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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000'100100007-2 ~~k'I~~~CS, Ct1NP~'TERS At~ AUT0I~AT I~ '~f CNMOt.O~iY ~~1`T!~~R'!~ ~!~'~A t R'11~~ 1~! l~A~ ~ s A+~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FdR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8698 4 October 1979 J USSR Re ort p CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTC~MATION TECHNOLOGY CFOUO 2/79~) ~~IS FOREIG~J BROA,DCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign ~ newspapers, periodicals and books; but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original i.nforma.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given:. the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are en~losed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supp?ied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. ' The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- ci2s, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For further inf.ormation on report content call 1703) 351-2938 (economic); 346II ~ (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). - COPYRIGHT L.AWS AND F.EGULATIONS GOVE�cNING OWNERSHIP OF - MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RCSTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE Oi~TL,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8698 4 October 1979 - . ~ USSR REPORT . CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 2/79) This serial publication contains articles, abstracts of articles and news items from USSR scientific and technical journaLson the specific subjects ` reflected in the table of contents. Photoduplications of foreign-language sources may be obtained from the Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540. Requests should provide adequate identification both as to the source and - the ~'.ndivi:dual article(s) desired. CONTENTS PAGE ~ , I. DEVF.LOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF COMPUTERS AND CONTROL EQUT.PMENT.... 1 A. Probl.em Areas 1 Construction of P.oom Interiors for Computers 1 B . Ilardware ~ Control Computer Complexes Based on Elcktronika-55 Microcomputers S C. Programming and Software 16 TI. CErlERAL INFORMEITION 19 A. Conferences 19 Third International Summer School on Theory of Probabilities - and Mathematica]_ Statistics 19 Theory of Rapid Linear Discrete Cransformations: Seminar School in Kiev 22 Third All-Union Conference on Operations Research............ 28 Engineering Linguistics Introspaction and Perspective..... 31 - a- [III - USSR - 21C S&T FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , ~ FOR OFI'ICIAL' USE ONLY CONTENTS (Continued) Page , B. Public~tions 38 Scientific and Technological Forecasting 38 Computer Reliability and Checking 51 _ Managing the Efficiency of Scientific Activity 56 Control of the Computing Process in Computers 61 Electronic Keyboard Calculators with Program Control Described 66 Integration of Production Planning 73 ~ Model of Automated Industrial Enterprise Management System.. 77 � rlore and Better Peripherals Outweigh N~~~ed for More Computers 81 Developments in Computer Technology Discussed in New Book... 84 - b - FOR OFFICI.. USE ONZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 I FOF OFFICIAL USE QNLY I. DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF COMPUTERS AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT , A. Problem Areas CONSTRUCTION OF ROOM IIv'"~ERIORS FOR COMPUTERS Moscow IZOBRETATEL' I RATSIONALIZATOR in Russian No 11, 1978 pp 45-47 [Article by A. Valentinov: "Computers on a Pea"] [Text] The discovery had ripened. It remained only to confirm with dr.y mathematics the daring takeoff of scientific thought. with the chest in front of the chief bookkeeper's cash box, they made room and ur- gently acquired the best computer: 1 million operations per second. They started the machine, entered the program and, without waiting for results, they sent the most fleet-footed Menes to the Goskomizobreteniy [State . Committee for Inventions and Discoveries] to take his line for discoveries. Losing patience, the director of the institute darted to the computer, leaving his deputies behind, and in a run pressed the pink button so that the machine would issue the results of calculations. But the computer does not yield them. It is silent like an inanimate ob- = _ ject. It had either decided to take a holiday from work without a day of rest or it had simply become exhausted. Following the director, all the deputies, including the deputy for cost accounting, pressed the button the machine even ignored him. "I have a television set just like this at home," said one candidate of sciences. "Until you tap it with your finger, it won't budge." They tapped with their finger and then with their fist, all in vain: "And what if the machine itself decided to make an application for the discovery in its own name?" the deputy for cost accounting