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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ AT 6Y V. I. SOLOV' YEY, L. I. NOV I K ANO I. D. MOR020V iS AUt3UST i979 C FOUO ) ~ i OF 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 I~Ok UI~I~I('IA1, lltil~; ONl,ti' JPRS L/8618 ' 15 August 1979 Translation COMMUNICATIONS AT SEA By , V. I. Solov'yev, L. I. Novik and I. D. Morozov Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE ~ FOR OFFtC1A1. USE ONI.I' _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 NOTE JPRS publications conra~n informaCion primarily from foxeign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from newa agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are transLaCed; tihose frnm English-lgnguage sources are Cranscribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics reeained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicaGors such as [Text) or (ExcerptJ in the firsC line of each item, or �ollowing the last line of a brief, indicate how ehe origtnal in�ormation was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, ehe in�or- maCion was summarized or extLacCed. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are - encloged in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion enark and enclosed in parentheses were noC clear in the ori~inal buC have been supplied as appropriate in contexC. Other unattribuCed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this puUlication in no way represent the poli- cieA, views or aCtitudes of the U.S. Government. For f~srther information on report content call (7031 351-2938 (economicl; 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED NEREIN REQUIRE TNAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIA_L USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 J~' RS 8 6:L E3 ~.5 August 1979 COMMU~d I CAT IONS I~T SEA L~ningr~d SVYAZ' N~1 M01tE in Russian ~978 s~.gned to pro..s 1 Nov 78 ~p 1��320 (Bonk by V. z. So].ov'yev, L. Novik and D. Morozov, Iz3a~c1' stvo Sudos~royeniye, 6700 copies, 320 pages] CoNTENTS {'~cr: ~oreword 1 Section One. Communications 5ysCen~s 2 ChapCer 1. Gener~l Statements Concerning Control and Communications with Vessels and Ships 2 . ' 1.1. Control Sysrems; Infoi-rt?ation Flow 2 1.2. CommunicaCions Channels; Communications Requirementa 9 1.3. Structure o� Communi~cations Systems; Communications 5ervice J./+ Chapter 2. t'eatures of Radio ~dave Propagation at Sen and Calculatiuns for Radio Communications Lines in Differ.ent Bands 1.6 2.1. Classification of Radio ~daves and ~lectrical Characteristics _ . . of . e_he Medium i.n Sahich They aze Pxopag~?ted. . . . . . . . . ~6 . . ?.,2. Fearures cf PropagaCion, and Calculation of Radio Communications Lines 21 ChapCer 3. ~eatures of Communications with Submarines and Deepwater ~ Ir.acruments 44 :s.l. Features of Propagation and Calculation of VI.F and ULF Communica- tions Lines with Submarines and Deepwater InsCruments in the SuU- nerged Poaition 3.2. FeaC~ires of the Propa~ation of Sound in Water and CalculaCion of. HydroacousCic Communicat~!.ons Lines 56 , Chapter 4. General Regulations kEgarding the Organization af Sys~ems and ti~e Employment ~ Com~unic~~tions wi th Craf t and Ships b 7 4.1. SCructure of a CommunicRtion~ Syatem 68 4.2. Measures in ~rgAniaing a Cor~cnunications Channel and One-Way Communications 12 4.3. Measures in Organizi^o, Comtuand Level Communications ( K Routes) and a Communication~ System 76 4.4. Basic Rules for the iJZiliaation of Communications 85 - a - [I - USSR - F FOiJO] FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~nK o~~zcz~. Us~ arrLY Section '.Cwo. wiCh Cra~C ~nd Ships $7 Chapter 5. ~quip;?~ent oP Cx'~~~ and Sh~;pe w~.~h CommunicnCion~ ~'aci].~.Ci~s 87 5.1. Fundame~xa~s o~ ~quipping Cxafe an~ Shi~s w~~h Comiqun~.caCion~ g8 ~'aci~.iCie~ 5.2. Requiremen~g ~or Vesse], and Sh~g Communica~~ons ~acilities; Key 96 Technical Characteristics o~ ~r~cil~,ties and An~snnas 5.3. Equipmen;: ~rinciples; p~.s~r~.bution and Contxo~. of Communicationa 107 Facili~ies for Vessels and Shtps 5.4. Eleceromagnetic Compa~ibi~ity o~ Radio Commun~.cations ~' and Other Radioelectronic ~aciliCiea; Prorection of Peraonnel 113 5.5. Proapec~s for the Developmen~ o~ PaciliCies for Communications 119 wi th Vessels r~nd Ships ChapCer 6. ~quipping Subm~rinea and Deepwg~er Devices with Communi- L21 cations Facilities 6.1. Fundamentals of Re~uiremenr.s ~or Equipping Submarines and 121 Deepwater Devices wieh Communications I~acilities - 6.2. Principles for the Equipmen~t and Location and Design ~eaturea ~23 of Antennas on Submarines 6.3. Principles of the Location and Design Features of Submarine 131 Communications ~'acilities CYlapter 7. Organization and Utilization of Communicatiions with ~~z Vessels and Ships 143 7.1. Roadstead Communications 7.Z. Communicationa Between Vessels and Ships and the Shore 14k 7.3. Communications of Vessels and Ships in Joint Navigation 151 7.4. Communications with Vessels and Ships in Long-Range Navigation 166 ~ 7.5. Communications with Submarines and Deepwater Equipment Section Three. Automated Communications with Vessels and Ships 174 Chapter S. ~Communications in Automated 5ystems for Controlling a L74 ~ Fleet 8.1. Role and Significance of Camvunications in a Fleet ASU 174 8.2. Fundamental Principles of the Design of a Fleet ASl3 Communica- 178 tions System 180 8.3. Communications Channels in a Fleet ASU Chapter 9. Auto~~ated Communications FaciliCies for a Fleet ASU 185 9.1. Automation of Communications Proceases; Message Switching 185 Centers (TsKS's) 192 9.2. Data T.ransmission Equipment and Its Parameters 197 9.3. Communications Terminal Equipment and User Complexes 9.4. Automation of Information Tranemission Processes in Marine 201 - Radio Channels Chapter 10. Automation of Processes o� Receiving Znformation and Calling Vessels and and o~ T~ansmitting A1ert and Distress 205 Signals 10.1. Radio Telephone and Radio Telegraph Equipment for Automatic 206 Selective Calling o# Vessels and Ships 10.2. Equipment for the Automatic Transmission and Reception o~ a 211 Radio Telephone Alert Signal 212 Section Four. Effectiveness of Communications -b- FOR OFFICIE,I. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OF~xCIAL USC ONLY = Chapter ~.1. I~Qxhpda A~ ~~~,ns xhe k;~,~ec~i,~r~nese, a~ Cat~uAU~~,catiiona 2~.2 ~.1 R$x~ng the Re~,iabi.~,~,~}~ Q~ Comu~unica~~,ane 27.3 ' 1~..2. k~aCi,ng th~ ~~'~~,ciency~ og Con~un~.cation6; 2~.7 11.3. Ra~ing Secxecy o~ Cot~qmunic~x~,ons 227 11.4, R$ rhe E,~~ecti,v~neas o~ CommunicaCions qn a Rou~~ ~ and o.~ a Comm~nica~ions Sys~~em 22$ Chaprer J.2. Fatima~:ing ~he 1;n~luence oR Commun~.c~tiona on the Effectiveneas o~' Contro~. of '~esae~,e and Shipa 'L32 12.1~ Approach to Estimat~,ng the Tn~luence o~ Communica~~.ons 232 12.2. Eetimating rhe Tn.Pluence o# Comanunic~t3ons on ~he Effectiveneas of the Control of Vesaels in Solo Sailing 234 L2.3. Ra~ing the Zn~luence of Communicariona on the Effectiveness of the Contt�al of Veasels in Group Sailing 246 Conclusion 254 Appendix 1 255 Appendix 2 256 Bibliography 257 -c- FOR OFFICIE,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFZCIAL USE ONLY PUBLICATION DATA EngZiah title ; COI~4iUNICATI0N5 AT SEA ~ Rusaian title : SVYAZ' NA MORE Author (s) ; V. I. Solov'yev, L. I. Novik and I. D. Morozov Editor (s) : Publishing House ; "Sudostroyeniye" Place of Publication ; Leningrad Date of Publication ; 1978 - Signed to preas ; 1 Nov 78 Copies ; 6700 COPYRIGHT ; Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1978 -d- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 rox n~'FICIAL USE ONLY In ~his book xre dl.scuased general theore~l.c~zl atiatemenes re~.~~in~ Co ~he commun~.caCions syseem ns r~ lcey componenC in etie system for control,ling Che fleee, to Che equipping o� vessels and (including submar~.nes) with _ communications faciliCies and complexes, and Co the organization and employ- rnent of commun~.cneions witih vessels (ahips). Theae quesC~ona are diecussed in rh~ l~.ght o� solving the problem of Che ef~ectiveness of communi- caCions. ~ This book hag.been wrieeen on the basis of domestic and foreign material nnd is ineended for specialists concerned w3th questiona relating to communications, scientiific personnel and engineers of shipbuilding industry p~.anning or~anizA- tions. YPword T!~e role attd impnrtance of co~mnunications with vessels and ships have in- creased dramatically with navi~arion in remote regions of the global ocean, ` And espec:ia].ly wiCh the automation of control. The effectiveness of the opera~ion of craft and of the performance of ships and the s~fety o~ navigation depend on the capabilities and effectiveness of communications. IC is a good idea to discuss as a whole quesrions relating to communications with vessels. In this book the authors have attempted Co genernlize and systematiTe the key Cheoretical and practical questions relating tn communica- tions wiCh vessels and ships for diff.erent purposes, uniting communications ; with them under the term "communications at sea." The authors have thereby taken as a starting point the similarity of conditions for carrying out communi-- cations, the common lines along which many engineering and technical questions relating to design are answered, etc. The conCents of .this book are presented in accord with moder.n scientitic views, based on the generalization of domestic and foreign know-how in equipping vessels and ships with communications facilities and complexes, and in the organization and employment of communications, ineluding interna- tional, in conformity with conventions, regulations and other international documents relating to radio co~nunications of the mobile marine service and the mobile marine satellite service. Questions relating to outfitting with communicati.ons facilities and complexes, and to the organization and employ- ment of communications for submarines and surface vessels and of naval communi- cations systems are discussed with reference to data fz~,om foreign publications. This book has been written with reference to data from domestic and foreign publications. Chapters 1, 4, 7 and 11 and part 12.1 were written by Candidate in Naval Sciences anc~ Assistant Professor V.I. Solov'yev, chapters 2, 3 and 6 and parCs 7.5 and 12.2 by Candidate in Naval Sciences and Assistant Professor L.I. Novik, chapters 8 to 10 by Candidate in Technical Sciences I.D. Morozov, chapter 5 by I.D. Morozov and V.I. Solov'yev, and part 12.3 by L.I. Novik and V.I. Solov'yev. 1 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY The tturhora wiah to express iheir graCiCude to Pro�essor A.F. Mikheyev nnd c~ndidat~s in navnl scieuces V.V. Lopatin~kiy, N.I. Trukhnin nnd A.L. Pro- stakova for Cheir advice and comments given 4n reviewing the, and - to L.S. Simovskaya-Veytkovskayn for assiseance in writing programs for the , soluCion of models wiCh the computer. All coimnents and suggestions regarding the contients of Chis book should be ~ senC ~o Che following address: 191065, Leningrad, ul. Gogolya, 8, Izdatel'stvo Sudos~royeniye. Section One CommunicaCions Systems Chapter 1. General 5tatements Concei~ning Control and Communications With Vessels and Ships Problems relating to Che conerol of transport, merchant, research and naval fleets and of vessels for different purposes have many questions in common, which makes it possible, in spiCe of the diff~rences which exist, to make theoretical generalizations and to find the most inCelli~enr soluCions for ~ them. This is Che resulC of a great number of factors, such as the oneness of the nature and conditions of navigation and areas of navigation of vessels and ships, analogies in saf eguarding naviga~ion and coastal basing, similariCy in organizational formations consisting of groups, squadrons, flotillas and the like, and an~logies in questions relating to preparation for and planning of their operations and to control in the course of the accomplishment of ob~ectives set. It is important to note that vessels complete voyages both in inland seas and around Europe and Asia and to North and South America, Australia and Antarctica, and :esearch vessels sail in all regions of the global ocean. Thus, vessels solve the tasks set for them at great distances from on-shore control centers, and communications ranges reach 10,000 to 20,000 km [63, 72]. 1.1. Control Systems; Information Flc~w Marine Cransport, the fishing industry and the navy represent, on the plane - of the problem under consideration, highly complex dynamic systems of the organization type, of which are characteristic the comnion properties of organ- izational systems and common laws of control. Each system of this sort, in spite of differences, represents a certain organized set of interrelated structural elements uniCed by communality of action for the purpose of achieving - a definite goal. This makes it possible to find common theoretical premises for analyzing and synthesizing control structures in economic systems at dif�erent levels--from ministries to producCion and transport associations, and, in naval systems, from the VMF' [navy] to associations and formaCions of ships. By control is meant the influencing of controllable syst~ms for the purpose of achieving a set goal, i.e., a de.�inite type of activity aimed at the 2 FGR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ox orrrr.rA1, us~ or~Y . - preparat~on of conCro11ab1e ~ysCems and the pl.anning, or~anizat~.on ancl ~ guidance of their act~.viCies for Che purpose of accomp~.ishing se~ goa1.~ and ~he final purpose. Conerol under inodern conditions is impossible wiChouC compLere contirol equipment, by menns of wh:Lch the dat~ needed tor planning operationa are gathered, proceased and analyzed, ca~.culn~ions are made which assist in con- verCing information on a sC~Ge 3nCn instructiion information and in tinding the be~t variant of an operMt~.ons plan, easks Are deltvered tio their exec.~tors, their combined operations are organized, and theae operntione are monito~ed and controlled. Conero~. tac~lities and rhe people performing al~. conCrol functions comprise A contro~ systiem. The simplest system consisrs bf the c~nr�rolled prucess and the contro]. agent, which are interconnected by means of a state information flow (trom the con- ~ trolled process to the control agent) and an insCruction (direcCive) informa- tion flow (from the conCrol agent to the contirolled process), and represents a contrc~l circuit. A real control system contains a great number Qf circuits at different c~ntrol levels and sections. In each control circuit and between Chem Che exchange of information ta~c~~s place in the form of ines~ages. The Cravel through space of information in Che form of inessages repre~ents the essence of communications as an informaCion process tak3ng place in a control system and uniting all its components into a single whole. By vi:tue of this, the combination of conCrol facilities takes on new properties and character- istics. Control tacilities are joined in relation to their purpose and role in - functioning of the control system and form subsystems, which, in the systems approach, can be regarded as independent systems. Distinguished aC the present time are the system of conCrol agencies (centers), the communications system, and, in military control systems in recent times, the system for interpreting the situation. A control system at each conCrol level and section must en- brace all contrasled processes and have links with systems of higher and lower control sections, as well as with Che inCeracting organizations and associations on the same level, of various deparCments and ministries. The control systems o� lower levels of control are component parts of the contrul systems of higher lev~ls, right up to the highest level of control. By virtue of the hierarchica.l nature o� control systems, the subsystems of a control system are similarly subordinaCed, i.e., control agency (center) systems, communica- tions systems and situaCion interpretation systems. In control systems, state information travels from controlled processes (from vessels and ships) to control centers of the shipping line or fleet, and instruction, directive information, from the control center to the con- trolled process. The steady travel of ine~sages in a single direction con- stitutes an information flow. It is characterized by parameters which it is practical to subdivide into primary and secondary. Primary parameters characterize a flow of information created by a single source of information. They include the size of inessages (q, words, groups) 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USIs ONLY ~nd Che i.ntensity of ~he Llow (C~ mes~ages per uniC nf Cime), which Hre given for vessela and ships in tablea 1.1 to 1.4, and ~omeCimes the Cime intervaL between messages (t~ t). These pararneCers represenC random magnitudes; therefore, tihe flow ~s also characterized by variation �gcCora for the~e pargmeters (y , Y , and Y For completeness in a description of ' the informat~~n flow iC is neces~ary Co know nlso Che number of kinds of messages (n~~d) and of so-c~lled message series (ne,~), as we11 as the per- centage of each kind and series of inessage (K~~d and Ksr) :Ln terms of the whole. 5econdary parameters characterize the flow oE information created by a11 sources of information in a specific direction (Nig~). Included among these parameter~ are the load (Y, hours busy), i.e., Che maximum mean hourly or mean 24-hour 1oAd, per hour or 24-hour period (Y and Y ) and the m~ximum load concentrntian Cactor per hour or 24-~iour periodS'~chnn �Y Kcnn~' The value of Y~hnn is calculated by the equation in [23]: S'4f~Fi -~~K?iHfi (1-f�1'~~ ~k~ (1.1) where C is the me~n "l4-tiour intensity and tk is the mean Cime a channel ~s engRged :tn trar~smitting a single message. It depends on the aize of service calls (qs~), the heading of the Ladio ~?essage ~qzagl~ and the rransmission rate (VPer), and is determined by the formula: r tK _~Qa~ 9aarn Q~ 1~'I' ~q~ V�~p ~1.2~ In terms of the nature of the arrival of inessages, �lows are divided into regular (determinate) and irregular (random). Characteristic of regular flows are specified va'lues of parameters (e.g. , the number and times for messages from cargo vessels are once and twice per 24-hour period, and from ` passenger and merchant vessels, twice to four times per 24-hour period [63, 72]~. An example of an irregular flow can be the report of a search party on finding the ob~ect of the search. The forecasting of regular flows does not cause any complexity: The total flow is the sum of partial regular flows. For the purpose of forecasting irregular flows, it is necessary to establish the law for their irregularity. For example, the following has been established [39] for the flow of inessages from search vessels: 1) under definite con- ditions the probability that m messages will be given over a specified time interval obeys Poisson's law; 2) the interval between two successive messages is a random magnitude with an exponential-law distribution; 3) the intensity of the flow of inessages from a search party is numerically equal to its search potential, i.e., to the mathematical expectation of a find per unit oF _ time. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR O~~F'xCIAL USE ONLY 7'able 1.1. _ S~ 9~ CyAFio MM~ ~O~Cyl~i~u MPX ~~Y~uo MM~b N MPX ! Munpouncu~~si cexa~~ PaauorpaMNm 0 I I K Q I ~c I K Q( ~c I K 6) 2~ I Me~cnyfiapoAttwe 19,1 2'~ 0,4 20,4 0 19,3 ~'a 0, I 6eper - ~+ope 0,1 0,01 0,04 7) Cnyxce6~~wc - - - 47,2 , g25 61,3 - - ~ ~IacTttme - - - 22,6 ~ 68 38,7 - - ~ 02,3 538 100 33,2 69` 100 3G,5 6~5 100 10;9 20,9 17,6 3) Alope - 6eper Me ~cAyHapoAHb~e 17,8 O 3 2,5 31,1 O~O~ 0,1 19,6 O~ 2 0,5 7) Cny~ceb~t~e 24,2 138 57,? 90,6 379 65,9 37,? 3~ 64,8 5,6 9,3 8,2 8~ ~IacTytre 20,2 90,3 20,1 195 34,0 20,1 31,7 I 9,8 9,6 8, 22,;t 241 100 30,6 575 lpp 29,1 :15 1~ 10,8 18,8 16,4 4) 6) OGuuifi o6ntefi rte~tAy?+apouu~e 18,0 8 1,0 30,0 1 0,! 19,5 3,2 0,3 . 0,4 0,03 7) � Cny~xe6ede - - - 43~9 88 3 63~5 - ~ 8) ~actxde - - - 21,9 26 ~ 26,4 - - - ~ 1120 I~ 37,0 779 100 32,1 1267 lpp 36,4 21,0 I 39,6 30,7 [Key and notes on following page] 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ox o~rrcrai. us~ ornY N~tea: 1) q is ~he mean s~ze of a rad~,ogram in wo~rds; 2) C is Ch~ mean 24-hour 3.ntens:lty of tra�Pic: in words in the numerator and in radiograms in Che denominator. Key: 1. Directi~n of conununication 7. Service 2. Shore to ship 8. Private 3. Sh3.p tio a;~ore 9. I~IF [MinisCry of the Mnritime F1eeC] 4. General traffic vessel 5. Rad3.ograms 10. MRKh [Ministry of Fisheries] vessel 6. Internat3onal 11. l~'Il~IF and MRICh vessel Table 1.2. I 1~ ~narMO~icKxA Kopabnb HaAeoANdp Kopa6nb floAeoANan noA?ce TopneuNdA K~Tep S coeAxxeNxx 6~ 8~ tlanpaenexe~ caaea 9 I ~c ' 4 I ~c 0 I ~c 0 I ~c I 2) 5eper-ntope 54,4 2394/43,9 32,9 106,8/3,27 28,8 89,1/3,2 15,0 231/14 3~ Mope - 6eper 35,4 1355/38 42,? 39?,8/9,2 24,7 9,H/0,4 18,2 241/13.7 4~ 06wN~1 o6MeH 45,7 3749r81,9 40,0 499,6/12,47 26,? 98,9;3,6 16,6 472/27,? Key : _ 1. Direction of communications 5. Formation flag ship 2. Shore to ship 6. Surface vessel 3. Ship to shore 7. Submarine 4. General traffic 8. Tarpedo boat Table 1.3. 1~ I BH! DCAKOp 040plAN 3KCTQlHHeN I Cpoaxee O6WKH0~lNN~A HanpaanrNNA I 5~ 6) 7) csASb J Q C~ I X 9 I C~ I % 0 I C~ I !G q I C~ ~ ti 2) fieper - r~ope 25,4 11,1/0,44 13,5 31,3 55,0/1,72 52,5 33,6 30,5!0,91 27,9 51 10,2/0,2 6,1 3~ Mope - Geper 20,8 22,3/1,()7 11,6 46,5 235/5,05 55 38,4 93:5/2,43 2G,9 64,3 42i0,G5 7,0 4> UGut~+A o6Men 22,1 '33,4/1,51 12,3 42,8 290/6,77 54,2 34,1 124/3,3�1 26,8 61,4 52,2I0,85 6,T - Notes: q is the mean size of a radiogram in groups; C is the mean 24- hour intensity of traffic: in groups in the numerator and in radi.ograms in the denominator. [Key on follawing page] - 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOR OFFICZAL US~ ONLY Key: Dir~~r~.on of 5. bur of any ord~r 2. Shora eo ahip 6. Urgene 3. 3h~.p tin ehore 7. Routiine - 4. General eraff~.c 8. Ordinary Table ~..4. ~~~neonu~a~~ i;upn6nn flapuullni+r nu~~u~ ~1pft~t,lUAlI111N S~ dl~~`Mq CbN911 t+tylt~CCTU� - tt~~x........~~....... J1e1111N C!?H~11 7 - o C~ 0 C~ 5eper-MOpp A1up~ioe6 45,7 I(i0Q/35 37,b 4b0/i2 2~ Uocuiio~~ 4b,0 G60UJ140 38,9 9tiU~26 1~1ope--6epcr 6)M~~p~~oe 4b,0 4N10,'10 7G,U 1~5l5 3) 7poeuuoe 27,7 IbUO;b~f Ib,3 Iy3IH O6WNI~ OQAICII 6)~tup~ioc 45,4 75U0/bb ~3,H b75/IT~ 4~ ~~oeatioe 41,~ 80(10/IU4 32,4 1103/;!4 NoCe: q is Che mean size of a radiogram in groupa; C is the mean 24-hour intensity of traffic: in groupa in the numeraCor and in radiograms in the denominator. ~ Key: 1. Direction of communications 6. Peacetime 2. Shore to ship 7. Wartime 3. Ship to shore 8. Surface vessels 4. General traffic 9. Submarines 5. Time communications carried outi, For inforn.~ation flowa as a whole, it is posaible to use the law for the distribution of the probability of the appearance or ns messages over interval of time t, i.e., Pn (t)--the Poisson or determinate law, meaning that a2 = 0 . 8 For the distribution of the Cime between the appearance of inessages, it is possible to use Erlang's n-th order law, since when n~ 0 it makes it possible to describe the diatribution of the time interval between the arrival of inessages obeying an exponential law, e.g., in the transmission of inessages in the ship to shore direction, and when n-~ ~ iC makes it poseible to de- scribe a determinate flow, e.g., in transmission in the shore to ahip direction. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FUIt U~~ICIAL US~ ~NLY ~nfdrm~tiion ~low~ 3n ~�~clt d:L~dction ar~ ~or~~ase (d~e~rmin~d) ~.n re~.~eian tio ~he meehod o~ in~orm~~~.on eranamiea~.on, whar~by f~.r~ti ~ d~t~rminatiion 3.s m~dp o� pr~mary ~nd then o~ secondary flow p~rameeare. mh~ values of informaeion flow parameCere depend on n grear number ot f~crore. They can be ~rr~.ved ae from an analy~is o~ gtat~.seieal dati~ on �lows circulat- ing in eh~ conerol ~y~e~m by ~olving Che ~am~ problen?s under condieion~, or by physicgl, marhemae~.cg1 modelin$ of tihe ~ntire or parti~l control pro- cess by golving probl~ma .formul~tAd unde~ gp~c~.fiEd condit~.ons. daeg on information flowa are ggthered for a voyage, for tih~ n~v3gat3on of vegsels in relation to the r~gions in which ehey sail, and for a shipping lin~ ag a whole. Such gen~ralix~d datia are convenient far a com~ paraCive est~.mate of informaeion flowa in terme of veosele, voyagea, sailing areas, ~nd 1~ne~. ~or example, on tihe basis of reportg from veseels of ehe Baleic Maritime Shipp~ng Line �or 1969-1970 and of daCa frnm Ciproryb- P1oC [State Planning InstituCe of the Fishing F1eer~ on hittKh vessels for 1966- 196$, informaeion has been put CogeCher [72~ on the amoune of radio traffic for t~iF gnd r4tKh vessels, by means of which have be~n calaulated tihe information flow parameeers for Che ahore eo ahip and ship to shore directions given in table 1.1. It is feasible to gather and analyze information flows in the control of ahips under everyday condieions and in exercises and combat operations. For example~ parameters of information flows for TOF [Pacitic Ocean Fleet] _ ships in the Great Patriotic War are given in tables 1.2 and 1.3.* An analysis of information flows for U.S. Navy ehipa during the war in VieCnam ie given by Che authors in (68]. Modeling of the process of controlling vessels and ships makes it possible to determine wiCh ~ certain degree of approximation the number of inessages during a epecific period of operations, the need for the transmissio~ of which is caused by the goals and nature of the operations of the con~rolled units (for wartime situations and by enemy operaCions), changes in the situation, and also the reacti~n of vesaels (or ships) and the agency controlling them, to these changes. All these messages we will term operating information (Y As experience has ahown, almost always the need arises for political in~grmation (Y i), for addiCional recommendations, instructions, explanations, requeaCs, etc.p~Y and also for aervice information (Ygl). Thus, acCually the sum of tliese ~QBws will be transmitted, which will make up the control information flow: yy ='von'~' ynon "~''YAon "'~"'Ycn~ ~1. 3~ *Parameters calculated from reports of the TOF communicaCions division. "Arkhiv C5h Nf~" [Archiveg of the VMF' General SCaff], f. 129 [folio 129], d. 34090 (file 34090]. Order of radiograms given for surface vessels. $ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ron o~t~~~c~~ us~ nrrr.,Y An annly~~.a o~ i.n~ormae~,on $~.owg oP M(~' ~nd MnKh v~~~~~.~ ~nd VM~ ~hip~ hg~ ~hdwn ~h~C ~h~~e parame~~rg arg cLome, eep~cig].~y ~.n ~h~ d~.~~~ nf radio~r~mg. Th~ m~an 24-hour v~lum~ of ~.nform~~ion eransmiCCeB in the shor~ Co ~hip c1ir~~e~.on ~ rule i~ ~on~iderably gre~ti~r thaa in tihe ~hip ~o aho~e. ttad~.o era�~i,e 3~ ac~drdin$ to type~ of vesael~ and elass~e of and ehe Cyp~s and n~tiure of their opar~t~.ona. - ~nform~eion flowg incrpn~e cong~.d~rably ir~ ~n parCicu~nr, the ris~ in eh~ volum~ o� inform~e~.on betiw~en tih~ TOF etiaff ~nd ~urf~ae ves~el~ ~nd ~ubm~r~.nes wgreime ig giv~n in rable 1.4.* ~'or ~xampl~, for Ch~ ~hnre en ~urf~ce v~sgel d~.r~ce3on, C inrr~gs~d fourfold, and eh~ roe~~ volume by a�aceor of 3.5. Traffic wieh gubm~rines increased two�o1d. Tiie p~reicipgeion of the U.S. Ngvy in the war in V3etnam wag charace~r~.zed algo by a more than four�o1d increase in radio tiraf�ic, which reached very high figures. For exgmple, in 1967 in ehe ship to shore direction Chrough ~udt thr~e key communicationg centers (the Ph~.llipinee, Gugm ~nd Japan) 9000 mesg~geg w~re CrnnsmiCC~d in n 24-hour p~riod [68]. It musC b~ emphasized thae for modern conCrol systems lgrge volume~ nf flow in ehe ~hip eo shore, and egpecially in ehe ahore to shi~p, direceion are the rule. According Co the data of statistical analysi.~ of radiograms carried out i.n 1966 at the computing of the Baltic Shipping Line, the 24-hour Craff ic for uessels cqualed 23 million characters (72]. A trend toward an increase in information flows has been clearly pronounced aleo in naval fleets, especially in the tsctical unit for controlling forces. For example, in the U.S. Navy during recent yearg the annual growth in mesaagea has equaled eight to lQ percenC [102], anc; the information flow between Engliah shipe ha~s doubled in each past decade. 1.2. Communications Channels; Communications Requirements The movement through space (traffic) of information in a control system, from the viewpoint of communications equipment, is similar both for sCate information and for instrucCional, directive information, because it always moves from a transmission center to a reception center by means of communications facilities. By a communicntions faciliey is meunt the equipment performing certnin funetions in the transmission ar~d reception of inessagea. Tl~e combination of communications facilities taking part in the transmisaion and reception of inessages comprises a communications channel. A channel includes a communications line--the physical medium in which signals travel from the tranamission center to the reception center. Each communications ch~innel includes facilitie~3 designed for a) con- ~ verting the signals in which the message transmitted at the transmission center is "written" into signals which can be used in the communications channel in question; b) trar.smitting signals along the communicationa line from the *"Arkhiv IO [Quartermaster SectionJ GSh VMF," f. 129, d. 34090, 1. 31. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~o~ n~~ici~ trs~ ortt~Y tr~n~mi~~idn ~~nt~r ~n Ch~ ~~e~ption c~ne~~j c) eonv~rCing a3gnnl~ u~~cl in - th~ Gottm?un~.~aC~.nng ~hann~~.s a~ the rec~p~~.on c~n~~r ~.nto a~.~na~~ conv~ni~nC for r~c~peion by Ch~ nddr~ssee. Ar rh~ Cr~nsm~~~ion c~nt~r eh~ conversion of ~ignale include~ rhr~~ oper~ti,ong: Ctl~tl~~fl~ dF Ch~ physical n~~ur~ o~f eh~ ~i.~na1, cod~,ng and modulat~.on. Coding - ~g ~eruceur3:ng of ~h~ ~~.~nal to ~ def~.n~.Ce p~inc~pl~, ~ cod~ u~~d - i.n ~he Ch~nnel. in question. Corre~ponding Co each tra~n~mitited dig~~, l~teer, ~ymbol or gr~up (block) i~ a cerCain comb3nar~.on of di~ti~.nguishable elem~ntery s3~nglg wh~reby i.t i~ poseibl.e to unambiguous~.y rec~eatie ehat c~igiti, lerter, symbol or group (block). 7'his rule of as~ociat~on of symbol~ and blockg of ehem wi~h combin~tions of e3gnale called ~ code in coding Cheory. Modulgt~.on i~ ehe effece of ehe eoded eignal cerrying informat~on in keeping orith ehe mesagge transmitted, on a cereain parameter of the aignal, the carrier of ehe informatiion from the ~rnn~mis~ion center to tihe recepC~on cent~r~ Types of modal~tion gre digeingui~h~d in term8 of infnrmaCion carrier~ and tha para- meeerg chgnged (i~e., modulaCed). Modul~eed s~gnals ~in�ormati.on carrier~) are trgnsmitted from the eransmission � ceneer by a transmitter and are recetved by a raceiver at the recepeion center. Connection of the communicationa line with the tranamitrer and receiver is accomplished by meang ~f matching ~quipmenc, in pareicular, in radio r~ceivers ~nd radio transmitters, by means of antennas and fee~ers--antenna-feeder units. At the reception center, th~ conversion of signals includeg ~our operaCions: selection, detection, decoding and changing of the physical nature of aignals. Selection is the isolation af the needed carrier signal8 from all thoae ~imul- taneously having ttrrived at the receiver~ Uetection is the isolation from the modulated aignal~ (carriera), after their ael~ction, of aib~nals carrying the message, i.e., a process the reverse of modulaCion. Decoding is the recreation of di$its, letters, symbols or gr.oups of them (block) from the detected signals according to the code for the channel in question, i.p., a proceas Che reverse ef coding. Changing of the phyaical nature of signals (into electrical and non-electrical) is as a rule carried out simultaneously with coding and decoding~ respectively, in so-called terminal equipment, which for convenience can be great distancea away from transmitters and re- ceivers, being connected to them by means of switching and connecting equip- ment. The make-up of facilitie~ and their connection in the communications channel, as well as the transmission of aignals, are illustrated in fig 1.1. The communications facilitiea of each veasel, ship, on-shore r~dio station and radio center comprise the transmitting or receiving line of a communications channel and thus take part in the transmiasion of inessages from the trans- - mission center to the reception center. Modern communications channels can also contain other facilities. In parti- cular, as reported in foreign publications, transmitting and receiving linea contain automatic information restriction equipment. An autamatic coder in the transmitting line recodes signals in gecret code and information-restricted lu FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 I FOR O~FZCIAL USE ONLY ~i~n~~.s ~nCer ~h~ ~rangmi.~~~r. An ~uGom~~~~ decod~r in ~h~ rec~iv~,ng d~c~.~~~if~.~g eh~m~ _ ~ ~OddIHtAA f00dty~rkA ~ f ~ ~10Aj/V0~7!!'Ab !'ODEiyf ~ ~ ~ (omnpaeume,?~) y 2~ ~ ~ nus (cdpt:onrl.~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _ � ~ lle,oedoror ud nrpc,rM p 4~ JI4MW !`~/Jtf /lpplNNUB M~071N1f ~ I ~ i ~ ONNqpN ~ ( , OMH~RId q~OMbMt !(bAMMNe 6~ i ~K/lf 0@ � ~ y I ~ I~ yl~/ Od' 4 i y- - j~--~~---ig~ llynRm ntpedcv~tJ71 i 11~L/J~IMIf/1J p,OYlMQ. Figure 1.1. 1~i~gram of ~ammunicationg Channel Key: . 1. Isauer of inessage 7. Switching equipment (aender) 8. Transmitting equipment 2. Receiver of inessage 9. Tranemitting center (addreasee) 10. Receiving equipmene 3. ~ranamitt~ng line 11. RecepCion center 4. Communications line 12. Switching equipmenr S. Receiving~line 13. OutpuC uniC 6. Senaing uni.t Each communications facility included in a channel is charact~rized by individual parameters: by the frequency range of the tranamitCer and receiver, by frequency instability, by the power of the transmitter and aenaitivity of the receiver, etc. The Cechnical parameters of communications facilities determine the technical parameters of communicationa channels, which makes it possible to compare communications channels, but only similar onea. But in analyzing and synthesizing communications aystema, in solving problems of organizatioa, and in using communications it is necessary to compare different communications channels in terms of their parameters and the poaeibility of employing ;:hem for the purpose of ensuring control under apecific conditiona. In the theory and practice of marine communicationa, for this purpose are employed the following key indicators of a communications channel: co~mnunica- tions range; frequency range; kir~ds of communicaCion (type of operation)-- telephone, telegrAph, printing, telecoding, facsimile telegraphy, etc.; trane- mission rate; throughput; frequency band occupied by the channel; noise rejection; weight and dimensiona of equipment and the area required for in- stallation; power requirement; cost; and, for mobile and portable facilities, scanning time, time for entry into communication. The general properties of a co~unications channel can be rated by three key parameters: operating period, Tk , i.e., the time during which the channel 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ox ~~rtci~ us~ orn,Y p~rformg it~ ~uncC~,~ng; p~s~b~nd, k~k rh~ b~nd ~f ~r~qu~nGi.~s radm~.ere~ Uy ~he ehann~l wi.xhou~ cons~.der~ble ae~enuneion; ~nd dynam~.c pow~t~ rAnge, Q, where Qk n~.og P/P , dete~rmined by th~ maximum pngsible pow~r nf ehe s~gnal, P, and the p~we~ o~ the noiee, P, in Che chann~l. Th~ product of th~~e p~r~meC~r~ ia c~~led rhe channal's c~pac~.ty, Vk tl~k~kQk ' char~c- terize~ the ~bi11Cy Co tran~mie a eignal ~.n the channel in quastion. 'The properCies of a~i.gnal from thig point of v~.ew are deacrib~d by s~.m~.1gr para- merers: Uy ~he length of eh~ signal, T; by the breadth of ehe apectrum, F; and by ~he dagree ro wh~Ch Che s~.gna1 ~xceeds ~he noiee, Q~ lo~ P/P , c~iar~ceerizing Che rat4n of the me~n power of ehe ~ignal and no~~e ~n Cransp ~ miss3on. The product of these parameters ie called the volume of the s~.gnal, ~ g asa' A~dmmunication~ chann~l cgn be acknowledged a~ eatisf~ctory for the tran~- mission of a particular ~ign~l if ie has a capactty which w111 ho~.d the signal volume, ~..e., Vk > V . The parameCerg of coromanication~ chennelg ar~ illustrat~d 3n Append~x 1. Matchin~ of ehe signal and communications channel must be achteved for ench channel in ehe communic~eions system, becauae for the purpose of fulfilling its purpoae, the communications sygtem must tranamit in the rpquired directions all the aggigned information flow~, and with the required quality. 7'he quality of any ob~ect or phenomenon, as follows from Mnncist diglecCica, is the toCality of the properties of this ob~ect or phenomenon. Marine communicaCions has the following key properties: reliabiliCy, fidelity, efficiency or apeed; and naval communications must also possesa secrecy. These properties in combination comprise the quality of communicationa. Each property of communications can be evaluated quantitatively by the value of an individual communications indicator, e.g., the efficiency (speed) of communications by the time a message travels. The requiremant for a apecific property of communications can be expressed quantitatively by the permissible value of a concnunications indicator. By the permissible value of a cotmnuni- cations indicator is meanC that value whereby the worsening of control has not yet begun and the value of the criterion for the e�fectiveneas of the operations of the controlled vessels or ships remains within Che range of the level established. The permissible values of co~nunications indicators can be determined in several ways. In practice, most frequently a deCermination is made of communications re- quirements on the basis of gathering and analyzing values of cotmnunications indicators obtained in ensuring control over vessels and ships during the perfonuance of typical operations. After the gathering of data, communications indicators are grouped by kinds of vessel and ship, problems to be solved, operating conditions and directions of comrmmication. It is then determined with which values of communications indicators control will be aucceasful and the problems posed will be solved, and with which values control will be deemed unsuccessful or goals will not be fulfilled at the fault of communications. ~ 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR nF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY The f~.rsC $rour o,~ v~l.u~s of contmun~,c~~~,ong ~,ndiC~tiq~~ i~ g~.v~n ~ favor~bl~ ~nd as rh~ r~au~~ of �urther analys:t~ ;Crom ~h~g gr~up ~ra s~~.~ceed ~h~ p~rm~.~a~.bJ.~ valu~a, s~.ncQ ~h~y ara cnngi~~ene und~r apec~.~~.c cond~.e~.on~ w:Lth gure~~~fu1 ~dnerd~. ~nd eh~ r~quired aff~~eiv~n~~~ of ~n c~ges nf the l~ck of gu~ficient on Craff~.c seatiat~.ce nnd of exper~.ence in uC~.~.~~aeidn of th~ conerdl sy~Cem, ~h~ parm~.~g~.blc~ of ind~.eator~ cgn be arr~.vad ati by a ~eti- maCe of a apec~�ic p~operty of commun~.cne3on~ (e.g., re~~.ab~.litiy or afficiency) wi.tih eaeimates of similgr prop~rCies of oeher ~.nformaeion pron~sg~~ ~.n rhe eontrdl sysCem. ~C ig n~c~~s~ry her~ Ch~e eh~ va1u~ of th~ eommunica~ion~ indic~eor b~ b~te~r eh~n tih~ indicaeor8 for rel~tipd ~.nform~e~.on procegg~g (prnnurin~ and gaehering ~.nformaCion on a seaee, an~lyz~ng, pron~ssing, r~-, etc.) by virrue of tihe principle of anticipation of davelopment ~nd improvement of rhe communicntions systems ~.n relation Co oCh~r subsystems of the control syee~m. The va1u~ of this l~~d dep~nds ~n the impore~nce of ehe information transmieted in the control sygCem in terms of Che ~ffe~Civenesg of the operaeions of Che ve~sels and ~hips b~ing cdntirdlled. $y v~.rtue of thi~, it i~ ~segblighed by Che individual whoe~ duey iti is to make decisions re- garding ehe creation, improvement and organizaCion of ehe conCrol syseem. ~or fuCure commun~cations systems or for ay~Cems on the experience of employing which Ch~r~ is no d~t~, Ch~ permissible valu~g of cnmmunication~ indicaCors ar~ determined by modeling the operations of forces, Caking inCo accounC the influence of the communications properCy in queation on the effectiveness of operations. Here it is necessary that Che cr3terion for the effectivenesg of operations be critical in terms of the communications indicator. By modeling the operations of controlled procesaes under identical conditions, but with different valueg of the communicarions indicator (by varying them from rhe mini.mum to the maximum possible under specific conditions), it is pos$ible to make a determination of th~ numerical dependenc~ of the effective- ness of their opera~ion on the value of the communications indicator. The results obtained make it possible to plot a graph of this dependence, from which, for a specified value of Che effectivenesa of the operations of vessels and ~hipg, a determinarion ig made of the permiseible value of the communicatione indicaCor. Specific e�:amples of deeermining quantitative requiremenCe for communicationa, - in particular, the permiasible time for the travel of reports, orders and information in Che control of foYCes in an operatione and tactical unit, are discussed in nnval literature. In modern communications gysCems, and even more so for future ones, the re- quirements for communi:ations are high, and they continue Co increase, espe- cially with the automation of control and the creation of automated communi- cattons systems. But it should be mentioned that the specific permissible values of con~unica- tions indicatora must be s~t by taking into account the feasibility of techni- cal realization. For example, for the future naval communications system 13 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~oc~ n~~rzcz~ usc oNLY , ~he con:~iclen~~ mus r be 10r5 ep 10~6 and Ch~ ergn~m~.asion r~te 300 to 400 bdudg C48]. The Commun~.caC~,onB ayse~m mus~ gugranee~ sCabl~.~.ty o~ operaeion, ~l~.min~ee clelayg ~nd mal�unce~,ona and operatd ~or a long tim~ without f ~i1ur~ [48]. The r~qu3remenes far cnmmun~.cae3ons with I~ ve~ap~e and vess~7.s of ath~r departmeneg and with otiher conCrolled t~n~.ra in Chese industrigl contro~. systema mu~ti be anneisrene with ~he high requirpnue?i~s nt� the Uri~,~ied Autdm~t~d Syge~m of Coun~rywide Cnmmunicatiiona (YeASS) has been cre~teed in ehe Soviet Union (48~. 1.3. Structure of Communicat~.ons Systems; Communications Service For the purpose of carrying out outside communications, each vessel and ehip hag ehe r~quired communicgtiong facilities, the organized interconnection of which with gervice personnel is accompliah~d on veesels by radio atgtions (m~rine radio staCions), and on ~hips by miliCary communications units. On ahore, ehe facilitiies gnd communicaCion personnel comprise communicaCions stationa, cenCers and unite. Communications stations unite communications faciliries for rwo-way communicaeions (e.g., rndio sCation~, telephone ex- changea, telegraph exchanges, etc.). CommunicaCions centera un~te ordinarily idenCical communicaCions facilitles or facilities for one kind of communicatione (a radio receiving center--a PRTs, a radio transmitting center--a PDRxs, a telephone center, eCc.). ConrtnunicaCiona units (US's) include different faci- litiea and make possible various kinds of communication and can include communicaCions centers and sCaCiona, whereby PRTs's and PDRTs's are located as a rule ati distances from control centera (PU's) and from one annther, which ensure high-quality radio reception during the simulCaneous operation of radio reception and radio transmitting equipment, and, in ngval aystems, for the purpose of ensuring secrecy and stability. Sometimes the PRTs and PDRTa make up a single radio center (RTa), e.g., the radio center of a shipping line. P12Ts's, PDRTe's and PU's located at a distance are connected by multi- channel intercenter communicationa lines, whose channels are designed for Cransmitting messages, as well as for joining terminal equipment located at PU's to PRTs receivers ~nd PDRTa transmitters, for the purpose of remote conCrol of monitoring equipmenC and other service purposes. Thus, the facili- ties of PU's and subdivisions of PRTs's, PDRTs's and RTs's form an organized union of equipment for the purpose of communications with vesaels, which is ofCen called a marine communicationa system. In addition, the communications atationa and centers of the PU's of porCs and shipping lines for a single sea (or basin) are interconnected by communi- cations lines and to central administrations and the ministry, forming a so- called shore communications system. Of course, marine communications systems and the shore system are closely interrelated and repreaent components of port, shipping line and ministry communications syatems, respectively. Similar- ly are formed the communications syster,~s of naval bases, forces, fleets and the VI~. It should be mentioned that by virtue of the hierarchical nature 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ror~ c~r~~~crnr, us~ nrr~Y ehe Cottm~un~.caC~.on~ gYSC~'p15 0,~ Che I~f~' nnd I~TtKh are ~.nC~,ud~d tts ~.ndustirigl. sy~tems ~.n eh~ SeaC~ ~yyCem, ~nd tih~ aygCetn o~ tih~ VM~, ~.n rhe commun~.c~~~.ons sy~Cems n,~ ehe armed ~orces. 'I'hus, by a commun~.ctt~~.ons sysrem tntis~ be un~l~rsCnod a combinr~Cion of uttits, cen~ers, sCatiions and commun~.cariona l~.nea serv~.cing on-shore conCrol centers and subd:Lv~.sions and unitis of ve~sel~ and ah~.p~, organ~.z~d for rhe purpose nf exchanging ~.nfox~maCinn in the per~ormance of se~ ob~ectives. Ot, in oCher words, ehe ndmmunicarion~ syetem o~ a f1eeC cunaiati~ of a com- binneion of a11 communicatiions manpow~r ttnd equipmettt, uniCed by t~ cotmnunality _ of or~an~.z~rion ~nd employment� procadure. A mod~rn communiCations syatem x~- pr.