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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE= 2007/02/08= CIA-R~P82-00850R000100090009-2 Y ~ 7_ ' i979 i i i OF 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 N'OR O~rIC1AL USC ONLY ,IPRS L/8650 7 September 1979 West Euro e Re ort p p (FOUO 51 /79) FBI$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 . NOTE JPR5 publications conCain in�ormation primarily from foreign newspapers, perindic~ls ~nd books, buC also from news agency transmi~5Lbri8 and bro~dcgsCs. MaCerials frnm foreigtt-language saurces are eranslated; those from ~nglish-l~nguage sources are Cranscribed nr reprineed, with the original phrnsing and other chnracteristics retained. HeadLines, ediCorial reports, and matierial enclosed in brackets � (J ara supplied by Jptt5. processing indicators such as [Text] ~ or (~xcerpC] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicaCe how the original informaCion was processed. Where no processing indicaCor is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracCed. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names rreceded by a ques- tion m.a:k and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplted as appropriate in context. Other unaCtributed parenChetical notes within the body of an item originate with Che source. Times within ~.tems are as given by source. T'he contents of this publicaCion in no way represent the poli�� ` cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For further information on report content call (7031 351-2811 or 351-2501 fGreece, Cyprus, Turkey). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWVERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSE~tINATION . OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRZCTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~ FOR 0~'FICtAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8650 L 7 September ].979 - WEST EUROPE ~EPO R1' . (F'OUO 51/79) CONTENTS PAGE COUNTRY SECTION ~EDERAI. R~PUIiLIC OF GERMANY ~ rRG Ito1e, Interests in Antarctica Viewed (Rainer Lagoni; EUROPA-ARCHIV, 10 Jul 79) 1 ~ SPAIN - Arms~Tndustry Bu~lds Armored Ptrsonnel Carrier (Mariano Aguilar Olivencia; DEFENSA, Jun 79) 15 Article Discusses Military Optical Instruments (Javier de Mazarrasa; DEFENSA, Jun 79) 28 Briefs _ Arms ExporCs 31 SWEDEN ~ Parties' Election Campaign Budgets Analyzed (Eva Thorn, Alf Norrman; VECKANS AFFARER, 9 Aug 79) 32 5venska Petroleum Becoming Ma~or Crude Oil Buyer tAke Landquist; VECKANS AFFARER, 9 Aug 79) 42 ' a - (III - WE - 150 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 , , , ~OR OFI~'ICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION F~DERAL 1tEPUBLIC OF GERMANY FRC ROLE, INTERESTS IN ANTARCTICA VIEWLD Bonn EUROPA-ARCHIV in German 10 Jul 79 pp 389-400 _ CArticle by Rainer Lagoni, Reaearch Aaeietant at the Inetitute for International, Kiel University: "The Federal Republic of Germany and the Antarctica TY eaty") CText~ It was almoet 20 years ago, on 1 December 1959, that the M tarctica - 'Treaty was signed in Washington, the American Federal capiCal.i The treaty was the reault of a conference, to which the American Government had in- vited those aCates that during 1957/58~ the International Geophyeical Year, has participated in the atudy of Antarctica. On 23 June 1961, after ratification by all of the 12 aignat~ry statea--Argentina, Australia~ Belgium~ Chile, France, Great Britain, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Unio~, and the United States of America--, the treaty c:ame into effect, introduc~ng a peaceful phaee of international cooper- ation on the "continent of scientists,~~ on which juat a few years ago terri- torial disputes had led to clashes betWeen Britieh, Chilean and Argentinian military units.2 According to the treaty, th~ golden age of Antarctica, as these yeara of fruitful international acientific cooperation under the protective ahelter of the M tarctica Treaty will perhape be called some day, will extend up to June 1991--which according to Article XII is the earlieat date for a revisory conference--, but even now there are dark clouds, i.e. difficult problema, in the usually clear akies of cooperation between the Antarctic powers. After scientiate from the Federal Republic--continuing the long and fruitful tradition of G~rman Antarctic research3__had in the 1960~e begun intensively to participate in the study of Antarctica, this diatant con- tinent, 98 percent of which is covered by ice, has of late begun to attract the attention of the men reaponaible for German foreign policy. On 5 February 1979, the Federal Republic acceded to the Antarctica Treaty of 1 December 1959.4 The Federal Republic not wanta to comnit itaelf-- as an ordinary treatp members--to obaerving the treaty provisions; it also intenda--through "carrying out extensive reaearch projecta in Antarctica and through the establishment of a acientific reaearch station 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY or the dispateh of. a scientific expediCion'~�-to becnme a temporary conault- ' _ ing member in sccordance w1Ch Article IX.6 Conavlting membcra en,joy - e~ectdl righCe in regard to changea or amendmento of the Antc~rcticc~ Treaty na wcl.l no th~~-in regard Co practical work--important right of partici- puefnn in the consulCarive meeCinge which ae a rule tnke place evcry 2 yenrs and at which in confidenCial talke all Che current and future prub- lems concerning Antarctica are discusaed. A melnberehip application to this effecr has been aubmi.tted to the aea~embly c,f coneulting members~ and in the 1979 budget of Che Ministry for Reaearch and Technolagy, funds have been nllocaCed for a research ship nnd for the eatabliahment of a polar institute in th~ Federc?1 Republic and of a German research atation in AntarcCicn. The plans provide for a station with a~taff of approximately 30 persona which is to be establiahed in the summer of 1980/81 on the Filchner ice shelf, for a vesael equipped for negotiatin icy waters and for a polAr instiCute in a North German university town.