cal procasees and fulfills ttw role of a - natural proteetive se~re~a. Fr~cieely lwre ~he nltravfolet, :-rsy esnd eorpu8� - cular radiution o~ thao auai i~ absorb~d, whiln ti~~ ionizatioa of tha upper - ~atmoephere bq aolar si~ort-aave radiatiaa malc~o lc~g-rangs radio ca~auaication _ possibl~. The co~plsa procssses of tboxmal and masa ~xchaaga ia the upper at~mosphare d~stesmias tha dyaeei~c naturs of this ~oedium and have an affect aa ~h~ coodi- t~[oa of ttu at~o~p~r~ at tlw snrth' g surfa~ce, and ths foroetion of clinat� and w~eathsr aa ~earth. � Ovsr a rnamb~r of canturims sciaac~ laaa accumulat~d data on prmasur~, temper- ature, deAairy eund che gae coateat of the eartb~a air ehall. But until - r~c~ntly only e thiA ~urfac~ lnyar of air ~ras accesaibla for its thorough _ study. Ths arae of research pas soanwhat expa�ded wfth the nppearance of airpla~e and aa~oetato. Then i~a ordar to investigate the atmoapbere pilot ballooaa snd r~?diosond~s began eo bo used tha~ tra~smittad ovor tho radio data from altitudea up to 30 km. By using indit~ct msthals of reaearch of tbs ugper atwospi~re (Btudy of tlu spread of acoustic aaves frcro sctper po~arrfui axpl~oiona and obearvatioas of ~astaors) tka ecientiats in the 1930's- _ 1940~ s~zplain~d ttN gaaer8l la~~rs governing chaAges ia dee~sity, preaeure, tmapersture nith altitude and tD~q obtuined th~ firat spotty data ori the canpositioa of thm upper atmoeph,era. T'~o acfentiatm caaa to the coancinsioa t~t tha ataoapb~ric t~paretura coaCinually is raducesi up to altitudes 8-18 k~, Mhile ebava that it ia waiatained practi~cellq con~taat. Oa tho Whola it - vas cosisider~d that t~ stratosphe~e is a lay~r tLat bas camparativelq little vavreut. 22 FOR OFFICIE,I. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 . roit oH rrr, i n~, us~: c~Nt,~~ - 5ooe of Cho ideas ~nere r~it~r~d evan b~fors tb~ appaar4nc~ of sati~ltiC~~. T1ius _ ir~ th~ sCraCaapb~ra aCroa~g sir cursecrtr ~re ~owid a~d paculia?riti~s iu the �praad of a~ouz~d ~va from strong euptosions. ?ha wav~s Msr~ hsard ~il asxt Co the aite o~ tho explnsioa~ thsn a sone of �il~nce occurs~ dnd Chen s ~ana of audibility. Tb~ aw.tural rasaon for wcb a pba~am~non~ in tha opit~ioa of be ~ci~ntiste, cauid tw ttN iocr~an~ in t~p~rsture of tha sbwsplwr~ ~t grk alCituder. The research rock~t� ar~d nxtifialAl aarCh sutallitos help~d to ansasr thie ar~d othar questions. H~re tba clea~ic rthoda wr~ used for ~sawtiag parwt~YS of tha atrosp~tc~ (~epaartric~ tb~ttia~etric. snd so forth). T'b~ ~rieid var studi~d by diociurgiag ~etaiiic~d r~dar targ~ts. A ra~s ~ps~tt~awtar wa usrd to aaalyz~ tJ~e ntwo~pl~rs. 0~ hig6-eltituda rockats ths sci~ntific apparatus w?s piaced in an ~~~ctiva cantain~r-autaaatic ~rschine thRt osd~ it posaibl~ to aak~ o~asuY~sats of para. s~tars in tt~e unpoilut~d �~ctiou of ths atoa~phare. in order to �tudy ttw cawposition of gas seapl~s ttir~ tak~ in glasa cqliaders. Stabili~~d t~~~Y~ac~ contsin~rs niso b~gan to b~ u~rd thet guarante~d a constar~t oriwtntion of - eh~ ~aanriag in~trus~AC� ia rriatioo to t6~ i~x;ident atream. Be1as+ 20 lao~~ ~re langttry ~ciste~c~ of sat~ilite� ia i,aposaibl~~ stndi~s sx~s caducted cainlq ~rith tha h~lp of z~oclcets. iiawver th~y ~ it pos~ibl� to trac~ tha dyne~ics of changas ia ths atsospb~ric parawtars ~niniq odly for sltiCUd~~ �iace ~easurwnts of paraw~tars for tiM rsquir~ lewnchiog of a great auwbar of rock~ts ia ths coura o~ one e:peri~,at. - At altitudaa abov~ 200 k~ ~sasuraeaat~ ~rith the u,~~ of satallit~s that sacaa. _ paes vith th~ir ozbii~ practicslly ttu eaCir~ pla~t ar~ nid~ly nsad. The ~od~rn id~as about ~b~ atructura and veriatio~~ in the par~t~r~ of tL~ neutral atsosphere at gr~at aititad~s ar~ baa~d uainly on dnta aboat th~ ~volution of satsilit� orbite, M61ch has wde it po~aible oa C6s basis of aerodynemic calculations to deta~iw th~ bt~aking forca~ snd coina~qu~ntly, atmospharic dsnaity. _ Ws aill dw~s~ll brielly on tbs raalt� of research ot th~ nppsr at~ph~r~ obteir~ed ia r~c~t years ~rith th~ h~ip of sat~llites. Teseoperature of atmo~p6~re. Thn mean m~otsats o! ataosph~ric treparatur~ for tb~ Northsrn Baieph~n at altitudsa up to 300 Ic~ ~ra givsn in t6s tignr~. It gives t6a liait daviatioas ia te~p~rature ft~a~ tb~ seat~ aratmt~ It is charscteristic that in ths rmga 30-50 ka tt~ temperatur~ i� incrsased~ sioc,y slanst the eatire ultrsviolet sectioa of ~olar r~diaticn i� abaorb~d r.asr tha _ upp~r bordez of the oza~a layar carreaponding to tb~se ~ltitudu. TTha totdi quet~tity of ozoon ia the aroosphera is ineigaificaat; tbs thictns~� of ita la4rer r~lativs tv etandard nteosp6eric co~ditians dws ~ot auMd several milllast~rs. BoMe~rer tba vslw of ozow i~ ~rsoua; it abosrb~ the ~ ultraviol~t radiation and th~sual ra~diatioA a~itted bq F�arth~ pt,~sasyi~ orgenic lif~ oa our plaaet. 23 FUft ~I~FICI/,:, USE O~JLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~OR d~~tCtAL U5~ dNI.Y +i +A ` _.y.~ . * ~ - - r' ~ ~ ;~r dJ ~iN � _ 4~J ~4~:',:> >~,:;7 :~%"s Distributioa of 2'~uperatuY~ in Altit~ide t30-300 k~r) aal Limit D~viatioas fra~ Mun ~ou~nt ( - ~ ia tb~e msso~ph~r~ tha tespsratur~ is r~ducAd fra~ zero to 90�. Yn ths th~rio- aph~re at altitud~� abave 90 ka the t~ratur~ of the sir cootisruourly riues~ rsac6ing at eltitud~ 300-400 ka 1~000�+C~ and con~iouir~g to ri~a vith a~ltitud~ to 2,000-3,000�iC. Haw+sv~r, as a causqn~nc~ of tlw ~tro~g rersfectilon of tha air th~ pbysical conc~pt af t~peratur~ of t6e ~aviro~a~ant h~ro hss a n~aiaal natur~. characterising oniy th~ v~locity og ~oi~cuier oav~nt. During t6s day ttN at~o~p6sty is b~atsd, but at night ia cool~d, tb~rafora tlsare are diurosl variaCicns in tt~e taop~ratur~ profil~. 'TtN oexisu~ and oiaiaai of tlrs~ varia~iona occur at 04.00-06.00 and 14.00-16.00 local tiw. For ezspl~~ at aitituds~ abov~ 200 1cv tta~ t~asatura is cheaged at t~ight - - frc~ 600 to 1400~ durina t1~ day-fto~ iZ00 to 2~500 K. ?hus. elw ~auto drop in te~p~Yatur~ an tbe upp~r boY+d~r o~ eh~ th~et~ospber~ trao eh~ nocturnal cooditiau it~ tb~ ~inia~ to tb~ dit~~al ia t6. ~s~cis~ o~ solar activity CaA syeCh 2,OOfl�. The seasoaal variatioas gawra~d bp tha radieticn bal~nco are not~d ap to altitudu 60 lca. Abo~va t6~ patt~rn ia ait~red t!