~sents al~o unitiy in the technical policy for d~s~gning the system and developing and a].1 its elements. A communications system must possess st~b3lity, flexibilley and noise re~ection, and, finally, throughpux. Required in marine trgnsporC, marine and, even more so, in VMF commun~.caeions gystems ig rhe coneinuous round-the-clock and year-round ensurance of control, i.e., they musti be constantly operating communications systems. For exnmple, the consCantly opernting communications system of the VMF must ensure rhe gathering of information ~rom numerous forces and facili- Cies at work on ehe water, under water and in Che air at enormous distances from command centers; the distribution of informatinn received between cormnand centers and wiehin Chem; the transmission of orders, instructions and commanda eo 3ts own forces and of information Co interacting Croops; and the not~.fication of its own forces regarding the s3.tuarion in seas and oceans and enemy opera- tions [39, 74]. The communications system of the mariCime fleet must ensure navigntion safety and the protection of human life, property and cargo; and efFicienC supervisr~ry guidance of the operation of shi~ping lines, ports, fleeCs and marine rransport enterprises and organizaCions [63, 72]. The communications system of the commercial fleet has a similar purpose [1, 41]. The ensurance of communication3 with vessels and ships over great distances has made it necessary to include in the communications system territorially separated PRTs's and PDRTs's, as well as switching and radio relaying cen~ers making possible the rapid travel of large flows of information with the re- quired auComation of communications processes and units. In a modern communi- cations system there musC also be control centers for the purpose of monitoring the staCe ~f the entire system (or a specific region in global systems) and of controlling iC with a change in information flows or the state of channels, when uniCs go out of order, and the like. For the purpose of organizing commun3cations, ensuring iC, ac~d utilizing it in controlling forces, in a fleet there are communications agencies, which as a rule are communications departments or divisions which are headed by communi- cations chiefs, to whom are subordinate conwunications units and subdivisions. The communications units and agency of an association, f.ormation or shipping line are represented by the communications service, headed by a communicarions - chief. The co3ununications units of a fleet and the protecting aubdivisions together with the fleet's communications administration (department) are represented by Che fleet's communicat3ons service, headed by the fleet's 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 A'Olt U~H'TCIAL US~ ONLY communicaeions chie�. The fleeti~s service ~.s a compottenti of ehe VM~ communicatiions service. tleadin$ ~.G ~.s ehe VMk' chie~ of commun~.caC3ons. Thus, Che communic~tions service oE Ch~ VMF and accordingly of the t~IF nnd MRKh ~epresents a v~ry complex organiam, whose multilateral is aimed ati maintiaining communic~t3.ons fgcilieies and sy~tems ati the level of steadily increasing requir~mentis, and ati ensuring contro~. under ehe complex conditions of fu1�illing set goals in various regians of ehe ~lobal ocean. Chapeer 2. Featurea of Radio Wave PropagnCion at Sea and C~lculations for ltadio CommunicaCions Lines in Different Bands 2.1. Classificatiion of Itadio Waves and Characeeristics of the Medium in Which They are Propagated ' The band classificatiott of radio waves and their clasgiflcation gccording to their employment in marine communications are presented in Appendix 2. In terms of ineChod of propa~ation, radio waves are classified as freely propagated (direct), ground (surface), Cropospheric and ionospheric (space). Characteristic of direct radio waves is propagation in free space (in a void) with the absence of any obstacles in their way (e.g., space radio communica- tions). For such waves the effective value of the electric field strengCh of these radio waves, Ed (in m~/m), is determined by the �ol'lowing equation: E _ 173 H~D~ A' r ~ (2.1) where P1 is Che power of the transmitter emitted by the antenna, in kW; D is the directivity factor of the transmitting antenna; and r is the d~stance between the points of transmission and reception of the radio waves, in km. Ground radio waves are propagated directly above the surf,ace of EarCh. Be- cause of the diffraction characteristic of VLF, LF and MF waves (whose wave- lengths are commensuraCe with the dimensions of obstacles), the range of pro- pagation of surface waves does not exceed 2000 km. Furthermore, they undergo absorption on account of penetration into Earth's strata and as a result of the consumption of energy in heat losses. Tropospheric radio waves are propagated by means of scattering and reflection from various intiomogeneities of the troposphere (at an altitude on the order of 12 lan) having different dielectric constants, whereby the main f low of energy travels through the troposphere. The propagation range of tropospheric waves does not exceed 1000 km. Ionospheric (space) radio waves (longer than 10 m, and under certain conditions, VHF waves) are propagated on accounC of reflection from the upper half of the 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roiz oFr~rcz~ us~ ornr atmosphere-ionoe,ptiexe (in the a~.ti~ude xan~e o~ 60 to ~.000 icm) . The degr~e of Atmoepher~.~ ion~za~~,on ia charACC~rized~by the e]~ec~ron concenCx~tio~1, N, Che number o~ free electrona per 1 cnt (or 1 m). 1~ ha~ been proven experimenCa~.1.y that tihe di~~ribu~ion o~ electron concenLrat~.on by a1C~.tude is in the ~orm oF a s~epped curve, a relatively smooth change in con- _ centration from step to atep. Tn dayeime are observed individual secondary maxima, which ~orcn ~egions (layers) aC the following a7.~~.tudes: D(60-90 km); E(100-120 km), (180-240 km) and F2(230-400 km), At nighti the process of recomb3naC~on takes place ( in dense layers of the atmosphere), as the result of which the D reg~.on disappears, and ~he F1 region, which exists only during hours of illumination in Che summcner, merges with F into region F. Re~ion F2, unlike regions D, E and F1, is unstable and sub~ect to random changes. In add3.tion to these regulary eYisting regions of the ionosphere, from t3me Co time a strong 3onized "sporadic layer," E, form3, whose electron con- centraCion surpasses the concentrat3.on of the E region as much as tentold. Most frequently, aC middle and equatorial la~iCudes it forms in the summer during the d~y, and in polar regions at night, independently of the seRaon. The period of existence of the E~ layer is a few hours, and 3.Cs length is a few dozen kilometers. The outer shell of the ionosphere is a radial belt with a lawer limit at the altitude of a few hundred kilometers above the Atlantic Ocean and an upper aC an altitude of 1500 km above the Pacific Ocean. Space radio waves, because of reflection more than once from the ionosphere, are propagated around Earth at pract3ca11y any distance. But ~ust as is the case with surface and tropospheric rad~.o waves, ionospheric waves are absorbed in penetration through the semiconducting ionized layers of the atmospl~ere. Attenuation of a radio wave field because of losses in their propagation under real conditions is characterized by the attenuation factor, F, which is included as a cofactor in (2.1). Radio waves are propagated in a semiconducting medium. SemiconducCors are characterized by two parameters: dielectric constant, ed, in F/m, and conductivicy, Q, in cm/m. Usually, instead of the absoIute dielectric con- sCant its relative value, e, is used (a dimensionless magnitude). In the radio wave band these parameters are considered independEnt. Under the effect of a variable electric field, in semiconducCors bias currents, j , and conduction currents, j , arise, the ratios of which are expressed bymthe following equation: Pr Ic~~ ~ ~n~ ('i~).Q � ~2.2~ 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F'dR OFF'ICIAL U5E UNLY If e� Ao ,~hen th~ t~ays (water, dxy 1~nd) appruaches a die].ectir~.c wi~h respecC to ~,t~ properties, and when e~< ~cr , a conduceor. For example, dry so~.1 respecti ~o iCs prope~:tiea approaches an ~,deal conductor for VL~' waves, and an 3deal dielec~r~.c for SH~' waves. The dieleceric constanr of the ~,onosphere depends on #requency, and is expressed by the equ~tion: t 1---SU,B ~ (2.3) where f is ehe frequency of the radio wave, in kHz. Tt follows from equation (2.3) Chat at a certain frequency, called the plasma frequency, f the dielectric constanC returns to zero, The value of f~ can be found by solving the equaCion arrived aC in terms of f: f0 - ~~B~~SNg - 9 j/rf~y , (2.4) In [16] are formulated the following key of radio waves: a) Both components of radio waves (the electric, EZ , and magnetic, Hy) are propagated at the same rate. b) Between the electric and magnetic fields there takes place a phase shift in time and space, as the result of which the wavelength in a semiconducting medium (soil, water) is less than the wavelengCh in air. c) Radio waves in a semiconducting_~dium are absorbed at a depth of h according to rhe exponential law e , and for media approaching conductors with respect to their properties, the absorption coefficient of a radio wave, d, in 1/m, takes the form: b - 2~ l,~soQ ~ ~ ~ ('I.5) d) The absorption of radio waves is greater, the higher the conductivity of the medium and the shorter the wavelength. The atmosphere in terms of its composition is inhomogeneous: In addition to electrons and ions, in it there are neutral molecules, in collision with which electrons give up part of the energy obtained from the propagated radio wave. Losses in its energy are caused by this. The dielectric constant and conductivity of an ionized gas are expressed by the equations: - 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roR or~zc~~ us~ ornY e=1-3190 Ng ~ W~ ~h ~ (2.6) ~ - ~~2~82'~0_8 ~gV ' ca~ v' (2.1) where v is the mean frequency of co111sions between elecCrons and neutral mo~.ecules. At high frequencies, when w2 � v2 , the electiric parameters of the iono- sphere depend on the frequency. The conductivity of the ionosphere is :Ln- versely proporCional to the frequency, and, consequently, the absorption of the energy of radio waves in the ionosphere is reduced witih an increase in frequency. It follows f rom equaCions (2.6) and (2.7) that when v= 0 Lhe conductivity disappears and the dielectric constant is determined from equation (2.3). Radio wave~ with f requencies less than f0 cannot be propagated in an ionized gas, and Che frequencies are ref].ected �rom ~he ionized layer. Since the electron concentration increases with altitude, the refractive index is reduced, the tra3 ectory of the wave is turned with iCa convex s3de upw~ard, and at its peak total internal reflection takes place. As a result of this - the radio wave is turned back onto the semiconducting surface of Earth, from which it is again reflected in the direction of the ionospt~ere, etc. Of decisive importance for the reflecCion of a radio wave is tihe critical frequency, fk , of the F2 layer, whose value depends on the time of day, the seaaon and~ the phase of the 11-year period of solar activity. Certain investigators (e.g., [3, 16]) have obtained equations relating the frequency to tne maximum value of the electron concentration, N , at the turning point o� a specific layer with a speci�ied angle of eleva~on: 80,8r1'inex 2 a 1 . 1max = ~ si n' ~ -E- 2 ~ (2. a~ where a is the radius of Earth (a = 6370 km). Its maximum value is reached by f~X when 0(i.e., with mildly sloping ~ rays): ~ 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'OR OF'FxCIAL USE ONLY ~80,8Nmex (a ~yI fnux o � 2H ~ (2.9) With a vertically directed ray (s m~r/2) enuation (2.8) tiakes thg form: ~Kp =1~ a~,8Nmex ~ ~2. Consequently, the maximum applicable frequency (I~II'Ch) for e~ch region of the ionoaphere is deCermined by the maximum elecCron concentraCion, the altitude of the region and the angle of elevation; frequencies of f< fk are always reflected from the ionosphere regarciless of the angle of eleva~ion, and when fkr f pass through the ionosphere and are not reflected from ft. The I~Ch's re~lected from ehe ionoaphere in alant sounding (tihe conditions for the reflection of which are more favorable than for vertically directed) exceed three- to four-fold the values of critical frequenciea. OCMN ' . 6 20 ~ 10 4 3 ~ 2 f 0 10 20 30 40 50 S, ~ o Figure 2.1. Conductivity of Sea Water as a Function of Its Salinity and Temperature The propagaCion of radio waves is influenced also by the state of the semi- conducting medium--Earth's surf ace, a considerable part of which (71 percent) is covered with water. Water and dry land are semiconductors in terma of their properties, but they are characterized by different values of e and a. The conductivity of sea water is non-identical and not constant, and depends on the salinity of the water and its temperature (fig 2.1). Different also is the dielectric constant in different regions of Earth, both of the global ocean and of dry land. The values of E and v for different kinds of surface on Earth are indicated in table 2.1. In the last column of this table are given the values of frequencies at which the density of the bias current equals the density of the conduction current. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ' FOR OFFICZAL US~ ONLY Tab 2 ~ 1. . , . tlerepxuacrb u tl~ Cw/a f~ MPu~ u~~uole 3~lopcKaa naA~ ~4 4--G gUU~ll~b 4~ I~(1QCl19q titlQB p~K u 80 Itl"~- ~,d~ 10"~ 0,2~8~~,~b ' uaep 5)U4cub un~ucuaa no~ ~30 6~ IU�~-� 2~ 10=4 3 f1 4B8 ~,1 no~na cpenueA una~c� Ib 6~ 10'~ - 6~ 10'~ 0,~~8 'f~flCTll ~~I~04D0 ~ ApKTNN@ ~b 8'~~'4 ~~8 8)O4eub cyxaa noy~a 3 6~10's-10~~ U,3-0~8 9) tlonnpHwA ncA 3 2,b~ 10~ 0~ Ib Key� ~ 1. Sur~ace 6. Soi1 of inedium moietuYe content 2. f, .Ir4~z, e~ 60 aQ 7. Soil in tihe Arctic 3. Sea water 8. Very dry aoil , 4. Freah water of rivers and 9. ~'olar ice lakes 5. Very moiati eoii In fig 2.2 a and b are reproduced charta of the conductivity of eea water in the global ocean in the summer and winter (37~. : For the purpoae of ensuring reliable radio communications, it is neceeeary that the signal's field strength, E, be greater than the noise level, Ep , ' which is characterized by the prote~tion factor: Kl ~ ~n , (2.11) In Appendix 1 are given recommendationa on taking inCo account factor K1 ~38, 59]. 2.2. Features of Propagation, and Calculation of Radio Communications Linea Very low frequency, low frequencq (VLF and LF) and ultralow frequency (ULF) waves have properties much in common. Radio waves in these bands are propagated as it ~aere in a distinctive spherical waveguide, whoae inside wall is repreaented by Earth's sur~ace, and whose outside wall is repreaented by the lower limit of the D layer during daytime or the lower limit of the E layer at nighC. Both theae layers are not 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 Fdtt O~I~'YCIAL US~ ONLY ab~nrbin~ l~y~x~ ,~~r 1aw ~nd poage~~ eh~ prop~~ct~.aa of ~~m~.con- med~.~, xe~~,ece VL~ wavee w~l~. and act ee the wa11 of rh~ wav~guid~ di.r~cei,ng th~ r~d~.o wav~ rad~,~~~.on f7.ux. ' - . ~ ~ b AO ~ ~ , ~ ~9 Cb ~ 1;`~ , , ~ ~ , . \ n .~~~~13~ eo . ~ ~ ` \ . ~i ~ b ~ ~S \ \ \ _ 'I hyN ' ~ ~ ( ~S~ y~i~ ~ _-~-~~M. �~'y�b \ 0= ; p' ~ 4' \ \ /~~J~ , ~ , ~ ~ JS ?.,1~ J i ~ .f � ~ ~ \ . _ y o \3~ w � ~ ~y~~ e. , ` . .t~~ t ~ ~ ; \ ~ ~'-p;~ , _.r- �r~ =r~M.?~ � ~ `a.~ ~ I j ` ~ i~ J .6.=-__-..,~ ? 4:- ~ ? A ~ ~3T ' ~ ~ 2 60 � - i ra ~ ~ . ~ \ \ ~ ~ ~ 60 JO 0 30 6U 9 1?0 150 IBO ~5D ~YO 90 b) eo e; ~ ; ~ ~`P ~ ~ . � ` ~ ~ , , ~ ~ ~ \ . ~ . 80 . ~ ~ ~ . . . ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ " ~ {~~~E ~ cy I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \ ~ , 1~-!_;-~- _...i � . ~`~~.~Y . s a0 ~ ~ ` ' . . . ~ \ ':t. ` �r= ?O .~Y ? . ~ , ` s?Y . ~ . ~ a~ ~ ~t*` 's.r~'~ ~ !S l: i. I ~ ~ S \ e~ ` ~ ~ ~o, � Si ~ ~ ~ 20 _ ~ , ~ ~y +w ,~St ` ~ p ~s/' /0 ~ 50 b.~ . ' .b,~ ~7~ ~g 7~ 80 ~t..i \ ` ~ , 60 JO 0 7~ ~ 0 90 ~id 150 IBO I50 120 60 Figure 2.2. Conductivity o,� Sea Water in Che Gl~bal Ocean: a--summer; b--winter 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 H'OR tl~'F~CIAI, U5~ ONLY Th~ prnp~~d~ion d~,a~ram ehoc~ni ~.n ~~.g 2.3. Th~ d~,r~~~~,n~ d~f~ce o~ ~h~.~ ~phdr~.c~~, wave~uid~ make~ po~~:tb1a ~o ob~~rv~ eh~ ~nC~.podc~ ~f~~~r, wh~r~by a~ po~n~ C, oppoa~.ti~ A(r p~a n~ 2~~04 lcm) r~d~,o wave~ conv~rg~, ~ti a ~ocal ~o~n~, ~nd creatie an ~.n~ertii~~.�~.~d �~.~~d. W~:~h ~n ~.ncr~~~e ~.n d~.~tian~e to ~.0 km, eh~ etr~n$~h of rh~ f~.~~.d ~.e redueed, ~nd ~ fureh~r in~reag~ i.n di.~C~ne~ the r~ys begin ed cnnv~~$~, whieh reeuL~~ ~.n ~omp~n~~C~.on of geC~n~u~tiion of th~ f~.~ld b~cguae of ~ng~eg ~.n E~~tih ~nd Ch~ inndgph~r~. 6Qb~~~ r NN/Y6 t~~ w , ~ NdtMt s ~ ~~r f A e 3 ) ii' . , ~ ~ ~ ~ y~` I~ . . F'igure 2.3. VI.F Wave propggaCion in ehe Egrth-Innogphere 5pherical Wgveguide Key : 1. Ionosphere 3. Hdg Y 2' Knight For these reasons, in Che Egrth-ionosphere waveguide a family of waves is excieed, and even ttear ehe CransmieCer ia observed ehe interference nature of the atructure of the field as a function of distance, caused by the super- position of ehese waves. Ae a distance of 2000 to 3000 km only a single intense wave of a purely waveguide naCure remains. This paCtern for the waveguide process of the propagation of electromagnetic vibrations is completely characteristic of frequencies in the VLF band greater than 5 to i0 kHz, when the height of the waveguide, and especially communica- tions ranges, are as a rule greater than ehe wavelengths employed. At fre- quencies below 2 to 3 kHz there is no waveguide process, and the process of the establishment of electromagnetic vibrations in the waveguide takes place. The lower base of the waveguide's cavity possesses the properties of a semi- conductor, and the upper, of the ionosphere, depending on the time of day - (in daytime, region D--a semiconductor; ae night, region E--a dielectri.c). A strict discussion o� these processes is based on application o~ the theory of modes, which takes into account a great number of varying parameters and makes it possible by means of a computer to determine Che amplitude and phase of the wave at the place of reception [2, 3]. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Oit d~~~~iAt~ U5ti ~Nt~Y 5i,n~~ i~y~~~~ b~nd ~~omr~ unde~ Ch~a h~adin~ o,~ s,~ab~,~ 3onogph~ri.~ ,, VI,~ p~ap~g~C3.nn i~ chgi~~ee~ri,~~d t~y h~,~h ~ana~aney ~.n ~h~ pags~~~ o,f ~an~ w~v~s and ~,n eheir r~e~ prdpa~~ei,on, a~d i.~ no~ ~~~ompani@d by ~udd~n ehan~~~ ~.n ~ignal 1~v~1 ~ itandom v~riati,en~ i,n ~~.~ld aCr~ngth b~~~u~~ o~ fluc~u~ting ~h~nges in ~i~~e~on concaneraeion insi.gnigica~e in C~rm~ of i~ntensiey (n~~ greatier eh~n i0 en 30 p~ro~nC) end tiake pl~c~ v~ry ~~.owly (over dozene o� minuCes ~nd ~ven hour~) and th~~efore are not record~d in Ch~ ~udio rec~p~ion of gigt~~].s. ~h~ 24-hour behavior of field serengrh along eh~ ~~th dc~ee noti und~rgo m~rk~d ~h~n~~~. Som~~im~~ ~udd~n va~r~.etii.ane in _ eh~ ~ipld gr~ obs~rv~d during ~h~ hou~s nf gunriee and ~ung~r. 5eudi~g of r~c~nt y~ar~ hav~ demon~erat~d that ~lthough eh~ w~1i~ of eh~ wuv~~uid~ ~re f~r fro~n on~ nnoeher (~bout 2.5 a for f~~.0 kHx), nev~rth~lees th~y nr~ ~om~wh~e m~bilp becaua~ of a chgng~ during ~~4-hour period ~.n the ~1eiCude nf ehe ianosph~re (in rhe d~ytimp r~gion D i.~ 72 eo 80 km, and at ni~ht region ~~.g about 90 km). This cauae~ chang~~ in the length of Ch~ paeh o� ~~dio waves, ~nd, cona~quently, ~1so regular 24-haur v~r~,ation~ in the pha~e velocity of the s~gnal, as we11 ss ~easonal vari~Cion~, which in- . �1u~nc~~ ehe accur~cy of radio nevig~t~on. The ~nnu~1 varigeion in field ~Cr~n~th ig very elighely prnnounced; in gummer, during d~ylighe hour~, the field sCr~n~th increaeeg by 20 to 50 per~ent as compared witih wineer monehs. Ionogpheric di~turbanceg and varigtions in solar activity have bue a glighe influenc~ on condieione for the propagaeion of radio waves in these bands. Thus, the constancy of conditiong for VLF wgv~ prnp~guridn, eheir low depend- ence on ionospheric dieCurbnnces, their comparaeively moderate absorpCion, their ability Co penetrate water, and their insignificant vulnerabiliey eo the influence of nuclear explosions ~r,ake it possible to receive signals from powerful VLF radio transmitters at practically any point on Earth. VLF waves are ex~ensively employed in global communications and navigation systems, as well as for the purpose of transmitting signals Co aubmerged submarinea and of transmitting precise upper-class frequencies and standard time sysCem signals. On the other hand, the VLF band hgs some disadvanragea, too, such as a com- paratively high level of atmospheric and industrial interference, as well as of inter�erence from neighboring radio stations, which necessitates Che uge of powerful Cransmitters; difficulty in the effective emission of electro- magnetic high-power fields because of the small dimensions of aneennas as compared with the wavelength, and Che low radiation resistance and efficiency of antennas, which necessitates the employment of anCennas of greaC size; the low throughput of communications channels because of the narrownesa of the frequency band, which results in the need to use, as a rule, a telegraph mode, with relatively not too high operating speeds; and Che difficulty of achieving narrow-beam radiation and reception. The electric field strength at not too great distances ~rom Che transmitter (up to 1000 km) can be calculated on the basis of the assumption of the 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR O~~IGIAL t13~ ONLY prop~~~~i~n of V~,~ w~v~~ in ~h~ .~orm a~ ~rau~~d w~v~~ o~ ~~~oun~ ~f d~~~r~~~ion p~~~e~~ around ~~rth, ~'rom ~h~ tihr@~ upp~~ curv~~ o~ ~h~ ~tKit C~n~~r~aeion~i R~dio Cnn~ulte~iv~ Commi~C~p] gr~pha r~~~~ddu~~d i,n f~,~ 2.4 [3~~. G~~phg af ~i ar~ ~nmp~~~d for 1 kW o~ ~gdi~~~d paw~~ t~ieh a d~,r~eeiv~:ey f~~enr fdr tih~ eran~mieeing ~neenn~ a~ ll~ 1.5 . Then ~h~ f~.~ld cr~a~~d by eh~ tir~n~mieti~r, nf p~w~r P in kW, g~ ~h~ poine of r~~~peion 3~ dee~rmin~d a~ fdllow~: ~A ~a~ l p; c~. ~2) ~ ~"~1di' (2. ],3) wh~r~ P i~ Ch~ pow~r ~uppl~~d ~e eh~ r~dio ~ran~miee~r, in kW; and n 3~ th~ of eh~ ~n~~nn~-f~ed~r uni.e. At ~r~nC digt~n~~s af r, in km, radi.c~ w~ve~ of w~vel~ngth a, in km, ar~ propagae~d as iono~pheric wav~~ in ~ spher~.c~1 wav~gu~.d~ and in Chl.~ ~aee ehe ~1~ceric field ~eren~~h, in mV/m, i~ c~lculated from th~ s~mi-empiricgl Au~ein-Coh~n ~quation: o,eoi i . ~A- 30~~~'p~pl ~ ~1 C- ~,-�~r r 91n0 ' (2.14) wh~r~ 8 i~ th~ central angle betwe~n Che pointa of radiation and reception (cf. fig 2.3), or from the Aspenshield, Anderaen and Bailey equation: o,oos E~ 300 l' P~D~ ~ e~' , A ~ sin 0 (2.15) In equations (2.14) and (2.15) in an exponent of the exp (-ar/J1~) type 1.4 other factora are also assumed. For example, (-0.OO15r/~) or (-0.0045r/a which were selected each Cime in order in the best manner to eatisfy the variant of the experiments congidered in the sCUdy (2, 3~. bistance r is relgted to central angle 6 by the relationshi r= 9a (cf. fig 2.3) and at small distances (up to r= 1000 km ) A sin A ti 1, and as the distance increases t he argument increases more rap i d ly t han t he sign, and with r= 20,000 km ehe value of 8 sin A-? W, which characterizes the directional properties of the waveguide. The Austin-Cohen equaCion gives acceptable resultg for calculations of t? at distances from 1000 to 18,000 km. The Ed ~ f(r) curve from calcula~ed data for this equation is given in fig 2.5. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott OFFtCIAL U~~ ONLY . E,, ~G 2 ~ E,,wRe/N d0 - ?0~ ~ s ~o e�ec~ a.~c~/~ r+ 60 IA 6 SO Pt 40 ~ /~t,lpq~ w~ f/ S d0 ~A o ,p p 10 s f0 ~ra� p 0 ~ s r ?r �,J l s ~r ms �,O ~ ~ _pp ~ m,, ~,�~J~ ~ 0�f ~'v s -~~0 dl0 f000 lJ00 pOIO ~ r,RN Figure 2.4. Curvea for Propagation of a Ground Wave (Sea) Key: 1. E, dB 3. 10 kHz 2. Ei, uV/m 4. 10 A4~z b) e~f,w.% 1~ f~MRe n ~ ua , . - ~a - - - XI " - - 1/I : - - lI ~ - - - JJ _ _ . . ` _ � _ ' ~O~ ~ ~ ; =..-k.i = ' / ` ~AO % ~L -Z ~t = - -r: Y~-2. - '~~~i~ `~o 4 ~ ' ` , a {~Jo u . . ~o ~o ~ ' L:~l ~ /I /%/%ON/1ql+N%ilwf~1~Np //Ip ~ o rooo r,e~' r Rx Figure 2.5. Graphs #or Calculating Range of Radio Communications in Che VLF Band: a--Ed wi,th P~ 1 kW ; b--Ed with P~ _ ~ 1000 kW and n = ~.5 Key: 1. E~ uV/m 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott f~~~fGiAL U~~S ONLY Th~ ~un~~,u~~,on ~~om ~xp~~i,m~n~~ ~g cha~ ~h~ ac~u~~. ~i~~d ~~~c~n~eh i~ ~~m~- wtiae ,~~~a~~~ eh~n eh~ ,~i~id ~ex~n~th cal~ul~~c~d ~~u~~3.~n (~~~.G) ~ Y~ ~ddi~inn, i~ h~g b~~n enn#~,rm~d eh~r ~c~r eh~ VL~ band th~ princ~.pi~ o~ r~- ~ipro~i~y ~or Ch~ ~~ur~~ ~nd ob~~rv~x ig vio].a~~d, ~spe~~,~].ly ~e gr~ae r~n~~~ ~nd an p~eh~ 1yin~ ~~ro~~ ~~rth'~ magn~tii~ fi,~1d. ~'or ~x~np~~, eh~ m~~n v~iu~~ c~~ ~h~ ~~,~1d e~r~n~th m~gsur~d ~lon~ w~~e-aase (N~w~~.~, ec~ ~h~ Pc~nam~ C~~ai zon~, r~~450 km ) w~r~ lower~d ~.n by n~aceor of i0 eo 12, snd nigh~ by ~�acgor a~ ~.5. ~n the game experimenti~, ~1ong a noreh- south ii.n~ (New York eo ~anama C~n~l Zone, 3820 km) ai~~ variaeion i,n the dire~tidn ~f prap~$~t3an di th~ r~dia w~v~ th~ f3~ld ser~ngeh pra~ti~~lly did c~ae ch~ng~. ~~e~ h~v~ b~~n pr~~~c~e~d, eo ~h~ ~~f~ce ~h~t on pa~h~ loe~t~d ~t ~qu~~. 1atii.~ud~~ ~h~ ~mp~3.eud~ of th~ fi~~d ~.s gr~~ti~r eh~n on p~ehs in a m~rididn~l d3r~cCion [3]. A~ ~1r~~dy ~e~r~d, rec~p~~.on eondieiong ~r~ de~erm~.ned by eh~ r~ein of ~h~ ~ign~l'~ f~.e1d ~er~n~eh eo ehe nois~ ~.~v~1. In ~he VLF b~nd n r~laCi.v~ly high leve]. of ~emn~ph~ric noi~~ 3~ ~evidenc~d, cr~~ted chief].y by ~.ightn~ng di~ch~rges, gnd ine~n~~.ty depends on rh~ fr~qu~ncy, th~ geo~raph~c lor~~ion of eh~ r@eeptiion c~ne~r, eh~ g~~~on, th~ tim~ o� d~y, and ehe pa~~b~nd af eh~ r~ceiv~r. In fi~ 2.6 i~ giv~n ~~r~ph of eh~ ~xp~e~ed 1eve1 0� a~ma~ph~ric ndig~ ~ function of rhe gre~ of r~c~peion, in ~he equatori~l zone, 1, and gt middl~, 2, and north~rn, 3, latiieud~s in eh~ Aelgnrie Ocs~n witih g ree~iver pngsb~nd nf 20 Hz (37j. Wieh other p~ssb8nd~, Af* , the lev~1, Ep , is d~Cerm~:n~d by thg ~qu~tion: ~Q ~n ~ ~~~~j ~~~-~-20 (2.16) nr / ; Ch E~ s~ , (2.17) wh~re Of is the pasgband of the receiver for which the graph is calculated, in Hz, and E is the level of atmospheric noiae, determined from the graph for specific gondiCions, in uV/m (dB). ~rnm g comparison of levels of atmospheric noise in the VLF band over a con- tinent and the ocean, it is obvious that in regions of an ocean, e.g., the Pacific, Che noise level is 5 to 10 dB lower on average. If it is taken into account tl~at the aCt~nuation of VLF signals in propagation over Che sea is less than over dry land, then the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio reaches 10 to 15 dB, becauae of which the e~fective range of VLF radio stationa ia increased by approximately a~actor of 1.5, and with PD = 1000 kW reach~s values of (5 to 7)�103 km. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOR OFF~C~AL US~ ONLY . f, Mrt9/n POtl I ?0 ~ ~ - ~ - ~ ? 2 ~ f0 tOJO 00 !00 PDO 500 f000 2) ~,NM Pigure 2.6. Levels of Atmospheric Noise Key: 1. E, uV/m 2. P, kHz VLF wavea aYe propagaCed in a epherical waveguide, and therefore, as in any waveguide, ~.e has 3ts optimal frequencies which are propagated with the least attenuation. Thie can be ~udged also from equations (2.14) and (2.15), in which ~or a speci�ied distiance the wavelength 3s opCimal. ' Since reception conditions are determined by the ratio E/E , which varies in relation to the band, that wavelength will be optimal at ~hich this ratio reachea a maximum. Medium frequency`waves (I~ wavea) cover the band from 300 kHz (1000 m) to 3 i~iz (100 m) and are propagaCed during the day only as ground (surface) waves, and at night as ground and ionospheric wavea: This feature of the propagation of Z4' waves is explained by the fact that in daytime there exists but a slighCly ionized D layer, where the electron concentration, because of the great number of collisions (on the order of 5�10~ 1/s) is insufficient for the reflection of MF waves. Therefore, in the D layer the heavy abaorpCion of 1~' wavea takes place and there is not enough energy for them to be able to pass through this layer and be reflected from the E layer, where the number of. collisibns is 105 1/s. Thus, in the daytime hours I~ wavea are absorbed conaiderably, and this ab- ' sorption increases as the wave becomes ahorter. Radio communications with medium frequency waves are totally atable in the daytime when radio waves are propagated over the sea at a range o~ up to 1000 to 1500 km, and of up to 500 km over dry land. With the onset oP darkness the D layer vanishes and the absorpt~.on of the electromagnetic field of inediwn frequency waves is reduced considerably, and, aince they are propagated as both ground and ionospheric waves on account of 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'OR n~FZCZAL US~ ONLY r~E~.dc~~.on ~xom th~ ~ J,~y~x, Chen ~h~ ~~~~p~~,pn csnt~r Che ar~~.vA~. o~ botih rad~.o wav~e Qos~~.b~.n~ xh~,s xesu~,C~ ~,n random ~~.ucCu~t~.qns (, ~.n eha r~au~.tianti ~ie~,d o~ ~he s~gn~l~ Th~ ~.n~eng~.ty o~ increases wi~h c~ o~ wavelangth end ~,g mo~t dramg~ically pronnunced ne~r ~he lower lim~.ti of Mk' w~ves (100 m), wh~re ~he sign~l's ~ield can vary by a~actior o~ a~ew dozgn, lastiing from a eecond ~o a few dozen seconda. Diurn~l E~.uceuae~.ons in field srrength at the reception point arg cons~.d~rable only ae long dist~nceg, when tihe onget of darkneas ionospheric waveg begin Co be prnpagaCed. As a reaule n� rhig, ehe level o� the signgl incregses and M~ w~ves can be prapgga~ed ~ distance of up tio 4000 km. Bu~ in Chis cgs~, becguse of tih~ ~.nterference of radio waves (on accoune o� tihe different number of ehe~r reflecCions from tihe ionoephere) fluctiugtione in tihe resultiant field--fading--again aris~. M~ waves axe characterized by seasonal var~.ations in field level, which is evidenced ~.n ineensification of the field in w~.nCer, especi~ally in the dayeime aC norehern laeiCudes. In addiCion, in the summer, as the resul~ of frequent tihunderseorm phenomeng, ehe level of atmoapheric noiae increases, which regulta in the worsening of conditions for s3gnal reception. Ionospheric d~.sturbances during the 11-year period of solar acCivity prac- Cically do not influence the propagation of 1~ waves. A considerable influence on conditions for the propagation of ground wavea is exerted by coastal sections in the MF waveband, since radio seations are nor always located at the water line. As a result, radio waves propagated over the non-uniform surface experience differene absorption. The absorption of radio waves over a path rl and r2 with electrically inhomogeneous surfaces, e.g., dry land (el, v~) and tFie sea (e , a), is determined not onl y b y the attenuation function, depending on ~he ~degree to which the path is occupied by dry land, which is determined by the equation 4- rdry land~~rdry land + rsea~ ' ~2~~8~ but also by the position on the path of the dry land sect3on itself [76]. The main percentage of absorption occurs at sections,which are contiguous with transmitting and receiving antennas. For a path consisting of three sections, the field strength does not depend on the electrical parameters o~ the middle section, r2 , and is determined only by the properties o~ the end secCions. If the end sections pass over dry land, then even with low strength (q ti 0.1) the attenuation ~actor diminishes drastically, and over the sea, then the influence of the dry land is pronounced only with q> 0.8 . 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'OIt OFFICIAL US~ ONLY MI~' waves hav~ ~ound app~.~,ca~~,on boeh ~.n marina and in nav~.gat~,on. MeChods o~,ng ehe ~ie~d ~~rength are divided ~.neo the metihod of calculating the serength o~ aurface waves (~.n daytime) and the method of calcularing the atrengtih of space wavea (at n~.ght). ~'or calculating ~he f~.e1d s~rength of surface waves, MKK~. grapha are uaed (cf. fig 2.4). , For the purpose of calculating tihe field strength (in uV/m) ati night (spgce and surface wavea), the empir3cal equae~.nn in [10~.] ie used: E~ I0 233 YPD e s~s~, ~o-~~,.-o.48r ~ A (2.19) High �requency (HF) waves cover tihe band from 100 to 10 m(3 to 30 MHz) and are propagatied chiefly as ionoapheric waves with~.n rhe limita of Earth for any distance. In their. propagaCion HF waves are abaorbed by the D and E - layers and are reflected from the F2 layer. Reflection from the F2 layer takes place because Ne in the E layer is approximately 20-fold lower than in the F2 layer. The absorptio$rof HF waves occurs according to an exponential 1aw with a factor of e , where d is the abaorption coefficient, and r is the distance traveled by the wave. In the HF waveband, 60 )~ct � e and w2 � v2 at the peak of the tra3ectory, and in a first approximation e ti 1. The . absorption coefficient tl/m) can be determined from the equation in [3]: a ~ i,35� io~ i;" (2.20) It can be concluded from equation (2.20) ehat the absorption coefficient for ionized gases is reduced with an increase in frequency. In addition, for a specified frequency the absorption coefficient is determined by the product Nev , which is equal to 1017 for the E layer and 1015 for Che F2 layer. This makes it possible to disregard the absorption of radio waves in the F region (it is 100-fold lower than in Che E region). The HF waveband is limi~ed with regard to the choice of frequencies for co~unications over a specified range with a definite path, ~ince for the accompliahment of radio communications with HF waves it is necessary to fulfill simultaneously two conditiona: fr � f~~ and S< Ed do. The ~irst condition limits ehe frequency band for co~un~cat~.ons frow abo~ie, and the second from below. For the purpose of enabling long-range communicaCions, high frequency waves are re~lected more than once from the F2 layer in stages, whereby at each peak of a stage both condiCions must be fulfilled. ' 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 rox orrzci~ trs~ o~Y ~'nr H~ w~va nommun~.ea~~.on~. oy~x ~,ong d~.~'~erenG ee~men~s af bands can be used, depend~,n~ on ~he d,~ d~y; during ~he day, ~,0 ~0 2S m; nt, 35 to 10~ m; and ati ~wil~.$h~, 25 ~0 35 m. The ma~ine mob~.~.e serv~.ce hns been ass~.gned segmenes ~.n ~heae bande. ~onospheric d~.seurbances, ~he appe~rance on the paCh o~ the sporad~.c ~ igye~, and ittconstiancy of Che ~.ayer are causes �or ~he d~.srup~ion o~ radioecommun~.- Catiiona in tihe HF' wAVeband. - The following are ~he main feaCures of Che propagation of HF waves: ~.ntense fading oE signals, ehe existence of silenti ~nd echo zones, and Che influenc~ oE the ~.~.-year cyc~e of activ3.tiy, geomagnetic disCurbances and polar absorpe3on. The main reason for fading is Che interference of waves ref~.ectied from ehe ionosphere, when ae the poine of reception the amplitude of the signal varies by a factor of dozens and hundreds, and the fading period from a few dozen seconds to tenths of a second. The key meChod of combaCing fading is diversitiy recep~3.on (wiCh respece to space, frequency, Cime, angle of arrival of the signal and itis polarization). The most effective is space diversity with two or more aneennas. ~or rel.iable reception the spacing of antennas musti equal not less than 10 times the wave- lengeh, with subsequent summation of the signal in the ouCpue of radio re- ceivers. :Ln the frequency band employed in the mobile service (f ~ = 4 Co 27.5 MHz, a= 11.0 to 75 m) the distance between receiving antennas reaches 110 to 750 m. This meChod has found application on large vessels (by installing miniatiure ferrite receiving antennas on Che vesael'g bow and sCern) and at coastal radio centers (long base-line diversity recepCion). If frequency diversity is employed in addition to space diversity, then the reliability of reception is improved considerably. The frequency diversity method has not yet become widespread on vessels of the maritime fleet, in view of the heavy utilization of the HF waveband and the need of having not less than two radio channels. The time d~versity method calls for the repetition of signals twice or more over uncorrelated time intervals (a few seconds) and is employed extensively for communications at sea, although the carrying capacity of channels is limited. The meChod of diversity reception in relation to the angle of signal arrival is used in the microwave band, and the polarizati,on diversity method in communicaCions by means o~ the ionospheric reflection o~ radio waves, when the reception o~ signals is accomplished with antennas spaced vert3cally and horizontally. The latter method is simple and can be used on vessels. In the propagation of HF waves beyond the limits of a ground wave, silent zones occur, where the reception of signals is hampered. Tt is possible to 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'OH O~FICIAL US~ ONLY avnl.d a corxes.~ondent h~~~~ni,n$ uppn a~~:~,en~ zpne on~.y s~aady pnsit~.on 3.s known gnd i~ ~he ~xequenGy~ ig ~e~,ec~~d ~rqpEx~,y. Also included among ~e~Cures o,~ 1~ wave propaga~ion are radio echo phenomen~, which can be ~hore-range and ~.on$-range (round the wor~.d). The means of combating a short-range echo nr~ Che emp~.oyment of frequencies close to Che MPCh, and the ut~lization oF penc~.l-beam trans- miCting and receiving anCennAS with a directiv~.tiy d~.agram pinned down. A round-the-world echo can be forc~arrl and backward. A round-the-world echo disrupts a~.l kinds of radio communicationa. For combating a for~taard round- the-world echo it ~s sufficienti to employ pencil-beam anCennas. A backw~rd echo can be combaCed only by changing to lower frequencies. Eleven-yegr cycles of solar acCivity improve conditions for Che pro~agation of HF wavea, since during theae cycles the N of i.onized regions increaaes, especiaLly of FZ regiona, becauae of which MP~h's increase and absorpCion in the E and D layers is reduced. Conditions for tihe propagation of HF waves worsen with different geomagnetic disturbances. A ma~or role in the developmenC of magnetic etorms is played by radiation fields of Earth, which usually represent as it were magnetic ~ catchers for srreams of charged particles. Under Che influence of magnetic disturbancea these catchers open slightly and charged particles previously stored are in addition e~ected into the ionosphere. As a result there is a sudden reduction in the concentration of the F layer, which acquires a multi- layered configuration, the absorption of radio2waves increases suddenly, and the MPCh is lowered in keeping with equation (2.8). In a number of aimilar casea the F region at high laeitudes loses its ability Co reflect HF waves and communications are disrupted (from a few hours to two 24-hour periods). A dependence has been observed, of solar activity on geomagnetic disturbances, as well as the recurrence of ionospheric disturbances every 27 days (the cycle for rotation of the sun on its awn axis). Systematic observations of the sun have made iC possible to predict beforehand ionospheric disturbances, for the purpose of combating which, at latitudes above 50�, more powerful transmitters are used, as well as directional antennas, changing to lower frequencies, and the employment of radio relay equipment and paths outside the disturbance zone. At polar latiCudes it ia necessary to take into account the i,nfluence on HF wave propagation of absorption of a local nature. For example, in the polar aurora zone, which runs in a spiral at a geomagnetic latitude of 60 to 74�, there takes place the heavy absorption of radio waves for 2 to 3 h, which is often repeated for a few 24-hour periods. In a circular polar region with its center aC Che geomagnetic poles and its lower limit at a geomagnetic latitude of 64�, radio waves are absorbed for a~ew dozen hours (three to four 24-hour perioda on average, and sometimes as long as 15). As the result of 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F'Olt nl~ ~~C~:AL US~ ONLY ~udden ~.onAeph~rlc d~~CUxbanc~s c~uaed by e~~,ar ,~~qr~~~ ~ha D rug~.nn ~.g henvi~.y ion~.z~d, N~ w~veg ~rdm ~~~w m~,nuC~g ~n 1 ar ~ h~ HT~' w~vEe h~v~ ,~ound ~ppl~.cgCinn ~ar wiefl vem~eld g~ se~, s~.nce Chey malc~ possib~.e tiq egti~bligh ~nd mainea~.n ~wo-way cdmmuni- caCions with Chem a~ nny point in Che g1ob~1 ocean. Hue H~~wnv~ rad~.o communi- c~eions w:ith mar3time vesael~ ~.s di�Qicu~.C, which is accountied for by Ch~ mob~l~Cy oE rhese ob~ecCs ~nd the impo9sibility of using high-power er~ns- m~,Ctiera and�ic~.ency ~ntennng on nrafti. Und~r Ches~ cond~.C~.~it~ ~f prim~~ry ~.mporCnnc~ ~.s Che proper ~e1~cC~ntt of Hk'-w~ve commun~.caCions frequ~n- ci~s ~ssigned by radio communic~eions r~gulaCions for ehe mobi~.e s~rvice, as we11 as Caking ~.neo accoune ehe f~aturea of ~he propggat~.on of thes~ waveg in relation to specif~.c are~s of nav~.gat~.on, nnd ehe of rgdio communicaeions cenrers. In the calculatiion of HF-wnve cnmmunic~Cions 13.neg, ehe mosC imporegnC thing is to select the frequencies mosti Advaneageous for communicaCions. ~h~.s is ~arried out ~n two seeps: making ~ deeermingeion o� eh~ 24-hour v~rinr~.on in the MPCh and ehe 24-hour vgr~.ation in ehe lease ug~bl~ �requencies (NPCh's); or mak:tng a calcul~tion of Che eleceric field strengrh ae the pnint of re- ception. There are several methods of calculat3ng the MPCh. The mosC simple and con- venient of them 3s the ueiliz~eion of longterm IZMIRAN [USSR Academy of Sciences InstiCute of Terreserial MagneCism, the Ionosphere and RAdio Wave Propagation] forecases, on which is based the calculation procedure used by A.N. Kazantsev. The procedure for calcu~.ating the MPCh includes the deter- mination of path parAmeters (length of the paCh, number of discontinuities, coordinates of points of reflection from the ionosphere or of checlc points, and of points of entry into the absorbing layer in communications aL� high latitudes), for which are used a map of the world and a"great circle map." , In deCermining the MPCh, it is recommended that all 13yers of the ionosphere be taken into account and thaC for each hour the highest of the MPCh's for different layers be selected. The optimal operating frequencies (ORCh's) generally equal 0.7 eo 0.8 Cimes Che MPCh a~id represent rhe upper limit of the operating frequency band. The staCisCical processing of observation data has demonsCrated that with a calm staCe of the ionosphere communications can be carried out 90 percent of the time at frequencies which on average are 15 percent below the MPCh, and for the E layer, at frequencies equal to the Mk'Ch [26]. Since the critical ~requencies o.~ the F2 layer have definite variations in Che course of a 24-hour period, depend~ng on the time of year, and, during a cycle of solar activity, depending on the latitude (the greatest variation is ati high latitudes, where ORCh's can be as much as 40 percent below the MPCh, and the smallest is at middle latitudes in daytime), then operating frequencies can be chosen on the basis o� the ratio �rab [operaeing]~fMPCh' 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'Oli O~rICIAL USC ONLY . With ~ r~ p~. ,~~ntmunic;a~ions wS~,~, be ~naurad 50 ~exc~nC oE rh~ ~~.m~. Seud~.~g~~i~Ye~~io~wn et1~C when ~ b~'P G~ p O,g Ch~ pxoh$b~.~,~,ty ag ~he ne~urr~na~ of error i~ ~he lnwe~~, ~ mue~ ~],so b~ kdpt ~,n m~,nd rhne in HF- wav~ admmuni~~Ci.ons eh~ b~g~ ~cx~tmuni~~~iong qual~.~y ~.s ~Ch~.eved wi~h ~he var~.ane o� a min~.mum numbex d~ on the J.en$th of ~he paeh, tihe min~.mum numb~r o~ d~.scnn~inuie~~s ~.g obsexved ~he val.ues of the � /f rat3o: 3000 km--0,85; 4000 km--0.78; and 6000 km-- 0.8~, c~n ~ebuse~d~~~ thn bgg~s in dee~rm:ining OItCh's ~ 7'h~ g~~ond ~nndi~ir~n ~.~.mits ehe runge of pos~ible fraquencies from below, aince eh~ ~.onogph~re ~.s c~ ~pm~.c~nduc~ing m~dium fbr HF wgves, ehc~ ~bsorpeion of H~ wavee in ehe ~.onosphere ig ~.ncreased at lowex frequ~ncies, gad Che electr~c field serength dimini.shes uccordin$ tio an law: E ~ ~o~ 8r~ (2. 21) wher~ is Che eleceric f~.eld str~ngth withoue taking ~.nto account logses in tt~e ~onoaphere. There ~re several semi-empirical methods of c~Yculating the field atrengeh for NF' waves. The most ~oidespread in our counery has become A.N. KazanCsev's meChod, which has formed the basis of calculation instructions [12~ SO]. For the purpose of calculation Chere is a set of charts of the space-~ime distribution of fkr E for various monehs and diff erent levels of solar - acCivity. In addiCion, in calculaCing the NPCh it is necessary to know the minimum rec}uired field strength, E~ , for cert~in reception, which is determined by the noise level at the po~nt of reception, as well as by the signal-to- noise ratio for a specific type of operation (cf. Appendix 1). In the HF waveband Che noise level depends chiefly on interf~ring sCations, which is occasioned by tt~e high saturation of the band with radio stations and by the considerable length of radio co~unicaCions lines. The noise level of stations increases from day to night and from summer to winCer and reaches the highest values in Che 5 to 7 MHz band in Che winter aC nighC, and the lowest in the summer during the day at frequencies of 17 Co 20 MHz. If aC the reception point noise from foreign stations predominaCes, then iC is possible to employ approximaCely a median value of EP.m = 10 Co 12 dB/uV [26]. Af ter the calculation of frequencies, it is recommended thaC a graph be drawn of the 24-hour variation in ~requencies, and ~rom it a communications schedule. On the graph presented in ~ig 2.7 are entered 24--hour variations in the MPCh and NPCh, calculated ~or the fol] conditions: winter, January 1975; solar activity, W= 20; middle latitude paCh; length of dis- continuity, 2000 lan; transmission point--vessel with coordinaCes of = 67�50' latitude north, A= 3�12'0 longitude east; power supp].ied to 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Oit OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY anCcannn, ~ kW ;~ne~nn~, ~th~,p ~YP~~ rYP~ o~ ~~~r~~ion, BPCh Cinear~~diae~ [rcryu~ncy uniC]; r~c~p~i~n ~pin~g (~hore),^du~1 r~c~pCi,un wiCh eyp~ nS~ 2],/3 200/4,5 ~neann~s in Murn~nek and Moscow~ I~ ~,g obv~,oug fr~m tihie graph thae dU~ing r~cep~i.on in l~lurmanek (so~.i,d ].~,nes) ~~or g ergn~mi~e~r wi~h p~~. kW , Che NpCh l~,n~ ~lw~ye paesen ~bove ~he ME'Ch, ~nd under eh@~~ ~dnd~.~~.ons commun~.cae~.on~ are ~.mpogeib~.e~ By ~,n~r~ag~,~g ehe pow~r of Ch~ m~rine Cransmie~er 5~nd 1S kW it is poseible tn lower th~ NI'Ch, bur iC is noC po~sibla ~o ensur~ s~egdy commun~.caCione. 'rh~ on~.y ac~~pCBb~e eolution ig to carry outi rad~.o communicaC~.ons ehrough anoCh~r radi.o c~nC~r-- Moscow (dotie~d ~.i.nes), i.~~, tih~ recepe~.on o~ meseage~ from crafe mueti be arrnnged f dr in r~laeion ro tihe areas in which Chey are, noe with ,~u~t ehe radio C~nCer of th~ pore of gssignment or eh~ poinr of d~aeina- ri.on, bur wiCh several radio Centiera distributed acroas the counrry. poMr~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~s ~ ~ i ~ ~ - ~ ? ~ , ~ i ' ~ ' ~o , ? , i ~ ; ~ Mny~` ` 2 ~ ~ E 3 , Nnv(P�5K8m) i s ` ~ Nll9(P�!SRBm) ~ ; Iiv (P~1KBm) . . � _ ~ _ _ _ s e~v n ~4 rs ~e ~a v 4~ae, ~ Pigure 2.7. Range of Opera~ing Frequencies for Ship-to-Murmansk and Ship-to-Moscow Radio Paths Key: 1. f, MHz 3. I~'Ch 2, NPCh 4. Local Cime, h 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Olt n~'~tC~At. US~ QNLY te !.g,ou~ ,~ram eh~ge gra~hs thax ~h~ d~eermi,nati~on o~ opCim~i op~rgeing fr~quehci~s ~or communiceC~,ons with cra~Et at s~a (on ehe oc~an) ~.s n com- - pLiCae~d e~~k~ ~nd eh~t cu~muunieations frequenci~s eannot be u~n~,versal, bur mus~ b~ dee,3gnat~d sep~rat~~.y it~ re~.a~ion to communicaeions with speci~ic rndio cenre~s. e~ a 70 ' ~ i sa - - p sd ' ~ , .r , v 40 ~ ~ S d0 ~ , � ` ~ ~ ro , 1G ~ ~ . a s a~o ~2 ~v ,c ~e .~0 1~ pMty2s , pa ~igure 2.8. Travel o� Itad3o Waveg in Communicgeions wiCh M1~' Radio Centera: 1--Murmansk; 2--Leningrud; 3--Moscow; 4--Odpssa; 5--Vladivnstok Key: 1. MHz Being confined to certain parameters and averaging daCa on Che travel of radio waves during half of a solar cycle, in [40) the auChors have presented nveraged Curvea for the travel of radio waves in cammunicationa between craft and key IrAtF radio centers (fig 2.8) along paths more than 1500 km long, which are characterized by the heaviest transport vessel tr~~ffic. An ana- lysis of these grarhs demonstrates that for each radio center there exists its own range of optimal frequencies: Murmansk--8 to 12 MHz; LeningXad-- 10 to 14 MHz; Moscow--10.7 to 15 MHz; Odessa--13 to 17 MNz; Vladivostok-- 13. 2 to 17.8 t~4~z (40j . Since Che absorption of H~ waves is proportionul to [N , vj in (2.20) and is reduced with an increa$e in f, then in equatorial re~ions, where N is greater, radio waves are absorbed more intensely, and, consequently, communi- cations with craft in these regions takes place under more aevere condiCions. In calculating optimal operating frequencies for marine paths, lt is necessary ~ Co Cake into account the fact that sea vessels are mobile ob~ects, and there- fore the bearings and distances between the vessel and radio center change. These changes are not of importance for the duration nf a single radio communi- cations session, but over the days of a crossing I~Ch's can change consider- ably. There~ore, the operating frequencies for marine communications must not be strictly regulated, but they must be chosen on the basis of regions of navigation and the intensity of illumination of the route. Equatorial, arctic and anCarctic regions must be especially singled our. