Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6.pdf9.16 MB
APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'100070025-6 ' ~ ~ ~ . _ 23 JU~Y i9?9 ` CFOUO 2179) - i 4F 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 N'nIt ONNICIAI. lt~N: nNLY - JPRS L/~580 . 23 July 1979 USSR ~e ort p BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAI SCIENCES CFOUO 2/79~ FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIA,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 NOT~ JPRS publica~ions conCain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodic~l~ ~nd baoks, bue ~lsn from news agency transmissions and broudcas~ts. htaterials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinCed, with the original phrasing and other chnracteriatics retnined. E{eadlines, editorial reports, and material enr.loaed in bracketa [j are supplied by JPIt5. processin~ indicator~s such as (TextJ or ~Excerpt) in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indi~ate how Che original information was processed. Where no processing indicaCor is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate :n context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within ~.tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For f~rther information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economicl; 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGKT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GOVER.NINC OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODL'CED HEREIN REQUIRE TNAT DISSEMINATION OF TEiIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY Y , ' JPRS L/8580 - a3 Ju~X Z9~9 USSR REPORT BIOMEDIGAL AND ~EHAVTORAL SCYENCES _ R ~ (FOVO 2/79~ This serial p~ublicaCion containe articles, abaCracts of articles and news items from U5SR scienCific and technical ~ournals on the apECific sub~ecCs reflected in tihe table of cnntenta~ Photoduplications of foreign-language sources may be obtained from the Photoduplication Service, Library ~f Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540. Requests should provide adequate identification both as to Che source and the individual article(s) deaired. CONTENTS ~rAGE AGROTECHNOLOGY Contribution of Biology to Advances in Agriculture Described (IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR-SERIYA BIOLOGICHESKAYA, No 3, 1979) 1 Contribution of Biochemistry, Biophysics to Agriculture Discussed (IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR-SERIYA BIOLOGICHESKAYA, No 3, 1979) 6 ~ Greater Cont.ribution of Science to Agriculture Urged (IZVESTIYA AKADIIrIII NAUK SSSR-SERIYA BIOLO~ICHESKAYA, ~ No 3, 1979) 10 - A Co~stant Volume Method for the Operation of Remote Controlled Canals (V. Se Prokop'yev; DOKLADY VSESOYUZNOY ord,na LEHINA AKADEMII SEL~SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH NAL"~C, No i0, 1978) .........................1................ 14 - a- [III - USSR - 21A S&T FOUc FOR OFFICI~?L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 - ' FOEt O~F'ICIAL US~ ONLY CONTENTS (Continued) pgge The Biological Value oP Grain Cult~.vated With the Use of Herbicidea (L, G. Gruzdev; et al.; DOIQ.ADY V3ESOXUZNOY ` _ ordena LE~IINA AKADEMII SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH NAUK~ No 10, 1978) 18 The B~eat Short-Stemmed Spring Wheata of the World Collection of the All-Union Scientific Reeearch Institute of Plant Growing and the Prospects for Their Tntroductian in the Irrigated Lands Along the Middle Volga (A. M. Medvedev; DOKLADY VSESOY'J7NOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH N~.UK, No 10, 1978) 23 UtilizaCion of a Numerical Model for Predicting the EffecC of Water-Engineer~ng Reclamation on Soil Moisture (T. A. Romanoy, et al.; DOIQ.ADY VSESOYUZNOY - ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL'SKOIQiOZYAXSTEVENNYIQi NAUK, No lU, 1978) 29 Modelling of the ProceBS of Gas-Jet Cleaning of Re- clamation CanaSs (N. N. Kremenetskiy, et al. ; DOIQ.ADY VSESOYiJZNOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL-SKOI~iZXAX- STVENNYKH NAUK, No 10, 1978) 36 _ Microflora of Air ia Vetdispensaries and the MorbidiCy of Caives (A. P. Gorbunov; KOKLADY VS~SOYUZNOY ordena LENINA AKADErQ3 SEL' SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYI~i NAUK, No 10, J.978)....~ kl CRYOBIOLOGY Effect of Superlow Temperatur~s on Translation ~ctivity of Cell-Free Extracts of Different Origin (A. K. Gulevekiy; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR- _ SERIYA BIOLOGICHESKAYA, No 3, 1979) 45 ECOLOGY L'~?aluation of the Genetic Danger of Peaticidea (A. G. Kas'yanenlco, N. S. Koroleva; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUR SSSR-SERIYA BIOLOGICHFSKAYA, No 3, 1979) 51 - -b- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 FOIt 0~'~TC?AI. US~ ONLX - CONTENTS (Continued) P~ge CENCTIC5 Specific Life Span Derermination ~ (L. A. Gavrilov, N. S. Cavilova; DOKLADY AKADEMII NAU1~ SS5R, No 2, 1978) 64 PHARMACOLOGY Antimutagenic Activity of the An~iconwlsant Hexamidine. . Action of Hexamidine on the Level of Spontaneoua ~ MutaCion of a Number of Objecte (G. N. Zolotareva, et al.; DOKLADY AKAD~IZZ NAUK SSSR, No 2, 1979) 71 PHYSIOLOGY Connection of Recall Tactica and Baeic Indicators of - Memorization and Recall Processes in Respect to Spoken Material (L. N. Vinogradova; DOKLADY AKADEMII NAUK SSSR~ No 6, 1979) 75 PSYCHOLQGY The Psychological Service in the USSR: Its Ob~ectives, Content, and Organization (A Roundtable Discussion) (VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGYI, No 2, 1979) 82 Principles of PsychopY?ysiology (Ye. N. Sokolov; VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII, No 2, 1979).. 111 _ SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC ORGANI2ATIONS Sixth International Biophysics Congress ~ - (G. R. Ivanitskiy, K. Ye. Kruglyakova; BIOFiZIKA, No 3, 1919)............, 121 TOXICOLOGY Effect of Presynaptic Neurotoxins FYom Bee and Cobra Venom on Spontaneous Secretion of Transmitter Sub- ~ , stance by Mouse Motor Nerve Endings (M. A. Kamenskaya, et al.; BYULLETEN' - EKSPERIMENTAL'NOY BIOLOGTI I MEDITSINX', No 5~ 1979) 127 - - c - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ~ CONTENTS (Continued) PgBe PUBLICATIONS Neurophyaiological S~udies of the Syetemic; Mechanisms _ of Behavior (V. B. Shvyrkov; NEYROFI2IOLOGICHESKOYB IZUCH ENIYE SISTEMNYI~i MEKHAr1IZMOV POVEDf,~1IYA~ 1978) 134 - d - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ox or~zc~ar. crs~ ortt,Y AaROTECHNOLOf}Y ' ~i . CONTRIBUTION OF BIOLOGY TO ADVANCES IN AGRTCULTURE DESCRIBED Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK S3SR-SERIYA BIOLOGICI~SKAYA in Russian No 3, 1979 pp ~+77-~+79 LReport on general meeting of the USSR Academy of 3ciences by Shcherbinov- skaya, T. N.: ~~Seseion of the General Meeting of the Depertment of Generel Biology of the USSR AcQdea~y ~f Sciencea 'Qeneral Bio~ogy for Agriculture'" LTex~ The aeasion oP the general meetin~ of the Depaxtment of General Biology of the USSR Academy of Sciences "General Biology for Agriculture" was held in Moscow on 4-5 December ~978. M. S. Gilyarov, academic secre- ts.ry of the department, opened the session. In his introductory speech he noted that the Communist Party pays much attenti~n to the prob],eme of agri- _ culture, which is indicated by the deciaions of the 25th CPSL~' Congress and of the July and November (1978) plenums of the CPSU Central Cc~mmittee and by Comrade L. Y. Brezhnev's speecheE. Agricultural production as the produc- tion of biological ob~ect~ is based on the data of biology, which plQCes great responsibility fe:� the elaborQtion of fundamentaZ problems of sgri- cultural science and practice on biologista. Such are the probl~ns of pro- ductivity and anthropogenic changes of biocenoses and agrocerioses, migra- tion and behavior of harmful and useful speciea, integrated control of pests ~:nd diseases oP agricultural crops, genetics and selection, individual de- velopment of orgattisms, maintenance of soil fertility, efficient methods of fertilizer application and so forth. Our country has the right to expect from biologiste their contribution to the inerease in the productivity oP agriculture. The report by academician N. P. Dubinin "Genetics at the Service of Selzc- tion" reflected the history oP the probl~m oY genetics and selection in our ' country based on the activity of outstanding ecientists--N. I. Vavilov, I. _ V. Michurin, A. S. Serebrovskiy, P. P. Luk'yanenko, V. S. Puatovoyt and - others. The utilization of fundemental achievements of modern genetics plays an important role in the advances of selecLion. Such are the achieve- ments of experimental polyploic~y 3~ the develop~ment of triploid heteroais t~ybrids of sugar beets and potato~s, genetically regulated heterosis as the basis for advances in the cultivation of sunflowers, modal selection in ~rk 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ ~ H'Ult OFi~ ICIAL USH: UNLY w3th cotton, radiation mutageneeis for the develop~?ent of winter wheat vari- eties, poly~loidy and hybridize~tion in yeast oelection, Qttenuated mutsnts and protec~ion oP vegetable crops under greenhouBe conditions, modern ap- proachea to the selecti.on of breeda and lines meeting the requiremente of = 3nduatrial livestock breeding e.nd inbreeding and methods of microsurgery on zygotes. The apeaker threw light on the work connected agriculturel practice carried out in the Institute of (3eneral Genetics of the U53R Acad- - emy of Sciences, including on the elaboratian of inethods of developing ani- ma7. breeds and plant varieties maximally adapt~d t~ methode of agricultural _ management under conditions of agroindustrial and 1lvestock breeding complexee. Academician V. N. Remeslo m~de the report '~Wheat Selection st the 8ervice of Production." He noted that in the last few yeare workers in egricultural - science and production made important advsnces, which was aided by the meas- ures of the Com�nunist Party for the implementation of a system oP efficient measures for an increase in grain production and in the sale of bread to the - _ state. The speaker deacribed the w~ork done under his guidance at the Miro- novskaya Selection Station. As a result of long-term investigQtions of the patterns in the inheritance of economice,lly valuable characters, a new winter - wheat variety of the intensive type, Mironovakaya-8o8, ~aas developed. It ia a masterpiece of world, not only Soviet, selection. It is plastic and is widespread in vaxioua zonea oP our country and in many foreign countries. Other varieties--Yubileynaya, I1'ichevke, Mironovskaya yubileynaya and so forth--were also developed. Four new winter wheat varietiea--highly produc- _ tive, winter resistant and with a good quality oP grain--are being tested. Work is being done on the development of spring wheat varieties. � , B. A. Neunylov, corresponding member of the USSR Acadea~y of Sciencea, made a report on the biological principles of rice sow~ng in the Far East, where there are fav~rable conditions for the cultivation of this crop and uhere it - occupies large areas. Among urgent problems the apeaker noted the breeding of especially early ripening varieties with an increased resiatance to low temperaturea, search for methods of accelerating the processes of organogen- esis under conditions of lower temperatures by affecting the pY~yaiologobio- chemical functiona of plants and the regulation of their nutrition, as well as improvement in the microclimate of the rice field and protection from weeds, pesta, diseases and so forth. The report by academician Ye. M. Lavrenko, T. I. Isachenko and S. A. Gribova (Botanical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences) was devoted to the present maps oP the vegetative cover and their importance for agriculture. Depending on their scale geobotanical maps can be used for statewide planning and for the implementation of operational-economic meaeures. These maps are needed for the solution oF various practical problems, that is, in the eve,l- uation oY ecological conditions and the selection and classification of land occupied by natural vegetation, developm~ent of new territories, reclemation, planning of the use and reconstruction of agricultural production, protection of~~the plant world and so forth. _ 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 , I~J[t UI~I~I.CrAL U5li ONI,Y On 5 December K. M. Ry~hikov, manber of the USSR Acaderqy of Sciences, made a repoz~t on the ecientific principlee af the prevent~on of. helminthi~ses in farw animals. He showed the c.lose connect~on between hel- minttiolo~y and agricul.ture. !l'he inveatiga~ione of Sovi~t heLninthologidta are directed towurd the ~olution of general biological, veterinc~ry ~nd med- _ ice,l problems. Biological problems include the study of the specific com- position of helmintha, their geographical diatribution, morphologotaxonomic characteristics, ecolo~y, pY~ysiclogy and biochemiatry. The results of this work form tl?e basis for a11 ~he practical measures for the contro7. of hel- minths and for ~he protec~ion of' f~im from them. Extens3ve research - aimed at contro.lling helminthiases in cattle and poultry ia conducted in the T,aboratory of Helminthology of the USSR A~aderqy of Sc3ences. The speaker noted the outstanding role of academici~n K. I. Skryabin in the developanent - of Soviet he]~ inthoiogy and in the elaboration of ineasures for the control - of helminthiases I.n our country. ~i'he report by bf. V. Gorlenko, corresp~.Ading me.~nber of ~he U~;'R Ac~zde~y of Sciences, was devoted to the state of and prospects for the biological meth- od of' plant protection fro~ diseases. The problem of the biological method of plant protection from diseaaes lies in the use of antagonistic microbes or - producta of their vital aci�'.vity for suppressin~ infectiouo diser~aea in plan~. A number of preparations for the control of bacteria in pulse cropa, powdery mildews and tomato bacterioses were developed. It ia neceseary to intensify the work on the genetics of producers, search t'or new antagonists, study of the cross protection of plants and giving them immunity to di~eases through primary inoculation with nonpathogenic microbes or weakly p~,thogentc strains of pathogenic microbes. This method is already successfully used ~,n hot- houses for the control of the tobacco mosaic virus on tomatoes. Candid~.te of Biological S^.iences Ye. S. Sugonyayev (Zoological Inatitute of the USSR Acade~y of Sciences) reported on the experience in the development of an integrated system o.f. protection of cotton from peste on a biocenological basis. An intensified application of toxic chemical~ aga3nst harmflil. orga- nisms ofter_ leads to negative consequences. As a result of a careful study of this prbblem the task of developing systems for the control of po~ulations of harmful and useful species (integrated systems) axose. The speaker illu~- trated the use of such a meth~d, using as an example the cotton flelds in Tad- zhikistan and Turkmei~ia, which produced very positive results--increase in the yield of cottor, and reduction in the contamination of fields with pesticidea. Doctor of Biological Sciences P4. V. Krylov (Zoological Institute of the USSR A~ademy of Sciences) made �he report "Theoretical Basis for the Control of - Coccidioses ir Poultry and the Introduction of Scientific Developanents Into - Industrial Poultry Breeding." He noted a number of serious investigations in the field of inetabolic interactions oi' parasites and the host organism and biochemical changes in the host organism caused by the parasitism of coccidis, that is, shifts in the metabolism of protein, nucleic acids, trace elements " and so fc:�th. A number of theoretical substantiations for the use of patho- - genetic therapy and purposeful synthesis of inhibitors of inetarolic procesaes in parasites were developed. Many of t~ese d~ta have already been realized in practice and give an important economic effect. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 . - 1~'Oit 0~'I'IC1AL U5I~. ONLY The report by acade~nician M. S~ Ciilyarov "Biological Methods of Increaeing So31 Fertility" noted the outstandin~ rolp of Soviet acientiats in the study of the role of organiams i.n soil formir,g procesees and in the maintengnce of soil fertility. The speaker dwelled ~n some methoda ec~nnected with the pos- sibilit3es of utilizat3on of biological agenta for an increese in soil Per- til3ty, in particular the activity of earthworms. ~he report described in detQil the taxonoQnic and ecological aspects of ~k~,1s group of' invertebrates. - Numerous experiments showed the effectivenesa oi artiPicial introduction of certain species and ecological groupe of worme into localitieo where these species are not found for historical reasons, but where they can exist ec- cording to ecological conditions. The applicstion to field soil, in partic- ular to nonchernoem soil, of eapecially composted organic ~ertilizers of dif- ~ ferent origin a~ the stagea of decomposition, when useful invertebrate aoil formers accelerating the mineralization and humification of p1Rnt reaidues and aiding in the aera~ion, drainage and structure formQtion of soil are reproduced in it, 33 another trend in the research on biological soil recla- mation. For laxge livestock breedir~ (primar3ly hog breeding) farms the _ method of manure processing with the use of fly larvae developed in Novosi- birsk is pramising botti for obtaining compasta and Por prov3ding hog farms with valuable protein foddex�. The report by Candidate of Agricultural Sciencea S. D. Erpert (Laboratory of Forest Science of the USSR Acade~y of Sciencea) "Effect oP Forest Plsntings on the Productivity of Agricultural Cropa" threw light on the set of ineaeures for increasing the yield of agricultural crops in the semideserta of the North- ern Caspien Region (according to the data of the group of workers at the Dzha- r~ybek Station). The axid climate end salinity of soil complicate its devel- opment for farming. The station developed the scientific basis for the agri- cultural reclamation of the semidesert complex of the intervalley plain under conditions of nonirrigated 1and. As a reault of long-term research, a sys- _ tem for the develo~nent of soil of the semidesert ca~?plex for farming wes de- vel~ped. Specific measures for reclamation, plowing of solonetz, snow re- tention, use of windbreak strips and so forth were proposed. Doctor of Biological Sciences R. V. Kamelin (Botanical Institute of the USSR Acade~}r of Sciences) made the report "Botar~y at the Service of Agriculture." He pointed out that a11 the sections of botanical science have direct appli- - cations in the practice of agriculture. He noted the most important of these problems, that is, the anthropogenic destruction of the vegetative cover, new - crops (fodder plants, artificial hayfields and pastures, new industrial crops and so xorth), reclamation of the natural fodder base, overall natural re- gionalization (efficient placemen~ of various types of land) and protection of the plant world. The general meeting edopted a decree determining the basic trends in scien- tific research in the field of study of plant and Qnimal biology Yor the pur- pose of increasing plant and animal productivity and developing methods of raising new plant vaxieties and highly productive animal breeds; expanaion 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ rOlt U1~rICIAL USE ONLY of work on eco~.ogy, biolo~ical methods of integratAd proteetion of planta and animals from pea~s and pesasites, biological methods of increaeing soil fer~ility~ developm~nt oF forecasts of chQnges in ~he natural environment under the effect of anthropogcnic factore and eo forth. The need for the further development of overall research condue~ed ~ointly with the in3titu- ~ions of VASKhNTL LA11-Union Ace,demy of Agricultural Sciences imeni V. T. Leni~ and the USSR Ministry of Agr3culture wae noted. The bureau of the Depaxtment of General Biology was instructed to systematic- ally examine e,t i~;s meetings the cour~e of fulfillment of ~o3nt work on the agricultural problems of the institutions of this department e,nd VASKhNIL. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Izvestiya AN SSSR, seriya biologiches- kaya", 1979 , 11,439 cso: 1870 5 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 FOR OF~'TCIAL U5E ONLY AGRQTECHNOLOGY - CONTRIBUTION OF BIOCHII~ITSTRY, BIOPH~'SICS TO AGRYCULTURE DISCU83ID Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR-SERIYA BIOLO(~ICFIEBKAYA in Russi~n No 3, 1979 PP ~?75-476 ,LReport on general meeting of the USSR Acadea~r of Sciences by 3amsonov; S. - K.: ~~Session of the aenera7. Meeting of the Department of Biochemistry, Biophysice and Chemistry of PY~ysiologically Active Campounds Devoted to Ag- r3culture" LTex~ Opening the meeting held on 4-5 December 1978, academician A. A.Be~yev, academic secretary of the department, noted the weighty contribution of the department's insti+utes to the elaboration of urgent probleme connected with the development of agriculture set by the deciaions of the July (1978) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. In the near future inveetigations connected with an increase in the productivity of agricultural production should be expanded conaidere,bly. V. A. Kovda, corresponding member af the USSR Acade~qy oP Sciences, made the report "Prospects for the Reclemation and Productivity oF Soil in Plain Regions af the USSR." The rapid growth of our country's population sets - the task cf obtaining an average harvest of grain crops of no leas the.n 30 quintals per hectare, which will ensure the necessary level of consumption and self-provision with Podder resources and oY meat and milk production.'Ihis _ - will require considerable efforts Por the preservation oP available plote of land and a considerable increase in their productivity. The f~z~ther in- crease in land productivity will undoubtedly require large-scele operationa for improving its pl~ysical, biochemical and agroecological properties. The present ecological conditions of dry land are characteriZed by an in- - crease in moist~ure deficit. Therefore, the develop~nent of a long-term fore- cast of ecological co:~ditions and the real need for reclamation and for en- suring an optimal situation for the growth of cultivated plants connected - with this is one of the tasks of f~ndamental science. The problems of trans- ferring the water resources of the north to arid southern regions and the need for a significant rationalization of the use of available srater eupply sources used for irrigation needs axose on this bQais. The control of ero- ~ gion processes inflicting serious damsge on our econo~y is no lesa importaat. Implementation of the enumerated measures will make it possible to sttain the desired increase in the yield of agricultural crops in the next Pew years. 6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 , A'Ok UA'H'tC1AL U;~1: ON1.5' 7 mhe repnrt by of Biologic~l Science4 rl'. A, Kalintnukay~ (In~ti- tut~ of Microbi~logy of th~ U5SR Ac~demy of Scicncen) N~a devotcd to non- symbiotic nitrog~n fi~cati~n r~nd itig role in ~n increare in soil t'~rtility. These prOC(�BBf:B are of great itn~ortianc~ i'er the develojunent of a~ricul~ure. Th~ iz~arp~ge in the appl,ir,ation of nitrogen ferti~izer~ by na meang ~lim- - inate~ th~ tar~k of most fu11y utiliz3ng biolagica?1 nitrogen fixst~on for an increaee in h~rvest~. F'or noa two repre~er,tati�re~ of nonaymbiotfc nitrogen Pixere, that ig, Axc~tu~acter and Clostridium, remgin the mn~t tihornughly etudipd. rnvegtig~tior.s conducted in the ingt few years have ghoi+n thgt f~cultative-anaerobic nitrogen fixing b~cilli are also Wide$pread in soil. There are no les3 ni~ro~en fixers from the group df .facultatiti�e-uymbiotrophic microorganisms in soil. Their atudy is noW conc~ucted in the lgbor~tory df gcademiciar. Ye. N. Mishu~ti.n. Cyanob~cteria develapinF; in aater-logged ~soil ~re ~ very ir~tereffitiing group of free-living nitrogen fixer~. mhey gre v~ry sengitive to the applirgtion of miner~l nitrogen, which guppre~ses their - vtti~l activity, and for their uae in agri~ulture ac~ nitrogen fixerg it i~ necessary to develop neN ~trains resistant to s~xch an effect. The a~bove- atated makes it possible to draW a conclugion on th~ pr~sence of a large stnek of free nitrogen .*ixers in soil. IntengiP:catiQn of their vital ec- tivity can increase the contient of nitrogen availsble to plants in soil to a conaiderable extent. Almost tKice as m.uch agricultural produce ha~ begun to be produeed in the xorld during the last quarter of the century, but the losses from peate end dis~aaes have tripled. This was stated in the report by Doctor of Agricul- tural Sciences L. V. Metlitekiy "Biochemical Mechanisma o~' PhytoimmuniLy and Their Role in the Re~istance of plants" (Inatitute of Biochemi~try imeni A. N. Bakh oP the USSR Acadea,y of Sciences). Therefore, ~long x9,;h sn 3m~rove- ment fn the existing methods oi' plant protection, e search for more pre~ieina; new methods is needed. Ttae scientist disc~ssed the resis`.,ance of plants to parsaitic P~ingi manifested in a defense reaction ca~;sing e quick death of cells infected with g parasite. On the Whole, phytoimmunity ia beeed on e set of defense reactions. mhe search for aays oP increesing the potentiel ca~acity oF plants for de:ense reactiona, in particular, by mesns oP substan- ces harmleas for the environment seems promising. A. A. Nichiporovich, corresponding member of the USSR Acadecqy oP Sciencee, presented the report "PotPntial Photosynthetic Productivity of Pl~nte aad the Principles of Its Optfmum Use." At the pres~nt stage of specisl import- - ance ie the task of increasing the activity of t'a photosynthetic appeuratue _ at the genetic level. Proceeding from the fact thut the mazimum posaible productivity can be attained srith 8-quantum expenditures of photosynthesis, the au~hor note3 tr. conditions necess~zy for thi~ and the activity of photo- synthesizing systans at various levels of their ~rgE.nization. It has been shown in their best condition, srith a good co~bination of all photosyn- thetic syste~as, it is possible to assimilate the incoming ei~ergy oP photo- active cadiation xith ePPiciency of12 to 14 percent and during the eatire period of vegetation, xith efficiency of 4 to 5 percent. The principles of cloaeness of the present levels of nroductivity to theoretically substaatiated levels are evaluated as optimal. