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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE= 2007/02/09= CIA-R~P82-00850R000'100060045-5 ON 2~ ~ _ N0. ~ - i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100064445-5 I FOR OFF 1 CI AL USE ONI.Y JP RS L/8539 - aa Juns i9~9 . ~ ~ TRANSI.ATIONS ON SUB-SAHARAN AFRxCA FOUO No, 640 U. S. JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 NOT~ JPRS publicaCi,~ng cdnCain informaCion primarily from for~ign n~wgpap~r~, p~riodical~ ~nd booka, buC alsc, from newe ~genay ~ rrangmigsions and broadcases~ Materialg from foreign-lgngu~ge sources gre Cranelat~d; Chne~ from ~nglish-language gource~ ere Cr~ngcribed ~r reprinCpd, wieh the original phrasing gnd ' oth~r char~ce~risCicg reCginpd, HeadLineg, ediCorial reporta, and maCerial encloaed ir brackeeg ar~ suppli~d by JPitS. Processing indicatora such aa [TextJ or [~xcerpeJ in rhe firp~ line of ~ach item, or following the lage lin~ oF a bri~f, indicate how Che original informaCion wna procegsed. Where no proc~ssing indicaCor is given, Che in�or- mgtinn was summgrized or exeracred. UnEnmiliar names rendered phoneCically or rranalirerated are enclosed in parentheses. Worda or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parenthesea were not cl~ar in the original buC hav~ been gupplied as appropriate in contexe. Other unnttributed parenChetical notes within the body of an iCem originate with the source. Timea within items~are as given by source. The conCenCs of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views nr aCCitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE TNAT DISSEMINATION OF TEIIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~'OIt OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY - ~ , JPRS L/8534 22 June ].979 TRANSI,ATIOfVS ON SUB~SAHARAN AFRI CA FOUO No. 640 ~ CONTENTS PAGE TN'T~K-AF'ItICAN AFF'AIRS Cuban Non-MiliCary AesieCance to Af;~^icg DeCailed (Basil Davideon; AFRIQUE-ASI~, 14 May 79) 1 Kigali ~rench-African Summit Reviewed (Jean-Louis Buchet; JEUNE AFRIQU~, 23 May 79).......~... 4 Angolgn Refugeea in Zaire To Receive Aid (MARCH~S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 27 Apr 79)........ 7 Briefs Ugandan Refugees in Zaire 8 Ugandan Delegation to Zai:e 8 - CAMEROON Briefs Cabinet Considers Budget 9 - French Rice, Mining Aid 9 CHl~D France Said To Have Supported Habre During Nd~amena Battle (H. Abou Feriel; AFRIQUE-ASIE, 14-27 May 79)............ 10 GUINEA ~ Briefs Relations With France Expanding 14 GUINEA-BISSAU Briefs General, Investment Bu~igets Adopted 15 PorCuguese Civll Aviation CooperaCion 15 - a- (III - NE & A- 122 FOUO) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OR n~~ICIAL US~ ONLY CONTCNT5 (Cnntinued) PBgg MAUAGASCAIt ~irgC 1978-1980 znduaCrinlization Plan Examined (MA~2CH~5 TItOPICAUX ET MEbIT~~ItANEENS, 4 May 79) � 16 MALAWI ' Dcvelopment Plnns 1979-1982'Outlined (MAItCH~S TROI'TCAUX ~T t~i~DIT~RRANE~I3S, 27 Apr 79) . . . . � ~ � 24 Iiriefs ~~C Lonn 26 - 131anCyrc WaCer Supply 26 Increase in GNP 27 AgriculCural Diversification 27 Sugar Cane Production, ExporCs 28 MALI Narional Economy, 1978 Production Reviewed (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 18 May 79)........ 29 Briefs Swiss Agricultural Assistance 32 MOZAI~IBIQUE ' Difficulties Burdening National Economy (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 18 May 79)......~. 33 NAMIBIA SWAPO Leader Hits South Africa-Backed 'UDI' in Namibia (Sam Nu~oma Interview; AFRIQUE-ASIE, 28 May-10 Jun 79).. 35 RHODESTA Unique Transferral of Power Examined (Francois d'Orcival; VALEURS ACTUELLES, 23-29 Apr 79)... 37 UGANDA Idi Amin Leaves Bloody.Heritage (Jacques Buob; SPECIAL, 26 Apr 79) 41 ' -b- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOit OF~~CYAL US~ ONLY CONT~NT5 (ConCinued) Pagc zAIRL Iteparriation of Mc~roccan ConCingent in Shaba (MAItC~tES TROPICAUX ET MEDIT~RRt1NEENS, 4 May 79) . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~i5 Government Waging Struggle Ag~inst Triballem - (MARCH~5 TRCIPICAUX ET MEDITEttRANEENS, 4 Mgy 79)~.....~.. 47 Closer Itelat:tone Wirh Soviet Union Plnnned (MARCIIES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRAN~ENS, 27 Apr 79)~.....~. 48 Briefs New Cof�ee Office 49 Serious Floods 49 PRC Aid 49 _ ZAMBIA Government Having Problems With Unemployment, CorrupCion (Fode Amadou; AFRIQUE-ASIE, 14-21 May 79) 50 -c- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OFFrCIAi. USE ONLY - INTER-AFLtICAN AI'rAIItS CUI3AN NON-riILITARY ASSISTANCE TO AFRICA DETAILED Pnris AFRIQUE-ASTE in French 14 May 79 pp 54-55 (Article by Basil bavidaon: "Surpriaea on the Isle of Youth"j � (Excerpts] We are on a Cuban island a few kilometera to the aouCh of the main Cerritory of ~uba. Today Chis island has 50,000 inhabitnnta, hnlf of whom are children of achool age. It was mAde famous in the past by ita ~ parroCs ~nd iCs pirates. Then it was a prison. _ Today it is the Isle of Youth, and this ia not just a name. There are Coday on this island 46 newly built schools, and of thia number, 10 are reserved for children from Africa, with 9 already in use: 2 for Angolans, 4 for Mozambicans, 2 for Ethiopians and 1 for Namibians. ~ These young Africans number 5,000 in all. And when the lOth achool ia - finished, there will be still more. There are also African teachers, for these atudenCa come with their teachera ' who work with the Cuban onea. ` "They all had medical problems when they arrived," the Cuban comrade who heads the esCablishment told us. "They suffered from parasitea of courae, but also from malnutrition problems. Each child gets a medical examination - on arrival and then suitable treatment. The food is plentiful and proper, we see to that." Later Fidel Castro asked me simply: "Did you visit the Nambian school?" - And then he went on about the Cuban assistance to the children, with great enthusiaem and also great modeaty, like all the Cubana who talk of it. a In truth, seeing this aid concretely is a remarkable experience and one which warms the heart. Much has been written about the military aid Cuba is aupplying Angola and the brotherly countries formerly part of the Portugueae empire. The 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~ ~Ott 0~'FICIAL U5~ ONLY genernud nnd unselfieh underCaking in 1975 and 1976 making it poasibla to anve Angola merirs fu11 praise, But 1itCle has been said about Cuban non- military aid. Ir is perhaps lese apectacular, but no lese generoue and unmelfiah, c?nd no lesa useful. Today ChiS uid involves 15 AFrican counCri~s. Old Ties ~ I~or a Lon~ Cime, iC w~s enCirely free. It sCill is Co a great extent, but tt~e counCrien which are able to do so can now pArticipate in the cosCa, However, Cub~ h~s demanded nothing in reCurn And has not accepted anything eieher. The rigures we are giving (aee table) are a bit out o� date, and should be higher Coday. Cuba i8 still providing VieCnam, Jamaica, Guyana, ~ Yemen and Iraq wiCh substantinl medical aid. ~ "IC is noC correct Co say that our people geC noChing in exchange," a doctor Cold me. "We derive a moral benefiC which is valuable to us." A moral benefit! Idhat unuau~l languagel And yet I do not doubC the aincerity of this doctor for a moment, any more Chan I doubted the happinees o~ the . young Africans I saw on Che~Isle of YouCh. And Clie quality of this aid is only matched by ita quantity. We expected Co find some hundreds of Africans on the Isle of Youth, but we saw there tt~ousand5. There are more than 2,000 Cubans working in the medical field in Africa today: docCors, specialists in tropical diaeasea, nuraes, techniciana. And they are not concenCrated in the cities. Insofar as I could find out, they are in the most distant and hard-to-reach placea, far from the beaC~n path, where one rarely finds medical peraonnel. � The Cuban minister of healCh, in charge of the medical sid, gave me detailed figures for last Februury. The medical care and instruction provided the 5,000 young Africans in Cuba and Che work done by more than 2,000 persons in the medical field in Africa iCself do not accounC for all of the non-military aid from Cuba. It involves other major aspects. For example, party members, cadres, graduates and university atudents from Africa come to Cuba for speci3lized courses, while Cuban teack~ers also go Co Africa. These Cubans go above all to the Portuguese-language republics. On the one hand, this ia 1 because Cuba has very old ties with these countries, and on the other, it is because on the technical level, Spanish and Portuguese are both easy for speakers of the ather to learn. Last year, for example, there were 700 Cuban teachers in Angola. This year, the plane on wtaich we flew carried a group of volunteers who will take over from rhem. 2 FOR OFFICIA~ USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~ox oF~rci~. usE oxi,Y - Cuban Medicel Aid to Afriua ~ Phyeiciana Total Pres~nC ttnd Februarv Estimated Coun~ _ 3urgeona DenCist~ Nursee mechnicinne 1978 Tornl Angola 329 18 224 296 86'7 915 Congo 8 6 6 20 20 Guinea-Bissau 31 1 5 4 41 41 Cuinea-Conakry 5 1 2 1 9 10 Equatori~l Guinea 5 1 2 1 9 9 Tanzania 13 2 15 39 riozambique 24 2 2 28 33 Sao Tome 14 1 1 4 2~ 21 Cape Verde 4 1 1 2 8 9 Mali 6 g 6 Benin 11 2 3 1 17 19 Libyn 82 136 25 243 320 Algeria 61 1 6 6 74 87 Polisario Front 5 1 3 2 11 11 Ethiopia 133 3 83 83 302 310 Total 731 31 474 433 1,669 2,250 r COPYRIGHT: 1979 Afrique-Asie ' S157 CSO: 4400 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ' BOR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY . INT~R-AFRICAN AFF'AIRS KIGALI ~'R~tdCH-AFRYCAN SUMMIT REVIE'rJED Paris J'EUNE AFRIQIJC in French 23 May 79 PP ~-6-17 ~rticle by Jean-Louis Buchet] ~ex~ The Sixth French-African Summit should be appreciably different from ~ previous summit meetings because of a particular situation. We offer you here the K:gali file. , It is in this manner~ after a concludin~ speech given in Gaulliat terms in Alsace on 15 riay defending European construction, that Valery Ciscard d'Estaing left the hexa{;onal hubbub Thursday, 17 May. r^ar from noise and furor (see JEU1~E ~FgI~U~ No 95g) d'E stain~r came to African territory for the 14th time _ ~ since his arrival at the Elyse~akinore PreinSthe~SixthaFrench-African Summitf ficial visit of 3 days bef~re 8 P~ on 21 and 22 May. There will be a familiar atmosphere hoverin~ over the meetin~: is it not a r question of adherin~ to a rite meeting thus, first in Paris and then n an African capital~ around the French president? The man xho advocates "Africa for Africans" will be pleased in Ki~ali to meet his faithful friends amon~ the continent's 20 or so heads Senshoreand Felixe}{ouphouetaBoigny.delegation lead- ers--namely~ Leopold Sedar ~ However~ we are told that there will be new blood. First~ the participants: there will be Portuguese-speaking people as in Paris in 1978 but alsoe~nhi'm8 ].ish-speakin~ representative~ from Liberia~ which shoulrl~ moreover~ ~ the next presidency of the OAU; this is a good illustratThan,freturningCfrom breakthrough outside its traditional area of influence. Y.i~ali~ d'Estaing saill stop in Khartoum where, as acting president of the EEC~ he is to meet his Sudanese counterpart~ General Nimeiri~ current president of the OAU. There~ in Giscardian imagery--which is not without foundation despite all--is the symbol ~f this desire for dialo~ extended to all Africa and~ beyond that~ to the outline of a Euro-Arab-African "trialog" (according to the ex- ` pression--not very avarable--of the Elysee spokesman). All the sane~ we must not exa~;~;erate the si~nificance of these new individuals. Ever since France set foot in Zaire, no Prench-speakin~ person is a foreigner 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in Paris any moro. As a~eneral rule, the acceptance of Portu~uese-speakin~c and En~lish-speakin~ poople is atill limited to small countrie~ near the area of French influence and in essentially economic matters~ There are two im- portant excgptions: Kenya and Sudan. But two lar,~e countries--An~ola and e~pecially Ni~eria-~remain reserved~ even distrustful, in the face of French advances. At the top ~f the list amon~ France's customers in Black Africa~ on a par with Ivory Coast and France's forc3most supplier from the continent as a rrhole~ Ni~Qria quite often finds itself at variance with Franch initia- tives. We can still seo this at present in Chad. As for a Euro-Arab-African dialo~~ as attractive as the idea is~ it has little chance of being realized over the short or medium term~ Althou~h the African countries might be interested~ it is not apparent what counter rts France can offer to an Arab world (where~ moreover, it is opposed by some~obviously con- cerned with other matters. . Should the Kigali summit therefore be transformed into a simple remake? Un- doubtedly not. But the innovation lies elsewhere, There are ttareo series of ~factors which might make this summit different from the previous ones. On the occasion of the Dakar meetings (1977) and especially the Paris meetings - (1978)~ there had been talk of "summits of fear." At each of those meetings a number of tho participants