~ Problema in considering the problems concerning the Ant~rcticA Treaty, one should be mindful of the fact that in regard to i*~,portant aspects the treaty has proved very effective and has become a crucial element in regard to the pre3ervation of peace in Antarctica and the development of fruitful inter- nationrtl cooperation. T}189C aspectie are: The demilitarization--guaranteed t~y a system of mutual inspecCion--of Antarctice and the prohibition of nuclear weapons on that continent8, the prohibition of the removal of nu- clear waste, and the freedom of acientific research in the entire area covered by th~ treaty, including tha exchange of ecientists and informa- ki.on.9 Contrasting with these poaitive results are three large problem areas, which in the last analyais resulted from developmenta which in 1959, the year ttie treaty wAS concluded, had not been foreseeable or had delib- _ erarcly been left out of conaideration by the contracting partiea, namely from the increasin~ effects of human civilization on the Antarctic environ- ment and from the growing interest on the part of aeveral atates in the natural resources of this continent and of the aea surrounding it. i. 'i'he parties concluding the Antarctica Treaty of 1959 left in abeyance th~ question as to how the Mtarcttc environment should be protected--a lacuna that so far has only insufficiently been bridged by the consulting members~ joint recommendations regarding environmental protection. Since some of the signatories and several third countries are intereated in an economic exploitation of the natural zesources of Antarctica, scientific c~.rctes are concerned about the Antarctic ecosyatem and the integrity--so _ c.~-iicinl for many research projects--of the Antarctic environment. , Since it is known that the shelf areas of the Antarctic continent are lil:ely to contain mineral oil and natural gas and since one cannot rule o�t the possibility that before the end of this century metal deposits ~ worth minin~ will ~e discoveredi~, the contractual relations have become increasingly strained. Tension has arisen between some of the induaCrial 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 FOit OI~'FICIAL US~ UNLY ataees intercnCed in the Qxploitation of ttie Antarctic resourcea and thoae aignnLorics that by virtue of their territorial righCe claim sovereignCy = uver theae nuturnl reoources. 3. There nre not only internal tcneiona rcaulting from the treaty; criti- cism is being voiced nlso by Chird pnrtiea~ b;^ circlea in Che developing countriea, demanding that rhe natural reaources of Antnrctica be shared by - the 'Third World. Ttie Economic Exploitation of Antarctica If on~ disregetrda some rather unusual--as yet insigni.ficnnt--uaea of the area covered by the treaty such as Antarctic Couriam, the much-discuesed possibility of towing icebergs as fresh-water reservoire to Cnlifurnia or the Ar~b Peninaul4 or the Australian plan of uaing the Antarctic climate for the ener~y~-sAVing sturage of ineat, the only economically interesting area lefC is the exploitntion of the natural reaources of this continent. " In this respect, one has to diatinguiah between the utilizaCion of animal _ And plant reaourcea, which has been going on for mc?ny yer~ra~ und the fu[ure eYploitation of mineral resourcea. - 'Thc Federal Republic is obviously noC interested in the--internationnlly regulated--hunting of whales and Long-distance fishing in - Antarctic waters, on the oCher hand, appears to offer the Federal German fisliing industry, which due to the extension of national fishery zonea loat - in Che lust few yeara many of ita traditional fishing grounds in the North Atlantic, the solution to a perilous problem. Accordin~ to estimatea by the UN Food anc~ Agricultural Orgnnization (FAO), in 1976 approximntcly 0.2 to 0.4 million tons of fish were caught in Mtarctic wat~ra, primarily by Eishing fleets from Japan and the EasCern bloc; during the same year, the total world catch of saltwater fish amounted td approxiroately 55 million tons, with tlie Federal Republic accounting for 0.43 million tons.12 It has been reported, however, that individual etocka in Antarctica are endangered by overfishing--a threat Wt~i~t; is especiully serioue on uccount of the slow growt}i and the delayed se:cual maturity of some of the species of com- mercially useful fish. But it is not only ecological objections tc an un- , restricted harvesting of Antarctic fish etocks that muat be taken into consideration; one must also deal with the econunic doubts concerning the profitability of Antarctic fishing, doutts which are concerned above all with the remotenesa of the fishing grounds, with the necessity of trana- porting the catch to the consumers and with the suitability of the preaently avui.lnble German fishing boats. In commercial krill fishing, the problems are of a different nature. In regard to these shrimp-like small crabs of the M tarctic seas, which move nbout in swarms and whose most comroon flpecies is Euphausia Superba--approx- imately the size of a finger--~ an annual catch of ns much as 50 million tons is considered justifiable.13 This would be almoat eq~~ivnlent to double the annual world catch of saltwater fish. In fuct, several states, 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 Fo~ o~~r.crnt, us~ ox~,Y = abnve ~11 thc Soviet Union nnd Japan, have been recording annunl catchea of over 20,000 tc~ne of krill. While technical difficultiee in connec~ion with - the rudiotocaL�ion of the lcrill swar?n~ and the quick pracessing and etorage Ahoard ohip will be overcome in the foreseeable future, the greateaC ob- sCacle ia still the problem of markeCing thia emall crab, which is a good source of proCein, for human conaumption. Whereas in the 5oviet Union and in Japnn krill products have been used by the coneumera for a number of yenrs, per~inent teate in ehe Federal Republic involving krill aoupa and lcrill sticl;s (similc?r to fish aticks) make it appear unlikely thnC the enring tiabits of our people can be changed to auch an extent that larger q~ianCiCies of such producte could be sold here. 