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE 01TLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 F~'OH U1~~ICIAL U:~~ ONLY ~he rcport by Doctnr of Bioingic~l 5ci~nc~o N. 8. Petinov (Inntitute of _ Pl~nt Physio~.ogy imeni K, A~ 'rimiry~?xev of the UB&R Acad~r ot Scienc~g) giveg a p2~ysiologc~biochanic~l ~ubntanti~tion far ~ hi~h produ~tivity of graln c.rop~ Qnd grasseg for irri~ated condition~. It haB been demon~trated tih~t, goil moisture and mineral nutrition improve in ontogene~ie, pt~y~- iologicel proceesee ~re ~ctivat~d~ Thie eontributea to a more iaten~iv~ ac- cumulation nf the dry gu~stance and to an incree~ee ln the yield. Optis~l conditions under which the ~reatest produetivity of cultiv~ted plar~ts 1~ ~t.t~ined h~ve been obtained experimentally. 7'he principlee of controlling the pt~ye~.a~ogica:. processee of groxth and development of greesee for ~?n in- rre~ae in the resiatance to lodging by me~n~ of retard~nte and antiauxina ar~ being develnped. In particular~ in 1978 chlorocholine chloride ~+a~ ap- pli~d on ~n ar~a of 6 million hecteres, uh~ch increased the harvegt of uin- ter ~nd gpring aheat from 2 to 5 quinte~ls per h~ctare. _ In hig repdrt Doctor of Biologic~l Scirnce~ A. A. Prokof'yev (Inetitut~ of Plent Pt~ysiology imeni K. A. Timiry~zev oP the U83R Acadeu~y of Science~) _ diacuseed the problems of an effiaient dis~ributioa of e~esimilatorg through- out plant organs. It is necegsary to clearly diPferenti~te the t~lological and ~~onomic productivity of plants, strii�ing for the trsneport of eubetances in the plant for the purpose of atoring them in organe of econ~aic intereet. The author clQrified the ways of supply by assimilates ot fruiLs in a number of plants. The order of fruit nutrition ~ra~ established. Especially inter- eating results xere obtained in srork with cotton. Regulation of the flo~r of aseimiletea for th~ purpoee of increeaing truit bearing ~rae gttained by the use aP a number of physiologically active substances. The cntton h~r- vest rras 12 to 15 percent higher with a simultaneoug esrlier ripeaing of bollg. An earlier clearance oP the plot ~f cotton made it poesible to pranptly sow srinter vegeteting Podder crops and to gather a hervrat of green _ mass amaunting to 205 quintals per hectare in the spring. A~econd harvest on the ssme lend is impossible Xith later cotton crnpe. As a reault~ along � with en increase in the cotton harvest, the provieion oP livestock breeding With greea fo3der ~rithout an increase in the area of plots oP le?nd is solved. presenting the report "Tisaue Culture and aa Increase in the Productivity of Agricultural Plants," R. (3. Butenko, correaponding member of the USSR Ac~d- e~my of 3ciences, notefl that in 40 years plant tissue culture srae transformed iato a field of study of cell biology, including genetics oP gomatic cells~ bioche~nietry and p2~ysiology of their groxth ead diPfereatiations. Mastering _ Lhe Y~ybridization of sematic cells opened up the possibilities of obtaining changed cell lines and, on their basis, ne~+ plants. This process is regu- lated mainly by the hormonel factor. A practical we~y xas outlined for an artificial formation of ne~r forms of cultivated plants posseesing previously unknoj+n valuaDle properties, in particuler resiatance to viral infection, ahich deatroys a signilicnat part of the harvest. At the laborstory level methods of saaitation ead clone reproduction aere dweloped for 200 plant species. This is also important for e fundameatal scce:.eration oP the de- velopment of nev vari~ties~ that is, 2 instead of 11 or 12 years. Economic 8 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 F'C)It o1~NtCTAI. U5~ UNLY proftte~bility ~l~d iticre~~e~ reveral time~. Hybridixatian of somatic ce11e ; m~k~~ it pogsible Lo overcom~ th~ bc~rrier of incompatibility in the eex procee~ and tn develop p1~nt formg 1ackln~: in nature. The report by A. M~ Kuzin, corre~ponding member of th~ US5Fi Acaden~y of 3ci- ~nc~g, ~.~as devot~d to radt~tion method~ in agricultural productlon. Numer- oue Wsys of utilizing io.~izing radi~?tion in ~h~ practSc~ of agricultur~ were propo8pd on th~ b~n~o of fundemental r~gearch in ~h~ fiela of radiobiology. The author exemin~~ the pregent gtate oP the problem at subntantiating the gpmiproduction r~d production check of the proposed methodg. It is con- cluded the~t economically adve,ntageoue, new radiobiological technique~ noW ~ appe~r. Their wide introduction into ~ricultural production requireg deci- _ sions at ~ sta~e level on the development of speciallzed equipment, tr~in- ~ ing of service persnnnel ~nd gen~ra3. xork organization ~mder production conditione. (}rain forms the baais for the productivity of gnimQls, but it i~ not econ- omical ta use it xithout enrichment with lgeking nutrients. This ti+ae gtQted by V. N. Bukin, corresponding member of t2~e tiSSR Acederqy of Sciences, in hie report "Amino ACids, Vitamins and the Prodi~etivity of Animals." It ie rec- ommended that the ground gr~in envis~ged for foc~der ie ~ub~ected to extrueion, Which m~kes it more nutritive and cloge in pr.otein value to s~ybeen oil meal. It is no leas importent to enrich grain uith protein additivee and ecarce ar- - mino acids. The production of the latter muat be increased. Nor does the profitability of a regulQr use of vitamins in the feeding of farin animals evoke eny doubt, for ~+hich the need of livestock breeding for them ehould be met fully. The leat report heard at the session Kas by Ce~ndide.Le oP Biological Sciencee V. K. Yeroshin (Institute of P2~ysiology and Biochemistry of Microorgenisms of the USSR A~ade~y of Sciences) "Nex Sou:-;:es of Obtainiag Microbiological Protein." The general meeting of the Department of Biochemietry, Biophysics and Che~- istry of PY~yrsiologically Active Compounds oP the U53R Acadea~y of 3cieneea - exemined e~d approved the proposals on long-term scientiPic trenda connected with an :nc:~ease in agricultural production, Which are to be developed in the institutes of this department. COPYRIGHT: Tzdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Tzvestiya AN SSSR, seriya biologichee- kaya", 1979 - 11,439 CsO: 1870 9 FOR OFPICIAL t~SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 h, ~Olt d~FtCIAL US~ dNLY A(iROT~CHNOLOQY (3R~A~R ~ONTRIBIJTION AF 3CIENCE TO A(IRTCU~ URaF~ Mosco~+ IZVESTIYA AKAD~MII NAUK SSSR-$ERIYA B~OY.O4tC~SKAYA it~ Aueeiatu No 3~ ~ i9't9 pp 473-474 ~,Report on genere~l meeting of the USSR Aced~r of 8cienee~ by 8am~onov, 8. K.: "Qener~l. Meeting of the U38R Acade~r of Sciencee 'Science for Agricui- ture'"% LTexJ The aeBeion of the genersl meeting oP the USSR Acsdemy of 8ciences heid in Moacox on 6-7 December 1978 xae devoted to an increase in the role of ecience in the PulPillment of the tasks Pecing egriculture. Opening tbe firet meeting, ~cadesnicisri A. P. Alekssudrov, preaident of the USSR Acad~? of 3ciences, dePined the baeic tesk of the seeeion in the elabo- ration of an overall progrem for the Qevelopment oP ~+ork for the aeeds of ag- riculture. It ~rill heve to be fulfilled by the ~oint ePforts oP the ecien- tists of the USSR Acade~r of Scienc s, VA3KhNIL ~All-Union Academ~y of Agri- cultursl 8ciences imeni V. I. Leni~ dnd sectorial institutes. ~ USSR Minister of Agriculture V. K. Mesyats presented the report "Urgent Taske in USSR Agriculture at the Preswt Stage." Having flescribed tbe significsat advances of socie~lis~ sgricultur~ made as e~ result of the implement~?tion of the sgrarisa policy of the CPSU developed by the blasrch (1965) Plenum of the CPSU Central Cea~ittee, aubsequent plenume of the Central Co~nittee sad con- gresses of the Lenittist Party, the speaker aoted the significsat contribution of science to the cause of ~oYution of sgricultural problema. V. K. Mesyats discussed in detail s number of the most urgent problems, ia the overall solution of whicb the ective psrticipetion oP tbe scientiific in- stitutions of the U88R Acad~r of Saiencee and other departments is neceeeary. The protection of land aad of the natural resources of our environment ehould be in the center of attention of acientiete. A number of no ltss urgent prob- lems deserve the close atteation of agrariaa econamiats. Academiciea Yu. A. Qvchinnikov, vice-president o! tbe USSR Academyr of Sciencea, presented the report ~~Fundemental Sciences for Agriculture." Fulfilling the order of the Cemmuniet Party aad the Soviet State, tbe scieatific institutions of the USSR Acadeapr oP Sciences and of the ac~de~ies of sciences ot the Union 10 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 i~01t Ut~l~'?CIAI~ USL nNLY ~ ~ , r~publ3~~ ~etively eontributie td the prngr~~~a nf ugricult;ral prdductinn. Horr~v~r, a~ the npealt~r noted, the n~w tasks g~t far agricultur~ r~quir~ for their aolutian ~ more ~c~ive participatlnn of ncademic inntitutee. Yu. A. Ovehinnikov dr,elled on a numbe~ of e~peCin,ly import~nt prob~.em~, tn th~ ~olution oi' which the US5f~ Ac~det4y (jf ~C~@t1C~B can and nheuld make iti~ ~ig- nii'icant contributi~n, In conclueion he di~cunned the need for gh~rply in- - cr~~~ing the gttention ~f a~ad~mic in~titutions td gcientific and t~chni~nl progr~~s 1n ~griculture ~nd in connectiinn ~th thi~ i'or ~perifying the c?ub~ ~ert~ of' rese~rrh and the periods of it~ fulfil]ment gnd for ~trength~ning the b~ge c~f a11 the institutea partieipgting in thin. P. F~. Vavilov, pr~sident of VASKhNTL, aas giv~n th~ floor i'or th~ r~port ~'Taskg of Agricultural Sci~nc~ in th~ Light of the Ue~i~ic~ng af the July ~1978) Pl~num of the CpS'U Centr~l Committee." Da~lling in d~tail dn the most ~ignific~nt nchievementg of ~gri~ulturul science, the ~peak~r tourhed updn problemg ~ho~e elaboration especially rec~uire~ a fu11 inter~Ction gnd efficiently organi~ed cree?tive coaper~?Linn. mhe prep~ration of ~oint pre- grsms under the ~u~pic~s ~f interdepartmentgl eduncils ~nd commi~gians ~erves as ~n efficient method of organixing an interac~d~rnic interactian. In his ~oint report acadenician Ye. N. Mishu~tin, chairman of the Comtnisa~on on the Scientific Basis for Agriculture o� the presidiwn of Lhe U55A Academy of Scienceg, discuaged the clos~ connertion bets~een the ~he~nt.c~lization of e.griculture ~d incregse in the yield of cultiveted plants. The ~upply of nitrogen for agriculture, in ahich biology can pravid~ gi~n~ficant help to the chemicr,l industry, i~ especially important. Owing ta the biological fixation af the r~nl~rular nitrogen of the atmogpher~ by gymbiotlc microor- g~nism~ 1=ving in the plgnt root system, it ig tr~snsformed into the protein of the h~irest and, psrtially, into soil nitrogen. Pod-bea?ring crop,a, which under fevorable condiLions fix a great deal of molecular nitrogen, are used - on ~n especielly ~+ide scale for thi~ purpose. According to the av~ilgble x data, pod-be~ring plants fix 3 nillion toas of nitrogen, of which more than one-half are uscd by the folloaing crops. A totul of li ta ~0 kg of nitrogen per hectare are annually gs~imilated by free-living microorgani~ms. In the coutitry this totgls up to 4.5 million tong, uhich r~re algo transformed into organic nitrogen. 7'hus, biologicgl nitrogen con be very effectively uaed for the purpoee of increasing soil fertility. In his ~oint report acgdemician 5. I. Yol'fkovirh seid that Lhe further de- velopment of chemicalization of agricu~ture required significant retionali- r.ation in the extraction c+f natural rgW material resources ~snd in the pro- duction and consur~ption af mileral fertilizers. He also noted the urgent - need for the develoFaent of aork on hydroponicg an3 hothouse fecilities-- the dis~inctive "virgin lend" whose development is pnssible aad advisable in desert and aountain regions and '.~eyond the po1Qr circle, where, for a11 practic~_? purposes, ~rdinar;~ fanatng is absent. 'Phe s~^ientific theoreLical - base for chemical plant protection needs a significant improvement. This ~ group of int�Astigations requires an imrnedinte expansion and intensification. ~ ~t h 11 ~'o~ o~~tctat. US~ O;ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 1~Utt Ot~'i'1CIAL USL ONLY - Th~ ~uinb report by a. K~ Skry~bin, correoponding member of the USSR Acad- emy of 8~ienc~s, was devoted to the mlcrobiologicg]. b~~is for obt~ining protein and pt~yaiologic~lly active subatgnces fnr the needs of ~1vp~tock br~~~tng, The first lerg~~capaeity production of Pod6er yeast bneed on norm~l alkane~ ieolat~d from petroleum in the `rorld wae eete~bliehed in the ~ovi~t Union. tiundredg of thoueand~ of tone of fodder protein nre now pro- duced. ChemicQl t~ydroly~et~~ of timber ancl ~ther cellulose cont~ining m~- L~ria~s serve as the ~econd typ~ of raw materia].s, which ~re aleo ueNd for the production of fodder yeast. The deve].opment of lgrg~-capacity produc- tion on thig b~sig ig hemper~d by the lgak of techn3ques for a continuoua ch~mic~1 hydrolygig of timber. The dev~lopment of the process of enzymetic: t~ydrolysis of c~lluloa~ containing mat~rlal~ has beccnne the mos~ important t~sk of g~ientigts~ - Ethy1 gnd mett~yl ~lcohola ~re exc~llent ~ubgtrates for yeagt growing. Yea~t groan dn ~th~nol ig the mo~t nutritive and harmlees. Ethanol cun algo be con- ~id~red a substrate suit~ble for the production of protein contF.ining addi- tives for humgn food. Among other promising types of raa matpri~ls for the lr~rge-cEipacity produc- ti~n of microbiolog3c~1 protein the spea'r,er mentioned t~ydrogen snd methane. MeLhene oxidizing, tLydrogen and some other bacteria can prove to be even more effective than yea~t, bec~use these microorg~nisms contain an even grpater e~mount of pratein. Academicien P. N. Fedoseyev, vice-pr~sident of the USSR Acade~r of 3cicnces, glsa made e report. mhen the debate began. The next de~y of the session's xork opened vrith a report by acadeffiician A. Y. Sidoreako, vice-president oP the U3SR Acad~ay of 3ciences, "Earth Sciences for Agriculture." The speaker talked about the limitedness of le?nd resources guitable for farming and ebout the need fbr their efficient uee and protec- tion. The scientists of the USSFi Academy of 3ciences msde an important con- tribution to the eatebliehment of the rew material b~?se for the production of minera]. fertilizers. Overal ievestigationg connected With the problem of - transferring the rivers of the northern runoff to arid regions in the south nnd of the ~rays of more efficiently utili~ing the ~?vailgble xater for irri- getion sre no~+ conducted. A debaLe followed the report by academician A. V. Sidorenko, in which many of our country's leading scientiats participated. Yu. A. Izrsel', corresponding member of the USSR Acade~m~y oP Scienceg, dis- - cussed the direct dependence of the productivity of agriculture on the gtate of the natural enviroament an3 on the degree of its pollution. Th~ speech by academicie~n A. L. Kursenov sras devoted to the leading role of plgnt pt~ysiology--biological discipline closest to the problema oP practical plant gro~+ing--and to the 3mportance of the s+ork oP the Inatitute of Ple~nt Pt~ysiology of the USSR Acadesq~r of Sciences for an increese in the productivity of agriculLure. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~'01t c~[~1~IGIAI~ USL tlNLY ' Usir~g ~ ntunbpr of exampl~g, academici~n N. V. msitayn convincingly showed the wide poesibi].itieg of breeding ~nd genetic: science, which 3~ now c~pa- b1p o~ solving serious ~nd import~?nt tasks connected xith the trano#'otma- tion of the natur~ of plant~. Academici~n M. S. (}ilyc~rov diecuosed th~ ne~c' for a profound ~cologaphys- io~.og~cal inveat3gation of the peat ingecte of cultivatied pl~nt~, their ~ entomophages and other ins~cts used by u~eful entomopizage~ for their food and development. Academician A. A. Bayev noted the ratione~li~y of obtaining Yodder protein e~nd the necessary amino aclfle, vitamins end other biological etimulatora a~ a reault of the use of microorganisms. However, by means of genetiC en- gineering it is po~~ibl~ to dev~lop microorganisms--superproducera of the necess~ry compoundg through the coloniz~tion of the microbe ce11 with the appropriate g~ne~. No l~ss wide a field of application of the methols of genetic engineering can be ir the .~rea of biological fixation of nitrogen. Work on the develepment of symbic;ic b~cteria with pras~es, sunflowers and - other cultivated plants not having their own bacteria--nitrogen suppliera-- has alreQdy begun. Genetic research st the level of cells--hydrolization of unrelated cella overcoming barriers created by nature for the prevention of the fusion oP species--oper~ up new prospects. It becomea poeaible to create e vast world of n~W orgeniams, which ui11 became the exclusive creation of man. The other speeches Were also very interesting and meaningful. After the concluding speech by academician A. P. Alekeandrov, president oP the USSR Acadeiqy oP Sciences, the floor was given to academician Yu. A. Ov- chinnikov for a report on the draft resolution. The se~sion of the general meeting of the USSR Academy of Sciences ended with the adoption oP an appeal to acientists and a].l workers of the U3SR Acade~y of Sciences, academies of sciencea of the Union republics, higher schoole, scientific institutions, ministries and departments. It contains e call to more cloaely connect their work with the solution of acientiPic and technical problems connected ~rith the developa~ent of agriculture. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauke", "Izvestiya AN SSSR, seriys biologiches- kaya", 1979 11,439 cso: i87o 13 FOtt OFPICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ = t FOR nFFICIAL US~ ONLY AGROTECHNOLOGY A CONSTANT VOLUME ME1'tiOD FOR THE OPE1tATI0N OF REMOTE CONTROLLED CANALS Moecow DOKLADY V3ESOYUZNOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH NAUK imeni V.I. LENINA in Russian No 10, 1978,pp 40-41 ,~Article by V.S. Prokop'yev, Rastovakaya Ob1asC Administration of Land Development and WaCer Management/ ,~Text/ One of the main problems in automating and inCroducing remote control to water diatribution in irrigation canals ~.s the selecCion of a regulation method. Technical improvement of irrigation ayateme and the introducti.on of inethode for automatic and remote control have enabled expaneion of the known classical meChods for automating water diatribution (1). The uae o~ a particular echeme ia determined by the deaire to achieve a certain effect through its introduction. The propoaed "constant volume scheme can be realized in remote controlled canals, ~!.e. in the case of centralized regulation of the syatems. In thie acheme water diatribution is regulated by maintaining a conatant volume of water between two partitioning atructures in all modes of canal operation. Thia meane that the algebraic sum of the water flowa entering the canal and - - exiting from it must be equal to zero. Thus, a change of water flow at any structure must lead to manipulation of the upstream partitioning structurea _ up to the head structure incluaively. Lines of the free water surface for regulation by thia method are ahown in figure 1. The diatance between the partitioning structures and the alope of the canal bottom in thio case must control the water levels--in the upper � part given a minimal flow rate and in the lower part when the flow rate is maximal. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 roit n~'t~'ICIAL USL ONLY ~ ~igure 1~ Lines of the free waCer gur,~facn for regulation by the "coneCant vol wne" method ~ 2 ~9 4~' 1-- given Qmax' 2 when Q�0 3-- when 0 Q Qmax' 4 water ouClet ~ ~~711T17 5 partitioning atructure Since the flow at the partitioning atructures dependa on the total flaw of under water and the water level in the canal changes, the flow et Che water outlets also changee. In this consiata all the complexity of regulation by the "constant volume" meChod. - The diacuased method is theoretically aound for use on the upper water of the Proletarskiy branch of the Donskoy main canal in Rostovskaya Oblast. Transient operation in the upper water of Chis canal was evaluated by the method of E. E. Makovskiy (3). In conforman~e with this method the change - of gate opening at the head and partitioning structures was taken as the regulating action. The dependence of the change of relative stead-state flow rate q at a structure on the relative gate opening a is shown in figure 2. ' 4 � . . ~ . ~ - Figure 2. The function q=f(a) - ~ 4 , The scheme of regulation by the "constant volume" method for a canal section is the following: determination of the change of total required upper water flow- determination of the required change of low at the partitioning structure- determination of the required change of the gate opening at the partitioning structure (figure 2)- simultaneous change of the gate opening at the partitioning - and regulated water outlet structure. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 1~OR OF'~ICIAL U5L ONLY The characCeristic change of flow raCe~ ae Che water outlets as a result of Che Cranaient procesa ig shown in figure 3, where the sign of the deviation - is different for the weter ouCleCe of the firet and eecond halves of the canal section. Figure 3. The change of relaCive flow rate at the water outlets (percent b) - during the eransient procese 'N ie the lag time. t If the value of the determined flow rate change is within permiasible limits, then the ~rocesa is accompliahed by changing the gate opening on the atructures. Otherwise iC is necessary to periodically correct the flow. at the structures. As calculations show, for the ma~ority of water outlets of the upper waters ' of the Proletarskiy canal the values of flow deviation are within a 5 percenC zone for a wide range of regulatory action (up to 5.0 m3/s), and correction is not required in this case. In addition, to prevent overflowing of the canal it is necessary to check the dry margin of the partitioning structures on the upper waters when Chere - is no discharge. - Use of the discussed method for remote control of water distribution enablea ~ a reduction of forced technological water discharge. It is important to note that when water is taken from open sourcea or when an older canal is operate3 by the "constant volume" system the described method allowa the distribution of water "according to demand", that is each consumer can at any time begin Co draw water from the canal and at any time refuse it. BIBLIOGRAPHY ~ 1. Bochkarev, Y. V. et al., "Osnovy avtomatiki i avtomatizatsii proizvodat- vennykh protsessov v gidromelioratsii" /The Basis of Automatics and Automation of Production Processes in Hydromelioration/, Moscow, Kolos, 1969. 2. Kovalenko, P. I. and L. M. I1'ina, GIDROTEI~iNIKA I MELIORATSIRA, No 4, 1975. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ox o~ricr~., us~ nrn.Y 3. Makove~Ciy, in "AvComatizateiya ob'ektuv irrigaraionnykh ~istem" ,~Autqmgtion of the UniCs of Irriggtion 5ystema/, Frunze, Ilim, 1964. COPYRIGHT: Izda~el'sCvo "Kolos", "Doklady VASKhNIL", 1978 l~ Ir 9342 CSO: 187U 17 FCd OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ' + FOR OFFSCIAL U5~ ONLY - AGROTECHNOLOGY UDC 664.727:632.954 THE BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GRAIN CULTIVATEA WITH THE USE OF EIERBICIDES Moacow DOKLADY VSESOYUZNOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL~SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH NAUK imeni V. I. LENINA in Russian No 10, 1978, pp 20-22 lArticle by Candidate of Biological Sciences L. G. Gruzdev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences M. S. Rackin and Candidate of Medical Science A. V. Fomin/ jText/ It was shown previou~ly that many herbicides to some extent change the chemical composiCion of plants and the individual indicatora of crop quality (1-3, 5). Continuing work in this direction we studied certain indicator~a of the biological value of oat variety Chernigovskiy 83 when cultivated with the use of herbicides 2, 4-D, dialen, diamet-D and diamet-D with chloramp. In field experiments at Che Zhitomirakiy Agricultural _ Experimental Station a crop was sprayed with herbicides in the doaes liated in the table with a 400 1/ha rate of liquid discharge. The standard methods for analyzing plant amino acids were used (4). Residual herbicides were detected by gas chromatography with a sensitivity - of 0.1 mg/kg for 2,4-D and 0.05 mg/kg for dianat. The biological value of the grain was studied by feeding it (without restriction) to white rats ~�or 4 weeks. In addition the edibility of the feed, the re~.ative masses of the animals' organs and the fat content of the liver were studied. The results of the studies showed that the applied herbicidea did not _ significantly affect the wet and.dry mass of oats gathered or their appearance. Only plants receiving the maximum (experimental) dose (1.8 kg/ha) of dialen were inhibited; their mass was reduced by 20 percent in 7 days and by 50 percent after 60 days in comparison with the control. All the applied herbicidea considerably decreased the weediness of the oat crops (table 1), and as a res~lt the yield increased. 