were shocked by the situation in Zaire (Shaba I and Shaba II by the French militaxy interventions ( in Zaire but also in Mauritania or Chadj and by the threats of destabilization which seemed to wei~;h on Africa's moderate regimes. - Now the black continent no longer seems to be the stake of a worldwide confron- tation as in 1978. The question of security (strictly in the military sense)~ in view of a destabilization arranged by the "Russo-Cubans~" will not haunt the people's minds this year. As there is a desire to remain prudent~ "exchan~es of viewpoint" on conditions of Africa's security have been included in the a~enda prepared by the ministerial conference in April. But we shall not see~ as we did in Paxis in 1979, African delegr~tes demand the establishment of a Franco-African military pact. A second factor is the coincidence in the timin~ of na3or ne~;otiations of~eco- nomic interest to Africa and France. First~ there is the renewing of the Lome Convention which is to take place in June with the si~;ning of a new accord. Then there is the holding in rtanilla until 1 June of the fifth neeting of UNCTAD. These arE: two areas in which important questions are at stake relative to the fu�~ure of African countries and their relations with developed countries~ This is to say that problems of flevelopment are more current than ever. Under the subject of aid V ale ry Giscard d'E staing can pre sume to have liqui- dated the debts of the poorest nations. But, contrary to his wishes, he wi11 _ not be able to count on progress relative to the Fund fcr ~xceptional Aid to 5 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OF'FYCIAL U5~ ONLY ~ Af~ica xhich he wanted to promote amon~ other Western countries~ Reduced to a"pro, am" (which excludes puttin~~ up new funds but implies a certain coordi- nation~ the fund does not always satisfy I'rance's partners (t,he United States~ the FRG~ Great Britain and Belgium) which refused to become involved on the basis of a simple common declaration. All things considered~ concrete results will be obtained only on the basis of ~'ranco-African cooperation pxoperly speakin~. So much so--and this is the third factor--that although Africa's condition has been alleviated somewhat the economic situation t-.~s further deteriorated in all countriQS includin~ those which are achieving a certain measure of prospexity~ like Ivory Coast~ _ F'or landlocked countries in particiilar~ the situation is scarcely reassurin~. _ rtoreover~ it is those same states which harbored resentment against the summit of 19?8 fox having dodged economic questions. - Tncreased aid by France to the Sahel and landlocked countries is thus expocted. In this respect, Giscard~ confirming the chan~e in France's position~ is ex- . I ~ected to show his sup rt for re~ional organizations of the C~AO ~est Afri- e can Eco~iomic Communit~ and CLD~AO I:conomic Community of the African States of the l�Jes~ type. This is in the interest of greater effectiveness of aid which is of necessity limited. Although the sixth summit was intended to mark a return to the original concern, that of takin~ stock of Franco-African cooperation~ politics are far from being absent. In private conversation, small committee meetings or in larger groups the heads of state xill converse about the crises which are jolting the conti- nent. The situation of the Central African E mpire was even included in the of- ficial a;enda prepare d by the ministerial conference--at the initiative of the Central Africans themselvesl The latter had wanted a discussion about the bad treatment their country had received by the press. After the Bangui massacre and at a time when F'rance apnears ready to drop Bokassa~ we are w~ering that it is not on those te r~s that Central Africa will be summoned to Kigali. One more strong point is Chad for which Giscard will surely be asked not to forget his responsibilities in view of the Libyans and idigerians. COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1979 , 3558 CSO: 4400 'F 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY - INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS ANGOLAN REFUGEES IN 'LAIRE TO RECEIVE AID Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 27 Apr 79 p 1076 (Text] The tiigh CommissariaC of the United NaCions for Refugees announced in Geneva on 18 April that a shipment of inedicinea for the Angolan exiles in Zaire arrived in Kinshasa, where it was immediaCely dispat~hed for dis- CribuCion at Kimpese in the lower Zaire region. These medical supplies, worth approximately 125,000 marks, were aent by plane from Frankfurt as a contribution �rom the FRG Co the aid programs of Che refugee organization for Che som~ 93,000 Angolan refugees currently benefiting �rom the assistance supplies in the Cataractes sub-region. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie, Paris 1979 5157 CSO: 4400 . , 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~ ~OEt O~t~'ICIAL USC ONLY ~ INT~R-A~itICAN ApPAIRS ~ � BRIE~S - UCA;dDAN Ft~F'IJGE~S IN ZAIRE--According to AZAP (Zairian Preee Agency~, about 1~,~00 ttg~ndan r~fugeeg gre now in northeaetern Zaire foll~wing the fail of Pre~ident Adi Amin Dada. ~TexC~ (Parie MARCHBS TROPICAUX ET MEbI'I'~itRANP~NS in ~'rench 25 May 79 p 1318] UGANDAN D~L~GATION TO ZAIRE--A Ugandan delegation led by Minieter of Foreign Affnirs OCemn Halimadi arrived in Kinahaga on 19 May for a 2-day goodwill visit in zaire. The Zairian ambassadoM to Kampala, Mr Busaka, also ~ent to Kinsh~sa. ~Parig MARCNF:S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 25 May i9 p 1318J CSO: 4400 8 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 i~'Oit d~~ICtAL U5~ t~NLY CAM~It00N BItI~I~S CAgIA1~T CONSID~RS BUDG~T--In a eeesion in Ynounde on 25 M~y~ the C~meronni~n C~bineC consider~d the 1979-1980 draft budgeC pYe~ent~d by Mini~ti~r of Fi- nance Marcel Yondo. Showing an increase of 12.9 percent over thae af 1978- i979, this budget ig mad~ up of 186.6 biliion CFA franc~ tn racc~ipte and exp~n~~~~ divid~d intn 129.6 hillion in running expenge~ and S7 billion in inve~rmentg. The mini~Cer of finance recalled Che difficulti~g encount~r~d tn gchieving n balanced budget. The chief o~ gtate~ Mr Ahmadau Ahid~a, ' agked each of the ministete to us~ hig budgetary allotment ratiow lly. Uur- ing its seegion in June~ the National Aegembly will taice up thi~ fin~nce bill. ~TexC] ~Paris MARCKES TROPICAUX BT I~DITERRANEENS in French 1 Jun 79 p 1497j ~'RGVCtt RICE, MINING AIU--Two financial agreemenCe for 100 billion CFA frence ~ach wer~ concluded between Prance and Cameroon. They were gigned on 23 Mny in Yaounde by AcCing Minister of Bconomy and Plan Maikann Abdoulaye and by French Ambassador Hubert Duboie. The firet provideg for a contri- bution to the development of rice growing in the upper Noun valley (we$tern Cameroon),, It involveg a firet instalimeat of 2S0 million CFA francs fi~ nanced jointly by the FAC (Aid and Cooperation Fundj and the CCCE (Central Fund for Economic Cooperation~. The second concerna the financing of geo- logical studies and of mineral prosp~cting in the south~+est. [Paria MAItCH~:S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANE~NS in Prench 1 Jun 79 p 1497~ CSO: 4400 ~ 9 FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY I ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FQR OFFICYAL USC OI~I,Y CNAD ~EtANCE SAIU TO NA11~ 5UPPO~tTED NA~RE DURINQ NDJAMENA BATPLE p~ris A~1tIQU~-ASI~ in French 14~~27 May 79 pp 14-15 (Articlc. by H~ Abou Fgri~1: "The Battle of Nd~am~na"J ~T~xtj The b~ttle of Nd~~.mena took place in ~~bruary ~979 beew~en t?~~ troope of G~n Felix Mallown, ~t thgt Cime preeident of Chad, and those nf Hisegin tiabre, the th@n prime minieter. I~ i~d tn the em~rgenc~ of a third individual, Ougddaimi Goukouni who came "to eupport" the I~AN [At~med ~orceg of the North) of H~bre. But the only information which hae eo f~r be~n avail~ble regarding thie battle, which underlies the existing situaCion in Chad, ie thaC Which the French military authorities have nllowed ro filter through. The d~tuils that we publish today make it poa8ible to c~ompiement them and esp~cially to identify the political etake~ of thi~ bgttle for the cos~trol of Nd~amena, the country's nerve center, and beyond that of the whale of Chad. It glso ma~;ee ie poaeible to pinpoint the complicitiea which the grned grnup~ of Hisaein Habre enjoyed in fighting their baCtle of the streets againat Felix Mallotan. Pinally, to a large extenC, this inforniation makes it poseible Co project the future of thgt unlikely politicul twosome, Goukouni and Habre. It f~ii began in Augu~t 1978 with the fonnation of a government of "national unity" ufCer rhe failure of the Libreville talke (June 1978) bet~?een the FROLINAT (Chadian Naeional Liberation Prontj and General Malloum, at that tim~ preaident of Chad. In Libreville Abba 3idick, on behalf of the FROLINAT, had set ae ~ condition that the preeident ehould reign but not rule. Yn a eransitional stage it seemed neceesary to him t~o endoW the prime minister aith the pos~rer to really govern Chad. The role of the Chadi~n pr~8ident Was to be limited, accarding to him, to the strict uphoiding of conatitutional laa. ThiB dmnand by the FROLINAT and its secrerary gener~l eeemed "exceesive" to Felix Mallaum end to France for Whc~m "the afghts had been placed very high." It ie then that the Habre solution came to the mind of thoee Who make policy in Cha~d, Habre aseuming in fact the role of spokeeman for 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~Oft O~~IGIAL U3~ ONLY eh~ pr~~iden~. P~ychalogirnlly, the H~br~ dp~r~e~.on h~d ~hana~s Co ~uCc~c:d wer~ i~ nn~ r'.nr eha p~r~~nalie,y ir~~if d~ Ch~ f~t~n~r ~~iler a~ rtr~ Cl,~ugere and ~he dn~ign~ ~C his ~1~eping pnrCnerg, Thu ~und,~menCal. Ch~r~~~, ie~xl b~~i~ of eha naw ~ovarnmane, w~s ao ambigunug, howav~r, eh~~ nna i~ geiil w~nderin~ Coday wi~h ~urpri~a how it wd~ pog~ibl~ ~n bc~li.eve fc~~ nne manent rh~C Cha ~~~m ~t~~n~d nn rhae b~gi~ ~duld l~~e, Ag ~~~n ns ie w~n~ inCd Qf~~~C,Chc~ ch~rC~r ~ri,g- g~r~d eh~ ~ra~~~~ whi~h was eu i~~d en ~rn?~d C~.~Bh@9 in tih~ sCreeCa of Nd~an~en~. ~ttc~ ~nnCr~d~.eedry of ehie conseitiuCiun ind~~d 1ed in ghdrC drder Cd g cdmic~l ~xch~ng~ nf corraspond~nca beeween Ltic Cha~ltan Pregid~ne ~nd hi~ prim~ Miniet~r, HBbrQ raque~tin~, �or ex~mpl~, �raa M~11dum in an offici~l leeCer rh~~ rh~ pr~sid~n~ "chang~ on hig geal ehe e~rin of 'o�fice af Ch~ h~~d uf ~overnr;8nt' ~nd replace it wieh eh~c af 'dff3.ce af the presid~ne of Che Council of Minisrera"'. td~~ thfs cr~ee~bla to eh~ daficiency ~f Ch~ dr~tCerg ar ehe r~~u1C of pt~7;~ned ambigui~y? Wh~e~v~r te is Che ~rench dip~om~e, Mr Dallier, who had ~~pprnved th~ (~r~nch] ~ud~n~g~-Ch~di~n docwnene in eh~ n~m~ nf hi~ cdunrry, knew whar eh~ ecnr~ w~s. Dalli~r w~~ rgi~ed, ineideneally, ro ehe coveead pn~iCion in eh~ ~'rench foreign office by being appointed ~ranr.e~g nmb~g~ador. t'rom the st~rt ~rttnce's ~~ritudp hnd been ~mbiguaus. ICs action ended up hy serting up two centQre of power which could only lead to an arn~ed clagh b~twe~n M~lloum ~nd H~br~, ~ach h~ving his own ~rmy and both benefi~ing from French ~echnical gasietance. In addiCion to gupplies o� heavy and lighr wenpnn~ to H~bre, Franc~ agre~~ to ~?ccommodate gt Habre's reque~r 22 tr~ina~s, ~11 of th~m h~iling from Hgbr~'e tribe, Co b~ tr~ined .is officcrg in ManCp~llier, ~r~nce. This fav~r ~aas completely conCrary to the apirit of the Fundamental Charter which stipulated that the Armed ~c~rc~s of the North of Hissein Nabre were Co be integr~nred in the FAT (Chadian Armed Forces~. BuC the French military authdrities in Chad had decided otherwise. It was necessary that Hissein Nabre be able Co have available for all appropriaCe purposea a privaee aztny, independent of Che centrul governmene. General Bredeche'e recali following ~ request by ~elix Malloum did noC change things a lot. Gen~::,~1 ~oregC, who replaced Bredeche, puraued with more subtlety and diacrerion the game policy as hia predecessor who had eatablished here and therc throughouC the city of Ndjamena atores of arms and ammunition far acC wnC of the ~AN of Habre. The ~nned clash betw~en :tallo~an nnd H~bre broke ouC cm t0 February 1979 aftcr .an order for ~ generul etrike isaued by HigsQin Habre but Wh~ch was not followed. His militiamen then undertook to force the atudents of thc "Lycee ~elix ~boue" ~public htgh achoo~j to leave their classroans, thereby provoking the intervention of the regular police force to protect the cncr~nce to the school. The militiamen responded, firing into the cracrd. That W~s the excuse which the forcea werP waiting for to involve the cntire city in the clash. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR O1~FICIAL U3C ONLY ~nda~d, ~dr Hnbr~ nnd hi~ advig~r~ iC wa~ n~c~segry "Cn heaC up ~ha aemdsph~r~" i.n ard~r en c~~~~blieh a new ~drCe r~laeionehip. WiCh a Sp,~kesman During Che eneire b~CCl~ unly tihe get~darmerie, ~~quadxon of 2n0 men 1dd by Abdel Kader tt~mougue, cl~ehed tihe ermed unite of Kabre. '~h~ Chndittn army had noC intervaned Co any prgcCical axCenC. A~ the pauk ~f eha ~ighring iC w~e v~ry eimply consigned to barracks. 