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 _ ~OEt d~~~CIAL US~ ONLY NumnrduH ~x~e~i,m~nCnJ, da~tt ~nd].~eintt~ h~ye d~man~t~t~Ced ehnC on 1e~ng-rttng~ m~~ine paCh~ i~ adv~gnb~,e eo u~e ae ~he OItCh xh~ mpximum pog~ib~.~ up~~r ,�re~u~ncy l~.m~.e Ag Che re~u1C o~ wh~,ch Ch~ gh~axp~l.on o~ r~dio wav~~ nlong tihe paCh ~.e reduc~d geVc~x~l~old~ Be~~.d~~, ~,n ~h~~ g~ce~.on of rhe band ~here is rhe ~owest 1.gve1 0~ ntmo~phaxic noi.~~ and the highesC fr~quenry cap~Ciey, and iC ~,s also pea~i,ble Co use more e~'fecCiVe mir?1aCur~ Etn C @tltlfl8 . Ulerashore waves (UKV's) (v~ry frequency (VHF), u~.tirah~.~h fr~quency (UHF) nnd frequency (3~t~') wavee] cover ehe rang~ from cm tio 10 m. Wav~s ~n thie band gre sl~.ghrly diffrgcted around tihe sur�ace of ~arth. ~nr Chig regdon tihe r~nge (~.n km) of eheir propagation as ground wgves onLy to ~ slight degree surpasges the range of direce visibility and is calcul~ted, for condiCions of normal atmoapheric refraceion, from Che graph preaented in fig 2.9, or by Che equat~.on: r=-9,1~(~'%%, ~HQ), (z.22) wh~re H~ and H2 are the heighCs nf the eransmitting and receiving antennns in me~ers. The effeceive value of the resultant field ser~ngeh of V~i~ wave~ (in mV/m) as Che result of Che interference of d3.rece nnd reflecCed rays is determined by B.A. Vedenskiy's "square law" equation: 2,181~PD Niflz 1 E~ = ~a~ ~ (2.23) where Hi and H2 are "normalized antenna heights," which are lower than the geometrical and represent the heights of the antennas above the plane tangent to Earth's surface. Equation (2.23) is used for distances of r> 18H/a , and from it iC follows that shorCening of the wavelength and increasing the heights of t}~e antennas' lacation results in an increase in the strength of the resultant field at the poinC of reception. In the propagation of ultrashorC waves within the range of direct visibiliCy the fading of signals is possible, Che reason for which is the change over time in the refraction of radio waves. With negative re~raction there occurs . a shortening of ranges o# direct visibility, as the result of which the second rad3o staCion turns out to be in a shadow region. With positive refraction, the difference i,n the path of the d~rect and re~lected rays is altered, which results in a reduction in the signal's field. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~dlt O~~ICIAt, US~ ONLY r,K~w ' ~s~ N~'SOw~ 40 ?DD PO ~ /0 160 0 . >0 50 ~ d~ P J 4 S 7!U ?D ~i0 40 70 P00 S00 700 5000 Nj~~ Figure 2.9. Graph for Calculating Range of Radio Communications in the Ultrashort Waveband Ultrashort waves are propagaCed not only na ground waves, but also ae waves re~lected from regular regiona of the ionosphere during years of high solar activity,and of scattering in th~e troposphere and ionosphere, and from ionized meteor trails. For atable communications in these cases high powers and cucobersome pencil- beam antennas are required, which are difficult Co employ under conditions aboard ship; rherefore, they are not discussed here. It is more promising on craft to employ artificial Earth satellitea (AES's) as radio relayers for UKV signals. In considering satellite communications lines from the energy point of view, it must be kept in mind that the power of the transmitter in the AE~ and the dimensions of antennas in eate113tes and on vessels are restricted, paths are very long, and di~�erent kinds of noise and interference influence the receiver, . in addition to the useful signal. Equations ~or co~aunications with active radio relaying on board an AES have the following ~orm [77): In the Earth-AES section 161t~iiP~Pw2 �Pc . pl ~i~inshi~l2 lpw/.xs ~ ' (2.24) 38 FAR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOR O~~ICIAL U3~ ONLY . ~nd ~,n ehe A~3-Ea~th s~c~~.ofl IOtc~i~~n~'wl r,A~, ~ ~2UID4~11~12 `~W~ex 1 ~ c2, Zs~ - where P~ and P are the e~fective power radiated by tihe tranemiCting aneennas on ~arth~nd the AE~; r and r are th~ comrnunicatione xanges; ~ and I~ ar~ ate~nuation fac~ors caueed by attenuat~.on of tihe eignal's energy; D 2 and D are the gain of the tranemitting and receiving ~ntennag; r1 and ~i are C~ie power tranamiaeion coefficiants ef th~ antenna-waveguide c~rcuire o~ the tranamitter and receiver; P h and I~ 2 are the noi8e ~ power ae tihe input of receivere on Earth an~ ~n rhe I3~~; and ~P /P h~ khL nnd (P ) are the minimum permiesible aignal-to-noiee r~ti~O o~ receive~~ o~ ~a~~h and in ehe AF;S. The noise power (in W) at the input of a receiver ie calculated by the equaCion: p~,=k7'~JF, (2.26) where k s 1.38�10 23 W/Hz�deg ia the Boltzmann conetant; T~ is the equivalent noise temperature of the receiving antenna (taking into account intrinsic and ~ctrinsic noisa); snd 6f ia the pa8sband of the receiver, in Hz. In carrying out communications by means of AES's, radio waves pass twice through Earth's atmosphere, which considerably reducea the level of the signa~'s power at the point of reception. These loesea are caused by the absorption of radio waves in gases and water vapor in the atmosphere. All kinds of losses in Earth's atmosphere (with the exception of heavy rainfall) can be diaregarded in the 3 to 6 GHz band [90~. At frequenciea beloa 3 GHz a mnjor role is played by polarization losaes (at f~ 1 GHz loesee equal 5 to 7 dB), and at frequencies of about 10 CHz loaeea in atmospheric gases reach 10 ~d. The noise level is low in the UHF and SHP Wavebands. In addi- tion, it must be kept in wind that in communications by meama of AES 's radio wavea undergo refraction (it in~luences the accuracy of the operation of homing systems), absorption in the troposphere and fading of an inter- ference nature (to eliminate this, the elevation angle of an antenna ahould be 5 to 7�), the Doppler effect (in movement of the AE5 relative Co the station), and the in~luence in the input of receivers of noiae of different origin (coamic, atmospherfc, ground surface, etc.). As a reeult, on patha of great length (~rith an orbic altttude o~ 35,000 icm the comrnuaications range between end pointa ia 40,900 km), attenuation o~ the a~gnal can reach 200 dB [77]. On the other hand, calculations have demonstrated that when cooled parametric amplifiera are uaed (TE ~ 100 K) the signal is tenfold 39 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~~R O~~ICIAL US~i ONLY - ~t~ong~r than eh~ noi~~, wh3~h is eoea~,ly ~uf~~,cianti ~or ~n&b13,ng any k3nd oE r~dio communi.~aeion~ by meAne o~ AES~a [62]~ ~o~ an approx~.t~eg es~~.m~C~ - of ehe parameeere of a~~eel~,i~~ co~munis~tii~ns ~.ine, ie ~g pogsibl~ to emp],oy Ch~ flomogram in fig 2~10 (77]. q'uaM~nrp t~upuHa ~yaa PeccmoANUe Ttr?nopamypa llonoca omNOCUONUe MowNO~r�e JQMH01~ Oopmosou Mtorcdy ~uyMOa wynoB CU?HQA~U/(/M nope8amvurra~ OHH1?MNA/~ QNIl1QNNOl~ Qnl~lQ/?NQMU~ IIPUeMMUKQ~ IlpUBMMUfiQ~ 8ononNUn~ Bq1 } M ~apad Mf/RD~ IfM 1 eK l!O/l1Q~1/~ ~6~ !04 ~ 1) 2) 3) !Oi t6o 4~ 5)~ 6) ~ 7) 'JDO f0~ 10~ f,6~fOj ?D AD' 10 i ~ !0: ~0 30~ f0~ f~6~f0~ f0~ 40 ` f000 fd~ JO t~ " ~ !0 S� f,6�fOs ~000 t~s 20 3 f00 f0~ f0 , f ~ 10~ 1,6~fOs 10 fOq 0 . � ~ f08 1p-? OJ ~ !0'i ~p�~ Figure 2.10. Nomogram for Calculating Communicatione Lines with AES's Key: 1. Diameter of ground antenna, S. Noige band of reCeiver, �K m 6. Signal-to-noise retio of 2. Beam width of airborne addiCional loss, dB antenna, degrees 7. PoWer of transmitter, W 3. Diatance between antennas, milea, km 4. Noiee temperature of receiver. . oK The following ~requency segmenta have been assigned to marine eatellite communications: for tranemiasion to AES's--157.31 to 157.41 I~z and for transmiesion from AES's--161.91 to 162.01 I~z, and for the marine mobile service--1535 to 1542.5 and 1636.5 to 1644 AII~iz [43, 48, 51]. 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , ~OR tl~FIG~At, U3~ ONLY ~nciiu r~~,~ying o,~ ~ig~ja~,s fram on boa~~ ~n ACS C~ anotih~r pnin~ o,~ Carrh C~n b~ gccomp~,3~h~d ~e once nr w~i;eh a d~1~y ~~koxage) o.~ ~he si$nel and r~ieying n~ ir by eha sa~~~,~,i~e~ c~n ~r~vel in a plane pas~ing chrough the c~nter o~ ~arrh in el~.ipti.cul ~nd ci,rcul~~ orb~Ge, which are divid~d in eurn ~~cording to ~ngi~ of ~nclination i.nCd po~.a~ orbi~s, i~ th~ a~g~e of incl~:nation ~.s 90�, obllque orbiCs, if th~ ~ngl~ of 3r~c13natii.on 3s greater ~han 0� bue less ehan 90�, and equaeor3~1, if ~h~ ~n~~.e of 3nc~.~.nation equ~ls 0�. The angle of ~nc~.~.naeion of Che orb3:t � i~ read from the equaeor ~nd in�~uenc~s ~he ar~~ ~overed by ~he AES. brbit~ ~r~ chgr~~ti~riz~d by ap~g~e and p~rig~~. W3th r~g~rd eo a1t~.Cude, orbi.ts are 1ow (150 ed 5000 km) witih ~ ghort cycle of roenei.on (1 Co 3 h) ~nd high (mor~ than 5000 km) with a cyc1~ of rotatioa. In particular, an equatdri~l roun8 orbie a~ an altiCude of H n 35,810 km with a 24-hour cycle of roeation is ca11~d ~ se~eionary orbie, ~.f eh~ A~S Crav~ls in the d~.recrion of Eereh's ~otaeion from wesC Co ~~gt. Such gn A~S ie s~gCion~ry in rel~eion eu the connnuni.catione cenCer nn ~grth, its an~ul~r velnc3Cy equgls ehe angul~r v~lacity o� ~h~ roCation of ~areh on its own axi.~. Thig orbiC ~g diseinguished by high stgbil3Cy. Thre~ atationary A~5's positioned at an interval of 120� make possible "expoaure" of 98 percenC of th~ area of ~arth, with the exception of not Coo l~rge ar~as around the poles (fig 2.11 6v S~ 'g~ b~ 8v MC3 ,~h~~~ N~3= ~ ~ ~ ~i ~ ~ ~ c ~MC3 tO v 3 y31 ~ . f t 1 1) j' ' 2 Y v.,~`.~i~ Iir ~ ~;i~~'1 ' ~ %'~~y � ~ � ~~i~~� ' ` ' ~ ty3) ~ ' ~s,~~ ; , . ~ 2 ) _ MC3J Figure 2.11. Utilization of AES's for Communicatinns: a--in stationary orbit; b--in elliptical orbit Key: 1. AE51 3. 1 h 2. Equator 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OFFICIAL U5~ ONLY When ie i~, nec~s.sary eo prpvid~ northern reg~,pns wi,~h communi~arions, ie i~ nacee~ar~? to bring a set o,~ ~w0 moze A~S~s ~nxo obl~que e].~.ip~ical erbits (fi~ 2.1~. b). It can b8 calcvl~red eo tha~ ~n ~~S wi1.1 be at ~he apo~e~ in eh~ d~yeim~ in areas m~sr heav3ly navigared, and a~ the perigee ae n~.ght ever aroae wtCh ehe leae~ nevigaCion, wh3ch enables cornmunicatione ae the apogpe �or Che greater parr e~ a 24~hour per3od. In se~eceing orbits ~.t ie neceasary to pay at~ention to the range of communi- r~r~.ons and ~.ts axtensiveness. x'he exten~iveness o~ communications can be deeermined (f3g 2.12) by tihe following equation: L~~aU~~k f 2 - ~ ~-arc~ln ~a ~ H cus ~ ~ (2.27) where a~.s the radiua of Earth. C ~1 ~i a P,~~ H ~ R b ~ A s 0 B 'e 0 Figure 2.12. Pattern of Radio Coverage frca~ an AE5 Key: 1� Smin The maximum slant range equals "Q~_i. y r = sin ~ cos ~ ' (2.28 and the radius of the circle covered is determined by the angle R = a0, ( 2 . 29 ) 9 =3 rarccos ~ a� cos ~l~ l a+H I (2.30) 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roR o~FZCZaz us~ ornY ~he c~re~ o~ ~h~ sux~~~e o~ ~~r~h expog~d ~p a g~,ttg~e A~S c~n be ca],eulne~d by the equ~t~;Qn; S~ 2rw� C 1--~ cos 2 1~ i (2.31) and ~he percen~age o~ Ch~.a area in terma of the en~3re aur~ace of Earth equals S ~-C09�~ ` ~ Sp 2 :r, ~2~32~ or ~ 5 ~ S ~ ,3~~. , 50 4nat (2.33) Theoretically calculated ranges and exCensivenese for radio communications by means of AES'8 are presented in fig 2.13. 20 ?00 4a ~ ~ s V ~s ~ ~ ~so ~ 2~: ~ S i ye y~ \ J00 ?0 d y� e ,~o s � 70 4 ' l0 Y . z~ s e is 2o so ' ~ N,n�x. Kk 3 ) . ~igure 2.13. Range and Extensiveness of Rad~,o Ca~munications by Meana o~ AES's [Key on ~ollawing page] 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR O~F'ICIAL U5~ ONLY Key: I,, thousa,nd kt~ 3. H, ~hpueAnd luq 2. S, mil~,~.on km mhe ~uraeian o~ connnunicaC~;ons depende on ~he decen~ and appra~ch o~ the AE5 at a g~.ven po~.nt. an ~,ncrea8e in ~~.~i,~ude o~P tihe AES the duraCion of ehe AES's coverage, and, consequen~ly, o~ communicationa, increasea, but non-3dentically, as a~unceton ot the polnr or equatoria~. orbit chosen. ~ In a polar orbi~ the inf~.uenee o~ ~he A~S's al~itude is exceedingly aubatantial at all altiitudes up to 8000 km, and a~urtiher increase in a~titude resulea in a less pronounced gain in the duration of communicationa. gor example, with the altitude of an A~s's orbit at 1930, 7350 nnd 30,000 km Che communi- ~ cations period equals reepecti.vely 10 min, 2 h and 9.5 h. If the conummicationa centers are located on both sides of the equator, ~hen polar orbits are noti optimal. An A~S in equatorial orbit will enable more frequenC periods of reciprocal coverage becausa of the movement of these centers when Eartti rotates on its axia in the eame direction 3n which the satellite is traveling. Furthe~aore, the period of coverage of the AES at the equator is longer, the higher the altitude o! the AES. With oblique orbits the duration of coverage of an AES is of an intermediate value between its duration of coverage with polar and equatorial orbiCs. A distinctive feature of satellite communicationa linea of great length ie the considerable time for propagation of the signal, which is noticeable in telephone conversations. For example, for a line with etationary and ellip- tical orbite (H = 36,000 to 40,000 km), the average delay Cime reaches 300 ms, which is permissible. For the purpose of enabling satellite communi~catioas with vessels, of greatest interest are AE5's put into stationary orbits. For example, in the "Inmarsat" international satellite marine communications system (with the participation of socialist counCries, i.e., the USSR, PNR [Polish People~s Republic], GDR, NRB [People's R~public of Bulgaria] and Cuba), three AES's will be put into synchronous geosCationary orbits over the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceang, which will make it possible to provide with stable communications all areas of the global ocean from 70� latitude north to 70� latitude south. Chapter 3. Features of Communications with Submarinea and Deepwater Instruments 3.1. Features of Propagation and Cal.culation ot ~1I.~ and UL~ Communications Lines with Submarines and Deepwater Instruments in the Submerged Position Communications w~th Subsqarines in the sub~erged poait~,on by employing a very low frequency (VL~) or ultralaw frequency (UL~) radio couaaunications trans- _ mitter is illustrated diagrammatfcally in fig 3.1. The VI~F (ULF) radio trans- mitter, 3, is remote controlled ~rom the control center, 1, through intercenter communicatfons and keying lines, 2. Siginals are transmitted by means of 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott 0~~''~C~AL USE ONLY e1~c~roma~neC~,c W~ves, 4, which gre propagg~ea baCween Ch~ ~.dnugph~re, 5, ~nd rhe aurfgce nk tihe oce~n, 6. The paeh of ~he ~].ec~romagnee~.c wgve fr:om ~h~ CransmirCex nn tha shore and eo tihe subm~rine, 7, submerged ~.n ehe waeer can be divided into ~wo $ecrions: in an nir medium ~o the area nf guUm~rsi~n ~e g diatance oF r, and in water, from the surf~ce of the watier Co tihe receiving antienna at a depth of h. .'r'"...__,~ W..~-~-_~...-=;.. - = - 4 ~ J s - ~ ny 1 .r._ � 8 ~ 1) ~ r, Figure 3.1. Operaeing Principle ox VLF or ULF' SysCem for Radio Communi- cations with Submarines in the Submerged Position Key: 1. PU [transmitter] According to Shchukin and Leontovich, conditions at rhe interface of the two media (air-water) are determined by the equation: ~e~ -f- (60Av)' 1. ( 3 .1) 'The raeio between the horizontal components of the strength of the electric and magnetic fields aC the interface in the firsC medium (in air, 1) is de- termined by the parameters of the second medium (in water, 2). Badio wavea originatina in the second medium represent plane waves, which are propagated into the depth of the medium in the direction of the normal to the interface, and experience absorption, governed by the parameCers of the second medium. Because of the conductivity of water, in the propagation of radio waves along the surface of Earth a dip in the wave front occurs, i.e., Che horizontal component o~ the electric field. At the interface of the two media the vertical and horizontal components o~ the electric field (W/m) are determined on the basis of the equation: E~~ ~ E~~ ~ t s 0~ 1 ~K (3.2) 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR O~FZCIAL U5~ ONLY and of Ghe megneCi.c field (A/m) ~rom ~he equati~;.on= ~ lre ~ H'~�~i2o E,~ z~0~ c3.3~ , where sk ia tihe compiex dielectr~:c conatant, where ; ek ~ e- t~ 607~e, (3. 4) For tha sea (~rirh e~ 80 and o~ 3 to 6 cm/m), in the radio band s~ ~ 2.4~106 to 2.5~102 and, consequently, boundary condition (3.1) is ~u1f~.lled right down to the shortest wavelengths. Componenta E1z and Hly are relaeed as followa: ' ~ ~i. ; . z~0. K'~ t2orc (3. S) In the transfer of radio waves from the air into the water the magnetic field strength does not change. Excluding Hl from equations (3.3) and (3.5) and substituting in equation (3.2) sk ~n (3.4), we find: 6~= E~,~ ~ . )i e--t�s0o]~ (3.6) . If the numer~tor in equation (3.6) ia substituted in the form of the absolute value of the phase factor, we get in expanded form: Eu s E e~`Yt*a~ is ~a: -F~ f GOf?o)~ ~ . ~ (3.7) where � a ~ arctg ~~Q . a (3.8) Directly aboye Che surface of the water the vertical and horizontal components are expreased by th~. equations: E~a 4 E,= ert~r+at. a' (6o~v)~ (3.9) 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOIt 0~'~ICIAL US~ ONLY Sine~ c?� ~ 3 tio 6 emrm ,~~$0 and ~ P 20,000 to 30,OQ0 p~ , then ehe second eerm in ~he radicand is muCh grea~er ehan ehe Fire~, and xherefore ~he equntion ~e simp~.i~ied, Cakin~ Che form: E ~ ~~t � ~ e0~o ~ ~ ( 3 .10 ) ~qx ~ E~x ~ i 1~ so~?o (3.~~.> ~ *tl Y60Aa ~9x (3,12) Since with the correctness of the conditions in (3.1) the radicand in equations (3.7) and (3.9) e2 +(60aQ)2 , is much.greater than unity, ~hen in air ~1 is always 4 s +(60a~) times greater than E1 . Thus, with a tl~30,000 km , d~ 4 cm/c and s= 20 , E = 2700 ~1 , and in ~ sea water E m 2700 E . Therefore, ie is advisa~le~to rece~ve VLF (ULF) signals in a~r with ver~~cal antennas, and wiCh horizonCal antennas in sea water. In a loop antenna reacting to the magnetic field of a radio-wave signals of Che same amplitude will be induced regardless of its position in the air or water. Of special importiattce is the feasible depth of the underwater radio receiver, h. The Shchukin-Leontovich boundary condition makes it possible to calculate it at a depth from a known value of the field strength above the surface of the waeer, by reduci~hg by the absorption coefficient, d, computed on the assumption o� the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium with the parameters of the sea. Knowing Che value of the field strength a~ove the watier, from the equations given below it is possible to determine the horizontal and vertical components under water: e _ E~~ an e ! 1~ " ~ J . - sc_ ~e~-}~ (601~0)~ ~ (3.13) t Lw 1t- � 1 }~J E~ze`bn E~, - A e . ? R' -4- (60aa1= (3.14) 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOIt OFF'ICIAL U5E ONLY For ehe sea, which approaches conductors in ternsa o~ 3t~ properC~.ea, Che absorption coefficient, d, is ~ound ~rom e.~ua~~,on (2~5)t After certain transforms we get: _ sn a Eax = e 1 ~ ; Y V 601~a (3.15) ,t en Esx l~soJ~o e ~ (3.16) Accordingly, the vertical component beneath the surface of the water at depth h is determined by the equaCion: E'~ 1/~50~o er�'`. (3.17) Calculations made with equation (2.5) and presented in table 3.1 show that d increasea with an increase in the conductivity of the water. For a characterization of the atCenuation of radio waves in different types of soil and in sea water, a determination was made of the limiting distances starting with which practically total attenuation of a wave takes place in these media (the field strength of an electromagnetic wave is reduced a millionfold). These limiting distances are given in table 3.2 (38]. It is obvious from tables 3.1 and 3.2 that at a specific depth attenuation of the signal is slighter, the lower the frequency, and that for the accom- plishment of radio communications with ob~ects submerged in water only VLF and ULF waves are applicable. With an increase in frequency, losses of the wave's energy are strongly increased, since dielectric losses are added to conduction losses. The total reduction in field strength is expressed by means of fa~tor IC.E , which in- dicates by how great a factor the field strength of the signal above the point of submersion must be increased in order to ~ompensate energy losses as h increases (fig 3.2): KE = e an E� _ e~h 60]~v. Esr (3.18) 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFZC~AL USE ONLY Tab~,~ 3. N~n~~ o~ Cu~u ~mi f.~ N I~ Gl ~ 4 ~ 1 6 6 LJ 3U0 I 10~ I1~99 I4~81 I3,d4 I~,98 I4,47 I4,8b ! 3~ 30000 ( 10000 tl~19A 0,76a 0,3a7 0,407 tl,~l4b U,~d ~ I I I I I CAg soooo I 60oolo,iai Io,~o~lo,zaalo,2si lo,ai~ o,s~a 100 OUII 3 OUO I 0,109 I U, ~ Gd I 0, I~8 I U, 718 0, 244 I 0, 267 I~lod 3~b O,u3~ p,0a9 0,059~0,OG910,0'77 0,084 4) 4~IOe ?6 I0,017 Q,024 0,030I0,03dI0,039 O~Oa2 ~ CN~I - 6~IOd 6U 0~015 U~020I0,025I0,031 0,03~1 0~038 1~10~ I 30 I0~011 0,016 0,019 0,218 0,02~ O,U27 - I J K~:y : = 1. Band 3. VL~+ ~ 2. f, Hz 4. ULF Table 3.2. ~ ~ R~1l~lA6NMC plCCibNHllq p!C(ipOCfpBHlNNN~ N ' 2~ cya~e noaeo ~ 3~fJ1~fKH~A f104D0 (~~tOpCK811 ~OA~ ~ ~1~ N C r~ 0 n 10'-~ ~'Y~M C~ ~0~ O*a ~~~Z CMJN C u~~ Q~+ I~NIM 3 147 23,2 0,31 300 210 7Q 3,5 30 000 1800 700 35 Key: 1. Limittng df,stanceg for 3. Wet soil propagation, n~ 4. Sea ~ter� � 2~ Dry soil 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFF~CIAL USE Ot~fiLY ~fr~~ts . E!=~E?x ~ a !0 0 ; ~t~'~~~' ,o' ~ o~ � ~a p l0~ + . ~ fo - !D ~ - IO JO /P~ ~~4 J ,~0 !0 PO JO 40 SO 0 !D Pd d0 40 JO 1l,N ~~N Figure 3.2. Graph for Calculatiing Factor EC~ Key: fmStcHx In recent yeare, abroad interesti has grawn in studying the propagation of ULF waves (from 30 to 100 Hz), which ia related primarily to f3nding a solution to the problem of communications ~, submarines at great deptha in any area of the global ocean. For this purpose, itt the USA, atarting in 1958, ecientific reaearch atudies have been made on ULF communications, and the Sanguina ELF aystem has been created [82, 88, 90, 95]. The following are typical of the ULF band (moat probable operating frequencies for communicaCions, 45 to 75 Hz): Low influence of the aCmosphere on the attenuation of electromagnetic energy (depending on the time of day, the absorption coefficienC at f= 75 Hz is 0.7�10 3 to 1.5�10 3 dB/km [95~, and for f s 45 Hz , over the Pacific Ocean, in propagation from east to west, 0.9�10 3 dB/km [90], which enaures reliable and stable radio co~nunications from one radio center). Low absorpCion in sea water of radio wavea of this band (at f= 75 Hz--0.3 dB/m, and at f= 45 Hz--0.23 dB/m [90, 95], which enables the reception of signals at great depths). Inaensitivity to interference from the effece of nuclear explosions, which do not caus~ any signi~icant reduction in the field strength of the useful aignal. The value of ElZ (uV/m) can be calculated from the semi-empirical equation . in [86, 90]: 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , ~ FOR OY~'FICIAL US ~ ONLY E i 1 r 2rc i f I L Do.S 'e a,~ X ir Z ~ Hr ~Qa ~ u sin r c--- X ~ cos 0 , n (3. ].9) where u~ ~.s the magnet~.c permeabiliey of g vacuum, in H/m; c is Che gpeed of 1~.ght, ~n m/s; H ~.s tihe ~ltttiude of the ionoaphere, ~.n m; ~ ie the effectiive conductiviey~'of the ground, in cm/m; f ie the vibrat3one frequency, in Hz; I is the current in the antenna, in A; L ia the effective ~.ength of the aneenna, in m; D is tihe gain of the aneenna; d i~ the atmospheric ateenuaeion f~ctor, in dB/lun; r is the distance beeween the transmittier and receiver, in m; a is the radiua of EarCh, in m; A~.s ~Che angle of rotation of the directivity diagram of the tiransmitter's antenna in relaCion to the rece~.ving antenna. The electr~c field strength (uV/m) in sea water at depth h(m) ia calculated by the equation: E~X 3 E~! ~2n/e� ~ a.h ~ . 0 (3.20) where e~ is Che dielectric constant of free space; d is the aCtenuation factor in sea water, in dB/m; v is the conductivity o~ sea water in cm/m. Inf.tuencing the range and depth of underwater radio reception, in addition to these factors, are the power of the electromagnetic field radiated by the transmitter, the noise level at the point of reception, and the sensitivity of the submarine's radio receiving equipment. For the purpose of enabling communications with submarines, in the USA, in Che VLF band radio transmitters with a power of 1000 to 2000 kW are used chiefly, with complex antenna systems. Zn the ULF band, the power ~f an experimental transmitter is 100 to 120 W, and Che total power of a ULF transmitter, 10 MW. The chief noise whictc must be taken into account in the reaeption of VLF and ULF signals in the submerged position is divided into three kinds: atmospheric; that induced b}~ the electromagnetic ~ield o~ the submarine; and the antenna's intrinsic noise+ The level of atmospheric noise is 50 Co 60 dB per 1 uV/m in the 1 Hz band [90], and peaks (resulting from lightning discharges) can be clipped by mesns of clippers, which gives a reduction in noise level to 20 dB [95]. As the useful signal and atmospheric noise travel through the water they are attenuated to a different extent, and, consequently, the 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OF~~CZAL US~ ONLY sign~l-eo~np~.e~ rntii.p doe~ no~ depend an Ch~ dep~h v~' underw~Cex r~~~ptiion [95], 7'h~ e~,~c~romngn~~3c ~~,eld i~ induced by ~lxernaGi,n$ cuxxenC~ which ax~.s~ b~Cw~~n Che un~,ike i~eCa~.~.~c par~s o~ Ghe hu~,~ o,~ xhe submarine ~.n sea w~Cer (Ghe ~,~Ceer ~.n ehie c~sa i~ ~he E~.~GC~q~,YCB~ ~ The tqos~ e~, meagure �or reduci,n$ Che ~.n~l,ugnce o~ eha electiromagne~3.c ,~ie1d on reception of ehe uae~ul signgl i~ ~o r~move Che ~nti~nna by meane o~ a eug bayond Ghe ran~~ of the electrnmagneCic fi~1d. ~he in~r~ns~c noise o~ hhe antenn~-- "velocity noise" (21, 39~--which arises in eowing as eh~ result of vibrarion of the antienna in the magnetic fie~d of Earth does not dep~nd on depth. He- ginning wieh a cereain d~peh, Clie antienng'R 3.ntrins~.c noise begins Co pre- dom3nae~ over aemospheric noige. Table 3.3 h~ ~ ' ~~KPu M MK~?, i, Kr 3) npr 4) npM 0 r 1 CY/Y I 0,+ 8 CN/Y 10 30 000 200 7800 14 7 tb 20 000 130 7200 l2 6,b 20 Ib 000 100 6800 11 b 30 10 000 65 6500 9 4 60 5 OQO 40 6000 5 3 Key: 1. f, kHz 3. With v= 1 cm/m 2. ~n, uV/m 4. With o= 6 cm/m The communications range and depths of underwater reception possible thereby when using a VLF radio transmitter with a power of P~ = 1000 kW and a stationary ideal anCenna, as well as a special radio receiver with a ferrite Loop anCenna without taking into account aCmospheric noise are given in table 3.3 (37]. As is obvious from this table, certain radio recepCion (Kl = = 2) is possible at distances to 8000 km. For the purpose of determining h and r with oCher values, it is necessary to interpolate. This can be done with the graphs in fig 3.3. The gain, , for different r and a with a reduction in v~rom 6 to 1 cm/m (ICh ) s determined from the graph in fig 3.3a. Wieh reduction in conductivity i to a value of o, accordingly the value of Kh is also reduced to lth , which is determined from the graph in fig 3~3b. Thus, Che value of hQacan be calculated by the equatfon: hc ha~eKsa' (3.21) where h n 6 is the depth of immersion of the antenna in sea water with a = 6 cm9m . 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFF~CiAL US~ ONLY Xh l p'd �S ODM ~y ! 0 ~2D00~ 0 - f ` + ~ ~ ~ ~s ~p 3~f ,4 d. 4 S s 7 B 9 f0 i~ r, ~�~,~,KN b~ Kh 6 . ~0 . , ~y , P J 4 s s Q~ LN/M Figure 3.3. Gain in Depth of Underwater Reception with Reduction in Conductivity: a--Khl ; b--tthQ Key: 1. r, Chousand km '1'he range of radio communications is calculated similarly to r in the VLF band (c~. sec 2.2), taking into account the specified depth of underwater ~ recepCion, h, and the conductivity of the water, Q. Calculations can be simplified considerably if precalculated graphs are available ~or specific rad3o communications facilities and antenna equipment. For example, the graphs given in fig 3.3 make it posaible to determine quickly many radio communlcations psrameters (r, h, fopt or fxequency bands). For the puxpose o~ calculati,ng h in the UL~ band, in addition to the para- meters enumeXated ~or ca] of uadexwater rad~,o reception in the VLF band, it is neceasary to know certain addittonal data, such as, ~or example, ~ the time of day (day or nighC) for carry?~,ng out cotqmunicaCions, the altitude of the ionoaphexe, values o~ atmospheric attenuation ~actors, and of factors for the attenuation of radio waves in sea water, etc. 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOtt d~~IC~AL U~~ OAtt.~Y ~h~ prd~~dux~ ~,nc~,ucl~a eq~,cula,e#,ona o~ e~xan$~h~ ae d~,~Canc~ ~r wi~h ~qu~eion (3~J,9)~ and o~ th~ ~],Qatxf,c ~~,e~,d ~a~~cQnge~ w~~ex~ ~2x , at d~pCh h w~t,~h ~qu~ti~,on (3.20~, dnd ~h~ vax~,~~,aaC~on o~ ~h~ eond~.~~,ana ~ox ~he ~~as~,bi,~,i,~y o~ accompl~,shing e apec~,~~.ed quai~,ey of xad~,o communica~iona, K~ , in kaep~,ng w~.rh equat~,on (2 . Far eh~ purpa~~ pxovid~,ng fn~r ~abar int~ns~,ve calculations of , r and h 3n ehe UI~P range when employ~ng a rad~.o tranemi~tier s~, ro ehe Sanguine (P~ a 10 MW , rt � 10 4), tihe aUthoxe developed a procedure whexeby calculatione ar~ made a compueer. '1'he calcula~ion data arg divided into parameters with congtan~ and var~able value~. Th~ following parameCere witih consCant values are used (21, 73, 82, 86, 90, 95]: l~o~4n~10'~ t~/tn;, c~+3�1~e ~tle~ /L~1,I~10o A,M; I)~1,6 � o, ~ 1,2 ~ 10'' CM/M; a~ 6370 KM; g0 ~ 36n ' 10"'~ ~ as well ag the following vari~bl~ parametera: ~ f a 45 7b I'u; ~ N, (dgy~~ 5,b� la M; H~(~x1~~ la M; 8, (day} ~ 0~176~ to'8 aa/ni;: 8d~tisg~t~t~ 0,92 ~ 14 : dB/m. The resulCs of calculations of E for f Q 75 Hz are given in table 3.4 (as a function of h at r=2~.2�103 km , at night, with Q~ 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm/m) and 3n the graph in fig 3.4. Table 3.4 l~ 6u~ MK6/n n. ~ O~~ CM~Y 0~ I CM~Y I O~ S CY~Y 0 ~ d CM~M b0 0~0377 0~033 0~03 Q~071 ~00 0,0069 0,006 0,0053 0.005 150 0~0013 O~OOII 0,0009T 0,0009 Zpp 0~00023 0,0002 0,00018 0~00015 [Key on following page] 54 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOR OF~ZCtAL U3~ ONLY K~yt , EZx , uV/m c,~el~ v ~ ~ r L ~ f A ~,10+ ~ f ~ d 1 J \ t ~ \ 0 \ 7 f d 1 ? ~ 1 1 ~ \ ~ ~ iE~O /A00 A~JqI ~,a Figure 3.4. Dependence of Electric Field Strength in Sea Water on r with Q ~ 4 cm/m , f= 75 Hz , h~ 50, 100, 150 and 200 m; in Daytime and at Night Key: 1. E , uV/m An analyeis of calculat~.on~ has ahown that w~th ~n ~.ncxease in the conductivity of water the depth o~ reception is reduced, howevex thi.e inf].uence ie consider- ably slighCer than in the yL~ band. At cas~uni,cati,ona d~,atancea greater than 4�103 km, the Rield etrength i,~ greater in dayt~,me than at night, and at smaller distances, vice-versa. Certa~,n recept~on o~ messages (with a signal- to-noise ratio equal to 3 dB) can be enaured at depths up Co 150 m and with a communications range up to 10,000 km. The operating frequency to a co~siderable degree also determines the communi- cations range. Since with a lowering of frequency the attenuation factor is 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'Olt OF~ICIAL USE ONLY reduc~d, rh~n a~c:ordin~7,y ,~o~r ~he pux~o~e o~ exCend~,ng Ch~ conqnun~.caC~.nng r~n~~ it 3a n~ces~ary Co change xp ~,awex ~xequencias. ~u~ the ,~ie~,d eCrength of rha eigna~. ;le pxopnre~,ona~e ~o the ,~requency~ Zn ndd~.rion, i~ is necessary to rnke ~nro gccounC ~hp change in Che ef~ec~ive ~,eye1~ o~ aCmospheric noise with fr~quency. The pxasence o~E a~ch contradictory ~acrors requ~.ras ~he s~lect~,on of ~he ope~.mal ~�raquency for a spec~,~~.ed communicat~,ona range, wh~reby maineenena~ ~f ~h~ congtc~ncy of ~he s3gnal-~o~noise ra~io 4�ill be ensured. Studies have shown ~har foY a commun~,caCions range of 5�~03 , 104 and 15�104 km, tihe opt~.ma1 fr~quencies are respec~ively 150, 75 and SO Hz (90]. 3.2. ~eaeures oF ehe Propagat~.on of Sound in Waeer and Calculation of Hydro~ acougC~.c Communicaeions Linea The Cransmigaion of information in a marin~ environment through a hydroacoustic communicationa channel is accompl3ahed by means of acougric vibrationa. A marine environment abeorbs acoustic ~nergy least of ~11 kinda of energy. A hydro- acouatic channel ~s the legsti studied communicaeions channel, buC iC is w3dely employed for communications with gubmarines and deepwaCer inatruments and divera, as we11 as for tielemetry, identi�ication and remote control in the water. The propagaCion of acoustic waves and the reception of sign~ls is influenced by distortion o� Che path o� acoust~.c beams caused by a change in the speed of sound with depth, diminishment of the intensity of acousCic waves wiCh an increase in d~.aCance from the sound source, and by hydroacouseic noise and in- terference, which hamper the reception of uaeful signals. The propagation of hyd.roacoustic signals depends primarily on Che state of Che saund velocity field, ~whose parameters are determined by hydrophysical parameters of the sea--by the values of the temperature, t, sali.nity, S, and pressure, p. The dependence of the speed of sound in the sea (m/a) on t, S and p has been establiahed experimentally, and it can be egCimated by Wood's approxima- tion equation: c ~ 1450 ~.,20Gt - 0,036 6l' -}-1,137 (S 35) tl,0175h. (3.22) (3.22) From equation (3.22) it is obvious that with an increase in t, S and p Che speed of sound in the ocean increases. The temperature exerts Che greatest influence on the speed of sound. Althnugh the influence of these facCors on a change in the absolure value of c is not too great (within Che range of 1440 to 1540 m/s), nevertheless they play an important role in the propagation of .ound because o~ the re~ract~,pn of acoust~c beams. k'or the purpose of de- termining the speed ok sound it is c~nvenient to use the nomograms and tables presented in [71, 85]. Frequently employed are not the absolute values of t, S and p, but their fncrements with depth, i,,e., their grad~.ents, G. Let us consider smne typical cases o~ Che distribution of the speed of sound at di~�erent depths, each of which has its refraction pattern (fig 3.5). 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 . FOR O~FICIAL USL ONLY 0~ a fl n: n ~�0 H 3 a cBA~~ , BNeruNn mpeN- doNC cBaa ~ ~NU 3) o~ n~ h h ~ , b) o c ~ n H ~ � ~~d 30 G QfUNAA 30NQ MBHU ~~~3u ~'f~ f 3) Nympok-~ ~ n Aa aoHa o ~ h h o�~ o ~l ns 4~ l1s oMa eN r N~ , ~ / N= n, ~ ~n~, 1 _ 3 NQ CBA3 ~ O~CO NJ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ . h h 1) d) o n, n n Nt Ns n ~ - - ~ . - ~p ---~s ~ 9oHa meMu n h 4) e) ~ o ~ n n H, ~ ' T 3oMa enu ~ 0~ i; y~~, , (4.iz) 7s FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ~ ~ _ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roR orrrci~ usL orn.,Y tnpux~ ~npox1 cu. where ~r ie tihe waiting period, calculg~ed by ueing Che gppar~~us of ~he queueing tih~ory. ~f in inequa~~.tiea (4.6) and (4.~.2) n number greater ~hgn nn~ ~.g gnLCen, then the excese characeer~.zea, iti were, tihe cap~~iry po~ential for Che radio route ~nd the ~adio network. A number leas than one indic~tes the need for carrying out measures ensuring communications. In radio networks iC is possible to common operating, receiving and transmitCing frequencies, a ca].1 frequency and operating �requencies. Frequencies at which communications are carried out are called main �requenciea, and standby frequencies ~re those which are chgnged eo when iC is i.mposaible ~ to carry out communicaC~.ons at ehe main frequency, e.g., heavy interference. Frequencics are periodically gltered a change in the condiGions �or ehe propagation of radio waves, and also for the purpose of improving ~he secrecy of communications. CommunicaCions facfLities and personnel must be estimaCed and mllocated to take inro account rhe difference in parameters under ideneical operating conditions and the di~ference in Che skills of commun3cations personnel. The best equipment and specialis~s are assigned ta Che more impor.tant routea. In calculating the number of radio receivers and transmitters for a ship, vessel or communications unit, it is necessary to take into account the fact that reception goes on continuously regardless of~the incoming flow; therefore, the number of radio receivers,(N ) is equal to the number of channels (S), - N = S. Transmission can be c~arried out by a single radio transmitter in s~veral communications channels; there�ore, the number of transmitters~(Nper~ can be smaller than the number of channels by a factor of KS , N r- � = K S. ~he value of K is determined empirically during a perig~d of extended operaCion. Forsships of foreign fleeta, KS = 0.5 to 0.8 . A determination of communications sCandby facilities for a command level calls for calculation of the required facilities for two-way communications, of operators and of communications data, which must ensure the possibility of replacing equipment which has gone out of order ~nd operators, and of - building up communications along the most important routes. For the purpose of carrying out the transmission and reception of information in a communications system, it ia necessary in advance to determine (preciaely define) the command levels taking part in control and all communications routes; Co make calculations and develop measures for ensuring the reliability, _ speed, and, when necessary, secrecy along all communications routes of M comniand levels, and stability of the communications system; to define preciaely the system of information transmission in the system; to determine duplicaCing and bypass routes for the most important co~and le~~els; when necessary, to 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR nF~ZCIAL USE ONLY ro m~ke ~niCUig~~.nn~ and develop measures ~o eneuxe tihe aecrecy of communica- r~.ons; ~o detiermine ei~ic~.enC methoda of orgnn~.zing con?mun~.cation~ ~nd to form the required number of rad~.o networka and routea witih an efficient uCili- zation o� facil.itiies and communicationa personnel, and, for radio communicaeiona, of radio �requencies; ro deteriuine (ee~gblieh) communicationa data and tiraffic and S~5 rulea in Che commun:Lcations eyatem; end to allocaee efficiently the manpower of communicaeiona ~ubdiviaion and to determine atandby forcee. Of these measurea, leti ua dwel~ oniy on ehe ~or?nation of radio networka and routes in Che organizntion o~ radio commun~.cationa, aince the remaining prob- lcros are solved in a sim3lar manner as wh~n organ3zing the communicationa of a command level. It ia advisable to form radio roueea and networks in the manner. xe is neceasary fd~rati nf a11 to give a repreaentaCion of Che entire traffic of all command levels between which it is neceasary to arrange for comarunica- ~ Ciona. Let us aasume that it i~'s neceaaary to arrange for radio communicationa betwe~n 10 command levels (al to a). On the baaia of a diagram of informa- tion transmisaion (fig 4.5) and an~~cipated flowa, table 4.1 is drawn up-- in groups per uniC of time and generally in hours occupied. In the top horizonCal line of the table are shown tihe receivere, i.e., those to whom the information is aent, in the exCreme left verCical column, the sen~ers, i.e., thase who send it, and at Che intersections of linea and colum:~f: is shown Che number of groups per hour transmitted by a apecific aender (vertical coluum) to a specific receiver (horizontal line). For example, a2 + a7 , 20 groups per hour, a~ al, 40 groups per hour, etc. In the column nexC to last are ahown the circuIating communicationa for a given sender, which should be received by all receivera. � . Ar � a a n. t a s ~a Figure 4,.5. Diagram of Tranamission of Information Between Command Levela: + CirGUlating Message Co~unications In the last column ia given the total outgoing flow from each $ender, and ' in the last liae, the incoming flow for each receiver. In the laat slot in the last line ia shown the total flow of information which must be trans- - mitted between the radio atations in question. For the purpose of forming radio networka by the method suggested (let us call ~ it the permisaible load method), it ia neceasary to know the pQrmissible load for the network, which depends on the requirements for communicationa. If 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~oR o~r~cz~ us~ orn~r the requ~rement o~ ~peed ~,a ~ha ma,jax roq,u~,romsn~, then ~,n ue~,ng a common or tranemite~,ng �requancy ~,t is necesaary to deeermine Q~rom equaeion (4. ~.0) and tio C&~.Cll~.~t@ the p~rmi.eeib7.e load for ~he radio network, Yd , bY (4 ~ 12) . T~ ~.a necessary rhat ~he permiseible time, ~rda , an~n ~P~okh be enaured. p Taf 4 .1.. 1~ 2~ AAperorw ' Ornpann� - renN a~ I a~ I a~ Qi I Q~ Qe I a~ ae I d~o I a811 y~ ~ al 0 205 30 30 15 l~ 60 30 30 0 50 456 ~ rt~ 85 Q 36 35 0 0 20 0 0 0 10 18b a~ b 2& 0 I6 0 0 0 0 0 0 b 50 a.~ 6 25 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 b0 as 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 aa 20 0 p 0 0 0 Q 0 0 0 30 b0 ' a? 40 20 0 0 0 0 0 35 ~5 0 10 1~10 aa ; 0 0 0 0 0 U 25 0 20 0 b b0 ur 0 Q 0 0 0 0 2~5 20 0 0 6 bU a~~ 30 0 0 U 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 ~JO Y~ 195 27b 80 80 15 15 120 85 85 0 180 1130 ' Key: 1. Sendera 2. Addreaaees If the requirement of secrecy is the mxin one, then in thia caae Ydo muat be calculated on the basis of the permisaible number of tranamiseionapat a given frequency (n For assigned values of the probability of the detecCion of trana~ss~on (P radio 3nterception (P ) or radio direction finding (P 1 d), �c~aracterizing quantita~tverypt~ie~requirement f.or secrecy of communica~~ons, the value of nPer d~a calculated by the equation: _ t6(I-PtR). ilr~ep R I6` ~I - F'll) ~ . (k.14) where Pi d is ~ne of the assigned (permissible) values of Pab d' P er d and P el , and Pi1 ia the value of this prob~;+ility for a a~ngle t~ana- misaio~i. ~en ia calculated _ _ . . yAon =(9cn 93arn 9cooa~ ~ Yq~ nnep A� _ ~ (4.15) [Subscript "s1" ~ word, "zagl" ~ heading and "soob" = meaaage.] 81 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY x~ the requ~,xecqenta o,~ apeed and aecrecy ~xe ~,denC~,cal, then the lower Ydop ~.s chosen. Yo~eh~h ~~ota~~ ~ Xd~ , then all radio a~ati~ons can opexate in one rad3.o ne~wor a o e ope a~ing ~requency. Th~;s~~,s poeaible with not too great a nufnher oP radi.o stat~.ons or with a a~.igh~ 1.oad. Tf Y > X , Chen commun~.catiions wi.tih indiv3dual radio eeations ~.s exCen~e~h~nto in~~pendent ~ radio routee and rad~.o nerworka. The decisive factiore ~or the formati.on of an individual radio route are ~h~ content and volume of information, and for a radio network, aleo tihe mueual intereaC in the exchange of informa~ion betiween radio stations. Thus, Eor ~he information travel diagram (�ig 4.5) and information flows (cf. table 4.1) (in groups), we get the fo11ow3ng radio networka and radio routiea with a load equal to P/tt Nsl--y, -y,_~-}-Yz_~ =290 grnups; P/c Ns2 Y!~ Ys-s -I- ys~~ -I- ya-s -1- ys-4 -I- y+-s Y~-~ =160 groups; P/c N~3--Yr~~ = y~-e -~-,y~-s+ y~.~+ y~-9-}~ -+-yo-~+~'s-~=1so ~xoup~; P/c JV:4 - y~ y~-~ + yz-i i-I- S'3-i -1- ya-i i-I- y4-t -I- +y~-~~ +y6-~+ys-~+y~-, -F y~_z+yz-~~ +y~-,?+ +y9-~~+y,o_,+y?o-~~ =250 groups; P/c N:S--~J~=Yi-a-I-yi-4-f�yi-5+y~~+y~-~-~- +y~-~+y~-9+y~-~~ +y~~~ =2so ~znuPg. It is not difficult to note that the total load of radio networka equala ~ YI + YII + Y II + YI~ + Y~ = 1130 groups, i.e., is e.~ual to Y bshch ' TFe in~ormat~on flow formed are ahown in table 4.2 and the rad~o route and networka in the dia.gram (fig 4.6a) . If for radio communications conditiona the permiasible ~apacity of radio networks is Y =�00 groupa , then we will get a amaller number of radio networks. In pa~ticular, the following variant can be uaed: P/c N:1-Y~ =Yi=s+y~.-3+y~_,+y~-6+y~_~ . -I-Yi-8-1-Yi-s=39G gr.QUps;. ~~/c Jv"~2 - J~',~ = ys-~ + 1'1-a + Ys-s ys_{ -I- y,-s + . ~ + y,~- y~-e y~_~ +ye-~ + ys-fl+ yaa + ya-e+ Yj-~ y~_~ = 350 groups ; ~ ' P/c Nn3 -Y~ ~ r= 3~ i-I- Ys- u-I- Y3-u y4-~ ~-I- Ya-~ . S'r_u + ya-i i+ ys-i i+~'io_ i i+ S's-~ ys--i + Y+-~ S's-~ Ys-~ -F- Y~-~ y io-i -f- Yi-s 390 . 8roups . 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOIt 0~'FZCIAL US~ ONLY The sum o,~ 'X~ ~h x~,~ ~h X'~,~~ ~~.~30 groupa ~ e~,~,~ again equa~. ~o Y bshch in tiab~.e 4~ 1. The ad~o networka ~ormed ~,n th~,s manner axe ahown ~.n t~ie d3agram (~~,g 4.6b). Table 4.2. Omnp~Bumanu 2~ ABpeocm~i a~ a= aJ a~ as aB a~ ae a~ ab c~H y= a, n ~ ~ ; 3Q ~b 'j3 ; ~ 'sb "~8 3b "o ' 4ss n2 e[~ 0 3,~ 0 0[~~ 0 0 0 ~ b'~ f85 a~ (~5'1 25 0 f5 I 0 Q 0 0 0 0 ~ 5 ~ 50 ay ~ 5 I 25 f5 0 D o 0 D 0 0 S~ 50 ~s I!D ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tl~ f0 acg 120~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1f~~ 50 a~ ~ 40 20~ D 0 0 0 0 3~ 0 ~1b1 140 ce ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 2S 0 20 Q I 5 I SO a9 ~0 ( 0 0 0 0 0 I. Q 0 ~5~ 50 a~o ~Q.~ 0 0 D 0 0 0 0 U' 0 LQJ 90 y~ ~95 275 EO BO f5 15 120 85 B5 0 180 ifJO ~ Key: 1. Sendera 2. Addreasees ~ ^ a~ ~ a~ ~ a: ~ Q~~j a~ ~ as ~ Qe ~ ai ~ aeY as~ ar~ P/N N� 1 ( I ~ ~ ~ ( ~ j ~ j ( I I I I 2)P/CN�2 ~ ~~/~1~~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ( ~ P/C N� 3 I__~I I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I I I I ~ P/C N �4 ( ~ /(~I ~I /C I ~ ~I ~I /C ~ ~ ~ P/C N� 5~~~ ~1 i fit ~ ~`t ~ I/C I~ I r`I ~~7 j ~ ~ i i I I i ~ I I I I i~~_~ i ~ ~ i i ~ i~ ~ i~r~i i b~ ~ar~~LL:I(4~ra~~as{a6I'a~~aYas~j a,~ . ~ I ~ ~ I ( ~ ~ I I ~ P/C N� 1 I ~ I i ~ I ~ ~ P/C N� 2 ~ ~ I I I ~ P/C N � 3 I ~ I ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ I~ I I ' ~ i I ~ j c ~ I I j j . ~.J._~,_.z_~._~_~.,~. , Figure 4.6. Radio Netwnrka and Radio Routea Pormed: a--variant I; b-- variaiit II [Key on following page] ~3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ roR o~~icznr~ usE ornY Key: - 1. Rad~.o xoute No 2. R~d~,o network No 2 The ~o].low~,ng conclusions c~n be dxawn ~or ~heae variantie o~ the ~ormation of radio rou~es and rad~,o neCwoxka wt~h a vaxiat~.on ~.n Xdop ' 1. If the requirementis Por are ~.ncreased (~his is expreased quantitatively by a reduc~~.on in 'Y w~thout taking added measures for providing for ~heae requirements, ~~~~i ~his w31]. reault ~.n an increaee in the number of radio rou~es and radio networks ~ind, conaec~uently, of radio stationa, peraonnel and radio frequencies employed. 2. When meaaurea are taken to enaure the reliability, apeed and aecrecy of communications (which quantitatively results in an inerease in Yd a reduction in the number of radio networks occurs, and, conaequen~~y, in facilities, personnel and, possibly, radio frequencies. The laCter dependa on the procedure used for utilizing radio �requencies and the rate at which they are changed. 3. In forming radio networks it is necessary to provide also for posaible increases in information flowa in the procesa of control. By employing tables of information flows, it is possib]:e to add changes to the grouping of information flows and, in keeping with this and the current situation, to alter the structure of the communications aystem. If the flows or the number of radio stations 3.n the radio network are increaaed,~a solution is found to the problem of segregating from ~the radio network in question individual radio routes and radio netwoxka. The decisive factor here ia the content and volume of information, but it is also neceaaary to take into account the con- venience of control. In particular, veasels or ships which solve a aingle problem are as a rule aegregated into an independent radio network. Sometimes the deciaive factor can be the need to fulfill heightened requirements for communications, e..g., for ensuring speed in the transmission of information. Tf there is a reduction in flows, communicationa units and routea are united. In Che uniCing of communications routea, one-way radio communications are organized, and in the uniting of units, a two-way radio communicationa network (radio route). 