18 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 T~'OI' OI~rICTN~ USC ONI.~Y ~ ~ 'Tnble 1. '1'he effecr of herbicides on weediness and ottr yield (1 month afCer Creatment) ~ 3 ~C~~~~ ~ %~iicKOn ponaj c~u ~ ~ YpoHCnll ~cpiu ~2) ~ sa HaNr Aose n roN aNene 9 ~ 10~ (11 ~ p (Kr/ra p~ b.) .r f~ 1 ) 8NN a % N KOHT� ' ocero ~yncr i~ n6�~y~ (u/ro) c1KOi~rpo� pona HWQ K~~4�A K~d,.A ncr tu/n) ~ 2 Kot~T on~'(wr/w~) 82 21 36, 1 100 ~ 2,4�~ 0,9 63 ~JO fi0 3~,4 -1,7 98 ~ ,qH~NCr�A 0,9 77 90 68 ~O,B /,7 113 - - s 1,4 83 100 B4 ~O,R ~�4,1 lll j~J.(NeneH 0,7 9a 100 93 3tl,4 4,7 IOg s 0,9~ 93 100 93 36,4 --0 8 98 � 1,8 100 100 Iu0 4~,G - 1~1 6 66 ueMer�,~~-xnopoNn 0,9 7~ 88 7G 37,7 -~-I,~ 101 (16 ~t CPe~ (u/ra) ' ~ Key: 1. Vari.ation 9. Total (c/ha) ~ 2. Dose (kg/ha) 10. Difference from the conerol (c/ha) 3. Reduction of weediness 11. Percent relative Co the control (percent of cuntrol) 12. Control ~ 4. Grain yield 13. 2,4-D 5. Total 14. Diamet-D 6. Of those 15. Dialen 7. Sensitive to 2,4-D 16. Diamet-D + chloramp 8. Resistant to 2,4-D Analysis of the residual amount of herbicides in the vege~ational mass of , the plants showed that th~ amine s~lt 2,4-D was completely decomposed in them 30-35 days after treatment (table 2). Dialen in does of 0.7 and 0.9 kg/ha was not detected after 40-60 days and in i doae o� 1.8 kg/ha was present in trace amounts ~t the en~3 of the vegetational period. Residuea - of these herbicides applied in dosE:s of .7 and .9 kg/ha were not detected _ in tr,e grain. Table 2. Residual amounts of herbicides in oat plants (mg/kg dry weight) ! ( 21 ~ 3~ Aee or6ope psctr~~3~R nocne nneceiiHw rep6~~uxAoe ' ~ 1 1.. 1 ~ B~yuaxt Ltosa (Kr/ra A. 0.) � ~ I 7 I 14 I 21 I 30 ( 80 TS ~ Z.4�A 0,9 l40 29 7 5,5 cneAu I 0~ 0 ~S~Ae~nex 0,7 90-~-7,5 26-}-3 9-}-0,7 4-}-0,5 ene~ 0 0 s 0,9 . 100-h12 32-}-7 12-~-2.0 5-}-0,6 1,5-F0,2 0,6~-0,1 0 s 1,8 220-~-25 I30-}-I6 37-I-9,0 13-{-6,0 7-4-1,4 1,5-~-0,06 cnepb Note the first figure is for 2,4-D, the second is for dianat. Key: 1. Variation 4. 2, ~~-D 2. Dose (kg/ha) 5. Dialen , 3. Days after herbicide application of plant sampling x9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 l~'OIt OI~I~ICIAL US~ dNLY The use o� herbicides led to significant changes in the nmino acid compo~iCion of the vegetational mass of Che o~t planCa. This ~specially pertains to - amides, aeparaginic, glutamic und b'-aminobueyric acids and alanine in n free ataCe. As th~ residual amounts of herbicides in the p1anC vegetgCional maes decreased, the amino acide compoaition of the vegetaCional mass b~ceme almo~t _ idenCical eo ehe controL. AC the same Cime changes in Che amino acid compo- sition of proteina increased, renching a peak at the middle nf Che vegetational period and, eowards the end of iC, becoming equal with ehe cnntrol~ This pro~ably indicates that the variations recnrded l~e within Che limits of normal plant meCabolic reations under changing growth conditiong. The chang~ of the amino acid composition of the oat vegetationaa. mase is ehown in Che f igure. Changes of the amino acid composition of oat planta after ehe application of herbtcides . , y~ ' ~A)'~'~"~"0 � 1 free amino acides _ 2~ 2-- protein amino acids ~ ' , 1So . Z � _ , 1 ~ !4 11 30 ' ~ ( ,QNU ncrne M~~om,ru ~ . Key: A. Control B. Days after treatment We did not detect significant differences in the amino acid composition of the grain~ This agrees with data obtained previously (1, 5). Biological studies with rats showed that the animals which received control and experimental samples (the herbicide dose was 0.9 kg/ha) did not signifi- cantly differ in live weight at Che end of the four week observation period - (table 3). The negligible inhibition of growth in the animals which received grain cultivated with dialen and diamet-D is associated with a decreased edibility of these grain types. Thus, the amount of control grain consumed by rats during the 4 week period was 2006 g, and the amount of grain cultivated with the application of ialen, diamet-D and diamet-D with chloramp was 1926, 1924 and 1928 g respectively. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~~dtt d~irtcrn~, us~: oNt.Y Tabl~ mh~ wpi~ht nf ~nimala whi~h received gr~in Cultivated wieh ~he - u~~ nf h~rbieid~~ Mrm) ' --~_~_-(2~-nndr t~?~~: d~~~ dg~ s a N 1 li KU M! NN ~ ~~nM~Mt 3 ~ R NtAUq` M~CCa I r npn~ M~V~~O !l~t~NN~ k~fN 4 M0~ Irl {10Ct~ (P) ~O Kodrnonr ~ae,o~s,s ~~e~q~e,~ isn~l~s,6 iz~,~ at,t ey~s 12 j(M~AlH 17U~'J~b~l 1~tl~6f6~9 IG0,7�0,1 119~/ Z/~9 ~e~;l Ar~wer�,tl 126,0~6,1 116,1�4,/ Ib3,033,0 119,b 16,0 i9,9 j~M~Mtt~J~+xnopoNn IY7,9t6,9 iaa,s~r,4 IG7,8ta,U t41,6 ~9,7 61,9 K~y: 1. Vgriation 7. Mrigs inCrege~ (g) 2. ExperimenC 8. F'eed per 1 g of grnwth (g) 3. Beginning 9. Cnntrol 4. Middle 10. Dialen 5. ~nd 11. Ciamet-b 6. Mass relative to initial 12. Uiamet-U + chloram~ maes (percent) ~ The ma~g ratioe nf the l~ver, hearC and testicles for unimals of all the groups did not differ aignificantly (table 4). The relative maBS of the kidneys differed somewhat from the control only in the group of animnle which received grain cultivated with dialen. A small inr.rease of thc spleen masg ratioa in animals which rec~ived grain cultivated with herbicidee wae probably not significant. 'Table 4. Mas~ ratios of the animal organs . nSD~~qt ' n~2~~ n~~~ ' I c~~,~~ c~~S~NK. c~~~6~. . KoMTponb 3,98t0.46 0,61~0,02 0,31t0,01 O,~t�0,05 1.Obt0.09 M~neb 3,92�0,29 0,T4�0,0~ 0,3Sf0,01 0,58�0,t~~ 1~09+.0.10 ~ M~Mtt�J~ 3~79~0.33 0~69~!0~01 0~35�0.01 0,40~O~OM 0.l9t0,07 ` r~Net�11~znop~wn ' 3,7~~U.16 0,70~0,04 0,31�0,01 O,~/iU,06 1,1lt0~t0 Key: 1. Variation 6. Testicles 2. Liver 7. Control 3. Kidneys S. Dialen 4. Heart 9. Diamet-D 5. Spleen 10. Diamet-D chloramp 21 FOR O.~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~nk d~~ict~, us~ nc~Y Th~ nm~une nf livpr f~r in the gnim~le ag~ d~t~rmin~d by ~xCracCi~n fram gn gnhydrnu~ gugpen~ion. ~t wga found eo be 10.0 p~rc~nt in Che aontrol nnim~i~, ~nd in rh~ r~tg whieh renpivpd grain cultiv~ted witih dial~n~ di~t-D gnd diam~e-U ~rieh Ghlnr~mp it w~~ 9.4, 6.7 ~n8 7.5 p~rcenp re~pectively. Thug, use of the herbi~id~a di~len en~ diasa.~e-b in the recommended dog~a on o~t crop~ gub~egnti~lly ~ffect~ th~ gmino ~cid compoeition of the plente in th~ v~g~egtinnal p~rind, b~t aitihin th~ limiee of normg~ metabolie re~ctinn, which ~onfirme rhe production df g ernp wtth an unch~nged chemical ~ompo~ition ~nd withdut r~eidual amauntg of the prepar~Cione used. AC the ~nm~ tim~ gome r~du~tion nf Ch~ edibility by white rate of grain cultiveCed with h~rbiridee ig obeerv~d. Thig may be relaCed to thp pre~ence of some _ m~t~bolit@g di th~ herbicidee which imperceptibly deteriorate individual orgenoleptic indicator~. BIBLIOGItAPHY 1. Gruxd~v, L. G. ~t al.~ UOKLADY VASKhNIL. No 12, 1975. 2. Gruzdev, L. G. et al.~ IZV~5TIYA TSKhA~ No 4, 1976. 3. Gru~dev, L. G. ~t al.~ IZVESTIYA T5KhA, No 6~ 1976. 4. Pleshkov, B. P., Practikum po biokhimii raeteniy" LPractical Work in Plant Biochemistryf, Moecow, Kolos, 1976. 5. Raekin~ M. S. et al., 1CHIMIYA V SEL'SKOM KNOZYATSTVE~ No 11, 1973. COPYRIGHT: Ixdatel'stvo "Kolos", "Doklady VASKhNIL", 1978 9342 CSO: 1870 ~ 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 - , r01t U1~~iGiAL U5~: dNLY AGROT~CHNOLOGY , UUC 633. ~.1"321" (470~ 40/.43) '1'NE gE5T SHORT-STEMrIEn 5PItING WHEA'~S 0~' TH~ WORLD COLT,EC'~ION 0~ TEIE ALL-UNION SCIENTI~IC it~S~ARCH INSTITU'T~ OF pLAN:' GAOWING ANb TH~ PROSP~CT5 ~OIt TNLIR . INTRODUCTION IN THE IRItICATED LANb5 ALONG TH~ MIUUL~ VOLGA Moscow DOKLADY VS~SUYUZNOY ordeng LENINA AKAD~MII S~I.'SKOKHOZYAYS~V~NNYKH NAUK imeni V. Y. L~NINA in ituesian No lb~ 1978 pp 9-11 - LArCicle by Candidate of Agricultural Sciences A. M. Medvede_v/ - lrext/ For the production of high yi~ld~, of goft wheati itt irrigated areas or in regions with sufficient precipitation it i~ nece~sgry to have standing, intengive varieties with a potential productivity of 60-70 c/ha high quality grain. During 12 years at the Kinel'skiy aupport point of the Kuybyahev8kaya Oblaet _ All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant GrowinE we studied over 15 thousand types of spring wheat from 80 countries of the world under ~rrigated and non-irrigated conditiona. In summary it can be concluded that varietiea with sufficiently long stems possesaing high reaistance to drought and increased air temperatures can be cultivate~ in large tracts along the Middle Volga without the uae of irrigatio~. We found a poaitive correlation between the stem height, drought resiatance and producCivity of the wheat. Under conditions of irrigation the greatest yiel~s (45-50 c/ha) during 1967-1977 were obtained when the best short--stemmed varieties were cultivated. Long-stemmed varieties produced grain yields u; to 40 ~/ha. However, among the short-atemmed wheats there are also varieties which gave low yielda. Good sources of stock for creating varieties for use in irrigated fielda are the short-stemmed, brown rust resistant, high quality wheats Nadadorea 63, Nainari 60, Tobari 66, Norteno 67 and the complex hybrids with intro- duction numbers 321552, 321676, 321890, 309552 and 309944 from Mexico; hybrid 8156 (R) from the USA.; the Peruvian complex hyorids with introduction numbera 309970, 309971, 309944, 309975 and 309983; the Chilean hybrids with catalog numbers 46490, 46520, 46522 and 46523; the Indian hy~rids Kalyan Sona, Sharbati Sonora and Sona 227; and Rode (1:-45020) from Kenya. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 '~,l . ~OEi d~~ICIAL U5~ nNLY 3pv~rel nf th~~e v~ri~eiea--Son~ 227, Kaly~?n 9dn~ ~nd 'Tob~ri 66--tr~n~mie eh~ir fevor~?bl~ charec~~rigei~~ when aro~~pd with Volg~ vs~ri~Ci~~~ ~or ~x~mplp, ah~n SarBtov~kay~ 36 wae cro~~~d wieh Sona 227 a~ obe~in~d a number of iin~~ vi~h high r~~i~tane~ to blight~ gnd iodging and aieh suffici~nr , ~dap~~blen~~~ to iocal pegt fl~r~ ~nd to increa~ed tempereturee. Highly pr~ductiv~ Cype~ of goft ~pring wt,~~t were d~veloped at th~ Kyuby~hevakiy Sci~ntifie Re~earch in~titute of Agriculttirp~ the Kine'18kiy State Plant Breeding 3tatidn ~nd other ingtitutiong (S~merekiy, Kutulukekiy, Kom~omolka ~nd B~zenchukskiy 140) by br~eding wieh th~ ghort-st~d veri~ti~~ from Mexico, th~ United Stat~~ and ie~dia. , On the b~~is of our ~xperim~nr~ w~ c~me to the conclueion tha~ in irrigeted fielda with gufficient eppiic~tion of fereiliz~rs a short-stemmed aheat ehould be u~~d, but with 1ong~r et~m~ in th~ r~nge of 75-90 cm. A further decrea~~ of the height, for vgrioue rea~o~?s~ cau~~~ reduced productivity. On the orh~r hgnd, tall ateme (over 100 cm) do not provide regietanc~ to lodging, which also r~ducee the yield aad qnality. In the opinion of V. A. Kumakova (1) under condition~ of irrigatioa an early ripening epring wheat of the "green broilerg" type ehould be cultiveted so that the land can be used for multiple crdp~. This i~ quite true. Never- ' , theleas, our obeervations show that the higheat wheat yields are obtained when a short-stemmed variety of the midseason maturing type ie used. In this reapect the Mexican variety Siente Cerroa 66 and the Indian Kelyan Sone are examples. They ere cloae to Saratovskeya 36 in vegetational period length. A significant ehoxtening of the vegetational period cannot help but affect plant productivity (2). The unfavorable characteristics of many ahort-etemmed varietiea from the world collection of. the All-Union Scientific Reeearch Institute of Plant Growing are a weak survival rate and insufficient reaiatance to adverse environmental factora: aerial, drought. sharp temperature changea, hot weather, diseasea and peats. They are particularlq sensitive to Swedish, Hessian and spring flies and also to gra~n sawflies. i~e noted a positive correlation between stem diameter and the damage to wheat by grain sawflies. The Canadian tall-stemmed soft wheats S10 8 B3 a~ S10 b B3? which are resistant to lodging because of their larger atem diameter, during a number of years were up to 50 percent damaged by these insects. � The advantage of regional types of Saratovakaya breeding is a high resistance to intracaulescent pests and grain saafliea. This places them among the most valuable varietiea for breeding. - Undoubtedly, short-stemmed varieties which are resistant to pests and other adverse envirornnental conditions can be created by drawing local varieties into interbreeding. On the other hand, it is unthinkable to breed blight = and lodging resistant typea without utilizing resistant varieties from other countries. 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 H`Utt ht~'filCtAt, US1. ONLY A~cdreling td our abgervhtiong the r~tio df gr~in ma~g td gtr~w in~~~ ~c~r ~hnre=~t~emmed ~he~t~ is 1:1 or eVeri 1:U~g. '~hi~ binld~ic~1 chi~r~~teri~tic ghduld b~ ~nngidered when grawing ~imilar v~ri~ti~~. Whiie in t~r11-gepmm~d ~?heat~ th~ m~ximum cdn~umpt~ian of mdi~tur~ ~nc1 nutritive ~ub~e~nre~ ~r~d eh~ m~ximum accucnul.r~tintt of ~Icy ~u6~t~nee dCrur~ in the p~ridd df ~t~m exeenginn (th~ heading ~t~ge), in ghc~rt-gremmpd v~tieitee ehig m~ximum "tnov~~" intc~ tti~e ppriod of ~rain Eormatiott. ~~er a~l~ore period of ~ime ~feer ~lnwpr= _ ing ~1d-1~ dgy~) ghntt-,~temmec~ plnnts during gr~in form~tion c~ceumulne~ ~1rod~~ ~g murh dry gub~tdnC~ ~g durtng ~11 ~f the previdug v~eget~tidn~l p~ridd. 'Thig i~ ~dnfirmed by d~t~ we obt~~ned during 1~72-1g74 in study o~ the phoCugynthetir ~~tivity of tn11 and ~hort-geemmed varieites (~igur~~ 1~nd - `~~kin~ inta ~ccnunt the aimil~r chgrg~t~rigriC dE shnrt-geemmed whe~e~ it i~ p~g~ibl~ ed ~ignificnntly ir-reag~ (by 25-~U per~ent) their produ~tivity by ~pplying min~r~1 f~r~ilixer~ (NbUPb0~60~ ~ttrdugh th~ grdin forn tidn pprind in ~ombitt~ticn with irrig~tion. ~igure 1. n~i1y grnwth ~f the dry m~gg nf ~pring whe~t during vegetgCinn: A-- 1972, B 1973 ~P t ~ ~ � a ZEd y d ~ r ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ , ` ~a' ~ z ~o ~ n~o ~ aI~ J ~ , ~ ( C) ~ ~ il 6 i~o s ~ iav ~ s rm ~ a ~ ~ ~Y,r,\ ~ ~ ~ , ` _ . ~ ~D � ~~v ~ ~ ~~,~~~i~~ a ~ j ~ ~0 ~ ' ~ \ ~o C " lL~ tEJ lr'1~~ l-J l~1 utr~ Tall-stemmed Sargtovgkaya 36: 1-- control, unirrigated land; 2-- N120p120K120~ _ unirriggted land; 3-- contro', irrigation; 4-- N120P120K120? irrigation. 5hort-stemmed SieCe Cerros 66: 5-- control, unirrigated land; 6-- N120p120K120~ unirrigated land; 7-- control, irrigation; 8-- N1~Op120K120+ irrigation. Key: C. Growth of the dry biomass (kg/ha per day) D. May E. June F. July Usually, when long-stemmed are groWn fertilizr.tion and irrigation in the late vegetational period causes extensive lodging of the crops. With short-stemmed wheats this phenonmenon is almost eliminated, and fertilization 2~ FOR OFFICiAL U5E nNLy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~q~t U~~ICIAL U5L ONLY ~~u~~~ ~ Cdn~id~r~bl~ in~r~g~e ~f eh~ m~~g nf 1000 grain~ ~nd ehe ~urvivei r~e~ of eh~ pi~ne~. A~ ~ r~~u1t rhe yi~1d ia eignificgnCly incr~ae~d (~e~ t~b1~). in our opieion thi~ bidlogical Ch~racteri~tie af ~hoti~~~eammed wh~at~ ehould b~ con~ider~d wh~n ~vaiu~ting br~pdin~ ~tock. ~igure 2. D~ily growth of eh~ dry mas~ of eprieg hard wh~et durieg vegetaCion in 1973: A-- USMP~-13, Kh~r'kovskeya 46 , ~ ~ JAD 6 ! ' :av e ~t r t 2 ~ ~ . ~ e # e ~ e s ' s . ~ / !0D 4 i . ~ . 4 ~qf ~ ~ $ ~ J ? ~ ~ ~ , ~p ~j � Z /aD t ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~,.~av -J ~ ,av ~ ~ if o� ~ ~ ~ i ~o ~ . ~ ~ m ro ~"S Y~~ (E 1'~' Ya~~ . Unirrigated land: 1-- control, 2-- N~,OP60K60~ 3'- N120p120K120� 4-- N180P180K180~ irrigation: 5-- control, 6-- N60p60R60~ N120p120K120~ - 8 N180p180K180 Key: C. Growth of the dry biomass (kg/ha per day) D. Seedlings E. May F. June G. July In Kuybyshevakaya Oblast each year spring wheat is grown with irrigation on an area of S thouaand hectares. Evidently, with the uae of herbicides, fertilizers and correaponding agricultural practicea including increased seeding it is poasible to harvest no leas than 40-45 c/ha af grain on this area rather than the 22-25 c/ha presently obtained ~ith tall-stemmed varieties. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ( t~n[t dl~I~'ICIAL USI~. dNL'' Th~ ~ff~~C df ~plit ~pp1l~nCion df ~erCilixerg on Che yi~1d (c/hg) nf gpring whpgt und~r eondieion~ nf irrigatiun ,*lu~p~uKu� noA rny6oKy~u N~~~p-l~.Ku nnp ?cynbrNreuaw{- Z ftdlaflOCClHy10 ItyAbtN8A4N10 t 3' IV1~p11k� e noaNOpwKy ~ 1 ~Copr 19" op I 19~8 uA cp i o I 76 rnq I J~ roq cp e ( 7 ) MaruM nmeuHUa ~ Cap~toacKea 1~i ~0,6 ~ 47,9 49,4 94,~ ~0,7 34,b ~ Q KMNlAbCltAp 30 97,1 40,7 ~0,9 36,8 3~,8 ~8~~ p CMlte Ltebdoe g8 9~,8 48~3 40,1 ~0,9 66,7 1g,9 ~ To6~pN d6 3~9 /1,6 ' 40,~ /1,4 b8,~ 19~~ ~ ~ Z r'NpM~ nmenNy~ ' 3 X~pwcoec?co~ ~6 ~ 3i,7 J4,4 ~4,t 97,7 3~ S ~3',3 ~1j3 YCMfl�1~ 34,T ~O,b 90,8 40,6 I b0,8 ~6,6 1-4,71 - m ( t1-4,79 ~ , ' - -NCP ta/ra) t 1 ~ I S . , A,1~ ( 21-=1,04 - Key: 1. Variety 6. Average 2' N180p1~OK180under deep 7. Soft wheat presow ng cultivation S. SaraCovskaya 36 3. N120p120K120under cultivation 9. Kinel's~caya 30 +N60p6QK60in aupplimentary 10. Siente Cerros 66 fertilization 11. Tobari 66 4. 1915 12. Hard wheat = 5. 1916 13. Khar'kovskayn 46 _ 14. USMP-13 In Krasnodarakiy Kray, Volgogradskaya Oblast and Saratovskaya Oblast the foreign varietiea Siete Cerros 66, Kal;~an Sona and B. 1877 have been regionalized. With irrigation,and proper agricultural practicea they can produce grain yields of 40-45 c/ha. This has been shown by experiments of the Kuybyshevskiy Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture and the Volzhskiy Scientific Research Institute, by our studies and by industrial experiments of several kolkhozes and sovkhozes along the Volga. Presently nonregionalized foreign soft short-stemmed varieties with high adaptableness to local conditions can be used in certain zones to increase the yield of irrigated hectares. ~27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 j F0~ OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY BIBLIOGI2APHY n 1. Kumakov, V. A. in Voproey boCaniki Yugo-Vastoka" LProbleme of Botany - in the Southeaet~, Vo1 1, Saratov, 1~75. 2. Nich~.porovich~ A. A. in "Vazhneyehiye prineeipy fotoei~+:exa v raekeni- yevodstve" LThe Ma~or Principles of Photosynthesis in Plant Growing~T, Moecnw, 1970. COPYRIGHT: Yzdatel'aCvo "Koloe", "Doklady VASKhNIL", 1978 9342 CSO: 1870 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~OR OF'~"ICIAt, USC ONLY AGROTECHNOLOGY UDC 626,8:631.4 UTILIZATION OF A NUMERICAL MODEL F'OR PREDICTING 'TH~ EFFECT OF WATER-ENGINEERING RECLAMATION ON SOIL I~OISTURE Moscow DOKLADY VSESOYUZNOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTEVEIQNYKH NAUK imeni V. I. LENINA in Russian No 10, 1978 pp 17-19 ~ ,~ArCicle by Candidates of Biological Sciencea T. A. Romanav and G. A. pisetskiy and Candidates of Agricultural Sciencea T. N. Puchkareva and 2. A. Kapilevich, ~ Belorusaian Scientific Research Inaeitute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry/ ,~Text/ The scale of contemporary water-engineering land development requires the prediction of the effect of drainage on the complex nature of soila. The development of a numerical model for aimulating the change of soil moiature caused by drainage can aer~ve as a basis for auch prediction without requiring - expensive and difficult to organize experimente. Particularly important ia the prediction.o~ the effect of drainage on the ground water regime in European alluvial plaina, where soils with varying moisture contenta developed by loose soil-forming rocks form complex combinations (4). The effect of drainage in such combinations apreada over large distances and ia uaually difficult to predict. We constructed a mathematical model of soil combinations in the Beloruasian Poles'ye based on a representation of the functional relations between the _ moisture content in the upper layers of each soil type and the ground water level. - In developing the model we used the results of studies of the ground water regime (5) and the composition of the soil covering in the Poleasie (4) which led ~to the following concluaions. I. Soils with different moisture contents (gleyed beneath, temporarily excessively moistened, gleyey and gley) (2) are characterized by distinetive moisture regimes which can be expressed as an average over many yeara of the number of days per vegetational period (per year) during which the naisture content in the upper 20 cm layer exceeds the maximum field water c~pacity (I~WC). Soil iaoisture parameters for tk?e Beloruasian Poles'ye are presented in table 1. The relations between the moisCure contents and the periods 29 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 . .u^ , ~o~ or~Y~r~., us~ ornY wieh ehe various soil moi~tures are deacribed by equnCiona (1-3): ~i a29,8-}-1,812x-0,009z~? (1) t~ 3,93 0,385x~-~- 0,0023x~t , f~�d737,07bx-0,13x-359,218, ~ (3) where x ie the moiseure content in ehe 0-20 cm layer; e1, t2 and t3 are the _ number of days with moieture content in Che ran~ea: tl I~'F1C-MCD, ti2 FWC-MFWC, C3 MCD-I~1; F'WC is the full water capacity, 1~'WC ie Che ~ maximum field water capacity, MCD ie the moiseure of capillary disruption and MW is the moisture of wilting (3). II. There ia a functional relation between the moiature stored in the 0-20 cm layer and the depth (level) of ground waters (GWL) which was deCermined by simultaneaus measurement of Che moisture in soils with different moisture contenta and the GWL of each soil (figure 1). This empirical relation ia given approximately by the equaC3on: 86,344 1,994 ' y = - 4,87b x z~ ~ (4) where y is the Cotal moisture (mm) atored in the 0-20 cm layer and x ie the GW1~ (m) . Table l. Quantitative parameters of the moiature of sandy and eandy loam soils in Che Belorusaian Poles'ye (days) during the vegetational period (monChs IV-X) tlrcno AxeR c enaMCxoctba no~a e cnoe 0-20 cw ~ AN~nu~o~xa :~t ~ a . m a ' ~ ne�nnB nnB�BPK sPK�ss ~ ~ 3 ) E5 ~3 ) ~5) Gsenexs ysaarcxe� ~3~ ~4~ - xxA noae ~ ~ ~ . ( ) ronei no M~IKNOCTN ' I c ep I x a � ~ ~ `~~~~~p 9 Ib0 ZO 190 , 11~torop~xYe 100 100 - 60 Ib0 - 40 170 Orneexeae nHN~Y 60 1S0 ~'Z $P!MlHHO N~6Y70VH0 40 130 40 ~0 80 120 " ysn~MCx~ewe~e I60 ~ b0 b0 100 60 40 100 90 ]3 taeeeet~n IRO 80 l0 80 I10 40 1 Lj TAeewe ' Key: 1. Amount of soil moisture 8. Moderate 2. The number of days with the 9. Dry soil moisture of the 0-20 cm i~: Gle~ drbeneath layer in the range 12. Temporarily excesaively 3' � moistened 4. MFWC-MCD S. MCD-l~l 13. Gleyey 6. Years according to moisture 14. Gley 7. Wet 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON'.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~Oit OFFZCIAL US~ ONLY I Figur~ 1~ A generalizpd math~matical curve ehowing ehe rel~Cion betw~an moierure etored in the 0-20 cm layer and Che ground waeer level. in eo31s ! with different moietuxe contents , W, nn , ~ l20 - I BO ~ i ' 40 ~ ' ?f! -i I ' ; o i z a 4,s~r~n 1 Key: 1. GWL (m) ~ III. Typified soil combinations are natural systems (regularly organized groupa) in a state of relative equilibrium (for a given length of time) ' sustained by a certain GWL. Such a natural syatem can be described by a , functional mathematical modei (1). The causal relaCions of the system are shown in figure 2. The elementa of this syatem (soils) are more cloaely i related than neighboring systems (soil combinations). Correlation-regresaion ' analyais (6) ahowed a close correlation (r from 0177 to 0193) between the ~ water stored in soils with different moisture contenta (of the system elements) ~ which indicates a relation of the form y= ax + b, where a and b are con- stants characteristic for a combination of soils with different moisture , contents. Equations (1-4), which agree well with measuremants actually observed, for.m the basis of the matnematical model. The functional approach to organizing the model permitted a representatton of the dynamics of the component ; interactions and the system as a whole. The procesa of soil moisture change was examined with successive reductions of the GWL by 10 cm (steps in the ; level). The model was run on an IBM EC-1020 with the use of Fortran -IV. 1 ~ 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~OR OFFYCIAL US~ ONLY ~'igure 2. A diagzam of the causal relatione used in conetructing the functional model of enil combinatione Key: 1. Moisture stored in the unit (WF) 2. Moieture etored within Che eoil Jai .e~ tWnt~ f fA - Jr~~ t~g CWf , (1) 3. Moisture stored in each soil (W) , ~''~2, 4. Level of ground water in Qach ,~vaca+dvrr~ (wr~ soil (GWL) ~ ~~nM~~~'"~~ 3) ' 5. Time inaex of the moiature of eac:h soil (tltZti3) /~~o~'~`~ ~ 6. Excess moiature within the eoil ' Gd~a+v~r~i~ ~0 ,~?~,w ~ixxrc~~ ,,~W ~,uqv N e ra~tiraax CYPe ~ f n~ _ (yrel ~r,t~c,~ (b) 7. Reduction of the GWL (step in level) ~ ~ (~n~ g. Maximum field waCer capaciCy (t~'41C) y~ ~ p~ 9. Excess moiature in the unit (FN) (7 J fu~at ~~,~d~~utJ ,~v~ , , NO idac~~t ~ - As an example we will discuss the reaults obCained for modelling of Che Dubovoye reclamation unit, which is situated on an area of 170 ha in the Luninetskaya Rayon of Bfo~tganda lowlanda withcamclosei~GWL in8the8central _ boundariea are typical Y region of Che Poles'ye (figure 3). Figure 3. Soila of the "Dubovoye" reclamation unit f � 3 ~ Soddy-podzolic swamped sandy aoils: 2 1. Temporarily exceasively moiatened ~ 2. Gleyey - Z 3. Gley 1 J ~ 3 . Z O . 3 � . ~ ~ O - ~3 ~ 3 2 . ~ . . 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 rnx nrI~ICTAL USC ONLY ' Fnr Chie unie, in nddiCiott to rhe getteral equaCinns (~.-4) epecif3c equi~tinns were obt~ined for the rel~eion beeween the wttter seores in the 0-20 cm layer of so~.