7'he only expl~nneidn o~ this immnbilism lgy undoubtiedly in Che f~ne ~h~~ Chad'e ~rmed �orcas wer~ under ~he camngnd of ehe ~rench general mt~ff which, from ehe nuCsQ~, beh~ved ~s ~n parCy on Che eide ChgC it h~d CIlOgC~CI: ~h~r o~ H~bre. There was Qven a French officer accomp~nied by ~ Chadinn uffic~r equipped with a loudepeaker who awnmoned a Chadian unit to surrand8r eo i~abre's FAN~ The energetic inGervention of the preeidenrial guard w~s n~ceea~ry to oblige ehis deluded unit Co reeurn eo iCa barracke. ~urehannore, ehe unite etatiioned oueeide of Nhjamena in Che garrieone of � nokorn, Mongo, M~o, ttnd el~awher~ were inCercepted by ~rench tr~ope and bnrred from inrervening on behalf nf ~elix Malloum. - In Briefe Acrose the ttiver; ~'he chief of sta�f di the Chgdian at~y, Guemerou, also prevenred fran exeraising his comm~nd, even hgd Co reaign and leave the country under groresque circumstances ~fter a epirited argumenC wiCh Malloum. Tearing off his clothing Guemerou ehaped it into a ball and hurled iC at the dumb- Founded Chadian PreeidQnC before diving, in briefs, inCo tb~ civer to ewim Co Cumeroon: ~he ~rench military c anmand in Chad unqueaCion~bly had the poesibility ~nd the mec~ns to impose a cease-fire. In addition to the 3,000 men availabl~ to it on the spor, the French cammand had one foot in each camp and was the effective master on both sides. Why did iC not attempt to halt the ctash between the two belligerenta? Even more eerious, why did the French contingent go to the point of giving ite assistance Co H~bre's troopg in the Sxra Moursol diaCricC, for example? In fact, the ~rench command had cle~rly choaen its side. For it the confrontation between Malloum and Nabre was the p~elude to the formaCion af a n~W Chadian army araund the armed groupa of the FAN. This wae to enable France to wiChdraw iCs expeditionary corps While aecuring iCs interests in the area, and to nppear with clean hands in fronC of international public opic~ion. On his parC, Ouaddeimi Goukouni imposed himself later. Not having vexatious anrecedents with France, Goukouni could serve as a screen and to "shoulder"--according to the t~~rm used by the French military the~selves-- Niasein Habre. In the scenario enviaioned to have Habre replace Mglloum, it was anticipated that Habre's PAN would in no more than a feW days seize the cgpital ~nd be in control of the eituation. NoChing came of it but the French military authorities in Chad decided not to atop ahen they 12 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OF~ICZAL USE ONLY ~ wer~ m~ki.n~ ~uch ~dod pro~resg, Her?c~ their d~aieinn eo ~ssisr Habre eo k~ap up hi~ pra~~uro on Mniloum~e rrnop~ while wniting eh~C Goukouni. d~cide th rM11y Cd Hnbrn, 'Lndeed, uneil ehe Last minuee Gdukouni plnynd :i d~ubl~ gam~, hia contacCe wiCh Liby~ and initinCing oChere with thd F'rench canmand. ~'in~11y, hi~ tiroope were ferried from Largeau ro Nd~~menn in rrench Tr~ne~11 Cr~nsporC plenes~ The sequal ig known~ CO~t~GH'~: 1979 A~rique-Asie ; 2662 ~ CSO: 4400 ~ 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OFFZaIAL U3~ ONLY CUINCA ; ARIEFS RELATIONS WITEI FRANCE~EXPANDING--Franco-Guinean relations have viaibly im- proved since French Presidant Valery Giscard d'Estaing's vieit to Guinea from 20 Co 22 December of last year. Agreementa on cultural, ecientific, technical, economic and financ~,a1 relations cooperaCion, which were pre- ' pared aince that time are elated to be signad in June. These agreemente conetitute the �ramework within contraces for the implemeneation of various pro~ecte may be eigned latex between French and Guinean enterprisea. MeAnwhile, aeveral pro~ects hava tieen starCed. An ELECTRICITY OF FRANCE team is working in the Konkoure River valley to study Che building of a dam considered extremely important by Guinea. Moreover, the Nrench com- pany COGEMA [expansion unknown] is continuing uranium prospecting by heli- copter in the north of Guinea~ and apecialists 6elieve that the aigna are encouraging. A firat boring may be effected in November. Two ELF-ERAP [expa nsion unknownj engineera arrived in Conakry on 16 May to atudy oil prospecting. '[Excerpta) [Paria MARCHES TROPICAUX ET 1~DITERRANEENS in Fret~ch 1 Jun 79 p 1490] CSO: 4400 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OR OFFICIAL US~ nNLY GUIN~A-BISSAU BRIEFS ! G~IJ~1tAL, INVESTMENT BUBGETS ADOPTED--The National People's Assembly o� Guinea-Bissau has adopted the gener~l budget and the inveatmenta budget , for 1979. The general budget amounCs Co 1,474~261,889 pesos �or expenaea and to 890,348,889 peaos for receipta. Tha 583,913,G00 peaos difference wi11 be made up through National Bank of Guinea-Bissau credits and inter- national financing funda. 7~'his hudget follows a policy o� fiscal auster- " ity. As for Che investments budget, iti amoun~s to approximately 3.5 bil- lion pe3os, a total which includes part of the investmenCs Chat wi11 be made by the public enterprisea. The miniatriea which have priority are: ~ Publ3c Works, Construction and Urbanism (671,634,400), Natural Resources (355,961,800), Commerce, Industry and Crafts (333,450~000), the state Secretariat for Fiaheriea (305,298,000) and Education. [Text] [Parie ~ MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 1 Jun 79 p 1489] PORTUGUESE CIVIL AVYATION COOPERATION--Portugal will cooperate with Guinea-Bissau in the field of civil aviation. It will specifically con- tribute to the restructuring of the sirports and Che AERO-LIA air trana-~ port enterprise, as well as to the training of specialized personnel. This announcement was made by Manuel Ribeiro Santos, commiasioner of atate for transportation and touriam of Guinea-Bissau, in the course of an o�- ficial visit to Liabon from 19 to 22 May at the invitation of Marques da Costa, his Portuguese counterpart. Already, a certain number o~ mechanics, sir. controllers and pilota fram Guinea-Bissau have been trained or are following couraes in Portugal. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITEFRANEENS in French 1 Jun 79 p 1489] , CSO: 4400 i 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR O~FICIAL US~ ONLY MADACASCAR FIRST 1978-1980 INDUSTRIALIZATION PLAN EXAMINED P~ria MAItCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 4 May 79 pp 1141-43 [Text] The "first 1978-1980 plan" of the Democratic Republic of Madagaec~r is part of the long-term atraCegy defined and traced in Che "Basic Optiona ~ for Socialist Planning," which adopted the year 2000 in the �uture as a significanC stage in Malagasy economic development. Goals for the Year 2000 WiCh a mean rate of population growth of 2.88 percent per year, Madagascar will have 16.6 million inhabitanta in the year 2000. From 1976 to 2000, its output has to be multiplied by 4.32, for a mean annual growth rate of 6.3 percent. Between the two periods of devQlopment actlvities, Che com- parative structure of the output would be established as follows in per- centages, at 1976 pricea: 1976 2000 Primary sector 47.1 33 Cxtractive industries 1.2 2.5 Conversion industries 17.6 30.4 IIuildings and public works 3.9 6.1 Services 30.2 28 It is esCimated that in the year 2000, the gross domestic output will reach 2,662 million Malagasy francs. From now until the year 2000, investments have been figured at 430 billion FMG, representing a rate of 24.3 percent with respect to the gross domeatic produce; their average annual rate of increase should be 9.7 percent. Exports in the year 2000 are estimated at 275.4 billion FMG, or 4.3 times those of 1976. They will be made up of 61.9 percent raw or converted agri- cultural products, 13.7 percent mining products, and 24.4 percent industrial products. This pro~ection reveals a foreign trade surplus of 1.7 billion in the year 2000--this is a minimum estimate, since the national merchant fleet should carry a growing share of the imports, at lower cosC. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OEt 0~'~ZCIAL USE ONLY In ehc ye~r 2000, Che gross doma~e~.c product will regeh ~.,~66.5 bil~.ion - M~1ag~sy frnncs, or 4.2 rimes the 1976 level; tihe c~nnual growtih of the CbP yhould be ~et gC ~n nverage of 6.1 percenC. 'I'i~~ yOC~A1~.8C secror wi11 dominate all activities, with rhe privatc sector c~ub~iyCing, Thug the distriburion of Che overall vnlue ~dded in Che year 2000 (ese~.m~Ced nt 1,537.5 b~llion Mnlgggey francs aC 1976 pric~s) would ~ppear as Eol.lows, in percenr~gea: employees, 20.39; co-operatorg, 35.53; cooper~Cives, 6.7~; socinlisC enCerprises, 14.33; individual enCerprises, 16.~.1; priv~ee compnnies, 6.87~ Tlte 1978-1980 rlnn In 1977, Che gross domestic producr wna estimated at 425.2 billion FhiG; with ~ mean ~roweh r~te of 5.5 percent per year, ie should reach 499.3 billion FMG in 1990, ~t 1976 prices, or 620.3 billion aC currene prices. In 1980, Che value added by the various product~.on agents should total 420.1 billion FMG, ae constanr 1976 prices. The individual eneerprises will have , a share of 47.3 percent, employees o� 21.1 percent, socialisC enterprises of 44.3 percene, private companies of 9.6 percent, and cooperatives of 7.7 percent. T}ie creation of cooperatives will still be in iCs initial stages: they will ~ take up 10 percenC of construction, 15 percent of commerce and 10 percenC of transportation. In addiCion, in the primary secCor, the government will participate at a level of 10 percent in agriculCure and also 10 percent in catCle breeding, in the form of sCate farms. From 1978 to 1980, the gross fixed capital unit will rise to 184.4 FMG at constant prices (237.1 billion at current prices); Che gc�:~rnment's invest- ments will toCal 74.1 billion (at constant 1976 prices), business investments , will represent 81.7 billion, and family investments will amount to ~g.5 billion. ProducCive investments will toCal 103.1 billion (1976 prices); of this amount, 27.7 percent will go Co agriculture, 29.5 percent to industry, 16.6 percent to transportation and telecommunications, 9.5 percent to mines and energy, 7.1 percent to trade, and 5.8 percent to industrial equipment, buildings, and public works. Social investments and investments in infrastructure will rise to 81.3 billion - FMG (1976 prices); they will be distributed as 42.7 percent in housing, 35.9 percent in economic infrastructure, and 21.4 percent social equipment. Primary SecCor As far as the primary sector is concerned, thp goals of the plan are summarized ~ on the following page. . i In paddy, a balance between production and consumption will practically be achieved in 1980 (predicted deficit: 43,OOQ tons). The cultivation of wheat 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 r(7It O~~ICIhL US~ ONLY Ls sti:tl ln thc experimenC~l sen~e. The develnpment of pcunur ~ul~ivt~tion ie n~ccyyriry Co incre~s~ th~ dome~Cic ourpuC d~ fnCty foodsCuffg nnd Cn m~~k~ - Che exisCing conversion ~;i~nts protiCabl~. The mgsCer plan for oil ~cte the - umo unt of pttlm oi1 necessary �or food and fnr supplying ~h~ snap fncrori~s ut 7,000 tone, Tl~e auleiv~ti.on df sny-b~ans is nor yee very widespre~d on the tsland~ The incr~ase in augar cane will r~ise the ~mnune of gugnr nvailnble for locA1 consumpr:Lon and for export, The figure given b~low fnr ehe outpur of coer~n in 1980 cnn be aubdivided into 25,200 eons o� cotton seeda (Co aupply Che Tulegr oi1 f~ctory, which doeg noC have enough sources) ~?nd 16,800 tons ni fiber inrended tor ehe Malggasy textile inc~usrry. ~xportis wi11. Cake up 80,000 tons of rhe 1980 coffee ouCput. Situation 1974 Ob~ecrive 19$0 Agriculture (in Cnns l~ad dy 1.930.000 2,~00,000 Co rn 131,000 168~000 � C~ssav~ 1,292.000 2,000,000 Vuciill~ 6,000 6,000 Clo ve 15,000 19,000 T~~bacco 4 ,100 5, 000 5ugar Cane 1,178,000 1,35G,000 I~epper 2,000 3,000 Hemp 22,000 26,000 Peanut 38,000 50,000 ' Cotton 35,000 42,000 Coconut palm 1,800 Oil palm trees Coffee 87,000 103,000 1.ivestock (number of heads) Cattle 6,118,000 7,305,000 Yigs 555,000 716,000 Sheep 566,000 729,000 Coa ts 1,069,000 1,377,000 Po ultry 17,441,000 23,700,000 Fishing (in tons) Continental 39,000 56,000 - Marine 28,000 38,000 - Mines and Energy In the mining sector, the predictions for the 1980 output have been set as follows: Chromite ore,23,000 tons with a value of 5.2 billion FMG; graphfte, 21,000 tons and 1.3 billion; mica, 1,100 tons and 0.2 billion. The local conversion of part of ehe chromite ore into carbureted ferrochrome will be pe rformed from the beginning of 1982 on. For this purpose, the necessary investments are provided for in the 1978-1980 plan. The lack of appropriate technology does not yet allow the industrial use of the Bemolanga deposits of bituminous sandstone. Thus the investments scheduled for the energy sector concern only the strengthening of the electrici[y output and the water resources. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OIt OF'~ICIAL USE ONLY IndugCrj.