4. The radio networks and radio routes obtained must be analyzed in terms of the structure of radio stationa and their load for the purpose of uniting them. Thus, if the ra~iio networks are almost of identical structure, the~, i.itto account the load, it is possible to unite them into a single one. It ia necessary always to strive for a minimum of radio routea and radio networka. But it muat be remembered that the ,~oad, even Y , must not be a limiting load, i.e., in a radio network there should also~ena margin for the inclusion of radio stations when utilizing thia radio network as a duplicating network w�th heavy interference or the heavy overloading of another radio network. Here it is obvious that the greater the load in a radio netwark the more difficult it ia to keep secret. 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ro~ o~~zcrat. us~ oN~Y '~he fozma~~.on 4~ rad~,A ne~woxlca ~nd x~d~,d xau~ea ~a ane o~ ~h~ m~~or aepecta o# planning xadio coupnun~;cat~;ane, and mod~,$y~~ng the a~xuctuxe a~ xad~.n neC- works and the~x tt~ades o~ opexat~,an w~tfi changes ~.n cixcume~~tncea, communicr~~ione requ~.remen~a and ~,n~ozYUat~on �~.owa ~.a an ~,mportan~ pax~ o~~ the work of a commun~.- cations agency ~.n contral~.~,ng r~ comomun~.c~tions system. 4.4. Basic Rules for Che UC1ltzation of Communicationa By Che u~iliz~tion of commun~,cat~.ons ia mean~ ~he practicaJ. emp].oyment of facilieies, channels and communica~ion~ aystems for obtaining and transmitCing information 3n conCrol and the fulfil~.ment of seC ob~ec~~.ves. The right to utiilize rad~o communications on a veasel or sh3p is had only by the captain, commanding officer, and, 3n ~oint sailing operationa, the flag off icer. On shore thia right is en~oyed only by specific officials of the control agency; for example, in a force, the chie� o� s~aff. The right to employ visual and other forms of communicarion is given Co other ofticial personnel. However, this peraonnel cannoti always employ a11 facilities and kinds o� communications at their diaposal. The employment of communicationa at aea is regulated by "Marine Mobile Service Radio Communicationa Guide" [61], radio communications regulations, telegraph and telephone regulations, and also other resolutions adopted by international conferences. The employ- ~ ment of radio communications with Soviet veasels is regulated by rules for r.adio communications and other superviaory documents of the appropriate ministry [53, 54], and, wiCh ships of the Soviet VME, by manuals, guides and instructions on communications, and by orders from headquarters and ataff orders regarding communications. These aupervisory documenes take into account the regulation~ and requirementa of international agreements. The employment of communications is not infrequently taken in the narrow sense, as the employment of communications f acilities and channels. In the broad sense it covers the employme:it of communications fac3lities and channels, the regulation of the employment of communications by subordinate command levels and officials, and the creation of the necessary or most favorable conditions for the accomplishment of communications. The employment of communicatinns combines the operations of official personnel participating in control and Che operations of communications personnel making control possible, which must ~ be clearly defined and coordinated and must make up a unified complex. The utilizatton of communicatians facilities and channels includes the pre- paration of a message for transmission through communications facilitiea and the transmission of this message in .a communications channel. The preparation of a message for transmission through communicat3ons facilities is per.formed by the person issuing the message and the communications service. specialists on duty or i.n crarge who have received this measage, and generally includes the following: a) selection from the complex o~ communications facilities and types prepared of those which most completely ensure the re- quired quality of communications under spec3fic conditions of circumsCances; 85 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 1~OR Ob'~'xCIAL USE ONLY b) ~he crr~.ting o~ Che messag~, mu~C he c~.e~x, :',:,~~~,nct ~nd aa cone~ee as poasible, and rhe ~ormu].aC~;on o~ 3:t on' b].~nk; c) addxesa~,ng of ~he measage, i. e. , a precise ind~.cati,on o~ wh~re i~ ~.e ~o be aent ~nd ~o whom iC ~.s to be given; d) when neceasary, an indica~ion oP ~he urgency o~ Cha measage ~.n ita transmiss~.on, procesa~ng and del~veryr. Tn naval communicationa, the urgency of a message is custiomarily indicated by a so-called aer~.ea, wr~.tten down to indicate the conCen~ ofl tihe message and itis importance; e) an indicaCiOn of the method of exchange in tranam~asion of tihe n;essage (acknawledgement, confirma- tion of receipt, reciprocal verification). 'lhe Americans, �or the purpose of secrecy of the locat~.on of a radio statl.on, employ the methode of radio broad- casting (without acknowledgement) and radio interception. The preparation of a message for transmission can include other operationa also: For example, for the transmise~.on of a message ~hrough retransmission points, it is necessary Co indicate these points (the message's rc~ute). , The transmission of a message through a comariunications channel is performed by a communications operator or the person responsible for calls, who generally performs operations relating to switching on and tuning commnnications facili- ties, the establishment of com~unications with the reception point, aervice calls and transmission of the message. The regulation of the utilization of communications is aimed at ~he most � effpctive utilization of a commun�Lcations system by all command levels and offic:'.als by means of the coordination of the operations of all personnel and the regulation of information flows, the ~Cransmisaion of ineseages and the making of calls with respect to direction and volume, and other queations relating to the utilization of communications. For example, a radio communi- cations regulation [61] forbids all radio stations to make unnecessary broad- casts and to transmit superfluous signals or pieces of corr.espondence. The documenta regulating international communications clearly define the utiliza- tion of frequencies and types of transmission, call letters, station operation hours and priority, selective calling in the marine mobile service, etc. Regulated especially strictly is the procedure for emplnying communications and the transmission of distress, alert, urgency and security signals. These same documents obligate all who carry out communications to maintain secrecy. The employment of communications with vessels is regulated by ministries and ship owners and with ships, by the he~dquarters of a fleet and forces, i.e., those who control vessels and shipa. The control agency, for purposes of regulating the carrying out of communications, must determine the following: 1) The procedure for employing communications in a port, harbor, roadstead, in a crossing, in areas of operation and in return3ng. Here a distinction ' is made between the procedure for solo and joint navigat~on and for performing ob~ectives. Usually this procedure j.anpliea the right to employ long-range and intrasquadron couununications, the sequence ~or the employment of communi- cations facilities, etc. 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roR o~rzcz~, us~ ornY 2) The procedure ~ax re~Qr~a and no~~,R~,ca~~,pne~ ~,.e., who ~uusC re~oxC and no~ify, when, to whom, xeg~rding wha~ and w~.Gh wha~ ,~ac~,1~,C~,e~. 3) The opera~ing modes o~ the commun~,ca~~,one eys~em, which axe ordinar~.l.y deCerniined in relation to communicat~.on~ route~, radio networks, and radio routes for varioua pe1�iods of opexations. The mode includes ~he type of operation and the time o~ operat~.on. 4) Measures for ensuring preservation of the secrecy o� the contenti o~ trans- m3.Cted messages and ca11s, which include coding of the tex~, i.e., the sub- stiCution by means o~ special tables (codes) of the ordinary open text with symbols, and the utilization of coded charts. rn the opinion of foreign specialists, the best result is provided by employing automatic classifying equipment and the line coding equipment designated for ~elegraph communicaCions channels. For telephone communications it is possible to use equipment making a telephohe message uninCelligible to listeners [39, 60, 66, 68]. For the purpose of utilizing communications by ships in combaC operations, staffs also develop measures for concealing indications of decamouflaging in carrying out communications, i.e., measures included ~n radio camouflag3ng; measures for communications maneuvers for the purpose o� creating the most favorable condit3ons for communications and proCecting �rom enemy reconnaissance and radio interference and the influence of nuclear explosions; and the employ- ment of communications standby facilities. These questions, in spite of their importance and signif3cance, are not considered here; the reader can refer to _ naval literature containing these questions, e.g., [39, 66-69]. The creation of the requirecl or most favorable conditions for carrying out communications f.ncludes operations by the operator, e.g., the employment of a directional reception system for the purpose of improving the quality of reception of a remote radio station, and operations by the captain and command- ing ofFicer, e.g., the surfacing of a submarine for radio reception or radio transmission. The highest need for creating these conditions arises in the employment of hydroacoustic co~nunications�arid in radio communications wl'~h submarines and airplanes. The utilization of communications under modern conditions requires high training on Che part of captains, commanding officers and 'officials of control agencies and the communications service. Section ~to Communications with Craft and Ships Chapter 5. Equipment oF Craft and Ships with CommunicatiQns Pacilities The eff ect3veness of communications with cra~t and ships is determined pri- marily by communic~tions facilities and their qualitative and quantitative structure and their proper d3,stribution, i.e., by the equipment. 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFI'ICIAL USE ONLY 5.1. ~'undatqenC~:1,a o~ ~quipp~,n~ Cx~~~ and Sh~,pa ~S,th Co~unications ~acilieies* . A ahip or a vesse~, is xeg~rded as a uni,fied complex ayretem, in which are . aegrFgated ~.n relatinn ta their ~unction~l tra3,ts~ subays~ems, such as the hull, power planr, steering equipment, arme, elec~ronic equipment, navigation - equipment, communica~iona equipment, etc. The commur?icationa system of a modern vesael includes di~ferent communications Pac~llties, such as a radio (microwave, HF, MF and VLF), satellite, hydroacoustic, visual, and audio. Helicopte,rs and boaCs can be employed as mob~le communicationa facilities. As an example, in fig 5.1 is sho~m the communications aystem of a U.S. Navy antisubmarine vessel [15]. ANme~vu . ~ ~ . . ~ , ~ , . ~ 1~ yKS CnymHUKU I Q) ~na~vcNe~ Onm~vecKUe ~ KB ~ QnuNe~ cenaq~op cpedcm~a S~ ~ 2 ~ I Qonti~3 ~ . N ~ ana Nou ~RB 6 ~ Kona ~d~Hav . r ^ ~~AQ~HO/U KOHQNdNWU R NKq1 10) ~ 7) nynem 6 I'Kn $ a,rycmuvec~�ue 9 y, c edc~Ba 14 ) 15 ) B3nemNV- ~ CpedcmUa HNduKamnp QeNmpanaHriu NHduK�mop Cnequa~e~ro~d noCQB04NQA ynpaBne~uA BasdymHOa rl7QKI1lC~yPCKUU NQl~U2QuU0NN0U nocm nnnu adKa I no~emar,u a6c~naNOBKU 13) uHduKamn obcmvNnBKu Paduo- UeNmpaneNOe NNduKamvp 16 ?~nenempu ''~mNV-pe:ua~u~ee ma,rmuvecKUr Ienemaun 20 ~Uumpnocm ~ cmpoacmBn ~ daNNar Annapa NaA Af,ne~~.verri Pacnpedenumene CucmeMa ynpa~- ~pon,ra- U/mypnaNCKaA 26~ evnroymamo Naiu nr~n2e EHUA COBdUh~+- 20BOpAlI~QA ) py6Ka L HUPM k'OpQ ~11Pf1 C~A36 ~ J i i~ 2 ~ ) Tenemarin ~ l)puenHUKU u . ~ ~UdpOQKyC/11U4ECKQA nepedamyuxu MemeoponozuvecKUE cpedcmBa, ~udpo- PyaK� TpONONf/Ilpb/~ ZUd~IOQKyC/IlU4ECKUP ~ QKlfC//7U4BCKQA C~ledCmBQ~ UC~On63yeMae dnA i C/AQN UD enetl HaBuza uu Figure 5.1. Communications System of a U.S. Navy Antisubmarine'Vessel , [Key on following page] ~ . *In the V1~ communicaCions ,facilitie.s are a type of armament; therefore it is customary to speak o~ the arming of ships with communication facilities. How- ever, for convenience in presentation of material, the authors have adopted the term "equipment" in common for craft and ships, as it is also employed, e.g., in the art3,cle "Marine Radio Equipment a~nd Ship Radio Equipment,", BSE [Great Soviet Encyclopedia], second edition, vol 41, p 228. 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OF~'IC~AL USE QNL,Y Key: ~ 1. ~nCenn~s; microwave, H~+, 7.7, Centixa~, com~u~ar , ~'F', I,x and vL~ 1.8. Tact~,cal data ~.ndicatio~: 2. Satel~.ites 19. Te].eCype 3. Wavelengths 20. Code ~ost 4. F' semaphore 21. Antenna commutaLor 5. Optica~. equipment 22. board 6. Standby coromand po~,nt 23. Ship ~ormat~.on COTIC'Cb~. sysCem 7. Console to GKP [ma3n comm~nd 24. Loudapeaker communicat3ons post] 25. Chart houae 8. Hydroacoustic equipmen~ 26. Tnetrument room 9. Main command post 27. Receivers and Cransm3.tters 10. Takeoff and landing strip 28. Teletype 11. ~light control equ~.pment 29. Meteorological equipment, chrano- 12. Air situation indicator meters and hydroacoustic equipment 13. Central tactical indicator used fnr purposes of navigation 14. Navigation situation 3.nd3.cator 30. Hydroacoustic stiation 15. Special post 31. Hydroacoustic room 16. Radio telemetry For the purpose of solving problems relating to equipping a vessel with commun3cations facilities at the planning stage, it is necessary tio perform the following types of operations in the sequence indicated: 1. Establishment of the need for information in the solution by a v~;~sel o~ ship of ma3or and secondary objectives, and for the purpose of navigation safety, i.e., the communications route--with whom one-c~ay communications (the reception or transmiss3on of information) and two-way (information exchange) must be established. 2. The determination of the information requiring reception or transmission in~Che fulfillment by a craft or vessel of its ob3ectives in relation to ~ purp~se (reporting, ordering, notifying), and in relation to Cypes ~telephone, telegraph, printing, facsimile telegraph, etc.) and the characteristics of _ information flows (their quantitative parameters) on all communications routes. 3. The calculation of the required communications range on each route, on the basis ~f the proposed areas of navigation of the craft or ship. 4. The determination of the required quality of communications on all communi- cations routes in the transmission (reception) of specific information flows (with respect to reliability, fidelity, speed, and, when necessary, the secrecy of communications). ~ 5. The determination o.f a cxaft's or ship's requirements for communications faci3.ities resulting from nav3.gation conditions, with regard to the duration of operation, temperature conditions, moisture res~.stance, mechanical strength, vibration, pr.essure on antennas, etc.* *Modern vessels and ships must as a rule withstand navigation in Arctic and tropical areas of the global ocean. 89 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 I~OR OFFICYAL USE ONLY 6. The coordinat~,on o~ ttie posif~on ok xlie ~re~ae~,ls ar ahip~a coumtun~,cations sys~em in ex~, (p~,anned) ~actic~l co~snun~c~,G~,Qn,a syeCems oE ah:ipa (o~ a group or Eorce), o~ a group o~ vesa~ls (squadrons, ~1o~i11~s, and MRKh vesse]. exped~,~~,ona) and o~ ehe cownun~cat~,nns o� vessels and the shore (Che PU, Prom wh~,ch contxo]. ~,a carr~,~d out), and also ehe determination o� the need for and the possib~.~.ity oP the utilization oE ~.nternational radio communications, in pnrtiiculax, the reception o~ hydrpm~teoroLogical noticea, distress and aler~ signals, etc~ The developmenC of an arrangemen~ for communi- cations of a ship or vessel when sailing 3n proposed areas and fu1.�illing ~.~s key and secondary ~b~ectives under the anticipat~d conditions of the situation. Here main and s~andby variants of inessage Cravel should be provided for, i.e., ~ in addiCion to direcC communicat3ons channels, bypass channels via retirans- mission and radio relay points. 7. The formation on the basis of the work performed above of a strucCure for craft and ship communications facilities in terms nf quantity and qualiey (radios, hydroacoustic, visual and audio, etc.). 8. Determination of the structure of communications p~sts and radio centers and of their relative location on a ship and vessel, the disCribuCion of communications facilities by communications posts and radio rooms and radio receiving and transmitting centers, and determination of L�he constiCution of receiving and transmitting antennas, Caking inCo account requirements for ~ electromagnetic compatibility and requirements wtth regard eo levels of radiaCion dangerous to the munitions of ships and dangerously explosive cargo of vessels. 9. The development of a plan for the distribution of commun~.c~tions �aci9.3~ies and auxiliary equipment within communications posts, radio rooms and radio centers, taking into account electromagnetic compatibility and protection of personnel from the effect of radio waves, as well as of remote communications pos~s, terminal equipment at the command point and in other service areas of the vessel. - 10. The development of a system of loudspeaker and intraship communications, and determination of the location of and equipment for the command reLay unit of a vessel or ship. 11. The solution of problems relating to the switching of cocmnunicaCions facilities, controlling them and monitoring their operation. 12. Tile coordination of the operation of communications facilities and equip- ment, especially in simultaneous operation of Cransmitting and receiving equip- ment, and of electromagnetic cou?patibility urith the operation of radio navi$ation, radar and other radioelectronic equipment of the vessel or ship, and the precise determination of the camposftion o~ communications �acilities from the quantity and quality standpoint, and of the3r location. The planning of equipment with external and intexnal communications facilities should provide for a careful consideration and solution of probleras relating 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 AT ~ BY V. I. SOLOV' YEV, L. I. NOV I K AND I. D. M4ROZOV iS AU6UST i979 CFOUO~ ~ 2 OF 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'Oit Q~F'~CIAL U5C dNLY � eo ehe coneu~.nm~ne and ~ton~,tioxi,ng o~,on and no~.~~, a~ weii a~ Co pro~ectiun Prom ehem~ 7,'h~ ~.qu~,pm@nC ~hou~,a po~s~~g h~,gh r~~.inbi.~.i~y and repnirab~.litiy ~nd ~u~x~n~ea round~th~-�c~,onk oper~C~.nn ~he s~3ling period and ~.rg xesCoxaC~.~n w;lChout a ~earch ~or dama~e. This procedure should be db1.~.g~eory, ~s conce~ne Che b~~ic~ o� equ~pping with communinaeions ~gc~,l~.eies nnd complexes ehipe and oF squ~drons and commerc~,al P1ee~ expeditions. ~ For pgseenger, cargo and other seg vesaels,~wnrldwide practic~ hr~s d~velnpc~d ruleg ~ar radio equipmene which have b~en accepCed by int~rnaCion~1. ~onvenCione (58]. According Co rhese rulea, the bgaic rndio cnmmunicaeions faci].iCies ~re divided by ~urpose inro main, atandby (emergency) and operating. Main rad~o communicaeions facilities musr make possible the reception ~nd transmission of inegsages ~ransmitted by diseresa, alerC, urgency nnd safeey signals, of inessages regarding emergencies, of navigaeion w~rnittgs, of we~ather forecasts, of inedical advice, and also the recepCion of time signnls. Ie is permiCted tio use main radio communications facilities for the trnnsmission and recepCion of aervice and apecial corregponde~ce. Standby radio communi~arions fxciliti~s 3erve Che purpoae of trnnsmitring and receiving information durin~ distrass of a vesgel, as well as in oCher caEes when the utilization of main radio couwunicaeiona facilitiess become~ imposaible. Operating radio communicaCions faciliCies serve the purpose of receiving and , transmiCting messages of an operating nature, as we1.L as emergency and special correspondence. The comm~nications facilities of a vesael are distributed in the following manner: vieual--at aignal posts; hydroacouatic--in hydroacoustic rooms; satellite--at saeellite communications posta, and the control consoles for them--in radio rooms; and radio facilities--in radio rooms (main ~nd standby). On lar~e ships radio communications facilities are located in receiving and tranamitting cenCers, and Che command relay unit at a relay post. On all vessels the main radio room should be located on the deck of the fore bridge or higher, in the vicinity of the point from which the vessel is steered, preferably portside. In indi~~idual cases, when the dimensions of the fore bridge make it possible to place on it only the chart room and wheelhouse, it is permissible to locate the radio room at one deck below the fore bridge [58J. Here it is necessary to see to the following: the ]cead-in of antennas into the radio room directly from outside; minimal length of the route for laying cables leading to the machine, battery, and chart room; maximum di~tance of antennas from large pro3ecting metallic objects (pipes, tnasts, fans and the like); maximum distance o~ the radio romn from electrical equipment and _ lines, as well as from equipment and areas wh~ch release a considerable amount of heat and produce noise; and the best conditions for the proper location of radio equipment and the work and safety of peraonnel. 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'dit O~F'SCIAL U5~ nNLY 'I'h~ luc~C~.c~n n~ th~ i;ad~,o roam on a vea~~~, ahqu~.d b~ ~uch Cha~ ti11e instal.lation ~nd p~~s~g~ thxough ~,t o,~ nor tq cammun~.cations ~acil~.ti~s are r.xcludad~ ~uxthexmoxe, ~he xad~,o room ~,e ~.oc~C~d ad~acent eo ehp cabin of ehe r~dio ge~Cion chie~, 'The r~d~,o room mus~ hava an eme~g~ncy exit. '1'he area o~ ehe r~dio room should be no emaller Chan tiwice ~raaeer ehan the aren o~cupied by xadi,o equipmenC and ~uxnishings ~.n the plane, and ies height, not le~s rhan 2 m. Th~ part~,eion~, deckheada and doore of the radio room should be covered on Ct~e inside wirh ~ound and heat insulation made of fire- resiatant mnt~r~als. The inaulation ~nd are tioCally covered with ~he~t mernl. The 1eve1 of inechanic~l notse in the radio room creeCed by exCernal sources under oper~Cing condi~ions must be reduced to 65 dB. On ench vessel on which radio equipment i~ installed, in addition eo rgdin ronms and radio c~nters, it is necegsxry to provide also for a machin~ room (if Chere are electrical m~chinea nnd transfarmers) II11cI a bgttery room. On 1.arge passeng~r vessels ie is recommended that there be an emergency radio room, as we11 as a separate posC for ehe reception of radio messages from pass~ngers. All the equipment of standby (emergency) radio communications f.acilitiea should be located on the vessel in auch a manner trat its ability to operate is naC ~mpaired when the vessel is submerged to tt,: level of the deck of the radio room. ' On ahips radio communications facilities are locatied at receiving and trana- ; mitCing centers and communications command posts. The communications command post is located near the ship's command station, and radio receiving and transmitting centers, in individual areas, taking into account ensurance of their sCability. For Che purpose of determining the standard structure of radio equipment, all sea vessels for long-disCance navigation are divided into three groups: 1) passenger and all cargo vessels weighing 1600 registered tons and more; - 2) cargo veasels weigtiing 300 regiatered tons and more, buC noC less than 1600 registered tons (as published]; 3) cargo vessels w~~h a displacement of , less than 300 registered tons. In keeping with the rules for conventional equipment, on each vessel of these groups standard (minimal) equipment must be installed in conformity with the USSR Registry [58J. In addition to the equipment indicated, it is recommended thae sound recording equipment be installed, along with radio , telephone receivers for the listening watch, and automatic receivers for radio , " telephone alert signals. It is recommended that ships intended for transporting more than 199 people (including the crew) be equipped with equip- , ment and equipment for the reception of facsimile telegrams. ' On each vessel o~ the third group inCended Eor sailing not more than 20 miles _ from the point of assignment, in the effective area of coastal radio telephone staCions carrying out a continuous round-the-clock listening watch at the - 92 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR 0~,~~CiAL U5~ ONLY in~erna~ionnl c~~.l and secuxi,Cyr ~xec~uency o~ 1,56 ~ 8~Hz, ~,ti pexm~.Ctied ~n us~ ~ stigtionnxy or mqbil,o ~G' rAcl~,o ~el.dphdna s~a~ion. On ~nch sh~.p desi,gned ,~ox sail.~,ng ~C a d~,stanre ~rom ~ha ~lAC~ o~ refuge of more ~han 20 m~.les and ,Qor ~xansport~,ng more th~n 199 peopl~ (~.nclud3ng tihe crew), in the radio room two work are~s muat be provided Por making iti poss~.ble eo carry on radio tra.~fic ~he main and .Pac~1~.Cieg s:lmultaneousl.y. Commerc9.a1 vessels eo be conveyed Lo a poin~ of Crade employing Che deckg of depoe ships or o~her veasels must be furnished witih communicaCions faci~ities as are ships o~ the third group. Non-self-propelled vessels des~.gned ~or towing aC gea or for extended anchorage oueside ehe water area o~ porta or roadsteads, having people on board, also musC be equipped with radio communicAtions facillties as are veasels of the Chird group, for making p~ssible in the firse case co~mnunic~tions wiCh ehe Cowing vessels, and in the second wiCh the nearest coastal radio station. On tankers, Che power of transmitCers at the carrier frequency should not exceed 50n W in the antettna, whereby the penk power of the transmitter ahould be noC greater Ghan 1000 W. On each vessel, for tihe purpose of making it possible Co power rudio equipment and at the same time tn charge batteries, provision is made for the supply of electric power from a marine electric power plant, whereby the variation in voltage should noC be greater than + 10 percent of the rated, and in a.c. frequency, not greater Chan + 5 percent of the rated. In all instances when the employmenC of a ship's elecCric power plant as the key power source for radio equ:.pment is impossible, it is permitted to use storage batteries, ensuring continuous operation of the Cransmitter for not less than 6 h, and of receivers for not less than 24 h. Standby (emergency) baCteries are used as a source of electric power for standby (emergency) radio coromunications facilities, and they must guarantee a continuous power supply for at least 6 h for the standby (emergency) trans- mitter and receiver, the automatic transmitter of radio telegraph alert and distress si,nals, lamps, and th~ portable inspection lamp. In keeping wiCh the rules for the conventional equipmenC of sea vessels, radio Celegraph communications facilities of a vessel include the following: the main radio telegraph transmitter and radio receiver; the stanciby (emergency) radio telegraph transmitter and radio receiver; the automatic radio telegraph alert signal transmitter and receiver; the operating transmitCer and receiver; a portable radio set ~or rescue appaxatus; a radio set ~or the lifeboat, and an emergency radio buoy. The emergency radio buoy indicates Che position of the vessel, �acili.tating the work of search and rescue gxoupa. It is placed on the vessel's open deck in such a manner as to remain �loating in case Che vessel sinks. Having come to the surfa~e, the radio buoy transmits type A2 or A2N signals at a frequency of 2982 kHz for 48 h. 93 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'Ott OFF~CTAL U5~ ONZY ~The xad~,n Ca~.e~hnne co~qnlun~,ca~~.ona ~aciliC~,~e o~ ~ Yesse~.,ude Ghe � the tnatn xadin ~ele~hqne zeneiver and rx~ns,m~~eer; the standby (~m~rgency) radf,o Ce~ephpne rece~.Ver and CxansmiCCe7C~ ~n atirc?ma~ic trensmitter and recpive~ Rnx rad~,o ~e~.ephone ~1~ext a~,gnalg; a xad~,o telephone lietening waCch receiver; a loudspeakex w~.Ch a~~.l~~r; and a yH~ radio tel.ephone set~ On modern large passenger vesgele and research vegsels it is poss~.ble to in- Segii a multichannel prinrer ,~or Hk' radio communications, as well as for relephone communications, uCillzing s~ngle-band improved-reliabiliCy radio ; telephone communicationa ].ines o� the "Linkompeka" type. An ex~mple of a block d~.agram o,f such an 1-IF radio c~mmunicatiotts line ia shown in fig 5.2 [47]. Por Che purpose of. c1~riCy, in ehis diagram are ahown a transmititer and receiver which have four independent Celephone channels (A2, A1, B, B). Signals are aupplied by the high-frequency telegraph chnnnel Co input ~?2 o~ the tranamirter from the telephone channel multiplexing unit. Channel A is used Co transmiC Celephone messages in analog form withouC measures for ~m- proving noise immuniCy. Channel B1~s used for transmitting these same messages in analog form, but in th3s case at the input of the Cranemitter and the output of Che receiver is connected a"Linkompeks" unit, which improves the noise re3ection of Celephone communications through this channel. Fac- simile telegraph 3nformation is transmitted Chrough channel B2. - 1) 2 ~ TA yY YY - (nepedawrya (npuenNa~ 4QCmo) 4acme) TA TA q= A~ 5 ) A CC tC A' NTC ,aq ATC 6, AuN~oMner.c B c ~ c u~ Aur+nunneKc ~TA /J Bx 9, Bz A ~TA Figure 5.2. Example of Block Diagram of Modern HF Radio Communications System for Vessels Key: 1. W[multiplexing unit] 6. FTA [facsimile telegraph unit] (transmitting half) 7. L [line] 2. W(receiving half) 8. Transmitter with OBP [single sidebandJ 3. "Linkompeks" 9. Receiver with OBP 4. TA [telegraph equipmant] 5. ATS [dial telephone ex- change] 94 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR 0~'~ICIAL U5~ ONLY Rul~~ prov~,d~ ~ox' ~quipmenr w~,th. cammand re~,~y ~~C~.~.~.t~,ea, mu~x mnke posaible Che tranam~,ssi,on oR commonds ~~qm m~,cxnphon~ pnaCs ~.nto ~ii and public areas, ~s weJ,~. ag ~a pne~s on khP veqy~~,'s ~pen deck, wieh audibillC}~ such tha~ th~ ~,e~e~. o~ Lhe xeproduct~,on vu~.utqe ~xceed~ thp noi~e levey, by 20 d~. On each pa~~en~ex veasel tihere mu~C be provided no less eti~n three mn~.n re~.~y ~.~,nea ~ a deck ~.~,n~, $ 90x'V~,C~" and a p~ss~nger line. On ships is ina~alled ~he "" uni~i,ed louflsp~aker communicarions equipmenC. The ~mporeance o~~intraship communica~ions is stead~ly incxeasing, and ~e Che presene time two third;~ o~ rhe crew simuleaneousl.y ug~ inCraship communi- caeinns facilie3es. Iti the U.5. Navy, since 1563 work has been begun on the integr~tion of ship neeworks nnd aommunicaeions lines into a single system. An experimen~nl unified intraship communications sysCem--Che AICS-~has been developed ~nd ~ucce~sfully passed tests, for a11 kinds oL- comm~micntions (Celephone, printing, lnudspeaker, digital ancl vocoder). Iti includea Cwo separaee commutators (in the bnw and stern of tihe :~hip), intercommutator c~bles, a~nd uaez un:trs f.or external communi- tions channels nnd the ship relay network. The commutator is designed eo serve 120 networks. For Che purpose of calling a neCwork, its number is transmitCed, and the lncarion of g user in ehe syseem is determineci by Chree- digit numbers. The reliabiliCy of this system is ensured by duplication of ma~or uni~s with standby uniCs which ure uuromuricnlly Curned on. In France the cre~tion of ineraship communicaCions wiCh delta modulation has been provided for vessels and ships. Digital communications eliminaCes the laying of cables for different purposes (telephone, loudspeaker networks, etc.) and makes it possible to do without cumUersome and complex filters, which are necessary when using analog systems of communication with frequency multiplexing of channels. The new sysCem is d~signed to serve 800 users. It connects all intraship users with a coaxial cable, with an op~rating speed of up to 11 Mbits/s. The small overall dimensions and weight of fiber optics cables and Cheir ~ Elexibility in laying have made it possible for the U.S. Navy to attempt to install systems f~r transmiCCing data Chrough fiber optics cables on board vessels, s~:rface ships, submarines and airplanes. In addiCion, fiber optics cables do not radiate electromagnetic waves, and, consequently, do not create noise and exclude the overhearing of conversations. Tn the U.S. Navy plans are being made to reg=ace closecl-c:rcuit television cables and then to install a telephone communicat.:ons sysCem using fiber optics, on ships. For standby intraship communicatie*~s, the opportunity ~s provided of utilizing miniature portable r,~icrowave radio sets. A main and sCandby antenna ahould be in~talled on each vessel. By means of a special switch or commutator each of Chem is connected to any transmitter or receiver (main, standby ar operatfng). Ti~e connection of the main antenna to the operating transmittet and r~ceiver does not have to be provided if 95 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 xOtt OFFICZAL USE ONLY ' other no 1.nss e~P.~ce~,va nntenn~s axe connected ~o them~ the ahip has _ a s~andby mg~.n nnten�~n wh~,ch ~,s co~q~l,etely ready ,~ax ~.nuued~,at~ ra~,sing, than a standby (emex$~ncy~) antenna does noe have ~o be ~,nsta7.l.ed ~ An ~,ndiv~,dua1 aneenna, nr th~.s is poss~,b~.e, a standby~ (emcx~ency) antisnna ~,s used for _ ensuring Che nor,mal opexaG~,on o~ Ch~ tixanamit~ex on a ahip. On oP rhe Pirat and sacond gro~ps axe ins~a~.].ed no~ less than two r~- ceiving anCen~~s ~or the purpo~e o! ensurin~ recept~,on at any two receivera simulCaneously--main, standby or operatin$. Thare must be r~pecial individual antenna8 �or ehe autontati.c a1.erC aignal rece~.v~r and the audio communicationa radio telephone xeceiver. A common antenna can be used for radio broACast receivers. 7'he makeup and typea of receiving antennas dependa specifically on the number o~ mar3ne and ghip radio rer.eivera of all kinds, which varies ~rom a�ew on cargo vessels to a few dozen on large passenger linars (10], and on ships, e.g., on American communications and relay ehipa, reaches 50 to 60. ' For global marine communicat~ons the inatallation of saCellite cammun~.~,ations systems e~uipment is provid~d. HydroacouaCic communications facilities [56~ are installed on surface vessela for communicationa with submarines, and on MRKh vessels, with deeply subnerged equipmene by meana of which studies are made of supplies of fish in the global ocean. Top light~ for signal communications are installed on ships of the firat group in the ~ollowing manner: Che frnnt one on the foremast or in front of it, and if the ship does not have a foreroast, then on its bow section in the diametrical plane at a height of not lesa than 6.1 m above the ahip's hull; and the rea~ top light, on the mainmast at a height hi~her than the front one by not less than 4.57 m. If a signal lighti ia installed on a ship whose length is lesa than 45.75 m, it must be at a heighti of 6.1 m. Also used on ships and vessels is a spotlight for visual communications. For sound signaling on vessels ie employed sound signaling equipm~nt (bells, a gong or a siren). They must be positioned so that no parta of the structure or equipment of the ship create sound interference and reduce the farce and frequency of the sound. 5.2. Requirementa Ptir Vessel and Shi.p Cocmnunications ~'acilitiea; Key Technical Characteristics of Facilities and A~ntennas The following are the general. operating equipment requiremenCs for new radio equipment ~or nl~rine vessels: All radio equipment muat poasess suffici,en: re:.iability and repairability. All communications equipment, antennas, cables anc: ~~nnection equipment must be designed to operate under any conditions for the operation of aea vessela and ships, and also pass mechanical and cllmate testa. 96 FOR OFFICIAY. USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 roK ~rr'ICxAI, US,L' ONLY ~quipmet~C, depestdi,n~ oit its place o,~ insr~~.~,~nt:iot~~ mus~ h~ye t~n np~ropr~nt~e design ensuring su~~icienG proCeCCion of ~:Gs intexrt~7. ~axt;s ~ro~~ me~hnnicr~l d$mage ~nd conCac:t W3:th water. ~quipmenr 7.oc~ti~d in rooms mus~ be ~prayproo,~, , dnd r~dio equ~.pc~ent ~.nsta~,led on an o~en deak mus~ b~ waterQroo,f ~~'or~ablE ' radio se~s ~or rescue equipn~ent in th~ open st~Ce are made n{.rCight. The seandards Eo~r ahockproofness, yhock x~sis~ance and vi.braCion re~ia~auce, nirtightness, and hext resist:c~nce, etc,, are :LisCed in rules Eor convent3ongl equipment for sea ves3e~.s [54], The ~ollowing are gener~~. technical requirem~nta ~or the radin ~acillr~.ea of a veqse:l: High s~ability of Che frequency of transmiCrers and radio receivera (1�~.0~5 to 10 and higher). The passband for audio frequencies for receivera in AZN, AZA and AZJ truns- mission should be 350 to 2~00 liz with a permissible variation ~.n amplitude no~ greater than 6 dB. The depeh of modulation of the rransmitter should be not less than 80 percenC, and radio telegraph transmitters must ensure the transmission of Morse sign3ls to 200 characCers per minute. Frequen~y rebuning must be accomplished in no more ~han 5 s(for emer.gency transmirters) and no more than 15 s for radio communicutions facilities for other purposes. In single-band radio lines in A2N, AZA, AZN and AZJ Cransmission, it is necessary to employ the upper sideband, with corresponding suppression of the carrier frequency. A new complex of facilities for single-band radio communicatioits has been created and h~s been widely introduced for USSR I~IF and I~kh vessels. The equipment of this complex possesses a number of advantages: high frequency stability, ensuring scan-free and frequency-trim-free radio communications; a great number of types of Cransmission, making it possible to use the most stable of them; and the employment of semiconductor devices, improving the reliabiliCy, reducing the overall dimensions and weight of equipment, and reducing th~ c~nsumption of electric power. With Chis new marine communications complex is accomplished automatic control from the operator's console, and reliability in the operation o~ new communica- tions facilities is ensured in tropical condiCions because o.f the employnent of special materials and coatings, as well as because of the complete hermeCic sealing of units. The new marine radio cocronunications complex includes the "Musson," "Brig," "Korvet" and "Bark" radio transmitters and the "Shtorm," "Shtil'," "Sibir'," etc. radio receivers. The "Musson" radio transmitter is installed on vessels o~ the maritime and commercial fleet as the main (navigation) MF radio eransmiLter. It consists 97 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 _ ; FOFt O~H'LCYAL US~ ONLY . of Chree ytxuctux~ll,y cc~mpJ.c:te block~; ~ r.nd:La tir~nvn~itrer, ~ iuatchln~; uniC (SU) atid a remoCe c~nero~, canaole (~'AU) .~'he r~dio transmi,~t~:x enabl~es ' operaCion tx~n~nqiss~,on o~ A1, A2N and ~S (automa~~,c aixcxa~~ homing) eypes aC seven fixed ~requenc~,es. The conCro7. tr~:gsering and ~uning units is automaC~,c. Readinesa Eox o~eraCion is prac~~;ca~.~.y inatantaneoue. The rime ~ ~or retuning to any �requency ia no~ longer thnn 5 s. The m~trching unit enables matching o~ the antenna's i,mpedance r~ith a high-~requency nable, has an in~ ternal antenna commutator, and ia inaealled dir~cCly at ehe lead for the main anCenna. The "Brig" and "Korve~" radio transmitters are deaigned for marine Cransport and commercial vessels as operating H~' transmitCera. The~ are made out of , semiconductors (electron ~ubes only in the output stage). Control of triggering and tuning unitis is totally automatic. Each unit consists of three atrucCurally complete blocks: a radio transmitter, a remote control panel (PDU) and a microtelephone wi~h an amplif ier. The radio rransmitter enables operation with transmission of AZJ, AZA, AZN, A1, A2N, OFT [relaCive phase telegraphy] and F1 eypes. Operation is possible with a broadband antenna with a traveling wave coefficient of not less than 0.3 in the HF band. The microtelephone with an amplifier enables single-band telephone operation and controls the trana- mission of the radio transmitter with a transmitter cutout switch and an auto- matic selector switch which is installed at a distance of up to 150 m from the transmitter. ~ The presence of a PDU in the set of a"Musson," "Brig," or "Korvet" trans- mitter makes it possible to locate the radio transmitter and SU in any un- attended area of a vessel at a distance of up to 150 m from the operator, and also to observe variation in current in the antenna and to exercise general supervision. ' The key technical characteristics of these new marine radio transmitters are shown in table 5.1. ~ The "Shtorm-III" radio receiver is designed for use on vessels as the main (navigation) and operating communications receiver. It has a wide frequency range (LF, MF and HF), high sensitivity and immunity of the receiver's input from harm from a high-frequency voltage of up to 100 V. It makes iC possible to receive with headphones and a loudspeaker and has an output for a printer. The types of transmission it receives are A1, A2, A3, AZJ, AZN, AZA, F1 and F4. The receiver is made from semiconductors and consists of four structurally complete blocks: a radio receiver (BRP), a frequency stabilization block (BSCh), a�requency Celegraphy block (BChT) and a power supply. The indepen- dent employment o~ b~.ocks ia provided for: the BRP block (the "Shtorm-I" - receiver), a combination o~ the B'RP and BSCh blocks (the "Shtorm-TZ" receiver) and the BRP, BSCh and BChT as a tota], uni.t (the "Shtorm-ZZZ" radio receiver). The BSCh and BChT blocks are installed directly in the radio reception block and make up a single whole along with it. 98 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~oR oFrrciaL us~ ornY Tab].e 5. 2~ 'fen nepeqervuK~ n Texiui4ecKne e xupoNTepucTHKU y 3 ~ .My coiu t pNf? .Kop~or� 1 ,q 6beaoe yncror (o nono� ~pi~KCKpondu� I 113U3-3B00 1 1609-3800 cax MopcKOll nonaN~tHOR uwo 11 4083-261i00 II ~06;i-26fIWW cny~c6w), KI'u 4ecTOrW: 410, ~25, ~64, a~ 4G8~ b 4~~ 1~'~ 4 CnrKa aacmr, 1'q - 100 t00 ~ t3wzopua~ Yoiquoct~ na unrpyailf,iQ~ 1 Aennuaou- 900 uorpyake 75 Ow, Dr 9~ 2,4 OM 400 ~2, 600 n~D~ 200 II A~~~~oN- ~ ~111NCNM9lIb1100 OTKJIONO� 400~10-e 16 16 IIIIQ 48C10tW~ ru 1 b Hanpn~ceni~e mrtati ip or 240/380 716/380 7lOJ380 cerH nepeMewiorn Toea)~ ~ 6 florpe6lL(1Qi~~1x MOLL4110CT6~ ue y e I 7 ~ NB~A 14J ~l~ ~ r aep~~T~~, M~: 15) ],6~alli~oiiepeqarvNKa 1000~614Xa2B (700XbIbx3~0 1790X618X340 'fiyn~ru Aucruit�~qiworo 140~~8rc195 16Sx338x~3b Ib6X338x~38 npnanemui 1 ~ uJ ~ 18~+HKpa~oua c ycunuTe� cornacyrou~ee 134X~60X~~ 134X~68X120 neH yctpol?CT80 G07 X 578 X ~30 e D acco~ er: 19) ],6 a;iiiouepcAaryHKe 112 3b0 350 ynbta ANCrauqHOwioPO 7 7 npaaneu~in 2~~ wKpo~pcua c ycxnute� cornacyau~ee 3 3 18~CN YCTNO{1CT00 Key: 1. Technical characteristics 13. Supply voltage (from a.c. line), V 2. Type of transmitter 14. Power requirement, kV�A 3. "Muason" 15. Overall dimensions, mm 4. "B~ig" 16. Radio transmitter 5. "Korvet" 17. Remote control console 6. Frequency band (in marine 18. Microphone and a~nplifier mobile service bands), kHz 19. Weight, kg 7. Fixed frequencies 20. Matching unit 8. Frequency net, Hz 21. Not more than 1 9. Output power with 75 St load, W 10. Load, 2.2 R, 500 pF, 200 11. Band I 12. Maximum frequency deviati,on, Hz The "Sibir"' rad3,o recei,ver is intended foz eraployment on vesse7.s as an operating receiver. ~t consists of a radio receiver and a PDU. The xadio receiver is out of semiconductors, employing mieromodules and integrated circuiCs. The receiver's input is immune from harm from high-~requency volCage up to 100 V. The receiver has outputs ~or headphones, a loadapeaker, a printer and facsimile telegraphy equipment and a tape recorder. Types of transmisaion received are A1, A2, A3, A2N, AZA, AZJ, A7A, A7J, A4, F1, F4 and F9. The ' 99 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OFFICYAL USE ON,LY PDU makes it pq~sibl,e tia con~xo~. and ~ypea o~ the xec~iver's operation at x d~.stance o~ u~ tq 50 m. The key characterietics o~ marine rad~,o xeceivers axe ~.nd~,cated in table 5.2. Tab1e 5.2. 11) 12) Tun pdA~~~nPNCM1IHKA TQXHH4l~ItH! ` ~ XApBNTEp11CTNKN ~ ~3/ I ~~~5 ~ ~WropW Ir .l rupM�tis �Wropw�111� ~CI16Np6~ t AHaneami ~iacrot~ 12-90,000 14-30.OU0 14-3(1.A10 1600-29J99 $ '('0410CT6 ~DO ~~U YC~f0110ShH 40CTOTM ~ c scN, ru 3 CyT04HaN ~1) CTAdN116110CTb 4~CTOtN C GC4~ 1'u 1 4yscreuten~uocrb ~-B ~-B ~-8 e pe*?fMe AI (cHOUen/noMexe d+ m 20 AG)~ uK D , 6 Na6aparen~uocre~ 80 ~ ~ Bn . 6 Wupinia nonocw ' , ~ab.+tusi a At~aneaouo I~s-30 A1?'u~ u npa no~iexe 3 B 6 b 6 6 np?~ noNC~e 30 B 10 10 10 10 ~ }lenpa~ein~e 14T/220 IR7%120 177/220 420 ni~rannN (or cerN ~nepeMeN~Bro roKa). � 6 (]orpc6neeMasi ~50 2~ ~ ?ioiueecr~ (N~n6ont~waA). Dr 9 ~nbuputia, wM BIOX580X~~ 8~0:~~~~~ 810;(b80ha50 bI0X41GX600 10 ~1;iccu, ur 80 JS 145 1(~1 Key: 1. Frequency band, kHz 9. Overall dimensions, mm 2. Accuracy of setCing 10. Weight, kg frequency in BSCh, Hz 11. Technical characteristics 3. 2!+-h stability of fre- 12. Type of radio receiver quency with BSCh, Hz 13. "Shtorm-I" 4. Sensitivity in A1 mode 14. "Shtorm-II" (signal-to-noise = 15. "Shtorm-zII" 20 dB} , uV 16. "Si,bir 5. Selectivi.ty, dB , 6. ~'enetration band~,dth in 1.5 to 30 MHz band, noise of 3 V, with . noise o~ 30 V 7. Supply voltage (fxom a.c. , line) , V Powex requirement (max~num), W 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F'OR OFFtC?AL US~ ONLY '.Che "Chayk~-S" a~,n~].e~b~nd ~adi,o t~~.ephone ae~ i~ us~d as tihe m~~,n rudio telephone set on s.ea Ye~~e7.~a o1; the aecnnd a,nd tihJ,~cd ~roupa, w~~.l �t~ as ~n ~ add3.t7,ona7. sex an vease~,s o~ th~, ~~,xse group, makes po~~~,b~,e ~can-~'ree and ~rec~uency~-rr~~-~ree Cele~hone cpt~qnuniCa~i,otls~ he~ween ~t ves~el, and ~tie shore and be~ween vessels. '.Chis r~di,o sat is des~,gned according ~o Che "quaxtz- wave" pr~.nciple, uti,~.l,zing s~:ngle-band modul~~ion. xt ~.s made semicon- ductors and coneisrs of ~hxee blocka s a~xanscei~ter, an aui:om~t.ic matcliing unit (SAU) and a PDU. The rece~.~ver and ~ranesqiCtex have 18 atiric~ly fixed frequencies. The frequency band ~,s 1.6 to 8~8 1~~Hz. The transm~.tter's ouput power is 60 W, atid Che receiver'a sensirivi~y ~.s not worse Chnn 5 uV. ~ The "Lastochka" s3ngle-band radio aet is insCalled as a atandby (emerg~ncy) set on vesaels where the main meana of communication ia a radio telephone, as well as as the main radio seC on certain MRKh veasels. Depending on operating conditions and purpose, it comes as a unit in two vari~nts: without a 500 block for Craff~c control communicationa, ~.nd wieh a 500 block for opera- Cion as an emergency communications faciliry. The output power of the trans- mitter in the HF band is 15 to 25 W, and in the 500 kHr band, 12 to 20 W. In addition to HF rad3o couimunications facilities, on vessels are instal].ed micro- wave radio sets of the "Akatsiya," "Grafit," "Seyner," "Reyd" and "Prichal" types, and at coastr~l radio cenCers and posts, the "Port-3," "K~ma-R" and , "Reyd" microwave radio sets, enabling com~aunication vessels. The "GrafiC" radio set is designed for telephone Craffic between vessels and the shore and between vessels. It has quartz frequency stabilization, enabltng scan-free entry into communication. A remote frequency setting syatem with a PDU makes it possible to tune t~ any of 601 frequenciea or to selecC one of 20 pretuned frequencies. The "Seyner-1" radio set is designed for low-tonnage vessels. Tt enables scan-free and trim-free communications with scanning (monitoring) in the re- ception mode through two communications channels, an operating channel and a safety channel with guaranteed priority. This r~dio set is made out of semi- conductors and employs integraCed circuits and microeircuiCs. It consisCs of a transceiver and line and battery power supplies. The power of the trans- mitter is 8 W. The "Kama-R" rndio set is a control set and ~.a made in three varignts: the "Kama-R" with a 300 to 300.5 MHz and 336 to 336.5 MHz band and 16 channels, the "Kama-R " with a 300 ?:0 300.2 ~iHz band and five channels, the "Kama-R " with a 336 ~0 336.2 MHz band and five channels. The power of the transmi~ter is 7 W. The sensiti.vity of the receiver is 1.5 uV. The power requirement is 200 V�A. - The "Prichal" radio set is a portable pi~.ot~,ng set. ~rec~uency band of 156.3 Co 158 MEiz on ~our channels. Powex o~ transmitter, 1 W. Overall dimensions, . 