said in horror. "Ah, so:" The direc~or flew into a rage. "Get three of the very strongest _ and drag out a collection of our institute's works. We will show it." The threat had an effect. The machine blinked its lights and printed out the tape with the results. They grabbed the tape and began to read, de- coding in a chorus: 1 FOF OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � "Line two: First create an interior." The scientists lonked at each other and no one understood. What kind of interior was being talked about? Perhaps they had incorrectly deciphered it? They read from fihe end to the beginning the same result. They tilen Zooked in the instruction manual. And everything became clear: a modern computer is a delicate machine like the princess sitting on a pea. You have - to place a downy featherbed for her, otherwise she will become exhausted: _ Let us say, the floor should be double: a second floor, which is called a false floor, should be above the ordinary floor. The walls and ceiling shc~uld also be decorated in a special manner. This is what interior means: And the scientists read again in the instruction manual that they should = appeal to TsNIIpromzdaniy [Central Scientific Research, Planning and Exper- imental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structuresj on problems of the interior. They appealed to the orqanization. And there they received a cold shower. "No one in the country yet does complete interiors. But we do have false - floors for any taste. You can select either a steel or aluminum. The Experimental Machine Plant of the Mosgorispolkom pz~oduces steel floors, but � the waiting time there is several yea~rs. We recommend a false floor of aluminum. The Riga Plant Metallist makes it simply~. Naturally, from the customer's material. There is also a waiting period only 5 years. True, the plant produces sheets but you can cut and assemble them yourselves you have many scientists. Educated people will manage to cope. So then, go to it:" The director did not wish to go to it this was beyond his profile. He came to the editorial board and begged: Rescue me: Find out what is going on on the computer front. They began to make an analysis. ''Nothing special is r,oing on," the chief engineer of planning of TsNIIpromz- - claniy V. Markelov calmed him down. "You need interiors so we will a t~, . ' "And have you been trying long?" "Yes about 10 years." They made a check: everything is precise the;~ have been trying for 10 years. Since the very moment when they obtained the building to develop a worthy interior for computers. ThE saddened scientists took heart: a computer center had been equipped in one of the Moscvw organizations a real treat. They went to look at it. The entire interior was of aluminum: both the false floor, the walls and ` ceiling. Whether you were in the cabin of a spacecraft or in a tin can~-- it was quite modern: 2 . ' FOR OFFICI~.L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "This is what we need:" th~ investigators from TsNIIpromzdaniy exclaiined and created their own interior, also from winged metal and also corresponding wholly to progress. When they made calculations (even without using a com- puter),it turned out that this toy would cost 196 rubles per square meter. The area of the computgr center is approximately 300 meters. So the scales are as follows: no less than 10 tons of aluminum for 1 false floor more than for any aircraft: , It w~as easy to calculate without the~help of the same computer what this enterprise would cost if there were more than 500 computer centers in the _ country. "The more the better: we will not split hairs," they gestured at TsNlIpromz- daniy and sent a paper to Gosplan of the USSR: Allocate 20,000 tons of alum- inum annually for int~;riors. "And what about Gosplan? Did they like the finding:" they asked V. N,arkelov. "They looked at us a bit strangely and thought about it some more." "Well and what happened?" "Finally, they thought this is our profession," the chief engineer of the project modestly cast down his eyes. "They developed another false floor - from steel. For ages:" Ther.e is only one strange thing: the interiors at the Institute of Atomic Energy imeni Kurchatov, at VDNKh [Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy] of tiie USSR and at the L'vov Association Elektror. are all of hard- board sheets and the computErs have coped exce].lently with their duties: "What about aluzninum? What about steel?" I became excited at VDNKh and at the Institute imeni Kurchatova. "You cannot satisfy with your hardboard inte.rior. " "We do make out with them," they told me. "The entire world has already rejected steel and aluminum for interiors." ~ "And which institute developed the interior for you?" I still could not make sense of i.t. "No institute, but an individual inventor, enqineer I. iChmel'nitskiy. He has author's certificate No. 468983 on his account (IR, No. 9, 1976)." ~ I did riot h~ar my colleagues and rushed to isNIIpromzdaniy: you have to s~op and warn the scientists so that tney do not rush into anything. "Yes, we know about Khmel'nitskiy's invention, we have known about it long ago," V. Markelov pulled my heels. "Only we rejected a wood design: it is no~ modern." 