~.s with differen~ moi~ture contente: be~ween temporarily excesaively ' mos~ened ~}nd gleyey so~ls , _ y ~ 0,83 x ~3; ~ O,Hfl); (g) ~nd betwc~c:n gleyey ~nd gley soils ym 0~92 x-}- 25; (r ~ 0,93), (8) Equ~tions (1-6) and the design of the program which simulates the dynamics of moisture in natural sygtems permir the total moisutr~ of the whole unir and Che moisture of each soil spearately tio be represented in comparable ' form given any position of xhe ground water level. ~ Table 2 ahows Che chunges of soil moisture ca~culaCed for a reduction of ~ Che GWL at the "Dubovoye" unit. The fir~t 6 linec of the table contain information on the naCural moisture of the eoils (measurements cArried out in July 1970); these are Che input parametera of the mode]. The total - moisture stored in the 0-20 cm layer f~:r the whole unit was 11,393 mm, ~ and thia corresponds to an excess (FN)* of 3074 mm (a negative value 6or : FN correaponds to a moisture deficiency). The following 6 lines show the change when the GWL is reduced by lOcm in gley soils. With this reduction of the GWL an excess of moisture is retained in Che combination as a whole, and drainage is insufficient only in temporarily execesively moiatened soils. Further reduction of the GWL leads to a small overall deficiency of moiature in the system and sharp changes of the moisture in individusi soils. In Chis respect a moisCure deficiency is observed in gleyey soil. When the position of the GWL is at 100 cm, drainage reaults in a mo~sture deficiency (FN=-1152 mm) on the unit as a whole. Thus, when th~~ GWL is reduced by a ~ pro~ected 30 cm for gley soils, the general conditions for plant growth in the unit become worse. Conseqnelty, drainage reclamation of aoil combinntiona similar to the "Dubovoye" unit must be conducted with extreme caution, and - every drainage is not suitable for Che "Dubovoye" unit--these are typical prairie soils (4). The described method can be applied in any naCural regions when the interrelations beween the soil moisture and the factors determing it are specified. In the given example of the simplest logical units of relation--soil moisture � (GWL)--was used, and the results of the studies indicate thaC it is the beat. In the future it can be extended and its parameters can be more accurately defined. The model is valuable for describing dynamic natural systems and predicting the changes of soil moisture caused by drainage. - ~ *Excess moisture is conventionally expressed as the number o~ mm by which the MFWC is exceeded. 33 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 , rOlt OI~'rICIAL US~ ONLY ' Tab1e 2. The change oF soi:L molaCure at the "Dubovoye" uniG when the ground water level is reduced (reaults of calculationa) ~epuono�noAaoni~cr~e NoteB GWL 18 in Cul~ W� ~.8 Ch8 ~eaonoyciwde necveHe+e moiature (Dtt11~ etored in tlle ~-2~ Cm ~ 1 ~ t104eN � layer wiChin a soil type, W~ i~ the epcweuao ~ u wF FN moiature (mm) seored it~ the 0-20 cm ~o'y.n~~� ~3 layer of the entire unit, fn is the 1 A! WQ R exce~s moieture (mm) in Che 0-20 cm vrp( 5 ~so i~ s ~o l~yer within a soil type, FN ie the ~,t ~~a~ 3190 6/66 � excesa moiature (mm) in the 0-20 cm (n 191 b77 2308 so ?io 90 11393 3074 layer of the entire unit. ~o ao ioo 120 60 40 Perioda (days) with soil moieture in Y CB 26b 135 BO _ wi zzo~ s~ss +ssr ' � the rangea: tl MFWC-MCD, t2 - in -360 IIU 1b68 968b ~1~4 ~C__~(;~ t3 --MCD-t'1W. i~ 73 ~2b ~80 . ~j 137 78 30 vra(5 318 161 90 qr(, 1768 4369 4183 � In -768 -101 ~jpg 8290 -SO _ 4 67 ' . 1~4 105 4b vre(5 363 172 100 w( 1~04 2050 3716 fn -II53 TSG.~I b6b 7169 -116~ b9 94 140 16i 116 70 t~ Key: 1. Soddy�podzolic swamped sandy soils ' - 2. Temporarily excessively moistened 3. Gleyey - 4. Gley 5. GWL BIBLIOGRAPHY - 1. Demidovich, B. P. et al, "Chislennyye metodq analiza. Priblizheniye funktsii, differentsial'nyye i integral'nyye uravneniya" /Methods of Numerical Analysis. Approximation Functions, Differential end Integral Equations/, Moscow, Fizmat, 1963. 2. "Pochvy Bel~russkoy CCP" /Soils of the Belorussian SSR/, Minsk, Uradzhay, 1974. 3. Rode, A. A., "Vodnyy rezhim pochv i yego regulirovaniye" LThe Water Regime of Soils and its Regulation/, Moscow, Izd. AN SSSR, 19b3. - -34 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ' FO[t OI'~ICIAL U5~ ~NLY 4. itum~nov~, T. A. in "pdchv~nnyyp kombin~C~ii i ikh g~n~xi~",~Soil Combin~eiong ~ttd ~h~ir C~n~~i~/, Mdgeoa~ N~uk~, 1972. 5. ttom~nov~~ T. A. ~C ~1. , V~S~~f AN BS~R (S~RYYA 3EL' SKAGAS~ADAttCH1'KN NAVIJK) ~ Nd 2, 1975~ 6. ttumghingkiy, L. z.~ "Mat~maeicheekaya obrgborka rexul'e~tdv ek~p~rimente. Sprgvo~hndy~ ruknvodetvo" ,~Math~mgCic~l U~v~ldpm~~nt of ~xperiment~l it~gult~~ A Referenc~ Manual/, Mo~cow, Nauks, 1971. COPYRIGHTs I~datel'stvo "Kolog", "Uoklady VASKhNIL", 1978 . . 9342 CSO: 1870 �35 FOR OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 NOtt dl~~'ICIAL U5L UNLY ACROTECHNOLOGY UDC 626.i4 M~ODLLtYNG OF THE PROCE5S 0~ GAS-JET CI.EANING OI~ ItECI.IWArION CANAL3 Moscoa DOKLADY V3LSOYUZNOY ordena LENINA AKADEMII 3EL'SKOKHZYAYSTVLNNYKH NAUK imeni V.I. LLNINA in Ruseian No 10, 1978 pp 37-39 f~rticle by Candidates of Techaical Science N. N. Kremenetskiy. L. I. Badayev and L.G. Borodulina~ A. N. Koetyakov All-Union Scientific Research InetiCute of Hydraulic ~ngineer~ng and Land Development/ _ ,~Text/ Mndelling of the process of gas-~et cleaning of caaals can be divided into two stages: nadelling of the gas flow and the process of its interaction viCh th~ layer of detritus. Modelling of the gas flow. T~ro streama of viscous incompresaible fluid are aimilar (3) if Che following dimensionlese numbers are the s~nv~ for both: ~21 ! Fr (the Froude number) ; Nl ~ Re (the Reyaolda n~umber) ; ~ g a~ ~ Eu (Euler'a number) ~av ahere t is time, v is velocity, 1 is the characteristic dimension, g is the acceleration of free fall, Y is the kinematic coefficient of viscosity,a P is the pressure and,v ie the mean density. The criterion t~ muaC be obeerved ~hen unfixed or periodice movement of a - liquid or gas a~e studied. IC ia not always possible for the Froude number and the Reynolds number to hold aia~ultaneously, but the effect of viscosity becomes leas important for coasiderable valuea of Re. For high apeed gas flowa it is advisable to obaerve similarity according to the Mach number-- M ~ conat --(when I~D0.3), where a is the epeed of eound in the given gas.g Dimensionleas numbers accouating for thermal conductivity properities are unimportant because of the ahort time of the ~et's action on the detritus and, therefore, are not presented here. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 i ~OCt d~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY To the eet of dimen~ionl~s~ numbere (1), (2) end (3) it ie neceseary to add criteria including ga~ temperatur~ TK and deneity (1)t ~ r 1 or ~ I' ~nd ~ g K R T k f' v'!~' - where f ig rhe ~eC crose section, mt ie the mase flow rete of the gas and ~ 12 is the gas conatant. Uetermination o� the dimensionl~se numbera by the method of dimenaion~l ~ analyaie. The main parameters characterizing the procees are the gas pressure and flow rate, ite velocity, deneity, Cemperature g~~iclepditnmeter (the gag conetant and visocity), the mean ground denaity, p (dp}, the groundoroaitliandcdurability)iand t e~coefficienCtof friction~ofrial (mean density, p Y the ground with t~e lining material (6'). The effectiveneas of cgnal cleaning ig characterized by the specific volume ,og detritus removed, and it dependa on the angle of the ~et, the removal.of the ~et from the aurface of Che detritus and the time (t) which the ~et acts on the ground. The interrelation between the listed variables can be represented in general form by the equation f(1~Ap~~.~~Y�~V~ TK, R~~gr~ dp~(~r6~~ 8r nl~~~ t~~~IDt~s~ ~ 0 ~4~ !?e ~hall eliminate 4 basic dimensional quantitiea--AP, t~ 1 and 'I~ --from ~ equaCion (4), defining the rem~ining 14 values in Cerma of 1~,, and we define its dimensionality in terma of the dimeasionality of the basic quantitiea: ~rj~~ = LaP~% ~tI y I 1_% LTK %4 ~5~ On the basis of 1t-theory we find 14 dimensionleas groups ('1T-terma) from the coasidered dimensional quantities. - 1 , -R = tv ; . 1 2 . v ~ 1 ~ -n-Q . A P ~ a 1~~� gt2 ~ V 1 y t~V ~ 6 dp dp g . , . . ~ 1 ; ZT . aP ~ . nl , Tf P = ~V2 : ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~R RTK S1 ~ nl ~ ~ A p_ a oP_ t=1 = d" (6) /'-gr f'gr.v2 ' mt mt If we take P, g and 1 as fundamental quantitiea, we obCain two more dimensionless numbers containing~, namely: d P aad DP ~7) ~ : gr�8'1 ~1~g~1 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~o~ nr~rr,tni, us~ ot~t.Y g~~ed dn ehe nbove coneidergeions it is edCnbli~hed th~e wtien th~ pruCeHH of ga~-~~e eangl Cle~ning im mdd~ll~d, Che ~~C n~ dim~nsienl~~~ number~ (6) and (7) mugt be obgerv~d. Howev~r, CompleCe gitt~il~rity (~ccording to a11 the dimen~ionle~~ number~) can not glw~yg be r~glix~d in mod~lling (3). rh~r~fore we will conducC n eimilariCy gn~lysi~ wiCh th~ go~1 df el3minating from g~t (6) end (7) - Criterig'charact~rizing Che effeCC nf unimpnrt~ne f~~tnrg. Similariey di th~ full gc~le ~nd model procesgeg i~ establi~hed by ~bgerving ehe giv~n crit~rin. This can be done by tiwo methodg. With the f~r~t m~thod pgr~m~t~r~ for the gu:raunding environment and ga~ pressur~ can b~ chan~~d in the model, le~ving the gae, grdund gnd linirg sn~t~rial dengitieg unchanged. Then, in order ta realize gimilgriCy the ggg preg~ure e p gnd ehe grnund ~nd lining durebility chgrncteristicg (~'and 6l) mugt be ch~nged propc~rtionglly to ~ linear ecgle. In the secdnd method t6e durgbility characteri~tic~ of - the gurroundings nnd the gas preseure ~re left unchangpd. Tn nb~~rve th~ criteria of similgrity it is then necesa~ry to ch~nge thp ground and lining densities or the acceleration of free fg11, which requires uee of the method of centrifugal alteration of the agrvitaCi~n~1 fore~. The dimensio~tlese number'~p is most impartanC for geudying the moment when a particle or aggregaCe breaks away from the main maes in the case of coheaive soils. For loose or waterlogged soil (c~0) and when studying Che movement of a particle or aggregate, modelling cannot be accomplished with this criterion. The dimensionless number 1 neceasitates a corresponding reduction of the soil particle dimensions.dpHowever, this is practical only for monogeneous soils and only to certain size limits. In the other cases it is necessary to use real soil for the model. When large inclusions ar. present it ts necessary to reduce the size of tha latter in conformanc~ with th~ criterion 1 . ainc The criCerion gPl cannot ~e observed, since destruction of the lining _ is~ not allowed inlnature and, on the contrary, the constancy~~f ita static state is abeolute. For this it is important that tt.: ratio s is the same in the model as in nature. In this ca~e violation of similar~ty with respect to the porosity of the lining is permi~sible. Thus, for approximate modelling of the gas j~t canal cleaning process it is ossible to eliminate the crtteria n and lfrom the set (6) and (7), and the criterion a holds partially only in~~especC to inclusions. P In the gas-jet cleaning of canals the removal of detritus is caused either only by the gas flow or by the flow in combination with mechanical action - on the ground (1). All criteria which pertain to a mechanical action on 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~d[t U~~I~IAL U5~ dNLY the ground were pres~nted in the g~t of dimensionlese number~ (6) and (7). Con~equ~ntly, eet (6) and ~7) egn b~ u~pd for mod~iling th~ cl~ening proc~~g fnr ~ny e~~hnolo~ical sch~m~. ~C ~g ~n1y n~ce8sary Co con~ider th~t the ~ff~c~ ~f ~p~eific dim~n~ionlegg numberg will b~ different fnr diffe . 'Che 1fn~~r grg1~ for th~ nad~1 of gge-~et cl~aning has come 1lmitatione: in - th~ p~rmiggibl~ ~rror of ineg~ur~n~nt, th~ g~~ �~ow regime and the ~oe~ibl~ volume of grnund int~r~Cting in th~ model. ~nrmulag for d~t~rmining ehe c~eff3rient of reduction of linear dimengions (k~) according to ' The 1in~ar reduetion co~ffici~nt for gn opergtive ggs-~ee cl~aning system can b~ determinpfl by th~ dim~ngion~ of th~ funnel formed frdm Che interaction of thp g~~-~pC wiCh the ground: m s ~~rnhnKl3 ~8~ wher~ Wm ie the volume nf ground interacting in the model, rn is the acCual radiug of the jet and hn is the height of the detritue layer. Then . 2 ~~3 Kl ~r� rn' hn or Kl G 1 rn, hn (9) 200dp ~ 4dp , Thus, in this study we obtained the set of dimensionleas numbere (6) and for awdelling the process of gas-~et canal cleaning; this set of criteria conaiders more factore than Chose uaed in other fielda (hydrodyaamice and gas dynamics, airport operation, in modelling the operation of road conetruc- tion machinea). We also obtained equaCion (9) for determining a linear ecale for the posaible volume of ground interacting in the model of gaa-~et cleaning. B~BLIOGRAPHY 1. Balovne~ V.K.~ "Metody fizicheskogo modelirovaniya rabochikh protaesaov dorozhno-stritel'nykh nwahin" 1,Methods of Physical Modell~ng of the Operation of Road Construction Machines/, Moecow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1974. - 2. ~arkusha, V. I. and F. A. Kukanov, TRUDY TsAGI im N. E. ZHUKOVSKOGO, No 1360, 1971. 3. Cor11n,L S. M., "Eksperimental'naya aeromekhanika" LExperimental Aeromec- hanics/~ Moacow, Vysshaya shkola, 1968. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Kolos", "Doklady VASKhNIL", 1978 9342 CSO: 1870 4~ POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~'d[t nt~~ICIAG U5~ ONLY ; AGROT~CHNOLOGY MICIt0~LO1tA OF AIR IN V~"TDISP~NSARIES AND THE MORB~DI7'Y OF CALV~S Moecow KOKLAllY VS~SOYUZNOY ordena L~NINA AKADEMII SLL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH NAUK imeni V.I. L~NINA in Ruegien No 10, 1978 pp 32-34 LArticle by Candidate of Veterinary Sciences A. P. Gorbunov, Vologodskiy Scientific Regearch Veterinary StaCion/ ,~Text7 The construcCion of large livestock rearing complexes and apecialized farais for livestock production on an industrial basis introduces mdny new and urgent problems in the protecCion of animal health and the proaperity of huabandry from discasea. Crowding of livestock createa roore favorable conditiona for the transmiasion and distribution of infectious diseases by contactile and noncontactile means. The risk of micorbiam, i.e. aeeding of the animals' environment with microbes, is increased. In large industrial complexes along with disease cauaed by obligate pathogenic microorganisms the possibility of diaeases caused by conditionally pathogenic microbes increases. - Favorable situations for the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microbea, as a rule, result from a reduction of the animal's natutal reaistance and a disturbance of the equilibrium of its microbial associationa in evolutionarily formed ecological systems. Moreover, as a reault of the passage of large numbers through the bodies of weakened, susceptible animals and reproduction, the virulence of conditionally pathogenic microflora can increase significantly, and mass sickness appears as a result of this. Over 2 years we studied the microbial contamination of air in vetdispensaries ~ and its relation to the morbi.dity of newborn calves. The work was conducted in vetdispensaries of the 800 cow dairy complex of the "Peredoviy" sovkhoz in Vologodskaya Oblast. The complex has 4 cattle yards for 200 cows each, 2 calf pens for group nursing of 446 calves from 20 days Co 6-8 months and 2 maternity sections with vetdispensariea, each :lolding 21 calves, for animals up to 20 days of age. The feeding of pre~nant cows and cows which have calved and the nursing conditions for newborn calves at Che complex satisfy veterinary-zootechnic requirements. During the period of study the temperature and relative humidity were close to the optimal levels. 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 FOtt 0~'~ICIAL U5~ ONLY uacterinl ~ontgmingrion of the air was detern?ined by the method of ~~dimenCation on Petri di~hee with beef-~xtract agar and Endo'~ medium. Te~tg w~re ~onducCed ewice per month. A clinical examinatinn was given and blood was tigken at the seme time for in~munological, biochemical and morphol morphologit:~l atudies. The stu~ies ahowed~that the number of microbes in the air of th~ facilieiea varied over montha. _ The highest indiceg of general microbe contamination--up to 26.2 thoueand/m3-- ' were noted in the winter-gpring period, and the number of Escherichia coli wag greater in epring and the beginning of summer--1.1-1.2 thousand/m3. Yn addition it is important to noCe thaC within one month Che Cotal number of microbes in the air at an~ vetdispensary was 4-7 times greater than at another ~ in individual cases. The microbial contamination of sir depends on many factors, and it is primarily affected by the frequency and quality of disinfection. Thus, when disinfection was conducted each month the total number of microbes was on the average 11.6~2.5 thousand/m3and the number of E. coli ~aas 0.3=0.1 thousand/m3. Theae numbers are 2.5 timea and 8 timea greater, reapectively, than when dieinfection was conducted every 3 montha. A aecond factor affecting the microbe content of the sir is the number of animals in the facility. From the data presenCed in table 1 it is apparent that the microbia: contamination of a vetdispensary increases with the number of calves in the facility. When the strength of the effect of both factors on the total microbia3~ _ contamination of the air at the facilities was determined the Cotal effect of them--);~=0.584 (P~0.01)--and the effect of the firsC fact--~A=0.481 (P~0.01)--were shown to be significant. A significant ef.fect on the leve of E. coli is shown by the first factor-- Y~p=~.414 (PCO.GO1)--, the combined factors- j~AB~0.207 (P~0.01)-- and their total actio~Y1X 0.669 (P~0.001). ~ 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 roK orr~crnL us~ drtt,Y mable 1. 'The minrobial conCnmination of ~~.r ~.n n vc~tdi~pen~nry in rel~rion to the number of c~Lv~g ~onCained ~.n it (Chousand/m3) - , K011HqlCtlln TCJ1qT U I1tlA1@Il(lIINH C ~ , nOR9~~YQAb ' ~3~xer I~,4~Ao 10 I 11...21 6onee Zt~~ 6 ! ~ OdWee KonNVeetno weNpo6on 4~~~0,8 11,8~4,~1 Ir,9~0,9 40,0~ 1,0 l KonNVecreoKrwe4unnnanovKe 0,1~0~03 0,3~0,07 1,1~0,14 4,a~0,19 t ~ Key: 1. Index 4. Up to 10 - 2. Number of calves in the 5. Over 2~. facility 6. Total number nf microbes 3. None 7. Number of E. coli , Parallel with the effect of ehese factors in increasing the total number of microbes and the number of E coli in Che air, it was notdd ChaC Che . virulence of conditionalJ.y virulent microflora (primarily of E. coli) changes - with the lengCh of time that the facilitiea are not aub~ected to diainfection~ particularly when the animnla are crowded. This can lead to masaive sickness of newborn calvea with colibacillosis, which we observed in one of the vetdispensaries (table 2.) - Table 2. The effect of the frequency of disinfection and the number of calves ' on the virulence of E. coli isolatec~ from air at the facilities CopepMUnote `3,. BYAl11lNO KNWlVHdX 01A0ylK ~ ~ n~ ttART ('r ) s 10N VNCIIQ . ~ CQOKN fiP00lAlNMA ~ Al~NN~lN11NM 6o T~ 4% ~ero n~oHp~ cne0oa~~� ( ~MCOKOBNpy ~ ~~1~ ~ ~6~ l~) py~e,~iHdx e0p~1 Ox ~ dx a N~ l) 4epa (wec) { 3 108 38 10 4 1 5 ~ (121 b 21~ 103 15 4 b 3 9 ~ / Key: 1. Frequency of disinfection 6. Of those 2. Number of calves 7. Of those ; 3. Number from which E. coli 8. Nonvirulent ~ was isolated 9. Weakly virulent 4. Total 10. Virulent 5. Number of those sick 11. Highly virulent - 12. After (months) It should be noted that when the facilities are not disinfected for a time, , virulent E. coli cultures are at first isolated only from the calf feces, and only after a month are they isolated from the air. 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 , ~OEt OI~'~ICIAL USL ONLY 'I'hr mlrrol~inl t'nc:tnn c~i~ nn ~Ffc~ct nn nuwborn nalves~ Wt~en the number nf - microbe~ in th~ air at the facilities increaeea, the amount of ganuna-globulin in the animals' blood gerum and its anCibacterial activity are reduced~ and leukocyCe ph~gocytotic activiCy is increased. There ia a direct re~aCion beCween the microbial conC~mination of air at ehe facilitiee and Che morbidity of newborn calves. The coefficiente of correlation betwten the total microb3al contamination of the air and the number of E. coli in it and calf ~rbidity were 0.605 and _ 0.614 respecCively (PSyclii.aLric service will need more than 1,000 psycholoyists in the next 5 years. 'rhe tasks they will Face are diverse, but they will mainly involva , 1) acquisition of experimental data, as a supplement to clinical da~a, helping - to amplify the diagnosis, anci 2) evaluation of the type and degree of intellectual and moi:ivational disorders. This division of the work is very important, since forms of disturbances that are often identical in their external manifestations di�fer in their origin and structure. Thus, for example, the nature of communication disturbance taking the form of "autism" may be different for a schtzo~hrenic and for a neurotic or a so-called difficult adolescent. Correspondingly the stieps taken to correct this defect must differ depending on the structure of the disturbance. Forensic psychiatric expert certifica;:ion is an area that senses a great need~ ~ for a psychuloyical service (especially when such certification is hindered by actions of the patient which may quite definitely have disease at their origin). It should be noted that it is frequently easier to reveal the integrity of pathology of the personality through psychological experimentation than through discussion with the patient. The same pertains to labor certification, where - patients often dissimulate their shortcomings and continue to insist upon holding jobs in occupations or specialities no longer suited to them. The psychologist plays a significant role in military expert certification of _ potential draftees. In addition to mild degrees of debility, they sometimes - are able to reveal subtle symptoms of disorders in thinking or other forms of inental ac~ivity, which transfo~s expert certification into a starting point for timely treatment of young people. Going on, the psychologist must participate in research on preschool children exhibiting doubtful progress in preschool development, such that the form and degree of inental underdevelopment could be established (to permit selection of the type of school training required in the future). We also need psychologists to study so-called difficult children (including those that do perform well in public schools) with the goal of developing corrective measures (consultation with parents, teachers, and educators). Hel~p from psychologists is needed in research on adolescents and young adults with a / weakened nervous system so that help could be provided in selection of a speciality and in occupational orientation. I must emphasize that c;ualified occupational orientation is more important to them than to healthy children. The same should be said for organizing work rehabilitation of disabled persons, and equally so for research on patients suffering pathology caused by harmful production factors. The psychological service in medicine broadened significantly in recent years, and psychologists are now assuming broader responsibilities in medical , practice: Psychological research results are being introduced into the clinical treatment of not on].y mental but also somatic diseases (cardio- - vascular, oncological, renal, and so on). As far as the content of ~ 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 I~OIt OCCtCIAL USL; OI~I,Y _ psychological work is conccrned, the following shnuld be s~11d in ii:s regard: The practice o� somatic medicine is posing tasks Lo psychology boiling down basically to studying Che personality, its atti~ude toward citsease and toward i~s self-awarr_ness, and its capacl.ty for criticism, ;.o revealing changes in domina�t ~ac~ivity, to fin~ing substitutions fo~ frustrated activity, and to finding ways to correct all deviations from normal. 'Ctie tasks posed by medic~l practice to psychology are diverse, and their solution requires professional knowledge and skills. Answers to the qu:stions of inedical practice must be prepared by ~sychological science using psychologi~al con- cepts and categories, in the language of psychology's conceptual mAChinery. ~1nd if we are to introduce them into practice in all oF the direc~ions in- dfcated above, we would nepd a large number of psychologists knowing how to work in practiical medicine, ones who are well acquainted witl~ the - theoretical and me~hodological problems of psychology and, at t}~e s~une tiine, aware of the real requirements and nuances of practical medicine. Unfortunately there are stiJt not enough such personnel, and owing to this lack psychologiat slots are being filled by people without a basic psychological education and requiring retraining; :noreover the latter must be deep and quite substantial, which meatis a lot af tune. There is one more fundaraental issue that must be stated: It is somet~mes said in our country that psychological services are more developed abroad than here, and that we must not fall behind. Of course we must persistently expand our psychological service, and we must deepen it, but this should not be done simply by uncritical transfer of the methods and - data of psychology. Our domestic psychology is fundamentally different from foreign psychology. The paths of development we follow are different. Soviet psychology is based on Marxist philosophy, and it has - an ideological function not only in theory but also in practice. Therefore the content of practical psychological service would have to be different as well: Most important to us is nurturing a conscious personality that is mature and capable of self-control; medical practice requires that psychologists - have the ability to analyze the forms and manifestations of altered motives, value orientations, and the nature of cognitive activity, and equally so they must be able to find the ways of work and social readaptation. It is not our function to "sort" people, as is done in foreign medical psychology; instead, out task is to raise the level of personality development, to surmount psychological shortcomings existing in it, and to achieve maximum development of all of the personality's strengths and capabilities. Con- sidering the ideas of Soviet psychology concerning ontogenetic development of inental processes and personality features, we must use different methods and interpret the resea~ch results in a different way. We have such methods now, they have been tested out, and they are reliable. ~ It is also very imp~rt nt for institutions of higher education to devote considerable u}tention to the psychological service in medicine. The MGU school of psycY~ology has begun a considerable amount of important work aimed at reexamining course content, and it is taking steps to expose students to more practical work. I feel that the Central Council of the Society of Psychologists must also get together with psychologists in practical medicine and think about the ways �or broadening the psychological servic~� in medicine; _ 103 Fr1R (1FFTf;TAT. 1T~R nNi.