197 X 108 X 64 mm; wei,ght, 2.2 kg. It is employed in mooring a vesse~ and in lowering boats inCo the water. 101 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOIt nFFICIAL USE ONLY' The "FqrC-3" xad:tQ set mxde i,n Chrae co~nlun~,cations v~r~ant~ ,~or aimplex communicaC~,ons ("~ozC-3S~') , dupl~x ("~ort-3D") and rad~,o x~~.aying ("~'orC-3R") . Tn thi~ radio set ~royision has been made tor the ab~,7~~,tyr t;p conneat an suto- matic, uni,~ ~nd rhe codin$ Unit o,~ a ae],eCt~,~e ca11 i~,neCrument o~f the . _ "Selelteox-T~" type, etc., ae we1,1 ae ~ox connec~ing urban tind pvrt ATS users Por the purpose oP hooking up ves~els w~:th Chese netwprka. The "lteyd" radio set is designed ~or telephone communicatione with veasels and for simplex and duplex radio con~unicarions with the ~hore, including with users of a por.t or urban AT5, Control is possible from one or two conaolea installed at a disrance of up Co 100 m from the transmitter. The "Priboy-UM" microwave r~dl.o set is provided for communications between vessels and the crew o� an airplane or helicopter in an emergency or making a forced landing on vessels. The key Cechnical characteristics of microwave radio sets are given in table � 5.3. Table 5.3. 1, M Txn pattuocTeu4xx TexwwecKUC 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) ~ xapnKrepitcrxKN M a a m ~ $ C K G 9 t~ w ~ ~ ~~(aneaoe 100-160 IS6,~-Ib8 IG8-Ie9 9)156-158 121,5 4ocrar, Mtu ~nopt�3) GO-16Y 1 ~I~cno :0(601) 7 7g ~~0~4~~R1 I 106uanon ceriax Pe~uoc vec~or b0 b0 25 25 l~~ Kaiianu~~~+, I3bixoruax 1 12 0,3; I; 8 15-25 ~IU-50 0,13 MJ1y110CTL. B~ / ~IyBCTBHT!!16� $ I,5 0,8-1 0,8 . ~ 1 t1UCib 'it~ tMllllll~~ M1~4 ~~~f1~HMlCllll! , 11111':IIIHf~~ nocrosiuuoro 1,~e~ 100, 21 127/_20 147/2Z0 , 9,4 � TOKe ~ la) nepeweuuoro 48~110, IZ7/220 Toka 147/Z20 ].~I~rpednsie?iaH 630 80 BA ~00 300 1 ?IOII~IIOCTL~ vT (I~~ , Ce6apur~a. NM7 - croflKN npiicwo� 152x 483~260XT0 670X30-410 ~SOX190X~80 6aX30~(13U (~'pcllni~~xKa X305X 280X215X~ 1"~ nytit,re X400 ynpannc~it~a ~ [Key on ~o].lowing page] , 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFF'ICTI~L US~ OIVLY - Key~; xech~3,ca1 chaxac~eri,at~.c~ ~,x. ~'xec~uency d~t~~er~~ce between channels, _ 2, Type o~ radio s:e~ k~Iz 3. ~'~xa~i~" ~,2~ Ou~~ut ~ower, W 4. "Seyner" 1.3. Sens~,tiv~,~y~ a~ race~,ver, u'V 5. "Reyd" 14, Supply* vol~age, d.c,, a.c. 6. "Port-3" 15. ~ower requiremen~, W 7. "Priboy-UM" 16. O~rerall d~,meneions, mm: racks of 8. Frequency band, I`~HHz r$di,o receiver, of control console 9. ("~ort-3D") 10. Number of communications channels The American ITT "Marine" Pirm (Scandinavian division) is manufacturing marine radio transmitters, radio receivers and radio sets with rewote control consolea. The type ST-1610 main transmitter had a power of 1500 W in the HF band and 800 W in the MF band. For the purpose o� ensuring reliability, tihree electrically independent drivers are employed. The type TP-350V single-band radio telephone set enables duplex communicat3ony. Frequency stabili~y is + 10 Hz. It has a printing mode. Optimal antenna coupl3ng is established auComaCically. The single-band type 224A marine radio set is characterized by the fact thaC in it is provided a unit for storing 20 cards, in which the tuning o~ 20 communi- cations channels is preprogrammed and in addition provisi.on is made for the storage of 60 cards, whereby the interval between channels equals 100 Hz. The "Linkompeks" Improved-Reliability Marine Aqdio Telephone Communications ~ L ine Single-band radio communications systems have made it possyble to improve the stability of marine radio communications with the shore and between vessels. However, in single-band radio communications channels, when operating at great distances, a considerable increase in the power of radio t~ransmitters is required. In recenttimes in different countries (the USSR, England, Japan and the FRG), more effective models of HF radio tPlephone sets have been develoFed, which employ radio speech companders. These companders have NIICKR-regulaL-ed parameters in conformity with the "Linkompeks" system (a ~oint compressor and expander), and are designed for marine radio telephone communications lines [7, 47]. The purpose of all operations which are performed 3.n "Linkompeks" units is to compress the dynamic range of the telephone signal transmitted throeigh an HF radio channel, �or the puxpose o~ increas~ng the mean load o~ the transmitter and obtaining ~rom it considerabXy greater mean power higher efficiency. Increasing the mean power cons~.dexably improves the noise rejection of comm~uni- cations, since the effective notae in a radio channel ia most ndti,ceable in pauses between woxds or in calm conversation. A radio compander of the "Linkompeks" type is a highly improved piece of equipment havtng a number o� advantages for HP coAUnunications with vessels. Its employment is equivalent to a 10-~old increase in the power of the trans- miCter [7]. 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Testa Qf the "I,inko~~peks" sysxem on the I,ondon ~a New Ae~,hi, xoute have demonstrated ~ha,C the emp~,qYmenC o~ a radio compandex maks~ possible tio ~,ncxease ayera~e day~t~,me co~tenCia~, communi,cation~ ~e~sions ~rom 5~ 2 to 6.2 h, i.e., by~ 19 ~excen~. x'he ~uali,xy o,~. cpmmun~,ca~3,on~ ~a al~a cone~.dexably im- proved. 0,~ a~.l radf,o ~elephone conversa~ions over ~aur weeks, 70 percent were deemed excellen~ ~nd gvod, wh~7,e withou~ a rad3,o co~np~r?der this ,type of quality was obse~rved only in 58 pexcenC o# conversations. This domestic radio compa~nder has a 300 to'3~00 Hz band and ~,n the ~upersonic ~requency - band (300 to 3400 Hz) can acconunodate a telegraph channel with a transmiasion rate of up ~0 200 bauds. Marine satellite communications system equipment (SSS equipment) steady communicat~.ons between the shore and moving ob~ects located in any area of the global ocean. Via this system communications between vessels is also carried out, and the terminal equipm~nr enables telegraph, telephone and printing communicaCi.ons. The English Skynet satellite system is designed for equipping vessels of Great Britain's navy--from frigates to aircraft carriers. The "Scot-I" and "Scot-IY" type SSS terminal equipment is installed also on large vessels. Thie satellite system is er~ployed also in other NATO countries. The "Scot~-I" ship variant of the SSS aet has two directional parabolic antennas 1.04 m ir. diameter, enclo~ed in a protective screen. These antennas are in- stalled on the sides of the ship on stabilized platforms with a gyro system, enabling stabilization with an angle of inclination of five degrees and 20� rolling. A scanning unit keeps the antenna in the direction of the satelliCe. The antenna is designed for the 1200 MHz band and covers the frequency band from 7.250 to 8.425 GHz. The transmitter, receiver and unit for scanning and ~ tracking the satellite, as well aa the set's electronic servo equipment, are placed in an unattended cabin. This cabin, attached to a frame, is installed on the upper deck of a ship or vessel. The cabin's equipment is connected to the antenna by waveguide feeders with a maximum length of 15 m. A remote control rack is installed in the radio room for the purpose of con- trolling channel-forming equipment and the antenna. It makes it possible to switch on the transmitter and receiver, to monitor the operation of the radio line "by itself," to select the antenna for communications, and to switch ~ terminal equipment. The power of Che radio transmitter is 1 kW. The set is powered from a 400 V three-phase current or 115 V single-phase current line with a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The txansmitter ~,s air-coo].ed and the hermet3.cally sealed con- tainer is cooled with sea water. The dimensions o~ the container are 2.44 X X 1.83 X 2.74 m. The American "Marisat" satell:tte communications system is designed for enabling - two-way commun~,cations between vessels and between vessels and the shore. This system has telephone and telegraph channels, with the ability to connect via 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOtt O~FXCIAL US~ ON1.Y ~oasea~. pqints eo ~he inGernational tielephone and tiele~r~ph sysrem. ~hQ "I~axi,ea~~' eyaeem muQe enab~,e yeess],a Co comwun~,c~~e d~.~~ct~,y ~he cn~at ~nd thug n~~~~ the ~requi,xenten~e o~ r.h~ ~;nk~rn&x~.on~1 ~'Tnmoreat" ayet~m. - ~he "Mar~.saC" marine e~uipnten~ hae a d~,r~ctiona~. an~enna which is s~ab~.llzed from rq~.].ing by~ ~h 25� and ~h 7~5� Wi.~h respect Co ang].e of ~,nclinati~.on. ~'or tihie purpoee, long-1~.Ee s~a~~.c aenaore are employ~d. Se~bilizatiion in eerma of az3mueh 3,a accompli~h~d by m@ans nP ehe sh~.p's gy~o compass. A~eer the in~.eial search ~or ~he sat~llite, the pos~.Cion of thp - ant~nna is automarica~~.y con~rolled by an ~lectronic tracking circuiti. Z'h~ gnrQnna is protected with a fiberglass fai.ring. Tt is ~.nstalled high on thQ vea~el Qor the purpose of crea~ing the condition of a clear "fic~ld of visibility" - for eh~ ~atielli~e. 7~'tie contrel coneole gor et~e equipm+xnt and antenna-feeder system make~ up the great2r percentege of the sysrem's electrnnic equipment and is ploced in the ship's r.~dio room. Through ehe "Marisar" system only printed informaCion addreas~d to Che vegsel arri~?es. The recepCion of informarion is CotalLy automxted and i~ c~?rried out without an operator. Ynformation can be addreseed to individual vesaels _ or to a group of vessels in g specific area of the ocean. iJpun interrogation from a vesgel a communications channel ia automatically cregted for 5 g. Then the number of the addreasee is dialed from the ahip and cormnunicaeion is carried out with any addressee in ehe communications aystem. The quality of telephone communications and the fidelity of the tranamisaion of digi.tal i~.- formation nre not worse than in ground communications systems. According Co Americgn data it is eatimated rhat, with the expensive aeu voyages of today and in long-range commercial fishing, communications vi~ satellite communica- ~ tions systems will make it possible to save annually one or rwo sailing days for vessels. This will b'ring a greater gain than the cost of a marine satellite communications compYex. In the U.S. Navy the "Fleeesatcom" [39] sate111Ce communications system is being created, designed for the transmission of inforn?ation at aea, ae well as for the exchange of inessages betwee�? ships, aircraft and submarines within the range of shortwave radio commuaicaCions. IC is thought that thia system wiii make it possible to improve severalfold the reliability of radio communi- cati.ons with ahips. HydroacousCic communications ~acilities have at the present time become of great importance for communications between sur~ace veasels and submerged submarines and between vessels and deepwater equipment and di.vers (cf. chaps 3 and 6). The effecti,vene~s of the operat~vn oX tqar~ne rad3.o communications facilities and complexes depen3s to a great extent on the propex choi.ce o~ the structure and types of marine antennas and on their diatributi,on and utilization. Por radio communications in the T~ band, on veaaels are used L- and T-shaped antennas and mast antennas~ and i,n the HF band, antennas deaigned in the form 105 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~dR O~FZCSAL U5~ ONLY oE s] rays a~ ona or more cpnducCoxs, and ~our~, s~.x~ and 10-tqeeer whip ~n~gnnas (~our- ~nd aiX-~n1e~~r wh~,p an~ennas are us~d an~,y se rece~,ving antenn$s) ~~n ~h~ ~1~.cxow~va band ~hre~ ma~,n ty~~~ o~ aneenn~,a axe ueed; direcriona~, and non-d~.zect~,on~~. e~m~,conductor d~,po7,ee and di,ecane gntenne~ ~ Several eypes q~ an~ennaa are ahown in ~3,g 5~6 [10]~ Marine antpnnas musti withsCand Che pxesauxe of a wT,nd,at a speed of 60 m/e~ imp~ct, ~arring - and b) c) d) , ~ f) ~ h) 8) Figure 5.6. Several Types o# Marine Conanunicationa Antennas: a--L-shaped beaun antenna; b--T-shaped beam; c--"slant beam" type; d- cyl~ndxtcal slant; e--,whip; f--T-shaped multi-wire; g--T- shaped multi-wire with multi-wire fan-tqpe dawn lead; h- mast antenna 106 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , ~o~ o~~zci~ us~ ornY ~px th~ puxpo~.e o~ ~roduC~,ng a g~i,~ i.n pow~r ~nd tihe r~nge o~ Etk' radi.o on v~sgel~ ~nd eh~;p~~ ~h~ em~~.oy~m~t~e o;F d~r~ce~.ona1 antennas and signa~,~ge~,ecCive ankenn~~ ~.s pxon4ising~ N~w ~y~e ~5~17 (mg~t ~nt~nns) , Sh~A~MV ~broadband) , ~S^8t~ ~tx~namt~~~;t~g) gnd AS~6~ ( an~ennas are b~ing ~.nsea~.led on vesseie~ An impox~~ne xo7.e i.e ~leyed aled - by Che maeching o~ an~~nnas w~i~h Ch~ ~eeder~ - For the purposa o,~ the numb~r o~ race~v~,ng antennas on vesa~ls and ships, ~qu~.pment i~ inseal.l~d ~or accomplish:tng r~ce~tiion w~,th sev~ra~ r~ce~.vers from a s3ngle antenna. In ~he V~S. N~vy, in ~he creatiion o~' conCrol ~hipe of Che "Northamption" Cype and of cotnmunicationa and radio relay ahips of the "Ann~polis" rype, which have as many as 100 communications antennas, epecial attention was paid to the opt~mal discribut~.on of antennae. Pirse, witih modela of ships nn a gc~le of 1/48 and 1/96, sCudies wera made o� anCenna paramee~re (directiviey diagremg), input impedanc~s, e.m.f. induced from s antenn~s into r~ceiving antennas, etc. 7'hen, by rearx~nging anepnnas nnd sampling different typea, condieions were creaCed whereby the e~.m.f. induced in receiving antennas was reduced by 30 to 40 dB, ag compgred wiCh eh~ variant in which these anCennas are placed near the Crgnsmiteing antennas. 5.3. Equipment Principlea; Distribueion and Conerol of CommunicaCiong Facilities for Vessels and Ships In determining thp structure of conununicationa equipment and it~ distr~bution on vessels and shipa, it is necessary Co take into account the following fundamentially importanC condit~.ons~ 1) The structure of communications facilitics in terms of quantity and quality of communications channels, as well as of types of communicaCions, muat ensure the besC fulfillment of ehe ob3ectives facing a veasel or ahip. 2) Communications facilities are gtiouped by communicationa posts, rooms and centers. Radio receivers and terminal equipment are placed in the ship's radio room, which is located near the wheelhouse, and aC the communications comm~nd post, which is located alongside the ship's command sCat~on. This makes posaible rapid delivery of information received Co the veasel's captain a.*~d ' the commanding officer of a ship and an opportunity for them tio make c~lls. A great number o~ radio receivers can be placed at individual posts (radio reception centers). Similarly, radio transmitters can be located in radio rooms or at individual posts (radio transmitting centera). 3) The Crgnsmitters and radio transcnitCing centers o~ vessels and shipa are located at a distance ~ron~ receivers and radio recepC~on centers. Antennas are located in the area of [he location of radio transmitters, receivera and individual radio centers. Here one atrives ~or a minimum length for feedera (15 m and shorter). The architecture o~ veasels and ships muat take into account requirements for the separation o~ transmitting and receiving antennas, 107 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'dR O~FICIAL U5~ ONLY as we],J, aa ~or Ghe o~ mi,croW~va conr~un~,c~~~,qn~ antennas at grear he~,ghes. coyexage tqust be made pp~s~,b~,e ~ox m~�crot~4'Ve antetlaAg. 4) The ~c~ui~menr in eh~ rgdio xooms o~ veeae7,e and the conpaunic~~ione poete o� shipa mus~ be so arranged xhat maximum a�~~ciancy ie tn~de poe~ible in Che o~ conpnunic~C~,on~ ~a~i~.~.~ies and ~he best ~roxk~ng condiCions ~ are creaCed fox personne~.. 5) Radio rece~.vers muse be ensured protiec~ion from ehe in#luence of a~.1 kinde of interference. 6) ~'he connnunicaeions complex and facilitiea oP a veeeel or ahip mus~ be automated to a aufficient degree, and the remoee c4ntrol of radio rransmitters must be possible at distancea o� up to 150 m(51]. The control consolea for con~nunications complexes muat be placed in Chs operator's aection of the radio room of a vessel and at Che communicaeions conm?and poee of a ship. Marine radio communicationa facilitiea, including auxiliary equipment for aets, also, including conCrol console equipment (power and charging panels, commutation equipment, and ehe like), are placed in radio rooma and in the wheelhouse. In the radio rooms oF vessels of the first group~ in keeping with the rules ~ for conventional equipm~nt [58], are installed the "Dyuna" control console for the veasel's radio communications facilities complex, "Museon" and "Brig" radio tranamitters, "Shtorm-III" and "ShCorm-I" radio receivers, the recAiving antenna commutator, the KK2X2-1 transmitring antenna commutator, the remote control console for the transmitting antenna commutator, the telephone-tele- graph commutator, a"Tembr-2s" tape recorder, a Morse code sender, an E1Qri-ZA electronic switch, a typewriter, a telephone set, a telegraph key, a marine � clock, Cwo STA-M67 (T-63, RTA-7B) printers, and an FAK-P facsimile telegraph unit. The STA-M67 and FAK-P equipment is as a rule installed in individual compartments in radio rooms, which hold equipment for improving the fi~elity of printer channels, as well as the remote control console for the "Brig" _ radio transmitCer, and the "Sibir or "5hCorm-III" radio receiver with their power supplies. ` In the wheelhouse are inatalled a"Prizyv" radio set, an automatic alert, ' distreas and coordinate signal transmitter, a storage battery and the "Prichal" radio set. The automaeic alert signal transmitter with equipment ~or transmitting the vessel's coordinatea is placed in the navigatox's area of the wheelhouse~ and the possibi].ity of xemote triggexing of the standby (emergency) trans- mitter must be ensured. The radi,o room ~,s divided into ~quipment and operator areas. Zn the equipment area are installed transmttters, the transmi.tting antenna commutator, and the "Sirena" standby (emergency) communications complex, which includes a radio transmitter with a rectifier and an auto:,atic alert, distress and 108 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAT. U5~ ONLY coord~,nfitie ~~.~nal Cr~nsm~,tCax and ~ s~or~g~ b~~texy~ xn t;h~ o~~xaeor~~ ~rea gr~ ].ocated the r~din equipp~~nC gnd a"~eyd~~ m~.cxowave rad~.o see ~or era~~ic conezoX aq~tqun~,cae~,un~, ar? A,~~3 autiomaG~,c ~adio ~elegraph eign~l xeceivQx, and an '~A,vr~l-x" 8t1t01qa~t~,C xAd~,O ~B~,A~1'1OC18 a].erx ~~.gna1 r~ce~.var, ae we~,~. as an ~DR ~~,actxon~,c ~ran~m~l,t~ar, enaB~.~,n$ tih~ rad~.o re~.eying o.~ s~.gna~.~ ~,n the ship ro shor~ d~,x~~t~un and V~icewversa. Controla ~nd monitoring d~vic~g ~or th@ aqu~,pm~en~ o~ ma~,n, eCandby (em~rgency) and operat~ng commun~.cae3ona ~~~~.1~.ties mus~ be located near the work place of th~ ma~.n watich. xf there ara two work plgceg (the ~econd for ~he communicat3ons l~ne), then communicat3.ons facillti~e are controll.ed separatiely. ~n rhis case, at the main work place provisiQn ie mdde for the possibility nf switch operation of ehe op~rating transmiteers. The autiomatic radio eelegraph nl~rt aignal rece~.ver is inetglled eo that ieg op~ratiott c~n be monitored hour by hour. Th~ aueomatic rgdio Celegraph alerC and disCress signgl CransmittQr is plgced negr ehe atandby (emergency) trangmiteer. A sample diagram (variane) of ehe locatinn o~ radio connnunicaeinns facilitii~e in the rad~.o rooms o� vessels oP Che first group is given in fig 5.8. nr YA ccc ccc nP0 nAW?ra" ~ vv . 2~ ~ C OnepamopN~ a ~ 3) v, n 3A nn en~ ~ 8) o ~ PybKa v a 6~ 6yKEoneuamcNaA = AnnapamMap 5 p~ ~TA ? 0 Pny Pnr ~ .~'�P" CY K~ Q ut" 6pue" Figure 5.8. Location o~ Radio Equipment on IrQiF and I~4iKh Vessels (Variant): "Dyuna" PRO--radio operator's conaole; PU SSS-- satellite communications syatem control console; [Caption continuation and key on following page] 109 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OI~ OFFICIAL US~ ONLY U~,--SSS a~n~enna con~ro]. unit; I~ P--e~~at~dby xecei,Veri qtt--emerg~ncy , comp]~ex; ~P-~~xan$Ce~,Vex; SU~~n~xah~,ng un~,~; It,~~,an~enna con~au~aeor; g~A-~-px~,nksx; ~A~~el,ectxonic txan~~m~,~ksx; ~xAM~~ACa~,tq~,7,e ~e~,egraph uniC ~ Key: ~ 1. "Dyuna" PRO 6~ ~~uipmen~ axea 2. 9S8 rece~.vex 7~ "Bx~,g" RPU 3. Operator's axea 8, ~r~n~ex xoosn 4. "Sirena" AK 9~ "Shtorm" R~' [radio receiver] 5. "Musson" RPU [radio txane- mittier] Z'he main command microphone pose with the amplifiera for the command radio relay equ~pment, ag well as the radio broadcaeting rec~ivers belonging to it, grammophone record players and sound recording equipment, are placed in a apecial area--the command relaying center. On larga ahips, radio communicationa equipmenr is placed chiefly gt receiving ~nd tr$ngmittiing aen~ers. For exampl~, the locatiott of communicg~ions facili- ties in the radio Yeceiving and transmitting centers of the U.S. deatroyer "F. 3herman" is shown in fig 5.9. ; b) 11 ~ 12 nr R~?a i a~ YKe /~put~nnrK { ~ Pq ~r P!1 011~~ 00 ~ t, 1 1~ Q~(213�1tbMlq)~Cd -!1K �QQ1r ~,t?K �l7nrq i.t'.r rRe ~q,r~a ~ ; . ; ~ c YXD (R7?�fA~Mlq) i ~1prr� e pc~uontptAi r~ ~ , ?S�1ACM'q YRa nlP~d? AYewY Z1~ ~ raoe? 3) r~s-~sar?ru �.~r~""r~^ 4~ e ~~eM,,a ~ ~ ~;~~v.~pr.aon~~ ocd~ays~y ~=Y7 ~nuA~nr puduc~ 22 ? ~ ~ ~ 23) Ra,,�,,nranao onr J \ wrQ Cq,~RE c~. 7_?6nfy ~~~u~~ 6) r- 24~ dn?ned;,ml:R U ~OP OAJ y1 . ~ ~ \ , 1 . Jave? 9 y Anr!epJ~n 3l1V Z5~ . k ~ . 0 ~ ~i~~m Anna� tt lO~ 5 D V ~ d~~? ~ ~rwinixm,J~ fl 8 ~~e erReo~a: 26) ,~oe ~ ~�'n'y"'QRb��� a~ ,1 l~~~ ~ 5 ~ a 28) u1.,cp?z~tr~ Pigure 5.9. Locat~an o~ R$dio Equipment on the U.S. Navy Destroyer "P. Sheraan:" a--at radio trananaitting center; b--at radio receivfng center; RP--radio receiver; TLG--telegraph key; [Caption continuation and key on ~ollawing page~ 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ro~ o~~zcr~, us~ ort~Y B~Ch--,p~~,ntex; ],--xad:~o broadcaet xece~.vex; 2~~~xec~uency modu],ue cqnverC~x~~Qm~ax~COx; 3M-eon~ n~odu~.a~ax-canvax~ex; 4~rpr~,n~ex re~ punchex; S~~px~n~e~c d~Atx~bu~~ng Aa~xd; 6~~px~,nxex d~:s~x~,hut~,ng ~nd tr~ngm~tiCing~uni~; 7~~un~.~ ~ox mon~.tor~ng xad~o ~xnqu~nnies; 8-,~elegraph key; 9-~~x~' (~tccasaoriea k~,~] ~ux un~,~ ~or moni~oring radio ,~requenci,ee; ].0-~rad~,otelephone un3,~; 1~~-7.ow~-,~requency amp11- ~ier; ~.2--coder;,er Key: . 1. Microwave transceiver~ 225 16. ItP, 2 to 32 MHz eo 40o r~z, ioo w ~4 ~0 600 lcxz 2. Mi.crowawe receiver (225 ~.8. RP, 2 Co 32 MHz to 400 MHz) over microwave 19. To radio receiving room receiver (105 to ~90 MHz) 20. Main radio room of PRTs [radio 3. Microwave tranamititer, 115 eransmitting center] to 156 MHz 21. Receiving antenna commutatior 4. ~o main radio room 22. PRO commutaCor 5. Two MF/HF transmitters, 23. RPU commutator 0.2 eo 26 MHz, 100 or 300 W 24. Fil~ area 6~ PDRTs [radio Cranem4.saion 25. BPCh center] 26. Sa~e for documenrs 7. Four microwave eransmiCters, 27. Bookshelf az5 co aoo r~x, 1s w 8. ~our microwave receivers 9. Five microwave antenna commuCators 10. Power board 11. Freq-meter 12. TLG key 13. Two RP's, 2 to 32 I~iz 14. RP, 14 to 600 kHz 15. RP, 2 to 32 I~4tz In solving problems relating to equipping veasele and ships wiCh communicationa facilities and diatributing them, it is necessary to take into account the principles of designing a sysCem for proCecting radio reception from inter- ference, must ensure the auppression of interference from marine electri- cal equipment and radar sets, as well aa the combined operation of radio communi- - caCions faciliCi~s. The syatem for protecting radio reception from interference ~rom electrical equipment and RLS's [radar sets~ is based on the combined utilization of shielding and filtering. On the basi~ of the structure oJ~ the radfo and electxical equ~pment ~nstalled on the vessel or ship, it is necessary to determine areas which require ahieldin~. In shielded areaa tnuat be placed equipment sub~ect to the influence of interference and electrical equipment which radiatea powerful fielda. The radio rooma of vesaels and the radio communicationa pos[s of ahipa are shielded, as well as areae where radio relay equipment ie installed. 111 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F'OR OFFICTAL US~ ONLY Th~ o~ nntienna C~,rcu~.tie 3s, one o~ the ~1ogti ~.~tpore~nt ~lemenCs ~.n ehe proCect~,on o~ radio reaepCion. The aCnripngry ~.ayin$ o~ ~nCenn~ aircuiCs #nr ~arine H~' r~din xrgnswieeErs is done with ItKS bxand cab],e~ and o~ comiqutation elementie, f~,ex~,bJ,~ kiKG br~nd cable. ~o~ cnndute~ ~or^~ze~uency vibrntions in ~he M~ band, high~~requency channels are ueed, in wh~:ch ehe sheath ~s the ahield. The eeparate ~.aying of antenna cizcuite is ca].led for on USSR Academy of Sciences x~se~rch veseels having highly aene3Cive radioelectronic communicaCiona equipmenC ~nd measuring complexes~ In keeping with ehe rules ~or cnnveneional equipm~ne on vessels, it is required that the radio opexator on du~y, arl.thoue get~3ng up ~rom his work placg, per- ' ~orm the operationa: Curn on and o~~ the channel ~orming equipment for radio communications; make uee o~ controls Por receivers and the atandby (emergency) transmitter, and attend ~o aural reception and the recording o� the content of inessages; transmit by key and telephone; observe readings of measuring instruments and Che poai~ion of channel forming equipment controle; follow the readings of the clock and signals from the light signal syatiem of the guxiliary radio direction finder designed for direceion �inding o� Che broad- casta of vessels in distress; and make use of the intercommunication aystem. IC is deairable that the operatior be able to control the tuning nf all trans- miCtera from hie work place. These r~quirements are being satisfied at the present time by the "Dyuna" remote control conaole, developed for medium and large tonnage vessels of the maritime and commercial fleeta. The "Dyuna" makes it poasible to concentraCe at the work place of the communications operator all conCrol of radio telegraph and radio telephone communications facilities. Installed in it are the following: a remote control console for the "Musson," "Brig" and "Korvet" radio trans- mitters, a"Shtorm-III" radio receiver, a remote control console (PDU) for Che "Shtil radio receiver, the receiving antenna commutator, the PDU for the transmitting antenna commutator, the telephone and telegraph commutator, a "Tembr-2s" tape recorder, a PDU for the "Reyd" radio set, a Morae code sender, an Et~f elecCronic awitch, a typewriter, a telephone set, a telegraph key, a marine clock and a"Shtorm-I" radio receiver for aural monitoring. The "Dyuna" console makes possible the remote control of theae radio transmitters and receivera, the commutation of antennas by means of the PDU, and the inter- formation of circuits between the equipment connected to and built into the console. The American ITT firm (Scandinavian division) is making for ships and vessels of the fixst group a complex of communications facilities united by a control console which accouaaodates the follofring: a control console for the radio transmitter, an antenna commutator, a standby transmitter, the main receiver, the standby receiver, a radio tx2tns~4~.tter ~requency synthesfzer, a microwave radio set, an autonsatic alert a~,gna1 receiver, a loudspe~ker com~nunications � console, a channel dfatributing and monitoring console, and an automatic switch. The automation o~ the control. o~ a ship's communications ~acilities calls also for the automat3on o~ the delivery o~ in.for~ation to the connnanding officer and navigator and to other control posts on the vesael. and espeCially for 112 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR d~'F'ICIAL U5~ ONT.,Y ~he d~.~tiribuC~.on and de~,i~ery~ o~ ~,n~ornlaC~.on on ~,arge p~asengex and ~ieh ve~.sels, expeditionaxy flagahips a~td headc~uaxtexs ysase7.e, Che vesae~,s o~ ~RICh f~,ot~,~,~,as az~d on ah~,p~, A,utpnla~~,qn c~~.~.g ~or Che connec~~.on o~'user st~~~,ons on ~ yease], or ehip tq the channe~,s o� au~omatied ASU (automated con~rol sysL�em] communicae~.ons comp~,exee~ Computiere are used Eor tihe pur~os~ of commun~eaCiona procegaes in gh~.p commun~.c~~ions comp~.exes in ehe U, S~ and 5.4. ElecCromagnetic CompaCibility of Radio Communica~ions ~acili~ies gnd Other Radioeleceronic Facilities; Proeection of Personnel In radin equipmen~ on a vess~l or ah~.p ie is necessary to take inro gccount Che e~Eect on radio receiving ~quipment and pereonnel o.E electro- magnetic fields creaCed by di~ferent equipmen~ of the vessel or ship, and proCeceion from ehis effecti. The elec~romagnetic fields created by radio transmitCera, radar aeta and other electrical and electronic equipment are of di~ferent struceure and strength. The noise originating ~.n any piece of equipmenC can be propagated not only by means of the direct radiation of electromagnetic fields, but also through power cables and cables between instruments as the result of induction from some electrical circuits to others. The magniCude of the noiae field depends on the length of the wave radiated, a, and the distance, R, from the source. The effective values of the noise making up the field are diacussed in detail in [13]. Faths for the penetrat3bn of radio noise into a radio room and a radio receiver are illustrated graphically in fig 5.11 [13]. ~t t o s"~ 95 J ~1~ 4 ~ B 7 6 5 5 Figuxe 5.11. Diagram o~ Paths o.f In~luence o~ Radio Noise on a Marine Radio ReceiVer: 1--receiving antenna; 2--receiving antenna ~eedex; 3--antenna switch; 4--radio xeceiver; 5--diatributing panels and boxes; 6--printer (or other noise creating equip- _ ment inside the radio room); 7--~RLS [radar set]; 8--naviga- tor's equipment; 9--lamps; 10--RLS cables and waveguide leading to antenna; 11--RLS antenna with turning motor and other equipment 113 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ro~ o~rzczaL us~ otnY " According ~o ~tKKii recontnlenda~ions., the s~gnal~~o~noise xa~Y,o at the rec~~.ver's inpu~, k w u~u , au:~~ic~,ent ~'or dietor~9.,~nM~ree recep~ipn mu~C not exceed the nqr~qs in~i.cated ~,n Appe~tdix 1~ ~ractice has d~monstra~~d ~ha~ i~ no measures axe tQken tA suppress Che radia no~,se axi~3:ng ~rom maxine equipment, then ie can exceed the values indinated in ~he append3x by~ a~ac~or o~ 10 to 100 and more [13]. Conaequent~.y~~ �ox the ~nsurance of 1ong~range radio communi- cations an ef~ective syr~Cetq is Accord~,ng ~o tihe rulas of Che USSR Regisery, t~ is requi,red that ~he incremen~ in n~iae at the ~.nput of radio receivera resulting ~rom ~he e~fect o~ radio noiae creg~ed by marine equipment doea nnt e~.ceed 20 percenC, i.e., in order for the sensi~ivity of radio receiv~rs on vessels to be prac~ically comple~ely realized. In terms of origin, noiae is divided into natural and arti~icial. Natural noise incLudes atmoapheric noise, which is perceived in a receiver as continuot~s rustling noise. The mean value of the field strength of gCmospheric noiae in winter reaches 0.2 eo 1.2 uV/m at night, and is reduced 35~ Co 80-fold in the dayCime [13]. Artificial noiae from marine electrical machines not having a metal housing reaches 3000 to 5000 uV at a distance of 1 m. The noise from them is atrongest at low frequencies and is reduced with an increase in frequency. RLS's are radiatora of powerful electromagnetic vibrations, and at the same time strong noise is created from the stray radiation of radar set modulators and pulsed units. In the absence of special noise suppressing filters, noise levels from an RLS can reach 10,000 to 100,000 uV at frequencies below 5 MHz. The same - noise levels are observed at the output terminals of magnetic amplifiers. Power rectifiers (up to 200 A) at a frequency of 50 Hz create radio voltage of up to 105 uV. Fluorescent lamps with protective capacitors create ~ noise up to 200 uV at frequencies of'0.15 to 5 MHz, and Co 50 uV at frequencies of 5.0 to 150 MHz. In the operation of marine and ship radio transmitters, radio reception noise can originaCe in the rigging of upperdeck equipment, in transceiving antenna circuits and direcCly in the radio Cransmitting equip- ment. The system for shielding radio reception from noise, implemented on vessels, accomplishes the following [13]: the suppression of noise voltage in its sources; ensurance of definite noise immunity for radio receivers; fulfillment of the necessary requirements relating to Che distribution of radio receiving , equipment and noise sources on vessels; execution of the shielding of noise- carrying and noise-sensitive cables; provision for the additional filtering of individual cables and the performance of ineasures for increasing radio noise attenuation along the paths of its propagation through taarine cable routes; provi~ion ~or shielding measures in marine uppezdeck equipment. For the purpose of ensuring the electromagnetic compat~.bility o~ the operation of radio communications faciliti~s and other RES~s [radioe].ectronic faciliCies] on a vessel, of great importance is the intelligent distribution of receiving and transmitting antennas. When they are distributed over a lisaited apace, voltages can be induced in receiving antennas whose values in individual in- stances reach 100 V[13]. And the number of antennas on ships is great now 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ox nrFZCra~ us~ ornY ~nd has a eendency ~o ~xGw. ~ox exatnp~.e? an ~~ladexn ~1,n3nr~.c~n a~,rcxa~~ hav~,ng 56 txansm~.t~exs ~nd 84 rece~i~nxe [~.04~ ~ it t~e xeaahed 100 , an~ennas. The high v~alues o~ high-~~requency ~roltage arriv~,ng at thE ~npu~ o~ xad~,o receivers can result in ~;~s blank~.n~, th~: or~,g~,n o~ no~,se o~ ~he "hisa" rype in elemente oP inpue c~,rcu3,ts, and, ~i;nal~,y, ~.n Che radio xeceiver's going out of order~ When receiv~,ng r.r?d txanem~~L�ing an~ennas are placed in - mutually pexpendi,cular p7.anea, 3uduc~d volCages are reducad conaiderab~.y~ ~or g 1 kW rad3o transmi~~er, the d3stance between r~ceiving and transmi~ting . antennas must be no less than 20 m. gor high-power tranamitter~, Che diatance be~ween receiving and ~ransm~.t~ing antenna~ muaC be increased. When two or more microwave radio set~ are insealled on veasels or ships, , the conditions musC be created for their ~oint operaCion~ For the attenuation of reciprocal noiae in Che microwave band, the distance between ~he closeat ~ mtcrowave antennas must be not less than 5 to 6 m[13]. For the aCtenuatiion of the influence of RLS's, microwave antennas must not be placed in a zone of Cheir primary radiation. It is possible to reduce to permisaible levels the effecC of noise from RLS rotating motors and other mechanical connecCions in the structure of RLS antennas by placing microwave communicr~tions antennas at a distance of not less than 5 m�rom the RLS antenna. For protection from noise propagated through power supply circuits, special filters are installed in radio receivers, the internal asaembly is shielded, and a number o� other measures are carried out. Required in radio receivera are a reliably ahielded chassis and the shielding of individual assembly units from ~~he effect of externxl radio noise fielda. The shielding effecCive- ness of marine radio receivers must not be less than 60 dB, and the effective- ness of the filtering of power supply circuits, 80 dB. Used as the maximum permissible noise voltage in the power supply circuit of a receiver is the value at which the total voltage of the interference and noise at the receiver's output exceeds by a factor of 1.2 the level of the receiver's intrinaic noi~e. In designing marine radio receivers, appropriate measures must be provided for shielding input circuits from induced voltage from the radio tranamitters of the v~ssel itself. At the present time the input circuits of radio re- ceivers havP special devices (chiefly spark gap tubes) which shunt the receiver's input with voltages on the order of 80 V[13]. For marine radio receivers the �ollowing voltages ~or the oscillaCor in the receiver's antenna input channel must be ensured [13]: Band, 1~Hz U, uV 0.01 tp 1 10 1 to 10 20 10 to 30 ~ ~+0 Over 100 100 115 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OF~'YCTAL USE ONLY All radi,o tix~namiCe~,n~ equipmen~ ~ade by p7,~n~s~ ~,nCended ~ax installation qn vesse~.s ~nd sh:lp~, ~,n Che bench ~est pexiod mus.t ~ass a~ecia~, tieets Co de~ermine the leyel, Q,~ noise p~' ~he "h~,ss`~ ~ype wh~ch Gxeate~, which muat not be greatier than 20 pexcent p~ Che xecei~rer~s ~,nCxinaic npie~ 1eve7.. Th~ frequency b~nd a~~ec~ed by noise o~ the "h~,es" type mus~ no~ b~ greater ~hen + 10 ~0 15 pexcenC o,~ ~he radio txanam~,Cter's ,Pundaxqen~al, tuning ~Erequency with high-~requency vo~,rnge o~ 3 and 30 y~,n tihe xecei,ver's input. Testing of Che e~~ectivenesa o~ the shielding o~ a radio xeceiver ~rom noise creaCed by electrical equipment and 1tL5's ia per~ormed by monitoring and measuring noise l~vels at the output o~ marine radio receivers, while alternately~ switching on ~he RLS~s and electrical gear being checked. These tesCs are performed in the roadatead ae a distance of not lesa than Cwo miles from coas~al noise sources. Noise created by engi.nes and d.c. generatnrs is picked up as continuous crackling with a high repetition rate for individual pulses, and in the case o� high-r.p.m. motdrs.y in addit3.on to crackling a tone sound is also heard. Sound signalirig devicea (bells, loud-sounding bells, ~etc.) creaCe noise of a crackling natiure, but with a lower pulse repeCition r ate. Marine RLS's can create noise of two kinds: 1) from the antenna roCation ~ motor (nature of detecCion described above) and 2) from the.transmitter's modulator--as a conCinuous tone at the RLS's modulation frequency. Noise created by the ignition system of internal combustion engines ia in the form of alternating clicks whose repetition rate correaponds to the number of contact b reaker contact openings in the engine's igniCion syatem. After determination of the noise source, its paths of propagation are determined, and then the method of suppression. Noise can penetrate a radio receiver along three paths (cf. fig 5.11): through the power circuit, directly via the active section of the antenna, and as the result of stray induction in the antenna-feeder circuit. Most often the stray radiaCion of noise acts directly on the active sections of receiving antennas. The reason for the origin of noise can also be a break in the grounding or shielding of cables, and in some instances individual electrical equipment located in the immediate vicinity of radio communications receiving antennas. In this case, by switching the radio receiver to different antennas a determination is made o~ the antenna with the highest noise level, and the noise source is found in this manner. The effecCiveness o# shielding ~rom radio propagated through power cir- cuits is tested with regular uiar~,ne radi,o rece~,vers w~th the $ntenna cut off. More complex ia the problem oX eva].uating protection from radio noise entering the receiver's input through antennas, since in thi,s case meaaurements are made with the rad~,o receiyer connected to the antenna, i.e., under conditiona of the in~luence on it o~ an addeQ atmospheric no~se level. This method is ' described in detail in [13]. 116 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ox o~~zcr.~z us~ oNr~Y In cnx~a~,n aases., .~ar a more de~a~,~,ed sxudy o,P the e~'fecti~enesa af ah~,elding per,~ormed on r~ Yessel or ship, additi,ona~, te~~s can be made ~ox the ex~en~ q~ the atxenuaxion o~ xad~.o no~,se ~ropa~~xed ~1lrpugh marine cable rou~es, as we7.~. a~ the tr~~ns~ex coe;~~~cient9 ~ox no~,se ~rouq u~ar~,ne lines ~o radio communf~ca~i~ms receiv3;ng ~n~~nnaa, xhese ~esta are made on prototype tankera and vessels wixh non~~eCa1~,~.~ hul,ls, as we1~, as on vessels and whoae sh~.e~.ding sys Cem has ~h~.gher requirements . Noise attenuaCion is expressed in decibels and is determined by Che equ~~ion: . . . f_rn~.LQ1~U1IVQ1 ~5~1~ where U~ is the volCage created by the generator and U2 is tihe voltage measured on Che radio room board. For each vesael the required points for connecring the IKP [trangfer coefficient meter] generator are determined on rhe basis ot its specific level of ouCfitting with electrical equipment and radio equipment. Measurements of coef�icients of tranafer to receiving antennas are performed in a similar manner, with the noise meter connected alternately to all receiving antennas. A schematic diagram for measuring the at~enuation of radio noise and transfer coefficients, as well as of point~ for connecting a transfer coeff icient meter (IKP), is given in fig 5.12 [13]. 5 ~ ti ~ 1 r X ~N~R M ~N/~f 6 2 ; n~ ~f~, ' ~Ptl{ N/f Figure 5.12. Diagram ~pr Measuring Transfer CoPf~ic~,ent and Attenuation o~ Radio Noise: ~P--noise me~er; ~KP---transfer coefficient meter; GRShch-.~main distributing board; KSO--~signal lamp commutaCOr; ~.--marine RLS power circuit board; 2--out~ide lighting board; 3--navigator's room board; 4--radio room borrd; 5--receiving antenna commutator; 6--noise suppression filter 117 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~O~t OFFICIAL U5~ ONLY A determination n~ tihe fe~sibi~.ity~ of ~he ,~oint o~erati,on p~ mar3ne r~dio commun~.cationa. fac~.~,it~,es mus~ be mada while Che ~essel is moVing~ The ~oin~ operaC3on o~ m~r~,ne radio communicat~on~r ~aai~.i~iee is eva~,ua~ed by the aize of Che a~fected band o~ elie receivex wh~n internal xgdio trane- mitters are operati,ng. The eegment o~ a radio xece~,v~x~~ ~xequency b~nd affected by~ noise a~ ,~requenci,es be1,oK '1`~lz cgn~ reach three to ~ive percent o~ the radio tranami~ter~s carY~ier ~rec~uency~ Th~.s band regnhes a maximum at frequencies of 8 to 12 MHz, and then shrinks eomewhat at higher frequencies. With an increase in the vessel~s speed, as well as 3n c3reula~ion, the vibraCion of the hull increases and there is an increase in the 1eve1 of noise originaCing in marine upperdeck equipment. When the vessel is aC anchor, with maximum separation o~ antennas, the band affected by noiae should be practically nnn- existent, or should not exceed the values of the spurious frequency radiaCion band fo~r tihe marine tranamitter in quesCion. The proteceion o� personnel requires a broader approach, since in addition to radio waves a number of other factors influettce the body of g radio operator. Exerting a direct influence on the atate of health and the capacitiy f.or work of a human being are superhigh-�requency radiation, acoustic noise, unfavorable meCeorological conditions, insufficient lighting of work placea gnd disruptione of heat conditions. For a rough deCermination of the intensity of exposure in the remote zone of a radio transmitter or rad~r set is used Che equation for Che power flux density, P, at distance R with radiated power of Psr [32~: For non-directional sr.tennas: P~n � n----, 4:~Rt (5.2) For directional antennas: n= P~~~ ' 102F ~Os~~r~~ a:~Rt (5.3) where G is the antenna's gain; ~'(9 , 9) is the expression for the direct- ivity diagram in genera], foxz4, when a~' th~ center of the beam F(9~, Ag) a 1. In modern RLS's the power 3,n a pulse reaches a~ew megawatCs, and the mean power (P ) up to 1 MF1. Knowi.n8 P~ (in watts) and the antenna's g$in, C~ , it is possible to determine the val.u~ o~ the power ~lux denaity, P~(UW/cm at R (cm). With the e~~ect o~ electromaF,~net~.c energy in the microwave band on a living organism, part of the energy is absorbed by the tiasuea, and part is reflected. 118 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 POR O~F~CfAL U9~ ONLY r In eh~ UN~ b~nd th~ r~P~,~eeed poxeion aqu~~,s ~bou~ 50 p~r~@n~~ ~h~ d~peh o~ pen~er~e~.on o~ sup~rhigh ~xaqu@nci~a inc~e~eee W~,eh ~n i,ner~~g~ 3n w~v~- 1an~~h ~ The eyeB axe esp~c~,~l~,y vu~,ne~ab~,e ko th~ @~~ect af m~,crowav~s ~ Wi~h h~,gh micxQweve xad~,a~~,on fC ob],~,ga~oxy ~m emp~,oy proCece~,ve ey~gl~e~~A nnd The lavay of inechanical no~,e~ axea~ad by eommun~,eaeiona ~aeilit'i~~ and oeh~r ~quipm~n~ in Ch~ r~di~ ~aotn du~ri,ng ch8 meaeux~tn~n~ p�~ri~d mu~t noe ~xe~~d ~0 dn at a diatanc~ o~ 1 m~ Unf~vorab].e working for per~onn~1 ~r3~e ~a ~h~ r~auit of ~n incr~~sa in remparatur~ and radiatien from h~at~d surf~c~s, wh~n ehe temp~raeure reaches 35 to 40�C and In the rad~,o room it ~.a ne~essary t~ provide ventilation and he~t, eo mainC~~n the temperature witihin ehe r~ng~ of -M18 ea 23�C, and the ~relat~ve humidity within the range of 65 + 15 percene. Th~ rgdio room muse have sufficient n~tural ~nd arCifici~~ 11~h~3ng. Wirh emergency lighting ie is nereeeary Co prnvide an 111u.minaeinn intensiey of not less than 50 1x at the clock dial and face p8nels ~nd ~t the work place, 5.5. Prospects for the nevelopment of Facilities for Communications with Veasels and Ships The prospects for the development of marine and ehip communicationa facilitiee are governed by trends in the solution of key problems relating to cdmmunica- tiona at aea. First among ~hese must be named improvement in reliability in carrying out communicatione at gr~at diatances, end reduction itt the level of reciprocal noiae, especially on ships. Far solving this problem it is necessary to increase the power of the radio trangmitters of vessels and shipa and the sensitivity of Cheir radio receivera, and to improve antennae. As noted in American publications, the peak power of tranamitters on ahips exceeda ~ 1 MW, creates in the inputs of radio receivers inter~ering voltages of 160 to 250 dB, with respect to the signal arriving from the receiving antenna. The separation of antennas on a ship reduces the noiee level at th~ input of radio receivers by no greater than 10 to 40 dB. ~'or the purpose of combating reciprocal noise on a ship, in the USA Che following key guiding principlea are used: 1. The radiation o� each kind of ahip~s radio ~acility ahould occupy a minimal segment of ehe electromagnetic spectrum ~or~the minimun? posaible time. 2. 7'he output circufts of transntiitters and the preaelectorg of receivers ghauld load antennas only within the range o~ a narrow frequency aegment necessary ~or normal oper~tion o~ the equip~ent. This will make it possible to accomplish the simultaneous employment of antennas by several piecea of equipment and will reduce their number on the ahip. 119 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~oK n~~~ciar~ us~ om.Y ~ , ~eah broAdc~~e ~1?~r gr~~e di~~anc~s ehou~,d beg~.n wiCh ~ de~~,niCe contirol ~~.gna1 r~,~~r~nce ed ehe thresho~.d for triggarin$ ~he ARU [~utotae~ic ga3n c~nerolj is s~t ~,n ~he. re~e~ver and corqpene.~~~:on ~ox ~he Aoppler shifti . is in~reduc~d ~n ehe d~modu~,aCor~ ~ 4. ~~ch ~h~p ~hould h~v~ ~e iCs d~spdsg], current in~ormation on condition~ #o~ Ch~ propaga~ion o~ rpdio wav~e along Chg rgdio xoute o,~ inCerest, for Che se~~cti3on of optim~]. communicaCi.ons ~requencies. 5. '~h~ ereaeion of religbl~ plug connecti~ne. Besid~g~ in the USA nth~r solutions have been discussed, in particular, auto- matic nhnnging of ~h~ chann~~'s passband ae a function of the level of i.nrerferiag signals. In the crea~ion o� n~h~p communications system, thP Americane have dev~loped n syseem o~ circular and di~receirnal radiation w3th ~lectrical concrol of rh~ beam within Che renge �rom ulrralow �req~~.~..