~1 SecCor _ One oC th~ b~yLC ~;nnl~ ot nc~ ~~80C~LlL~SC plun Eor ehe cnuntiry" resides in Ghe liUerntion or ehe nution~l. economy frmm ~11 exr~rnnl cnnsCrt?intis. Con- yiderrible eC~or~s will be devored Co CIl~5 go~1 in ehe industrial secCnr; n qLricC choice h~~ been made for the period 1978-g0, ae tt func~ion of rh~ nnssibiliCics for fin~ncing. in ehe ~r~n o� basic chemistry is included Che crettCion of a nitrogen fertili- zex plaiiC, which will involve 13 Uillion M~~.agasy francs in investments and which wi11 be operaeion~l in 1980, with a poCential output of 90,000 tons oE nmmont~n-urea per year. 'The plan also provides f.or the resump~ion of operaClons by the Mglagasy GelaCine Socieey (Somngel), which has interrupCcd irs ficeivl.Cies. 'I'h~ gereng~:hening of the c~ment industry wi11 be guarnnteed either by the creal�ion of a new cement works in 5oalara (Tulear), with a capacity of 300,000 Cons per yenr (15.8 billion FMG of inves~menCs), or by the expansion of ehe existing Amboanio plant, whose producCion capacity would be increased to 250,000 Lons per year (10.L billion FMG). As Cor ttie metallurgical indusCry, the planned uniC for the production of carbureted L-errichrome, with a capacity of 60,000 tons per year (10 billion FMC), will not be operaCional ur.til 1982; Che immediaCe program concerns Che creation of an ilmenite and zircon concentrate p1anC, with a potential ouCput of 276,000 tons per year, requiring 5.3~ billion FMG in investments. Concerning the mech~nical and vehicle assembly industries, the 1978-80 plan includes 1.5 billion FMG of investments for the manufacture of screws and bolrs, and the assembly of rractors, uCility vehicles and motorcycles. Under the heading of light industries, the 1978-80 programs include an in- cre~lse in the real capacity of Che paddy conversion plante, the renovation of the materiel and equipment of the oil factories (reorganization of the SNHU [NaCional Oil FacCory Companyj), the construction of a fifth indusCrial ~ugGr mill under the Chinese-Malagasy cooperation program, making it possible to reach a toCa~ auCput of 160,000 tons of sugar in 1980. All together, 12.7 billion Malagasy francs have been planned for the textile industry, including 7.5 billion for SoCema, whose production capacity will be increased to 14 million square meters per year, and 5.2 billion for Cotona, whose potential output will reach 9 million square meters per year. These two nationalized companies will have a Cotal turnover of 4.4 billion FMG in 1980, and will produce 1.7 billion in added value. ~ Terriary Sector The plan assumes ehat, as in all developing countries, the tertiary sector is enlarged with respect to the secondary sector, especially where the number of jobs is concerned (280,000 persons, including the civil service and domestic servants). 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 rOR ON"FICIAL US~ ONLY 'I'he bunktng ~y~~blishment~ locntcd in Mgd~7guscar are compler.c:~y in rh~ hands c~f ;lia ~~vcrnm~nt. Thc r~argiinir,c~rioii :tmpl~mented ~.n rhrec ~ur~~;orieH-- rur,il dcvelopm~ne, pr~m~rion of 2nduyrry, ~nd rhe commere~.n1 nrea--make~ iC possible eo bracket elie agtiion~l economic acCivil:y beteer~ '1'he sC~nCe monopoly on insurance operationa concenCraees Che use of the col- lective resources on tlie counCry; tiwo lnrge companies in which the govern- ment ltolds ehe ma~c~rity share cover Che activities of this sector (ARO and Ny Hav~na). '1'he e~t~blishment oE an integrared set of soc.ialise cooperaeives for pro- duction ~nd comme rcializnt:Lon in each decenCralized community consCitutes ' the first phase of rhe reorganization of the commerce area. As for �ore:tgn tade, the naCionalization already impelemented in the ~mport- expore nrea are opening the way to ~he state monopoly thaC is the principal , go31 to be reache d in the long run. 'rranspnrraCion and Tourism The rcorganizaCion of highway transportation requires the regrouping of the resources and materials necessary for proper service to Che country inCo busi.nesses or socialisC cooperatives. A share in ~ie developmenC of tourism is reserved, in a supplementary and not complementary sense, for contributions from foreign capital. The highway neCwo rk, which is raCher s~n~ll in comparison with the size of the country, covers a Cotal of 38,000 kn:: extending and modernizing iC will require large financial outlays. The private companies specialized in high- ' way construction are to be socialized; the program as a whole entails 45.9 billion FMG in expenses from now to 1980, of which 36.5 billion is for the main national highways. The railroad network, built between 1901 and 1952, covers 883 km. The plan includes 7 billion FMG in expenses up to 1980, for studies, improvements, and infrastructures (4.8 billion), and in the purchase of equipment (2.1 billion). In the area of naval infrastructure and communications, the 1978-1980 plan provides for 5.9 billion FMG (construction of piers, warehouses, and plat- forms in various ports, acquisition of port and marine signalling equipment, and purchase of an ocean-going cargo ship for coasting--Chis addition to the naeional fleet has a provision of 3.1 billion). The improvement of the navigable river routes will receive 0.7 billion in labor and equipment. Althougn air service to and from the interior is satisfactorily provided, the charter of the Malagasy socialist revolution emphasized the necessity of re- viewing, on the local level, the or~anization of air transportation on the whole. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OFFICLAL U5~ ONLY rrom now to 1980, Che plan includes 18.5 bil~.ion T`MG in provis~.ona1 expenges {of whtch 14.~ bill.ion is for Che acquisition oi aircrafe and the rest covers exp~nsion and improvement of. landing fields, Cechnical equipmenC, rndio con- necticns, eec.). mhe toCa]. allocation Co the postal and ~,:elecnmmunications service amounCs Cn ~ 7~2 bi:llion ~MG; ie is concerned wiCh the expans~.on and mode~rnizaCion of the local and lnng-distance telephone networks (2.8 billion), Che r~dio 1 cannection between Aneananarivo and Toliary, the acquisition nf equipmenC~ nnd the consrrucCion of buildings. Social C,reat eF�ores ~re to be devoCed Co housing. From now eo 1980, tihe program - involves 28.2 billion FMG in expenses, including 22 billion for the con- strucCion of low-cosr housing and 4.8 billion for cleaning operaCions in Antananarivo and five capital cities. in 1977, expendiCures for public healCh (hospital personnel) represenCed 11.57 percent of the government's budget. The plan provides for an alloca- t:ion of 3.8 billion beCween now and 1980 for the construcCion of various health establishments, and another allocation of 3.6 billion for the re- cruitment of new personnel. At Che same time, the share of the budget in the operation of hospiCals is being revised; the communiCies will Cake the responsibility for the construction of inedical and maternity centers, and the public and private businesses will share in the hospital expenses. The difLusion o� culture and Che development of the media will take place gradually. The activities are concerned with cultural centers, the press, radio broadcasCing, and the movies, with the idea of asserting the national character. At present, expenditures for education represent 25 percent of the govern- ment's general expenditures. The program involves making the material taught and the teaching staff more Malagasy (the percentage of foreign teachers in technical education must not exceed 50 percent). For the whole area (basic, secondary, professional, technical, and higher education), the expenditures included in the plan amount to 10.5 billion FMG for equipment, materials, and expansions, and 28.8 billion for operating expenses. All together, operations for the benefit of youth and sports will require 5.7 billion; the Toamasina youth center (1.7 billion) will be completed in 2 years, while Fianarantsoa teachers college and social and sports center wi11 require 3 years of work. The Financing of the Plan Over the planning period of 1978-1y,~0, the effective and direct public in- vestmenes, in billions of Malagasy f.rancs, will be distributed as shown on the following page. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 F0~ O~~ICIAL U5~ ONt.Y Con~tane pric~~ C1g76) Gurrent i~rice~ CcneYtil de~'vi~~~ 9 ~.7 `i'~nchtng 6.8 9 }Ienith 4. b 6 Hdu~ing 3.1 4 Vnriouc~ ~ncinl servi~ee ~.1 ~.y - Aqrlcul~ur~ ~~.6 29~S 'CrnngpnrtnCidn dnd C~l~communic~~ion~ 29.1 37.9 Indu~try 1.9 2.4 ~tigc~ll~nedu~ 1 1.2 `Cot~1 74. i 96.4 A~ for thp inv~gem~nrg of Ch~ ~omp~ni~~ in th~ ~ocinligt s~c:ror nnd the privnrc ~~cCnr, th~y will b~ ~~p~rat~2y vnlued ag followg, in billidns of MQiagn~y Er~nc~. . Can~CBnt Pr3Cee (1976) Gurr~nt ~ric~g Agriculture 3 4.5 Mines and energy 4.3 6.S ManuEaceuring indugtrieg 11.3 17.2 ~uilding~ nnd public works 2.6 ~.9 `Cran~pdrtnCidn gnd tel~communicationg 6.5 9.8 'fr~de 2.6 3.7 Mi~rellun~ou~ gervic~s 1.4 2.1 tJorkerH housing 1.3 1.8 'toenl 33 49.5 In the direct effective public investments~ new inveatments accounC for 68.6 ' billion FMG. The relative share of net savings in the groe~ domestic produet should double between now ~nd 1980; ite use will represent 63.5 percent of the new investmentg. The other 36.5 percent will !:e financed out of foreign contributions of the order of 25 billion, of which 6 billion is expected in grants and subsidies and 29 billion, in long-term loans; part of theae have already been obtained. This appeal to foreign loans will increase the nationnl debt somewhat; its amount will be aro~nd 13 percent of the gross domestic product in 1980~ ns opposed to 8.4 perC~nt in 1977. But thi~ increase aill b~ e~sily bearable, since the interest on Che debt will represent only 5 perrent of che export receipts in 1980. T'he required domestic savings will l~ave to rise to 51.7 billion PMC, or more _ than 17.2 billion per year, an umount thaC implies considerable efforts on thc part of both of administrations and of individuals. Consequently, where public expense are concerned, operating expenses should not incrense at a higher rate than 11.5 percent per year, in current prices. 22 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 F0~ n~F~CIAL U5~ ONI,Y At thr ~am~ time, ~n irt~pr~v~m~n~ in eh~ ~maufle r~e~iv~d in ~~x~~ i~ ~xp~~t~d. 'Che inrrc~~e in rh~~ip~~ fr~m dir~ee e~x~g wiil b~ of eh~ ~rder df 30 p~r- c:ent ovcr elic ~ y~~r~, with tihp ~h~n~~ in C~x r~c~fpr~ b~ing ~xp~ee~d more - frnm E~n in~r~a~~ in eh~ numb~r of eaxpay~r~ ehan from an ine~ in gh~ ~xi~~ing edx rde~~. in addieion, prop~rey ~nd luxury ~ood~ will b~ more ~ heavily ~~xed. GO1~Y~IGH'~t R~n~ Mdreux ~e Gi~ P~ri~ 1979 i ~ 842~ C50: 4~40n , i 23 ~ FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOft OFFiCIAL t1~E ONt,Y . MAr~l1Wt n~v~t.o~Mrrr~ rr~rt~ ~g7g-~.982 c~trrt~irr~n P~,ris MARCH~~ ~20PICAUX ~ M~DITERRANNE~N9 in Fr~nch ~7 Apr 79 p 1079 ~ ~'r'ext~ 7`h~ g~v~rnm~nt ~f Mal~Wi ~p~r~~~~ i~~ d~v~l~pm~nt progr~ra on ~ tri- _ nnnu~l b~gig, with c~~ut~1 ~,~u~~ment in flat~e~ion o#' th~ loeal r~so~.u~e~g ~v~iigble ~.nd ~ny ~v~ntu~l ehanges of ob~ectives. Cons~qu~ntly, only th~ first ye~r di thi~ p1~n hag ~ rigid charac~er. External ~id ie th~ principal - ~aurce df fin~ncing for this progra~n, r?ith the b~l~.nce from 1oca1 s~?vings. :'he ci~veiopmen~ pisr?s ~i~?c~ ~p64 h~v~ invalved the fo~lor~in~ amawtitg (in thdu~an~s of kW~chgs (th~ Ma1~wi lcWacha, abbreviated K or MK, is ~rorth about 5.~ ~'renrh francQ or 260 CFA francs~): 1964 . . . . . . , . 5~37~ 1972-1973 . . . . . 26,702 19y5 . . . . . . . . 9,~+58 ~973-197~ . . . . . 34,244 1966 . . . . . . . . 12,760 ~974-19't5 . . . . . 40,77~ 1967 . . . . . . . . 10,114 1975-1976 . . . . . 70,001 1g68 ~ . . . . . ~ . 13,960 1g76-1977 � � . . . 55,907 1g6!~-1g7o . . . . . 21,318 1977-1978 . . . . . 77,57~+ 1970-1971 . . . . . 35,16g 1g78-197g . . . , . 136,860 ~971-1972 � . . . . 3,167 A3 of 1 Jar?uary 1979, more Lhan K 68 million had been expended, out of a planned tatal of 136.8 million K. As h~ been the case in recent years, the continued closure of the Rhodesia- Mozambique border and the congeation of th~ ports of Beira and Nacale have made it difficult to obtain supplies of equip~nent goods and have conLributed to the rise in their costs. The 1979-1980/1981-1982 P1an The 1979-1g82 3-year development plan, the deteils of vhich are given in the tzbl~ belox, anticipates total expenditure of about 771 million k~+achas, in- cluding 207 million K for the first year, 261.6 million K for 1g8o-1981, and , 302.1 million K for 1981-1982. Of this amount, 87 percent, or 666 million K, 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 POR OFFIC~Ai, U9~ ONLY ~riii ~~m~ fr~m for~tgn ~in~n~ing ~our~~~; th~ g~v~rnm~nt pl~ng t~ inv~~t th~ bn1~.n~~--fl~~r~y 10y Mi11~s~ K--~urin~ ~h~~ p~rinc~~ ht' the 20`~ mii~.i~n K pl~r.n~~ far 197~~1~~0, ~94 m~~~i~~ ~r~~.~ ~r~vid~fl by i~terr~~tlan�~~ ~~~~~t~n~~, ~d ~n~y ~3 mi~.lion by 1~~~.1 ~e~dur~~e~. ~~`~~-~.~~~/~9~~-~g82 ~v~~.