~ oppoait~--tba ri~tar te~r� atnrea ssti sbav~ th~ auMr. ~ Dersity of at~ospbar~. Ths d~uaity of tbs up~r ataosplwric laqars is d~t~r- vio~d~ u alr~edr s~atioo~d~ by obaervatiocu of ths brakiag of autellites and , cbang~ in ths period of th~ir rotstioa aro~md $artb. Oda a ausbar ot eat~l- _ lit~a inatxwn~:s hav~ b~eu iwtsli~d to ~awra at~osphar~c pr~~sut~. _ - It haa bNn lousd that tb~ ataospt�ric deaaitq is consid~rably higbss tlua propos~d oo t6s baaia of tb~or~tical calculatic�~a aad prwiow axperla~nts. Th~ natur~ of the di~tributioc of vaea daoaity in th~ r~ago of eltittsdea 30- 300 ks. md the liait d~riatiau fra~ the o~aa e~at ara psaasat~d in Ch~ - figure. ~titb altitpd~ t6~ daaaity of tha ataospbare dropa, haviag 4igaificant swmal aad dfusaal vsriatiau. Thus tt� wasoaal variatiau heve ~asiao~ valws at altitud~a 65-75 ka, r~a~chiag 25Z in t~ high latitudu aAd 157.-�in tb~ atddl~. A d~cr~as~ in variations of density at ~rsat altitn~da~~ in t1w opiaioa of sci~nti~ts. i~ link~d to tL~ t~swr~s conras of t~paratur+~ distur_ 4ooes M6icb at eltitudu awr 60 ka in naws~ ar.s lowr tha~ in vintrr. T!~ studiu condurt~d oa tb~ sat~ilitu ia tbs s~sias "~s," ahawd that tb~ dintnal variatiaaa aty obsssvsd in broad~r li~its. ?hus et altitu,~a 200 1ca 2k FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~'0[t U~~ICtAL U5~ ONLY drn~ity fra~ nighC to dsy ri~~� 1.8-fold~ at loMSr altitudsa--1.7�fold. rhr diurnal vsrintiane hsvs a ragular netutb~ app~~ring aosy ~ha~Cpiy ~t ehe lo+~sr - laeitud~r ~rith a roducctioa ia rolar activity. Amual end se~ismnuat verintions in d~n~ity nr~ t1oClld Chat ara lit~d to disturbaacea of E artb~ a~a~eCia fi~id~ - sa wll ao a 2y-day pariodic vari~tion Chat is d~t~ttiain~d by the equaCorial pe~riod of solar rotatior?. - - ~ t~ ~ ' tt, . zc~ ' - ~ - - ~y ;0 J.,~ - � I~? g�~m-3 J;,;~, Di~triLution of Araaeph~ric Drnaity in Altitud~ (30-3fl0 ka) an~{ Li~it D~v~a- tioas from Maan As~wat Study of t6a ntoo~phere is ia~portant al~o fra~ th~ virwpoint of iovutigsting ita ion aod ~ooleculer caopositiao, aad �l~ctran cooc~utr~tioa in tha iono- rpfi~rs. Tha latt~r ~akas it posaibie to raveal factors affecting tha nsture of ~pread of redio ~rave syst~ss of long-raag~ �urface and apa~e corow~ication. In ordar to detet~ins the ioo co~po~ition of t6e atrosph~r~ osas ~p~ctroa~ters ase used ahicb ~tiCh the h~lp of an ~lactrleal or w~gu~tic li~ld s~parat� th~ io~~s according to maea~~. - A~xmibar of aasa ap~ctras~tri~ aaaiqa~a of tb~ neutrai ca~positica of tl~s uprar atoospt~sre cooduct~d oainly at altitudu 104�200 ka vith tbo h~lp of rock.sts cac~fit~ed tha aff~ct of t6e gravitatioaal divi~icn of argan and oolecu- lar nitrog~n in tb~ atmosphere abov~ 100-200 1ai, sad alao p~xtiitt~d data to - be obtained ou tanp~ratara iwd partial ca~c~utratioa of volecular nitroga~ to gititudea 400 la~. nualyei~ of tba ion cao~positioa of ttw upp~r at~osph~re aad~ fraa wasnrr� mante be~ck on t~e tbird Soviet iat~llite in ths raaga cg a1C;?_uda 225_98p ks eboMed tbnt i~ the daytiw he~re positive ians of ntoospb~rlc cocygw daai~ate. Po~itiv~ iau v~srs al~o s+~corded Mit6 rsss ~xabsr 14, Mhicb could b~ ida~ti- fi~d vit6 ions of ntaaic Aitrog~, positY~ra ions c! nta~ic i~otop~ o! oapg~ vith nn~s a~b~r 18~ aa M11 se positiv~ ;o~a af Aitic auid~~ p~r~ it uaa reveeled tbat tb~ ion carapo~itioa of tb~ upp~r et~asptwrs is signiticsntly aitared depanding oo aititvde. Tb~ p,arceAtags caatent of basvy ~.ooe of ~ol~c- ular o~ryg0a, nitric oocl,d~ aad soi~cui~r aocyg~ drops vitb altitu~d~, th~reby awot 1Atanefvely ia tha iuterval 22S�Z~p b~ ~ at altitudaa ~bov~ 400 1cs tha co4ta~t of ioas of aol~culu oorygas is 1~000 tia~s laear tha~ ths iau - of atanic o~q?~an. 25 FOR OFFICIAL. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~0[t Uh'I~TClA1, U5h: ON[.Y . With Che help of tl~e eeriss of oatollitec "~lsktrom" e~t alcitudea 400-1~200 km a larga nu~ber of n+mas epectra ~ro obteiaed for ians of hydrogeA, aitrogoa~ helium and aarygen~ and coaeidarabla verieCions u~ero also fcund in the ior? cooipoeiCion vith gec~graphical latitudo. It ~raa rsvoslad thsC the ionu of h~lium in tha t~p~rata latitudo� uP the Norttr~rn H~uuiephers in c? period of la? solar activity are only a saielt coopene~nt. This resulC alLer~d the exis- - t~nce of tha viev on tba etructure of thn axternnl ionoApherro of ~;arth~ rucordirg to which heli~m ioue at nltitud~a 1,000-2~000 km Form a ltypotheticel "heliosphere."~ It wa~ faind thnt no euch atu~ll exist~ i?~ the onrCb's iono- sphere. Seudy of the paramatara of the uppor ,~tmosphore continues. Preci~e kno~tledge of the~ hae onoruoue prnctical impot~:ance. Thue, the dietribution of densitq - over glCitudee is conaidered in a celculntfcm oF opCirnal critaria for putting - boaetar rock~t� nnd aerth satellit~o into tha cniculated orbits, in the crea- ~ tiou of optic ob~ecto Frith eryeteroe of prscisia~ orientation, and in solving problmns of cancrolling fli.ght in the uppar et~roepboric layere. Astronamicnl ObaervaCory One of the most ancient eci~ncna~ aetronamy, for a millenium could only gas- " aivaly sCudy light coming from tha plnaete and stars, snd from iC creaCe ite ideaa on th~ phyeical propertise of the celeatial bodiee. Being on earCh the a8trancwi~ts t?ad to recancilo themael.vas tJith th~ atmoaph~re that impaired obs~rvati,ns of ths aky. Radiation of c~leatial bod~ee pnnetratee the earth in t~ro ~rindowa of trano- parencq: optic, etretching in ths r~nge of we~volengths From 0.3 to 1-2 �m~ nnd redio xindow--fraa eaverel milliwters to 10-30 a. Ttu main spectrum of coemic radiatione is ebeorbed by tbe atmosph~re. Thus~ ultraviolet rsdietion ia nbsorbed bq ozons at altitude� 30-70 lcm in the range 0.3-0.18 �m~ by molac- ular