~ciea Co �r~quenc3es of a f~w thou~and M~lz. 7'his sys~em ahould automatically suaeain tuning of the receiv~r to g aignal with a 1eve1 04 a few microvoltp ~~d~~r con- ditions of noiae of a very high level ~rom transmitters of ite own and neighbor- ing ehipa. In th~ future it ig suggegt~d that a chnngeover be made to combined ayaCems ' on vesaels and ahips whi~h unite communications ay8tems and radio navigational and other electronic equipment. The design of such ayatems will call for the ` simulCaneoua utilizarion of a single antenna by several pieces of equipmenr.. Control of the elements of thia combined ship syatem must be accompliahed with a compurer, which automatically selecta the optimal operating conditione for each element of the complex under different tactical conditiona. � - Improvement of the reliability of communications facilities muat be achieved , - on the basis of introducing microelectronic circuitry. The weight and dimen- sions of equipment are thereby reduced dramatically. For example, according to American data, the dimensions of ahip equipment can be reduced five- ::o 100-fold, the weight two- to 50-fold, and the power requiremene two- to 20- fold. The mean cycle between failure will be counCed in yeara. 'The convenience of equipment repairs should be made possible by employing replace~ble modulea, by the parallel operation of identical modules, and by the employment of self-monitoring and self-repairing circuita. It is necessary , eo tgke into account the need to replace individual modules in the event of their obsolescence. This will make it possibl.e to maintain communications facilities for a long at a~airly hi,gh leve~. and to per~orm modernization operations on vessels and ahips without large outlays o~ money. � Another problem governing the trend i,n the development of marine ~acilities ~ is the improvement o� carry~,ng capacity. The chieP rhing along this line is to increase the pexcentage in the exchange o!; in~ortaati,on with vessels of HP printing, ~acsimile telegraph and telecoding communications channela and of single-band telephone communications channels. HP radio communications 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~o~ o~ic~n~ us~ orrLY wi,].~. obV~.ously ~~x ~].ohg C~.m~ ya~ be~x tih~ ptc~,~ax buxd~n n~ m~x~n~ ~nform~tiio~ tixgf,~i.c, bu~ i,n eh~ fu~ux8 ~h~ ~.ntrndune~,on o~ ~a~~~~~,ee e~ou~un~.e~rion~ fa~~.1~.- tiaa wi~,l mAke pos~~b~,~ to r~],~,eve i~ r~d~,o cotqn~un~,c~C~.on~ ~nd, eh~ ~ain poinC, incxeag~ the carry~ng c~p~c~,ey o~ mar~,n~ conuqunic~~ipne ay~C~m~, g~ we].~. ae eo x~duc~ conaidarala~.y the ~inte ~�ox the ~x~vel o~ ~esa~~~~. 3ae~1],~.~~ communica~iona, in add~,~3on~ w~.1], ~.ntprove eonsiderab].y eh~ reJ~~.ability, and, ~~pecia].1y, ~he fi,delity o~ aomman~,c~~~,on~ ovex gx~a~ d~,e~ances. One og tihe moar importi~ne t~endg in ehe development o! commun~.cge~.on~ fnci].i~i~s for vegsele dnd eh~ps the nUtomati,on o~ facili~ie8 ~nd ~he ey~tem as ~ whole~ will r~sult ~n a dram~e~.c redun~i.on in the ~im~ for the trave]. of inEorwat~.nn and in th~ n~c~~~~.ty ~o eolve m~ny problems, such ~s ~.mproving the fidpllCy of communic~tiong, ~~.nking communicat~.ona chnnnels compu~~rg, eec. Mention ghnuld be made of ehe trend ~.n all fleetis of large foreign sea powera in Che world of creaCing contirol ~hips (he~dquarters ships) weii ~quipped wi~h Communicaeions �aciliei~s. When v~ga~ls ~nd sg~.l in larg~ forma~~ons and in ehe ~oi.nt fu1f311ment of ob~ectives in a aingl~ area, iC h~~ been ehown to be neceesary to have on~ shi.p or vess~l eq~ipped with a considerablp amount of ideal fac:Llitiea for c~rrying out high-qualiey communicationa nver gre~t distances. Thie ship provideg communi.cttrions with ehe shore for ehe entire group or formation. Control ahips ~nd the flagahips of g commercial f1~eC ns a rule have better communicationg facilitiea than other vessels gnd ehipe. But it is not always posaible to aolve all Che problems which nri~e in ensuring ~ reliable, high-fidelity and rapid communications over great dierances, and, even more so, with large flowa of informetion. Therefore, in addition td control ships, abroad have appeared apecial ahips for enauring relit~ble aommuni- cations for a formation over great diatances--communicatione shipe. In the U.S. Navy Cheae ships are called radio cormnunicatione and radio relay ehipe (cf. fig 5.7). With communications ships iC ia possible to achieve the most favorable conditions for carrying out communicationa, by means of separating antennas on large antenna decks, by the most convenient distribuCion of radio receiving and transmitting centers, and by thorough combining of HF radio communications and tropospheric and satellite co~nunicaCions lines. Chapter 6. Equipping Submarines and beepwater Devices with Communications Facilieiea 6.1. Fundamentals of Requirements for Equipping SuLmarines and Deepwater Devices with Communications Facilities A modern submarine is out�itted with complicated xad~oelecCronic complexes whose coat i.s 40 to 60 percent o# th.e total cost o~ the submarine [17~. Up until recenC ti~es. the designi,ng o~ ships amounted pr~,marily to the development o~ a hull capable oP holding a speci~i.c laad weight, determined by the makeup of rigs, combat equipment and the peraonnel operating it. In the 10's, in the U.S. Navy a changeover has been made to a new syatems approach toward problems of ehip de~ign, the purpose of which ia to unite 121 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 . ' ~OR OFFZCIAL U~~ Ot~iLY ~.n ~ eingl~ who1,~ tiace~,ea],, eechnie~i and econom~.c~ px4b~em~, to ~~.nd a eoxrelaeion b~tw~an th~~, at~d, guided by appxopx~,a~~,Qn~~ to eneu~;~ ehe necessaxy J,eve~. o~ m~,],~,tary el~ect~veneee o~ a eh~,p a~ ear~,y ae ~n xhe des~gning pxocese ~95]~ ' ~n eddiCion to eubey~tems ~or wedpotte~ powex, nav~ga~i~n, ~~c.,�on each aub- , marine ther~ are ~ubey~tieme. �o~ conaaunication~, ~ox ga~hering ~n~ormat~on from ~ubeyseems and fo~ exchangin~ in~'o~qaC3,on. Canei:deraeion o~ each eubeyetem showe ~ha~ thay ~re all 13.nked to ~he commun~,cati~,one eubeye~em~ Te ~e the key link connecting the eubmarine~e con~manding o~~~,cax w3rh the higher command, enables the gathering o.~ informat~on ~rom oehex aubeyet~ms and plays e ma~nr role ~.n ensuring coordinatton of the opera~~on of all combat aquipment and , weapone on ~he eubmarine. In designing this eubsysC~m very great complexity is entailed in eatis�y3ng requ~,remenes for economy of weight, volume, area and electric power, elactro- magnet~c compatibility (~MS) and Che location of antennas. The eolution ~f the last two probleme ig e~pacial].y difficult because of tha fact rh~~ wh~n a eubmarine is at periacope depth for the aolueion o~ probiems r~~.:.~ing to communicationa, observation, etc., almoar a11 radioelectronic equipment muat operate simultaneously, without interferin~ with each other, gnd utilizing an extensive range of frequencies. For this it is necesaary to install a great number of antennas, and this is complicated because of the lack of apgce on a submarine~ the cloae position of antennas fnr different purposea: and the influence on antennas of inetal. superetructures and extensible equip- ment. No les8 complicated is the problem of the effectivenese of con~rol of the aubayatem as a whole and of ita elementa. Theee probleme are best eolved ' with a computer. In gpite of the diversity of the problems solved by submarines for different purpoaes, it is.possible to base the atructure and amount of communicatione facilitiea for them on the basis of common requirements. The aucceeaful ful- fillment of any ~ob3ecCive dependa to a considerable extent on the preaence of timely and complete information on the situation in Che military operationa theater and on circumstances immediately L+ L~~~ .;r~~ ~he submarine'a combat activity. The submarine obtains this information as a rule from coastal command atationa through VLF and ULF radio communications channels, in the submerged poaition, and through HF and microwave channele in the aurface position or at periscope depth. In addition, any submarine must have the abill,ty to tranamir infortmtion to the ahore or to interacting forces, which i,s possible at periacope depth or in the sur~ace posttion ~,n the Ii~ or taicrawave bands. When a suba~r~ne is i,n the submexged poaitton, communi,cations wiCh other submarines and sur~gce vessel.s is possible through a hydroacouetic cammunica- tions channel. - Intraship communications is neceasary on a aubmarine, and, f~: enabling the ,A transmission of emergency and distress signals, facilities making poaeible 122 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OFFTG~AL USE ONLY ~h~ er~namiaai..on o.~ m~s~~~d~ i,n th~ ~ubm~r~ed po~~,~~.on. R~~t~~d~~~~ of ~h~ purpasg d:~ d~~pw~~~r davic~~ and v~s~~le, tihay hav8 ~qu~,pm~nt emp~oyed ~or ~h~ purpoee o~ ~x~n~~q~.CCin~ ~~~.~~o~rmmn~ion Chrough a~ h}rdxoaaous~ic ~~tro4un~,c~~ions channel. 6.~'. Principlee for the Equ;lpn~ent and Locat~on ~nd Aaeign ~ea~ures o~ AnC~nn~~ o~ Submer~n~g For commun~.caeion~, on fore~,gn ~ubroar~.nes ~requ~ncy banda ~rom dozene of Nz to hundreds o# MH~ are employ~d~ ~tequired #or ea~h bend ~s ~.e~ own antienna ~quipmant and feed~r 13ne~, and thay have impox~an~ d~,fferenc~s~ ~h~ of ~ aubmar3.ue with di~ff~renti elee~ron~.e equipment regu~.ts 3n ~ drastic in- creas~ ~.n mutu~l interferenc~ and the alterat~.on of dia~rams, which woraens eh~ qual~ey o� their operation. The antannas of ehe communic~tione �acilit3ae of a submarine do nor form an independent subeyatem, and ~n solving the problem of the effecCiveness of Cheir operat~.on in the preeence of ether a1aC~ronic aubgyetems and their ane~nnas tol~r~ble compromiaes are o�C~n necessary. In the U.S. Navy rhe proce8s of planning the locatiion of ~ntenng complexes boils down Ce the folloari,ng: A list ie made of the ship's elec~ronic equipment and of the antennas needed for it, a prellminary study ie madp of the etructure o� tihe gnt~nna complex for the purpose of determining required and posaible compr~mise solutiona, measures are deBignated for the maximum posaible elimin~- tion of the mutual influence of different antennas, an initigl plan ia made for the locaCion of antennas, �rom which the neceesary calculaeion8 are made, ~ ~nd a model is built of the ahip's antenna complex (84]. Occupying the apecial attention of designers ie the problem of reducing on a submarine the number of anCennas by combining their functions and imparting maximum broadbandness to eanh antenna. Having determined the nece~eary number and types of antennas, deaigners proceed to their tentative location and an ~ estimate of e.m.f. In selecting places of inatallation areas for launching rockets and admitting torpedos and other cargo are excluded. After thia, on a apecial bench a model is made of the ahip, the antenna field and the surface of the sea, measurementa are made of the key characteriatics of an- tennas, and based on this a plan is prepared for the location of anCennas with the necessary explanations. The following are the key requirements for submarine antennas: minimal losaee of energy in an antenna in the conversion of energy, minimal dimenaions, and broadbandness, omnidirect~.onaliCq or the presence o~ equipment for controlling the characteri,stics ok the di,xectivity diagram; airt~,ghtnesa, streamlining and invariability o~ the epeed, maneuvertng and noise charactezistics of the sub- marine. As reported by foreign publications, these requirements are satiafied in the following manner. 123 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ ~Ott O~F~CIAL U~~ ONLY - '~h~ ,~i~~ti r~qu3~em~ne i~ con~id~red fuif~,~.led pr3ma~~.~,y by eh~ er~ne- ' miegi~n J,i.n~ tco~xi.a~ ~~bi~) wi~h eh~ 1uad. ~t i.e canaidered rha~ ~he cable ig m~ech~d w~,tih xh~ J,o~d i.,~ thQ trav~ling a~ve coe~,fic3.~ne pquaJ,e 0.6 ~0 0~7. xhe ].eng~h o~ Che high~~requency cable ~onnece~:ng commun~,ca~~,one ~acilitiee Co ehe ane~nna muer not exceed 180 xo 200 m. Ful~i] of th~ sac4nd r~qu~.remene�-~xoadbandn@ss--ig hampered by the pr~- establ~.~hed dimenaions fer gubmar3ne an~enn~s. Our of deeign cona~deraeions ir is advieable eo have a single anCenna for th~ anti~~ HF band ~from 2 to 30 1~tx). ~rom Ch~ t~ehnical standpoinC ~.e would be id~a1 eo hnve a half-wave vert~.c~l anrenna �or each frequency ~n this band~ which would eneure circul~r directi.v~,ty ae email anglea with 1ow aurface loeses. Tn the U.S. Navy a st~n- dard aneenna 10.7 m long ig used, which ie a half-wava antenna ~or a frequency of 7 A4~z. ~ ~ The r~quir~ment o� omnidirecrionaJ.ity for antennas ~a~plained by the fact that in thie c~s~ eh~r~ is no need for eh~ submarine to follow a de~inic~ cours~ in the communications p~riod. ~'he ma~ority of submarine aneann~a have a circular direcCivity diagram. An exception is ULF and VLI~ recet~:Ln~ an- tenna~. But the characteriatics of Cheae ant~nnae can be controlled. Since antennas are loc~red outs3de of ehe pressure hull, Chen they must not lower the safety factor. At the preaent ttia~ the depth of submersion of American nuclear aubmarinea hea increased to 480 m, and of the experimenCal "Dolphin" aubmarine, 670 m(73]. Deepwater equipment is submerged to even greater depths (10,000 to 11,000 km). The requiremant for pr~aervation of the working capacity of antennas on series produced submarinea is the abaence of leakage of wat~r through Ch~ gea18 df cables with ~ hydroetatic pressure of 40 to 60 kg/cm (5]. The streamlining of antennas is rpquired primarily on account of an atCempt to reduce ~akes and to eliminate the appearance of acoustic noise from radio communicationa antennas during travel in the submerged position. For this purpose, the masts of extensible equipment are enclosed in sCreamlined houaiega r aC their upper end. Antennas for underwater radio reception (VLF and ULF) in foreign fleeta are atructurally divided into anCennas �aatened in atationary fashion to the submarine's hull (sometimes on a telescoping mast), towed antennas and released antennas. From the structural standpoint antenn~s installed in staCi.onary fashion on the enclosuxe o~ the radio xootp axe more convenient than towed antennas. But they are lo4ated wftih~,n the range o~ the aubmazine'a electromasnetic �ield. A loop antenna i~ widely employed ~or VLF reception and as a radio direccion fi,nder antenna. It represents a mult3-turn design in which the total length o~ all the loop~s tuxns is l.ess than ~/4. 124 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY ~h~ ~f,~~c~~,Ve he~,$ht o~ ~he ].oop, h~ ~m) , agualg t h ~ , A ~ ~ , ~6.1) where 3~ bh ie the are~ oP Che ~,oop, b ie tha ~rldth, h is ehg he3ght _ og tha ~,oop, and ~ i~ the number o~ 8exiea connected turn~~ it follows ~rom equaeion ~6.1) ~hat rha greater are S and n and ehe ehor~~t~ ehe wavalangth~ ehe mor~ e~fect3ve the loop. ~ Because o~ re~tric~ions on the length of a~urn in the VL~ band, dimaneion b ie al~aye much ~ess than the wavelength. Tn any case, the effec~~ve he~ght of the loop ~a not ~oo greae. When the plane of tha loop makes ~n angle of a with the direction of arrival of Che wave, the effective height is calculated by the equation: . _ . ~..~A . . l~ ~ ~ ~"s cos a, (6.2) In a polar system of.coo~dinates equation (6~2) has the form of two circlea (a figure eight). For the purpoee of eliminating this directivity diagram~ two mutually perpendicular loopa are used, in the form of alit airtight ringe. In recent yeare, for the reception of LF and VLF waves on foreign aubmarinee magnetic loop antennas with ferrite core8 have been uaed, combining ferro- magnetic and dielectric propertiea (f ~ 100 kHz, u ~ 2000 , o! 10 ~ to 10 12 cm/m , E~ 10 to 20). The effecCive height of the ferrite antenna is: 2nnS~~~~ hA- ~ ~ (6.3) where ue~� is the ~~ective v;~e of the magnet~c permeability. Magnetic antenn&a are placed hoxizonCa~~.y on xhe zadfo room.~a enclosure or inside i,t, have not too ~reat dimensione and ar~ uaed at any ape~da of a - submarine in the submerged ox aux~ace positfon. 7~'he antenna cons~sts of a ferrite core on whtch is placed $ cotl encloaed in an e~.ectrostatic shield. Since the ef~ectiveness o~ the radio reception w3:tt~ a aingle ferrite core antenna ia insufficient, aeveral sin~flar antennas are inatalled, connected in parallel in two mutually perpendicular groupe. Because of this the total 125 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , . ; FnR OF~ICTAL US~ ONLY ' ~~~~cCiv~ o~ ehe a~~~nnn incr~~s~s, an anCenng d~.~~~~1 ~.n Che ~nrm of a~igur~ aighti i~ n~~d~ ~nag~b~,~, and w~eh appropr~,atig phaa~,ng iti poeeible to con~rol ~hi~. d3,ag~am, p~~;nti,n~ ~.te nul~, tow~rd xhe naise source. Ag an ~xampl~ can b~ ci~ed ~he ,~errite gnx~nna deve~,oped in Sweden ~or a type 43 submarine, wh~,ch i~ ~,nsea~.led on the stern eect~.on of ~he rad~o room'e eneidgurg in ~ r~do~8 and i,e dee~,$n~d ~or rh~ ou~aid~ pres~ure when the eub- marine ie submerged down eo 500 m[9].~~ ~or the purpose of ~ncr~aeing ehe depCh ok eubmeraion of a submarine for ~ carry:Lng ouC co~m?un3cations, in ~he USA ~epecial, antennas and buoye have bern developed. A buoy consiees o~ Cwo sactione and has three antennae, including one for VL1~ recep~ion. But theaa buoys ~s a rule limie ~he maneuvering capa- bilities o~ submarines and decamouflage them. The mosC promieing way of incr~aeing the depth of underwgter radio rece;,~:idn ig thought eo be the uae of towed ant~nnas, including antennas with positive buoyancy. Qne var3anC of ~hia type of anCenna has been developed ~Por the Sanguine system (90]. ~'t?is antenna is in che form of a horizontally towed cable with positive buoyancy and a total lengCh of 530 to 610 m, on which are mounted two electrodea (fig 6.1c). The diatance between electro~eg ie gelected in such a manner aa to reduce to the greateat degree ehe "electrical" interference which originates ~s the result of a change in the electrachemi~al activity (turbulence) of the waeer near the elecCrodes when the submarine is moving. For the purpose of damping Che vibrationa o� the last electrode, the antenna enda in a damper, because of which the "high-speed" noiee ia reduced, which occura because of rhe vibration nf the antenna in the magnetic f ield of the moving submarine. Since the length of the antenna is much greater than ehe wavelength, then the directivity diagram has the form of a figur~ eighC. For the reception of magnetic vibrations a multi-turn solenoid coil has been suggested, wound in . the form of a long spiral onto a ferromagnetic core. The directivity diagram of this anCenna also has the form of a figure eight, but turned 90�. This combined antenna is shown in fig 6.1c. By means of phasing, it is possible to control the directivity diagram (fig 6.1d). The poaitive buoyancy antenna on foreign submarines ia atructurally executed (fig 6.2) in the form of two layera of porous polyetihylene, 1, with positive buoyancy and an outaide diameter of 16.5 mm~, a glass �iber coil, 2, consiating of 26 turns 0.97 mtn in diataeter, a layer of ].ow-density polyethylen~, 3, 7.1 mm in di,ametex, and ~our 20,strand cppper insulated Wires o~ medium hard- ness, crosaed in pairs, 4, and covexed w~~h a h~gh~densfty layex of polyethylene 1.5 nun i,n diameter. At the present time Amexican speci,a].ista have settled on a receivtng antenna length o~ 300 m. The most acceptable is conaidered a diameter equal to 2.57 mm. Buoy-cable antennas with positive buoyancy, similar to those discussed, are used in the American navy for reception in the VLF and HF bands (cf. fig 6.1a and b) (90]. . 126 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOtt OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY ey 2) 1)pNy Ny ~y 51�" b~ By y ~i ON~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~,~N i i~�' ~,~n c-) 3p6M ~SN Z30N 3 ~Ny~ OHy d) Figure 6.1. Typea of Tawed Antennas for a Foreign Submarine Key� ~ 1. vI.P, LF 3. ULF, VLF 2. liF . f 2 ~t 4 Figure 6.2. Cross Secti,on qf Positive-Buoyancy ULF Antenna For enabling the o~exatt,on o~ radio communications and rad~.o navigation ~acilitie~ when the submaxfne i,s at ~exi,scope depth, submatxinea are equipped with teleacaping dev~,ces, the tqtal number of which on a a~bmarfne reaches eight to lt~. Te~.escop~n~ equi,pment ~or an A,merican nuclear ~oxpedo submarine are shown in fig 6.3a [17]. Whi.p-type telescoping antennas e~erge 4 to 8 m from the room of the enclosure, wfth a mast 7.ength of 10 to 14 m. 127 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ A~` . ~ ~ Z S ' . s g) ~ a r 4 8, , ~ � ~ , . ~~I~IIII~IIqII~~~IIU~IE , i~ ro 9 b ) ~ ~ � , 4 ~ _ Figure 6.3. Location of Control and Communications Stations, Tele- r scoping Equipment and Antennaa on a~'oreign Nuclear Sub- marine: 1--anorkel; 2 and 5--radio antennas; 3--active RLS antenna; 4--VLF antenna; 6--periacope with passive RLS ` . antenna; 7--peri~3cope; 8--bridge; 9--GAS [hydroacouatic syatem] long-range communications antenna; 10--GAS short- range communicationa antenna; 11--central staCion, radio ; room, hydroacouatic room and firing control stiation ~ T On the type 43 diesel aubmarine (Sweden) there are six combined antennas and a single emergency whip antenna [91]. Nuclear rocket-launching aubmarines . are equipped in addition with telescoping radio navigation and rudio aextant antennae. Telescoping devicea are arranged in two or three parallel rows, which makes it possible to reduce the lengtih of the radio room's enclosure. The masts for teleacoping devices, for the purpose of reducing wakes, are made with radomes made of aluminum-magnesium alloye, glass fiber reinforced , plastics or Monel metal (alloy of nickel and copper), inaide of which ia run a high-frequencq cable [5]. Telescoping devices are raised to the working position by hydraulic drives, and Che system ~.s lowered under the influence of the weight o~ the m$st. For the e#~ecti,~e ut~,l,i,zat~on of antennas over a ~xequ~ncy range, epecial antenna designa have been deve~.cped, e.g., onea paxtly svade t,n the ~orm of . a coil. In changing ~rom one ~requency t4 another, the ],ength o~ the antenna . is changed by s4eans o~ a alid~,ng cont~ct. The antenna.i,s retracted in 40 s and operates i,n the 2 to 32'N4iz frequency band [86]. The reveraibility charac- teristic of antennas (recepti.on-exansmiasion) is extensively employed on 128 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'OR OFFZCZAL USE ONLY submar~.nea for ~hs purpose o~ reduci;,ng tihair numl~er. ~'ox example, ~or Aamerican submar9,nes ~he ~ype ~/B~'X combina~~,on xeceiying and ~r~npm~,tt~ng antenna hae bQen dev~loped ~Qr H~ and m~,crow~v~ iCad~;a cotri~qux~ic~t~.ans and a tiargeC de~ecC~on radar se~ [5]. For ~he purpose o~ e~c~,udi~,ng th~ in~luence o~ one an~enna on another, a mul.ti-chanii~l syatem is emp~,oy~ed, cpns3~st~,ng o~ ampl~�~~,ce~~~ion and devices and decoupl~ng ,~~,~.ters w�#,~h a tq~,n~tqu~q ~requencyr in~exval between , ad~acen~ ch~nne~,s. Tn ~dd~,~~on, xece~.vtng ~nd anCennas are apatially aepara~ed and are ~~.aced ~,n mu~ua~,1y~ perpend�lcular planes. Communi- cat3ons and radar antennas are not only apa~i,ally aeparated (by not less Chan 5 m), but are alao inaula~ed ~xom on,e ano~her. An endeavor is made to spatially aeparate microwave anCennas ~or di~~erenC ranges, also. The grounding of antennas on aubmar.ines is accomplished fairly simply. One of the output terminals o~ the ~ransmitter or receiver is connected to the antenna, ~nd the other to a wide copper busbar, whose other end ia soldered to the ship's hull. Whip antennas are employed as emergency antennas, which are placed on Che enclosure of the radio room vertiically or horizontally [17]. For the purpose of maintaining two-way co~unications in Che submerged posit~on at any navigation depth, on submarinea is inatalled hydroacouatic communications equipment with its own antennas. The following are the specific requirements for the lonation of acoustic antennas: separation as far as possible from main sources o~ internal noise--propellers, ruddera, auxiliary gear, etc.; inaCallation in a radome protecting the antenna from oncoming water currents; the antenna muat not be screened by the hull and aCructural elements of the submarine, must not diatort the outline of the hull, and,muet not reduce the maneuvering and speed characteriatics of the submarine. The fulfillment of these requirements is achieved primarily by placing the antenna in a radome on the bow section of the submarine, in the form of a superstructure, or inside the outer hull flush with the plating. The first method of placement is typical of dieael electric submarines, and the second of nuclear. For making radomes metal is used extensively, and in~recent yeara on Americar. submarinea, plastics, e.g., reinforced glaas fiber reinforced plastic. The employmenC of plasti.cs reduces noise interference, they do not corrode, they improve aound transmisaion over a wide range, and they reduce the weight and cost o~ structures. Acoustic colronuni,cat~,ons antennas (acousti,c txanaducers) on ~oreign submarinea operate as a rule in the revexaible mode. They are made $t the ~reaent time chiefly out o~ p~ezqcexamics, since they have ~a~r1y high e~ficiency (50 to 70 percenC), w3,thstand high powez 7.eyela and any pressure (when compensation of external pressure is emp].oyed), posseas, do not change their parameters with an incre$se f.n depth and are relatively ihexpensive. The directiona7. effect of acoustf,c antennas is characteri,zed by axial con- ' centration factora, ~y , which are detet~nined for a plane plunger-type of 129 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY tr~nsducer by equ~~ion 26) , fQr a cy~.indr~,ca~, ~rgngd?~cer by ~y p 2h/a (h ~.s tih~ hei,ght o,~ tihe cy~,~ndex), and Ear ephexic~~, ~rar~sducer by~ ~y . The conceneraG~.,on ~acCoxa fnr p~,unger~~ype and cyr~, ~ranedueers in~ crease with an increase in ~requency. ~n real anCennae secondary maxima occur, as we],1 as aide lobes and di:C:~exen~ dis~urbances o~ ehe symme~ry of the direct- 3.v~.~y diagram. xn xecept~,nn ~ri;~h a d~,xectiona~. an~enna~ i,x is poas~.ble to extend th~ commun~,ca~iona r~nge by concenCra~~,on of th~ sCxeng~h o~ tihe acoustic signal and improvemenC o~ ehe signal~~o-noise xa~io. Bue a un~.dizectiional antenna ec~n-.~ree communicationa and ~he ma~ntenanca o~ communica~ions between correspondents in ma~ion are imposaf.ble, s3nc~ tihe low rate of propaga~ion of ~ acoustic wavea in water does noe make i~ poesible to make a quick scan of spac~ and auton~ttticaLly erttck a correspondent. The direcCivity o.� communica- tions is enaured by emp],oying antennas o~ spherical or cylindrical shape. A no leas imporCant parameCer ensuring a specific communicaCions range ~.s tihe eotal and limiting unit radiated acouatic power. The obtainmer~r. of , maximum acoustic power is substantially 13mited by the c~vitatior~ ~,h~nomenon (sec 3.2). The communications range also depends on the sensitivity of the receiving antenna. WiCh modern foreign piezoceramic tranaducers, the sensitivity reaches 1000 uV/Pa. The frequency characteristics of an acouatic antenna depend on Che maCerial of the transducer, its design, dimensiona~ etc. For example, the resonant frequency of a cylindrical transducer equals f= ck/nd , where c is the speed of sound in tihe piezoceramic and d is t~ie diameter of the t~anaducer. In hydroacoustic communications equipment one strivea to produce a uniform frequency characteristic over a wide frequency range. In broadband radiating elements the width of Che passband Of =(0.1 to 0.2)f with a r~lative power variation of up to 10 percent. For the purpose of pro~ducing a broader ~f it is necessary to uae complex antenna designs. No less important is the noise inCerference charaCteristic of an acouatic antenna, N, whose magnitude de- pends on many factors (concentration of the antenna, ~ts locaCion, directional properties, communications frequency, magnitudes of noiae from operaCing pro- pellera and gear, hydrodynamic noise from the hull's radome and the antenna, etc.). Transducers are usually created in the ~orm of an array consisCing of elements whoae dimenaiona are determined by their R and whoae number and locaCion are determined by~ the xequired d~x~ctfv~,ty.r If ~t is necessary to have a directional acoust~c antenna, then its df,mensiona must be am~11. as compared with the wavelength, and in this case iC is necessaty to radiate high power levels per unit axea of the antenn~. The usa~ority o~ radiating elemenCs have limited dfinensiona com~axab].e With the wave],ength. ' It was demonstrated above (sec 3.2) that hydroacoustic communications equipment has its own optimal operating frequency at which the maximum effective range is 130 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ roR o~rzci~, us~ ornY made po~p~.b~.e, ~nd any devi~?C�lan frnm ~ ~a~u~.res ~ncxe~g~.n~ ~h~ r~d~.~Ced ppwer, In add~,~~.on, ~,e n~c~s~nry tio ~~~Ce ~.n~o aaGOUnti Ghg ,~n~~ Ch~e eh~ ma~or~.Cy 0~ itCOUBC~C Ct�~ngducere are resonttnC d~viaes and~ conse~uen~~.y~ opera~e ef~ec~iY~~.y on~,y at a~~r~,ct~.y P~,xed �xequency, xn R7,~qos~ a,~,~, ~nr~ign communica~ions sCat~.ona a e~andaxd carr~,~r tr~c~ueney equa~, ~0 8087 Kz ~.s em- p1.oy~c~ [ 55 ~ , 6.3. o~ the I.oca~3,on ~nd Ae~.ign ~'eaCures oP Submgxine Commun~.~~einns ~aciliCi,as In submarines and ~heir xudioelectronic equipmenC, tihere nre c~rrain specific requireme~ntis Eor commun~.cations Her~ are eaken ~neo accoune the point o.~ locarinn of radio and hydroacouse~,c room~ and ant~nng; the nmoune oP radioelectronic equipment (REA), i~a weight and overal~. dim~nsiona; the poweti requiremenC of ~he communications REA; the ~.n~eraction of communicn- . tions facilieiea with other submarine facilities; the e.m,f, of comrounicaCiona f acilieies, be~ween nne anoCher, wi~h oeher it~A, and with weapons; Che capa- bility for e� operatiion under condieiona of inechaniCa]. nnd 3mpact effecCe, vibra~ion and the ef�ect oE tiemperatiure and moisture gnd ionizing radiation; the requir~menC of It~A for cooling nnd ventilaeion; and cnnvenience of opergtinn and ease of repair [95]. The location of Che radio room on the submarine is regulaCed as a rule by the locaeion of control atations and ~nCennas. At the central station (TsP) are concentrated the main starions and instruments enabling con~rol of ehe ahip and its weapons, and here is found the co~amanding officer. 7'herefore, the radio room must be placed in ehe direct vicinity of ehe TsP, the hy~roacoustic room and the submarine's radio communications anCennas. In fi~ 6.3b is shawn the location of Che TsP and of the hydroacoustic ~nd rndio r.oom on an American nuclear Corpedo submarine. On nuclear submarines the ItEA Cakes up great inside space. Aa compared with submarines from the time of the Second World War, this space has increased three- to fourfold. The amount of hydroacoustic equipment has increased especially aubsCantially. On submarines of Che 3Skate" and "Thresher" type ehe hydroacoustic equi~ment occupies 89~and 192 m, and the communications equipment, 12 and 42 m. All the key radio c~mmunications equipment is placed in the radio room, whose area equals 6 to 8 m. This same area is used for coding radio messages [5]. All the zlements o~ radio equi,pment mus.t have overall dimensions and weight such that it is possi,ble to pass them thxough haCches. k'or shi~ REA in the U.S. Navy, standard racks are used base d~,tuensions o~ 457 X 457 mm2 and a height o~ 1700 to 1880 mm. The weight o~ the 1~ of a subtqax~,n~ has been increasing sCeadily. For examp],e, on submari,nes ot the "Ska~e" type the weighC of radioelectronic equipmenC equals 25 tona, and on submarines of the "Thresher" type, 62 tons, includ~ng, respectively (in tons): hydroacoustic equipment--l.9.8 and 54, rad~o communic$tions equipment--2.5 and 4[5]; and on submarines o# the "Los Angeles" Cype the w~eight of the hydroacoustic com- plex equals 131 tons [73]. 131 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 rc~~ or~ir,t~r, us~ ortt~Y Ie obv~.uue frnm ~h~~ comperi~on ehae r~td~.o aommun~l.~~eions ~gn~, on mdd~rn gubmer3,n~s continue en repres~n~ cons~.d~r~b1,~ we~,gh~ gnd vo~.unt~, Th~i.r ~i~x~har reduction, ~,n the opin~.on o~ m~~?y ep~c~.g~,~.s.ts ~ cqn be ~chieved by th~ mor~ exC~nsi,ve ineroduce~,on o~ sem~,conduc~or devicep and m~,croeleceronic elemenCs. Alternaring curren~ (3n tih~ US~� ~r~~u~ncy o~ 60 f~z) ~,a used to power Gh~ ma~nr us~rs of e~,~eeric power on modern ~oxeign nucle~r submar~.nca. ~'or powering radi,o commun~.caC~,ons ~qu3pnlen~, an ~,ncze~eed~~requency g.c. i.s prdv3ded (120-220 V, 400 Hz) w1:~h vo~.eaa~ s~abil~,~a~ion and a frequency not 0.5 to 5 percent o,~ the ra~ed. 'I'he powpring of r~dio eransmit~ers is as a rule dupllc~Ced. The power require- ment of radioelectronic facilities con~inuea to grow; on a submarine of the "Thresher" type the toenl power requiremenC of REA is abouC 86 kW, including 54.2 kW for hydroacoustic equipmene and 19.3 kW for radio communication~ - In developing communicaeions facilieies, proviaion is made �or their int~r- action with other aubsystemg oF rhe submarine, auch as informgtion sources, control sCaeions and the aubmarine's weapons. It is poasible to accomplish Chis by Cwo meChods: firsti, by making poss~.ble intraship communications by means of command relay equipment and ship telephone faciliCiea; and, second, by means of organic communications between individual elementa and blocks of equipment enauring the rapid exchange of informaCion, especially in digital form for feeding Co a computer ~nd the weapons system. On American rocket-launching submarines eight relay subsystems are united by the first method. The central communications console of the shipwide command subsystem is installed aC the TsP. All calls are automatically recorded by means of a tape recorder. It has been proposed that the intraship communica- tions system be controlled by means of a computer. The second method will be totally implemented with the introduction on a submarine of a military control and information syatem, e.g., of the SIES (Ships Integrated Electronic System) type, whereby the proposal is to create a single station for monitoring Che good working order of REA; to unite radio communications and rad~o navigation antennas and hyroacoustic antennaa used for observation and communicaCions; to create a unified computing center for solving problems relati,ng to the contrql of the submarine, analysis of the ~ situation and the employment o~ radioeJ.ectxonic ec~uipment; and to create closed systems ~ox the venti],~tion and cooling o~ REA, ita elements, etc. The problem o~ the e.m.�. af xadfo cQmmunications ~aci,lities in ~oxe3gn f leets, between one anothex ~nd with oChex radioe],ectronic equ~,pment, has already been discussed in sec 6.2 and 3n chap 5. 132 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOtt O~FICIAL U5~ ONLY Und~r Condi,Ci~n~ o~ a aub~arine, Ch~re ~;r~ xequ~,x~m~nt~ ~nr Ch~ ~$f~c~i.v~ ope~~ei.on of itEA und~r mechani,c~7, and ~~fe~xg, yi,t~r~r~,on _ ~nd ~h~ ~.n~1,u~~?ce o~ e~m~~r~Cur~ ~nd mo~.~~uxe~ x'he ope~~~ting cond~,C~an~ ,~nr REA on a aubtqar~:ne ouCsidp rhe hu].~. (~nt~nnas a~td ~Qed~r e~ui,pn~en~) are ~ev~r~, since ~ntennae are cone~an~~.y ~;n sea watex wi~h m~,cro�or~an~,~ms ~nd P~irly sudden ~luctua~~.on~ ~,n remp~xarur~ aad ~re~AUxe ~,na~.d~ ~hQ ~r~ posaible; in rad~,o and hyd~roacous~~.c xootqg nandi,t~.on~ ara av~r~g~ because o~ the in~~.uenc~ o~ he~,ghtened ~qo~,s~ure conCen~, mech~nicaJ. overload~ and vibration. In the conclUSion o� ~or~ign epecia~.isCs, REA in a aubmarine musti Ue shock- proof and explosion-proo.~, especially wieh regard eo underwaCer nucle~r explosionffi. Tmpacr ef~ecCs are characCerized by a nlagn~.Cud~ whose valu~ for REA muat reach 15 eo 50g (83]. An ~.mpace effecC is moet dgngeroue to britele p8rt~ made of ceramics and ferrite, especially at their f~st~ning poinCs. For the purpos~ o~ protecCing 1tEA from impacC nverload~, the path has been chosen of improving the ahock re~i~Cance of equipment: ~h~ emplnymenr of semiconduceor devices ingtead of electronic tubes, of plasticg ltiste~d of por.celain insulators, of bolted ~ oinCs made of high-strengeh se~el with a yield point of 60 to 80 kg/mm, the employment of soft rubber gaekets and lining (especially for antennas), and also the installation of equipment on shock absorbers. The natural frequencies of the shock nbsorbin~ sysrem for R~A must be two to three times lower than the lowest frequency of the diaturbing force, and the vibration frequency of shock-proofed instrumentg, higher Chan the hazardous frequencies for the submarine's pressure h:�ll (10 to 15 Hz), i.e., about 33 Hz. For shock-proofing lightweight REA, in the USA elastic spacers made of atainlesa orire are used. But American designers think that it is not advisable to inatall lightweight equipment on shock-proofing fasCen- inga, since then the vibration frequency of the REA (8 to 16 ~iz) will be clo~se to the frequency of the fundamental vibrations of Che submarine's hull, which can cause resonance and ~ncrease overloads in underwaCer explosions [91~. Air noise produced by working machinery not only worsens condiCions for habit- ability, but also hampers the employment of inCraship communicaCiona. Accord- ing to USA atandards, the noise level in service areas should not exceed 50 to 60 dB, which ensures distinct audibility of c~mmands over the submarine's loudspeaker communications sysCem. For the absorption of airborne noise, a~ound-ab.~orbing covering made of glass fiber reinforced plastic or poly- urethane foam plastic is used, which reduces the noise level in proportion to the thickness of the covering [85]. REA on a submaxine operates undex conditions, o~ elevated humidity. ~or example, on American nuclear submaxines, with the air conditioning system shut o~f, in txopica~ waters Che hum~dity has $pproached 90 percent, and the air temperature, 40 to 45�C [5]. Moisture penetraCes all eletnents of REA and coats it wtth a very thin film of water (0.001 to 0.01 microns), which worsens REA parameters and dtsturbs iCs calibration and operation. For protection ~rom the in~luence of humidity, sealing of individual asaem- blies is employed, along with protect~ve coatings, liiiings, and, for partial desiccation, holdera with sil~ca gel. A change in ambient temperature exerta 133 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 s ~Oit O~F'ICtAL US~ ONLY , a~on~i,derabl~ in,~luance on I;~A e~,ementa, ~spec~,aJ,J.y t~can~iseore ~ gy ' Am~rie~n ,~nd Engli~h ~r~r~d~rdo ~n air r~mp~r~;tu~a qf r c 25�C h~a been ` seG ~ox living area~ and atd~ione (w~thou~ ree~ri,cr~~n on hunt~.d~,~y) and ' o,~ C~ 3Q�C w~,Ch 50 percenx rs~,atiV~ hwqi,d~~y~ I~04~. Tn order ~o ensure atabiliry in th~ op~ration o~ RE~A under hea~ ef~ecte under cond~.~ion~ on a submari,n~, ~x~enafvely employed are tiher~qsl compeneation, regulae3on o~ heat exchan~e be~ween ~A and the ~nv~ironment, ~,nd3,vidual and shipwide air coo],ers, and vent~.].attng sy3tems~ ~n recent t~mea on foreign submarines 3ndividual water cool,in~ o~ R~A has begun tio be used, including ~ for radio eransmitter~, a~ we11 as air conditioning eysCems ~5]. The contxol equipment operates ~rom temperaCUre gnd humi.d3ty eeneors located in compart- mente and rooms. On foreign nuclear submarines ~he inPluence of ionixing radiaCion on R~A elemen~s is poseible, which is caused by the proximity of radiation sou:cee and the circulation of air in the ahipwide ventilaeing system. Here it muat be kept in mind that ionixing radiation has 1~.ttle influenc~ on mpr~? struc- turea, and th~t organic materials are highly aensitive Co rgdiation, and inorganic less ao. REA elemente are aensitive to the effect of radiation. Taking ineo nccount Che danger of the influence of radiation on people and REA elements, American special3sts have undertaken apecial measures againet radioactive cdntamination (strict insulation of proceasea in which radiating materials take part, employment of an audio and light aystem for indicating radioacCive emiasion, sampling of air and water, individual facilitiea for detecting radiation). In Che opinion of American specialiata, the radio- , activity of the air must not exceed 6�10 ln ucurie/cm3 (93]. In considering quesCions relating to the convenience of employing REA under conditions on a submarine, much attention ahould be paid on one hend to the requirements of engineering paychology, and on the other to requirements for highly rapid discovery of malfunctions and for the ense nf aervicing of REA. Special attention must be paid to questions relating to the arrangement of control and display consolea for REA on the submarine. For example, for foreign submarines it is recommended that the following requirementa be ful- filled ~85J: That control consoles be arranged radially. That the instruments at stations be di,vided into tqain and zeference, that they be arranged ~n logtcal sequence, and that key inatruments be in the center o~ conso].es in a visi.b~,e pl.ace. That indicators requiring conatant monitoxing be placed at the eye Z~vel of operatora wt,thin the li,mits o~ 30� be].ow this level, and thaC instruments ` which are uaed by several people be located in the top hal� oP consoles. 134 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F0~ n~~iC~AL US~ ONLY ~h~e rh~ ~aa~.~~ u~ i.ngerumenC~ b~" eq be ine~~.J,~,$~,b~.~ and thae r~~d~,nge be cleax and eimpl~, and ~ha~ Rox a~.~,C ind~,c~xox ~h~ con~raet beew~en maxki,ctge aad tihe b~ekgxound b~ noe ~,ea8 than 1;5~ That indfca~ors and the3r contixo~, knobs be or~,entied ~.n ~re~,~x~.~n ro on~ ~noth~r ~,n a uni~ied mann~~~ That conCrols be arranged conVe~~,anC1y~ ~or an o~ara~ox o� average heighe with average phyaicai charac~ex~,se~,ae. That room areas be 37,1umin~ted wi,th even lighting. The que~Cion of rhe very rapid det@ctlon and e],im3nat~on o� tn~l.funct~on~ in - REA ~.s an importane one. Ag already ind~.cated, one o~ th~ ob~ective~ of th~ American S2ES comprehengive ship'~ ~yetem is the creation of a singLe station �or monitoring malfunc~ions in a11 the REA on the aubmarin~, making ~.C pos~ible quickly and accurately to detect any malfunc~ion. For the purpose of improving the repairability and convenience of operation, it is neceseary to etandardize REA elements on the basia of the modular grouping principle. This principle propoaes the creation of functional modulea which are united according to a specific feature into an independent block, which ia built inCo the overall deaign of the instYUment and is connecCed to other blocks by external leada. In foreign marine REA four ranks of modulea are used: the integraCed circuit, the replaceable block (board, cassette), the instrument (rack), and the radioelectronic syatem (complex). This modular grouping hierarchy makes it pos~ible noe to repair, for example, modulea con- taining integraCed circuits, but a"cold spare" to replare them with new ones, and to ensure the "self-healing" of RLA during a apecified period of operation under ship conditiona on account of a"hot apare." The implementa- tion of Che modular design principle in American naval equipment has resulted in the fact that the percentage of integrated circuits in communicationa facilities as early as 1970 equaled 88 percent (SS, 89). We will discugs the equipment of submarines with communications facilities briefly, uaing the example of American submarines. The ~tandard radio equip- ment of a submarine consists of the following elements: Ttvo type Ai~1/WRR-2 HF receiv~re (2 ta 30 A4iz band), to which ig entruated the reception o.~ aing],e-band broadcasts in the audio, pr~nting and facaimile telegraph modes [102~. One VLF radio receiver (fn Eng],and this receiver operates in the 6 to 36 kHz band, the width o~ the is var~,ab~e, suppre$~i,on o~ image ~nterference is greater than 80 d8, and selecttvity is 50 Hz fxom the resonance curve) [73j. Two An/WRT-1 and qN/WRT-2 or AN/WRT,4 and AN/WRC,1 type tra~nsmitters with enhanced power and h~h ~requency atabili,ty, ena4l~ng aca.n~free and trim- free communicationa in the 2 to 30 P41z band. 135 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Oit OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Nigh-~p~ed equipment 3,n the form oP indi~iduai bloake with a etoxage unit, ~ n~ak3s~g iC po~~ib1.~ to e~~n~m~,~ me~sage~ ae ~ rat~ of ~,OUO wo~de par minuee ' I391� Pr3nC~n$ equipment ~qr rad~,o commun~;cationa, wt~h an electxoe~atic printing raee o~ Up Co 1000 charactar$ per eeaond ~39]~ . Automatic mes,sage cod3ng equ~;pmene [39]~ Ir haa been proposed Co ~nafial~, shi,p eeea],~,ite connaunicatione equipment on American submarines (c~~ chap 5)~ . An experimental receiver hae been developed for enabling the recept{on of meseagee at depthe greatier than 30 m, in keaping with the Sanguine pro~ect (90~. A block diagram o# this receiver ie ahown in fig 6.4. The receiver consieta of ewo blocka: an analog (preamplification and filtering) and a digiCal (further filtering, signal proceasing and dynamic control). ~ ----r----- ------1 I 1~ 4~ .INQIIAtOQe~u ~ I I!p~,r~+o~oeomene 6 n o K ( ( 2) ~11V,~6y ~ P~ V h S ~ . , I ~ 3) Ycunw�rne cUy ~ L_ I - - - ~tq- Csenc Aq�nA~PQ ~ , po~nGcmenr, PAY ,toQ~tmeno ~ 5~ 3f?tu 6 ) 8) ~ ~ 9~ ~nU ~ , ~ ~ 10) ~mp KBO i ~ qu~ppoQori i ~ 11~ CnedAw~ v~ ano~r 14) ~ ~ 12) ~Du~o.mA ~ I ` ~ ~ ~ ~ 13) Q~NUwm~e~e uyrroQ pod~ YO Y0~ Y~A I . ~ I ~ na0 4biran~a ~B YBllll ~ _ ~ $igure 6.4. B~ock Atagram oP ULP Radio ~ece~yex: Atapli,~iex ~rith TaU-- , ir~,th digital control; K`10 ~ilter-~-filter for compensating inf~.uence o~ the ocean; P~ilter--predietortion ~ilter; , ~DP--paeudorandom b~nary eequeace; KS ~i].tere--quadrature matched ~'i~tere; RpU circuit-~aaalog ampli~ication regul~tion efrcuit; UO adjustment-~-clipping level ad~ustment; UOF-- phase evaluating unit; UPD--sequential decoding unit; FV-- ' phase inverter; UVPP--pr3mary sequence reatoration unit [Key on folloWing page~ 136 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 i FOR OF~IC~AL US~ ONLY ' K~yt Conv~~ear ~,0, Ky0 ~i~,~er 2. ~NCh ~~,qt~~~r~qu~n~y~ ~~,~,terl, ~ollpwer it~'~ k'~Ch [h~:gh~-~'requ~ncp !i_lter~ 1~2. ~ ~~~,ter ' and It~' (~~~~~cCc~r .~ilr~r] ~,3. No~se c~,~,pp~r 3. Ampl~.fier TaV 14. A~.g~~~i b~,ock 4. Analog b~,ock J,S. VO ad~us~mene 5. 512 H~ ~6. K3 ~i~,Cars 6. AT~ [ana~og-digi.~$1] cnn~ vert~r 7. itAU circuit - 8. ATe conver~er ~ 9. FNCh ~'he rpceiver's an~iog b1o~k coneains ~ universal aystem of filter~ whi~h enableg normal up~r~tion ~.n the presence of differene k~nds of 3nterference. ~he pr~ampl~fi~rs ar~ pror~cted by ~hieldg from electromagneric 3nt~rf~rence from th~ power line and are mechgnically isolated from the chasais, which ~limin8t~~ vibr~rions aC frequencie~ nnrresponding tn its passband. The analog input circu~t ensureg s~eady gain (not leee than 160 dB) in keeping wiCh the level of atmoapheric noi~e and the apeed and depth of aubmeraion of the submarine. The signal ie selected from the output of the analog block and ia converted into digital fo.rm by the computer's analog-digital converter, which ig also the receiver's bage, and the selection time is detercnined from a precision clock. Signa~ proceaging of this sort at low tranemiesion r~teg (on~ bit nf information in 100 s) is the mose economical. The computer has a 16-kbit memory and an access time of 1 us. The input signal is proaessed by the computer to take into account the apEed and depth of sub- mersion of the eubmarine and the time of day. Output information ia processed by a simplified teletype at a rate of 30 charactera per second. The low-frequency filter excludes the passage of HF components of antenna noise, and the filter for compensating the in�luence of the ocean reatores the atmospheric noise characteristic, which disappears with an increase in depth. Pol].ower rejector filtera reduce the level of interference from the submarine'8 motors (auppresa a frequency of 60 Hz and its harmonics). The predistortion filter levels the atmospheric noise apectrum, and the noise clipper adaptively zeduces the ef~ectiveness of noise levels. Quadra[ure matched filtera restore as much information as posaible. Because of Chese measures, in rhis receiver a nearl}* optia~al passband is obtained (about 4�10^3 Hz). The phase evaluation unit (Che error musC be ~inimal, since it reduces the energy o~ the input signal by a factor equal to the aquare o# the cosine of the phase error) estimatea the phase from the aignal itaelf at each level by interpolation. Reasons ~or a change i,n phase can be a sudden change in ~he aubmarine's depth and ~onoepheric dietuxbances. 