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 T'OR O1~FYCIAL USr ONLY ' ~ inasmuch as ~he number of specialisrs with a basic psychological education (thes~ are the unly sort of specialists thati could provide a real benefit to practice) cannot be increa~ed significantly in the immediate future, gradual growth in their numbers must be provided for. Were psychological services to be provided to practical medicine by people ignorant of the theoretical fundamentals of our psychology ar,d its me~hodology and unequipped with the numerous tools of psychologicTl knowledge, harm could be c~one not only to medical practice but also to psychological science itself. _ - V. D. Shadrikov (Yaroslavl' University) Analysis o� tt?e basic socioeconomic tasks formulated in the Party Program and elaborated upon in decisions o~ the 24th and 25th CPSU congresses would show that psychological sci.ence can make a significant contribution to their comple- tion. This pertains first of all to nurturing a thoroughly developed personality, to prupagandizing the socialist way of life, to accelerating scientifi.c-technical progress, ro improving socioeconomic planning, to _ raising labor and sociopolitical activity, to organizing socialist competition, to raising the effectiveness of management, and to achieving sensible use of manpower (occupational orientation, selection, and training, opti.mization of working conditions and improvement of industrial safety, improvement of the entire system of education, and so on). We can confidently say that there is a social need for creating a psychological service in our country. Is the national economy ready to accept specialists in psychology? The experience of working with business contracts and of psychologist training in the country's universities allows us to answer this question positively as well. WZ psychology departments are conducting scientific research costing tens of millions of rubles. Calculation of economic effectiveness would show that 1 ruble invested into psychological research produces from 2 to 10 rubles profit. The country's schools of psychology receive requests from enterprises and departments for their gracluates every year. There are now examples of young psychological specialists creating psychological laboratories in industry and dealing successfully with the problems oi pro- duction organization and control. At the same time it should be noted that an inadequate psychological service significantly reduces the impact frocn scientific research and hinders intro- duction of scientific research results into practice. Much still depends on the personality of the director of the given enterprise, on the extent to - which he is persuaded of the need for utilizing psychological data in the solution of pressin.; management problems. Nor is everything right with the way graduates of psychology schools are being utilized. Their status at enterprises is uncertain, their rights and responsibilities have not been worded precisely, and material support is not being provided to ?_-~search and to introduction of recommendations. 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~~oi; orrrctnra usr oNr,t~ As a rule the preseilL ~roblems in production organizatioris are compl~x, and they can be ~olvecl only through the ~oint efforts of specialis~s of differenr profilc:s, to inr.lude psychologists. To solve these problems, we need time and materiel. This mus~ not be forgotten when Lhe discussion turns to introducing psychnlogical soience into the national oconomy. 'rhere are sectors that do exhibi~ a greater interest in utilizir~g specialists in psychology. 7.'hey should provide more ma~erial support ~o their training ~ in institutions of higher education. A comprehensiv~ examination of the issue of introducing a p~ychologieal service in our country would require that we go beyond analyzing just the external reasons making its introduction suitable. Its introduction inro the national economy would also be useful in terms of ~he develop~aent of psycholcgical science itself. It will help us to eliminate the still-existing shortcomings in the work of scientific research institutions and in the work of educational institutions: Trrelevanc~ of thc~oretical research to pressing econom~~ - problems, and of theoretical research to applications; insufficient develop- ment of the tools of psychological diagnosis. Nor can we say that psycholo- - gist training in the universities is perfect yet. College studetits still lack textbooks for the principal fundamental courses (general psychology, experimental psychology), as well as for specialized courses in which the student's professional countenance is formed (labor psychology, social _ psychology, the motivations of labor,occupationalorientation, occupational selection, occupational training, and so on). Instruction of specialized lecture and laboratory courses isexcassively theoretical: The students fail to assimilate the tested techniques for solving today's problems. v However, the dialectics of the relationship between theory and practice prevent us from solving the problem on the basis of an approach from science alone. Science must test its recommendations out in practice, and for this purpose it must have the appropriate organizational support. V. A. Ivannikov (MGU School of Psychology) Psychology in our country is presently experiencing a unique period--gradual _ - transformation into a practical specialty. A large number of psychological laboratories are already operating in the country's clinics and industrial enterprises, in design offices, and in various instituti~tins, in which the _ colleagues of L-hese laboratories are solving pressing practical problems. In this connection institutions of higher education training specialists in - psychology now face the extremely important task of altering the prof ile of the training--broadening preparation of students for practical activity: ~ This will require corresponding review of traininq plans and programs. To be successful in this work, we would have to finalize the raquirements �or specialists in different sectors of psychology. The departments of the MGt;'s school of psychology have now determined the requirements for different specialties. This required considerable effort: Department representatives had to meet with many requestors of school graduates, analyze the performance 105 cnn n~~7rTAT TiCF (1NT.V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 . COEt O~~YCTAL US~: ONLY ~ - datia nf gtud~n~g ~erving 1-year appr~nti~~~hipg in pla~e~ of work, and drqanixe m~eCings w~th gr.adu~tieg of varioug classe~ ati tih~ school. All of thl~ work rev~aled a number of difffcultie~ in practii~al psychnl~gical work, which ~an be ~ubdivid~d intio L�wo categories--difficultieg asgociated with thc~ �nrm~ nf training given tn gtiudents 1n tihe gchool, and difficultieg BggOCS.~ti~t~ witih nrg~nizaeional i~gu~s at places o� pr~cr,ic~l work ~nd with th~ n~eehndolc>gy av~ilable to psy~hologfcal sci~nce itg~lf. B~cause the schnnl's training plan was orient~~d at preparing gcientific regear~her~ firse of all, stud~nts dfd not develop sufficient habl.ta of indepQnd~nti pr~Ctical work. It w~s four~d theti gtiudents have pnor facility " ~ witih eh~ proc~dureg for ~ettiing up qu~stionnatr~s, that th~y have a poor _ knnwledge of the corresponding testg and are unable rn work with them, that , th~y experience difficulties in developing other techniques of applied re~~arch, that eh~y lack the skills of experti evaluation, that they do not know hnw to ~nvisinn th~ ~?sychological problems fgced by the given sector, end that they do not understand the lanquage of apecialists with whom they must work. Objective difficulties in practical work include: Absence of qufck methods for ev~luatinq the state of an individual, individual mental functione, personality traits, intelligence, occupational suitability, and so onr a lack of experienc:e, hindering con~ninicaticn with workera in the sector and with the nwnagements of institutions and enterprises= manaqement'g ignorance _ of the possibilities of psychology and its inability to pose tasks to the psychologis ts and gpell out definite instructinngt poor work methods, devised as a rule by persons other than psychologists= absence of books on psycholoqy coa~prehensible to nonspecialfsts and, as a consequence, absence of a camnon lanquaqe between specialists in the sector and psycholoqists. These shortcaninqs require effort on the part of both workers of institutions of hiqher education and institutions concerned with psychological theory. Universities traininq psychologists must change the trafninq provided to students; institutions specializing in theory, meanwhile, must broaden their applied research so as to provide quidance to the practical work c~f psycholo- gists and make it possible to make psychology not only a scientific discipline but also a trade, a practical profession. Wfthout creating a practical . psychological service and without broadeninq applied research, it would be very difficult to transform psycholoqy into a practical profession similar to engineering. A very unique situation has evolved in psycholoqist traininq, one having practically no analogs in the traininq of other specialists. Every specialty is doubly represented in the institution of hiqher education: Universities basically prepare specialists for scientific research and for institutions of hfgher education, while sector traininq institutes prepare practical special- ists. Psychologists, meanwhile,� are trained only in universities and, in - accordance with the traditions of university education, basically for scientific work. 106 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ro~ orrtc~t. us~ a~t,v ~ AC ~irse ~J1~I1rC it would appear quite naeur~l to ~ltier ~he COtltetlt o~ univ~rgity tra~.tling with a congideraeir~n fdr tih~ ghorti~omings reveale~i in - pr~paratinn o.: th~ studentis for practii~al wnrk. Hbwgv~r, thig could be ac:hicved r~t?ly ~t ~h.~ ~>rice of reducing eompreh~n~iv~ ~cicntific rra' ning, - gin~e in 5/ear,s of callege it i.~ impog~ib].~ tin pr~pare a student identiic~lly we11 ~dr scientific, pcdagogical, ~nd pr~cCi~a1 wdrk. Any ~trempe ~t doit?g ~n may easily lead tc~ overemphagis df ~empiricism anA ~n the f~cti tha?t in ~ few years we will once again have to golve tihe problem df i~nprnving tihe ~ training of personnel for sCientiific research. mhe ideal ~olution to the probl~m would be tio creatie gectior training ingtituties preparing practical psychningi~,ts. 'The �i~rgt steps are alre~dy - - being tiaken in ehis directifr~n (by the peycholoqic~l-pedagogic~l schdnl nf tihe pe~agdqiCal Institute imeni V. I. i.~nin= tihEr~ are al~o plan~ fdr er~ating a schonl of psychnlogy in the Acad~ny of tihe Mini~try nf Internal Aff~irs)t however, this solution i~ for the aioment a~ ideal ag it i~ hard tn implemen~. ~ti therefore s~~ms more su.'.table to broaden tihe profilc of specialfsts tr~ined in the appropriate schools and departments of psychology in the univer~ities, and tn create sector traS.ning institutes unhurriedly in parallel. On~ solution with possibilities w~uld be to cr~a~e two :rainir~g plans in the schools and departments of psycholnqy, one for tr~ining gcientific researchers and a second for tiraining practi~al workers. Thus we: confront . yet ~nother unique feature of modern paychology--its inten~ifi~d differentiation fnto different areas. This meang that in addition to d~.fferentiation into theoreticians and practical workers, p~ycholoqist training must be differ- entiated also in reltttion to specialigts in different ~teas of psychhlogical science--cocial psychologists, medical psychologigtg, labor psychologists, and so oii, inasmuch as it is impossible to prepare a student simultanequsly for all existing areas of psychology. Thus it appe~rs to me that we must - specialize the universities to a certain extent in the training o~ psychologists for particular areas of psycholoqy. Moscow Un.tversity, which offers courses in five specf.alties, must prepare a training plan which would account for all of the factors noted above. In this connection the new training plan of MGU's school o� psychology foresees a certain reduction in theoretical courses and expansion of basic courses in particular specialties and in practical work. More than 50 percent of the training time in the existing training plan is devoted to qeneral gubjects, about 35 percent of the hours are devoted to trainfnq in general psycholoqy, and the remaining time `s devoted to specialized subjects. In the new training plan, general education will occupy only 45 percent of the time, and the rest of the time will be split about equally into qeneral psychological and specialized training. Development of the new training plan is an important matte~ in specialist - training, but it is not the most 3mportant. What is most important is preparation of new programs far applied disciplines and for practical and Zaboratory lessons and creation of the appropriate bases for trainfng, for practical work in prod~iction, and for course and diploma projects. Without - creatinq a network of practical psychological institutions that would contain 107 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 E'dit nF'~tCIAL U5~ ONLY ~uc1i bos~s, pr~p~ra~inn for prgctiicc?1 wnrk wou18 inevitably be lackinq~ Studene~ m~~~ recaiv~ ~hafr practicai tiraining ~ti placps wh~r~ psychologigti~ c~~ thetr pt~~ctii~al work, and i~ is pr~~is~1y out of the pgychol~ist's practiirai work tihati w~ mugti ~xtracti th~ tiraining taeke tn be pr~sented tio gtud~nt~ a~ ~ypical ~xample~. M~ny prdblemg ~re arisiny in conn~ction with thp methode of instiructiion of pgychology itig~lf, anc~ wizh organizing practical exercises, academic training, and preduction practice. This is an ~trea of special and qraat _ concern. Another method of personn~l trafning would be tio m~ake psyChologiat~ outi of peraon~ havin~ ~ high~r ~ducgtion in areas other tihan peycholoyy. One of tih~ unique featiures o� psycholoqy ig thati a psychologisti working in varioue practical arpag c~ugt alc~n possegs knowledge about tihe sectnr in which he must ' work: The labor psychologiat must have a knowledge of n~odern production= a pgychologigt involved in development af new traininq methods aiust know thE study gubject with which he is workinqj a apecialist in aaanaqement psychology must know the fundamentale of man~gement, since otherwige the psyct.oloqist' a reconimendations would be efther at the level of coamon ae~YSe or abstract, inapplicable to,concrete conditiona. - We can avoid these difficultiies by broadening the trair~ing of psychologists in sector-specific discfplinea (enqineering, tnedicine, economics, cybernetica, pedaqoqics, and so on) or by teachinq psychology t~ specialists of a qiven _ practical sector. The second way pranises to be less expensive and more profitable, since practical psycholoqists could be trained fn 2.5-3 years of day school (3.5-4 years of night school). We must also think about raising the qualffications of psycholoqiets already involved in practical work and, equally so, about retraininq psycholoqists for other specialties. Centers for retraining and advanced traiainq of practical psychologists could be created at the leadinq universitiess university instructors, colleaques of scientific research institutes of psychology, and the best practical psycholoqists could participate in the - traininq afforded by these centers. In parallel with raising their quali- fications, students taking courRes in these centers could at the saa?e tia~e offer courses of instructfon to other students, thus participatinq in pre- paration of personnel for practical service and raising the potential of W2's. Psychology now stands at the intersection of many roads which do not repre-~ sent alternatives for it. Thus the task is to move forward on tt?ose roads which premote solution of our sxiety's pressinq problems and which at the - same tfine help psycholoqy itself to develop. Campletiion of this canplex task will require unification of the efforts of all psychological institutions and all psycholoqists of the country. 108 F'aR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 1~OI2 OF'i'ICTa1L US(; ONLY 'I'. I. 5akg~kulm (mallit~) It wc~uld be begt ~o create a caunty-wide p~ychnlc~gical gervi~e 1n th~ ~'nrm c~~ ne~.w~rk ~f re~ublic psychologi:. z tir~ininc~ ~nd utiilixatiion s;�gtemg (5Nip) whiCh should become ~n inher~nt p~rt o� the overall r~publi~ gyst~m o~ training ,u~d utJ li; i~~y skilled pergnnnel. Creating tihe SNIP, we mu~t acCdunti fnr the divergiey ~nd uniqupn~~g of 1nca1 ccnditinns. mhe ~g~dni~n 5Sit i5 pr~sently comple~ing its planning nf guch ~ system. 2tg develnpm~nC was based nn the experience of training psychnlogiseg ati Tartu St~ti~ Univer~ity. Its experieru:e demonstrated th~ti ehe rudiments of gucces~ful professional - ~ctivity by yr~duaties e. the univers,~ty lie noti nnly in tihe sart of work th~y ~ncl up doSnq bue ~1~d Sn the wav their training ig drg~nized. mh~ mxin shortcoming of traininq org~niyatiinn today is the failure ec~ ~ccc~unt for specific conditions and posgibllities ~fforded te tihe work of psychologis~s. Their training is orieritied mainly at re~earch and educatiional work, ~nd not at practic~l work. By plannfng the 5NIP, tihe Estonfan S5R has determined the mosti promiging ways fdr tr~ining, plarfng, and utilizing quali�fed psychologists. The technical ~ssignment for development o� the SNIP was coordinated with th~ ~gtonian SSR Gc~splan, and Sti fully sat~sffes tihe republic's requiremc:nes. The latter were determined from the needs stated by the production sphere. Utilixatidn df psychologists in productive organizations essentially means arisal of a unique profession--that of the industrt.~l psycholdgist. There are many problems and difficulti~s alonq the road of development of this prdfesgion and o~ org~nization of its subsequent pursuits. The r~ther uncertiain, groundless, or even incorrect understanding of the tasks and work methat:, of the specialists must be reCtified considerably. One important problem in particular is that of preparing administrators to accept industrial psychology as an effective management tool. The specialists then?selves must also qain a deeper understanding of their own role. The SNIP plan being developed in the Estonian SSR foresees a number of innovati~ns in psychologist training at Tartu State University. The main ones include creatiior. of a speri~lized department a~ labor psychology to serve as tlie basis for training industrial psychologists, alteration of the traininq plan, and creation of a center dealir,~~ with the scientific method~laqy of industrial psycholoqy. Implementation of these innovations is within the competency of the Estonian SSR Ministry of Institutions of Higher Education and Tartu State University. The Estonian SSR Gospl~n, the Estonian SSR State Committee for Labor, and the republic's sector ministries must paricipate in development of the ~NIP. The job of the Gector miniatries is to define the concrete slots for specialists in psychology, to confirm their tasks and their official responsibilities, concurrently insuring coordination of the activities of individual agencies associated with psycholoqist traininq and utiliz~~tion, and to determine personnel policy relative to the specialists. The most acceptable variant for trafning and utilizinq industrial psychologists on a natfonal scale is to create the appropriate specialty in schools of 109 ~nu nFFTrtAt, rt~~ ~vt.v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~Olt OFF'IC TAL US~ ONLY � M ,r ~~ychology. Major prep~?ratieng have been made in thia directiion by th~ ~pecialigt tra~.ning labnratiory of ~he Scientiific Research Instiitiutie of Ynt~gr~ted Sncial fteseaxch ati Leningrad Univergity. Th~ mociel of an indugtiri~l pgyeheloqist'g u~tivity developed by tihis laboratory hae been gub~eantif~ti~d by empiric~l findings, and it can serve as th~ basis far writing er~ininq proqrams for specialistis in psycholoqy, requir~d by Snvieti industiry. Th~ present training provided and the nrientiatiion given to psychologis~s in tihe traditiional directions (social pgycholoqy, labor pgychology, and engineerinq pgycholoqy) fail to sufficfentily saticompatib].~ demands of industry. We need a new specialization that wouid be witih these dem~r?d~. in view nf tihe fact tihati dev~lnpment of the SNip is a unique experiment in - psychological education, Che country's major paychological centera mu~ti _ prnvide ~upport and assigtance to tihis initiativ~. We alao need to create the apprnpriate arganizational conditions in support of the profeeeional activities of psychologigts in the ~stonian SSR, and we need to utilize these specialists more actiively in gnlution of presaing problems in production and manaqement. ~OPYRIGHT: 'Voprosy psikhologfi", "Pedagogika", 19~9 11004 CSO: 1840 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ F~'O~t O~CICL\L USC ONLY PSYCHOLOGY - PRINCYPLE$ 0~ PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY Moscow VOPibDSY PSIKHOLqGII in Russian No 2, 1979 pp 66-73 ~ ~Ar~icle by Y~. N. 5okolov, Moscow State Univeraity, UBSR Academy of Sciences ~ 2nstitute of P~ycholoqy, Moscow~ ; (Text~ The Subject of Paychophysioloqy ~ The term "psychophysiology" is being encountered with iiicreesir?gly qreeter frequency in the scienti�ic literature. Psychophygioloqy is uaually defined as the science of physfoloqical reactions occurrinq in chanqing peycholoqical conditions. Nence follows the special intierest paychophysioloqiats display toward the dynamics of tihose physiological reactions (eleotrxuteneous, vascu- lar, reactions elicited by brain potentiale) which chanqe siqnificantly in response to chanqes in human mental states (14). - However, the outlines of a new staqe in the developaent of paychophysioloqy as a science on the neuron mechanisms df caental prxesses are presently taking shape. in this new approach, reqietration of various physioloqical reactions continues to be highly siqnificant, but it is not the only thing that is important. This approach to psychophyafoloqy wae born in the 1960's in connectfon with advances in microelectrode registration of individual neurons (4). The subject of psychophysioloqy viewed as an iridependent science at the inter- face of psycholoqy, neurophysioloqy, and cybernetics is the neuron mechanisms of inental processes. The Method of Psychophysiology ~ The method of psychophysiology can be represented as a man-neuron-model scheme. Research beqins at the psychophysical level, at which the lar�s qoverninq relationships between stimuli and human r~actions are eatablirshed. But the research dces not end here, instead prxeedinq further to clarification of the contribution made by different types of neurons in the laws, eatr~- blished at the psychophysical level, qoverning the relationahips between 111 ' rno nvttTrTAT TiCR f1NT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~Ott dF'~'IC?AL U5~ ON1~Y ~ ~ gtimuli and reactiong. ~tegaarch is now being cAnducted in ~he clinic on the re~~tiiona nf indivl.dual neurc~ns in eonn~ction with the need for exerting a tiherapeutio influenc~ upon tih~ human brain (4). Becauge such reeearch i~ limited tio a therap~u~ic framewnrk, n~uron res~arch mu~t be conducted in para11~1 on animalg (3,6,6a,13). Psychophysical data and data acquired at the neuron 1eve1 ar~ bn7ught together in a model of the mental procass being - ~ atudi~d. This mndel is built out of neuron-like elementg representinq the moat significant, from thQ a~andpoint of informatiion transfoxn?ation, prop~rties o� a real neuron. ~he most rigid Yequirements are imposed on the model: ThQ whol~ model muati reproduce tihe characteristics of the function under analysis ati th~ pgychophyaical level, and each elementi of the model muse repr~duce th~ charactieris~ic corregponding to the r~al neuron partici- patiing in the qiven m~ntal func~inn (12). This model is not a final solution to the problem: it i~ itself a research tool. In fact, being a concrete representation of relationshipg betiween neurons, the model can be used as _ the means for conducting research Rither at the psychophysical plane, in which casQ we consider th~ entire model as a whole, or at the neurophysio- logical plane, where we determine the characteristics of its individual neuron-like elements. In this case research with the model can be performed in a broader rangQ of conditions tihan was the case in the initial experimenta. . Thus experiments with the model can subsequently anticipate research to be carried out at the p~ychophysical and neuron levels. These preliminary data, obtained fram the model, could subsequently be checked out at the psychophysical and neuron levels. Psychophysical and neuron research, in turn, helps to elaborate upon or transform the model. Thus we arrive at a spfral dfalectical prxess of development of our knowledge, where each turn means deeper knowledqe on the neuron mechanisms of inental processes. Data accumulated as of today could be formulated as the fundamental premises or principles of psychophysiology. These principles give the impression of axioms. In fact, however, they are the result of generalizing concrete experimental data. The Principle of Channel Number-Coding - This principle pertains to both signal coding and reaction coding. A siqnal is coded by a channel number with the participation of detector neurons. When a certain external stunulus acts upon one of the detectors of a bank of detectors, maximum excitation occurs. The selectively excited detector represents the signal code. When the stimulus changes, the excitation maximum shifts to another detector, thus reflecting change in the siqnal. Such selective tuning of the detectors is attained by evolutionarily selected systems of pathways between detectors and receptors for neurons at a level lower than detectors. Detectors axe a converqent type of pathways: A specific stimulus creates a single excitittion maximum in the detector. A reaction or a fragment of a reaction is coded with the participation of comcnand neurons. A command neuron is an interneuron with which the work of the actuating mechanfsm begfns. Transmitted to a set of motor neurons, an 112 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ roc~ n~t~ IC IAL U$L ~NLY . impul~~ c~rz~.