oxygen et altitudes b~lo~ 12U las in the reu~ge 0.18-0.1 �m, aAd by ataoic oxygaa and nitrogen nt altitudo� up to 200 ka in a ranga lesa than 0.1 �ra. Long-wave coemf.c redio emissian is raflnctcd by the lonosph~ra locered aleo n araat distance from Earth. ~ A aignificanC obetaclo in eetrorcmical uoaervetioans through the atoaoephere iB aleo its turbulsnce. Therefox~c, ths etars ara vie~ in a Celescope ~ye- piece not ia the fo~rm of e~ cls~c deFrnction disk, but fn the fatm of blurred spote; at che same tiae ~he brtghtness of the image ia reduced. Stars loceted law above ihe horizon ere obs~rved QepOCially poorly through the thickneas of the atmosphere. The li.ght is refrac*ed in the ntaosphere, and the spot alternates with apectrsl bands. For thie rea~o~ lin~ar resolution for ~'~R aurface of the moon is t km, for the surface of Mnre--150 km. The turbul~nce ~ an s~pecfally strcmg effect _ during the oparatioa of t~lescop~s with mirrors over 2-3 m in diem~tar, v6ich ~~rves ns an additioanl obatacle to thn ua� of modern gient telsscopes. 26 FOR 0~ PIC Il.L USE O~II.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 . ~ntt Or'F'iCtAL USL ONLY As eir tre?v~l d~wloped, pwribili~is� epp~aivd �o~r ligting t~lo~aopa~ irirh eh~ ~ ku~ip o! e~roatatia. Praa an altituds og 2~ km elear photograplu wrr~ w~eda of _ "graina" o~ th~ ~ua 0.3~ !n �ir.~. ~wn gr~at~r po~~ibt.liriis Mst~ ptv~~ent~d - to art~co~ia,y by ttu uw of eet~llit~s. WhaC raquitc~wnts sr~ o~sd~ og a e~i.ocops ia.reri.a on a epsc~crafC? In prin. cipie ehey da oot differ frc+r tl~ r~quireosate for the ~od~rn wr~sc~ ral~- ~opre. In e6e c~nCe~ of ttM mitzor th~oratiCallq aa artgulur ty~olution cen b~ psonridsd on th~ order 0.006� ~?hich vill uake it possibl~ to distiaguish nt diotana~ 500 ko ob~~cts nith linwc siae 1 m. HoMawr pra~cticaily Mit6 ths diiwC~r of 2 cs mirrora c~n b~ ~sd~ Mith r~sdlution 0.2". With raaolutiion o~ a telescop~ 0. i" a~d Mith posaibility of u~iaQ loag ~ucpowcu ow een obs~rve atar~ up to tba 23rd eeellar si~c~. Ia lutur+~ y~ars orbital nb~~r- vstories rasy npp~ar vith an spertur~ of tba prirary ~irror up Co 3 m and sa~ilur r~solutian up to 0.01" i~a tir ultYavioi~t r~givo of thr sp~ceiw. i i y . - , . :G. : i:`.: : 'r?l ' � r�"� : ~''~~'/r~ ~i ~~%;,:lr',1;, ;/~%~'~'ll'~1' ''/iil/~;;'1. ~~~'~r~14'~' ' ~ ~ s. 7 ~ . ] . ' , . ~ ` 1 , ~ _ ~ 1 '1 ~ ' �y ` J1 ~ ~~i~{ - 6 s ~ Schematic Lw~ge of Small Astrcaa~ical Satsilit� Key: 1. Antema of telam~tric spst~m 5. ~?linder rrith gu for coatrol jata 2. Solar ~l~nta 6. J~t for dec~lerati~g rotstioo and _ 3. Soler gaga for a}rstes of cantrolliag listiag aad v~locYty ~ preciae orisntaticn 7. T~l~scopa 4. Biock~ of �lectronic ~quipNnt The sateilit~a daaigwd to carry out asts~oaavical observations can baw sn inatru~nt casperto~at of th~ obasrvatory equippad vith a radio eaginwria,g sqatae of autaoattc dockiag. ~oorit~g d~vice as~d locked chaobir peaitting approeah and sooring of s~a~nsd spe~naraft ead eccese to ie by co~onwts. T6~ obs~rvatory can b~ docked to a w~d orbital atatioo. 27 FOR OFFICIl,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 rUlt ON't~ CCiAL USH'. ONLY A drnfC space laboratorq-eatellite for medical end biologicel, geophy~icel and agCroa~omical oCudiee ie knam fra~ liCer~turs. On the sateilita with ~ c~~a of 4-6 p~ople e? telaecape in psrt~cular cun bo ia~talied. in sccordenc~ ~rith another auch plnn of epace eetxanamical obeervatory th~ cr~ ie placad in a�pecisl noea cepgui� thsC rervse nC the same Ciaw to eave Che ~r~ti in caa~ of en a?ccidenC. Aftsr tt~ eatslli~e has gos~ into orbit the fuei t~nk ehat ir rai~e~ed frda fu~i ia drain~d and fillad with eanprareod sir. Tha criw aleo oove� hare, uei�g th~ tank a~ a vorkl~ig modul~. Astronauicnl s~udiss in epece ~?i11, apparently. be coaductod in difforent raa~gee of we~v~~engthe. Ho~rever theas aill primnrily be opactral and photo- _ m~tric obearvations in tb~ ulcraviolot, i~frer~d and sulxnillimmter ragion~ of tb~ apsettvm. Aa Y~co~ing eirmenta of the C~lescopa photanwltipliers and elscCron�opti~ tranaforaiara csn be us~d, photomAterialo end ee~avision trans- aaitters. Yt is intaraseing that ths Amsrics~a orbitel astronanicgl sta~ion - launched in 1968 into orbit ~vith altitud~ 800 Icn e~d squipp~d vith optic tals- - ecopeg vith diamaeers uo to 40 cm made it poeeible to obtnia data in the ultra- violet regioci of tha sp~ctrum abour 10,000 aCere. If the diamater oP thn tal~ocop~ ia increaeed to 3 w, the number of studiad objace� ean rise to a oillion. Th~ ob~eces of x-ray estronomy ce~n be the theronl radintt on of plnea~n. tha reverae Compton effact of eleetrone on iafrnred photoas, or symehrotron radi- ation of reletivietic el~ctroa~s in u~agn~tic fielde. To study tham proportional gas-filled cau~tere can be ueed with e windotir mede of beryllium (thiclcness to 100 �m) or orgnnic filma--mmylar~ fosn~var, snd polycarbonata (up to 10 � m _ thick). ilith tha h~lp nf proparticu~?1 couaCers an~ cen detenaine the straam fraa a sourca~ its �pscCtlm~ anguler �ize aad position. Ha~aver ne a coaaa- quence of tha Msak rssolution of thsao eources ehe apectrum is detarmined vary _ roughly. The aagular position of a fairly bright sourca ia combinatian Fritb a moduletioa collimaCor cnr~ be obteined ~rith accuracy up to 10". _ The alrtedy obtained results ~re pramising. The st~tsllite "Uhuru" (United Statee) and the rocket� lauached to altitude np to 200 ka tirith similar aetro- namical epperatus fcund over 50 diecrete x-req souress, of which no nwra ttuu~ 15 vere ideatified aith tha knowm optic objects. In order to conduct studiae in the redio astronamical region of the specttvm _ - th~ opaning in apace of nntennaa vhose diemeter can rsaeh several kilcmetars preeents definite teclv~ical ecaplexity. Onn anteru~ can be Caknn into epaee, while the other re~ain~ on enrth. Although th~ resolutiaa of such a radio interfercmeter cas~ bs fe?irly high--up to 2 x 10'S nugular seconds, its cre- etion ie linked to grent teehnicsl diff iculti~a that iAClude preeise orien- tetion eAd pr~eision eynchranization of both antesu~ae esparated by thousands of kilcmeCere. 