~~m~nt pL~n ?1liaeatian af ~xp~n~itur~~ (in th~u~~n~g af kvr~eh~~) 1979-i98o 1g8o-].g81 1~8~-~~~2 ~979-~98~ _ ~ s~~~~~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4~7 ~.o~ 559 Cdu~~~ian ~1,384 11,~60 14,0~7 37,~61 ~'in~nce, ~attuner~e ~nd ~ndu~~ry. . ~4,g8~. y4,~3~ b0,025 ~ ~5,~38 ~u~~ic building~ , . . . . . . . ~,~7~ ~~,975 27,~~.5 49,569 Ne~lth , � � � � � , � � � � � � 4,184 3,894 1~,3~0 19,368 Hau~in~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . g,385 6,43~ 6,q52 2~,7d9 Mir~c~l~.gtt~dus services 7,675 1~,582 7,9~~ 26,182 Agri~ulture � � ~ � � � � � � ~ � 31,708 32,948 3~+,703 99,359 ~`i~hing � , � � � ~ � ~ � � � � � 1,106 4~0 4~1 1,9~7 it~turnl rc~r~~ts e~n8 parklar~d 9,406 8,481 11,013 ~$,900 Bria~;e~ r~tjd rd~ds 2,419 936 1,365 4,7~~ Veterinary service 7,377 7,~17 8,896 23,490 ;ieW e~pit~.l . . . . . ~ . . . . . 1,310 7,720 9,600 18,630 , Pvgtg and tele~ammunie~Lions 5,638 g,ai2 17,032 31,882 r~~rgy . . . . . . . � . � � � � 8,774 d,F47 4,100 19,521 ~'ranspbrt . . . . . . � � � � � 7~+,323 86~770 82,064 243,157 W~ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,921 5,181 5,1~6 18,248 ~~:is~el~aneous . . . . � . . . . 40 40 100 180 ~OmAI,s . . . . . 207,267 261,629 302,13~+ 771,030 COPYRI~lfi~': Ren~ Moreux et Cie, 1979 . 2126'j cso: 4400 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR a~~ICIAL U9~ c~N1,Y MALAW~ ~RI~~ ~F;G LdAN--A� :h~ b~ginnin~ af th~ y~~r, ~t ~h~ conalu~ion ~f ~~-d~y official visit to Li1P~n~~, ~i~ud~ Ch~y~~~n, ~C eo~mnieaton~r for ~i~v~~~pm~nb, ~in,n~d r~ith th~ gov~r.~ivnent an ~gr~em~n~ ~'or a loar~ o~ 11.~8 million Malarti ka~ah~. ~he ~r�~~ tet~i o~ th~ ~ur~~~~n p~ckag~ offer~~ to M~1awi ig now 87.5 million ~ C~W~en~ j, intenc~~d for v~riou~ 1~~~. pro~~cte. ~f thi~ ~rnour~~, 77 mi~lic~n K h~~ b~~n d~v~t~d tc~ th~ ~grieultur~~. d~v~lnpm~nt plans, infr~- $tru~ture, ~d ~~rvic~g of ~ go~i~1 n~tur~, ahile th~ r~m~ining 10~5 million K ig in th~ form ~f tao i~ans r?ithin th~ fr~nework of th~ 1hr~nga gugar pro,~ect ' ~nd ~ tihirfl 1o~n ~nablit~g indeb~k to lend it8 gid Lo dev~lopment of the laeal PM~'s ~~m~].1 arid m~fliwe-~i~~ inQustriea). Citiag Ma1~Wi ~s an ~xempl~ ~ re~~rd~ the cauuntry's ugp ~f ~ropeari aid anct for the fact of having linked it~ curr~ney to th~ Speeial DraWing Rights, Mr CheyBSOn let it be underato~od th~t upon th~ eoncluaion of Lome II--the negobiations for xhich, pres~ntly in progress , gh~uld b~ complet~d by the end of 1979--3TABEX ~ex~~r?9ioc? unkno~m J rould open up to netir products, including tobacco, Malar?i's principai reaource. In th~ cours~ of his visit, th~ ~uropeer~ commiseioner declared he was stronp,ly impre~se~ by th~ import~nce ~ssign~d by Dr Ba?nda'~ government ta agricultur~l dev~lopment. CTextj (P~rig MARCNES TROpICAUX ET MIDITERftANEENS iti~ French 13 Apr 79 p 95~~ 11267 gLANTYRE WATER SUPPLY--An engineer from the Hor1d Bank recently went to MglaWi ta evaluate the progresg of Phase V o� the Blantyre Nater Board, estimated, ~i'ter review, gt 14 million K. The d~lays due to technical problem~ in the carrying-out of the pro~ect's previoue phase have postponed its co~pletinn d~te until June 1979. The cost af Phase IV should approach 8 million icWachga. Phase V should r~bt b~ r~mpl~ted ur,til 1981, ev~n though the per$onnel-training program, srhieh is p~ of it, has already begun. After execi~tion of these tWO pro,~ects, for a~rand total of 22 millian K, it ts expected that water _ digtribution to Blantyr~ ~+ill rise from the present flox of 30 million liters per day to 65 million and even 80 million liters at peak houra. Phase IV hgs been fingnced ~ointly by the Commonxealth Development Orgnization, whose par- ticipation totals 3.k million K, the British government, and the Hater Board, while Phase V has been supported by Lhe International ~~velopment Association (IDA), a subsidiary of the Norld Bank, the African Development Bar~k ~ADB), and 26 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR ~I~~ICIAL U3~ dNLY 1o~n~. fttnd~ ~ In ai~ditibti, ttt~ Wdr1d i~~nk h~~ 1~t it b~ kn~wn thnt it wauid p~r~i~ip�~Le tn th~ ~unount oC 6 miiiien K in i~nprav~m~nt di th~ mnin tJulk~r~ F~'erry r.~nr~l, rnd thnt tt ~tduld ~.~~ir~t th~ Wut~r ~oard aithin th~ fr~m~work ni' the i'in~ncin~; ~f itn ~iectri~~.l ~d m~nhanicai ~qt~tpment~ C~~xt~ [P~ria 'dAtic'ft~;S ~~t(7PICAUX x"1! tdt~Dlm~f3ANN~~NS in ~'r~n~h i3 !~r 7~ p 9~~] 11~67 tldG~~'JIS~ IN GNP~=Sin~~ i9~4, M~].~~ri'~ ~r~s~ N~tion~.1 praduet (~N~) hae h~d a~ ~ con~ider~:ble in~re~~~, a~ evidenc~~ by th~ falloain~ fi~ur~~ (~t curr~nt ~rices, in mil~ibn~ o~ ku~ehu~): 19~4, 152�9~ ig73, 40~..6; 1974, 487,~; 1975, 571,~; 1~7~~ ~59.~; ~977, 7~~~~~ ~.97~, 896.2. 7'h~ ~v~rag~ rat~ of ~rawth o� the (iN~' be~t~e~fl 19~~ gn~ 1~7~ e~m~~ to 17�4 p~reent, uith 1978'~ incr~~s~ over 1~77 re~chin~ the gii$htly i~~~r ~i~ur~ of ].~.5 p~rc~nt~ 'I'hus, the aN~ h~.~ ne~rl,y sextupl~d in y~~r~, and this ev~lution hag be~n ~ccomp~ni~d by con~ider~ble m~difi~~tian in th~ allocnti~n of exp~nditur~s. 'I'hua, in ig64 con~umption re~re~~nted 99.9 p~rc~nt of the to~al pro~~~t. ~'his percentag~ h~~ droppec~ t~ 84 p~rcent in th~ l~st 2~~~r~, Wher~~s the proportion af in- ve~tments h~s u~i~ergane the opp~~it~ d~~t~lopm~nt, making into a~eount ~ti~ : rate ot' popul~tion ~ro~rth, bn ~he ard~r af 2~ 5 p~rce:~t per y~~r, the p~r c~pitg GNp inere~~ed b,y nearly 6 p~rcent p~r y~~r L~tween 1g68 and 1978, ri~- in f'r~r~ 5~5 itt 1~77 td negrly $200 ~?t th~ end o~' 1978. 'I'hes~ figur~s, hoa�- ever, da not ~ive ~ny indi~~tion ~f the evo~ution of flistribution of the aNP ~~on~ fih~ pnpulation sin~e 1.~68. C~~xt~ ~p~ria MA~2CH~S T~tOPICAUX ET hI~DIT~R- ~~,:iL~:,i~ ir~ ~ rench ~0 Apr 79 p 1016 j 11267 A~~tICULTiJc~AL DIV~~25IF'ICA'TION--~n th~ agricultural area, the year ig78 ~as a~arked ~n "�Ralasri by the intrdduction into th~ country's rich soil of new crops in W1~i~h mu~h hope h~g b~en placed by the 1oca1 authorities. Thus the Maca- damia nut, t~f~er ~ set~i~s of paor harvests, has become an export product, more ths~r? 2 t~ns h~vjng b~~m m~rket~d abroad in i978. Thia nut, presently culti- vated bn 6Ud t~~~t~res by 18 f~rmers, has thre~ qualities. 7'he first two ~re put ~~n the market after proces~sing, v~hile the third is used as a byproduct for pc~ultry and pig f~ed. As regards tabacco, an auctioneer from the state of Tenne.^,see, on a private visit to MalaWi, has assured the local planters ~h~.t he ~,�ill see that they receive a high-yield variety ahich is having great success in the United States, so as to encourage an increase in productivity. Another sectar for Which the national potential is great is the growing of thc Irish potato, Which is presently being experimented With on the Zomba pl~tenu and production of Which Would both meet local demand and provide for exn~rtation to neighboring countries. It seems that this potato, whose r~biiitf to adapt to climatic conditidns is considerable, could easily be in- ~rodu~e~ into the mixed farming system practiced in MalaWi. ~Text) [Paris '~ARCH~.'~ 'i R~PICAUX ET tdF.DITERRANNEEN5 in French 20 Apr 79 p 1016 ~ 11267 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~Oit O~~ICIAL USE ONLY SUCAR CAN~ PItOnUCTInN, E}t~0~T5--Can~ ~ug~r beg~n in Ma~.~w~. in 1965 fnLlowing ~h~ ~~tiab~,i~hmenr o� Che Sugnr CdrporaCinn nf M~1gwi (SUCOMA)~ and, in 1~66~ 3~500 ton~ o~ ~ugnr w~r~ produced. 'Ch~ nmount hu~ in~r~ng~d regulgrly e~ch y~ar. ~n th~ beg3nning ie wu~ u11 u~~d fnr locnl con~umpCion, buC beginning in 1971 Americ~n and ~urop~an qunt~g en- courng~d ~xporCing whinh ha~ ~ince increg~ed ~o a high level. AC Ch~ ~~m~ time, doca~atie con~umpCion hg~ incr~gged. In 1976 ~~~ad~td fi.rm w8g egt~bli~hed in the Dwanga dalta in Nkhotaknta: ehe Uwang~ S~~gnr Cor~or~~ion. IC eogt a Cota1 of 59 mi1l~.on kwaeha, ugee an nrea oE 5,280 hece~r~g, ~nd ~mploy~ nboue 4,000 peopl~. It can proceg~ 150 Cnng o~ c~n~ p~r hour. production for 1979 ie e~C~.maCed at 41,000 tons; for 19~0, 74,000 eone; and for 1985~ 110,000 rong. [Excerptig] [Pari~ MARCHES TROPICAUX ~T M~DIT~It~AN~ENS in ~rettch 1 Jun 79 pp ].502-1503] ~ C50: 4400 ~ 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR OF~ICIAL IISE ONLY MALT NATInNAL ECONOMY, 1978 PRODUCTION R~VI~WED Paria MARCHES TROPICAUX ~T MEDITERRANEENS in ~'rench 19 May 79~ Pp 1229-1231 [~xc~rpCaj At a time when the new politic~l atructurea born of the nonstituent congresg of Che Democratic Union o� rhe Malian People are being est~blished, it seems opportune to ug to describe the preaent economic gitu~tinn of Mali, based on the Cota1 figures for 1978 which are available Co ug. From the firsG statistics containing the esaential data of the economic ~ and fingncial acCiviCy of Mali in 1978 the following are noteworthy: --the improvement of most agricultural production; --a s11ghC rise in total industrial production; --an aggravated deficit in the trade balance; --a noticeable increase in the total budget and of money in circulation; --an unfavorable trend in foreign paymenta which is covered only through larger contributions of foreign aid. This siCuation is due largely to the ~.oncurrence of unfavorable factors. The reCurn of the drought in 1917 caused a large deficit in food crops, a drop in cash crops, and the unit costs of imports could only increase at the same rate as world inflation. Construction materials, certain � machines and vehicles necessary to the execution of works provided for in the plan swelled the volume of imports still further. It is also, above all, the fault of the very structure of the Malian econowy, which has not changed basically in decades. An agricultural economy, especially a subsistence one, the modern sector of which rests upon agri- culture, animal husbandry, and fishing, is necessarily dependent directly on Che rains, their quantity and distribution. The harvests of the main products which take place between September and December--cotton, peanuta or rice--require a primary processing before being marketed, and the 29 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY r~~uleg nf g hgrve~t c~mpgi~n, wheCher good or b~d, are f~~.C over the whole df Ch~ econnmy nnly ~.n Che following year~ ThereEnre 1979 ~hould be muCh more fnvnr~bl~. AgriculCural ProducCion nnd Commerciul.izntion In 1978 agricul.Curn1 producC~.on rega3ned ~ha excellenG level oE 1976. Taking ineo acnoun~ ~he ~.mports nf cerea~.s der~.ved from aid, foodseuff ~ needs were nnrineably s~eigfied ~.n 1978 and rhe reserves among pegsgnCe lgrgely re~tored~ Cnmmercializ~eion fnr ehe purpo~e of supply of the urbAn cenCers ig f~c~.litared From ehem. The Malian Company for the Development of Textiles (CMDT)--in ch~rge of integrated rural developmenC in Che southern part oF riali--collected, in response eo government direcC~.vea, wl.thout dif�iculCy nnd wiehc,ut ~eop~rdizing either home consumption or family reservea, a l~rele more than ehe 11,000 tions o� sorghum, millet, and maize which had been a1loc~t�ed to ie, whi~.e the peasanta eold it almost 128,OOn tons of secd coeton (unginned cotCon), compared with 118,900 tons in 1976 (Che beat former year) and ~.13,200 tons in 1977. re~nut produ~eion of interesC mainly to Che western part of Mali--led orie ~o hope for markee sales of 70,000 tons, lower by 10,000 Cons than that of ehe 1977-1978, which reached only 42,000 tons. However good these results were, it is estimated that the importation of large quantiCies of food commodities, mainly grains, will be necessary to re~tore the balance in 1979 and to reconstitute family and national reserves. The figure of 60,000 tons has sometimea been advanced. One must - hope for as good an agricultural year in 1979 as in 1978. Once the food- stuff situation is cleared up, exports of cereals would even be conceivable. Let us mention in passing Chat in the frontier zones the disparity between the prices paid to the producer in Mali and in neighboring counCries causes clandestine exports, which falsify, sometimes noticeably, especially for peanuts, the results of markeCing. If one excepts sugar producCion--which rose from 8,000 tons in 1976 to 15,600 tons in 1977 and 19,700 tons in 1978--while Chat of bleached rich fe11 from 50,700 tons to 32,800 tons, industrial production has not noticeably progressed, showing slight drops in certain sectors, compensated by moderate increases in others. And in conclusion the production of electric power at Bamako increased from 75.1 in 1977 to 83.8 million kilowatt-hours, compared with 53 million in 1974. Foreign Trade CAF imports and FOB exports went from 78 to 93 billion and from 61 to 42 billion Malian francs, showing a deficit of 50.5 billion and a rate of coverage of 45.7 percent:* * 1 Malian franc (FM) = 0.01 French franc or 0.50 CFA francs. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 . ~o~ or~zci~t us~ orn~Y Alrhough Che Crgde b~t~.~n~e i~ trad~.t~,nn~l~.y ~,n de~~,c~.t, thi~ one of rhe wnr~e rg~~~ ~ince rh~ yegrs o� Che gregt drough~. 