137 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ; FOtt OF~ICIAL USE ONLY Saquene3al ~nd xesu~t~n~ decod~:ng w~xe sa],ecxed becauqe ehey ensure Ch~ ~ highe~e ral~~bi],iey o~ rtl~asa$e r~ception w3rh rhe l,p~tea~ a~,g~a~.~Go~no~,se x~Ci~. xhe un~,~ ~q~kpe ix po~~~bla to~ dae~~a~,ne the errox With h~,gh probability~ _ ~nd ~he ~rrox in th~e caee~ 3s nok pxl,tlCO~d oy~ gC ~Y?e ouCpue~ ~n~ragh3p comaqunica~~,one on modern eubmaxinea are caxr~ed Qut by meane of command re1,~y equipmen~ ~nd the te~,ephone. The ~,ntraeh3p cammand relay communi- caeiona gyaCem on Americ~n nuc7,~ar eubiqari,nee, ~he AN/WLC, coneists o~ ehe ~oiiow~tns eubey~~eqet sh~,pw~id~ cnmtqand; alec~romechanical ` combat eecCi,on; emergencyr reporta; sh~,p confirol; intraehip communic~tione; eecape hatch; rocket Neaponry conerol; rocke~ compartment internai communica- tions [5~. in additfon, inaluded in the syetem are an amergency elert eigual gene~atior, about 90 loudspeakere and 50 1oca1 comQnunicatiione atations. The dei~.very of emergency aigngle and control and monitoring of the syaeem'g opera- tion are carried out fxom the central eeation of tha ahipwi~e eyetem~ The syetem permi.te the transmisaion of a radio broadcasting program and has a tape recorder for recording convereations on board the submarine. An emergancy batCery power suppl~r is provided. When sailing in the surface posit~on, the submarine ia controlled from the forebridge, employing the remote control conaole for eurface travel, in which, in addition to instrumenta for controlling tfie aubmarine, there is alao a command relay unit ~5). For the purpose of enabling telephone communications on eubmarines, there are batterylesa telephones and automatic telephone switchboarda with a capaciry of a few dozen numbers [SS). Thus, the main method of exchanging information inside the submarine is microphone communications. But this meChod doea not make possible the required traffic speed and much t~me is spent on receiving, recording and transmitting ~ information. Considerably greater capahilitiea are had by multichannel tele- viaion communicationa systema and electronic internal coimnunications syatems based on computers, employing telephone terminals, light pipe systems, etc. [93, 99, 102]. In designing aubmarines, epecial attention is paid to the development of emergency rescue equipment for rendering asaiatance to a aubmarine in trouble and for rescuing its personnel. Included among thia equipment are communica- tions facilities.�or sending signals from the submarine in trouble and for communicating with ships render~n~ asaistance: an emergency signal buoy with a telephone, emergency buoys and an emergency aignaling syatem. An emergency signal buoy i~s ~n the ~otm o~ a hollow ~].oat with positive bunyancy, equipped with a s~.gnal lamp and tel.ephone and connected to the submarine's hull by a cable wi,re whose length is 15 to 25 percent greater than the maximum depth o~ submeraion o~ the eubmari,ne. The telephor?e receiver is located in an airtight inside compartment. 138 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOIt 0~~'YCIAL USE ONLY ~or tihe purpoee o~ repo~c~ing Ch~ ~.oca~~:on o~ an en~er$ency, U~ S. nuc],ear ~ubmar~ne~ ara ,~urn~.~h~d w~,eh radio buoye or an etqer~ency,~n~ ~yeGem. The ~y~~ T~6~,6 sRx rad~o buoy ~a 8~eceed ~o the aur~ace ~ria ehe uni~ ~or �i~ing bl~~k c~rkrtdges ~ x'he radio buoy~~ a we~,gh~ ~,e 3~ 6 k~, ~,~e ~engeh 990 mm and its d~;ame~ar 76~2 mm~ On ~ha ~op o~ the buoy ~,e ~,na~~~,~.~d a collapsib~,e wh~.p anC~nna,, a~Cer ehe ~uoy �~.o~Cg up, s~ra~~h~an~ ou~ under ~ha e~~ec~ o~ a,epr~n~, and Che ~ransin~t~er ~~,netallad ~,n the buoy b@g~.ns to tranemie a coded d3stre~Q ~~;gn~1 at a~..43 m wave (243 ~Elz) ,fox 14 h~ A corner re~~,ector can be ~nsrd~~,Qd on rhe buoy, ahi,ch cons~.derably epeeds up _ scanning by m~ane o~ a sh~,p ox ~~rborne radax ae~ ~85]. For the purpoee o~ txansmiCCtng si$na].s 4or no~ilying abou~ an emergency etate of rhe eubmari,ne or abouC ~ubmere~.on to a depeh greaCer than ite safe depth, on American submarines s3nce 1968 the SECT (Submaxine Emergency Conm~uniaation Tran~miCter) autom~~ic emergency si.gnal3ng eyatem hae baen emp].oyed. 2he transmitter ~.e loca~ed in a apecial buoy (there are two of them on rocket launchers and one on torpedo submarinea), which is e~ected and floats up when the submarine ia at g depth greaCer than ita safe depth and when the pressure in the aubmarine exceede the establiehed norm and if the unit's selector switch has not been changed by the operator to the required position for 2 h. After it floats up, the transmitter first automatically trangmita a formalized measage at four frequenciea, which is automaCically received by the coastal system, and then perforros ehe role of a homing beacon. The proposal is to install theae same buoya in a new modification on eubmarinea of the "Trident" type [82, 87]. In thia book hydroacoustic communications facilities are not discussed in detail. Therefore, leC us acquaint ourselves only with the fundamentals which form the basis for designing cammunicationa facilities for foreign submarinea, deepwater devices and divers. Hydroacoustic communicationa equipment (GAS) differs considerably from analogous radio communicatinns equipment. But in the development of GAS know-how geined in the evolution and development of radio conanunicaCiona facilities has been utilized. The key tactical parameter of GAS ie the required cammunicationa range, which dependa on the purpose and type of GAS. The maximwn required range for hydroacous~ic communications with eubtqarines is uaually li,taited to a few dozen kilometers, since at long ranges hydrogcoustic communicationa drastically lowers its quality (s~gnals are delayed and distorted, the informa- tion transn~ission xate is cona~.derably xeduced, ~he time ~or trayel o~ messages is incre$sed, etc,). The xange of con~un~cat2,ona with deepwater devicea is limited by the depth of the ocean (11 to 13 km), and the range o~ cm~unicationa with sw~mmere and dtVera, by thei,r traveli,ng range, and it uaually equals a ~ew hundred metera. 139 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Olt OFF'ICIAL US~ ONLY ' For hydroacouseic cdnnnunicationa Che ~requency b~nd ~zom aingle number~ of Hz tio ~.00 lc~tx is. ~mpJ,oy~d ~ Broad~ning o~ Chia bend h~~ m~de poas~,ble tio begin rh~ practica9, mastexy o~, ~.n addi,xi,on to amp~,i.tittde, ,~xeq,uency ~d pu].se ph~a~ modulae~,on and keyins~ ~r~c~Uenc~* ~nd ~~,m~ multip],sxing o,~ chF~nnels, the anglog ~nd d~.ecrQC~ ,~orm of represen~a~3on and Che excha,n~e o~ in~ormation by ~mp~,oy3,ng memory un~,~a ~.n r~a], ~~,oq~ ~ I~ wge aGxegaed~ ~,n cha~ 3 that GAS has i~s oWn opti~,ma~. ~xequency ~ox a~~a~i,~ic c4tqn~un~cationa range~ Tn the ma~ori~y o~ ~oxeign ~ommun~,cat~,on~ ~tat3ane a s~ande~rd ~requency , equal to 8.0875 kHz i~ employ~ed. HoFrevex ~n xecent yeaxa a changeover to a lower frequency reg~on has been obee~ved~ ~ Having become wl:despread are single-band telephony add telegraQhy with suppression of the carrier �requancy and upper eideband, which has made ir possible to improve the noise immunity o~ communications and achieve long communications rangea. Por example, in tha Epgllah "Sonar 2010" type GAS Che meseage is transmitred at one frequency and the pauae is filled by another frequency 800 Hx apart, and there is a unit ~or detecting and correcCing errors. Tests of this syatem have demonatratcd that error-free reception ie ~~.~aranteed 98 percent of the Cime under the moat unfavorable conditiona for ehe pYOpagaCion of sound in water [96, ].00]. ' It heg been proposed to increase the effective range and improve the nois~: immuniCy of GAS by employing new coding methode and adaptive methoda of modula- tion. Syatems of this sort are implemented fairly simply by means of ordinary digital equipment employed in computera. The standard GAS for the U.S. Navy and NATO for aurface veasels, submarines and deepwater devicea is the AN/VQC-1 ("Gertrude") close-range telephone communi- cations atation, which has a number of modifications. The radiated power ia 100 W and ita communications range 9 km (97]. � More modern is the AN/BQA-2 long-range communications station, which is part of the AN/BQQ-2 hydroacoustic complex of American nuclear submarines. This , station makes possible stable secret communications at considerable distances. On submarirtes of the "Los Angeles" type under conatruction, the proposal is to inatall the in~proved AN/BQQ-5 complex, which will include the AN/BQS-13DNA atation, which operates also in the hydroacouatic communications mode [56]. A characterieti.c feature of this equipment is the ability to ensure omnidirec- tional and narxow-beam coc~wunicat~,ona in the tel.ephony and printing mode, by employing message coding equipment. Th~a atation has an i.mpxoved secrecy mode, SESCO (Secuxe Submarfne Coavaunicat~,on), and 1,s constructed according to the modular prirnciple, emp]~oying i,ntegrated cfxcuits. The complex also includes wulti-channel tape xecaxdexs o~ the UNQ-7 (two,channel) or UN� 8 (seven-channel) type, which make it poesible to record and reproduce all informatfon rece~,ved [97]. Abroad significant expezimental atudies are under way, aimed primarily at extending the range o� hydroacoustic communications. ~or example, in the 140 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FO~t OFFICIAI, U5E ONLY USA in 1967 gn ~xp~rintential ar~C3.on was testied, w~,Ch 500 Co 15p0 Hr, , and ~ communicat~,ona range n# 1300 km was reached in ~he ee~,egxaph mode, wiCh a Granemi~e~.on~recaption raxe o~ a~x worde~ pex minute. For th@ ~n~l~.ah navy Che ~'S~nar 2008" ~eleption@ con~un~,c~kiqna sta~~,on h~s been d~ve~,aped, which en~b~,es opexa~ion ~.n ~ha a~;n~~,e ~,i;deb~nd ~node with supprea~~,on, ~nd, ga cQnlpared w~,th ~he exl:e~ing a~g~~,on, ~.s cepable of realizing cammun~,caC~,ons~ over a 1on~~x range a~ a~,1 s~andard NAxO frequencies [96]. x~ has been sugges~ed that Gux~enC f~,~~ models be replacad w~.Ch the equipment of this sy~stem. ~C ca,n be aoupl,ed wi~h ah~.p apeech converter~ ~nd is designed on Che block pr~,nctple (,~our k~y blocka). The output block con- sists of several conver~ers �~ai,~h a direceiona~, d~,rec~iviCy diagram and enablea operatton [100]~ GAS which as a rule operntes ~.n the telephone mode witih a range o� 10 ro 1~ km [82] hae also been installed in deepwater equipmen~. Hydroacoustiic communica~ians fox enabling diving operaCions is n1~o involved in masCery of ocean and sea depths. Tn the U.S. Navy two methoda of eransmitting information are e~pl~yed: w.i.rh modulated signals (on the princ3ple of analogous ship equipment), and by the direct transmission of human speech into the water [56, 73]. Foreign publications have noCed that the employment of aComic energy in sub- marines and the rapid development of radioelectronica and weapona have to a considerable exten~ complicated the control of a submarine. The basis for automation has been computers, which have already become widespread on sub- marines. For example, for American submarines, in keeping with the Sabik pro~ect, a combined syatem for automatically controlling a aubmarine has been developed [85], in which united into a single whole are six main sys~em.g for controlling strategic and tacCical weapons, movement, the navigation complex, radioelecCronic observing, target designation and counteraction facilities, and communications facilities and systems ensuring the habitability of com- partments. The last system has been called upon to ensure the best operating modes for internal and external communications facilities. It includes an automatic high-speed transceiver, coding and decoding equipment, and automatic units for storing and processing received messages and reconnaissance 3nforma- tion, wtiile distributing them to assigned addresses. In addition, the control of the microclimate in compartments is concentrated at this system's console. Representing the logical continuation o~ the Sabik progxam is rhe work of the FRISCO (Fast Reactfon Suba~arine ConCrol) pro~ram--~ast reacting concentrated control of a submarine. The main ob~ective of this program i.s the optimal integration o~ a11 control circuits in a single coJqp7.ex, and on th3,s basis a changeover to comprehensive ~lanning of submarines. On "Trident" guided missile submar~nes the cQmb~ned radio equipment i,nc7,udes ~our AN/UXK-20 com- puters, which repzesent the base of the complex and unite, as 3n the Sabik system, al,l internal and external communi,cations systems [73]. The ~N/UYK-20 computer is a typical ahip camputer in the U.6. Navy and has the following key characCeristics: Cime requtred to per~orm addition operations--0.75 us, 141 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ ~'O~t OF~'ICIAL U5E ONLY , ~ mu].tip~ication--3.8 Ug, ~ogic opexations~~1.4 Ua; bi,t con�iguxgttLnn--1,6; capaci~y o,~ ma~,n memo~cy~~8,OQ0 ~0 65,000 words; ~,6 ~,n~ux~ou~pux ahanne~,s; we~,ght--51 kg; oV~rel~, d~,menei,one,~-6]. X 4S X 5~, cm; mean cy~c],e be~wesn ~ailuree�- 2000 h. . 'The ~Eollowing aze ~he ma~,n w~y~s ~o #,mFrove moda~e pR comanunica~~,ons ~acilities for aubm$rines, in the conc~.u4ion o~ Wea~ern speci, ~he combining of coc~qmunica~~,on~ ~ac~:7,i~i~a in~o uni~ied syatems. The inCroduction into communicat~one ayatema o~ compu~er8, wh~,ch ehould become ~he main uni~ ~or procesaing fn~'ormn~ion, arranging'conpnunicat:tons, contro.~ling ~ communicationa ~aciliti,es and antennas and ~orm3ng and mon~.toring communications channels. Further improvement o~ the ranga o# rad3o snd hydxoacoustic communicationg, especially reception at great deptha, byr employing UL~ and increasing tti~ radiared power o~ transmitters. The creation of equipment by the funceional unit method with a comnon element base, employing modular designs and built-in aystema for monieoring functioning and automatically finding malfunctions, which will ensure high reliability, small dimenaiona and aimplicity in the servicing and repair of communications facilities. The creation of a new aecret HF communicationa sysCem in the submarine to shore direction with a carrier frequency which can be changed pseudorandomly, with a broad radiation range (noiselike signals, including for hydroacouatic communications). The employment of printing equipment enabling the automatic coding and decoding of inessages. ~ The extensive introduction of equipment for communication via satellite. The introduction of a combined electronic system based on a single ahip compuCing center ~or solving problema relating to control and monitoring malfunctioning o~ all submar3ne radioelectronic facilitiea. The universal introduction o~ a system for slant sounding o.f the ionoaphere and ~or reading out optimal xad~,0 communications ~requencies ar the user's request. Chapter 7. Oxgan~,zat#.on and Uti].izatf,on o# Coma~unications wtth Vease~s and Shipa The organizatfon o~ cotroaunicatfons should cover a11 ~acil~,ties and types of communications with Yessels and shtps. HP xadio c~omaaunicationa has the main burden, and it has been steadily inczeasing in recent years, which is explained by the small number of HP channels assigned to the marine mobile service, , 142 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'Olt OF~ZCxAL US~ ONLY an inareas.e 3n nayi.gat~,on intet?eity, ~nd by~ a g~;ow~h ~n ~~eek~ ~n Cexm~ o# number~* 'Phe ~.nlprovemen~ e~' ~,ong~xange mar~,ne ce~mun3ca~~,one ehquld ~,n~7,ude, along wiCh Cha maetexy ~ttd tnG~oduCC~on a,~ a.$Ce~.~.~,te and meta0~' xe~~,ec~ion cennnun~.- catione, ~he moxe e~, U~~1~;x~C~on a~ t~ rad~,o by ~ha employmenC o~ ,~aci~, o~era~~,ng ~n~be~Cer no3se~re~eceion modea (~xequency telegraphy, re~, phase ~e~,egx~phy~, s~ngle ~a~d~band, e~c. Buti required ~or this ie good know],ed$e o~ ehe~organ~za~~on and util~.zation of communic~Cions tritih vessels, eapecially o~ long~range cot4municationa in the ehore Co gh3p - and ship to ahora di.rectf,on$. Que~~~ona relaCing ~o Che organizati.on and ' uGilizaGian o~ communicaeions ak aea are etrict~,y xegulaCed by ~nearna~ional documenta, euch as by radio com~nunicat~ona r@gulatione, conventiona,~ et~~, as we11. as by radio con~nunicati,ons rulea and oehar guid~,ng documenCg of Soviee ~lee~s [38, 53, 54, 59, 61, etc.~. 7.1. Roadatead Communicatiions Roadstead communications are intended for traffic between vesaels and ehips and the shore witk~in the boundaries of sea ports, in open and enclosed sea roads, and also in approaches to ports. Roadstead communications repreaent primarily microwave radio communications in the telephone mode, which enables traffic at a diaCance of 40 to 60 km and more. For example, MRKh veasels have been instructed to carry out roadstead communicationa when upproaching porta, port atations and firshery combines having an on-shore radio atation at a disCance of less than 12 miles (1]. IC ie forbidden to conducC radio traffic on MF and HF; all conversations regarding the order of vessels on the road, approaches eo berths anci ather quesCions are carried out only on microwave.** The frequenciea for radio traffic for ship to ahore, between ships and in the harbor are governed by the decision of the worldwide adminiatrative radio conference on the marine mobile service and are given in [61~. In a number of countries roadstead communicationa are carried out in the 100 to 150 m band, but because of the heavy loading of Chis band ita use for roadstead c~mmunications has been curtailed in recent yeara.*** *For 150,000 vesae].s ~,n the worldwide ~~,eet thexe is a total of 907 channels, i.e., on average 166 marine radio stat~ons opexate in a aingle ~requency band [72j. **HP opexation ~or an A2-oscillatfon radio txansmitter is atopped at a distance ox 10 mi.les, and o~ an A~-oaci.llati,on, o.f 5 tailes ,from a coasta]. station [63j. ***This band was selected in order for an~a~~, cra~t to be ab~e to have a single radio transmitter for roIIdstead and navigation conrtnunications. 143 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott O~~ICIAt, U3~ ONLY On ro~d~t~ad~, and ~~p~ci~7,].y in e harbor, v~.9u~], conpqunicaCione faCi~~.eie~ ~re widely emp],oy~d beewden v~s~~],s and th~ ehar~ ~~nd ~.n porre or for eommunicat~.on w~,rh ~ore~gn veeeele eign~~, ~~.ass. axe pre,~ergb~e, eommuni~a~~,on~. w~~h whi.~h ~,n keep~,ng wi,~h ~h~ ~.ntarnat~on~l a~gnal code considerab~.y eitqpl~,~~,~s the conduct ,o~ ~ra~~ic, When ves~e~,a and ships sail ne$r ~he coaet~ o~ $xeaC e~'fecti~,venees can be coaeta]. retxanscqiCtex~ opexat~.n~ ~,n the~$ve band, eepecial],y if thay creae~e a con~inuous conpnun~,ca~~ona xone enabl~,ng cammue~,caCiona at a d~,atance _ of r.~rom ehe ~hore (~ig 7.1)~ T~ r f~ g~,ven (e~g., by Che poai~ion of ehe fairway), ~hen the die~ance be~ween reexensm~:ttera on the ehore, d(cf. ~ig 7.1) wi,11 equal: - R~ bi b~ ~ r rtg a1-~- r ctg a~ ~ r(etg al ctg a!), 'The calculation o~ communicat3ons ranges, r, r2~ r3,...., as a function of the heights of ehe location o~ retransmittez~s, H1, H2, K3,... , is d~acribed in chap 2. ~ lI~B ~ t~ T 1 i lIMB 1) --L 1 la~ ~ N ~ ~~_p __b= Nj ~ Figure 7.1. Microwave Communicationa Zonea for Ships and Vesaels When Sailing in a Coastal Aren Key: 1. Microwave 7.2. Communications Between Vessels and Ships and the Shore Radio communications o~ a vessel or ship ouCside the range o~ roadstead communi- cations are called navigaCion-and-operating communicationa in the IrQi~ and radio communicatfons the ehore in the 1rIItKh and VMF. xt ~s divided as a function o~ the zange o~ radio routea into clase-range and ].ong-range. When a vesse], czosaes 600 to 800 lcm radio comcaunicati,ons are carried out in the I~4' band, and ~n the HF band irith greater dfstances. Comanunications in the I~ band are as a xule telegraph (A1 mode), and in the HF band~ telegraph (A1 mode), printing (F1 mode) ~nd telephone. 144 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Olt OFF'ICIAI~ US~ ONLY A v~~sa~, ~.n s~~,1in& at d~,s~gnces ~ron~ xh~ shox~ o~ up Co 800 km CampArgtively e~sily egt~bli,she~ ~nd c~xx. ~,es ouC rad~o co~nlun~;cax~,o~na w~,~h ~~d~,o s~a,~~.ons, by apex~C~,n$ a~ ~he na~d~d~ ~~nd o~'cen h~,gh,' powexa o~ i~s xadio ~xanstq~,~eexa. ~'h~,s meChqd o~ cot~munic&~~:on ~.e not xgC~ona~, ~n ~reaa o~ healry~ nav~gax~.on wi~h a],arge number oR cqAS~a~, staC~,pns s;~nce tquch in~ex~exenc~ is areatied. Thexefqre, coasta~, x'~d~;o m~ati,on zones have been ea~ab~,~srhed, w~,thin ~he ~,~.miCs o~ which a veose~, c~n c~rxy~ ou~ coxmnun~,c~~ions ar~,~h on~y one speci~ic staC~,on--~he zone sea~~,on guaxanCe~~ng~ ~he yease~, C~ans~.~ o~ ~~,~a correepondenca. The de4ining o,~ zonea and coastal xad3,o sta~~.ons must ensure ovex th~ entire area o~ the aea Che tranamiss~on o~ marf,ne cox'reeppndence eo any destination w~th ~ min~mum numbex o~ xe~ranemi.ss3,on poi,nta. ,As a rule a two-s~age sysCem is achieved, wh~,ch i~ considered xhe most reagonab7.e in ~he maritime ~1eet (~,1~ 63]. The communications zones for coae~al etatione vessels in a sea basin are shown in ~ig 7.2. Wh~n necessary, veasels can establiah direcC communication with a~ations oP ano~her zone ~or the purpose of trans- miCeittg routine ~nformaeio,l, e.g., tra~Eic control in~ormation to the port of desrination. E-~'t--`-7--=... ~ ~ t~- ~ = ~ ,B ~ ~ ` \~~~i \ ~ . 'c . � ~ ri U Fi.gure 7.2. Co~uni,cat~,ona Zones ~ox Coasta]. ~ and H~' Stations, for � � yessels ~,n a$e~ Bas~,n; A, B, C-~rad~,o stat~.ons of ports ~ox whf,ch cos~qunicatfons zanes Z, ZIz h~ve been esCab- lfshed; D, E-.--xadio sCaCions ok not too laxge ports not having coz~aquni,cations zQnes - 145 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR O1~F'ICIAL U5E ONLY When vessels sx~,1 at greae di,sranc~s (more ~han SOQ ktq), ~or purposea o~ uni,~ormly~ disCr~,bu~i.n~ the ].oad o~ coastal etgt3,on~ and of ensux~n8 cqnC~nuous moniCoring q~ Che~,r poai.~ion, i,~ is also ad~visab],e ~o esGabliah zonea for communicaG~;on~ w~;~h vesse~.~ in ~h~ H~ bArd. ~'hen Chey xeach gxea~ fl~.mensiona. , In de~ining commun~ca~~ons zones and coasta~ xad~.o cenxexe ~ox aerv~.cing these zonea,:~~,~ ~s necesaary Co s~~r~ve ta ensure max~,mum ~1,ex~,bill~y in carrying out communicat~one, i~ e. , xh~. vesse~l, ~hou~,d ha.~ve ~he ability to establish comwunicat~ons and conduc~ ~~xa~~~.c no~t w~,th one, but wi~h two or more poin~s ( ~.s very ~,wpoxtan~ urhen a veysel ~,s in areas wi~h poor travel o~ waves) or w3th a si,ng7.e RTs [xadi.o center] o~ the vessel's choice. In f3g 7.3 axe shown approx~mate zones ~or H~ communicat~,ons w~.Ch veasels completing voyages .from por~s o~ the Ba1~ic and Black seas to ports of Weatern Europe and North A~rica [63]. ~rom the region enclosed in tiriangle VGO, a vessel can conduct radio tra~~3c with any RTs of ewo counmunicaCions zones, which increases the probabillty of communica~ions between the vessel and the shor. e . r . ~ � ~ Q ~ ~ ~uHa? a 0 8 ~ ~ / ~ . ~ f 3oNaE / ~ ~i~'~i, ~ ij , i% ' Figure 7.3. Communications Zones of Coastal HF RTs's, for Vessels in Long-Range Navigation When communicating wiCh a single RTs, a vessel accomplishes radio communication with a probability of PH1 . With radio interference the probabiiity of communication can be increased by multiple simultaneous transmission of the message. But with heavy radio interference or with the poor travel of radio waves it is necessary to txansmit the message n times at different frequencies or at various ti.mes. The following is ~uggested for the pxobability o~ a vessel's communi- - cating with sevexal xece~v~,ng (.trans~i,tt~ng) po~nts, the number of receiving (transmitting) pa~,nts, and the number ok message txansmi,aai,ons. There are k zeceivfng points, at each o~ which a message arrives ~s~ bable call, radiogram) ~rom a vessel with}r i.e., p reception by all poi,nts is accomplished. It is ne~es~ary~ to find the proba- bility of communicatfons: 1) with a single transmi,ss~on of a message and its reception by any of k points; 2) wiCh n transmissions of a message and 146 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY it~ r~cep~~,on by on~ o$ k po~:nta; 3) W~,th a~ing~,e xx$ne~q~,~a~.on of a me~s~ge ~nd ~,~s ai~ultansQue r~cepx~..Qn by~ two, xhxee m pa~,n~s a,~ k po~.nCa; 4) with n~xan~m~;s~~,aqa.o;~ a, uteeaage and ~;te xaaep~~:qn i~;~ 2, 3~ , m posnCe out o~ k po~n~e, ' xhe number o,~ xxanan~s.e~,ons ,~xom a e~n$~,~ Yeeae~; nox ~oo $reac, and territox~,a],ly~ ep~aed xecept~an each ~o~,nt xe~~~,~ree ~ndependentxy o,~ the others ~ There~'ore can be aasumed xha~ ~h~~ d~,stix~;buC~,on o,~ probab~.~,~,~y o~ co~nunic~- r~.on obeys a b~,non~~,a~, ~,aw. Cons~quent~y~, ~ax ~he cond~,~iona used, ~he probabili- ty o~ commun~,ca~3on ~,n xhe aing~e Cx~na~x~se~on o~Pka measage and recap~3on of it by any o~ k po3nts equal~ R~ � 1~(1 ~ x) ~ The probability of conm?unication wi~h n tranem~ge~one and xecep~~on by any pA~,nt equals r� =1- (1-P~)n. 1 With ehe reception by eny o� k pointe o,~ a meeeage tranamitted n times~ the probability o~ comnun~cation, RZ ~ ben~mes equal to RZ s 1_(1 - r~) � 1 - {1 - [1 - (1,- Pl) ~ } Q 1 - (1 - P1) . The necesaity for aimultaneous recept~,on by two or Chree ~nd nore pointa is ~ determined by Che aspiraeion of 3mproving Eideli~y by comparing messages received. In a general formulation, the solution of this probl.em boils down to f~nding P , the probability of communication in the reception by m poinCs out of k1� of a message tranamitted n times: _ . . _ p~� Ck ri' ~~~R-?n = L�k ~ ~ j ~ P~~ri~n~ P~)~R-m~ . Hence it follows Chat the probability of commuttic~tinn in the eimultaneous reception by two or more poinCs out of k of one of n transmisaione from a vessel, R2 , equals: Rs-1--Ro--R~'-= ~--(~-~r~)k--kr~(I-r~)"-~= 1-(1- --P~)"R-k ~1-(1--Pt)~~~ (1-P~)"IR-i~. Aa a reault of a trana�orm, we get the equation: R,= 1--k(1-P,)"~~`~~-}-(k-1)(1-P,)"k. In a similax' mannex ~,t is poas~ble to ca~.cuXate the probab~.l.~,ty o� communication in simultaneoua recepti,on by three ox mare po~nta out o~ k of one o~ n transmisa~,ons ~xom the vesae7., R3 : Ra =1--- Ro Rl Rz =1- (1- P~)"k - --k (1- P,)" ~k-'~ - k (1- P,)"k -CR (1-- P,)" IR-z) 2CR (1- P,)" - Ck ( l PI)""` ~ 1- CR (1- P,)� (R-~1 -i- (2C~-k) (1-- P,)" tR-i~~ ~C~~k ~l rpi)~k~ R~ =1--Ck (1- Pi)" ~R-'~ (2C~ -k) (1- P,)" ~R''~ - -(CR-k-}-1) (1-P~)"k. 147 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY C~1cu]~~C~.on o~ ~h~ vg7.u~~ of R and ~t ~xom ~h~ aqu~C~.on~ ~~x~ved at, and moz~e eo tihe v~].u~~ o~ k ~esi~ned ~a~,u~~ o~ ,~i . and lt ,~,e raeher comp~ex. To ix eaa~,er, xha auehora have ca],nu~,ae~d ~he gx4~h~ ehown ~n .~~.g 7.4. R . RZ p ~,o a9 4,� a~ ~A o~ o,a ae a~ 0,6 a6 ~~s _ _ _ ~~S 0~ 1~4 0,4 ` g3 a3 ~ e: 4p ~ ~ aQ o,f 0 2 4 5 6 7 kd 0 ? 3 4 6 6 k 7 ~ A~ ~ R: l.0 f,0 ,Q g9 : ~ ~A QD _ aa , ~ M1 q~ a~ q6 ~'6 a O~s ~ L14 - 0,3 q4 n~3 a~ 0~`~ ri:f g~ a~ ~ , ~o z s~ s 6k ~ o j 4 s 6 ~k a Pigure 7.4. [Conttnuati,on ~nd captton on ~o],low~ng page) ~ 148 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFiGiAt, USE ONLY R~ ' R ' !~0 ~i~ QA~~ a9 a~D o,e o~ �N qe ~u 4~ 4~ ~ Q6 q6 as qs a4 q,4 ~ 4~ p~' D,J aQ aQ a,~ n�Q a, n�~ O 4 6k7 0 4? 6k7 ~'igure 7.4. Graphs o~ Dependence of the Probabillty of Simultaneous Reception by Two (R2) and Three (R ) Points from Number of Points (k) of Transmiseions (n) an~ of Individual Probability . of Reception (P1) In a similar manner can be calculated the probability of communication with variation in the number of tranemit~ing pointa and with two-way communication between the vessel and different numbera of receiving p~inte and tranamitting poinCa in the communications ayetem. By uaing graphs, it is poeaible to cal- culate aleo the required number of tranamissions of a message, n, for antici- pated conditiona of communications, P1 , and for specific requirementa for RZ and R in a con~municatioi~a system havi~ig k tranamitting (receiving) points, i.~., k communications zone rgdio centers. It is obvious that of k communicationa zone radio centera one must be the main cer~te~ and the others aecondary (auxiliary). Taking inCo account the fact that the greatest di~�i, for long-range co~munications with veasels are presenCefl by the xecept3on on ahore of ineseages txansiattted by a marine radio tranamitter hav~ng, as a xule, not Coo great poWex, uwa~ o~ten auxiliary receiving pointa axe i,nsta],1,ed on ah9xe, e.g., ~,n the Fng],~,sh cot~aaunications syatem, whaee commun~cat~ons zonee axe ahown ~,n ~~g 7.5. The ent~.xe global ocean is divf,ded ~nto xeg~ons (cont~unicatt,ons ~onee) ,~,n each o~ Which thare are regional. (~.e., sva~.n ~oz the reg~on i.a queat3on) txanecei, stationa and additiona~], (~uxtl~a~ry) xecei,v~ng aCatf,ons [63]. A meseage 3,a Cransmitted hy the vessel i,n the HF band to a reg~onal xadio arat~on located ~n the country to which the tqeasage is aent, ox to the neareat reg~,onal or auxiliary radio 149 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFIC~AL US~ ONLY ~tat~,on. Th~ n~ee.~tag~ 3.s. tr~rsm~,Cted Co ~he~ addrss~ee by~ tra,na~t ~rom regi,ona~ pr aux~,l,~;axY~ s~a~~,ans~* VeeseJ,s, 3n ~a~~;~ng~ sy~t~~~cA~~.y eend ~,nxaxna~~on ~A the~~c et~ipping 1~~n~ (pa~t o,~ aaa~,gnmen~) and poxe o,~ dea~~,n~t~,on. C gEPHbt~f n~~ ~HTbt~ ~ ' 0}t1~AN ~ 9 b ~ � ~ 8 , ~ ~ ~ 3~ \ N4~p Co ~~PAiION~ t~ 5~ ~ I~N Y~ ` ~ , y PoaoNe 16 \ ~ oM et ' PAAoHB ~~,c ; "'~e~'Pa oHT~ l PAa H ~~Nr--- ~ 'e~s~ ~ ~MOE41 n~~ CiMt~~Ir~~~ ~ 10) ' ~ o " ~ ; ~ ~ PeAon3 ~ 1~ - -~r`_ ~ _ !~~Q _ KrN~ n _ ~ - O ~ 3 ~ ~~~MEM 010 14~ ~ ~ I~OM1A ~ NEMIITAtlM BEAIINNrTOM e .9 ~MDM ~ poao~s ~ 6) ' ~,~'~~?3~ , ~ x PoAoN2 PoaoN7 ~ , AO ~ ~MOM 120 110 I �t 02 ~t ~ Figure 7.5. Communications Zones of English Coastal Radio SCations for HF Communicatione with Vesaels: 1--regional transmitting and receiving atation; 2--auxiliary receiving station; 3--regional receiving atation Key: 1. Arcti.c Ocean 9. Si,ngapoxe ~.7. Region SA , 2. Hali,fax ].0. Hong Kong 3. Atlanti,c Ocean 1~. KunaFraxaxa 4. ~ozti,ahead ].2. S~dney~ 5. Malta 13. A~axua. 6. Capetcam 14 ~ i~e1].tngton ~ 7 , ga~~y 15. ~ac~~i.c Ocean 8. Ceylon ~6. Vancouver , *In addition to English veeaels, this crnncouni,cationa system can be utilized by vessels of other countries, but additi,onal paqment ia exacted �roc~ them _ ~or the uae oP coaatal rad~o stat3,ona taking part i.n exchange of correapondence. 150 FOR OFFICIAL~,USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ ~OR O~FICIAL U3~ ONL,Y Mae~~~~s er~n~fli~,~~~d Co ~,on~-xange n~Vi~a~~,on vee~~J,~ by eh~ m~i,n RT~'~ in whoe~ aonea th~y ~i.nd ~h~ms~elv~~� xh~r~~o~~, v~~e~~,~ h~v~ xh~ ~b~,~.gaeion o~ r~poxt~ng on Che~;r pos~,ti~.on ~o main R~~'~ @Va~'y~ ~wa 24~hour ~ex~,od~ Chay rama~,n ~@a, ~g we~,1 aa when ~n~a~r~,ng ~ ~axC o~ ahan ~.aaving ~,e. ,A~.~. ~o~e~a7, RT~ ~ s broadcasC aC ~t~~ eafl4e ~ime and on~,y~ ~ox ~~ng~a 24~hour p~riode, which i~ a eon~~,d~x~bi~ d~aadvanCag~ o~ rh~,~ cot~nlun~aa~~,ona eya~em, s~.nca a v~ss~l usug~,ly~ haa a e~,ng1~ ~r~d~,d ran~~,v~z $nd ea~ hear ~he b'C8~dQ88Cg 0~ ~ aingl~ Rxe. For the pur~oae o~ ~,n~pxav~ng ~he xe],~,ab~li,ty o~ communicarion~, iC ~.s nQCeseaxy~ to ~,ncxe~ee ehe numAex o~ rad~,o xece~,vexe on a vessel and far radi,o center~ ~o make bro~dcaete Ak~ ~3~~er~n~ ~3mee according to a achedule. Communi~~eions adminiserat~.ons ~ra draw~.n~ up an qper~ein~ time s~ti~du~.~ for coas~al and m.arine radi.o s~ations a~ ehe mariCfine and conpnarc~,a]. ~lea~. In long-r~nge navigarion ve~aels cgn usa 3nt~rna~~.ona1 radio commun3cat~ons alsu, ~lehough, 3a obvious from tnbla 1.~, the number of int~rnational. radio m~~~agea in informaCion flow~ ~ompri$es fraceione of a p~rcane. Coe~e~L etations ar~ in ~~rviCe cone~nuou~ly day nnd ni~he, if pnsgible. However, some, ag a rule not tioo la~rge, ~ta~ions opQr~te at restrict~d tim~g. , M~rin~ L~d~.o ~rat~ons, in conformity with internati.onal redid communic~tione r~gul~tiong �or length of duty~ ar~ divided into four c~eegorie~: Stae~on~ of cntegory 1 are in eoneinuoug service; stgtion~ in ~~r~gory 2 are eervice 16 h per 24-h period (0000 to OG00, 0800 to 1200, 1600 to 1800 and 2000 to 2200 houra marine or zone time and 4 h for marine communications neede); stationg of category 3 are in service 8 h out or 24 h(0800 to 1200, any evo hours continuously between 1800 and 2200 of marine or zone time, and 2 h for marine communications needs); and stations of category 4 are in service leag than 8 h and their operating Cime is not regulated. Each communications adminisCration itself determines the rules according to which marine stations are divided into Che appropriate categories, but by taking into account the requirements of inrernational radio cQmmunicationa regulations.* 2~or the purpose of establiahing radio communicaCions by marine stations of category 2 and between one another and with the shore, a unified schedule for th~ op~ration o~ thes~ atations has been introduced by international regulationa. ~or this purpose the entixe global ocean ie divided along meridi- ana into 24 zones, A, B, C~ A, 2, as illuatrated in ~ig 7.6, and for each zone a uni~ied schedule has been eatablished ~or the operation of atatione of category 2 and 3[61]. Radio communicaCf,ons between vessels and coasta~. rad~o stat~ons are ebtablished at definite call�frequencies, and Chen tra~~ic is carried out at ~ixed *In the Sov~et marine radio service all marine statfons operate according to definite achedules, which Cake into accounC international requirements (63]. 151 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F~R ~FFICIAL U~~ ANLY ` ~requenc~.~s. 'xh~ dietir~,bue3an o~ ~requennies ia An~ o,~ tha most imporeant qv~etiione; tih~~~~are, lee us dw~11 br~,e#1y on ~ ~ _ I~ ~s~ ~o~, �s 3 ~ ~s o'w ?s W W ,s sa~ ~sb ~aw a _ ~ ne~ a X W V il t S A A P O~N~Z~A~B~O~;~D f'F Q H i K L M/r 0 , 70' 60' % ( ~ ~ , e . '�1w ~o ~ ~o ; , , , , +o� ao' ~ " , ~ :o� _ . ~ ~ ' ~ l ~ :o' ; 10' . � a y 4 ro� . ~ , + 0' ' ? p � . ~ ~ ' ; ( 0� ~ ' ' 0 + ~ i,~ 2 ~ R, , +~.t ti ~ 1 + ~ , . , ~ 0 10 ~ ~ .ti. ~ � I .~,R1' ?O dp~ � ' ' p~ ' 44' ~ ' ti 10' , � SC t M . ~ ~ SO' 60' I , ~ I 60' 1 I 70' ~ ' ~ ~ fQ0' t60' f40' JPO' IAO' t0' 60' 14' 20 0' t0' 40 60' 00' ?d~' I!0 110 Ib0' lf0 ' ~ Figure 7.6. Radio Service 2onee and Time for Veseele of Category 2 The entire raage of frequenciea ueed for radio communicationa, by deciaion of the MitKR, is divided into nine bands, indicated in Appendix 2. Theae ~ banda have been divided by international agreementa into bands which have been assigned to various radio aervicea: a) the stationary service, i.e.~ the service ,�or radio communications between atationary ground pointe; b) the mobile service, i.e., the aervice for radio communicatione bet~aeen mobile and ground etationa or ~uat mobile atations on vesaels, aircraft, automobiles, etc.; c) the mar~,ne mobile eervice, i.e., the service for radio communicatione between max~ne and coasta7. etationa, aa well aa bet~een marine atations; d) the a~.rboxne and other servi,cea. For the purpoae o~ d~$tri,but~ng radl,q Pxequencies, the entire world i8 divided .into three regiotle~ $e illu8traxed ~,n ~ig 7.7. The boundar~,ee o~ these regions are linea A, B&nd C. The d~s~ributi,on o~ ~requency bande by services has been done Rox the ent~re Woz~d and #or zeg~ons. Tn rab~e 7.1 ~requency banda are indfcated on].y gor the a~obil,e serv~ce~ by the conventi,onal dea~gnation PS. and ~or the mar#ne mobile eerv3,ce~ by 1~3~ MQS etations i,n the 4 to 27.5 P4Iz range have been aaaigned ~`requencq banda og 4, 6, 8, 16, 22, 25 and 27 1~II~z. The ~irat six are divided into 13 segments (61~, each o~ wh3,ch i.a uaed !or difPerent regulated purpoaea and claeses o! transmiesion (duplex, aimplex 152 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F0~ dFF~CIAt, US~ ONLY r~di.o ti~lephony: I~o~~~ a4de e~le~raphy~, dig~;C~~, ~e~,ec~~,ye c~l~� eec gs 3ndi.c~C~d, ~o~c exam~l~, in eab~,e 7.2 ~~h~ pu~pog~ ~,nd emp~.aym~nC a.~ each ~r~q,v~ncy ran~e axe ~~,ven ~,n ~he r~gul~~i,on~ [67,~, I~~x u~ dwp~.~ bx~e~~,y on7,y on Che 4Q5 Co 535 kHx r~nge~ ~t Ch~,s range are ~r~n~mietied, ae a rule, ~ distre~g, urgency and aecurieyr ~~;gna~,s, not~� ~xotq na~~,gatora hazarda aC aea, ~tc, xhere~a~e, atr~ce r~qu~,ren~en~e~ ,~ox ~he~,on o~ Prequencies ~,n ~h3~s xange haV~ $enn prdvtded by~ ineern~xion~7, ru~.e~ and th~ radid commun~,caCi.ona ru~,ea o~ Sov~,e~ ~ 80~ P9N NZ 9 a Pa~ HI y C ~ b ~ � ` s~~ _ ~ ? ~ ti0 ~ ~ _1 40' ~ 0 " ~~I~ " _ . 20 ~ 4~' Pp~on) ~ Pae~n~ 80 ~ ~ a ~ a IAO' 180' IhG't1G' ~~7' 8G 6D' ti0' 20' 0' ?0' 40' 60' 80' 100' 1~0' t~G 160' I! 180' Figure 7.7. Charts of Regions Provided in Table of Dist~'ibution of Frequency Banda Key : 1. Region 1 In this range only austained and tone oscillations (A1, A2 and A2N) are per- mitted to operate. Communications between coastal radio atations and vessels, a~ well as between vessels, must be carried out with minimum power of radio transmitters. The most important frequency in Chis range is 500 kHz--the call and distress ~requency. It is employed by marine vessels and aircraf t when immediate assi.stance is xequired and for the transmiasion of urgency and security signals and messages. Coastal staCions are permitted to use this frequency for calls and responses to them, ~ar selective calling, and for cot4~4uni,c&tion~ zeg,aXding ~oxthco~i,ng tzanatul,eai,on o~ ~~.sta o~ call vesaels ~ox Wh~ch thexe ~st aozxespandence~ Each coastal radio atation in thfa band must have, i.n addition to a frequency o~ 500 kHz, not ~ess than one opexating ~requency. Marine stations have been assigned the use as operating frequenci,es of 425, 45k, 468 and 480 kHz, and in regiong 1 and 3, 512 kHz, and in region 2, 448 kHz [61]. The frequency o~ 512 kHz can be uaed by coastal and marine etations for calling, when the 500 kHz ~requency is occupfed by tra~fic Por questiona relating to veaeels in distresa. 153 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F01~ OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Tab~,e 7~~. ' BcewNpua p~Abuutl� p~cnpeAen~NNe aeator fle,noc~ ~cn e wcrot~ Kfy P p A~a~ur~ 2~40CTOT 4~~1oN 1 p~pou 2 paRon 8 . . 1 Z 9 4 ~ Oa-It0 I 5~ I M~d N Ap~ I Mt1C u d; . i ~1~C i~ AV~ IIU~13U - ItO--tl2, M(1C N Ap, MnC u Ap, I Ib-148, 149-130 MnC u an~ ' IJO-IMl I ( A1tiC M pp, ( �itC AP~ MtiC M Ap, .~l_...~._.__ 4SS-4AS y- ~I MfIC M AE~ I I � ' - ~o~-~~a ( - (6~tt; N a~,. ~ ~ I _ ~ia-~~o I Mnc I - I . ~ , ~UU-510 i1C (eN~H~ad 6ea� - - _ ~ CT~NA ~M10~~) � LIO-b2b I - I MRC w Ap. I I1C N AD� I Mf1C r Ap. 1805-1170 - TIC M Ap� I1C N AD~ nC N;.p, 41f0-2191 ( tiC (aHriionw (iC N Ap. I TiC N Ap. I (iC ~t ,1p. ~ rM~ou H 6lJ~CT~Nq) 8 ~~fl I - I nc n~. I nc Ap. I nc au. . _ sazs-ze~o I I~~nc aa~ ( nc ao. I n~ np. : aiu-~o I nc N Ap. I _ I _ I _ I - I nc g Ap. I(1C r AD� I nc x np. . ~us3-+aso I Mnc ap. I _ I _ I _ ' . BZf~O-8S2S I ~1ftC I I I _ 6t95-~lr10 I MI1C I - I - I _ 45U10-25110 IIC u Ap. I - ( _ I _ s3t1~~-~;SW I fiC n Ap. I - I _ I _ Key; 1. Frec~uency band, kHz 5. Mp&, etc~ 2. worldwide dtatri,butfon af 6. ~S, etc. frequenci,es 7. PS (distress and ca11 aignals) ~ 3. Reg~onal diatribution of 8. PS (call and di,stresa aignals) frequencies : 4. Region 1 154 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Table 7,2. Y4~cr!~ nnnocw~ KonN4enreo yeeror (N)~ paaHeeeiwuo yepea e~ (aPy~~ 11pHQBIINleOMWQ lHA~~ MOpCN011 CMRIII ~ ~ WHpoKnnonoci~nn Y~KOnonocua?i 3 TeJtePp9t~Np~ 4 5~ Tl~II~Pp11thI1N ~ ~ONCNMNn@~ ~ nepeAa4e (6yeeone~~ara~uio ~ ~ Cflpu1111JIb11W~ OKQBIIOPpl1pN4lCNII% n~pl~B4A J~111111WX) CYCTC~IN tll`(10J164H A~IIIIW1t (A~d0~3 N~q) Cb CNOpOCTb10 AO IW 60J( (A~ sy ~ Kr4) (A j es 0~6 Nr4) 4 41Q8,6-4160,6 4162,9--4165,8 4360-43~8,b N~+ 4 N~ l0 N=::14 6 8226,6--8242,6 6244,9-8247,6 849A,b-6bOb,6 N~ b N~ 10 N~:=23 8 8 302-8 32G 8 328, 4- 8 331, I 8 705 - 8 718 N~7 N~10 N=:27 I2 12441,5--12477,8 12479,9 -12482,6 130?1,b- I3099,b ' N~10 N=10 N-b7 l6 16598,a-16634,4 16636,9--16839,6 I? 197,5 W IT231,6 ' N~10 N~10 N=69 22 22142-22 I 68 22160, 9- 22163, 8 22 b81, 5- 22 594 , 6 N=5 N~10 N-67 Key: 1. Bands, MHz 4. Tranamisaion of oceanographic data 2. Band segmente; number of (~f m 0.3 kHz) frequencies (N) apaced over 5. Narrowband telegraphy (printing and pf (kHz) assigned to typea data tranamisaion at a rate of up of marine communications to 100 bauds (~f a 0.5 kHz) 3. Broadband telegraphy, fac- simile, apecial trans- miseion systema (~f ~ 4 kHz) For the purpoae of establiahing radiotelegraph communicaCions, a marine station uses one of the band's call frequencies (in each band are provided 2 common and 4 group channels and additional call frequencies [61]), selec~ing the beat one in termr, of propagation conditiona. Coastal stations conduct watches on common calX channe].s (in each band) and assigned group channels in conformity with the data in the list of coastal stati,ons and reapond to calls at their frequency. 7.'hey cal]. Vessels at de~inite hours at the frequency designated on theirc opexaCing achedule. vesaels respand at their own call frequency in the same band. After the establishment o~ con~muni.cations at the call ~requency, the calling station sh~~ta ~Qx the t7Can$w~ss.~;on 4~ corxespondence to one o~ ~ts own operating ~requencies (as., ~ox exatqp].e, tn table 7.3), s~nGe tra~~ic at ca11 frequencies is not permitted. Ttie ~requencies for bands between 4 and 27.5 l~iz are given in [61]. Coastal stations in A1 and ~1 Cranemission operate at a pawer of not greater than 5 kW (4 to 6 I~iz) and 15 kW (12 to 22 I~4iz) . 155 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~~A b ~o~ o~~icinL us~ ornY Table 7.3. ~ 1) no,~co e n+r,~ 5)nonoc, is n~ru 6~o,~c~ is ~~ru ~ ~ � , cepiui ~epero� Bepern� , 6epero� 3 r~e CyAoewe sdg ~yAOUwe ~a~ CyAO~ue ~ ctn114110 CT~II~IHN ~~~IIIIIIN CtelIq1111 ~Y0114NM CT~114MU 4J I 87t15 83ad 13 071,6 17 d91,b 17 197,6 16 880,6 ~ i 2 8705,6 8344,6 13 072 12 d92 17 198 18 681 3 8708 894b 13 072,6 12~192,b 17198,6 18 681,6 A 8706,6 83db,5 13 073 I~ d93 17 199 18 882 ' . , , , 27 8718 8357 13 084,b 12 b0a,8 17 410,b 16 873,6 67 13 099,6 12 bl9,b 17 22b,6 16 688,b 89 17 431,6 18 69~,b - Key: ` 1. Number of seriea 4. Marine stations � ~ 2. 8 I~Iz band 5. 12 P4Iz band 3. Coastal stations 6. 16 MHz band ; For the purpoee of establlshing radiotelephone communicationa, marine and ; coastal etatione use.carrier frequenciea (table 7.4) or asaigned operating ' frequencies [61]. The frequenciea and operating time of coastal stationa are given in the list of coastal stationa. For the conduct of traffic by coastal and marine atations, a determination has been. made of carrier and aasigned frequenciea for aingle-band tranamisaion for duplex and aimplex operation [61], and the number of channels gotten thereby is given in table 7.4. In duplex operation with AZA and AZJ transmission, the power of coastal stations must be not greater than 10 kW, and of marine, 1.5 kW, and with simplex operation the power of atations must not be greater than 1 kW. Printing radio communicationa with vessela ia similar in Cerms of the procedure for eatablish~ing comwunicatione and ~or conducting tra~~ic to radi,otelephone coumnunications, diacussed above. First cmmnunicationa ia eatablished between the vessel and the coasta]. radio atation, and thea tra~Pic ia conducted at operating ~requencies [67.~. Zn thia manner are radio communications carried out between 1`~ and MRKh vessela and theix radio centexa (comr~unicationa units). Ma~or and secondary 1~ and I~ilth rad~,o centexa and the operating areas of theee radio centera are g~Ven i.n [43, 51]. Vessels and eh~~s at ~ea obligatorily receiye hydxomateaxo], communicationg aad noti#icatfons fxrnq nav~gatore regt~xd~~g hazarda dtscovered at sea, regarding changes or ma],~unctfons i,n buoyrage at aea~ coma~unicatione regarding fairways, etc. 156 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFZCtAL U9E ONLY ~~ble 7.4. ~u~ue ynctotu~ Kf q KonN~~eare nonoc~ peAorNx K~n~noe 1lonoce ae tot~ ~epe~onda CyAOeue Aeyxaec~utae~K oAaovantotue~r ~~PU aHiu~n ~ta a pn~enrd {~N"~~Knileai) A~~c~eeot~ieuan 4 4 dl9,d 4 I~& Zg (aUl-�d~8 I 8 8621~9 821b ~ (fiU1~60d; 2 8 87NO,g 8~b7 31 ~801~g,11~ 2 12 I~ 162,g t2392 32 I~UI-1~32 3 18 17494,9 18b22 dl ~ICU1~18~l1; 3 22 22 858 22 d62 d0 (~'lUl ~-27~Itl) 6 t1pNw~auuiN, N s6t30110 IICtltlAhfylotCp 48CitlfM NUIIAJItlB ~41, go8, S4t, 1441, IA41, ?141~ ~ Key : l~ Frequency band, MHz 5. Marine atationg 2. Call frequencies, kHz 6. 7'wo-frequency for duplex operaeion 3. Number of operating (number of channel) channele in band 7. 3ingle-frequency for eimplex operation 4. Coaetal statione 8. Note: Por calling, frequenciee oi channela 421, 606, 821, 1221, 1621 and 2221 are uaed. Lists of coastal stationa tranamitCing theae communicationa, their call lettere, operating frequenciea, Cransm3rting Cimes, and the nature of communicatione transmitted to the USSR are publiehed for the information of all navigatora 3n " Information for Navigators," published by the V1~ Hydrographic Adminietra- tion. Data on stations of fo reign governments are published ifi "Lige of Stationa for ltadio Identification and Special Services," publiahed by the International Telecommunication Union. The organization o~ comanunicatione for foreign vesaels, as demonatrated by an~alysis, is similar to that diacuased, but there are distinctive featurea, the ma~or one being the following. 3oviet vessels as a rule maintain communi- cationa with Cheir own shipping lines and administratione, and in the case of difficulty :!n carrying out direct communication, or o# its abaence, traffic is conducted via any other RTs, the ~F or IrIIZKh central communicationa unit (TaSU). $oreign vesaela tranemi,t in~ortaat~,on not to the vessel's owner, but to the nearest coastal radi,o station, from which it is traasmitted to the aildxesaee thxough the qu~te rami,~ied "TeYex~' network. Zn this aystem distances between a yease], and a coaeta]. rad~o stati,an raxe~.y exceed 2000 to 5060 laq, un],~ke in the dome$tic ayatem, wheze ~hey reach ~.0,000 to 20,000 lun [72]. 7.3. Communicat~,ons o~ Vessels and Sh~,ps tn Joi,nt Navigation Vessels o~ the I~IDi fleet as a rule work according to the expedition syatem in a~iahing greund. Ships o~ the VMg, when ~ulfilling set ob~ectivea, in 157 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FDR OFFICrAI. U9E ONLY the m~~oriey o~ ~,nseanc~~ work ~o~,n~ly. ve~~Ql~ not ~,n,~xe~u~nt~,y ~~3,1 togaeher ~n ~~roup, a.