28 FOR OFFTCItiI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~ CO[t O~~ICtAt, USC nNLY / ~:J ^~~~rr~srr.~...r~. ~/j~1 / U ~ ...r.~~.,~~ r~ / `a! _ ~ ( ~ w~ / ~ ~ ~~v~~ / . ~".~r...,M� ~ .3 ~ r ` ~ - SchAe o! Sp~~ R~dio i~t~rl~rawt~~r d. t~~odet~n mat~orology cooCain~ fou,~ 1~?~rg~ fields: cli4atology~ ~ynopCic Mteorology~ aerology? and a~ronary. Ciiwatology studi~� a o�ny-q~ar pnttiern of ~natMr ~rcoi individuel ragioa~� o! the ~artL, r~tting a~ ita tesk t6~ dsCarn~ne~tivn of the chsract~rtieics of po~al ~atb~r eondi~ioa~s. S~moptic wtaorology �tudi~s the g~ral proc~~~~~ ia th~ atdorphere e~at develop an larga spacas. It d~valopa athada o! watt~r lo~t~acaatipg. A~rology and aerona~ studq t1w upper iq~rs of the at~o~ph~t a u~d rL~ ioao~ph~r~. _ Obs~rvatioc~r of changas in arathsr at~ ~ad~ b~ th~ hydra~et~arological s~rvic~a og dift~~Yant countri~a that daily ~uocbanga iofotisstioa av~r tha tredio end t~l~- graph t6at i� accuvulat~d rith tha belp of a v~st ~a~tw~o~ric oF b~rdraw~t~orologfc~tl ststioa� locet~d oa dry lipad, Mat~r aad ia th~ air. Oaly ~ritbia ths lisit� of cur country tlwr~ ar~ ovar 4~000 ~uch vat~ological �taLioai aad 7~500 .~t~ar- ologicai po~t~~ snd hydrologicai obNrvstions aY~ carr;~d out in 6~000 pointr. Over 2~000 �tatiozu saued itr at~apb~r~ vith rrdio Msw~. In~os~atioo of ap~cisl sirpl~u�� a~d ships i� us~d. Aod aii of tbis aso~ous quantity of infornation rspidly ~nt~r~ tho tJS3R q~rdres~t~orologicel Csnt~r. T6s ~et~or� - ologicsl stations dnt~iqg tb~ da~ ~aka r~versl e�aaur~nto of the wlocit~ and vind dira~tioa, t~ratur~~ air I~idity aed ~aapr othsr parawt~rs that che~ract~ris~ th~ eurr~at coadition of th~ at~o~ph~r~. Bp aaalyzing thao~ tb~ sciaatises composed ryr~optic ~aps aod pr~diet tl~ wath~r. Msaq bours in - advaACe ~ sad acs~ti,N~ awA d~ys th~ captain~ o! ~l~ip~ ar~ ~ra~d o! apprwrcbing ~to~a~ th~ ~cksrs os egricultura--abant po~~ibl� frost~ aud raia~. aad lly~t~�- ~bout atotm fsant~. ~rind ~tr~t6 and visibility. HoWawr, no ratter hov nuMrcus tha arhaal of rt~o~rologicai ~taticn~ sod hov rich th~ exp~rienc~ of ssapr yurs of obqrvation, no ~aet~r hov a~dvsnc~d th~ ~rn tastste~ntr, all of tbis isiai!`fici~nt !or a pr~cis~ watbrr foan- caatiro. T6i� is aYplaiued, firs~, hq th~ f~ct that av~r 70x of tb~ e~+eira surface of the ~arth is cover~d vith ocw~a rmd sa4s~ Nhii~ a co~~id~rabl~ porticn ot th~ dry land i� deasrt. ~onotaiaa ~md polar ngiaoa~ wlare it i� ditficult or ~v~n ispo~~ibl� to plac~ �tationary ~ataorological poines. Seaond~ av~n with tb~ ~xtrwt atations it is wry ca~plicated to ~ak~ obs~r- vatioe~. Hr ara locatad at ths wry bottcm~ o~f etw air oc~m~ rad th~rafor~ kao+r b~~t of all rbat tupp~aa ia ttN lawr la~rs of th~ at~oap6m ~rith tbiclcAe~� 30-40 ka. T~ air cursyat� trap 8r~at ~Pacs~ ~ot ooly ia t6~ dr~a~ but ~l~o in aleitud~. aad oba~rraeicat o! t~ at iedi~idual pointa do not provid~ a ca~plete and viabl� pictur~. 29 POR OFFICIhI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 _ I~UR OHI~ICIAL U5l: ONLY Th~r~far~ mairy �laatirtdry phanom~rn~ ar~e eo unexp~ctad end sa~etime~ trngic. 'Thus in 1963 rT?~ cycion~ that caa~~ ~ran the I'acific Oce4n Co Ch~ coast of - tih~ Ses of Okhot~k producod ucapr~+c~d~ntsd sno~w~~lla thaC di~tupted talegraph - _ and rsilroad comwuniaation; on tiu seu+~a daya in Wost Europs un~cp~cted colds - re~ul~~d in tha d~axh of ovor 700 p~opl~. We wtll not eaan forget tikse earth- quakes in Tnahke~aC s~ad Chile, tha flooda in France end Yugo~lavia that occuYr~d in th~ lnae decade. Many misfortunae caueed by the ele~aanes could be ~WOided +f ~e knea in tine Cl~ davalop~t o4 elamental uphaavala. To l~ern to foracaot thasn phena~~na--is th~ fir~t tnek~ eu~d the �econd even mora ceaapliceted ea~sk--to i~arn to controi rha cli~aete sschenism. Thnn ons xill bn eble "upon order" produce rains and elio~inete fogs~ excluda droughte and iloals, cyclan~s and hurricanse. ~ 2ha lwnchings of the artificial earth �atellit~s, e~pacinlly tha Soviet ental- liter in tha e~ri~a "Coa~oa" and "M~t~or" and the Awerican "Tiro~," "Ninbut," and "Aeroa" p~tvitt~d tt~ ~eth~r for~ca~tore to ba iaieedietely invoivad ia th~ dev~iopm~nt of a universal ~yste~a of w~ther faracn~ting. Of course it i~ incorrgct to coneidar tihat spaea observaCiona aill be eble to cooplat~ly replsc~e surfac� neteorologicel eervic~. Tha tno6c of both ie to~ by ~upplwanting nach oth~r, comprehenaively axpand and de~pan tha infor- mation a~ces~nry to a a~et~orologi~t. Currently rntional proportions ert rrvcal~d in the distribution of "~vork" betw~ssn th~ ca~t~orologice?1 s~?tellitae and ~he wrfaco ~ather ssrvic~s. At = the saae tia~e axploration is und~rway of auch fo~n� and isethods of ob~ot~retion of the waather pare~wter~ from npac� ~+hich could replace obs.rvatians conduct~d _ oa eertht sounding ot tha distributia~ of ~oiatura content, tenperaturs swnding through ths entira thickaesa of th~ ataosphsra, and evsluaeion oF Che candition of etoiv activit~ and the quentitq of falling rain. ~ - Fl~ ~ri.ll look at the ganeral featur~s tlut di~tinguish ths no~al sqnoptic a~ap fram sat~liita inforaetion. - Tha eynoptic sap contain� data on tt?~ ~ati~r obtain~d fraa differ�nC mat~or- ological station� locat~d often at graat distnac~s fzaa aach othar. Oa it ths conventionai eigne ar~ plnc~d for tbe zon~s of cloud caver nnd poeitio~ of fronts~ tba zane~ of precipitetiai aAd the c~nter~ of cyeloaea obtai~ted by int~rpolation fras xndividuel obrervetion of sateorologicsl s~~tioaa a~d shipa. Th~ entellite infonaation, ns it is acc~pted to eay~ in the plarie of tha imag~ pravidee continuous situatios~s aad details chnracteristic for the photo iragas. Study of the pho~ographs obtainsd froa aatellit~a on th~ structuro o~ the cloud sassas p~r~it~ a r~v~lation of the traj~cCory of sovmnnt of tbe air ~a~e to ahich th� cloud b~loags~ and can an id~a an tha pattsrn of winds at diff~ra~t altitudea. 