1~ads one to believ~ thnt ehe gnod reeultg of the 1978-1979 linrv~~e w~.11 make ie pos~ible tio bring the r~re of cover up to ~ mdre ~cceptable level, altihough the price of cotiton hae hardly arr~ngtihened ~r nll up to the present time. But cotton accounted for almosr 60 percent of the CoCgl Vglue of expartia in 1977 and ~or about 50 percen~ in 1978. public F~.nanc~ The budgeCs of Mali, boCh national and regionnl, ~re mainly devoCed on the expense to covering the cosCs of operation, and above all, en Che salaries of officials. Going from 54.64 billion Co 61~48 billion Malian frencs from 1977 to 1978, with a rate of increase exceeding 11 percenC, they constiirute a heavy burden for a moneCary economy which is so poorly developed and the balance of which ia agsured only by external conCributions~ ~oreunately there are not ~uaC dark clouds, and the great operaeions of rural developmenC const~tute a framework which is well adapted, and in ~he southern part of Ma~i at least a auccess due tn long patience, eo very good management, to a receptive peasanC environment built around an income crop which makes it possible to eatablish the indiapensable capital , (agricultural implemenCs and livestock) and which, conducted according to the principles of good agriculture, is pulling foodstuff production along and is creating rhe economic conditions of development of the peasants and the sociolugical condit3ona of an important forward step in social progress. Finally one is entitled Co hope thaC with the fi111ng of Che Selingue dam, envisaged in 1980, an essential element of the regulation of the Niger and the continuation of the downstream pro~ects, eapecially at the Office of the Niger, Che economic development of the whole country will be able to make a new surge. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux eC Cie Paris 1979 6108 CSO: 4400 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ri'Ott OFrICIAL US~ ONLY MALI BRIEFS ~ ~ SWI55 AGRICULTURAL ASSISTANCE--During a visit by Marcel Heimo, director for coopera tion in developmental and humanitarian aid matters of the Swias Ministry of ~oreign Affairs~ an agreemenr was signed with Malian aueh~r- iries regarding a pro~ect aimed aC training agentis in the field o� agri- cultura 1 machinery. Swirzerland also offered training and etudy scholar-~ ships as well as a 250 million CFA aubaidy to Mali. The Swisa representa-~ tive expxessed the hope that his country's cooperation w3th Ma1i would ~ continue Co bene�it the rural population. [Text~ [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 1 Jun 79 p 1490] ' CSO: 4400 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~Olt OFFICIAL USE ONLY MOZAMBIQU~ _ DIFFICULTIES BURbENING NATIONAL ECONOMY Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 18 t~iny 79 p 1266 [Exc~rpt~ Economic restraints are ca~sing the Mozambique of President - Samorn Mgchel, without dig~vowing iCe Marxiat options~ however, Co bend the rigid~.ty of its conce~ts and Cn eeek aome accommod~tiona, boCh domestically and abroad, ~n order to atrive to overcome the difficultieg which it faces gnd which have noC yeC permitted it to regain the level of developmene which i.t had reached on Che eve of independence, according to a recent study published by the FINANCIAL TIMES. These difficulties are encountered in several aecCora. Firat of a11 in the �inancial aector. According to United Nations eatimatea the total balance - of current accounts and capital has deteriorated steadily, the deficit rising from the equivalent of $6 million in 1973 to $185 million in 1977 and $225 million in 1978. These figures do not include the total of sales of gold corresponding to part of the wages paid to miners working under contract in South Africa and which formerly covered a large parC of the , deficit in foreign paymenCs. It should be noted that aince last year South . Africa assesses the value of this gold at the market price and no longer at the old "official price," thus depriving Mozambique of an addition to its resources amounting to $100 million per year. The United Nations estimates the cumulative budget de�icit of Mozambique at $170 million, the ma~or part having been financed by inflationary bank loana. In the agricultural sphere Che main resource of the country, the departure of Che Portuguese planters, the chaotic system of distribution and a certain number of natural catastrophes have had serious consequences. For example, in the region north of Maputo, exports of cashews reached only 60,000 tons last year, compared with the uaual 100,000 tons. Sugar production has been sharply reduced as a result of the events which occurred last year in the principal enterprise of this sector, Sena Sugar, control~ed by British capital. Accused of "economic sabotage," the company was nationalized in July 1978. What happened to Sena also happened to 33 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOIt OFFZCIAL USE ONLY many neh~r ~~.rme ~.eft in eh~ privatie secto~ but gub~ected ro governmental cnnerol o� wgges nnd pr~.ces~ Heavy logse~ were thua showc~, the menagementi nf Chesa enterprise~ being unab~e or unwilling ro utilize productive c~pfinity eo the full~st-~which provoked ehe auChorities tio measure of r~CnrCion. neyond ieg fin~nc~.n~. and thoga it has faced in the : agriculturgl sector, Mozambique has suffered reaulting from the armed conEl~.ct in which iC has engaged Rhodesia. One diplomae estimates rh~C thi~ war C05ti8 it $350 m~.llion per year. The cloging of the Mozamb~que- Rhodesian frontier, in March 1976, and the interrupCion of linka between , ehe ewn couneries have eransformed Beira ~nto a aort of ghoat town. Port Craf�ic fe11 Cn 671,000 eons lase year compared with 1,600,000 in 1975. In addit~.on th~ destruceion cauaed in the infrastructurzs of Mozambique by the Rhodes~.~n armed forces and digsidenC groupe remote-controlled by Ithodpsi~, cnuging etoppgge of telecommunications and transport, can be see at $100 million. The Rhodesians are suspeceed of having been at the botCom of Che fire which burned two large oil storage sites near Beira recently. Furthermore, Mozambique must bear most of the coats of mainCaining the 100,000 Rhodesian refugees on iCa soi1. CbPYRIGI~T: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1979 6108 ~ CSO: 4400 ~ i 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 CO[t O1~ C1C lAL USI: ONLY NAMIB IA SWAPO LEAUER HITS SOUPH AFRICA-BACICED 'UDI' IN NAMIBIA Paris AFRIQUE-AS;[E in French 28 May-10 Jun 79 p Z7 LD [Interv3.ew with Sotith Westi Africa People's OrganizaCion (SWAPO) President Sam Nu~oma by Jane Bergerol: "Pretoria ls Defying the United Nations"-- date a~nd place not apecified~ [ExcerpC] [Queation] "InCerim government, "National Assembly," martial law: What is happening in Namibia? Sam Nu~oma: This is a UDI by the Pretoria racist regime. It ie a amoke- screen ~o try Co confuse the Namibian people and world opinion. The regime is pretending that this ia not a UDI, but it certainly is. SWAPO is pre- pared to Cake part in electiona superviaed and monitored by the United Nations, and we would undoubtedly win Chem because no patriotic Namibian would vote for the continuation of Pretoria's illegal occupaCion and exploi- tation of the people. [Question] What is the group of five--the United States, Britain, France, Canada and the FRG--now doin~? Is it preparing to recognize this UDI? San Nu~oma: We were surprised when, after reaolution 435 was adopted last year, the Western powers sent their foreign ministera to PreCoria where the racist prime minister "warned" them againat SWAPO gaining power--which, according eo him, would result in Namibia's wealth (uranium, diamonds, copper) being "handed to the communists." The actiona of the five will now show whether they were convinced by that argument. [Question] Do the application of marCial law in Namibia and the intensi- fication of repression against SWAPO mean the poasibility of SWAPO being banned as a legal internal organization? Sam Nujoma: First, martial law changes nothing at all. We have had a law against terrorism, a law suppressing communism and a state of emergency. Moreover, this is not the first time that they have decreed marCial law. There is no freedom of movement. Indeed, there has been a sCate of emer- - gency ever since Pretoria has administered the territory, in other words since 1920. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 t~�dK ~~~~~tcrnt, u;~r nNt,Y flowevcr, tt~~ d~cisiv~ facCdr is ~h~ penpl~'s wi11 to fi~h~ for iSberaCion. 5WAp0 i~ eh~ magge~ uncl eh~ mass~e ~r~ SWAPO. Som~ ~0 l~~d~r~ h~ve been nrregt~d. oth~rg will e~k~ th~ir pl~~~. Th~ struggle wiil go on wh~th~r 5WAt~d i~ nfficially mad~ illpgal or nor. ~very day rh~y bombard Angol~n vill~geg ~ldng ehe bnrd~r, killing ~nd m~iming innocenC etvi~iane. They nrr bomU~rding buth ~ide~ ~f tihe bord~r in N~mibi~ and An~ol~. Thpy ar~ trying eo ~rp~t~ e buf�~r zone. 'Th~y ~r~ sCarCtng Co mov~ Ch~ puppees in thc Nntidnnl Unian fnr thc Toegl Liberaeion of Angol~ and ehe Nation~l t~'rdnt for ehe Liberntion of Angola intio eh~ a~n~~ in ~oueh~rn Angol~ whirh ehey h~vc be~n bnmbnrding since Mgrch. The �acC thge they now hgve to uep ~'rc~~cl~ Mirn~es ~nd Briti~h guccane~rs clearly ehc,;,~a that th~y ~re in die- nrrny. Thcy ar~ inC~pabl~ of diseovering where our guerrillae come from becctuse nur guerrillg~ gY~y ~mnng the people. (~2uestionJ tJhtt~ i~ eh~ milieary gieu~ti~n? Sam Nu~dmn: mhe national liber~riott war sCt~reed mainly in the eastern Cgprivi. It rhen apread Cn tih~ noreheast, norCh and northwesC. BuC we . dc~velop~d the center-north, cenCer and souChsrn fronte 2 yeara ago. Mili- tary aceions have bcen e~rried out south of Windhoek ~s far as Ke~tmgnahdop. buring r.hc last year we h~ve destroyed aeveral raciet military bases auch as t:lundu, Kongo ~nd KaCima Mulilo. We have cnptured weap~~s, suppliea, vehictea and radio communicgtions equipment. (t~~~cscidn) Itnve you Caken SouCh African prisoners? sam Nujoma: A few. We will show them to the public when the time is right. COPYEt IGliT : 1979 Afr ique-As ie C50: G400 ~ 36 FOR OFFICI~,L USE 02JLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~dR tl~FtGIAL U5~ UNLY ~tHODESfA UNIQU~ 'CitANSFERRAt. Ot~ POWER EXAMINED Pari~ VALEt1R3 ACTttELLES in French 23-29 Apr 79 pp 32-34 (Artiele by Fr~nroi~ d'Orcivals "The Whitee Remain"] C~xcerpt~~ On 13 April at 0300 hour~, 4 daye before the voting began~ ~hode~ian cammandos, transporte~.~i by vehiclee painted in tha colnra of the Zambian Army, att~cked, in the very cent~r of Lueake~ in Zambia, S00 kilo- metprg f rom Salisbury, the headquartere of the army of Nkomo. The building wag rEduced to ashes; the Rhodesians let Mr Nkamo escape. The ob~ective wae reached. Before returning without loes to Rhodesi~~ the camnnndos were abl~ to smash the guerriLlae in the~ head in their home bese. And further- more, mogti of the~e soldiere were of the black race. The operation was set up by the combined general staff of Cen Peter Wa118~ who learned his trade in Che Specia~ Air Service (SAS) of the anti-guerrilla forCeg in Malayaia. He reorgaaized the SAS in Rhodesia: European units, canpact, fe~? in number, apecialized in "split-second blowr.." He backed th en up with th e 5elous Scouts, 70 percent black~ rea 1 terroriat hunters, more often operating beyond the frontiere. These are only the speciali2ed units. Walls had almost 100,000 men under hia orders at that time. Since early April all of whiCe Rhodesia, aged 16 to 59, hae been mobi~ized to guarantee theee electiona, that ia to say, to transfer power to the black majority. The cage ia unique in the history of decaLonizatim. Rhodesia, it is txue, had noC been ~ colony for a ~ong time. Endowed with its am government since 1923, it had declared itself independent in 1965 but it preserved its white government. "A minority power," ob~ected the internatianal community when examining the figuses: 200,000 whites, 6,000,000 blacks. As for the heads of the rebellion, Mr Smith replied to their intimidation with demoralization. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR d~~IC~AL U~~ dNLY "i~ th~r~ ha~ eo b~ ~n escalgtion in d~~ war, it wiLl b~ to the d~~rim~ne df rh~ t~rrori~t~," Q~n 3~ndy McL~an, new chie~ of th~ land ~rmy, had wam~d. The esca~~ation ta~lt p18c~. Ae ehe b~~innin~ of SQpC~nb~r a four-moeored Viecoant of Air Rhod~el8, carry- ing 59 p~r~on~, wag ~hot down by a missi~e. The ~lane cr8ehed. There were ~0 ~urvivor~~ Th~ e~rrorist~ m~~~acred Ch~m with machin~-gune. A moetih ~nd g hnif iaeer ithnd~~ign ~i.rcr~ft and girborne comm~ndo~ lev~led thr~e guerrill~ training camp~ in zambi~. The ~core: 2000-3000 killed. On 10 b~e~mber rock~e~ burn~d up pare of the reaerve of hydrocarbong of Saiisbury. A very ~~rioug blow f or a country sub~ect to an oil embarge. 