'Chenretic~lly, in Western Europe krill could be more important as a protein feed, as compAred to its use for human consumption. In thie respecC, it would be neceasary Co marke~ the krill meal ctt a competitive price, and in view o.f Chc long dietc?nces involved and the preaent feed prices, Chis would be difficult. Moreover, be�ore one decides to promote Chrough state eub- sidies the expansion of commercial krill fishing, one muet examine--~for rec~sons of economic policy--whether in the European feedstu�fs market there ' . i.s any demand for krill as a protein feed., In regard ta exporC possibiliCiea for krill products, little information is as yet avaiiable. At the very leasC, krill could be an important protein source for many Third World countries~ whose people suffer from chronic protein deficiency. Consequently, the Federal Repuhlic's experience in ~he field of commercini krill fishing could possibly be used in terme of developmental policy. ~ flowever, in regard to unrestricted commercial krill fishing, there are eco- lo~;i.c.a: ob,jections ~s well. Krill occupies a central place in the M tnrc~ic eco~ystem. Fish, whales, seals and birde feed on krill. Exces- sive inroads on the availuble krill stocke ~re likely to result in far- reaching consequences for the entire ecological syatem of the Antarctic ~ seas. ~1t present, reliable dnta concerning the total biomass are atill , 1...:lcing; moreover, important facts concerni~r, the biology of krill are still unknown. The consulting membera are presently engaged in preparing n~~ international agreement concerning krill fiehing ns well as comprehen- sive international regulations applying to all animal and plant resources of Che An[arcric ~eas. An international agreement of thia kind e;ill probably not include a~eneral prohibition or a temporary moratorium for commercial krill fishing.14 BuC before the Federal Republic subsidiz2s he building of a large Antarctic fishing and aupply fleet for commercial '~rill fishing, the competent ministries should take into consideration the ~f.fects of a future international agreement on present open fishing in .lntarctica. Politically, the Federal Republic as the youngest cons�lting memt~er can hurdly afford not to coordinate its fishery policy with such an ~ agreement. Generally speaking, the hope that the Antarctic fishing grounds hold ~ut to the German de~p-sea fishir..g industry is encumbered by many economic and political queation marks. 4 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 FOIt O~~LCIAL US~ ONLY In re~nrd to tihe mineral resources of the Antarctic continant, ~he I~'ederal ltapublic~s in~areats are mucti more obvious. Since ~he enCire domestic eco- nomy i~ dependent on oil and ore importe, the Federul Republic ahould aup- port ehe eer~rch �or oil and naturnl gae on the continental ehelves of AnC- arctica and through prospecting operatione participata in the 3earch for ex- p].oitAble nonferrous met~ls and valuable minernle on the Antarctic continent. In doing so, however, the Federal Republic must atric~ly obaerve the Agree- men~e concernin~ the protection of the marine environmont--which al:~o apply to the Antarctic seas--und the speciul environmental protection regulations esCablished by Che consulting members. The coneulting membera are preaently worlcin~ toward the eatabliehment of international regulations concerning the exploiCation of the mineral resources of this continent. The Future of the Antarctica Treaty A serioiia threat to th~: continuance of the Antarctica Treaty are territoriul disput~a such as occurred in the LAIIt few yenrs even between some of the con- aulting members; to be sure, Chese disputes occurred north of 60� south luti- tude, i.e. outside the urea covered by the treaty. There were intense poli- tical disputes between Argentinn und Great Britain concerning the Falkland (Malvinns) Islands and u conflict between Argentinu and Chile--accompanied by ttie threut of force--over a few small islanda at the caatern end of the Beagle Canal, close to the southern tip of ~he Latin Americnn continent. Politically, thes~ diaputes muat be viewed in connection with the territo- rial claims asserted by these countries, claims which on And near the miner- al-rich AnCarctic Peninsula are overlapping. ~iowever, the gist of the territorial problem is not so much the issue of overlAppin~ claims as the question whether individual statea are actually entitled to claim certain Antarctic territories as their own. Argentina, Aua- tralia, Chile, France, Great nritain, New Zealand, Norway an~ South Africn base their claims on their having discovered and taken possession of the countr~t and on South America's geolo~ical links with the Antarctic Penin- sula.~ Since in terms of international lAw these claims are questionable, their validity is essentially based on whether they are recognized by Chird states. So far, such recognition has been forthcoming only to a limited ex- tent. In regard to the territorial question, the Antnrcticu Treaty was u compromise in that according to Article IV no new claims to territorful sov- . ereignty in Antarctica can be rni~ed during the term of the treaty, while preexistent claims are neither recognized nor repudiated by the treaty. Acts committed during the term o� tt~e treaty in the area coveted by it do not cor?stitute uny legal precedent in regard to the territorial question. How- _ ever, the treaty does not prevent any party from repudiating or recognizing as politically justified old territorial claims. Leaving the territorial queation out of consideration was an essential pre- condition for the conclusion of the treaty. Only at u time when but a few economically insignificant coal and ore deposits had been discovered in 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 rOEt OF~ICTAL USE ONLY , ; AnCnrctica was nuch u solution poseible: Since the territorinl quesCion was 1.eft ou e of connideruCion, the qun~tton regurding ownership of tihe naturnl r.anourcen in tl~ac aren remnined unnnswered. nuti once the exploiC.ation of nnt- ural rc~~urce~ in L�tie area covered by the trenty is within the rnnge oE pos- ri.bili~y, tlie ~bove-mentioned compromise loaea ite fuctual foundAtion.~6 The c~urQ3t wuy af defu~in~ the territorial time bomb prior to a revieory confer- ence ~~ould be to try to conLractu~lly separnte control over the naCurul re- yources from territorial sovereignty. 5uch ~ procedure would leuve the terri- Coriul cYuesti.on us aUCh in tibeyance~~7 while subjectin~ the expl.oitation of tl~e ~latural resource~ in the area covered by the treaty' to regulation by spe- internationul u~reements. 