3~ FOR OFFTCItiI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~'UIt OI~ H' IC IAL USl; ONLY A d~C~tvinetion of th~ coaCent of weter vapor in Ct,~ ntaoephere snd it� vaxi- aeions provid~e importsnt material for a dat~ction of Ch~ ther~ael a~nd veter bnlance of tha eCnosphere, ead th~ t~ae eund noirCUr~ exnhang~ bat~,reen s~e and dry laod. Wnt~r ve?pors have e�tcong effe~t on etvoepheric tuuperatur~. During eveporation eccwwiation of h~at occuro which i� accaapaniMd hy pr~cip- iCation. 5eta11iCe meteorology mekas ir poesibl~ frao photograph~ of cloud covar to Y~v~a~ Cha v~rCical stability of th~ nCao~phera and tho iaCaneity of Che v~rticnl exchang~ of hent~ Mhicb opens up the po~~ibilitq of d~t~t~aining the condirion of w~enther ia tha boundery le~ver og thr et.wrphera for s latrge nu~b~r - of pereiaet~rs. Th~ optic end radio~tric wChods of r~~eerch lrem ~staliit~e mak~ iC poaeible to reliably disCinguish the clou~ cover from s snow cov4r~ end coneequantly~ txac~ noe only changea in teo~p~rarure Af tiw und~rlying surfac~~~ but al~o chang~s in th~ sna+? cov~r of dry lend~ ~d ice covsrs of aeaa. _ For obs~rvationa of the clwd cav~r of ~srth~ anow and ica fotmetio~a e tal~- vision apparatua ia is~stalled on �atellita~, with Che h~lp of Mhich photo- graphs sr~ oads in CtN visible and infrar~d sectioua of the spectrua. Tha photographe in th~ infrerad rays cnn be mad~ during the d~y and aC night. At night they are ttN oaly eour~a of inforsation~ but during the day th~y hav~ uniqui inforobtion that diff~r~ fro~ thst obtain~d in th~ visibl~ ~p~ctrua�- etaas nra data on th~ lep?are ~of clouds and th~ir vertical developm~at. In addition the fsiriy high �ea~itivity of the lnfrar~d gag~� nalcsa it possibl~ to find we:m snd cold air aiase~a. and to evaluat� tlu taaperetura fieid of ~ - ths air raaoea. Studi~s of rh~ proc~~ses ef ~ather fotsation usiag photogrephs from aataor- ologicel ~et~llites havo b~ccm~ an i~parts~t maaas of finding etorns snd ic~ fi~lds~ nnd tracking tha aovoosnt of �torw ovar oc~ena wh~re th~re ar~ no - oateorological stations. Th~ patt~rn of vav~ ectioa oa oce~s, lik~ the visibl~ stxuctura of Ct~ cland cov~r, pravidea ~p~cific infos'ation about th~ ~ dir~ction nad velocity of wiud ia th~ Le~r lapers of the atao~phere~ and uak~a it po~sible to record zoaa~ of pr~cipitatioa. It is true thst int~r- pr~tation of satellita photographa i� ca~plicat~d to a coa~idsrabla wa~ur~ - by tb~ fact thst the brightnes� of th~ clouds is a coai�la~c fuaction of a large nweber of fnctors. The numbsr of threeteaing elro~ntal phanaNaa includ~a tropical atot~ss. Th~y ase divmrse in diwensAoas ead int~a~ity, th~r~fora it it isportant to fiad - and tracs th~ direction of thair devalopoeat. With tba Mlp of the ~etallit~ "Tiroe-S" in 1962 tbe evolutioa of a typhooo wu succe~afully ob~~rv~d fra~ ths woo~nt of it� birth to ita br~akdown. Tbf, p~culiarity of th~ coodition of the claud cov~r during the paa~aga of ths typboon caasista of tb~ pre~sacs before tha aain systa~ of clouds "of n prahurricar~e" line of ~qualls is~ ths fos~ of a band of camr~ctive claudinvs~. T1~ ~i~us of the sy~ta~ of cloudin~sa of th~ typhoon ~sa for~cl by de~ cmulu� lovlqing clonds pr~- diepos~d to cbang~� ~n casing upon dry land. T1~ photo~rsph~ oa,d� it po~- sible to find e link b~tMSan th~ diMasiaas of th~ �tructur~ of th~ ~ 31 FOR OFFICI~,I. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 . ~'OCt OI~'~'ICIAL U5~ ONLY cloudin~aa and tha naximm wind veloCity~ and in patticulatr~ Co �stablish ~opirieai d~prndences of ttN dianntar of th~ cloudina~s ~ona of tha ~eorr on tt~ oaxiwur aitnd v~locity. Th~ tornado~� (stro~ge~oC �torm~) obo~rvad in th~ Unit~d SCsta~ and Au~tralis _ - er~ eh~rs~t~ri~+d by ttw prerence of e~o-call~d isat.rnal eloud ~yaCaa~~ nesr whieh an extsnd~d offshoot i� locstrd. Tb~ Cornado is oftan ~urraunc~~d bq a cioud maa~. Hright zon~s o! cioudia~~a up to 300 1ca~ in dia~et~r are accuw- lation� of rain cloud~. Th~ wind v~locity iu the tornsda xon~ ~xce~do 1W a~/~. (?ae of tha p~culiaritie,~ oF the distribntion of cloudin~or oa �srth is ths spiral-~haped rysteds linked ro lerge-scale cyclen~s. Pbotograph� of thaee ' ~ddiea can ~~rve es a rane of analy~ing Msatt~r forn~stion~ ainc~ th~q b~r faature~ o! a sprcific cycloo~. Nara ~a cen find tb~ preaanc~ of dry ar~d moisC air~ and fix th~ po~ition of sones sapnrating tha sir mas~es. Succa~sive photogrsphing oE ti6s dev~lopo~nt of a cioud systm in a cycloa~ aieywa it poesible to traca it in dyna~ics and �stablieh the ~a~ant ttw cold ~nd warn gronts npproach~ end ths i~osert of sovroent og ~ha cold front into th~ sone of the vaYm front. Md fiaally, one can analyz~ th~ etngs af breakd~+a of the c~rclo~~. On a nu~b~r oF phot~gsepha of ttu cloud covsr ton~s of clwds of a c~llular �tructurs ate di~cover~d, whosa raguler structuYe is gav~rned, sa is a~su~ed, by ttw ~ppraxiaeta ~tability in ~+ind velocity a~ nltitude i~rea~~~. Such n zone of callular cloudiness ie locnt~d on tbe periphery of a a~a~or aaticyclon~. - Thn lay~r of elouda and fogs that form~ for ~~pl~~ duriag the wova~snt of . �oiat air over th~ cold~r aurfac~ of th~ oc~aa in Che coastai soan oftan ara r~v~al~d oa televisioa in~e,g~� of the cloud cav~r obreined frov oateilit~a. Tbe r~wlts of res~arcb on ttN typae of cloudin~~a ara isportent. 51ra11 clwd ela~nnts visibl~ fro~ earth and s~rving to dat~raina tha type of clond cover bq tha ob~arvar w~der nasbal conditfoa often caanot bo found oa imagas obtain~d fraai a sstellit~. The fi~ld of well cwaali savetifa~as can ~e~m to b~ a thin cov~r of le~~r cloud~. Vaat bright cloud sas~~� vith diar~tsr oa tha ard~r o! hnndr~s of kilon~t~ra ar~ ueually a thick layer of clouds. The r~gioas of laasr brigbtne~s in Lhe ~hape of irr~gular �poto oftsn contein cumulua-rain clouds. Tl~ cloud mssa� xith loN brightne~a consi~t of cirrus. 