$ �~g p~x~ o# n cpnvoy~~ Wh~a vda~els and eh~.p~ eail eogeehax, oot~qun~catl;ot~s e~e carx~,ed octt na~ on]~y~ w~eh the ehqre, bu~ aZeo wi,th ong ano~her~ Th~ o~cganization o~ communica~4at~p bAtween Yeaaeln ~nd ~he ~hare rema~ne fundamantally ehe eame a~ ~ha~ d~,~caeead in eec 7~2. SuC tha emp~,oyment o~ communicaCione ~,e modi~ied eontewhet. ,yaeee~,e and eh~,pe reeeive ~,nformaeion f rom eheir oam unite, and trs~~'~,a ~,s eonduct~d byr ~~ha ~#legehip or equadron veesel. Veseels and eh~,ps ma3neain dfracC co~maunica~ion with ehe ~lagship~ which regulatee their radio tra�~~,c. Communicaeione between vessela ie called comanerci8l in the t~tlth, and tac~icai in the VMF. The organization of comm~uni- cetions o# Ch38 sort eatails communication ~imes, fraquenc~es, operating period, and natur~ of traf#ic. ~ Communicatione batiween I~ vesgele in tow3ng, piloting through ica, cr 3n a convoy are conducted, depending on distiances, in the microwav~, MP or HF band8. Comnercial radio communicationa are carried out ueually over not too greaC dietances of 300 to 400 lan. For this, the microwave band ie used (F3 mode) and the 1.6 to 3.8 MHz HP band (A3 mode), enabling communicationa with good travel of radio ~aavea at any time of day. Over lung diatances, radio communi- cations are carried out in the HF band according to a preset schedule. Communi- cation between veae~le is ae a rule radiotelephone (mode F3 ar?d A3)~ By its means are conducted commercial conferences between aquadrons regarding organi- zation of the catch and the advice of flotilla chiefs and fleet specialiste is conveyed, and circulating broadcasts are made of the reaulta of grounda reconnaissance, inatructions are given on the order of veasels, and the like. Conm~unications in each group of veasels are carried out at the operating frequency fixed for this group of veasels. For enabling calling and wbtching in the area of grounda, the so-called f leetwide call frequency [1) has been asaigned, at Which radio stationa watch depoC shipe and emergency rescue vessels. Tactical comwunicat~ons between ehipa has undergone coneiderable development in recent years. Por ~imultaneous control o~ the maneyvering o~ ehips, their weapona and ~acilities in ~oint navigation and when ~ul~illing ob~ectives~ as well as ~or the exchange o~ ~,n~ormati,on on queat~.ona relating to changea in situation and Co the#,x o~exat~ans~ as a zule several radic networka are set up in the mf,crowave and H'~ b~nds, dependi,ng on com~uunications ranges. Furthermor~, theix nttwber has been gxow~ng steadily. Accoxdi,ng to the data of English studiea, th~,s t,ncxease has occurred 3,n the ~o].lowin$ manner. Whereas for amall one net~oxk Was requixed ~n 1945, in 1955 two were required, and in 1965, ~our; ~or laxger sh~ps, whereas two were required in 1945, in 1955 ~our were required, and in 1965, eight. Thus, every 10 yeara a 100-percent increase has occurzed in the number of radio networka. 158 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OrFYCIAL USE ONLY In ine~r~cC~,on b~tween ~ur~nne sh~,p~ ~nnd ~~.rc~;a~e, di~rec~ two-way radio c.qcrpqunicg~~,ons be~we~n Chem ~,s neces~~ryr. xn many~ ~,nat,~nces pn only ~h~ recep~~,~n o~ repqxx~ ~,s~ ~e~u~;xed, bu~ d~,rec~~y~ ,~rat~ xeconn~~,ssance a~,x~ cxaE~. xn xhe o~3,n~:on o,~ ~ngJ.i;sh gpeci~~.3,sts ~ com~qunica~iona a ahlp~~o- a~.rcra~x ~,~,nk ~,s now requ~:red ,~ox pr~ctic~l~.y~ ~~rery ehip q,~ a~~eet, noe to menC~.on aircra~~ ca1�riexa, whi,ch fius.t have 20 auch comnlun~,c~~ions channels ~ ~or the con~xQl oQ a~,xer~~e in ~he aix, ~qx bx~,ngin$ ~hen~ home ~~d ,for en~bling l~nd3ng. The ma~ori~y o~ the 1,aGee~ ~ng~.ish destroy~ra and ~r~,ga~e9 have hel~.copCers, and son~e a,~ ~hese ~h~,ps have .been ~ntxus~ed wi~h spec3,a1 taska to ~he con~rol o,~ ,E~gh~ers ~ Thaxe,~ore, a1~. sh~,pa mus~ have the ~d commun~.caCe w~,th airc~;~a~t, eyen i~ tihese axe PVO [a~.r defense] or PLO [ant~.submaxine de~ense] ~ircxa,~C and they are~ under Che ~uriadiction of ~he VMS [naval .~orces] avia~ion commgnd or shoxe command. Direct radio communi- cationa is arranged for, as a rule, in an individual radio network and, in relation to distances, ~.n Che microwave or H~ band. In speaking of communi~~Cions beCween vesaels and ships, men~ion musti also be made of transit marine and ship arations. 7n carrying out communications wiCh Che shore, a vesael wi~h a J.ow~power transmitter (e.g,, vesaels of the commercial f1eeC o.~ low and tonnage have ~ 200 W transmitter) sends its informaCion Co vessels havitlg steady radio communication with coastal. RTs's, which Cranami~ it to ~he destinaCion. As these intermediaries--transit radio sCations--are uaed large-tonnage vessels equipped with powerful tranami~tera and highly aensitive receivers. However, with thia sort of reCranamission a delay in communications occurs and added diatorCion is possible. Free of these disadvantages are radio relay gtaCions, e.g.~ the one inatalled on the American carrier "Redwood," which is used simultaneously as a supply ship and a floating radio relay station. Widely employed in the U.S. Navy are the radio communications and relay ships "Annapolis" and "Arlington," by means of which at the time of the war in VieCnam communications were carried out beCween ships and TOF [Pacific Ocean Fleet] and U.S. Navy headquarters [102]. 7.4. Communications with Vessels and Ships in Long-Range Navigation Vessels and shipa completing long voyages are in constant communication with their own communications uni~s, and, besides, vessels can ~n individual cases carry out communications with stations o,~ a number o~ countries. More than 1500 coasta], radi,o starion~ ~n all countries o~ the world serve navigators. A descript~on o~ ~orei,gn radio stat~ons which can be used by Soviet vessels on the Leningrad-0dessa route, ~roc~ ports o~' the B7.ack and Baltic seas to Cuba, to ports o~ A~rica, South America and Antarctica, as we11 as to V1adi- vostok, is given in the list o~ coastal stations in [57., 63]. Depending on their positfon, Soviet vessels a].ways mai,ntain continuous communi- cation with one or more reference points in the Soviet Union, in particular, wiCh Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa and Vladivostok. 159 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ FUR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Moscow m~intaina co~ttnunications chi,e~ly wi~h yease~,s, in xe$~p11s cona~.derably remote frou4 Euxqpean bases (~he At~.ant~,c and xnd~,an oceane, ~~he ~ttta7Cctic Basin, the South Kore~n and ~~s~ Gh~,na sea~)~ , Leni,ngx~d ca~riea oux co~municaC~.ons w~,~h vesse~,s o~ a1~~ ~h~,p~~,n8 ~~nes at distances up ~o the B~y~ a~ B~,scay,, and w~,rh BMk' [m~x' bax~~l,ion] vessels in the Mediterr$ne~n, B].ack and ~ed s~eas, ~,n the ~nd3,an Ocean and in ~he East China and Squth Ch~na seas. Odessa mainta~ns commUnication w~;~h ves~e7.e o~ a11 sh~,pping 1i.nes in an area ~rom ~he eastern boundaries o~ Che xndian Ocean to ~he Bay of Biacay and the central section o~ the A~~.~nt~,c Ocean, and with ChMP [marine unit] ves:~ela along the entire route ~rom ~he Ba1~~3c and Nor~h Seaas and the Norwegian.Sea to the western half o~ the Paci~ic Ocean. Vladivostok maintains communication with vessels o~ all shipping lines in regions of the South China Sea and eastern half of the Indian Ocean, anT) . They depend on the capabilities of the communications system, the organization employed and the utilization of communications, and the information flow along a specific route, and P(>Td), also on the requirements for speed of communications. Employing the mathematical apparatus of the queueinE theory, it is posaible to calculate the magnitudes of inCerest, F'(>td) , in, by the equation: -ts-Yl o P(>z~=P(>0)e = } s sl s---~ -(rY) e ~ k_~ g ~ ~11 y~ + ~ s ~ tl sl s-Y c=u (11.9) 219 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~Ott O~FICIAL US~ ONLY ~wher~ the numbe~ u~ ch~nnels o� a ei:ng~.B rou~~; X is eh~ load ae eh~ hour o,~ max~mum etrain, ~.n houre bugy; ~t ~s the pe~q~.e~ibl.e wai~ing t~me, ~,n ml,n (ox e); 0 is~ the aver~ge C~~qe ~ox wA�lti,ng ~ox ~h~ pnd of the preceding broadcast ati an gxbirxar~,~,y choeen momen~ o~ time, 3n min (or s). The v~].ue o~ X can be ca~.cul~Ced by ec~uqtion (7. ~ 1) . We ~ind the va].ue o~ ~cd ~rom equa~ion (~1.8) ; Tp`~ ~npox. A"'~npoxi~ (11 � LO~ The average t3,me For waiting ,~or the end oF ~ preceding broadcast at an arbitrar3ly chosen mom~nC of ~~,me depends on ~he nature of the dietribution of the total a channel ia occupied in transmitting a single message, tk : O ~ ~ ~ Y~r" t,?~ 2 where Y~ is the variation factor for time tk . ' k Under apeciEic operating condirions, the time facCor, Yt , dependa on variation in the aize of the messa~e in terms of the number of k characters (digita, letters and official'.symbols) contained in it: . ~ o � Yr,~ � ~k ~ (11.11) where Q is the root-mean-square deviation in tk With the distribuCion of tk exponentially, P(>C) = e t, where P(>t) re- presents the probability that the channe~ �~a'~ ~p ~^^+~~ied for a length of time greater than t, Y = 1 and 8= tk . With a constant value of tk = const , the values o~k Yt = 0 and 0~ tk/2 . ~ k *The value o� Yt can be calculated by the equation: k y~k = Y?p ViN Yrp'riN' where y r is the variation ~actor in the size o~ messages in terms of groups (words) ~nd yL is the variation factor for the s~ze of a group (words) in terms of charac~ers. . 220 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~ok ni~T'~Cf:YAL U~U t~NLY On eh~ b~s~.g eh~ abdve, 1,~ i~ po~~ib~,e Co ~onsCxueC $r~ph~ ~nd nmm~~xamg on which axe shown th~ depend~nn~ o~ P(,~C) dn khe ya~,u~~ ~r and ~~,n rhe $orm n~ th~i.x xa~~.n, ~r/@ , and nn ehe Y~~.u~ a~ ~ S~ ~~or ~x~m~le, G~I'. Zakhnrov nnd N.~~ var~ko~,~n ha,ve suggeeted n~n~o~xams~ and ~ab~.~s C23] ,~or aalculaCing ehe nuu~b~r o~,ona channele ~,n ~y~tem~ a w~3.Cing period (.~~.g J.1..2) . Nnmogxams ~ox the cet~.cula~inn of systemg which � involve wai,ting, in paxrf,cular. c~rith an unl~.mited and 1~.mited' nUmber uf ueer~ and in Che 1�lmieing moda, mak~ it po~s~.b~.e ~o n bro~d rgng~ nf problems involved ~.n dev~loping measures Eor ensuring epeed o~f communications. 'rh~ employment o~ nomograms nor only cone~.derab].y shortens Che ~ime �or m~king calculaeion~ which are very cumbersame, and ~.n cer~a~.n ~.n~tiances impo~asible by the analytiical method, b~t nlso malces it possible Co eagily v~ry pnrn- meeers o~ rhe sysCem and infoxmation flow whi~.e seeking solueione, boCh in tihe creaeion of commun3cations sy~tems and in improving and utilizing them. When ueing nomdgrams it mus~ be taken into accnunC that eh~y ure calculnted for a Poisson distribution n~ messdges entering communic~tions ~aciliCiey. A key, more eYend with regard to achieving the required gpeed (efficiency) of communications is the automation of the communications process, �acilities, complexes and ehe communications system ~s a whole and o� the preparation of inessages for ~ransmis~ion (cf. chap~ 8, 9 and 10). Also important trends are the following: improvement of the srructure of communi- cations systems; the elimination of reCransmission stations, and, when necessary, the replacement of them with radio rel~y sCations and the employment of faciliCies and methods for organizing coramunications which enable maximum ~ carrying capacity (cf. Appendix 1); improvement of transmission rates; tlie installaCion of communications facilities directly at the work places of official personnel; the remote control of communications facilities; Che utilization of �ormalized documents for the transmission of orders, reports and notices. Thus, speed of communications is achieved by the automation of communications, by a combination of technical and organizational measures, and by the skilled utilization of communications. Here calculations are made, the main one being the calculation of the number o~ communications channels. Technique ;:or Calculating the Number o~ CommunicaCions Channels on a Single Route The relaCionships discussed ~or P(>t) , T, tk , 9, and S make it possible to calculate the number of communicatfons channels, S, with assigngd P(>Td) and ~t and known parameters of couununications channels and the in~ormaCion flow, as well as with the required indicators fox the organi.zation and utili- zation of co~qunications. tJfth an assigned nwpber o~ channels, it is possible to calculate P(>Td) , etc. I,et us discuss the pxqcedure ~or calculating the number oP communications channels, S. 221 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FdR O~FLCIAL USE OM.Y . _ . o Q~>r~~o,oa s�3o 28 25 095 26 � 24 y= 22 QO 20 18 ~5 16 ~e ~4 E d f0 12 ~ 10 ~ ~ 1~ 0,6 8 a N 6 6 ~ , 0,5 4 0,4 _ 2 v~1 0 l 2 3 ' Bpenp o~,cuOaNUa ti/A Pigure 11.2a. Nrnqogxap4 ~ox Ca].culat~,ng Numbe~c o~ Com~uni,cations Channels ~ wi,th ~ (PT) w 0. QS . Key: , 1. Load, hours ocaupi.ed 2. t1~e, T/9 222 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY : APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ro~ o~rxcitw us~ ortt~Y b) 30 ~f>r)-o,1 8~30 09 095 Q8 25 26 ~ 24 40 22 ~agg 20 18 f5 ~ 16 0,8 ~4 . ~ ~ 10 12 a o D;! f0 ~ 1) 8 d 5 a OL6 6 N . i 4 05 04 2 S-f 0 U,5 1 2 ~1 3 fJ~OBI'JA O,~IL~udQNUA ti~6 Figure 11.2b. Nomogxam ~ox Nutnber o~ Cownuni.cationa Channels with P(.>T) R 0.1 xey: ' 1. Load, houxs occupied 2. Wait~,ng ti.nle, T/8 For making calculations it is necessary to know the ~o11, 1) The parameters o~ the ~,n~ormation flow on the route in quest3dn, in parti- cular, C~ , K~~n , q and yq . 223 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OEt O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY 2) I~equ~,re~qenC~ ,~or xhe epeed oR conmtun~,cg~~.ona ~ox xhe xoute ~.n queaC~.on, Cpxokh.d ' 3) xhe capabi~.~,t~,es o~ conp~u:?~,cations channex8, eubdiv~,e~.ons ~nd communications poses, in par~icu~,4x? VpT) 0~05 ,(fig 11.2a) we cglculate S ~ 5 channels. Example 3~ Calculate Por ehe conditiona in example 1, but wi~h ehe flow, C~ ~ increased to 180 mes~nges. Solution: 1. 4 min . 2� CChnn 45 mese8ges ~ Ych n�` 3.U4 h-occ. 3' ~prakh 1�~"' min ; Td ~ 1 min . 4. t/~ d 0.5 . 5. ~ m 7 channels . Example 4. Calculate ehe number of communications channels for the conditiona in example 3, whereby it is eo be assumed that as the result of organizational measures carried nut it has been possible to increase the tranamiasion rate to 24 groupa per minu!e. Solution: 1. tk ~ 3 min . 2� ~chn � 45 messages ; Y~ n~ 3.04 h-occ. 3. tprokh 1 a 9 min ;~ra ~ 2 min ~c/A ~ 1.5 ; S~~ channels . These calculations graphically demonstrate how an increase in requirements for the speed of communicatio~s and an increase in the information flow cauae an increase in the required number of communicationa channels. By carrying out organization,measures it is possible to achieve a reduction in the number of communica~ions channels, while transmitting the same information flow and not lowering Che requirements for apeed of coimnunicationa. Able to sexve as an examp7.e o~ the resulte o~ carrying out a combination of measures is the improvement i,n communicati,ons speed in the shore syeCem and the system of communications with I~ vessels (~ig 1]..3) [].8]. As can be concluded ~rom this gxaph, the tqta~ ti,me ~or Che travel of a measage from a vessel to the comwunicat~,ons unit in the ex3,~ttng system has xeached 4.5 h and moxe, and the txanstt time 5.5 h and mare; ~,n the ~uture "Morxlo~" ASU communications system th~s t~me wil.l equa]. 1.4 and 1.5 h, 7cespecCively, i.e., tprokh W~1~ be reduced more than three~ol,d. 225 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~OR OFFZGIAL US~ ONLY 0I1,~ ~ On" C3 ~Q ~ ~ ~ on~,,~n?~ . . o~~~ - - - _ on,, c c ~ ~n,~ ~ on� ' ~ on, � on, ~ ~ a on~,on, on, on, on, on, on, ~ 2 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 ?,0 ,~0 ,~5 4,0 4,S A~0 T,v Pigure iL.3. Distribution of Time for Proceeaing a Measage in Che Exiating 1rQ~ Syatem and the Future "Morflot" ASU Co~muni- cations System: 1-~in the future ahore communications ~ system; 2--in the future "Morflot" ASU communicationa ~ system as a whole, employing ahortwave radio communications; 3--~rom port to communications unit (exieting sysCem); 4--from vesael to communicatione unit (exiating syetem); C and Ct -routes of ordinary gnd traneit meesage; O~i -delivery of ine8sage from user to xadio atation; OP2-- preparation of inessage for transmission (formulation, punching, etc.); OP --waiting for shortwave radio con~uni- cations, waiting for cannection in AT [aubscriber's tele- graph] channels; OP4 -operations for eatabliahing conmauni- cations and for entering into communications; OPS -waiting in line to transmit a message; OP6--tranamission of ineasage to shipping line's radio center; OP --reception of inessage by ahipping line's radio center; OP~--formulation of re- ceived mess~?ge (registration, check~ng); OP --tranafer of transit message to outgoing route; OP --pr~paration of message ~or tranamiasion; OPl --waitin$ for communicationa _ aessi,on or connection to AT; bP12--opexationa for~eaCab liahing communicat~,ons; OP --~vai.ting in line to transmit measage; OP14--tranen~i,as~,on~o~ trana~t u~esage to con~munications unit; OP15--xecepti.on o~ message at conmaunications unit; ~~16 ~oi~aulat~on o~ rcceived meseage; 0~17~-delivery of ineaeage to addxesaee (~ncluding w$iting ~or courier) Key: 1. Operations 2. T, h 226 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~o~ d~r~~;r~. us~ nrtr~Y ].1.3. R~e~,n~ S~cx~cy o~ Commun~,c~~~,on~ ~y s~~recy ~s cu~~omar~,~.y meant thnt pxopn~ty o~ conm~un~,c~x~,p~~ wh~,ch exc~,udes or h~mpex~ Co Che max~.mun1 ~he ob~a~,nm~nt by~ an eneroy o~ reconna~.~~~,nce daea. The combinaC~.on n~ me~auxe~ ~px ensux~,ng ~h~ eeaxeay~ o~ rad~.o eonsCiCu~e~ radi,o,na. '1"he ge~recy o# commun3,caxfong can b~ ra~ed q,uan~iCa~~.ve1y by th~ pxobability of ~e~xet commun~.caC~,ons, and th~ eecrecq o~ x~dio' by tihe probabili.~y of ~uccessPul r~d~.o, ~ tha pxob~b~.~.~~y tihat ~n ~nemy ~.n ou~ rc~d~,u reconna~,8g~nce w~]. net ob~ain renonnaiseance data. Iti is numer3cally equal to 1- W , g~.nce an enemy in carrying outi radio reconna~.~ggnce snl~;e~ rhe problem o~ ob~aining reconnaissanCe in�orm~tion on radio conununicaCions with a probability of Wr~, : 1~/pr papupn~Nn~'~~~ (11.12) where P~ ig the prnbabiliey of rettllzing rgdio reconnaisyrince ge dietgnce d ,; the probability Chat at the poi.nC for carrying ou~ radio reconngissance t~ie signal's field strength will equal or be greater than the ~trengCh required for radio reconnaissnnce facilities; P is the probability of carrying out radio communications at the moment rad~~ reconnaissance is carried out; Pd ie the probability of acquiring radio reconnaiasance material, i.e., the pro6ability that operation of ehe radio tranamitter wi11 be detected in Cerms of direction or Chat the tranamiCted program or signnl will be intercepted; and P is the probability of the identif ication of reconnaisagnce information from the ~ radio reconnaissance dn~a acquired. The most interesting of the eerms in equseion (11.12) in terms of rating ~ secrecy is the value of Pd , which is determined by the equation: Pn =~pnep'~..pnn~-pPnerPPnen~ (11.13) where P is Che probabiliCy of radio inCe~:ception of a broadcast and P ~isp~~ie probabiliCy of ~inding the direction of an operating radio tra~ismiCter. But f or radio reconnaissance ~acilitie3 wi,th not too gxeat a range ~ox the detection o~ xad~o broadcast~, it can be asaumed Chat ~d ti P bn ~ where P b is the pxobability o~ the detection o~ a xadio bxoadcas~. The prob~bility og ~the detection, dfrection ~tndi,n$ and intexcepti.on o~ one of n broadcasts, the probabillty of determination of the loca~ion o# a radio bxansmitting atation, and also Che pxobab~lity o� the procurement of reconnaissance data on K communicaCions routes o.� a command level, pdk , and on the communications routes oP M command levels, 3..e., i.n a comn~un~cat~ons system, Pd , are discussed in [39, 70]. 227 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR n~~ICIAL US~ ONLY Me~gu~p~. For camb~C~,ng enenty ~ad~,o xecdnna~,~,~~n~e, ~~,med ~x xeducing the value of k' , cons~iGute no~cal~.ed p~sa~,v~ rad~,o c~~oti~l, [66~ ~ Paseiv~~ rqd~o c,~mou.~~,gging me~eure~ ca,n be ex~xessed'^ v~,~ ~he prob~b~.~,~.~y o~ non~pxacuxement o~ recnnn~~,esance daCa by~ gn ene~ in carrying oue rad~,o xeconna~,ssancet ~ On g aingle rqure: p~~p M 1---~ Pnt . . ~ (11.14) Or? a command level: ~ . . . . ~ /~np~A:-'1-�1~.K~ ~ ( For an entire communicatiotte syseem: . .PnpM=1-P~~. , (11.16) Measures �or combating ettemy radio reconnaissance aimed at reducing the value of P~ constitute so-called active radio camou�laging [66]. Active radio reconnaissance measures can be expreased quantitatively via the probability of the non-identificaCion of correct reconnaiseance informaCion by an enemy from data procured, i.e., Parm ~ 1- Pv ' Consequently, the success of radio camouflaging will be deCermined by passive and active radio camouflaging measures and by their combination and can be rated quantitatively on the whole as follows, for co~and level radio communi- cations: P~Mk = P~p~R P,pM PnP~~kP~PM? ~11.1~~ and for the communications syatem as a whole: Pp�w P~,~>~� P,~~�~ - P~.~�~�p,~M� (11.18) 11.4. Rating the Ef~ectiveness o~ Catroqunicat~.ons on a Si.ngle Route and of a Communicatiqns. SysCem It is possible to make a quant~tative estf.mate o~ key pxo~ext~es o~ communica- tions in textqs o~ general ox particular:ind~cators. The choice o~ one indica- tor or another is determined chie~ly by its sensit~v~.ty to a measure or atudy developed and carried out in a apecific area. It is not hard to notice that the characteristics o~ communications eithex directly or indirectly more or leas influence one another. Thexe~ore, a measure carried out to aecure one 228 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 rnt~ ar~~c~~t, Us~ o~.,Y prdpexry s~,mu],tpn~~u~],y~ ~:n,~~.uen~eg o~hax propex~~,a~ ~ ~'u~~hermare, ~h~.~ ~,nterxe~,~t~,4ns.h~.p ex~xC~ ~ poe~.~~,N~ in~~,uence ~;n s;q~~ ~..n~C~nce~ (~ox ex~mp~~~ the higher Che xa~.~,rtb~,~,~,~y o.~ commun~,caCi;o~?~, xhe gxe~~er ~he ~p~~d o.C communi- cg~~.ona ~.g inareasad ~nd ~he numbex o,~ ~ape~~,~~,ans ~.s reduced' which in Cuxn ].owexe th~ pxobab~,~.~,ry o~,', d~,~,~~c~~,o~l ,~3,nding and ~ne~rcep~ion), ~nd in othexs, a neg~~~,ve J,tt~l,u~nce (~ncxea~~,ng ~,~nx re~,iabi~,~,~y o� communica~ione causes an increase ~,n p,~h~,ch ~,nc~rea~es P~ and can resulti in a reBucC~.on o~ P). ~his nomp],ex ~nCexxel.~x~,on~Ri~p ~,s i:~~u~~rated in ,~~,g ~.1.4, in are ~~iown a],~, Che key facCO~s ~ri~luene3ng radio, wiChoue raking inCo accoun~ r~d~,oelec~ronic coun~ermeasures (t~B~~) (top ha1.E of aketich), and C~king inro ~ccoun~ REB's ( sketch).* xn v~.ew o,~ Chig complexity, ~he ef~ec4iveness of commun~.c~Ciong is customarily dei:ermined from a rambin~Cion of ~he follow3ng indicc~tors: a) ~'or communicaeions of vessels ~nd ships, witihouti t~king ItEB'g inCo ancounC, the amnunt of in�ormation trnnsmie~ed by the communicaei.ona sysC~m on eha route in quesCion; the cnmmunic~eions r~nge, D (for cottununicaCions with submarines and submerged vesse~.s, the radio reception depth, h) and Che prob~bil- ity nf reliable communicaCions, P; the averag~ expected travel time for a message, ti rokh ' and the probabt~ity of rhe delaying of information in the co~nunicati~ons system, Pzad ' b) For communicationa of ships, Caking into nccount REB's, the indicntors cited above, and the probability of passive radio c~mouflaging, Ppr m Thus, the effectiveness of communications can�be expressed by a group of several indicators. Tt must be mentioned that this createa certain difficulties in rating co~unicaCions sysCems and especially in optimizing communicatione. Therefore, aCtempts have been made to find a general indicator for the effective- ness of communications. For example, the probabiliCy of the delivery of a message (a certain amounC of information) in an established period wiCh the required fidelity and secrecy and with a specific communicaCions range under anticipaCed circumatantial conditions, the probability of Che transmiasion of a message in a communications system in an established time with the required f idelity with a single broadcast, erc. *Factors, in v~,ew o~ thei,x ~qu].tip],ic~ty, a~Ce uniCed in groups; e.g., the in- formation flaw, whose i.ndi,cators are discussed in sec ~,.2, ~s indicated by the "inforntation ~low indicators" block, and rhe set o~ daCa on the ionosphere diseussed in chap 2, by ~he "propagation channel indicatoxs" block, etc. **Under the condition~ o,~ REB's, the yal.ues of ~,ndica,toxs can be altered in the worse d3,rectfon, but the very same indicators must he used. 229 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~0lt 0~'~ICIAL U5~ nNLY ~ ~�?a ~ _ _ _ . ` 1) g~ Aoxa~ame~u ~npaRma pac ~pocr~pnHeNUp n~8 4) - ~yNxm nrpev~tvu 5. ~ n. n. qyN,rm n~aP~~a CODaIt~BMUU OKC3ttHJQAU l/d1r10- IIOA'dJRl17f/?U tlp~UNU9rtyllU pAd3Ql/lP.9~/ uCIJO/'y- g) con6~t~NL'11 KU UN d Md Ilfl 6~ CW H61 CdN3U JOI1RNdA t0113U llOKQJGMEAU ~~MQJQrJfE~, t t11C1!lPMD/ CQ.93fI CtlCHfEND/ Cd!rJ4 No nyHKmp nPpedavu r~a nyHKme npueMa r ~ � 4 - - - T Z - 2 ~ nP 1 ..a. . ~~p, r ~ to JS d `~-~-P"- J 3m~peKm N mo cQa~u � R ddNNOM Nanpnd~eNUu KJAd42C/1lQO nepedaNNeir CODbt!(BNLII ~ dQNNOM peue. Non a6neNUU pnon 18) lloKCacme~n cpedan ~ PO p KNC~ IloKnxmenu cpedcmQ u nuvNOeo cocmaQa n~n P u nuvNOeo cccmaQo paduopca~eaa~a - pe vacineri paducneMer . mE/leNO~~ Vacmeu oKa,~a~nenu opeaWwakuu e eHUA ~p0/11UBNUKQ npomuQNaKC ~^D ~ COJ~7Nf/A DQ~UOQO/!N 15) ~Kaaomenu mpa,rma pacnpv- 1,7) /'oKa3amenu n~paKma par- cm aNeNyn n.A-n.B n ocm aNeuua n~~ n.6 /I HKm Be~~l+~iA g~nyH~�m cosBQNUA ~ rducpa3Qedn~u paduonorrer 20 B - - - - - - - - _ . . . . . . n. ~ 21) Figure 11.4. Effectiveness of Communicationa on a Single Route: 1--in- dicators for transmitting equipment (transmiCting channel); ~ 2--ind3cators'for personnel; 3--indicators for communica- tions posts and subdivisions; 4--indicators for receiving equipment (receiving channel) Key : 1. Measage transmission point 8. Message reception point 2. Point A 9. Indicators for communications 3. Indicators for point A to system at transmission point point B propagatton channel 10. Indicators tor communications 4. Point B system at reception point 5. Information flow indicators 11. Effectiveness of co~mnunications 6. Communications system organ- on this route ization indicators 12. Number of inessages transmitted on 7. Communications utilization this route indicators [Key continued on following page] 2 30 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR ~~FICIAL US~ ONLY 13. Indi~atar~ for fr~cilitie~ 18. indi,~a~ors fdr fa~i~.iCi~~ and ~ and pergdnn~L of ~nemy r~dio p~reonne~ of ~n~my rgd3o reconng~~~anr~ units ~~mming unit~ 14. Rsdie re~onnaigg~n~e point 19. Poitt~ fd~ ~rp~ti~n df ~~dio 15. Iridicatior~ for pointi A to ~ammin~ poin~ B propgg~tion chgnneL ~0. Painti C 16. Ind3Caenre fnr organizatinn 21. Poine n or radio r~connaisegnce and crearion of radio w~veg 17. IndicaCor~ for pnint D ta poinC B propeggCion channel The ef~ectivenes~ of communicgtione, discuesed above~ character3zee the communi- - catione eystem and itg fitnees for eol~ring eh~ problemg po~ed gnd ehus achieving ita ob~eceive. For th~g purpoae the gyet~tn must pnegese definire properties, ae indicgted in chap 1. As is obvious, they differ from the properties of communicaeions. ConsequenCly~ a communicationa system wi11 be Characterized more fully and ob~ectively by its own indicatore, which differ from Che indicators for communications. FurCh~rmore~ ie ie necess~ry to� take intn account the fact that the indicators for the proper~ies of communications are included as neceseary componenta in the model o� the control process for vessels and in the model for the operations of controlled vessels, and the indicators for Che propertieg of a communications system, in the model of control sysCems. For the purpose of ratin~ communicationa syatems, it is advisabl~ to have such indicatora as a key indicator reflecting the purpose of a communicationa syatem--the trnnsmiasion of information--and secondary indicators character- izing the functioning of the communications eystem. For example, as the key indicator can be uaed the productivity of the communicationa system, by which is meanC the amount of information processed by the communications system per unit of Cime with specific probability and the required quality of the system's functioning. Por example, according to the calculations in [72], the productivity of a system of communications with I~ vesaels ahould be 1.5 million words per 24-hour period, and with MRKh vessels, 4 million words per 24-hour period. The quality of the functioning of a communicationa aystem can be rated by the follnwing secondary indica~ors: 1) Transmission--the probability that a specific amount of information will be transmitted over a specific range (depth, altitude) for a set time and with tolerable certainty. _ 2) Stability--the probability oi the functioning of a communicationa system under enemy influence. 3) Secrecy--the probability of the non-obtainment of reconnaissance data by an enemy relating Co functioning of the communications system. 231 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~c~~ o~~iciat, usr; ot~Y 4) ~conomy--th~ Cagt of th~ gy~t~m. Th~s ~pp~~~eh mak~~ it pe~~ibl~ not only to r~tie eh~ ~otay capabil~.~i~~ of n coma~unicgeion~ ~ystem, bue ~l~o to roak~ ~n ~gtimgte whil~ t~king into aecoune ~ the phy~i~~l ~oat, whieh i~ di t~~o~, and sametime~ deciaive, importattce irc th~ cr~ntinn and improv~m~ne of cdromuniea~ions ~ygeems. ~ Th~ ~ygt~m pd~~~g~ing Ch~ b~gt indicator~ wi~.1 b~CCer fulfi.ll th~ ob~ectiveg ~er ~nd thu~ wi11 b~ more effeCtiv~. Chapt~r 1~~ ~etimnting ehe InflvenCe of ~nmmunications on the ~ffectivenese of Control of Vegsels gnd Ships ~The eff~cCivene~$ ~~f ~ommunications ig n compnnent of Che effecCiv~ness nf conCrol. ~or ieg proper evnluaeion it is nec~ssary Co know how communicationa influences the effectivenesa of control and to be able to egeim~te this in- - fluenc~ quantit~tively, which will make it posgible mnst intelligently golve problems relating to ehe design of cnnerol ~yatiemg, to make a proper deCermination of the place of communicaCions in Che control procc::a, gnd to impose requirementa on communications wtth a good basis. 12.1. Approach to Estimatiing the Influence of CommuniCationg Control generally consists in defining an intelligent combination of operations which will m~ke possible the achievement of the appointed goal in the moet effective manner. A diseinction is made between the goals of the traneport procega, industry and combat operationg and the goals of control. For example, the goal of marine tranaport is to convey cargo or passengers, and the goal � of control of the tranaport fleet is to fulfill wirh maximum eff iciency ob~ectives in terms of transportation and revenues, both ob~ectives set in the planning procedure and those which arise additionally [33]. For the purpose of achieving the goal of control, a aet of control problems is solved, which are divided into three ma~or groups: a) problems relating to ecientifically forecasting the result of the controlled process; b) prob- lems relating to inte2ligent (optimal) organization of the production process for achieving the appointed goal; c) problems relating to correction, taking into account the influenCe of different types of deviations from external conditions. Sometimes the ;slfillment of these control ob~ectives is called planning (longterm--for an extended period, and current--for a short period), producti~n and process or~anization, and operations control. The influence of co~uni- cations is evidenced in solving control problems of all three groups, but eapecially strongly in operati.ons control, since the functioning of marine transport, the fishing industry and VI~' ships is highly dependent on the operating conditions of vessels and the fu1fi11menC of objectives by ships. For example, for the fulfillment of transport objectives a number of vessels receive an assignment not according to a schedule, but according to specific- ally foraaing circumstances. Therefore, it becomes neceasary efficiently to 232 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~nEt U~'~'ICIAt. US~ ONI,Y control eh~ trnf�ic of th~ f1ee~ ~nd eh~ work 1o~d of poreg eo avoid ~connmic log~eg r~AUlCing from th~ idleng~o ot vesaele, their incomp~.~ee loading nnd voygges ballnet, g~ w~ll from ehe incomplgte ue3lizae~.on of the c~rry3ng capacity of porte [1]., 33]. ~t ig campl~tiely c].ear thae ehe e~fece~.veneea of _ th~ control of vessels ~s dirently rpl~ted to communicatinns wieh them. For a quantitative egCimate of effec.tiveness, different eff~ctiven~~~ criteri~ are employed, i..e., v~lu~~ of W, which indicatie the degr~e of Cnnformity of the r~eulte of solving problems with the set goa1. In ~conomic gyeeems (marine trangpnrt and Che fiehing induaCry), for Che purpo~e of determining the effectiveness criterion maChematicgl economic mndelg h~ve been devploped~ representing a mnthematical description of Che essence of prod~+ction economics prnblems. Theae models are as a rule very complex and include a greae ~mount of different data; therefore, they are run on computers. Genernlly a mod~l can be repregented by Che following equaCion: it~ (a,,'n~, . . . ; x,, xz, , . (12.1) where F is the oper~tor (symbol of the model); al and a2 are iiiformation inCroduced into Che model whieh can not be changed; and xl and x2 are information introduced into the model which can be changed, i.e., represent the control parameter. IndicaCors for communications with vessels are also included in die group of control paramet.era. . Similar is the approach to determining the effectiveness of the control of ships, where as the criterion for this effecCiveness iC ie custoroary to take th~a degree to which the results of the operations of shipa measure up (the achieved result of operations, the cost of the result per unit or of effectiveness per uniC) [8]. In general forai, Che model for the operations of can be represented by the equation: i~ ~ cX�~. ,~�1, . . . , x�~. X~,=. . . . ; y~� y�:, . . . , evnt~ yn2~ . . . ; z~, zq~~ . ~12.2~ where X and X are indicators of the capabilities of our ships and of enemy foices; Y p and Y are indicators of the control of our ships and of enemy forcea; an~ Z1 an~ Z are indicators of the environment. Included in the group of control capab~lir.ies arE the capabilities for communications with ships. Thus, by means of models it is possible to make a quantitative determination of the influence of communications on the effectiveness of the control of vessels and ships. 233 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 F'OK n~~ICIAL U5~ bNLY 1.2.2 ~ EeC~.maCing rhe xnPluence o� Conm~unic~r~on~ on Che ~;f~ectiivene~s of the Contirol o~ Vesg~l~ in Solo Sai,l3ng Succe~s iu th~ control of vesaels depends pri.mmgri].y on the timely gaChering, processing and tranemission nf a greae amount of information for Che purpose of optimizing processes of produceion or military operatione. The introducrion of aueomated conerol sy~tems raisea considerably ehe requirementg for in�orma- tion fidelity and speed, and this is posaible only with a thorough seudy and analysis of the Cransmission of inessages through each element of real channels of control and communicationa systems. IC was demonatrated above that the effect~.v~neas of communicationa syetems is rated by means of individual char~cteriseics, effeceiveneas indicators. These indicators are contradictory in nature, and Gherefore it ie difficult to reduce them to a single generalized effectivenesa indicatnr within the framework of a model under study. A solution which would maximize any one effeceivenesa indicator canctoC maximize the other indicators. Here it is impossible t~ uae mathematical methods of optimization, since they make it poasible to find an optimal aoluCion only in terms of a aingle criterion. With the exiatence of but two indicatora, it is possible to select a compromise solution (w~hat price to pay to increa~e effectivenesa or what part we will sacrifice out of other considerations) by re~ecting clearly irrational variants and then aorting rational variante. For the purpose of rating the effectiveneas of a communications system it is possible to use one of the effectiveneas indicatora for a syatem of a higher level (e.g., an ef�ectiveness indicator of the system for controlling ~ yessels, whose operation is made possible by the communicaCions system of a shipping line, commercial fleet, etc.). The employment of this generalizing ~ effectiveness indicator is obvious since it makea it poasible to estimate the influence of communications direcCly on the effectiveness of the control system. The complexity of using thia model consists in the fact that the influence of communicaCions on the outcome of control in terms oi a final major effectiveness indicator occasionally is not critical, i.e., is noC sensitive to a change in the parametera of the conmmunicationa system being studied. This hampers the process of finding values of the sysCem's parameters . with which the communications system will operate with maximum effectiveneas. : For the purpose of finding an optimal solution it is also poasible to use systems of a higher level, i.e., control systems which validly govern the quantitative requirements for a communications system, according to the - principle of "achieving the maximum result with specific limitations." One possible way of solving this problem is to rate a communicationa system , by means of a generalized indicator--the probability of the timely tranamisaion ' of a message upon the condition thaC the message will be delivered to the ` addressee with a probability of distortion, Q, of not less than a preaet value (Qi < q), and that the time for tranam~ssion of the message through the communica~ions ayatem, T, will not exceed the maximum permissible value (determined by the con~rol system), tpr : 234 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 ~'dlt 01~'~ICIAL US~ ONLY n(~~~~) - p ir~ ~ r~,NIQ,; . y,~ ~ia.3> Since in an ASiJ information is processed by compu~ers, the requirementie for f~,delity are known--the ~robability of error musC be within the range of not greater than lOr4 Co 10r , and the measureg for achieving such fideliry are discuseed in deeail in Seceion Three. Ie is conaiderably more difficult Co formulate validated quantiitative requiremen~a for a communicaCiona system with regard to speed. The time facenr has nlways played a conaiderable role ;Ln any realms of control. BuC the role and imporCance of apeed in communicationa have been changed radically today. Instead of the principle of "beCCer 1aCe than never,'' to a control syatem has come the principle of "in time or never." By means of Che effectiveness indicator suggested �or a communicatinna ayetem-- ChA probabiliCy of the timely transm~ssion of a message through the communi- cationa syetem--we have attempted Co characterize ob~ectively the quality nf operaCion of a communications syatem by using models of the conCrol of trans- port and commercial vessels. The procesa of controlling vessels can be regarded as the conversion of the control system from one seaee to another by means of various ad~usCing effecta. Employment of the time facror makea it p~ssible quantiitatively to ~udge Co what exeent conCrol is efficient. For example, in Craffic regulaCion of the flow of the arrival of vessels in ports, it is necessary, by employing ad~uet- ment effects (reassigning vessels and cargo, changing the speed of vessels in crosaing at sea, isauing recoa~nended coursea by taking into account the actually exiating hydrometeorological situation, etc.), to ensure coordination of the time of arrival of vessels with the freeing of moorings and the arrival of cargo in the port, which in the final result makes it possible to determine the carrying capacity and productivity of a vessel over a certain period (a voyage, a quarter, a year) [11, 31, 57]. For example, in a mathemaeical model for determining Che net effect of a transport veasel, iCs annual carrying capacity ia deCermined by the equation [31): N 11-: ~~I ; Rr2ri~ (12.4) where Qii is the amount of cargo which can be transported by the veasel on the i-th freight route to the 3-th port of call on the line; N is the total number of freighe routes (lines); Ji is the number of ports of call on the i-th freight route; Ri is the number of voyages by the vessel on the i-th freight route per year, which is determined by dividing the length of time the vessel operates on this route (Tei) by the time for the voyage ~Tri~: 235 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OF~ICZAL USE ONLY R~ - ?'�r ~ rpr (12.5) ~'he time for ~he voyage congiets of ehe sum of ehe eravel time (Tkh~) gnd the ti~me tihe vesael is berthed in poxts (T In turn, T~i depends on the reduction in the vesael'~s apeed result~ng from specif ic sa,~t.ling conditions (navigation, hydrometeorologicg~ or traffic control ~.nfluencea), and T on the veasel's idle Cime for one reason or another. et~ Similarly, in the model for determining the net effect of a fiahing vesael when fi~hing independenely, the annual productivity of a~rgwler equals [57]: ~ ` 365Ko Q T6. n. u ~ (12.6) where Q is the carrying capacity of the trawler in terms of annual production; Ki is the trawler's utilization factor; and Tb~ ~t is the length of a "Iong" fiahing cycle. p S In turn, Ta.n.q~a~~"nep-I'~'~-~'To~~ . (12.7) where T is the length of time the trawler ia in passage during the voyage; T1 is t~ierfiahing period during a single voyage; Tb is the length of time for mooring at ita base; and a is a factor taking 3nto account the idle time of the trawler because of no space at moorings and hydrometeorological and other factora. From the examples of the models cited, the role and importance of time are obvious, and it is of a probabilistic nature, and in the ma~ority of instances the model ia estimated by means of the mathematical expectation of the time for passage of the vessel at sea, mooring at its base, fish finding, trawling, or the time required f.or steering, for communications, for waiting for the start of the broadcasting of radio messagea, etc. Attentive consideration of these models indicates that one of the key con- trollable parameters is the time parameter--the time for a voyage, the length of the fishing cycle, etc. The lower the values of these parametera, the ~ greater will be the productivity of transport or fishing vesaels. With effective control it is poesible to observe the condition: T ynP 'I' T neArra C~np~ ~12.8~ 236 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFxCIAL USE ONLY where T~ ~~,s the C~,nle spene on ehe conCrol cycle; T ~,g ~h~ ti~,~~ required ~or vesse~.s ~o ~u1.f~.11 ~he; and e~~~s~~he ma~cimum permie~~.ble time upon the expira~ion of the gc~~vit~,es o~ vesaels will noe reault in solution of ~he prob~.em poaed w~,th Che requ~,red ~ffectiiveness. Since the procesaes o.f hauling cargo or catching ~3eh are under the influence of noe only regular, but random factoxs, then the made~. df efficient control mus~ make it po~sible to take them inCo account, to eliminate possible devia- tiona gnd to make corrections every 24 houra. In dynamic syetems o~ this sort, th~ simple probability of receiving a meseage does not eake into account the time which has passed from tihe moment it became necessary to transmie informae~.on to the moment it was delivered to the addreasee, and therefore it ceases eo be a critical indicator of the effeceiveness of communicatione. Information relating ro ad~ustment effects must be periodically renewed And refined and will be of value only upon condition nf ~imely delivery to addressees. The renewal cycle is determined by urgency categories for informa- tion tranamission, which are determined by conCrol ob~ectivea. Thus, delay in the receipC of urgent operating informaCion can result in non-fulfi~.lment of a required control function. The Coo frequent renewal of informatiion overloads Che control syatem and doea not make it possible to eatimate the development trend of the controlled pro- cess. As a rule, intervals for the renewal of information for regular flowa are determined experimenCally on the basis that to each control level wi1.1 be fed only the daCa which can be processed wi.thin acceptab].e deadlines and is ~ essen'tial for the performance of required control functiona. The greatest amount of operating information (80 percent) comes under the heading of regular traffic control information of the situation type (meseages regarding the position of vessels at sea and in ports and on the arrival of vessels in ports and departure from them, 24-hour reports of fishing boats, etc.), and its growth every year is on the order of 10 percenr [11]. In order to judge how efficient a system for controlling vesaels is, ir is necessary to make a quantitative estimate of the time factor in the tranamission of traffic cor.trol information. From the instant vessels compose messages of the situation type, they travel along a fairly complex path, depending on the arrangement employed for th~ control of vessels. It is possibl.e to ~oin in links the elements of this system for controlling single 1~IF and 1~IRKh vessels when traveling at sea into unloading ports: With the good travel of radio waves (Qi < qZ), into three link.s: ship-shore- ship. With the poor travel of radio waves vessels always transmit messages not through the coastal radio center of their own shipping line (with 4i~ Qz~' 237 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 FOR OFFTCIAL US~ ONLY but through ~ny coasCal zadio center or ~.n~Qxtned~,axy vease~. tnak~,ng poseible fulfillnenti o~ tihe cond~.tion Q~ ~ qZ ; here there are ~our l~nke: ship- shnre-sho~re-sh~.p . We w~.ll arbitrarily repxeaent ~hie control syatem as a certain phyaical ayatem which over the course o,~ time passes ~rom one phase statie into enoeher-- ~0' ~1' En �~e process of a qualltat~,�.e change in the atiaCe of tihe syaeem wieh the passage of ~,nformation through ies indiv~.dual elemente we will call an elementary operation, and ehe passage of inforn~ation through the entire control 1oop, an extended operation. Elementary operations are per- formed in this system, as a rule, successively, one after the other and have strictly defined interrelationships, and each aucceeding event can begin only after the termination of the preceding event. The duration o� the travel of a message through each element of the system is a random magnitude depending on a whole series of factora ;malfunctior.s of the phys3cal component, existence of interference in the radio channel, conditions for the propagation of radio wavea, reception of the mes~F~ge on shore directly by a radio center o~ its own or another shipping line, called station busy, carrying capacity of communications channels, e~c~). Let us designate via ~(t) the state of the aystem at moment of time t. We assume that the flow of the process depends on random factora, and the time for tranamiesion of the measage in each element of the system is dis- tributed exponentially and the following rule is observed: If at any moment of time t the system is in phase state Ei , then at the next moment of time, t, with t< t2 , the system with probability of P~i(t1t2) _ = Pi~(t~ , where t2 - C1 , can pass into state E. Tfi~ model described is a uniform Markov cha3n, and probabilities Pi (t) ~re called the transition probabilities of the Markov chain. FuncCion P~(t) defines, conaequently, the probability of transition from "state i" toi'~state at the expiration of time t [9]. If aC a cerCain moment of time t= t~ i~larkov procesa ~(t) is in a cerCain state E~ , then after a certain random time T the process can pass into another state, and the probability P(T < t) that a change in the phase state will occur not before time t will be: I P (s > ~ = c u, t ~ 0, . (12 . 9 ) where a is the transition density or intensity of the elementary operation. In addition to parameter t is employed, the mean time for a change in state, which is determined by the magnitude: ~ M (1) = ( tdP ~ . 0 (12.10) 238 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100080019-2 _ i; ~'Ott OI~'I~'~CIAL US~ ONLY The diaeribution o~ th~ pxobab~.J,~,xy n,~ r~ndom magn~,tiude T--Che ~ime pxior ea ~he moment o# ~xane~.~~,on ~.n~o a new a~at~--ie sach tih~~ r P(tl.~:~r ~ta~~,~~r,~--~~r~o~'~-~d~ ~ia.~.i) ~ witih any t~, t2 > 0, ~his is a power or exponen~ial distiribution and ie expressed: By the probability denaiCy ~ ~ ~ with~~ t < 0, ~ ~-u w~,rh t > 0~ . (12.12) By the distribution function F~t~ p with: t