7'l~e T'ederul ltepublic does not lay claim to any Antarctic territory of its o~~n such us would be available in the hitherto unoccupied, but relatively in- _ c~cce3~iUle re~ion between 90� and 150� west latiCude, nor did the Germun ~m- pire precedin~ the Federal Itepublic raise any sueh claim. What is presently important, however, is the c~uestion what position the Federal ltepublic tnkea in re~;ard to tlie claims raised. A progresaive partitioning of t}ie Antarctic cuke into national piece~--resulting from the recognition of . terri~orinl claims--~oould lend to a"colonialism over penguins" unwelcome to nny atate--ASide fram tile fortunate owner~ of Antarctic territory--interest- � ed in �ree rese~~rch and cooperation on research projects. It could even be srgued th~t ttle tcrritorial question offers the Federal Republic an opportu- c~ity to pur~ue an indepencient, decidedly future-oriented policy. In contrast to the Antarctic great powera, the United Stntes and tlie Soviet Union--which . likewise have so far repudiated the terri~orial claims, but which have re- served to themselves the right of later recognition, along with assertion of. tt~eir ocan claims--, the Federal Republic, in pursuing such a course, would h~zve to for~;o the pnssibility of l~~ying claim to a territory of its own at a later date acid at t}~e same time unequivocally refuse to recognize any na- _ tional territory. Such a position on the part of the Fede ral Republic would '~e internationally credfble; moreover, it would be quite advantageous, since in el~e evcnt of u future corroboration of the territorial claims it could ~ juridically not be held agninst the Federal Republic. llow~ver, an independent policy re~nrding Antarcticu on the part of the Fed~ eral ltepublic would necessitate a certain degree of coordination with its CC partners, above all Fra*�.e and Great Britain, for the European communi- tie~, too, will at some p~inC have to deal with the economic exploitation of tt~e Antarctic resources. Aside from the Federal Republic~ the Anturctica T'rc:aCy includes the EC states Belgium, France and Great Britain as consult- ic;~; members and Denmark and the Netherlands as ordinary membera. At present, ti~~ L~:C Treaty does not in any way bear Application to Antarctica. T}~e second great challenge to the Antarctica Treaty lies in the establish- ment of a system of just international distribution of the natural resources of this continent and of the seas surrounding it. The demand of ttie develop- ing countries for an adequatP share of the Antarctic resources, especially 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 rOR UFrICIAL USE ONLY of tt~e vitul proCein, ia undoubtedly legitimaCe. One reuson w1~y it cAnnot be - af�hand re3~:cted is the fact that large krill awarm are occasionally en- countered norCti o~ ~he aren covered by the treaty.l~ Politically, the demand ia parr of the continuing efforts toward the c+stablinhment of a new worlu economic eystnm. Tu accommodate tliese efforta to ttie exieting Antarctic Trea- t~ system ttie consultin~ membera will in the coming decnde need conaiderable politicul foreaight, diplomatic akill, and imagin~tion in regard to the up- plication of international law. - ~3t~sically, ~t the present developmental stage of global conditions, one must proceed from the asaumption that control over an unpopul~ted continen~ can be ,justified onl.y in the aense of truateeship for the benefit of all of mAn- kind. Eiowever, the problem revolves around the question by whom and r~ccording to what rulea this trusteeship (taken in a nontechnical sense) is to be ex- ercised. At first glance, it appears that one could apply to AnCarctica the "common heritage" principle developed in regard to the ocean floor and en- ~ trust Che Unitad Nations or one o~ its special organizations with the ad- ministrAtion of Chis coneinent. 2 But aside fxom the practical und politi- cal diff3culties tt~at an application of this principle to ~he Antarctic re- :;ource~ would entail--difficulties that were all too appurent at the United Nntions' Third Law-of-tl~e-Sea Conference, which tried to work out ~nterna- tional regul~tions ~overning access to the ocean f?.oor--, there are three complementary objections pertaining to international law that can be raised Aguinst an analogous treatment of Antarctica and the deep sea: I'irstly, they differ greAtly, for Antarctica--being a landmass--cnn in principle be set- tled, even tliou~li at present the possibilities concerning actuul coloniza- tion are for climatic reasons still limited. Secondly, Antarctica tias ulreudy , been ~iven an effective treaty system which for 20 years has muiz~tained peace on this inhospitable continent, protected its environment and made possible effective international cooperation on scientific projects This treaty sys- tem established for All consulting members legal pos~.tions~l which merit pro- tection and which in contrast to the territorial clnims are not dependent in regard to ttieir vulidity on ttie recognition by third etatea. Thirdly, in the interest of Ctie progress of all of mankind, Antarctica must also in the fu- ture remain first and foremost an object of scientific research. As compared to the exploitation of the deep sea, the economic utilizution of Antarctica must to a much greater extent be subordinated to environmentul protection reRuiremants. Preferable to the application of the "common heritage" principle would be an arrangement under which Antarctica would be held in trust by the moat in- , terested states active there, if it can be guaranteed that this circle can at any time be expanded throu~h the accession of new states. This solution IIIIS the distinction of preserving the basic elements of the well-tried Ant- arctic Treaty system. The idea of trusteeship hus alreudy been outlined in the PreFUnble of the Antarctica Treaty, in which the signatories emphusize that the Antarctic peace and the freedom of research serve the interests and the progress of all of mnnkind. This idea has also been reaffi.rmed in the consultin~ members' recommendations.22 Naturally, this means that the 7 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY con~ulting members cAn legitimize their spec3.a1 position in An~orctiica only - n:~ lon~ u~ their decinions and ucts tuke into consideration the interests or t�.lie developin~ coun~rie~ as well. In concrete tierm~, Cliia entuily t}ie obli- ~,:itio~i not Co ~quander ~he availnble re~ources, but to make econamical use of them ~~nd to let the pooreot atarea of the Third World ~hure in the yield. 