6n 23 Mgr~h eh~ 19 oi~. tanlc~ of th~ port of Beira, in Mozambique, another gnCi-tth~de~ign guarril la ba~e, were ~ntiti~ly deseroyed. In ~~ebruary aeveral ghe ]l~ reached the Sali.sbury airp ort wiChaut doing d~mng~, but anoCher 5oviet-tnade SAM-7 miesile hitg a g~cond Viecount ~ith 12 passeng~rs. Rhodes3an aircraft reply with 12 raidg an guerri Lla baeea in MoxambiqU~, in Zambia, and even in Angoia. In 6 ye~r~ the guerrilla war has claimed 12,000 victimg, of whan 3,500 were civilians~ of whcm 400 were whites. The Rhodesian aecurity forces loet 7?2 of their c~m (blgck and white), while killing 7,421 guerrilla~. i3ur in ~ix yearg the guerrilla war has gained nothing. It hae not estab- lished itsalf in ~?y region, hol,da no road, control~ no village. There were f ewer aseassinations in 4 1/2 yeara in 5alisbury (600,000 inhabitante, ~ including 100,000 whites) than in the month of laet March in Paris. The airline lost two aircraft but continued to show a p mfit in 1978 f or the 1 lth cens~cutive year. The railroads Were diatuxbed by sabotage, but th~y had eo rent locomotivea in South Africa to cope with the increase in craffic, since neighboring Zambia, olthough a member of the anti-Rhodeaian front, was forced by famine Co reopen ita frontier to imporC fertilizers and grains. The guerrilla war nevertheless achieved one goal: it created a climate of insecurity, forced the government to double its military expenditurea, raobi lizing the maximum of manpaver (the reaerviata are called up for 140 days per year), setting a curfew and martial law in the rural zone. The economy was thus affected. The national ine ane has dropped since 1977. Emigration exceeded immigration sit~ce 1976. During the past 2 years the country has l,oat 25,000 Europeaas, a lOth of its white population. But Rhodesia is holding well, due to the natural checkerboard formed by the 6,000 farms of Rhodesian whites aver the cauntry. Terroriam hae reduced their value. There have b~een salea, but they have al~ways farnd takers. This network has prevented the implantation and development of the guerrillas. 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~a~ ~r~tcrn~. us~ ortLY 'The 6,OOd ~urnppxin ~grm~ prdvid~ g iie~lp 1~~~ ehan 20 p~re~?~t ~f ine~rn~i produ~ei.on (whieh i~ woreh 2 bi~lion doll~rg) bue eh~y ~~rn 50 p~re~ne of eh~ �or~i~n pxchang~ du~ eo ~xpore~ (eob~cco, coff~~, ~rain~, meee) ~nd above ~il th~y ~mploy 40 p~reent ~E b~~~tr 1~bor gita fpla ~ querter ef th~ _ pn Pu la e i nn. "~f ~n~e w~nt~ eo k~ep nn~'~ iabor, OflQ U11i9~ noe on~~~~f f~ar t~rrori~m, on~ af th~~~ f~rm+~r~," Mr Ern~~t Fayd'h@rbe, 46 y~ar of ag~ and ~oday the own~r of ~iv~ f~rmg, rold m~. Scion nf ~ vpry o1d Mauri~ian fami~y, h~ ~rr3v~d in lthode~ia in 1964 wh~n eh~ country wa~ und~rtaking ~he dev~lopm~ne of a gugar r~gion, th~ Lowveld, in eh~ ~outh~ast. N~ receiv~d 100 hectarea of brush; 5 y~are larer he doubied hig invesem~ne in coff~e. Affect~d by th~a coffee-plant dig~a~~~ he replanCed, bdughe ~noeher pi~c~ of ~and, and ~tart~d tobacco farming. Md Co .ftnish up he ~cqu~r~d 2,000 h~cC~re~ of catel~ land on which h~ i~ r~i~ing 1,000 h~Ad. A11 thig ig going an in an gr~ of terrorieC incursiane. The ~urop~an~ move in ronvoye, road~ are clo~~d at night~ and h a~e~ are eurroundpd with barbed wire and concrete aalls. The "farmer~" do one night of patrol duty per week, taking turne, reporting pvery morning by radio to the milirary authoritieg. "Everything I own is her~," saye Mr Fayd'herbe. "And I shall remain r~ere bec~use I have confid~nce. To be able to liv~ narmally I can't be thinking ~very minute of tenori8m." He giv~g emplcryment to 800 black agricultural aage earner~. - Mr Ian Smith ie a18o one of these farmere. He was brought to power by them and succeeded, wit3~ thean, in maintaining ~onfidence. The Whitea who have l~ft lived in the large centers, not in the countryside. In the Ve1d they are waiting f or the harvest. And thEn there are the neighboring examples. zambia had to keep 400 large European farms; in Malawi the plantationa are also eneru~ted by the black government to whitea. If the electians lead to lifting ~f the British and American boycott, and to official opening (and no longer clandestine aa~ is now the case) of the frontiers, the markets offered to the Rhodesiane are enormous: thus~ to supply only the needs of Zambia, Rhodesia would have to increase its pro- duction by 40 percent. The whole economy is in suspense. ~ The first results of the elPCtion give the following line-up: the party of Bishop Muzorewa, followed by that of the Reverend Sithole, and finally that of Chief Chirau and same others. These men, while of varied ethnic or rc ligiaus origins, have learned to govern together for 2 yeara With Mr Smith. 39 POR OFFICIAL USE OM.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OR OF~ICfAL US~ ONLY Hi~hop Muxvrew~, who h~~ g good eh~nce of b~ing eh~ n~ce prime mini~t~r~ i~ ~~rtainiy no~ a gerong man. H~ r~th@r r~s~mb1~~ ~h~ Abbe Fu1b~rC Youlou nf th~ Con~o in 196~. f3ut h~ 1~a~ wtth him a~~cond men who hes ~use p~~~ed hi~ t~~e~ a~ co-minieter of ~inannes Mr ~rn~~t Bu11e. H~ h~~ the t~mp~r~- m~ne of ~ 1ead~r. ~ H~ eoid tn~ i~ge Janu~ryt "Onc~ ~h~ ~lection~ h~ve be~n h~ld ~nd ~ black govern~~nt formed, th~ terror- istg will no 1ang~r have any choic~ but peace." '~h~ er~n~f~r of power i~ eo b~ undertaken w3~hout shock. Maintenance ' of ord~r, ~f th~ army, o� the police, and of the ~udtcial syetem is not chgngin$ h~nd~. And Mr Smith wi11 have hie seae in the new parllamenC. COPYttiGHT: 1979 "Val~urg ~ctuell~~" 6108 C50: 4400 ' ~ 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOEt 0~~'~CIAL USE ONLY UGANDA IDI AMIN L~AV~S gL00DY HEFtITAGE ~rug~els SPECIAL in French 26 Apr 79 pp 27-28 (Article by Jacques Buob: "The Bloody Heritage of Amin Dada"j (TextJ Kamp~la hae lost its tyrant. Of Idi Amin Dada, there remaina nothing but photog of decapitated bodies lying in Che sCreeta. It almoat appeara that noehing is lefr but things that one eCumblea over while wandering through the cgpital deva~tated by the lootera. But ehe ah~dow of the black giant etill hangs over Che city. Only a few weeks ago, men wearing dark glasses and heavy high-heeled boota exerciaed a reign of fear. They took their victims, suspected of treason~~of everything or nothing at all, to the Nakaeeyro hill, where a pink building served ae the headquartere of their organization: the State Reaearch Bureau, Che secret police of Amin Dada. They had no need for arrest warranta. They were above the law. They were accountable for their actions only to the president-for-life. ihose who entered the house concealed by the greenery also used as a reaidence for the French ambassador knew that they might never come out alive. It was here, behind the walls of the cella in the basement that the savage executions took place, following a rite that had become commonplace in Uganda. The prisoners themselves were forced to murder their co-prisonera by bludgeoning them to death with hammers. "I was being held on the first floor," says one Ugandan who spent more than 3 weeks at the State B~2reau, "but I could hear the hammer blowa and at night, I could see the bodies being loaded on pickup trucka." If this man was freed, it was only because he had connections. Not everyone was so lucky. An unbearable stench of death now rises from the basement. Invieible~ un- identified bodies are piled up in the gloomy cells. Othera are lying in tlie hallways. Tanzanian soldiera and membera of the Ugandan National Liberation Front (PNLO) who took the city on�8 April roam through 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~Ott 0~'~IC'IAL USE ONLY ehe building, passing ehe pilea of ~mmunition, more~r shella and explosives ~ccumulated by Amin'g men, Confidenrial files are ~cateered on the floor nnd in dn~ ~~tbineC ~re hundred~ of cheap medgls with ehe effigy of rhe fi~ld m~rghal, a p~l.try rewgrd for those who "ple~sed h~.m." I~urther Cn rhe anuCh is the va~t M~kindye militiary camp, at Che fooC of Che hill be~ring ehe s~me name, Che he~dquarrers of ehe military pnllce. BeCween ' ehe clinic ~nd ehe ~chool for ehe of�icera' childrett is a low buil.ding hous- ing ewo enormous ce11g. Ir was here in 1971�, 2 montihs gfter he had taken pdcoer, thne Amin Uadn had eome 40 of�icere �rom ehe Langi and Acholi tribea ~t~bbed to deueh by b~ynneea and knives: They had been too cloae Co f~rmer i'regidenC hiilCon Oboee. � Prison ~'ull Sinc~ thae time, the prison has scarcely been anyChing buC full. A slate h~nging in ~ liCCle n��ice indicaCes that on 2 April, 14 persons were still beittg held here. llesperate graffiti on the walls mark their passing. "God bless our children who are still alive." Another, explaining to him- yelf the regime o� terror and anguish, writes in broken French: "I am afraid or dying because I am in prison, but I ask forgiveness for my sins." A littl.e furCher on, a body liea wasCing away, Clie ribs exposed to the sun. In order to avoid attacks on his life, Amin, who created a reign of terror, lived itt terror, constantly changing residences, going from his Nakaseyro lodge to his Kilolo command post, from his vi21a i~: Makindye to the presi- dential apartmenC at the Entebbe airporC. Or all these residences, his lairs where he fled like a~ animal at bay, there subsist Craces of his life,~official films and photos, his children's notebooks, reports, letters written by the Asians deported in 1972 turning over their property. There is not a atick of furniture, because the lootera have made their viaits. However, well hidden in a nook of the president's lodge is the famous sedan chair in which the former ~ourneyman baker of the _ King's African Rifles made a triumphal appearance at the OAU summit meeting in 1975, riding on Che shoulders of four black businessmen. Stripped of iCs decorations, it is now only an ordinary wooden chair affixed to two long meCal bars, the absurd throne of a fallen monarch. Where is he now? What is the "great conqueror of the British Empire" doing? He has become the prey of a vast hunt launched by the new Tanzanian Govern- ment and Army. He.was not stupid enough to be caught while fleeing, as did many of his ministers, men such as Col Abdula Nasur, for example, the governor of the central province, who crossed the Kenyan border at the head of his train of booty: a convoy of 20 Mercedes and 40 trucks. Then there is his British privaCe adviser, the enigmatic Robert Astles, the noted founder of the State Research Bureau, a distinguished soldier of fortune, also "called to account" in Kenya when he landed at the port of Kisumu after crossing Lake Victoria on a scout boat. 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~dR nt~'~'ICIAL US~ ONLY Aft~r mc~king one �in~l mad nry on hig porrnble Crgngmitter, Amin disnppeared. It wns gaid ehat he wng going to go to Sudnn and then Ir~q, where he hgd ~lrendy sene h~.s fgmily nnd his two sons: Mogeg, 9, and MwAnga, 5. Commnndos were dn hig heels. In Isr~e1, Che rel~eiveg of Mr~ Dorg B1och (ehe 70-ye~r-~Xd Iar~~1i wnm~n executed by the men in the d~rk glassea fol- lowing ehe raid on Entebbe) promised a reward eo anyone who would te11 where he wns hiding. The very cunning he had used when heading the counrry he now npplied eo his survival. On Tuesday, it was indeed announced rhgt he was in Baghdad, where he h~d been received eamewhgt coolly. But it was in Libya~ with his Latese ally Qadhadhafi, thar he was to �ind the safest refuge. Years oE Haered The crows, vulrures and long-legged gtorks hover over Kampala. In the silence of Cl~e liberated city, swarma.of flies atill cover a few forgotCen bodies in Che parka. In the evening, one hears sporadic machine gun burats, a sign that the Tanzaniana or the men of Che FNLO are executing a apy or person claimed to be a spy. "Actually," says one studenC wearing the red gown of Che University of Makerere, "it is a good time to get rid of your wife's loverl"� Kampala, ehe pearl of Africa, so named by Winston Churchill, was empty ~ d~~ring Easter Weekend. A few passers-by could be seen on Kampala Road, the ma~or commercial artery. As far as one could see, the storea exhibited their gaping windows, broken glass was sCrewn on the ground and the iron bars hung from their hinges. Burned houses were still amoking. "Shame on you!" CaCholi'c Cardinal Nsubuga exclaimed during the Easter mass celebrated at Rubaga Cathedral. "Is this whaC a city that has 3ust been liberated is supposed to lbok�like?" Nor did the prelate congratulate the "Tanzanian liberators." But the soldiers from Dar es-Salaam were not the last to help themselves. The motorcycles they rode were not bought from the Honda dealer and the radios~they carried were noe paid for at Che supermarkeC on Kampala Road. The only authorized looting was that of sugar at the ware- houses of the Foods and.Beverages Corporation, where for reasons that are not very clear, Amin had sCored enough of ttie product to feed the city for 6 months. During that time, sugar had disappeared from the shops and on the black market, it reached astronomical'prices. . Deprived of water and electricity for a week, the city came back to life little by little. Food is still scarce. The International Hotel, the only one to remain open for newsmen and the Tanzanian soldiers, invariably serves rice with green beans. But the night club has once again opened its doors and in the evening, soldiers in fatigues dance to an African orchestra, their Kalatchnikov rifles over their shoulders. From the State House in Entebbe, the new head of the provisional Ugandan Government issues appeals for people to go back to work. President Yusuf Lule, 68, was chosen~by Julius Nyerere, whom he met at the University of 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OIt OFFICIAL USC ONLY Cdinburgh where rhey were grudenC~ toRether~ The preeidenC preferred this wiye and rEepecCed mnn rd Eormer President Mi1Con Obote. Am~n'g predecea- - wnr, whn wnq wide:ly d~buted ~mong Che reEu~ee~, would undnubCedly hnve endun~yered th~ precF~rinue unity nf the ~'ront, wh~ch bring~ CngeCher nn ; Eewer ehan lg movements, Erom mnn~rchist~ to MarxieCs. Exiled in Lagos ~ q~l1C@ 1g73, a Muslim by birth converCed to~ChristianiCy, Lu1e should reas- sure ehe Cwo cnmmunieies separaCed by years of hatred m~intained by Amin. 