6igb-cuawli or cuauli mf good ~rsatber. _ Anely.i~ of th~ o~teorologicel info~tioa obtaioed from satellitas ~haw tbat althcugh th~ ~pac� photographs wke it po~sible only to obtain mapa of clouds and opticallq danse for~ations an th~ Mhole thay provide sa idaa nbout oany o~teorologicsl pbu~aMaa. Thus the mentior~sd typhoons heva c6arscteristie eloud foraintioaa loeat~d usuelly et nltitudso up to 12 ka. th~t~forn fro~ th~n a~ caa caopila an op:lnion about tbe air curreats at tb~s� eltitud~s. T'h~ nltituda of tbe bord~r of clouds i� d~t~t~ia~d baa~d on th~a ~p~ctrsl Masura~uata of tLe outgoing rediation. 32 FOR OFFICIl+L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 rc~ii nrr r.c; r nr, usi: oNt,Y - A~though no~? ~~tther forecsatiing i� ba~ed on en analysie of the ataoe~heric prassur~ field gram which fra~te of air oasee� ar~ detettioiusd~ ~t i� ba~i~- ally considsrod posribl~ ~o baoa ~atl~r foreciuting an ob~ervations of changee in cloud cover. Tta met~orological r~tellites have alr~ady provided people with a loC of - uaeful i~nfan~ation. For snmpl~, in 1967 tl~s aaC~llit~ 'rCbsa~os-144~" included - iu tha sy~ta '~M~taor,~' ~ound rt~st th~ North Aretic acean �rcm F1r~ngla Ysland - to the B~ring Culf N~s practic~lly fr~e fraa icet tbi� p~x~itted navigation - ~o ba etarted a~oa~h earli~r then t6a uaual p~riod. ~1ith tbs halp of th~ sst~llita "Tixoo-2" ip 1961 a typhoon obsarv~d ~uad prddictad ia the ragiou of Nhr ZselaAd~ L~ the saat~rn sactien of tas N~dit~rraneea Saa ~~t atr~aais occurriag thsra wrre r~v~aled. - in tho ragions of the Hioelaya,~ tbat ara diffiault to r~ach the ecientiats - ~rith th~ halp of re~ota photographr establish tbe pxacias water patt~rn of rivere fa~diag tha ft~lds, cotton plan~aCione and gard~qs. The obtaiued - info.~nation nade it poesible to build irrigntion ~tructurae Mi~b regerd for the proposed influx of riv~r vi~~ar in tha etwo~er period. Metaorologicel antellitas have t?ara~d ~any tioM~ of the g~nerntion ar~d direc- tior~ of movarsnt of ma~or cycloa~s~ u n r~sult of which the r~eid.ntr of the coastal r~gion ware Marnrd in advsnce of tha thraat~ning dang~r. The photugrnpbe obt~ined by m~teorological aateilitea for caapilaticm o� - synoptic mapa nr~ being d~v~loped in a corrrapoad;ng van~qer. In th~ Unit~d States, for exempis, two m~thod� are uNd for the devalopwent. Ths firat ~ coasiets of davelopia~g tha photograp6a direcCly at Lh~ reception etation end pro~aating tbe obtainod i~ago onto n coardinatio~ grid. The caefigurstion of the cloud cover is tranaferred to a standerd synopt;c oap, ahara tttia exp~rianced eynoptic aeteorologist praliminarily analys~s the iAag~e and eel~cte tba moet valuabl� inforiation. This aethod is uaed to obCai~n data - charectarizing tha synoptic proc~assa of n larg~ acale, auch aa th~ poeitia? of a cyclone ceAter. Tha sacond a~thod coasista of ttu coastructiou of a geogrnphicsl coordinate grid diractly oa th~ photograph. ' Hexe distortioas ar~ coaaidered that are introduc~d by tha optic syata of the wid~-angl� camera, aod for each photograph en indepsndent coordiast� grid ie canetruct~d ucording to tbs ories~tatica of th~ casera in r~latioa to tlto local verticel. In addition to infor~eatiaa ebout th~ cloud cwer of eart6 thsr~ ia yat anoth~r caa~plax of al~ea~ts abaut ~+hicb ~ raceive dsts frao~ ~t~orological aatallites--tbis is iafo~c~ation o~ the atr~a~u of radiation carir~g to tbe sarth ead givaa off by it. It~ particular, aa a ausber of ~at~orological - sat~llitas tb~ taak Wu a~t of obtsinies large-scal� fialda of reaiatto~ eacaping into ~rorld ~pA,ce frca th~ ~srtb~a surfacc ead ataosphsrs Mhic~ are in the fiald of visian of the rec~iwre. Sincs the ~scapiag radistioo ia - _ d~t~s~o~in~d by th~ refl~ctiag and avittiag properti~s of t~rrestrial obj~cC~, and by tba naLUr~ of the air naaaos, tb~n fra~ aA a~alysis of th~ t~mporal nnd apatial vsrietiona in radiatioa field� oaa i~ priocipla conld cospiY~ an idea abcut th~ correap~ding variations ia th~ fi~lds of sat~arological 33 FOR OFFICI/.L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 - l~Olt Ul~i~ cr,rni~ USL ONLY �leaanCS~ aad make eu~ analyei� of the cloud covar Chat ~.nteracta with th~ corraapa~diag eir mae~~e, and trace th~ir movameats in epncs nnd chaagea in Cime. Thn results obtain~d on the redistioa~-thnt~o~al partern of the syetear earth- etoaospMre ar~ u~~d ~o d~valop e~heory of alinete e~nd consttvat an etmo.. apherio mod~l. Th~ qua~atiCy of info~ation tranamitte.-1 by Ch~ vetaorologlcel 8ate11iCe in turn alone can be caspnred ~vith ths in~oxmation obtained fran 15~Q00-20~000 surface s~eCions. Ali of it awet bn pxoce~ssd bafore Ch~ begimning of th~ neact turn. A aeseion of infozm~tion tresasmiesio~ begins upon commnnd fran earth or in accordance with tho fligh~ pxogrew. Ta~fotwatian fxam orbit can be obtained dir~ctly, Mithout bein~ stor~ad eboard, which ia especially valu- nbie for rapid neathar forecaeting. In ti~ futura ehm ~dek viil be se~ of - _ obCaining "a epaca deC~orological na~rspaper" at e~ny tiiw o� day and even avery hour. How many eatellitea ax4 required Co guaranteo such hourly inEosmaCion? It saeme that nverything dapende an the orbit oF the satellite. For exec~ple, if the oatallitea are leunched onto an equstorial orbit. then to solve tbis problem it is euff iciant to have t~ro eatellites with n 2-hour period of rota- tion and ahift in phase by e 1u~lf-period. In this caee at any point of the equatorial belt one csn obtain telev~sion photogrephs at hourly ~ntervals. If ai- multaneou3ly six to sight eetelliC~s ere launched onto a polar orbit, then in the lo~er latitudes televieion photogxapha ~rill be obCained at a rata of slightly lesa than an hcur, ~rhile in the high latitudee thsra ~vill be an over- lapping in tiss end srea. Ners at six hour intervala ~orld anp~ of the geographicel distribution of deta obtained froai the satellites can be compiled. , Accordiug to other cetlculation~ the eatellites sbould be put into orbit at _ altituds