1't~e yenr 19~)1 is ua it cvere the point of crystallization of the above-men� tloned challen~us to the Anturctica Treaty, since uccording to Article XII this is the earliest date ne which a consulting member can request the con- vocation of a revi3ory conference. IL the re3olutions adopted by a revisory conference are not ratified within 2 yeare by all of the consul~ing members-- a ratiler ~11ort period in view of the parliumentary procedures of some of the member ~tatcs--, any 3ignatory atate is �ree to secede at any time from the nntarcticu Treaty und after another 2 years to pursue its Antarctic policy unemcumbered by any CreaCy obligution~. Moreover, the eignatory states Are of course at liberty jointly to revise, amend or even abrogate the treaty. In practice, liowever, this is a lesser risk, as against a split of the treaty ' system after a revisory conFerence. Naturally, ~z sp1iC or a definitive nbrogation of Che treaty system ~vould leud to con3equences in regard ~o the status of Antarctica. Politically, Che ter- mi.nation of tl~e special le~itimacy of tlie existing trenty system would result in a vacuurn, ~~liich taould probably be filled via a potentiully violent enforce- ment of the existin~ territorial claims, if the United Nations are not pre- pared to nssume e:cclusive jurisdiction over this continent. As regards Che juridical aspects, however, there ~vould be no vacuum, since in the event ot nonapplication Q~ L-tie treaty the regulations of the prevailin~ lu~a of nations are npplicable.L According to Chese regulations, acientific stations and in- sCallation; in Antarctica are protected by international law and would not be subject L-o the soverei~n authority of a state, even if that state asserted-- irre~pective of tlie Antarcti~ca Trenty--a territorial claim including the site ~,t the research station. Domcstic ?icasures Ti~e Republic's accession to the Antarctica Treaty and ite admission _ to the "club" of Antarctic powers notwit}istanding, the Federal Republic and its parliFUnent can no lon~er leave the "continent of scientists" to the sci- entists alone. For even thou~h the treaty was throu~h the Law of Consent of 22 December 1978 incorporated into Federal law, several legislative and ad- mir,istrative problems huve yet to be settled. Uf great importance is the accept~~ce of,the 118 recommendations adopted at t; ~ last 9 consultative meetings. In this respect, the Federal Government pointed out in its memorandum concerning the treaty thaC it would examine r~hether it could recognize as binding the recommendations adopted so far nnd that each case would be considered separately.25 From a strictly legalistic point of view, the position talcen by the Federal Government is not at vari- ance with the prevailing la~v of nations, for not even if they aze approved 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 FOR OFI~'ICIAL USE ONLY by rhe ~ovcrnment~ of ull consulCin~, mcmber3 will the recommendations bc in- corporated inCo the treaty, and etnCe acceding to the tren~y is thus not . leFully obli~ated to accept Clie recommendntiona. 13ut tlie Federal Government's ponition ip,nores an (AS yet inopernt:ive) recommendution by the otutea~ repre- oentr?tive~ to the gover~ienCs of the coneulting memUere, u roconunandation uslcin~ ttiem to rge the ~cceding stAee~ to apprnve the recommendr~Cione ~1- ready ~dopted.2~2~oreover, according to an explanaL�ory statement by the con- sulting members, the binding recommendatione are measures designed to pro- motc: ttte principles and objectives ~f the treaty; tliey ara an inte~r~l part of the l'otal strucCure of the cooperative system esCablished by Che treuty and thus represent authoritative interpretations of those obligutions, to the observance of which the Federul Itepublic--by acceding to tl~e treuty--}in~ in any case committed itaelf. 'I'hrougti its dilatory attitude, ttie Federul Govern- ment will not gain any more latitude, for in the individual case nonobserv- ance o� rtiese recommendationa would represent a contruvention of !:he menning and purpose oE Che Antarctica Treuty. Consequently, the Federul CovernmenC w~uld be well advised shortly te accept the reco~mendations in force, as fnr as they have not been technically supexseded. An acceptc~nce of the recorrunendations by the Federal Republic entails firsL oE all an interstate obligntion and cioes not in any wav affect dome~tic law. In fact, a large number of the recommendutions cun be implemented witliout uny additional domeatic meASUres. However, a number of eopecially important re- commendations--including above ull ceveral recommg~dntions conce:rning Ant- arctic. tourism that have alre~~dy come into effectl --require the Federal Gov- errunent to talce domestic measures as ~vell. These measures include ttie noti- fication of other signatory states in regard to nonscientific Mtarctic ex- peditions launched in the Federal Republic and the formulation of i.nstruc- tions for the promoters of tourist expeditions. Here one stiould mention - tl~e "Concerted Measures Concerning the Preservation of tt?e Antarctic rauna and Flora"--which were adopted in 1961 in the form of a recommendation--and the pertinent supplementary recommendations.29 Elmong other things, these re- commendntions contain extremeiy cietailed regulations concerning human ncti- vity in Antarctica and the establishrnent of ~vild-life preserves. liowever, the Concerted Measures have not yet come into effect, since due to constitutional problems some of the consultin~ members hAVe not yet Accepted them or have accepted them only as provision~l ~uidelines. The recent recommendations con- cerning the economic exploitatfon of Antarctica and the effect of human acti- vity on the treaty area likewise require the governments of the cansulting members increasingly to concentrate on domestic measures, e.g. to study how the project undertaken by their citizens affect the respective Antarctic ecosystems.~~ In order to be ab1.e to establish these recommendations by de- cree, the Federal Government needs a legal basis. ~iowever, the Lnw of Con- sent concerning the Antarctica Treaty does not include such authorization; ~ consequently, the Federal Government is presently not in a position to meet the obligations ensuing from ttiese recommendutions. It will be necessary, however, to establish a legal basis for the unplementing regulations required. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~'dK 0~'~tCIAL US~ tlNLY 't'I~~ �bove reprenent~einn~ ware mc~nr.G to ghow tihn~ ~h~ pr~blemg concc~rning nn Antarcti~ policy arc~ inerinaicnlly multidigciplinnry. Anide from ~ci~ntiftc kndwl~d~,e, thci: ~oluCion 1arg~ly requiree rhe expor~i~e ~f economia~~ nnd internc~tiena~ ,~uriot~, in p~?rticulnr in the field of mnritim~ economic~ which in tti~ ~'eclerEil tt~~ublic is a~ yet relaCively underdev~loped. Thus, in� eerms nL ~cientific policy, onr could non~td~r coll~ctin~ in a central depoeitiory in rhe ~'ed~r~l R~publin all p~rtinnnt dom~etic nnd foret~n artiicl~e on the nntarc~ic prdblem nnd gygeem~tically promoCin~ re~~arch in the~e fields. ~or tect~niCnl re~~en~, it wduld be reundnable ~o combin~ tihe geudy of the 1ega1, e~nnntnic and politic~l problemg coneernin~ the polar regions with corre~pond- inR 3tudir,l~ concerning the high s~ng, tihe de~p sen nnd outer spacc including tl~c� ~cingtinl bodieg in a regearch progrnm focueing on ~pecial a~pecte of the un-call~d extratarritiorial ~pnc~~. F'WTNOT~S l. For tt~c text of the ereaty and ehe official Cerman trc~nelation, see Uundes~,esetzblutt (nGBl) [~'ederal Le~al Cazett~~~ part 2, 197$, p 1518. Z. I~~ re~;.?rd Co the bzckground and conCent of the treaty~ eee ~ Jvhn li~n~s~ian, ~~Thc Antnrcticn Trenty of 1959. A potential ModQl for , tt~e Srttlement af Current Internationnl P~~blema,'~ EUROPA-ARCHIV~ No 12, 1~G0~ pp 371 ff. Inp,o von Muench, "F'roblems Concernin~ Antarctica in International Law," nt:r11IV D~5 VOELkEIt~t~Ci~!'~, Vol 7, 1958/59, p 225. C~indnlf ~atil, "Arms iteatriction in Internntional Law~" LWS~-LEAF COt~f~tl:N- 7',1IZY, Ilerlin, 1975 ff, Section 1, p 12. ,,tr.p}?an I'reiherr von Welck, "The ~ederal Republic on Ita Way to Member- ::hip in the Antarctic Club," V~2t~INTE NATIONEN, No 2, Apr 79, pp 46 ff. 3. E3etween 1873 and 1939, ei~ht German Antarctic expeditions were under- taken. The ~ederal Itepublic launched expeditione in 1475/76 and 1977/78. f~or n 3urvcy, see "Debatec of thc German Bundeatag [Lower House]," Document 8/1824, 24 May 1~, p 16. 4. Ttu Fedcral Republic hsd signed the treaty ac~ early as 19 November 1974: Tl~e parliament gave its conaent through the Law of Consent of 22 December t978 (DCB1. 1978, pArC 2, p 1517). The Federal Republic bec~une a treaty iremUer on S February 1979 upon submission of the declaration of acces- sio� c~itt~ the Nnerican Government. See i~UI.LL'TIIJ, Pressc- und Informationsamt dcr Bundesregierun~ [Press and In�nrnation Office of the Federal Covernment], No 19~ 13 Feb 79, p 171. e~ 5. T1ie following states acceded to the trcaty as ordinary members: Folund (1961), Czectioslocakia (1962), Denmark (1965), the Netherlnnds (19G7), Itomania (1971), the GDR (1974), Brazil (1975). 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~nt~ OH'CICIAL US~ dNLY 6. A~ n CCmpdrnry congulCin~ m~mber, ~he ~~d~ral ~epubli~--updn t~rn~tnatinn nf itg regc~nrcti aCtiviey in AnCarcticn--would ~~ain gCep dowri tn tli~ - aircle of nrdinary tr~aty m~mbere, wher~~~ thc 1~ nriginal nignntory - nenreG--Arg~neinn, Au~tir~lin~ ll~lgium, Chiln~ ~'rnnC~~ GreaL� F3rie~in~ Jn- pc~n, N~w `L~ulc~nd~ Norw~y, South Afr~cn, the Uninn and tl~~ Uni.tnd 5e~te~--perman~ntly keap eheir ~t~t~n ~a ~nnnultin~ membQrg~ even i~ thc~y . ~re no 1~n~Qr netiva i.n Anturcric r~gEarch. I'ol.c~nd b~C~me a cnnsulting memb~r in July 1977, after it h~d ~gt~blished n reeearch gtc~tiion i.n the aren covr.r~d by tl~c trdaty in the sprin~ of 1g7~. 7. ~'~r eh~ current ti.~cnl ye~r, nn ~mouttt of UM 23.5 million han bcen nppro- print~d; nee riudgetary Law, 197~, Itamized plun Nn 3d. - "U~but~u of Che C~rmnn Uundaatag,~~ Uocument $/2150, 8 Sep 7g. ~111 in a11, the cnc~t of the cnn~truction di thC :~ttttinn und thr rcgenrch veg~el in egtimuted at nM lOn millidn, nnd day-to-dny mnintenunce n~ Ur( 30 million per ycnr. In the cnmpetition conc~rning the site of Che polur in~titute, bidn hav~ becn eubmitted by I3remett-Ilremerhnvcn, Hnmburp, Kiel snd Muenster. The ~'eder~l Science Council propdged Kiel. a. I'reamblc, Articles2, V, VII. In this comtcction, oce Jo~t Uelbrueclc~ "Tl~e F:sCc~blistunent of benuclearized 'Lone~ Uut3ide Central ~uropc~" in: "Absctireckung uncf Cntnpannun~"~CUeterrence nnd Detente], Veroeffc:nrlic.hungen des Institut~ fuer Internatianates Rectit an der Uni- vernitlet Kiel [Publicutions of titc Inncitute for Intern~~tiottul LaN nC Y.iel Univcrsity], Nn 7G, Ilerlin~ 1977, pp 683, 699 ff. 9. Pre.vnble, Article~ II, III, IX. 10. Sec I'. M. Auburn, "Offahorc and Gas in AntnrcCica," GERMAN YEARBOOK 0~ INTERNATIONAL LASJ, Vol 20, 1977, p 139. Rainer La~;oni, "Antarctica~s Mineral Resources in Intcrnationul Law," 'Ll'.ITSCIilZII'T ~ll~it AUSLA~NUISCli~S OEF'fiF vTLIC}i~5 ItECHT' UPlD VOCLKI:Itlt~CI1T, Vol 39, 1979, p 1. Dacuments and comment~ Uy expert~ in "Cxploitation of MCarctic Recourcee," liearing }3efore ttie SubcortIInittee on Armo Control, Occuns, and Inccrnationnl ~nvironmcnt of the Comnittee on ~orei~n RClationn, United Stares 5enate, NineCy-Fifth Congresa~ ~ebruary 6, 1978, WashinYton, 1978, pp 109-145. 11. Since no Federal citizens en~,ay,e in cor:mcrcial wt~alinE or senlin~, t1~e ~ederal Kepublic did not accede to eitt~er Lo the Interi~ationnl Conven- tion fdr tl~e Ite~ulatton of tJi~aling of 1.946 or to the Conventton for t1~e Conscrvation of M tarctic Scalin~ of 1972. 12. 5ources: J~hresbcricht ucbcr dic Dcutnchc Fisct:wirtschaft 177fi/77 CAnnual ItCport on thc Cerman fishin~ Induatry 1976/77~, Berlin, 1977. 11 FOR O~~ICiAL U5~ ~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~OIt ~JF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY rnn, XQnrbnok of ~igh~riee Srutiigtic~ 1976 (Catichee and L~ndin~s), Vol 42, ttomu, 1977. Ini~o Lv~rar,n, ~~rhe Living Ite~ources of tha Southarn Ocenn,~~ Kome, 1977 (I'An-t2Qp. CLO/,Sn/77/1). , 13. Se~ G. ~iQmpcl, ~~giold~ical probleme in lte~ard to the I~'t~hing in M~rino LeosynCemn,~~ NATUI2tJISSCNSCHA~T~RN, No 64, Hcumbux~, 1977, p 206. "L�'~r~h~can I'r~go Brief ing Uocument No. 5~~~ ThQ ~uture o� AntarcCicn, London, July 1977, p 2:3. 14. 5ce Ch~ U~iiecd SCa~QS I?ra~t Convention for�ChQ Congervation of AntgrcCic rt~rine Living Itesources, in: ~~~xploitation of Antarctic ltesnurces~~~ op. cit. (footnote 10), p 97. ~.5. See Ranute plaezoed~r, ~~Poli.tinche Konzeptionen zur Neuordnung dee Mee- rngvoelkcrrectitn" CPolitical Conceptione Concerning the Revision of the Inec:rnational Lnw of the Sen], ~benhnusen, 1976, pp 155 ff. Dic~er SchQnk, ~~Konti~uitaet alm ~rwerbotitel im Voelkerrecht~~ CConti- ~;uity ns Titl~ Deed in IntQrnntio~nal LAw], Ebelsbach, 19~8, pp 1$ ff. Sc}~enk probnbly attributen too much import~nce to ttie role of contiguity itt Antarctica (p 61). 