~d by the command neuznn producea a par~icular pbt~arn nf ~ mntor units ~xcir~d ~o di��Qrc~nti deqre~g, thus dafining tho specificity of tihn b~havioral reaction. The aommand neuron has a div~rgent ~ypE of path- ways: Prda~eding tihrnugh a systiem of pa~hways, itA golitary impulsa qeneratea a b~havioral reactiion (8). The Principl~ of the Conc~ptiual Ref1Qx Arc The se~ of neurons responsible for trangmission of a signal from receptors to mntor unite and imparting a certain configuration to the reaction form a ~ reflex arc. The conceptual reflex arc is a model of auch a raflex arc, congtruct~d out of neuron-like elements. rn cnrres~ondence with a rQAl reflex arc, ~he conceptual reflex arc consists of an analyzer connactied to an actuating mechanism. mogerher witih receptors at the input ac~d selective detectors at the output, the neuron analyzer is responsible for reflection of the signal on a screen formed out of a set of detectors. The actuating mech~nism, which is triggered by a so~itary impulse of a command neuron, causes a given concrete reaction tio occur through a complex pattern of pathways. The Principle of Reflection of Signals on a Sphere AcGing simultaneously upon several independent receptors, a stimulus gen~rates characteristic impulses in each of them. This set of independent receptor impulses forms the impulse vector. Through a system of synaptic pathways, these impulses pass to a detector, which sums the incoming signals. In this case the excitation reaches its maximum in one of the deteators. In order for such a solitary excitation maximum to occuY within a set of detectors, the pathways between the receptors and each of the detectors must - be selected in a particular fashion, namely such tha*. the impulses travelinq _ along the individual channels are propoYtional to the coefficients of the pathways. in other words in order that the given detector would respond with maximum excitation relative to al1 other detectors in the set, the impulses traveling to it must form an impulse vector collinear with the vector of the pathways between this detector and the receptors. In fact, while independent impulses from different receptors make up the components of the impulse vector, independent coefficients of the synaptic pathways between receptors and detectors farm the components of the pathway vector. The detector reaction itself, meanwhile, is equal to the sum of the paired pro- ducts of the incoming impulse and the pathway coefficient. In terms of vector algebra, the detector reaction is a scalar product of two vectors-- the impulse vector and the pathway vector. Given constant coordinates for the pathway vector inherent to a given detector, the scalar product attains its maximum when the vectors are collinear--that is, when their components are proportional. A si.milar line uf reasoning would be valid in relation to other detectors. This means that the precondition for attaininq maximum excitation is th:t the characteristics of the detectors must satisfy the equation of a sphere. In terms of a sphere with unit radius, the components ` 113 " i...~~~r ~ ~ �~f~T /~\if APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 - ro~ o~~~~tc~aL us~ ornY nf the impulse vector must assum~ tihe valu~s of directricial cosines--that is, th~ cnsines of thQ angles formed between the impulse vec~or and the coordina~a = ~xes. Thus the characteristics nf the impulses produced by receptors connected = to the detectors must be cosinusoids. If the characteristic of the receptora = is differen~, then fnternc~urons with pathway coefficients insuring correction to a cosit~uSOid at the outpu~ must be included betiween the receptors dnd the detecrors. Such intermediate neurnns may be called primary detectors or predetectors. Generating a cosine function at the output. predetectors insure, through proportional pathway coefficients,tt~aL� a maximum reaction would - occur in a selective dot~ctor, equal to the sum of ~he ~quares of the incoming impulses and satisfying the sphere equation. ' Thus an external signal acting on recep~ors generates, directly or with the participation of predetectors, an impulse vector with components satisfying the equatiion of a sphere. When the external signal changes the in~pulae veator changes, and now the excitation maximum occurs on another detector, - the pathway vector of whicll is collinear with a new impulse vector--that fs, when the external signal chanqes, the excitation maximum shifts from one detector to another. The set of collective detectors formiriq the sphere over which the excitation maximum, the sole one in relation to each dignal, - moves, can be called, due to its resemblance to the receptor surface, the quasireceptive surface. External signals are reflected by movement of the locus of the impuYse over this quasireceptive surface. The Principle of Measuring Subjective Distances in Angular Units Coding a signal with 4 channel number means that a signal in the nervous system is represented by a locus of excitation on a sphere forming the _ perceptive space. The extent of the subjective difference between stimuli depends on how far apart the detectors representing these signals are located on this surface. The distance between detectors on the sphere fnrminq the _ quasireceptive surface is measured as the angle between the impulse vectors ~ qenerated by these signals. An arc delimiting those detectors which represent the signals being compared responds to tYiis angle on the sphere. Thus the subjective distance between stimuli is measured as the angle between the impulse vectors generated by the signals under comparison. In terms of the spherical perception model, the differential threshold, defined as a barely noticeable subjective difference between thresholds, is measured as the angle between two adjacent detectors. When the external signal changes _ by a threshold amount, the impulse vector shifts from one detector to another ' neighboring detector. As long as the signal changes by an amount less than that necessary to shift the impulse vector to another detector, these change~ in the signal are not perceived subjectively. The subjective distance between stimuli, measured as the angle between impulse vectors representinq the signals, is equal to the sum of the differential thresholds, measured as the angles between detectors on the sphere. Given a fixed density of detectors in the neuron analyzer, in angular units the differential threshold is constant. In this case the subjective d~~~ur.;:e is equal to the sum of the differential thresholds, on the condition that both values are given in angular units. 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ro~ orrtc~nL usL orn~~ ThQ Princ~.ple of Vecti~r Addi~ion Accompaiiying Signal Stnunation Because a~eignal produces an independent ~.mpulse in each receptor, tihe cumulative effecti o� several stimuli can be de~ermined only by s~u?uning the impu~.~es in each receptior ~aken individually. In tha language of vector algebra, this means tihat 3f a stimulus generates an impulse veotor, then the effect of the sum o� :he signals i~ represen~ed by the sum of the impulse vectors generated by each s~imulus separately. mhus signals in the nervous system undergo vector addi~ion, in the sense ~hat impulses in each channel are added toge~her independently of one ano~her. This permits us to explain the qualitative changes occurring in perception whQn ~wo dif.fes~~~t signals undergo summation. The Piinciple of the Invariant Detector and the Invariant Screen Forming a quasireceptive surface, the detectors examined above encode a ~ signal on this surface by means of ~he locus of maximum excitiation. In this - case each selective detector has its own constant set of pa~hways connecting = it with receptors or predetectors. Let us examine a detector having a path- way vector which changes in response to signals transmitted from a supple- mentary set of detectors. This means ~hat given presence of the same signal in the principal set of detectors, the excitation maximum would move through this set as ~he pathway coefficients of tY;e principal set change fn _ response to the influence of signals coming in fran the supplementary set of detectors. This shifting of the maximum in the principal set would thus be a mirror image of changes occurring in the impulse in the supplementary set of detectors. In the event that the impulse in the supplementary set of detectors changes together with changes in the impt~lse transmitted to t2ie principal set of detectors, the excitation maximum would in the ' same detector of the principal set. This would happen because change in the impulse at the input of the principal set of detectors would cause the coefficients of the pathways between the detector~ and the receptors to change in accordance with the behavior of the impulse in the auxiliary set of detectors. Such detector~s in the principal set would be invariant detectors. The set of invariant detectors forms the invariant screen dis- playing the external signal. Invariant detectors are what are responsible for constancy of perception. The Principle of Emphasizing Differences Between Signals ' The m~st important function of the nervous system is to isolate signals fracn an interference background. The mechanism of lateral inhibition is used ; for this purpose. Lateral inhibition is achieved at the level of sele tive ' detectors by a system of inhibitory relationships between them. The _ magnitude of the inhibitory effect is proportional to the distance between detectors on a sphere, points on which represent individual detectors. As a result of lateral inhibition between selective detectors, their selec- tivity in relation to an external signal rises. However, the posit'~n of 115 F(1R ~FFICIAT, iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 roR o~~'IC TAL US ~ ONLY the excitatiun maximum on ~he sphere does not chanqe in this case. Therefore the signal is perceived to be the same as if la~eral inhibi~ion had not occurred. A system of receptors, predetectors, and selective detactoxs forms a neuron analyzer, which 1oca11y services a part~icular zone of external space. Other zones of external space are serviced by other spatially localized neuron analyzers having the same neuron composition. In this case predetectors of the same types in different spatially locaLized analyzers are re~a~ed together by lateral inhibition. As a result of ~hfs we have simultaneous con~ras~- emphasis of differences between stimuli affecting spatially different neuron - analyzers. In addition to lateral inhibition, there is one more mechanism at the level of detectors and predetectors insuring higher differential sensitivity of one local neuron analyzer. This mechanism is one of adaptation in the pre- detector link. Undergoing adaptation, a predeteator's sensitivity decreases - to different amounts, namely in proportion to the degree to which the given predetector is stimulated. The sensitivity of a highly stimulated predetector decreases more, while that of a weakly stimulated one decreases less. In - this case the relationship among components of the impulse vector changes, - and the excitation maximum shifts to another selective detector, which is subjectively perceived as change in the signal in the course of adaptation. Illusory perception results. This illusion is the price we must pay for possessing the biologically expedient function of adaptation at the pre- detector level, the payoff being hiqher resolution of the analyzer as a result of adaptation. This increase in differential sensitivity of the neuron analyzer occurs mainly in relation to signals close to ~he one to which the analyzer undergoes adaptation. Thus changes in any long-acting signal are emphasized (12). The Principle of Plastic Convergence of Detectors on a Command Neuron _ A system of detectors making up a neuron analyzer causes selective reflection of a signal on the quasireceptive surface due to attainment of an excitation maximum in one of the detectors. With this, the function of the neuron comes to an end. The function is now taken over by the actuatinq mechanism. In order that a signal would produce a specific behavioral reaction, the detectors must be connected to a com~nand neuron responsible for actuation of this reaction. If the detectors are connected to a command neuron rigidly, then this structure produces lock-and-key reactions, as described in ethology. But we are nuch more interested in variable relationships between detectors and coamnand neurons. A multiplicity of detectors converges upon a single command neuron. But this convergence is plastic: The degree to which a detector is associated with a command neuron . changes in the course of learning. As a result of learning, a given behavioral reaction may be elicited by stimuli different fran those effective prior to learning. The effectiveness of a stimulus in relation to such a behavioral reaction would depend on which detectors are connected to the ` 116 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 rOR OI~ N~TC TAL USL ONLY ~ command neurons ~nd which are disconnected from i~. ~n this case th~ de~ec~ors that had been effective earlier may bc:come disconnected, while previously ineffective detectors may be connec~ed. This would be expressed at the behavioraL level as change in the reflexogenic zone of the brain that is effective in producing a behavioral reac~ion. Plastic cotivergence means that d~~tectiors are variably connected to and disconnec:ted from a - command neuron (8). The Principl~ of 5timulus-Dependent and Effact-Dependent Learning ' Assuming plastic convergence to ho1d, we can in~erpret the l~~arning mer.hanism as a process of alteration of initial rela~ionships between stimitli and ' reactions. We can disting~~tish between stimulus-dependent and effect- ~ dependent learning. With stimulus-depen3ent learning the coefficients of the pathwa~rs between detectors and command neurons change only depending on what par.ticular pathways were acted upon. Reinforcement does not play a ~ significant role in ~his case. With stimulus-dependent learning the coe�fi- cients of the path~~~3ys between detectors and command neurons may grow ' (facilitation) or decline (habituation). At the behavioral level, facilitation causes arisal of a selective increase in reaction intensity in response to a repeated stimulus. When habituation develops, we observe selective weakening of the reaction in response to a repeated stimulus (9). Effect-dependent learning is a result of changes in the coe~ficients of pathways between detectors and command neurons in response to combination of a stimulus with biologically important reinforcement. In this case we are dealing with the classical conditioned reflex (2,7). Here we find that ~ depending on the adaptive significance of the reaction, signals travel to that command neuron which triggers this given reaction. In this case the pathways between detectors participating in this biologically important reaction grow stronger. Pathways between the command neuron and those detectors which represent signals that do not produce an adaptive effect de- crease in importance. Thus only those detectors, excitation of which is followed by an adaptive effect from the given reaction, form highly effective associations with the command neuron responsible for ~he biologically impor- tant reaction. Those detectors which trigger a reaction which does not produce an adaptive effect are disconnected from the comanand neuron responsi?~le for the given reaction. Thus the process of effect-dependent learning proceeds at the level of individual command neurons. Anokhin (1) was the first to suggest the idea that a conditioned reflex could be closed at the level of an individual neuron. The high effectiveness and stability ~ of conditioned reflexes in relation to perturbing influences can be explained ; by the fact that .pooling together, command neurons achieve a state of mutual redundancy in support of a reaction, and the learning process aff~cts these pools as wholes. 117 ' F(1R f1FFT('T4T, i1CR (1NT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~oR orrtc:Ync~ ilsr ornY The Principle of Redistribution of Reaction Pr3.orities In adflition to de~ectors and command neurons, we should ciistinguish a group of neurons which do not elicit reac~ions but increase or decrease excitabili~y of command nei?rons. Such modulating neurons, or modulator neurons, can be subdivided into local modulators and generalizc;d modulators. Locally _ modulating neurons increase the excitability of one or several command neurons responsible for a particular system ot reactions. Generally modulating neurons, which regulate the level of activ~~ion, simultaneously act upon all command neurons, emphasizing excitatior3 of ttiose command neurons which had previously existed at a high stimulation lev~l. Thus the reaction to a stimulus depends not only on the e�fectivene~s of pathways between detectors and command neurons but also on ~he contribution made by modulating neurons which, changing the level of excitation of command neurons, redistribute the reaction priorities. The Principle of Reaction Uniqueness A typical feature of behavior ~s thatin any moment in time, only one behavioral reaction occurs. This does not mean, however, that just one physiological reaction occurs. A behavioral reaction is a complex functional system ` involving an entire set of mutually associated physiological reactions. A behavioral reaction is put into play by a pool of mutually associated neurons. Referring subsequently to individual command neurons, I will be implying representatives of pools of command neurons responsible for behavioral reactions. ~nasmuch as occurrence of a reaction depends on stimulation - ~ of the command neuron representing it, in order that the behavioral reactian would remain unique just a single command neuron within the composition of command neurons representing different behavioral reactions must under5o excitation. This uniqueness of a behavioral reaction is achieved at the level of com�nand neurons by two mechanisms--growth in thresholds, and intense lateral inhibition between command neurons representing different reactions. As a result of the interaction of these two mechanisms we achieve uniqueness of command neuron excitation and uniqueness of the reaction associated witYi this neuron. Under otherwise equal conditions, the probability of a - behavioral reaction occurring in response to a given stiunulus is defined by _ the coefficients of transforming associations between detectors and the given command neuron. From this standpoint the matrix of the probabilities of transitions from stimulus to reaction, arrived at in behavioral and psycho- physical experiments, carries a great deal of information, reflecting the coefficients of the pathways between detectors and command neurons responsible for occurrence of the corresponding behavioral reactions. Practical rpplications of Psychophysio3ogv The examined models of neuron structures lying at the basis of perception and learriing allow us to make important generalizations. Such models have great prognostic value. Thus the principle of channel number coding leads to a spherical model of perception. Research on color vision (10) and study of motion perception (5) have confirmed these prognoses. 118 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 roiz orrrcr~L us~ o?vi,Y - Research on.the neuron mechanisms responsible for m~n~al prncesses, which - c~nc.ludes with mofleling the function under analysis in the form of a structure consis~ing nf neuron-like elements, opens up n~w possibilities for developin~ the basic ways i:o mechanically compensate for loat sensomotor func~ians. In _ ~his case the pr~sthesis replacir; ~he organ of vision, hearing, or locomotion ; is designed on the basis of the principle of agreemant or ~he characteristics - oF real neurons and those neuron-like eletrents out of which the progthesis is made. This would allow us to achieve a compatibility between tihe prosthesis and brain neuron struct~ires, such that produced by the ,ieuron-like elements of the prosthesis would be adequate to the corresponding neuron structurES of the brain. The bionic aspect of modeling mental functions out of neuron-].ike elements , should be emphasized. Such models may help us ~n our efforts at designing artificial sense organs for robots. I Finally, acceptance of analysis of neuron activity and of models built out ' of neuro~-like elements as the most important elements of psychophysiological research would enrich the psychophysical methods for studying sensory, motor, and conceptual functions. - ~ BIBLIOGRAPHY i 1. Anokhin, P. K., "Biologiya i neyrofiziologiya uslovnogo refleksa" - (Biology and Neurophysiology of the Conditioned Reflex), Moscow, 1968, 547 pp. ' 2. Asratyan, E. A., "Ocherki po fiziologii uslovnykh refleksov" (Notes on Conditioned Reflex Physiology), Moscow, 1970, 381 pp. ~ 3. Batuyev, A. S., "Kortikal'nyye mekhanizmy integrativnoy dey,.tel'nosti" (Cortical Mechanisms of Integrative Brain Activity), Leningrad, 1978, 52 pp. 4. Bekhtereva, N. P., "Neyrofiziologicheskiye aspekty psikhicheskoy ' deyatel'nosti cheloveka" (Neurophysiological Aspects of Human Mental Activity), Leningrad, 1971, 224 pp. ~ 5. Vaytkyavichus, G. G., Korzh, N. N., and Sokolov, Ye. N., "The Effect of Adaptation in the Motion Direction Analyzer," BIOFIZIKA, Vol 22, No 6, ~ pp 1095-1099. 6. Vasilevskiy, N. N., "Neyronal'nyye m~khanizmy kory bol'shikh polushariy" ~ (Neuron Mechanisms of the Cerebral Cortex), Leningrad, 1968, 191 pp. -i 6a. Vinogradova, O. S., "Gippokamp i pamyat (The Hippocampus and Memory), Moscow, 1975, 333 pp. 7. Pavlov, I. P., "Polnoye sobraniye trudov" (Complete Collected Works), Moscow-Leningrad, Vol 4, 1947, 351 pp. 119 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 _ ~Olt O~~ICIAL U5E ONLY i~ g. Sokolnv, Ye. N., "mh~ D~tpctor, the Coamm~d Neurnn, anfl Plaetic Convergence," ZHURNAL VYSSHEY NERVNOY DEYATEL'NOS22, Vol 27, No 4, 1977, r~p 691-697. - _ Snkolov, Ye. N., "Th~ N~rv~ Mddel of a 3tiimulus in a Regiex Arc," - zl{URNAL VYS3H~'[ N~RVNOY DEYA7'EL'NOSTI, Vol 2A, NO 2, 197f1, pp 227-237. 10. Sokolov, Ye. N. , irsnaylov, Ch. A. , 2zma~? lova, T. V. , anc'l 2in?achev, M. M. , "A Sphericai Model of Color Vieion," V~'STNiK MOBKOVSKAGO IN-TA. BLRIYA: PSIKHOLOGIYA, Nd 1, 1977, pp 5-52. 11. Fanin, S. V., Sokolov, Ye. N., Vaytkynvichus, G. G., and Sioznyalia, M. Yu., "rhe Principle of Maximum Sensitivity in Detector Bystems," BIOFIZIKA, ~ Vos 19, 1974, pp 734-739. 1~. Fwnin, 5. V., Sokolov, Ye. N., Vautkyavichus, C. G., and Bloxnyalig, M. Yu., "A Model of Line Slope Goding," BiO~'IZiKA, Vol 19, 1974, pp 514-520. 