'I'ltc WesCeYn countries dn uo~ look very favorably upon Kenya's encirclemenC ' by a~ocialist bele made up o� Tanzania, Uganda, EChiopia and Somali~. Yusuf Lu1e's appeal for American ~id mighC reassure them. The recognition , ot his governmenC by GreaC Brieain, which W~.ii soon reopen iCa high commis- sion in Kampala, should soon convince Western foreign minisCries. remains Che Tanzanian Army, which wi11 wiChdraw "as soon as the situa- tion hafi reCurned to normal." But when? Lu1e still needs ie. Loat soldiera of Amin remain in the norCh and it is also necessAry, Co maintain order or a semblance of order. "The Tanzanians will still be there for another 6 months at least,~' says one European diplomat. On 'Tuesday, long lines of Ugandans returning to work could be seen on the ~ntebbe road. Policemen in grey uniforms appeared in the city. The firat street :~weepers began Co cle~n up debris. On the runway of the internaCional , airport, the shell of a Libyan Hercules C 130 will soon be removed. But ~ out of all the vestiges of 8 years c~f a dictatorship, Chere is something that no one will ever be able to sweep away: the shadow of Amin. COPYRIGHT: L'Express-Special 11,464 CSO: 4400 ~ 44 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 , ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2AIR~ RCPATRIATION OF MOROCCAN CONTINGENT IN SH~A Paria MAItCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANE~NS in French 4 May ~9 p 1137 (Text] King Hassan II ~nd PresidenC MobuCu are reported to have atudied a plan for withdrawal of the Moroccan Expeditionary Corpa from ehe Shaba in ' Chree stagea, Cheir talka in Rabat in mid-April, iC hae been learned from a diplomatic aource in the Moroccan capital. July, October and December will be the dates of the three atagea for with- drawal of Che Moroccan contingent of 2,000 men, making up Che esaence of the pan-African force entruated with the protection of the mining inatalla- tiona of Che 2airian national GECAMINES (General Quarriea and Mines Company] _ along the Kolwezi-Lubumbashi route. By 1 January 1980, the whole of the Moroccan contingenC could be back in the kingdom "if condiCions allow." These conditions would depend on the training condition of the Zairian army, which is currently undergoing reorganization with the assistance of French, Belgian and Chinese instructors. Both in Rabat and in Kinahasa, there is heavy reliance on accelerated training, which a 3,000-man airborne 2airian division is currently undergoing with t'ne help of French instructors at the large Mzili base near Kinshasa. One ba_r.Calion in Chis diviaion ie reported to be nearly ready for operation. Another problem is reportedly sCill pending: Che return to Morocco of the valuable quantity of military materiel which the Moroccan Expeditionary Corps took with it a year ago. The Moroccan high command did nok in fact intend to leave behind this precious and costly equipment as it did in 1977 when the Moroccan contingent of 1,500 men made available to Zaire at L~e time was repatriated. However, the Benguela railroad line linking the Shaba mining zone with the AClantic is still out of commisaion due to the uncertain con- ditions prevailing on the central Angolan plateau, and there is little hope thaC this railroad line, of which 1,000 kilometers lies in Angolan territory, can soon be reopened to traffic. Under these conditions, the equipment muat be transported by plane, which can- not fail to poae major logistical problema. 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY It w~a l~nrned from tihe edm~ diplomatic eource, finaLly, tihat ehe coeC of m~int~ining thn Mor~cc~n Exp~dieion~ry Corpe in Shaba wi11 be in large part cnvered by ~'rance and rhe United States, and not by Saudi Arabia, ge had be~n r~poreed on a number oE occasione. COpYRIGHT: It~n~ Moreux eC Cie, Pari~ 1979 { 5157 ; CSO: 4400 ; ~ i ~ , ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~oR o~FicinL usE ornY 2AIRE GOVERNMENT WAGING ST1tUGCLE AGAIN3T TRII3ALISM Paris MARCH~3 TROpICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 4 May 79 p 1137 [Text] The Political Bureau of Che popular MovemenC of Chg Itevolutiion decided during iCs 26 April meeting Co wage a battle againet the tribaliem - which prevails within the 2airian adminiatration. With thi~ in view, iC enCrusted to Che ExecuCive Council the Cask of pureuing a detailed eCudy in order "to put an end to the abuses noted in thie connection" in govern- menC department~ and the ataCe enCerprises. The conclusions of this atudy are to be communicated to the Political Bureau within the ehorteat posaible time, and diaciplinary stepa will be taken against the officiale found at fault. An appeal wae made to the cadres in the public and private sectors urging them to r~alize "ehat tribalism doea harm Co the higher inCereate of the nation, and Zaire cannoC develop harmoniously except to the extenC ChaC the eame opportunities for school and vocational advancement are provided to all citizena, without any kind of discriminaCion." COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie, Parie 1979 5157 CSO: 4400 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 ~OR O~FICIAL US~ ONLY 'LAZRE . CLOSBR RELA'~IONS WI'~H SOVIET UNION PLANN~D paris MAItCH~B TROPICAUX ET MEDITERI2ANEENS in French 2~ Apr 79 p 1076 (Text] On 18 April, the USSR and Zaire made an exchange in Kinshasa of the document3 ratifying the cooperation agreementa signed on 10 December 1976 in Moscow, having to do in parCicular wiCh a masCer agreemenC beCween the Soviet Union ~nd zaire calling for much more dynamic cooperation in Che realm of Crade and mAritime Cranaportation. A protocol of agreement ia also to be - eigned shortly in the scientific and cultural field. In addition, Che first direcC air link between Moacow and Kinahasa was eatablianed on 18 April by an Aerof~loC f1i~hC, pursuanC Co an agreemenC aigned between Moscow and Kinshasn in 1974. CO1'YRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie, Faris 1979 5157 CSO: 4400 i 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 FOIt OI~rICIAL US~ ONLY ~ zt~z~ BRIEFS NCW COFFEE OFFICE--A 7 March ordinance establ3.shed a new organization, the Zairian Coffee Office (OZACAF), replaces the National Co�fee 0�fice esCablished in 1972. OZACAF will be a public agricultural, Cechnical, and commercial enterprise he.adquartered in Kinshasa. Its purposes are: con- trol of coffee negotiations and exporters; coordinaCion of all coffee ware- houses and stock centers in Zaire, particu].arly their conformity ~o regu- lations; study and control of prices; publication of international staCis- tics after study and consultation with the organizations concerned. jEx- cerpts] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in Franch 1 Jun 79 p 1499] SERIOUS FLOODS--Part of the Eastern Region in Zaire has been declared a disF~sCer area following serious floods caused by heavy rains during Che first half of May. According Co Zairian Government spokesman Umba-Di- Lutete, state commissioner for orientation, several cities in the sub- regions of Nord-Shaba, Sud-Kivu, and Maniema were flooded and there were cave-ins in the large city of Bukavu (near the Rwandan and Burundian borders), The Zairian spokesman did not indicate that there was any loss of life or serious damage caused by the floods. Zairian chief ~f state Gen MobuCu Sese Seko allocated 4 million zaires in aid to the disaster regions and the daily SALONGO, in an editorial, stressed the necessity for a"general mobilization" of the Zairian people to meet this situation. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in Frea;h 25 May 79 p 1318] PRC AID--On 17 May, Mr. Li, Chinese vice minister in charge of basic de- velopment, arrived in Kinshasa to participate in the 20 May inauguration of the "People's Palace," a building constructed in the center ot the Zairian capital through Chinese cooperation. This inauguration, chaired ~ by the Zairian chief of state, Mobutu Sese Seko, coincides wiCh the cele- bration of the 12th anniversary of the establishment of the Zairian national party, the MPR. The "People's Palace" constructed by the Chinese includes a conference hall seating 3,600, ni:ie conference rooms, and a banquet hall seating 600. The work begain in 1975. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET ~ MEDITERRANEENS in French 25 May 79 p 1318] CSO: 4400 49 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100064445-5 FOR O~FIC?~1L U3E ONLY zt~rmrn GOV~EtNMENT HAVING PROBLIIr13 WITH UNEMPLOYI~NT, CORRUpTION Paris A~'RYQU~-ASI~ in ~rench 14-27 May 79 p 25 (Artiicle by Fode Amadou: "Kaunda's I~robleme"j ~ (Text) After expelling in part the illegal immigrants �ran the country~ the Znmbian ~uthoriCies are now etriving to aolve the problem of Che unemployed in the cities. The government plana to amend an article of the ConstiCution ao ae to be able to have the unemployed work in agriculture. The urricle in the ConarituCion which would be amended is worded as follows: "No one can be deprived on his freedam of mov~r?ent. This freedom includea the righC of moving ~bout freely within Zambia's bordera, the righe Co reside anywhere in Zambia, Che righC to enCer 2ambia, and Che impossibility of being expelled fran it." Kowever~ in a speech that he delivered in Lueaka at the time o� the inaugural meeting of the new governmenC, President Kenneth Kaunda tried to define the amendment of - this conatiCutional provision. Accordingly, he asked the governmenC headed by Daniel Liaulo Co elaborate a plan ChaC would make it posaible ~ t~ send the unemployed to work on the land and ordered that this be done through a naC~ona.l aervice, auch as the compuleory 20-month service ac- compliahed by studenta after they c anplete aecondary school and during which Chey receive miliCary as well as agriculCural training. "The lazy ones hnve to be diaciplined," Kuanda also aaid. "I need discipline. This _ counCry must advance and it will advance." UnforCunately, a large number of unemployed then "recycled" themselvea i.n the black market which ia increasingly widespread. They purchase cigaree:e~ or other products, hoard them (which leads Co drarnatic ahortages), and reaell them at exorbiCant pricea. One pack of Stuyvesant cigareGtea nonnally costs 56 Zambian kwacha. On the black markeC it fetchea 90. Many of these traffickers have managev ;:o b;;y very handsane autoaaobiles for . themselves, aend their children t~ private achools, and some have even started prosperous busineasea. President Kaunda had already requested thia "return Co the land" ut a national congress of the Ul~1IP [United National Independence Partyj in June 1975. Since that Cime he has apoken of it in public very ofCen. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ1 QOQ6Q045-5 ~OR O~~xCIAL US~ ONLY 13ue hracricnlly noChin~ hg~ been done. AC th~ end of 1977 he even submitted td ~nrlinm~nt u gnveYnmc~nC bi,11 (providing, ~mdng nrh~r ehing~, gor ~h~ c ompulsory removul oE the unemployed to rurai r~gion~) wh~,ch w8~ ~1~e~d eo ravdlurinnix~ Che country'o ~griculeur~l pr~ducrion nnd gchi~ve succeee coithin G montha. Thia Cim~ pct~i~d hae now lnpsad wiChouC any progrege in ehi~ rdepeer. Ati u publi~ m~eeing Gr~y zulu, forner eecreCary gen~rA~. of UNIP, d~clared eh~e befnre c~nd ~rCer Z~mbia'~ independ~nce Che pnrey had drawn up innumerable p1~nn which hnd nQVar be~n r~nlizQd~ "WQ h~v~ el~borA~ed Coo mgny prd~rctmg~~~ hQ s~id, "~nd today there ia prgceic~lly noehin~ which juseifies our offici~l d~2claraeions." Wid~gpre~d Corruptian To try eo nolve chege problems Che governmanC therefore decided Co Add Co ehe system of narional service a program fc+r restrucCuri~ng Che agricultur~l seceor. Membera of the cen~ral commitiCee, ministere, provincial governor~, and munir.ipgl ~duneilorg worked on thig p1an. Its results are stiill pending, ~urrhermare, ehe governm~nC hns preblems wiCh trade unioniaCa. The Zambi~n ~r~~dc Union Congress has saverely c~naured Kaunda's decisiona. It rec~nlted rhat zamb3.a had signed the chnrCer of the InternaCional Labor Office whose Areicle ln5 providea thaC no signaCory ataCe c~n impose such or such other form of work on ita citizens. Newstead Zimba, aecretary general of the Zambian Trade Union Federation, noted thaC in the rural r.reas therc are alreudy Chousands of unemployed and thaC it wae Chus absurd to send there more people who w ould noC find work. In the me~7ntime, President Kaunda requeated the government to take drasCic measures againsr Che corrupeion which ia becoming increasingly widespread. In fact, iC has reached such a degree thaC in order to obtain the slighteat service from a civil servant it is absoluCely essential to pay him b~nckshish and this is erue in every field. Such $ sysCem has now bec ane sC:~nd~rd procedure in Zambia. COPYRIGHT: 1979 Afrique-Asie 2662 CSO: 4400 _ END + 51 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100060045-5