16. F~rom thig basic chc?nge in circumatances, the reapectivQ land-owning stueea darive no~special righC of termination in the sense of Article 62 nf ttie Vienna Trebty Law Convention, eince the change dons not funda- mentally affect e1~e treaty obligatione still to be mQt and aince it muet be acgumed that the contrc?cting parties wanted to rule out nny kind of terminntion before ttie end of the reetrictive period atipulated in Ar- ticle XII, Pnra~raph 2 of the Antarctica Treaty. . 17. In reaard to pureiculars of posaible aolutions, see ' La~,oni, op. cit. (footnote 10), pp 27 ff. In intern~tional usngc, there are various instances of a contractual sepuration of eovercign control ovnr the nat4ral reaourcea from terri- torinl soverei~nty, eapecially in casea ir? which the question of terri- torial soverei~nty is unresolved or contcsted. In thie regord, aee itaincr Lagoni, ~~Oil and Cns Depoaits Acresa National Frontiers,~' AMERY- CAN JOURP~AL OF INT~RNATIONAL LAW, Vol 13, 1979, pp 215 ff. 1~. Tt~e ~overnment of ti~e German Reich on 23 January 1935 rejected the Nonoe~ian declaration of i4 January 1939, which declared 1nrF,e parts of Neu-5chw~benland [New Swabia] that had been diacovered on 1938/39 by a Cerman Antarctic expedition Norwegian territory. In 1952, the Federal Government merely reserved to itself the right--enauing fror~ the act of diccovery--of the geographical christening of Neu-Schwabenlnnd; aee Announcement of 12 July 1952, BUNDESANZEIC~R, No 149, 5 Aug 52; cee tl~e nemorandum on the treaty in "Debates of tlie Cerman Bundestag,~~ Document 8/1824, 24 May 78~ p 1~. 12 FOR OF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~dR d~F'ICIAL USL dNLY 19. Accordin~ tio Articlh VI, Che AnCurceica Tr~aty cov~r~ Che nrcn ~ouCh _ of GOn snuth 1~Cieudc~~ wh~re~a gengr~phically AnearcCicn is limiCed by the convergettce, n line chan~in~ nccording to tihn ~eaeonn, ae whiGh ehe colder, mincrnl-rich w~?Ccr of the AntnrCtic ~eaa in puohed under the c~?armer watrr o� thc 5oueh Atluntic or Sdu~h 1'ncific. r~rt~ nf Chi~ linn nre ae 50G ~nuth lneitude. Tha principni krill-fi~hing $rduttdn c~re in the 5cntia Sen out~idc eha ur~n covered by ehe tre~ty. l0. In reF;.~r.~t ;d th~ sn~C~11Ct~ ~~~nmmon tieritiagC~~ principle ~ nec in plc~cc nf m~ny oehcr ~tudicn IJolf~~~n~ Crnr VitLehum, "The ~~fortn Townrd ~aenblistuncnt nf Itegulatidng Gnvernin~ Acc~ns to the lleep-Scu ~loor zE1r5CiUtIF'~' ~ULtt AUSI.A~NUISCli~5 ULCrCN7'LICitf:5 I2~CtlT llPlb VOCLit~RIt~C~[T, Vol 38, 1978, p 745. 21. Thin wa~ ~lready pointed our by CUy~r in tiis Etngu~ LeCtures; eee "'I'hc Ant~rctic Sy~tem~" It~CUC2L ULS CnUit5~ Vol 139~ 1973 II, pp 149, 224. 22. ttecommcndntian~ IX-1, p~ra~ruph 4; VIII-13, Parngrnph 1. 23. Tl~eoreticully, tticre i3 ttie possibility tt~at nome of L-t~e treuty prin- ciple~ haFie by th~t tim~ bccome common lnw und thu3 contfn~e to be effective irrenpective of tiie treaty. Tl~is waUld ~pply above ull to those principles wliicl~ refer tn tl~e status of tl~in continent in genernl .ind wl~ich nre not concertted ~~ith special reciprocal ri~ht~ and obli~n- tions of the contractin~ pnrtir.s (suct~ as t}ic ri~ht o� inspection nr tl~e obli~ation to cooperate on scientific prn,jc~cts): Uemilitnrization, the prohibition of nuclcar tc~ts and of the removal of radiouctive wacte cind t}ie freedom of scient�ific researcli in all of Antarctica. 24. The recormnendation~ of tl~e nine consu;t~tivc meetin~s are reprinted in "llebltes af tlie Cetman }3undestag," Docur,~ent 8J1824, 24 May 78~ p 20. 25. itemor~ndum on tt~e treaty, op. ci[. (footnote 18), p 18. 2G. ItecomnendAtivns III-VII. Thc United 5tate~ I~u~ not yct acceptcd thiu recorm~endation [sic]. 27. E:epri.ntcJ in "Uebates of tt~c Ccrman IIundestag," Document 8/1824~ 24 P6~y 78, ,p 61. 28. Recor,v7endations IV-27, VI-7, VI-11; recomnendc~tfon VIII-9 (not in forcel ?_9. Recocsnendations IIt-VIII, ;;uE~i,lementeci by recor.~endation VIII-S, nnd recor.~nendntion iV-2U. 30. itecorrQnendations VIII-13, VIII-14~ Ih-5. An exar,iplc of a te~t af tl~e _ effects oi }~unan activity on it~e Antarctic environment in prenerited in 13 FOR OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~Oit n~~TCIAL US~ dNLY Llic 1~'inal [;nvtrnnm~ntal tmpnc~ St~tiQment ~or ~ 1'onoibLe Ite~imQ for ~t~a Conpnrv~~ic~t~ oC An~nrcCic Living Merin~ Itesources, which wan nubLighed by the U.S. Ucrurrmcnt ~f 51:nCn in JUn~ ~978. t;Ut'Yli1Ct{~: 1~~7~3 Vnrl~~ L�u~r IntinrnaCi~nc~l Politiilc CtnbK, gonn , ~37Gn CSO; ~ln~ 14 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~ ~oK arrrcrnL usL orrt,Y (:UUN'1'ltY SLC'1'IbN SPAIN _ Ai2MS INUUSmRY BUILb5 AItMO1tEb p~RSONN~L CARI2I~R Madrid bE~~NSA in Spanish Jun 7g pp 33-39 fArticl~ by Mariano Aguilar Olivencia: "The 5panish Pegaso BMtt-600") [Text] At the beqinning of 1979, the ~NASA (Natiional Truck Enterprise In- cnrporated) pLanti, in Valladolid, 3tarted mass production of the new Span- ish Wheeled Az~mored vehir.les, 6 X 6, of the BMR [Wheeled Medium Armore8 Vehicle~ as the result of adoption, by the Spanish Army staff, of the basic 9MR-600-PP, personnel carrier version, and of its derivatives: com- mand, mortar carrier (PM), missile launcher, cargo, ambulance and VEC [Cav- alry 5cout Vehicle). This decision by the Spanish Army results from experiments and tests, with exc~llent tactical and technical results, of a group of various prototype vehicles, for a year and a half, and it confirms the confidence placed in this project that was started 7 years ago. In fact, in accordance with its tactical-operational conceptions, employment dortrine and in view of the vehicles in service, from an analysis of the functions and characteristics of this type of vehicle, the Army was faced with the need for having an amphibious medium arnbred vehicle for trans- portation and, possibly, combat by the infantry squad. With these premises Che technical and tactical proposals for its specialized equipment, the existence or nonexistence, in Spain, of the technologies in- volved, industrial capability and geographical location, tt?e problem was focused on the following requirements: Need for building, in Spain, a"family" of wheeled arn?ored vehicles derived from a basic personnel carrier version that would cover the Arn~y's require- ments in the next 10 to 20 years. Specification of the basic vehicle for the organic infantry sc~uad, with the primary mfssion of transportation up to and throuqh the combat zone and capability of possibl}~ participating in combat in support of thc platuon. 