13. Shul'qina, G. I., "Sioelektricheskaya aktiivnast' golovnogo nwzqa i uslovnyy refleke" (Srain Bioelectric Activitiy and the Conditioned Rs~lex), Moscow, 1978, 232 pp. 14. Hassett, J., "A Pria~er of Paychophyaiology," W. H. Free~an and Coa?pany, San Francisco, 1978, 215 pp. COPYRIGHTs "Voprosy psikhologii", "Pedagogikn", 1979 11004 CSO: 1840 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~Ott nF~IC~AL US~ ONLY i ~ 5CIEN~I~TS AND SCI~NT~FIC O1tCANI~ATIONS SIX'CN INT~I2NA'TIbNAL BIOPl~YSICS CONGIt~SS Moscow Bink'IZIKA in Itu~gian Nn 3, 1979 pp 572-~575 - (ArCicle by G. It. Iv~nitgkiy ~nd K. Ye. Kruglyakova] ~Tpxt~ Th~ Sixth InternaCiongl Biophyeics Congres~, which wag arganized ~h~ ' the IUPAB (Inrernational Union of Pur~ and Applied Biophy~ic~j ~ouncil~ scientific counnil and Biophyeical Society of Jepan, convened in Kyoto ~ (Japan) on 3-9 September 1978. More than 1500 scientieCe from 39 countries participated in the work of the~congress. The main branches of biophysic~ were represented at the congrese in 24 eym- ' poaium$ and 38 sections, including more than 1000 Yeports using display ~ stands. There Were the most symposiums dealing with bioenergetics, biophyaice ' of hemoprotein.s, photophysical proceeses and environmental biophyeica� In ~ addition, there were sympoaiums on the etructure of chromatin, mechaniama of , sparial nrganization of proCeins end nucleic acids, membranes, molecular i baees of excitation and orheti preasing problems of biophysica. The moeC ~ impressive [representative?~ sectiong were those dealing with structural and functional organization of proteina (229 papers), ~embranes (209), regulatioa and energetics of muscular contractions (148), photobiology (106)~ ~ neuronal function (72)~ function of nucleic acids (60), environmental bio- physics (25 papers) and othera. ~ie cannot single our any sensational reports; hoWever, the level of sophiati- cation of the congress was quite high. The topics of the congrese reflected the established trends in development of biophyeics: as before, there aas prevalence of papers dealing with strucCural and functional organization of proteine, nucleic acids, membranes and componenta thereof. There ia also ' a tendency toward increase in number of studies of cellular mechanisms of ~ regulation and kinetics of biological processes. i ' This is also manifested in the tenc'~ncies of development of experimental technology. In his speech at the opening of the congress, B. Chance (United States), president of the IUPAB council, observed that new equipcient based on computer technology is being developed for the study of the dynamics of multiparameter processes in the cell. There must be utmost development of experimental methods based on ultrasonic technology, radiospectroacopy, etc. 121 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 f ~pA b~t~ICIAL U5~ ONLY In ~ddition C~ tihe m~in prngram, eh~ HCh Ineern~tion~l Cnn�erenc~ dn Che Mns~b~u~r ~ffe~e, ~ gemingr dn cyeochromoxidagn ~nd ehe Ineernational 5umm~r = S~h~nl of Bidphygicg were h~ld prior ed the congr~s~. After Ch~ congresm~ 13 diff~rene ~ympogium~ gnd conf~r~nces wer~ orgeniz~d (for exgrople, a collo- quium on se1E-erg~ni~~eion nf prnteing, gympogium oc~ qu~nCum biophysi~e nnd e1~~Crokin~ti~ ~epectg of bioingi~gl m~mbrenes, 8t~ Internation~l Conference on Magnetfc Rpsnnnnc~ in gioingical Sygeeme~ s~minar on biocalorimetry and othere). A 1Chdugh we c~nc~o~ disCUSg pxC~ngiv~ly in Chis brief repnrC gll nf the pap~rs, we eh~11 dw~ll only on some of th~ ones d~livered et th~ gymposiumg. R~g~grch de~ling with ehe structure of inembranes and molecular mobility in biological membranes was repreaenC~d aC several symposiums. It can be ~rbitrarily divided ineo ehree main problems: phyeicochemical properCie~ of protpine ~nd phospholipide ~g th~ main chemical componente of inembranes; specialized membranes of animal and bacterial ce11s; model membranes (lipo- somes, synthetic bilayer membranes, lipid monolayerg and oChers). Origirial approaches and modern physical and phyaicochemical analytic meChode were used _ in all of thege investigations. Much interest was aroused by the paper of 5. Fleisher (UniC~d 5taCes), which ~ dealt wiCh phospholipid-protein interacCions in biological membranes on the example of analysis of reconstruction of ewo enzymatic systems, oxybutyrate dehydrogenase from the internal mitochondrial membrane and fragmenta of sarcoplasmic reticulum of the rabbit sk~letal muscle. T. Thompson and J. M. Show (United Statea) succeasfully used the meChod of proton nuclear reaonance to study the decrease in bilayer asymmetry pr~duced with phosphatidyl- exchanging protein, and they determined the half-life (26 days) for migration _ of lipids from the external monolayer to the internal. Analysis of lateral mobility in model and native biomembranes by the method of spin-labeled phospholipids was the topic of the paper of McConnel (United States). Much attention was attracted by the paper of M. Montal (United States), who was _ the first to succeed in obtaining asymmetrical flat phospholipid membranea containing a minimal amount of organic solvent. The suthor was able to insert animal rhodopsin into a flat bilayer membrane and to demonstrate that - potential-dependent ion channels are formed under illumination. The channels opened at zero voltage and closed when the voltage was raiaed. A simple model a of phototransduction was proposed, in which rhodopsin functions by means of formation of light-activated and potential-dependent transmembrane channels. R. M. Franklin (Switzerland) reported on the feasiblity of complete die- assembly of lipid-containing PM2 bacteriophage and subsequenC reconstruction thereof in several stag~s. The reconstructed bacteriophage presented bio- logical activity. Y. Kagawa (Japan) submitted data concerning the poasibility of complete reconstruction of H+-ATPase from elements of isolated membranes - of thermophilic Ps3 bacteria. The ATPase of this ob~ect is resisCant not only to temperature, but other factors (alcohol, urea and others); there are strong bonds between its subunits, and they are readily restored after dissoci- ation. The paper of P. Malathi and R. K. Crane (United Statea) prompted an 122 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ; ~ ~OEt O~~~CIAL U5~ ONLY ~ ~nimgC~d digCU~~i~n; ie d~~lt wi~h reaon~eru~ei~n CE N~~dep~nd~nt tran~purr of ~lgnin~ ~nd glucoge in lipagnmeg nn th~ ba~i~ df "membrnn~ m~C~ri~1" from m~mbran~~ di t1i~ brugh bdrdee nf ~pithpliai ne11~ nf th~ gmull inCeeCine gnd kidney. Th~r~ wpre Cw~ g~~sidng nf a gymp~~ium dn biaenergeCic~. 'Th~ pnp~r o� V. P. Skul~c~i~v (US5It) d~a1t wiCh eh~ ConcepCion df eh~ role of Che Ng~'/tC~' ~rgdi~n~�in m~mbrgne gcCUmulaCinn df en~rgy in ~ livin~ ce11. This ~onc~p- Cion ig c~nfirm~d by ehe ~xperim~nCg nf U. O~gterh~ir ~C ~1. (~ItG)~ The papers~pregene~d by T. ~brey (UniCed Stat~e), D. Opsterh~lt (~RG), tt. Henderg~p (Englgnd) and oehere submitted npw data on ba~reriorhodopgin. A. ~ Lening~r (UniC~d SCnCeg) delivered ~ paper on gtoiChiomeCry nf th~ prdton in th~ cnurg~ of eleceron Cr~nsport and ATp hydrolysig in mitochnndria. M. Wikatrom (~inland) r~port~d dn tt.~ mechanigm of thp cytochromoxidage rencCion. ~ Ne expound~d eh~ vi~w thgt cytochromoxidne~ funceions 1ik~ g proCdn pump tn implem~nt Crgnsfer through the membrgn~ nf fdur H~' ions for every atom nf nxygen nongumed. At the meetings d~~ling with molecula~r buses of ce11 ~xcitabiltry, ther~ wgg the mosC comprehensive cnverage of questions pertainin~ to the role of calcium chann~lg in the neuronal membrane (P. G. Kostyuk, U55it), merhanisms of sodium and potxssium gating currents (!t. Keynes, England), as well as current reaponses of the skelptal muscle membrane Co a drastic change in potential (W. Chandl~r, United Statea). At the symposium on mechanisms of spatial organizgtion of proteina and nucleic acids, papers were delivered on theoretical modeling of the procesa of self- organization of prntein structures (0. PCitein, USSR; G. Scheraga~ United i States), kinetics of protein rolling (bending~ (R. Baldwin, United States), ' as well as on Che experimental search for intermediated (partially rolled) forms of protein molecules (T. Creighton, England; K. Kuwa~ima, Japan) and ' others. Analysis of the papers delivere~! ~^r.n:~~s that dealt with chromatin revealed that, it the present time, much attention is being given to the complex approach to the ~study of chromatin structure by means of use of modern biochemical and biophysical methods, which permits demonstration of the correlation between sCructural distinctions of chromaCin and ita functional activity. The papar of E. M. Bradbury (England) was concerned with the ~ structure of chroroatin; it offered evidence of the existence of tWO typea of nucleosomal particles that differ in sedimentaCion coefficient (SS and 11S) and a higher ratio of nonhistone ;,roteins to histones in the 11S monomer. ~ The paper of G. Felsenfeld (United States) dealing with the structure of nucleosomes and organization of chromatin proteins and several other papers (K. Watanabe, Japan; G. S. Stein et al., United States) described studies of the properties of reconstituted DNA-hiatone complexes. It was shown that appearance of a complex of DNA with intranucleosomal histones is multiphasic, and it resembles appearance of polynucleosomal chaina of chromatin. The complex of DNA with total histones resenbles unadulterated chromatin in its melting features. 123 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ ~o~ d~~tciai. us~ ornY 'The paperg de~ling wieh th~ etructur~ nf nucl~ei~ ~Cid~ ~nn be divid~d inen ~ev~rnl graupg, d~pending an eh~ nb~ectiv~~ di th~ gtudte~. dn~ of eh~m ~duld inelude gtudieg nf ~nmplex formntinn nnd ine~rnceion nf d~ff~r~ne Cnm- pnnents nf bNA ~nd ItNA in gqueous golutibng Morimoto, Jap~n; A. Zi~l~nki~ai~~, Pdli~h P~op1~'g Republir; B. p~r1y ~t ~1., ~r~nc~~ ~nd othere). ~he~r~ei~~l 8nd ~xp~rim~ntgl d~Cg on th~ eecnnd~ry gerucCurp of DNA w~r~ ~ubmitt~d in th~ pgp~rg df m. S~tn (Jap~n), Uzi~rz~wicz (Polieh P~op1~'~ tt~publi~) ~nd J. M. S~hurr (Unit~d S~~C~s). A cyclp of studie~ w~e repnrCed dn the gtrueture of UNA complexe~ (UNA + druge, proC~ing, dy~~) with the uge of npw methddg (~pin 1~b~ling, ~lectron diChroi~m ~nd othere (Y. Nighimurg, .T~pan; H. 5ingh~t ~t al.; India). We muet commenC on th~ achi~v~m~nts of Jgpanege scientietg, who propoeed aever~l sensitive methodg ~nd d~monetrated new inetrum~ntg for recording th~ structur~l org~r.~izetion of flUG10~C ~cid mnl~cul~g and componentg thereof. Virtu~lly ~11 ggpeCeg nf inve~tig~tion of ehe proceeg of mu~cular contractinn were repr~sented at the congrese: properti~ee of muecle proteing, nrg~nizgtion ther~of in the earcom~re~ mol~culnr mechanisms nf generation of Cension, r~gulatnry ~ygtems of muscles, enargetica of muacular contraction, ~rc. Prominent speci~lists in mugcular conCraction delivered pepers at the Cwo ses~ions of the symposium deuling with rhese questions: H. E. Huxley (Great Britain), A. Weber (United States), Y. Tonomura (Japan), A. G. Szent-Gyorgyi (United SCgtea) and others. Many papers were delivered on the sub~ect of photophysical processes. In these papere, attention was focuaed mainly on problems of photosynthegis and phoCoreception. The paper of C. Feher (UniC~d Statea) dealt with the chemical composition, atructure and properties of reactive centers isolated from photo- synthesizing bacteira. It was ghown that the center8 consist of three sub- units of protein with attached prosthetic groups: 4 molecules of bacterio- chlorophyll, 2 molecules of bacteriopheophytin, 2 of ubiquinone and 1 bound atom of iron. The sequence of Cransport of an electron in the reactive center, from bacterioct~lorophyll to bacteriopheophytin was studied With the uae of picosecond laser beams (W. W. Parson, United StaCes). L. N. M. Duysens (Holland) reported on electron transporC in the photosystem of plants and, on the basis of his results, he proposed a hypothetical model of the structure of reaction centers of the photosystem. The model contains a chlorophyll dimer as the elecCron donor and plaetoquinone as the electron acceptor. Most of the papers, submitted in the form of reports using display stands, dealing with photosynthesis were primairly concerned with the study of primary phutobiological processes in chloroplasts, primarily processes of bacterial photosynthesis, as well as modeling of photosynthetic processes. As compared to the preceding congress (in Denmark, 1975), more papers were delivered at the one in Japan thaC dealt with primary stages of photosynthesis and ott~er photobiological processes. Questions pertaining to photoreception 124 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~Ott ~~'~ICII~L US~ ONLY wpr~ di~CU~med itt three ~~pectg ~r Chi~ Cdngrp~~: ~CruCC~r~ nf vtgu~l pi~�- mentg~~'phoench~m.tgtry th~redf and g~COnd~ry phdCor~ceptnr pro~~gg~g. Mogt of eh~'findingg w~r~ m~d~ with modpl syet~ms (H. K~kitaini, Japnn; A. Kropf, United 3t~te~; nnd T. Yoshixawa, Japan). L~nvironm~nt~l binphysiC~ wg~ rhe topic of thrpe ~ympoaiume, AC tohich th~r~ we~ diecu~~iorr of queeCione rplaCed tn Ch~ mechanism~ of ~~Ci~n of chemicbl nnd phy~ic~l envirdnm~nC~l facrore on the body gnd biologicc~l systemg (V. tygC~ov, USStt; 'T. 5lgimura, J~pan; Y. ~u~iwar~, Japgn; ~nd H. GlubrechC, _ ~RG); que~einn~ df correl~Ci~n betw~en liying orgenigms and th~ environmenC (ndapt~ti~n of or~~nigmg Cd life in ~ giv~n ~nvironmenC) w~r~ d~ecuss~d by M. Lindguer (FRG), Y. '~~maki (Japgn), A. Michelson (Uemm~rk), N. W. Lisgman (Engl~nd) and H. Sug~ (Unit~d SCntes); ther~ were also papere d~aling wiCh biophy~icol problem~ r~laCed to 11fe in bioc~noses with high ~alt levels (A. ~inck, ~RG: A. Muh~mm~d~ ~akisCan; it. H. NiemAn et ~1., Unitpd Stae~s). 7'here wae g gpecinl sympogium on methodnlogical questiong o� obtgining immo- bilized enxym~g from Che celle of microorganisms and uging eheee systems in ; indugCry gnd clinical prnctice (J. ChibaCu, Japan; J. F'. Kennedy et al., England; J. K1ein, ~ItG, and oehere). In the gtudies repc~rted to ehe congresa, extensive use was made of such taodern physical analyCicgl mzthods ae x-ray analysis, electron epin reaonance and nuclear magnetic reaonance epecCroscopy, el~ctron microscopy and others. X-ray analysis of proteins and complexes thereof was the topic of the papers of K. Sasaki et ul. (.Tapnn), T. Tsukahara et al. (Japan) and X-iay analysis - of choler~ toxin was Che topic of A. Uongs (UniCed States); X-ray analysis , of tyrosine RNA synthesis was discussed by D. M. Blow (England); the same method was used to study processea of muscular contraction by K. Holmes (FRG) and others. ' Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrosopcy was discussed in papers dealing with studies of the structure df proteina, nucleic acids, membranes, muaclea, brain and others (Ch. Ho, United SCates; W. Ribbing, FRG.; D. Torchi a et al., United States; T. Higashi~ima, Japan~ and others). K. Wuthrich (Switzerland) digcuased new poasibilities for the study of the conformation of biopolymers by the method of high reaolution nuclear magnetic resonance; W. L. Peticolas (United States) delivered a paper on the uae of laser Raman spectroscopy for quantitative evaluation of the secondary structure of proteins and nucleic acids in solution. I Quantum chemistry methods were used for the study of processes of electron transport, energetics of enzymatic catalysis and transfer of excitation energy (D. Devault, United States; A. Pullman, France; S. Yomosa, Japan; and W. Lipacomb, United States). 125 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~OR n~'~2CIAL US~ ONLY Therc wng g gepar~C~ ~ympoeium degling wieh n npw meChod nf gnalyeis of ehe gtruceur~ nf biologiagl nb~eatg bgg~d on Chr~~-dimengiongl reconeerucCinn. An~lygis o� ehr~e-dimensional sCruceureB on the be~ig of Cheir ~lectron microgCOpie itt~g~~ ta th~ claesical direction ~.n this field (L. D. Pegchey, Unie~d St~Cee). H. Takaeaki (Japgn) discus~ed the poesibility of ineeeut~ing Che topography (curvgture of ~urfac~g) of di�ferent microob~ects ranging in size from ~ few millimeters to gevergl m~rerg, on the basis of the moire _ ~ffect. On b~half of a Cenm of aCienGiges. P. Lauberbur (UniCed SCates) report~d on rhe new principles of reading inforcmtion obtained by meang of ~ nuclear magnetic resonance. The papera delivered nt Chis congresa on modeling of biological systems re- flected various levels of research, bo~h with respect to the ob~ects stud~.ed and methods used. A spatial model of inCeracting populations in a hetero- _ genenus envirnnment was diecuased in a paper by Japaneae scientists (K. Kawagaku et al.). Snme Cheoretical stationary properties of Cwo clasaes of multienzyme model systems were analyzed in Che ppaer of T. L. Hill (United States). The feasibility of modeling the immunological reaponae to cancer was Che topic of G. Nikolia and Lefevre (Belgium). N. Yamamura (Japan) dis- cugsed a mathematical mudel of two inCeracting apecies end the influence of fluctuations in envlronmental properties. We muat mention the fact Chat the congresa was well-organized, its services functioned efficiently, and there was an excellenC complex of buildings in Kyoto Chat were specially inCended for international congresses. A new IUPAB board was e;ected during the congress. Prof Ebashf (Japan) became the president and K. Wuthrich (5witzerland), the general secretary. On the whole, the congress demonstrated that biophyaics is a rapidly - developing science that has much practical importance. The next congress will convene in Mexico in 1981. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Biofizika", 1979 10,657 CSO: 1840 . 126 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ I ~ I~'OR 17~~ICIAL USC ONLY � I i ~ ~ TOXICOLOGY i I i UDC 612.815.2r598.126~595.799 I I EFFECT OF PI2ESYNAPTIC NEURpTOXINS FR~OM BEE AND COBRA VENOM ON SPONTANEOUS SECRETION OF TRANSMITTER SUBSTANCE BY MOUSE MOTOR NERVE ENDINGS ~ ~ Moscow BYULLETEN' EKSPERIMENTAL'NOY BIOLOGII I MEDYTSINY in Russian No 5, 1979 pp 396-399 i ~ [Article by M. A. Kamenskaya, L. G. Magazanik, Ye. R. Kotova, N. K. Satybaldin~, ~ A. I. Miroshnikov, and Yu. R. Apsalon, Department of Human and Animal i Physiology of Moscow University imeni M. V. Lomonosov, the Synaptic Process ~ Biophysics Group of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Evolutionary ~ Physiology and Biochemistry imeni I. M. Sechenov, Leningrad, and the Laboratory of Protein Chemistry. of the U3SR Academy of Sciences Ins~itute of ~ Bioorganic Chemistry imeni M. M. Shemyakin, Moscow] ~ [Text] Neurotoxins with presynaptic action have been isolated from animal ~ venoms. Many of these toxins are also type A2 phospholipases (PLA), enzymatic activity of the toxins being significant to manifestation of thefr toxic effect (3-6,9,11). I To clarif t . ~ y he mechanism behind the blocking presynaptic action of neurotoxins i of this type, we felt it important to study the influence of PLA isolated ~ fromhee venom (P13) and the Central Asian cobra Nc~,ja oxictrta (PC) on spontaneous ' transmitter release by motor nerve endings of a mammal (a mouse). PB and PC I . are polypeptides with molecular weights of 16,000 and 12,000 and phospholipase I activities of 11 and 1.5 umoles substrate per 1 u protein per minutej when ~ injected subcutaneously into white mice, their LD50 is 5 and 80 mg/kg ~ respectively (1). ; ~ Research Methods I ~ Miniature end plate potential$ (M~;Pp) were recorded intracellularly in an = j isolated neuromuscular preparation of diaphragm tissue from male white mice. ~ The preparation was incubated in a 2 ml bath containfng physiological solu- ' tion saturated with (karbogen) at 18� or 30�C, pH 7.2-7.4 (3). The N~PP ~ frequency was recorded continuously i.n the same synapse for 1-3 hours. More- over we measured the MEPP frequency of several other synapses at the ~ beginning and at the end of the experiment, successively introducing the ! microelectrode into different muscle fibers. 127 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~'OR (~~'F'ICIAL U5~ ONLY Research Resul~s PB at concQntra~iona of 25 and 50 Ug/ml and PC ati a concen~ration o~ SO ug/ml did not influence tihe restiing pntential of musele fibera subjected tio 1-3 hours of incubation. Nor did we observe changes in the mean amplitiude of the MEPP recorded, which percnitis the hYpo~hesis thati tihe senaitivity of the postsynaptic membranes to the transmittier's actiion doas not change etther. Lengthy, constant observat3on of the MEPP �r~quency demonstrated ~hat three - ~ successive phases are typical of the effec~ of both neurotoxins: 1) A phase of an initial decline in the MEPP frequencyt 2~) a phase of growing �requencys 3) a phase of a dramatic decline in the MEPP frequency down to completa blxkade of apontaneous release (see Table and Figure 1). The duration of - each phase and the expresaiveness of the pffect varied in different expariments. Effect of PB and PC on MEPP Frequency in Mouse Diaphragm Tissue (M t m) - No wa m~~~ n~a~nbHOro m~~~ yv~nteNw~ m~~~ 6nopiu~--.- K ~ u~�T, ~5~ ;~6) F anoK. ~g~ ~10~nKn (11I r~?,~ev~� ) ToKrNU NKi/wn TYPa~ ~r S 8 8~ ~ ; � hnn/e I % `8~/c 'A~ Nrn/c % ~ 81c ~h (2) 25 18 8 0~73=0,06 l00 0,34=0,06 46,6 22,36=8,60 3630 0,29=0,06 39,7 mn 25 30 6 1~09-!'0,18 100 0,31=0,03 28,4 4,0,00=9,83 3670 0,23="-U,07 21,1 ~f1 50 30 5 1,08=0,15 !00 0,31=0,02 28,7 36~39=9,73 3369 0,2b=0,(t4 23,1 ~3~ ml( 50 30 1:' 1,25=0,13 100 0,41=0,05 32,8 30,78=7,29 2462 0,34=0,04 27,2 Key: 1. Toxin 6. Number of experiments 2, pB 7. Normal 3. PC 8. Pulses/sec 4. Concentration, ug/ml 9. Phase of initial blockade 5. Temperature, �C 10. Phase of growing 1~PP 11. Phase of secondary blockade _ For practical purposes the initial decline in MEPP frequency began immediately after introduction of PB or PC into the bath (see Figure 1?, and it attained its maximum in 5-30 mi.nutes, after which the frequency, which varied signifi- - cantly (by a factor of 2-100) in different synapses and in relation to its nature (long, stable rise or individual high-frequency MEPP discharges), increased. At 30�C the toxi.n's effect was pronounced more clearly in each of the phases than at 18�C (see Table). In the presence of PC the first phase was usually relatively short, though quantitative changes in MEPP frequency in response to the two neurotoxins were identical. The enzymatic activity of PLA depends on presence of Ca2+ in the medium. When the CA2+ level decreases to 1�10-5 M, PC and PB practically lose their capability for hydrolyzing the substrate. T'his makes it possible to study the relationship between the presynaptic and enzymatic activity of PB and PC. 128 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ I ~ ' ~o~, usc nNLY I I i ~ , ~ , . p j 6, 0 I ' s, o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I 4~ ~ ~ _i ' I i ~ i � ' , 2,0 , . ~ ~ , , ~ . i ' � . _ ; � ~ . � . ~ . ; . ~ so ~oo ~so e . ; ; ~ 2,s ~ - , . ~ - I 2, o ~ ~ � ~5 , ~ ~ e f 1, 0 e i 0, 5 - ~ . e � e � I � � I . s~ ~s~ i i ` - i ' I Figure 1, Temporal Course o� the Effect of PB (A) and PC (8) at ~ . 50 uq/ml Concentration at 30�C: AUscissa--time (min)= ; ordinate--I~PP frequency (pulses/sec). Arrows indicate ; moments of addition of the toxins to the solution ~ i ~ ; 129 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 _ FOtt n~'~'ICIAL US~ ONI,Y � q I ~ ~ ~ ; ~ - i , OCa:~Pg n$ NS ~ - !JI! ; ~~~~,,,.~.�~tt _ ~ ~ , , - ' ' , , so ~ ~oo ,so zoo zso aoo '~so. +tio � ~ ~ e o ' ~ . OCa pC PC 1~S ~ + + f 1 ~ . 1 . � . r ~ ~ , ' �'yr- x SO l00 !SO 100 ' Figure 2. Effect of PB (A) and PC (B) Following Incubation of Preparation in Calcium-Free Solution Containinq EGTA: Arrows indicate moments of replacement of nozmal physiQ]ogical solution (NS) by calcium-free solution (0 Ca~+), addition of toxins, the start of rinsing of the preparation with calcium-free solutfon, and replacement of calcium-free solution by normal phy~siological solution. Solid curve--experiment, broken curve-- = control (replacement of solutions without addition of PB or PC). Other syml~ols are the same as in Fiqure 1 When the preparation was placed in a solution devoid of Ca2+ but containing 3mM Mg2+ and 1 mM (EGTA) (the concentration of ionized Ca2+ in this solution must be below 1�10-9 M), the MEPP frequency decreased significantly (by a factor of 5-7), inasmuch as spontaneous release of transmitter substance frosn maaanalian nerve endings depends directly on the concentration of extra- - cellular Ca2+ (7). When introduced into a calcium-free medium, PB and PC did not cause any sort of changes in MEPP frequency (Figure 2). However, if free neurotoxin was carefully rinsed out of the preparation wi~h the same - calcium-free solution and then replaced by normal physiological solution 130 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 t~nr~ ot~,rr.c.'TAI~ usr. ONLY ' (2 mM Caz'~), a rise in the MEPP frequency was observed. Tn control exp~r- iments the M~PP frequency OI11Y re~urned to its ini~iaJ. level, whilc~ in C~rc:para~.ions sub;ected ta tl~e act' on o� PH ~r PC (1G experiments) tho Er~quency ~xcecd~d the ini~ial level by 3.5 and 1.3 ~imes respectively. Af~er tihi~ rhe M~pP Frequc:ncy declined, tiliough in the control grou~ it remained - constanti (see ~'iqure z). mhese experim~nts show ~hat, first, in tho absr,nce of Ca2* PB and PC luse their capability for al~ering the MEPP frequencf and, second, ~he tnxiiis remain firmly hound tn their targets. It should be noted, however, ~har incubatiion of ~he toxin in c~lcium-free solu~ion s3gnifican~ly weakens tlie subsequcnt presynlptic effect arising following addition o�~Caz~. This may be ~he consequence of partial reversibility of neurotoxfn-targeti ~ binding. In order to petimi~ analysis of the mechanism of ac~ion of ~he neu.:o~oxins, we ; studied the influence ot ag~n~s in~ensifying spontaneous transmi~ter secretion _ on poisoned neuromuscular preparations. In particular it was important ho _ clarify the nature of the Lhird phase in the action of neurotoxins--blockade of spon~aneous release. For this purpose w~: 1) IncreasFd tho K+ concentration in the solution to 20 mM; 2) increased solution osmotic pressure by 2.5 times by adding sucrose; 3) adde~ 5�10 6 M 4,5,6,7-tetra-2-trif luoromethylbenzimi- dazole (TTF13)--~n agent the separates oxidation from phosphorylation--to the solution. These factors cause a significant increase in the MEPP frequency, since they incrn_ase the concentration oF ionized Ca2+ in nerve ending axo- plasm. However, there are different mechanisms behind this increase. An increase in the K+ concentration causes depolarization of nezve endings and thus an increase i~i the flow of Ca2+ from extracellular f luid into exoplasm (8,10). In the ~wo latter cases ionized Ca2+ is released from its extracellu- ~ lar deposition sites, mainly the mitochondria (2,7). ; We compared the effects of these factors on the ccntrol preparations and on experimental preparations during the phase of action of PB and PC ir~ which ~ the ME~P frequency declined significantly following its initial growth--that is, in the period of blocked spontaneous release. In the presence of 20 mM ' K+, the mean MEPP frequency was found to be identical in control and PB- or ' PC-poisoned preparations--56.6�9.0 (1Q), 53.8t9.7 (9), and 57.7�14.1 (10), ; respectively. Similar results were ~btained when solution osmotic pressure ; was increased: The MEPP frequency in the control was 15.5�5.5 (26), while in poisoned preparations it was 18.4�4.6 (34) and 21.0�6.1 (7) respectively. It should be considered that the relative increase in MEnP frequency in poisoned preparations was even somewhat greater, inasmuch as the initial MEPP ~ frequency (prior to exposure to these factors) was reduced by the action of ; the neurotoxins. Nonuniformity in growth of the K+ concentration was noted ~ only in the presence o` PC: Growth in the MEPP frequency was so great in _ ~ some synapses that we were unable to measure it precisely, while in other - -i synapses no growth occurred at all. It could be assumed that PC does never- theless cause some disturbance of the mechanism responsible for coordination ' of depolarizatic:i and secretion in presynapr,ic endings. TTFB caused an immeasurable avalanche-like increase in MEPP frequency; t11is effect was qualitatively the same in the control group and following exposure to the ; . 