S00 km aad `rlth elope at ari engla to the pole in direction to tha - w~est. By usiag a sy~trm of tbesa satellitss launched ~rith a euccassive ehift in tiwe t~rit~ euch regard that they intersact~d all tha latitudse at spacific timn interv~als one can practicallq continuously trace the w~etaorologicsl pra_ oeeeee aver the antiro ~rth ntaoaptwre. ~ Of definite imparteace can also be tb~ project of a system made of three aqua- torial �atelli~ea that hav~ a etatic~ary orbit at altitude 35.870 km with period of rotatian 24 h. In this case thn aatellites will ravolve synchro- nously xith ~arth, as if suepended over apecific pointe of the equator. The ~ value of th~ ayst~a cos~eists alao of the poasibility of using it as n ~nail box whare informntioa cen ba conceAtrated fraa~ other meteorological satallitea ar~d thea tran~aieted to surface points of infoYtaation colloction. The taak in thn future ia oatlined�-to create a univereal vreather aurface. Thia requires automatioa of all the measuring procassee aacecuted at tha hydro- u~at~orological etations and locsl waattur bureaus. The fact is that many meteorological obasrvatione are mad0 anly visually, since ttura nre no - edvanced instruaants, and aoevetimoe phy~i,cal principlea that par~it autamatic observation~. ?hi~, for suample, is recordiag of a rnimber of at~aospt~ric phercoa~a, shap~� of clou~ds. ar?d ~valuetioa of the ~reath~r. 34 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 I~qk OI~'FTC]:AL USL ONI~Y In th~ opi,nion of a number of apecialiet~ autoavetic hydreaoCeorological remo~a mt~nauring eystans wu~ti becamn th~ reference link in ~he canplex autaNared _ sysCem. One eysCem ~rl,~1 be able to encampe~eg the region of 20~000 km2, and free thausends of ekillad 8plC1AL~ACB fraN heavy lnbor. Ovar ~he ~ntire region of obaervatioite tha primQry meaeusing iaetrtauents will be arranged thet aeke autountic meaeur~ente and trnnecnit ths obtained infor+antion to tha hydrawetaornlogi~al poin~. . Syatam of Spnce Caraawaicati,on The diatnnce of ra~dio wave sp~ead depends on their length. Long ~Wavee cnn envelop the enrth~ although hsre they loae the greaCer part of th~eir anergy. Short wavee guarantee considarebly greatnr distance of radio cawm~nicntion as a conaaqu~nce of multiple reflection frvo tha layere of ionized g,sa located - aC low altiCudes atui the earCh's surface. V~iF wavPs are spre~ci only ~rithin diract vieibiliey. Ho~rever prscieely in thie range o1E anvelengthR - th~ calm~et operation in Chs ather ie guaranteed. Here many radi~a ste~ione can operate simultaneously on VHF without interfering irith e~ch o~ther. - - In the last decade the acientists end designnrB Y~va developed n~lumbnr of maasurea dir~ctad towerda increasing ths dietanca of reufio and ta;levision caanwnication; mors advanced syst~ms h~ve been plnnned~ the ps~rer of Che tranamitting and aenaitivity of the recnptian stnCiane have benn ;lncrseead, and a network of retransmitting lines hns bnen sat up. Hokever c~mtinueue radio inatallaCion even of a medium-ecale ~ropean co~u~try requiri~e the creatiaz~ of a~atny dozana of trnnsmittiag atation~ linked by apecia:l cebles. For our country that hae an eno~ous territory and regione of difi=lcult eccasa this tnsk ie extremely canplicnted. For each l~na of cable or rnclio-relaq ~~?ication that consists of a large number of intesvediate zat~~ariswittiag sterione raquirea the inetallatio~a of expeneive tr~sceiving appa~~atus, conatructi.on ~rork, aourcee of parer, and conetant oaintenance. Ft~r exaapla, �or the radio relay line Mosco~t�Vladivoatok 150 eurface re~rauaait:t era Mexe needed, and for the ceble line of the am~e length--over 1,000 ampl.ification _ points. Cune~ntly thrae mnin types of ca~mmuaication liaes are uaed: aaaim~, of Which a largs number gather nt a c~ntrnl point, from x~ich alcmg a caanon aain c~annel - camaunicntion xcurs aith othar aAalogws points, ahere lines, aga,in branching. - are sent to the usero; caewunfcation linas batMSen the ccmo~unic~ti,on csntar arni a moving ob~ect tehip, airpln~~, lnelfeopter); caam~nicaCio~ linea betw~nan moving objccte. Titte anain mass of th~ eo-ca11~d camn~ercial caoaaunication xhoae - number ia conatantly riaing 3s Lnpleeeented on liues of the firat tqpe. For axample, whereae in 1969 the number of trewaatlaAtic tMO-~np? talephone commu- nicatione betw~een Durope end the United SCatAS vae 2 million (345 chnimele) according to predictiona for 1980 it remaine to provide about 120 milliai caamunications, ~+hich requiree up to 12,000 channals. The demead of the military s~rvices eleo risea �or lin~s to guarant~ee coordinatiou and func- tioning of anry unit~. It is knoWn thet one surface radio ~tatien can eacao~pass with ite "'radio fi~ld" roughly 15,000 Ic~2. And if th~ rstra~namitting devicQ i� inetallad not on a 3~~ FOR Q~'FICII;,`. USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 , 1~UR Ul~i~'IC1:AL lJSf: ONLY mnaC, but on bo,a~rd n aatellite, then one can create a comams~ica~iona ayeCEm capeble of encaapaesing the en~ire arorld. � The principle of the uda ot satellitas Co provids long-range radio caomunicntioa caneieCe of ths �act that in the communicatio~ linee operating in thm VHP rnnga Chey fulfill the role of intetnadi8te sraeions rebroad~caating radio ~ignale fran ona surface atat3on to another. As in the nor.mal redio relay lines paseive and nctive �atellite rebroa.dcacting are diatinguiehed. In thd firat caae the gatellite is a eimple reflecCor NYu~se shell has~ for axanple, the shape o� a sphere (the American satellit~ rebroadcaster "Echo"). Paasive rabroad.caeeing needs considarable pow~er of the transmitting and high sensitivity of the recaption etatione, as w~ell ae lo~? orbits of the satellite. Deepite the evident advantages of uuch a retrnnsmi~?