15 FOR OF~ICii,:. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 ~OEt O~~ZCIAL US~ ONLY ~'orma~fon oE a mili~ary tieam for analyzing, evaluating and selec~ing ~he ba~ic char.a~~eris~icg for ~he PP (Personnel Carrier~ vehicle, in an ini- ti~l phasa, in ordc~r, latier, ~o double as a mili~~ry ~echnic~l equipment d~sign team and as a tac~ical-technical commi~te~ �or following up and cv~lu~~ing tih~ producti. 5elec?~ion of the 6 X 6 v~rsion as the one most suitiable, because an 8 X 8 family would be an excessiv~ solu~ion for whati was sough~ and a 4 X 4 va- hicle would not cnee~ cer~ain speci�ica~ions o� mobility or o� evolution by cer~ain deriva~ives. 5elQCtion of the Spal~ish company in ~he autiomobile branch that mighti have a sa~isfactory research and developmenti department�(R & D] and ~hat might master modern technologies pertaining ~o heavy wheeled vehicles. Selectiinn and formation of a joint ~echnical design team ~xclusively for ril~~tt purpose and located in the plant selected for carrying out the project. ~stablishment of an armored vehicle development technical r,ommittee that, participating in other R& b programs, woulfl have the duty of supervising the maximum employment of national components, studies and reports, lead- ing ~o promoting nationalization and cooperat3on agreements on imported components, and that would be responsible for the c~uality and support of the progressive industrialization of the various members of the future family. Prototype Selection of the industry primarily responsible for production fell on the Na+~ional Truck Enterprise Incorporated (ENASA), known internationally by irs line of pegaso trucks and engines and that has been supplying the Army for years with 3045 and 3050 tactical trucks, in which the joint technical de- sign team was also located. Specification of the design began in 1972, for which there was the advantage, in spite of starting late in comparison with ctner countries, of the existence of acceptable, firm studies in other na- tions. - The design materialized in January 1974 in which year, after a display of speed in this kind of experiment, the prototype of the first Spanish am- j~hibious armored vehicle mounted on wheels was in a posi.tion to be tested. I~s characteristics were the ones listed [at the end of thfs article). '1;~e prototype, Number V-001, was subjected to a broad, severe schedule of '~ghway, cross-country and water-crossing tests with good results, providing accepta.ble performances, although it proved to be excessively heavy, wide, long and roomy inside for the requirements of the Army, which was seeking a more versatile vehfcle with less volume to present to a possible enemy. 16 FOK OF~FICIl~;, liSE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100090009-2 I~OIt OCt'ICIAi, U5L dNI,Y in view of this ~itua~ion, ~he de~ign was rework~d, under tihose requiremen~s, and, ~frer 3 more y~ars nf work bv ~he ~ointi tachnic~l design team (~rmy- LNA5A), tiI1C basic gecond generatinn ~Mit-600 vehicle was born. Tha mass pro- ducrion now s~~r~pd belongs to ~hi~ g~neration. H~sic gMFi-6n0 Vehicle In 1977, ~his new vehicle was cocnpleted with char~c~eris~ics more ad~ustecl to the requirements of th~ infantiry that is going to use iti. Tts prototype was sub~ected for ~ year and a ha1� and over 3,000 kildmeters to ser~re - tests on terrains and under conditions as varied as the heights o� the 5ierra Nevada, with a climb of Veleta Peak, the sandy desert areas o� A1- meria and the t~ard, broken terrain close to the Buendia reservoir, in whicn tihe amphibious trials were perforn~ed. These ~rials were passed wi~h excel- lenti performance ~nd technical and ti~ctical results, with the ti~ctical tests perfnrmed by various military units. 'i'he gMR-600, which is reminiscent of the Swiss MOWAG Pinranha and the French SnVi~M VA~ [Advance Armored Vehicle~, consistis of a welded hu11 made of pre- stressed A1-zn 4.5-H1g 1 light aluminum alloy plates in the shape of a paral- lelepiped with a watertight self-supporting structure with good slope of the walls. 'The driver's seat is in tihe �orward position to the left, slightly forward of the front of the vehicle, with good frontal visibility by means of a mul- rilayer glass windshielci, protected by a metal plate that can be lowered and that is equipped with a peephole and two small side windows, supplemented by ~wo large rearvfew mirrors. There is a hatch on the roof that makes it pos- sible to drive by looking out through it. Its cover pivots towarc: the right, }ield by a bolt located on the engine access door. T}ie vehicle commander is located behind the driver. He has a single-place turret, made in Spai.n under a MOWAG license. It is equipped with two wide- ingle periscopes for observation and firing. 'I'he after two-thirds of the BMR-600 make up the personnel transportation com- partment, with a capacity for 11 men with their combat equipment. There are two foldin ' ~ I ' ( / i ~ i � r 1 't', ~ .ti I,Y. ~'1 i.. . � ' ~ w~.. e~~~ .~.~t~'''` f~ ~i� w'~~,1~~' , , c ~ : e �f ~ xF (5 1 i~ ~ . ~.~..+b_. S . r' ~ ~4 ,'~f },ti�: C ~ 1:. 'y � ~.1 I` r ~ ' 1 . l ~SM ~ [:if;hty-f.ive mi.l.].ion kronor shoveled into the clection locomotives. The c�nns~r~:;iCive .locomotive iias more coal to burn than the socialist one does beFc~re this year's race for rh~ Government Cup. I3ut that is only on the l~r~l level., i.n the county council and the municipalities, and it is the Centc~r i'~rty, c~bove all, which, with a strongly decentralized election cam- ~~~iit;n, is Eeeding coal t~ the machine. The Moderates are "heating" with ~~.8 mi.l.l.ion kronor centrally and 8.8 mill.ion kronor locally, ttie I.iberal Party with 3.5 mi.lli.on kronor centrally and 6.5 million kronor on the local level, l-hc~ CenCer Party with 6.7 mil.lion kronor centrally and ].7.3 mil] ian kronor l~~c:cllly, the Social Uemocrats with 15.7 million kronor centrall.y and approxi- m:~t~~ly 16 mil].ion kronor locally and the VPK coith 2.l million lcronor cenir~~lly