131 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 - FOR O~'FICI~IL US~ ONLY neurotoxins. These fac~s indicate that growth in the Ca2~ concentration in axoplasm of poisoned nerve endings ef�ectively increases tihe NEPP �requency-- that is, we do not observe signs of exhaus~ion of the reserve of acceasible transmitter substance. Thus tihe eEfec~s of PB and PC revealed in our experiments on mice are similar in general to the effeuts of S-bungarotoxin (5,6,11), notexin (5), and PB and PC (4) demonstrated earlier in experimen~s on frogs: The same three phases are observed fn the changes experienced by the N~PP frequency, and the acti.on of the neurotoxins depends signif icantly on presence of Ca2'~' in the medium. This permits us to think that there exists a general molecular mechanism behind toxic afflictfon of nerve endings by these polypeptidea. Their capability for enzymatically affecting phospholipida oE the presynaptic membrane apparently plays an important role in this mechanism. However, neurotoxins may bind with nerve endings even in the absence of Ca2~ and, correspondingly, i.n the absence of phospholipase activity, which allows the hypothesis that there is some sort of specific targe~ on the presynaptic membrane which is capable of selec~ively sorbing neurotoxins. The causes behind phasal changes in the level of transmitter release have yet to be thoroughly clarified, but the obtained data do allow the assertion that the blocking phase is not associated with exhaustion of the transmitter reserve elicited by the precedinq period of hiqher activity. BIBLIOGRAPHY l. Apsolon, U. R., Shamborant, 0. G., and Miroshnikov, A. I., BIOORGANICH. KHIMIYA, Vol 3, 1977, p 1553. - 2. Glagoleva, I. M., Liberman, Ye. A., anc] Khashayev, Z. Kh., BIOFIZIKA, Vol 15, 1970, p 76. 3. Kamenskaya, M. A., and Thesleff, S. A., ACTA PHYSIOL. SCAND., Vol 90, 1974, p 716. 4. Magazanik, L. G., and Slavnova, T. I., PHYSIOL. BOHEMOSLOV., Vol 27, 1978, p 438. 5. Abe, T., Limbrick, A. R., and Miledi, R., J. PHYSIOL (Lond.), Vol 270. 1977, p 55P. 6. Chang, C. C., Chen, T. F., and Lee, C. Y., J. PHARMACOL. EXP. TE~R., Vol 184, 1973, p 339. 7. Elmquis~ D., and Feldman, D. S., J. PHYSIOL. (Lon~l.), Vol 181, 1965, p 487. ' 8. Gage, P. W., and Quastel, D. M., NATURE, Vol 206, 1965, p 625. _ 132 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ ~ ~ ~ � roK orrtc~ni, usL ortLY ~ ~ ~ 9. Habermann, E., and Breithaup~, H., TOXICON, Vo1 15, 1977, p 742. ( ~ 10. L311ey, A. W., TOXICON, Vol 134, 1956, p 427. ~ 11. Oberg, 5. G., and Kelly, R. B., J. NEUR013IOL., Vol 7, 1976, p 129. I ~ COPYRIGHxp, "Byulleten' eksper3.mental'noy biologii i meditsiny", 1979 ~ ~ 11004 , CSO: 1840 I ~ ~ ~ i i I i ~ ~ ~ _i , ~ i I ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ I I ~ I I - I ~ ~ I I I i 133 i -i ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~'OIt O~FICIAL U3~ ONLY ~ PUBLICATIONS NL~UROPHY5IOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TKE SYSTEMIC 1~CNANISM5 OP BEHAVIOR Moscov NLYROI~I2IOLOGICHESKOYL I2UCNENIYE SISTEMNYKH t~KNANI~t"tOV POVLDENIYA in Ru~gi~n 1978~ ~igned to pre~e 31 Ang 78, pp 2~ 3-8, 239-240. (Mnotation~ introduction and tabie of contente from book by V. B. Shvyrkov~ "Nauka" Publishere, 240 pagea~ 3150 copiesj (Text~ The researcli is dedicated to en analysie of the mechanismg of behevior from the etandpoint of the theory of the functional system created by P. K. Anokhin~ and is baeed on the neceeBity of the s~~,temic approach to their study. The elementary behavioral act from the standpoint of P. K. Mokhin'e theory ia con- eidered as e cycle of "excha~ge of information" b~tveen the environment and the organism. Mechanisms which draw the individual neuron into ti~e eyetem of the behavioral act are examined. The correlations of psychical, syatemic, and neurophysiological pro- cesses in behavior are examined. Introduction The behavior of living organisms is the sub~ect of investigation of many sciences in each of wh~ch specific aspects of behavior are etudied. ThiB circumstance, as R. Khaynd notes in the preface to hia book (1975), does not allow us to define our understanding of "behavior" in one vay. Hov- ever, for many provinces of investigation, including for neurophysiology and paychology, behavior in the most general scheme can be defined as the _ relationship of the organiecn and the environment. Therefore tbe etudy of behavior must include an analysis both of the environment, the proceeses ineide *.he organism, and the i~teraction of the organiem With the ettviron- ment. Aa understanding of "behavior" muet include all types of iaterre- lationa of the organism and the environment, including thoae ahich find a reflection in the paychology of the organism. At the preeent time hardly anyone will deny the role of paychology in _ behavior. Together with thia it is obvious that at the base of behavior 134 FOR OFFICLIL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~~n~ n~~rtr, rnt~ U5~ nNLY 1ie phy~idlogic~l functfnninp prdCegse~ of rcrtgin morpholugirgl ~eru~~ur~~ of 'Che cdrrel~tidn of phychi~gl ~nd phy~iulogical proceese~ c~mpri~ag eh~ ~d-c~ll~d p~yChnphy~inidgiCgl prnbl~m. The mnt'~ri~li;~t tlie~ig ~bout ehe unity ~f b~h~vior and p~ychology exciud~~ - ~h~ pd~~ibility df a fu11 under~tanding of beh~vior mechanisme without the ~oluLidtt of the qu~~eion ~bout the roi~ of psychic~L proC~eee~ in behavior. Any th~ory df bhhavior thr~wing out or noC includin, p~ychical proceeeeg~ algd, dn~~ ndt pre~ent to ue the ~orr~gponding r~al actuality, in ge ?,nuch pxnet~y thr~ugh p~yChirgl prdceg~eg, through informational correlations~ ehe pxt~rna:. envirdnment ~conditidne beh~vior, e coucept which found a - r~fl~ction in the hnsitions re;;arding the reflecting and the regulating rnle of pgychology in b~havior. At th~ e~m~ time the unity of beh~vior ` , ~nd peycholdgy a~~um~~ the impn~sibiliry of peychicel procesees arieing, tnrn gwgy from b~hnvinr nnd from d~fined physiological proceeges. Thus, nn~ dr another gnlution nf ehe problem af the r~echani~me of b~havior by n~ee~gity l~~dg to dn~ nr nnoeher snlution of rhe psychnphysiologieal prnblem, a1go. Th~ solution of th~ pgychophysiologicnl probleme can noC be attained on a - phyeidldgi~gl or a pgychological basis only and~ consequently~ neither physie~l~gy nor psychology can give a complete description of behavior. The latter can nc~ be att~ined by way of a direct eomparieon of paychical and phyaiological processes either. As A. N. Leont'yev ~uatly notes (1975~ p. 7)~ "The matter ie thus that no direcC comparison between psychical and cerebral physiologicnl proceases yFC solvea the problem. The theoretical alternatives which arise aith guch direct convergence are well known: Qither wh~~ ~egults is the hypothesie of para~leliem, in a~ s$tal Way leading Cv an understanding of psychology as a epiphen~menon, o, ie. ie the position of naive phy.iologic determinism with the reduction of paychology to physiology flowing from it, or, finally what resulta is the dualistic tiypothesis of psycho~ ~~ysiological interaction, which allos~rs [he action of the nonmat~riel ps;chology on material proces~ea proceeding in the brain. For metaphysical thinking any other solution aimply does not exist; terme covering those ~ame alternatives simply change. At the present time it has become obvious that the ayntheais of paychology and physiology in a description of behavior is poesible only on some founda- tion which is higher and more general for both sciences. Such a foundation is the systemi: approach, which is developing no~t in many spheres of know- ledge (Anokhin 1973a; Kedrov, 1974; Kuz'min, 1976; Lomov, 1975; et. al.). Among the large numbers of variants of the ayatemic approach, the theory of ' the functional system de�~eloped by Acadewician P. K. Anokhin (1935-1974) seems to us the most adequate for the problems of phyeiology and psychology and for the problem of their synthesis in a description of behavior. In the explanation of behavior this theory proceeds directly from the most general biologi^al theory--the theory of evolution. 135 FOR O~FICIAL L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~nit 0~'1~'ICTAL US~ ONLY Aceu~lly~ in conCrn~t to many varients of th~ ~yetemic ~pproach in biology propoging Co seudy Che propprti~s of ehe syetems on �ormal modele (Meearovich, 1970), the theory of the fun~Cinn~l syetem ig wholly bnsed on biological f~ct~ ~ttd ~1re~dy plgces Ch~ conc~pC of survival, or th~ ueeful adapCive r~gu1C at the base of the mpnng of ieolating the sygeem. Like all funda- m~ntal inieigl ..*.oncept~ (Kedrov, 1962), concepCg of ehe eyetem end of Che r~sule gre d~fin~d in Ch~ theory of Che functional eyetem through their relationship. The result--Chis is the condition nf Che environmenC, pro- moting eh~ eurvival of the system. The system--ehis is the sum Cotal of elements organized to attain this result. The basic result which biological - sygtemg uchieve in tt~e final analysie is aurvival. From this vantage point the behavior of biolo~icnl aystems ie goal oriented, any behavior being brought about for ehp atCainment of one or anoeher. useful adaptive result, prnm~ting, in the final analysig, survival. _ Types of ineeractions of the organism and ehe environment of course are very diverae; one many define behavior ae auch an interaction in which both the . nrganism and the environment appear as whole. Then behavior will appear like a two-way exct~ange of organization or information between the environ- ment and the organism, which can be brought about only by informational or specifically aystemic procesaes, not reduced to separate phyaiological pro- cesses or Co aeparate influencea of the environment. Systemic processea describe the condition both of the organiam, and of the - environment; therefore, a neurophygiological or paychological deacription of behavior is a parCicular description of one and the same systemic pro- cesses of the correlation of the complete organism with the environment. From this point of view the description of rhe correlation of the organism and the environment in terms of aystemic processea should be a epecial sub- 3ect of "systemology". The correlations between syatemic and elementary neurophysiological processes appear as the relationahips between information and ita material carrier, in so far as systemic processes are diatinctive informational procesaes (Ferster, 1964; Gorskiy, 1974). The correl.ationa, then, between paychical and systemic proceases turn out to be the relation- ships between internal and external information. External information has the attribute of organizing elements of the environment~ and internal infor- mation, the organizing of elementa of the organism. Thus, the comparison of neurophysiological and psychical processes is poseible only through quali- tatively distinctive systemic proceeses, which inside the organism exist as proceases of organization of varioua elementa in one whole--the functional system. - In as much as systemic processes, one of the aspects of whose examination is paychology, inside the organism are processes exactly of the organization of physiological functions, then auch a point of vieW evades the identification of psychical and physiological proceases. It evades the psychophysiological parallelism as well, because systemic processes, theae are processes of the organization of exactly.physiological functions, and paychology proves to be 136 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ron ~rrrr.r~~t, u~~C dNLY ; ~ prnducC df r.he brain, tiec,~usc tl~e interngl dr~aniz~Ci~n ig defined'by Ch~ org~niz~ition o� the environment, thet is, by iCe nb~eCC ~tructure, then ~ r pgy~hology c~n nnt be excluded fr~m an unnly~i~ o� rh~ m~ch~nf~ms of b~h~vior. And fin~~lly, I)eCHU5~ sygremic pr~~eg~~s "~~n~i~t" ~x~lu~ivply ~ df phygidlogic~l proCes~es and the new qu~lity i~ t~tt~itt~d ex~lu~iv~ly ~t ! the exp~ngc ut Cheir or~anizutidn, then phygiological ~nd pgychological d~tprminigm nC bel~,ivior prove~ to bp in indig~olubl~ unity gnd do noC exi~t without one ~nnther, which exclud~g nny pgychaphysinl~gicgl ine~ractiong. It ig nbvious thae this point of view conforms with the notions abo~t the correl~tioii betwecn psyct~ology and the brein a~ b~Cw~en informgtinn and itg , carrier, developed Erom the philosophic~l positions. (Ponomarev 1967; Dubrnv~kiy, 1971, L976). 'Thu~, ehe rhhory of ~ fun~tional syetem serves a~ ~ that b~ge on which the experim~neal g,]�at"ion both of the problem of inechnni~ms of bEh~vidr, and of Che p~ycitdphy~idingiC~1 problem c~n be ~Chiev~d. ~rom Che gt~ndpoinC oC this theory one may ex~mine the neurophygiology of behavior gnd of psychology ~s the study by neurnphysinlogicgl methode of the ayet~mic proce~ses of organizational exchange between th~ whole orggnism and the ~ ob~~ct environmette. In rlie study of behavior ttie problem of the elementary phenomenon wae always considered key, definin; all fl~ther Cheorerical constructions and the direction of searcnes. From tt~e times of bescarCes the anewering reaction of the org~nism to one or nnother agent of the external environment was always taken as the elemec~tary manifestation of behavior. Between the "stimulus" and the "renction" following after it there lasts a definite interval, which in various aspects ia [ermed the "delay", "reaction time," "time of reflex," etc. The polemics on the question about the processes occurring in tt~is interval collected in themselves like in a focus, all the contradictions of psychology, _ physiology, and other sciences studying the brain and behavior. The problem of determination of behavior, the psychophysiological problem, the problem _ of the localizati m of functions, cybernetic problems of the coding of infor- mation and the reg~+lation of the relationship uf the organiem with the environment, and all other gen~ral biologic^1 problems of behavior and psychnlogy one way or anothe: are linked wiCh the clarification of the ` mechanisms of the elemenCary behavioral act. From time immemorial this inte-val has been filled with psychical prnceases such as perception, collation, rememberind, etc. The measuring of this interval in one or another of the modifications of experiments was widely use~ for a description of the most varie3 psychical procesaes and conditions, ~ it being also accepted that the "method of ineasuring the reaction time is the best method for studying higher functions and has a great future." (Shoshol', 1966, p 316) - Regardless of the complexity and the diversity of processes which they link - with the elementary behavioral act, the neurophysiological treatment of the prccesses occurring between the "stimulus" and the "reaction" for a long 137 FOR OFFICIAL USE OPSLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ i,~ ~nit tl~F'ICIAI. US~ UNLY timp w~s r~duC~d to conducring Che excitgtion from the rec~peors eo the ~ff~ctorg, n~ thi~ w~e dice~r~d by Che reflex theory. Tli~ conc~pCion ~bnur ehe bphgviorgl ncr ~ r~f1~x w~~ based not on the _ dirpnt study of n~uronal mecheniems of behgvior, not on physiological f~cts, gnd not ~ven on a~latomical conceptions, bue exclueively on rhe id~as of mechanic~l dpCerminiem. In hi~ "Anew~r of g phyeiologist to psychologiete," I. p. P~volv wrore:, "ie ie generally accept~d thae the idea of the reflex Comeg from Ueecgrteg, and wh~e was th~n known about the detailed con~truction of tt~e central ne:vous syeeem gnd of it~ activity? Actually the phyeiological- - anstomical aeparaCion of eensory nervee from motor nervee took place only in eh~ beginning of the nineteenth century. Iti ie clear that precisely the id~a of detprminism comprised for Degcartee the eas~+.nce of understanding of the refl~x, and fram h~re iesued forth the bescartian conception about the - animgl organism likened as to a machin~. All Che aucc~eding phyeiologiste underetood the reflex thus, attaching individual activitieg of Che orggniern to individual etimuli, gradually isolating the elements of the nervoue " conetructiona in the form of various afferent and efferent nerves and in the form of special paths and centera of the central nervous system and collecting, fin~lly, at Che same Cime the characterietic traita of the dynamics of thie lnst gyatem." (1949, p 495) Already at the moment of ite arising~ the idea of a reflex "made the firat breach in the strong wall of myatical and religious conceptions aeparating the investigator from real facts." (Anokhin, 1945, p 6) The principle of determiniem, whoee foundation was laid in the idea of the reflex, was used not only for the struggle with the explanation of behavior from the teleoing- ical position of the idealiat persuasion, but also served as a natural - methodological base for cxperimental investigatiana of the nervous syatem. Contemporary achievements of neurophysiology became poasible only on the basis of the analytical appraach, allowing neurophyeiologists working with local processe8 or subatratea to use that very approach, which was applied and in a glowing way ~usCified itaelf in mechanics. ~ At the present time the principle of "mechanietic determinism" (that very "linear," that very "naive physiological") in application to the explanation - of biological processes and behavior is criticzed from the moat varied posi- tions~ includin~ the philneophical (Dubrovakiy, 1971; Serzhantov, 1974), the cybernetic (Menitskiy, 1975; Svinitskiy, 1976). the paychological (Lomov, 1975), the biological (Oparin, 1964), and the neurophysiological (Berns, 1969; Belenkov, 1975, 1976; Dzhon, 1973; Sudakov, 1976; et. al.). Although the unsatiafactnriness of the reflex explanation of the elementary behavioral act for many was obvious a rather long time ago, hawever, the elaboration of more constructive solutions to this problem for a long time was checked by that circumatance~ that in order to repudiate the many century reflex tradition in physiology an entirely significant reconstruction of the entire system of conceptiona which had taken shape was necessary. As B. Eerns notes with regard to one of the early gnd brighteat critics of 138 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ I I~'Ott UI~~'ICIAL US~ ONLY _ s�t , Che r~~l~x "`The ar~;umentaeion of L~~h1i w~~ weak~.~because.~~Leshli aub~ected - th~ reflex or telephonic theory ~f b~hnvior Co a quanritxtive verification nnd Urou~;~t to lighe it~ groundlpsenesm, buC did not offer nnoCher ppr- gpectiv~ ~y~t~m nC undersCnn~fing at ~?11," (1969~ p 19) 'The Ch~ory of n functidnnl sy~eem creaeed by P. K. Anokhin gives us euch a ey~Cem~of und~rgrdndin~. As V~ F. Serzhantov thinks~ "rhe acceptance of , this ~onceptidn will hnve certain congequences for the entire theoretical ' syatem of biology and psychology; ehe principle of a functional eystem will a11o:: us t~ give n deeper interpretntion of biolo~ical and paychologic~l ~ concepeg formulaeed itt science up to this time, from whence iseues forth the necesairy of rhe rpconstrUCtion of the entire concepCual atructure of the~e provincee of science." (1974, p 74) ~ The npplication of ehe concepCual npparatug of the theory of the functional syeCem Co Che problems of tne elemenCary behavioral act chan~es in a funda- ' mental way Cl~e very m~:thodology of research. Therefore the analyais of ~ neurophysiological mechanisms of the elemenCary behavioral act from the standpoint of the theory of the functional system requirea a preliminary ~ examinAtion of behavior in the concepta of thia theory. We will carry out such an examination in a comparison with well known and uaual reflex conceptians; however, our basic goal will be not a comparison of two approachea, buC a definition of the object of investigation and the settin~ of concrete problems, sub~ecC to experimental neurophyeiological solution. ~ TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter One ' The Systemic Descri.ption of the Behavioral Act . The qualirative distinc~ion of behavior from elementary physiological processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The purposefulness of the behavioral act . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The isolation of the behavioral act in the continuum of ( behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Tt~e organization of physiological functions in the behavioral act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 The operational architectonics of the funetional system of the elementary behavioral act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 , 139 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 ~ c, ~OIt OFFICIAL U5E ONLY - ChapCer 'Two Electrophyeiological Correlates of Syatemic Processes in the Elementary Behnvioral AcC ElecCrical acCivity of the brain in behavior . . . . . . . ~ . . 38 Synchronousnesa and similarity af configuration of EP (evoked potenCiala) of various etructurea in behavior . . . . . . ~ . . 41 _ The link of EP with Che time of the behavioral act 47 The endogenoua nature of the EP in behavior . . . . . . . . . . 49 _ The link of EP with future eventa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Componenta of EP--correlates of systemic proceases of Che behavioral act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Chapter Three The Systemic Organization of Neuronal Activity in Behavior The link of total activiCy with impulse production of neurons . 79 The link of neuronal activity with EF . . . . . . . . . . . . . S1 - The synchronousness and similarity of type of discharge patterns of neurons in various atructures of the brain 83 The conditionality of the diacharge pattern of neurons with pretriggering integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The participaCion of neurons in the systemic mechanisms of the behavioral act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 - Chapter Four ~ Transformation Mechanisms of External Information into the Organization of Processes in the Functional System of the Behavioral Act The correlation of pasC experience, motivation, and infor- mation about the current condition of the environment in the determination of purposeful activity . . . . . . . . . . . 125 The organization of inemory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 The use of external information for the organization of purposeful activity of neurons in the behavioral act 141 �140 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02149: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100074425-6 i ~ ' ~oR orrzcY~, vs~ ornY , , The role of the goal in the proces~eg of organization 158 i Tl~e involvemenC of various provinces of the brain in ~CHe funcriongl system of rhe beh~vioral act . . . . . . . . . . 171 ~ .,r~ ; Ch~pter Five ~ . ~ Mechaniems of the Involvement of rhe Individual Neuron in the Functional ' System of the Behavioral Act , ! Mechanisms of ~eneraCion of a purposeful patCern . . . . . . . . 188 The correlation of functional synaptic fielda in preCriggering integration . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . 201 Chapter S3x The Theory of the Functiotial Syatem and the Psychophyaiological Problem i ~ The impossibility of the direct correlation of paychical ! and neurophyeiological procesaes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 I The problem of the correlation of gystemic and paychical ' processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 ~ i The correlation of systemic and neurophyaiological procesaes 218 i . ~ Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 I I . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 I ~ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1978. i i i 919 3 ~ CSO: 1840 E~ . i ; I ~ ~141. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100070025-6