�er (high reliability and wide range) it is not considered pranieing. This wilt, be discussed below. In Cne eecond casm on tha eatellite the roceived fran earth is ampli- fied and subsequontly trnnsmitted to ano?,ner eurfaco station. Activo retrans- - mittere cnn operata both wich deley and without delay of eommunicatio~. During the operation ~+ith delay of cemmu,~ication ~ha satellite, flying over a poinC of data tranemiseion receives a~d stores tha obtained information, While above the point o� reception upon coa~mand from earth tr~nsmits it. In this case the eatellites ean be launehed to low orbits (on the order 300 km) and have considerable po~rars of the traneiaitting syatans. How~ever the sme~ll altitudes oF the orbits limit the activity of the communication section to 2-3 minutes. _ If operation occurs withwt delay of comnwnication the eatellite continuously tranamite to the user ~ha obtained infostination only at another frequency. - - Hare coaarounication ~r~Lll be carried out only in the casn Where the aatellite - simultaneously is visible from thn sitea of reception aaxi tranamiesion. Traas- miesian without delqy is poBeible also bet~een more diatant obfecta oa earth - through a aysteaa of eatellits-retransmitters linked i.nto a single chain. Retransmiaeion ~rlth delay ie uead in the system "Kur'yer," i+hile continuous-- in the syat~m "Molniyn" end "Rele." - Passive retranamitters ara divided into stabilized end unetabilized. The atabiliz~d include flat refle~tore, reflectore of on-bonrd scaCtering, and - ahort-circuited antecmae. 1io~nv~r atabilized passive ratransmittere require = the use of el8ctronic control syata~s for the spatial poaitian rf the appa- " rntus, Nhich reduces to zero the ~oain advantage of these systema--reliability and aimplicity inhereat to..the passiva reflectors. The uneCabilizad reflec- - tora inelude sets of Luneberg lenaes, V-reflectors, el4uds of "nnadles," and metallic epheras. Paesive retransmitters are usually ho11aW apheres aeveral tens of ineters in - diemetar Whoae aurfe~ce ia covnrad With alwninum foil. For exeunple, the Aa?er- ~ icen satellite "Echo-2" launched in 1964 r?as an iaflatable aphere 41 m in diameter with a ehmll made of plastic film that he~d a mirror metallized coating. Later drafts for the satallitAS "Super Echo" ~?ere developed with diameter up ~ to 300 a~. 3b FOR OFFICIA;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 N'Ult OI~I~IC1A1. U5~ ONIaY ' The main deficiency af passive eateliit~ retransmittsrs is Che graat lorees of ~nergy of Che refle~ted signal fran Ch~ �~tel~itea aith nondirecCionsi redi- ation baem proportionel Co the fourth dsgree of dietanco; in aeCive r~tretne- mitt~ere the dWuping is sub~ect td the lav of seco~d dagtre~. Caopgriron og tha w+sights of paesive nnd active refl~ctors thee guaraate~ the eam~ re�emission pew~sr per unit of ective powar rhowa that er~ incraeee in the dinaneiane of paeeiv~ saC~llitee to obtein greatar ~plificatioa and pawar reaulte in an impemissible increa~a in s~night. A cumparison of tha quantity of lnfotnation that can ba raCransaiCted in n unit of time elao is not ie favor of th~ passive aystama. Thue with altitud� of the orbit 1~000 km th~ rnte of inforunCion tr~nsmise~io~ rrith regsrd for raal lioitetions is 105 bit/s f~r a paesive ephsricai satallita 34 m in din- m~ter et~d 108 bS.t/~ for m activ~ �atnliite ai,th po~reY 1 W. _ Detenoination of the apeei!'ie orbit far n s~~t~llita ratreaemitt~r is en extrea~ely complicoted qu~stion linked to t:te salection of a cnmtbar of othar _ componeats nrul peraiaeters of the systm: tha ra~mber end locstion of ths aurface pointg, the number of channels~ limiCnticros plnc~d on the delay tima of the �ignel~ paYec~eters of the booster rocket~ and charncteriatics of the satellite end aurfac� station. " Expa~?sion of the canmunication zoae by incre.tsing the altitude of tha aaCellita orbit is aignificnr~t roug6ly to 8,000 k,a. Here circular orbite ara ~orn suit- - able from the viawpoint of the etability of the aa~aumieatian zon~ ,and ti~e ~ ratio signal/noi~e. M edvnntag~ of a~ritching fso~ an elliptical orbit to - enother--tb~ sntellite csn hdve greater wight as c~spared to the satellita - that is put ir~to a circular orbit Mhos~ altituda aquals tbe spogea of tha alliptical orbit (~th tbe aao~ Ma3ghta of ths boo~t~r rocketa). In addition . on ttw ~lliptical orbita cem~unicntioa ceA be pYOVidsd ~ora ~caucoicslby betu~ea~ surfsce stnticos located ia a li~ited range ~f lntitude~. _ Precieely on an elliptical orbit vitb parameters: ptrigee 497 1~, apogee 39,380 km--the Soviat coa~unications a~atellite "Holniya-1" aaa lsuached. The large mouat of Qrbital ~ccentricity� the locatioa of the apogee avar th~ Norther~, and the p~rig~e over the S~outt~tm H~isphere� guaraatee~; ec~mvanica- tion sassions in tbe preaenca of oae set~llits b~t~ Hoscar and Vladivo~tok to 9 hours vith n totni periodi of revolutiaa 11 h 48 mia. Ho+rev~r ttw L r~trnneoitttre nith ellipticnl orbits nlao havt significant deficiancies: it ie aec~ssary to altar ths ~plification of tha on.board eate~ma n~ a cons~- c~uer?ce of the vsriab2lity in di~tmce to esrt6~ and vitb perigees lass the,n _ 370 ico dacaleration i~a t6s ataioapbex~ raaults in iastability of tbe orbit. At vhat altitudaa than ia it e,xpedi~nt to leunc6 the retrans.ittars? It ~ baen nstablished that ttsere azists a cziticnl altituda on tha order 9,250 km belo~r which ous caa use Ao~ndiractional ante:mas and caoparatively aivple ~atellites. At gr~at eltitudes it is aor~ e~cpedieAt to u~o d~a^~ctioan! stnbilized a~teae~as, vhich reduces the r~quired sumber of sntellitas that pravid~ comuAication iritbin the sme ragioa of tba earth' a surfece. 3? ~OR OfiFICII,L USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100040038-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100044438-5 ~Ott O~~ICtAL USN: hNLY ~~r~� (~2) ~C13 r.____..~..~.. ~o ~.o ~~h i,~ i~~, ~M ro M r, ~..~L. M~~I I y I ~ ' - - y'~tti'll ~ ~ ~..~'~..r ~ ~ 1~� ''~sl '1 ~l(:~ ~~7 , I I ~ i~ r .l t 1 I ~ ~~~.rn~I ; ~ I . t,l ~ r . t~.. ~.j. ~K ~~~tiin ' : ~ ~ '~~C~ ' ' [!y''~ 1~ ~r~ ~ a' .f : i;t'1