3 , FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 r FOR OrFICIAL IJSE ONLY "And you know more than the entire world?" - "More than the entire world. I'or sc,me reason everyone re~ected aluminum and converted to wood. But we will not reject it!" No, stubborn pecple are not working at TsNIlpromzdaniy. They are goal-ori- ented. 'rhey d~ not wish to slide off the point of scientific and technical progress. Let the entire world do what it wants, but they consulted among themselves and decided to provide the country with a complete aluminum in- terior. Or steel. ~And what do you think--they promise it! They set to work. The~institute is already working out the technical ~ssignment for construction of an experi- - mental plant for complex equipping of computer centers. And there is the optimistic idea of constructing the plant by 1985. Not 20,000 tons of alumi- num will then be required annually, but more: the plant has been expanded! And as it turned out, I also have my own optimistic idea: let us begin to produce our aircraft from hardboard sheets. So that we can increase the stocks of al.uminum for TsNIIpromzdaniy. Let the institute comrades go at it. COPI'RICHT: Izobretatel' i ratsionalizator, 1978 ~ 652]. CSU: 1863 4 FOk OrFICI~~L L'SE UVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONI,Y Hardware ~ UDC 681.324:681.323-181.4.00].4 I CONTROL COMPUTER COMPLEXES BASED ON ELEKTRONIKA-S5 MICROCOMPUTERS Moscow ELEKTROTEKHNIKA in Russian No 4, 1979 pp 16-20 manuscript received 27 Oct 78 [Article by M. B. Stel!mashenko, engineer, and M. Ya. Tanayev, candidate in technical sciences] , [Text] A fundamentally new class of computers--microcomputers--has emerged owing to the vigorous growth of computer engineering and semiconductor elec- tronics. Microcomputers are based on a small, but relatively universal en- semble of large-scale integrated (LSI) microcircuits, while at the same time preserving programming control. Programming control of the computation pro- cess in the equipment is exactly what makes possible converting to broad use of computers in industrial control installations. One hallmark of micro- computers and microprocessors is their high impression run and low costs: this breaks new ground for application in mass-level control systems with characteristics not inferior to minicomputer characteristics. i~(icrocomputers of the Elektronika-S5 series are the first microcomputers [1] in the USSR that have been brought up to full mass production. These are ~ machines with p-ctiannel technology, operating at 10,000 operations per second. , Naturally, the low speed of these microcomputers is a deficiency of grave concern, narrowing the scope of applicat.ion; but examining the list of tasks in industrial process control discloses that a large number of tasks can be handled with low-speed computers. Classed with this, quite "slow," industri- al electrotechnical equipment is, in particular, electrothermal equipment: two computer complexes are being built to operate as part of their automatic control system. ~ The UVK-0 control computer complex is built on the base of a single-board Elektronika 55-11 (S5-12) microcomputer. This control computer complex has limited features and a small set of peripherals, since essentially it is a programmable controller. The second complex (UVK-1) has an expanded set of peripherals and is based on the mutiboard universal Elektronika S5-O1 (SS-02) ~ microcomputer and can be used for controlling quite complex processes. Cor- iasponding to this first application of the UVK-0 is service in control sys- tems for series electric furnaces (for example, ior.ic nitriding and induction S FOR OFFICIr~L li.riE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ N N v ~ N r-I a ~ ' ~ ' ~o ~ ~ ~ s m � x ~ q cr N . ~o E~ ~ C ~o� ~ q~o d Q y~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~E ~ r. ~ ~ a a ~ o i.r~ q,.oZ o ro rn o � cY, u a ~y ~ N v V v v ~ ~ ~ lv~udeadfiJdm ~ ~ ~ + a� ~ ~ ~ a v ~ ~ ~ ~ eo - i o ~ ~ d ~f r'b' N~ a I r-I >1 ? ~ G ~ ~ r-I L` /f1 V~4 O Z a 4-~ 4-i ni ~ o R c~, ll -$D ~ N ~ Z O ~ Nm ~ C E Q , (~'1 (~'1 ~ 'tl A ~ ~ ~ ~m C~~ ~ ~ m v~ ~ w ~ G f~ ~ C~ ~ 7 ~ ~ " ^ c~d O v ~ ~ N 2y y~ ~ " N ~'r1 . ~i S S r~s OQ. ~ r-~ ~''~a c~, du m o,~ ~ ~ ..9 ~ ~ , r- a~ ~ r. r. N i-. ~ ~c r-. rl N ~ N O i-I rl o ri ai x ti' ri .vo ~ N ~ a ~ a k a ~0 b as ~1 ~ ty C 'T T c �ri ~ ~ Z ~ C -0 ~ ~ ~ k O ~ C~ ~ ~ U ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' I' N ~b~NdcDdz~ tim � ~n (9n~rdeadp~Nl11 N v 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI3LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 roR oFrzc~:nr, ~rsts ONLY [Key to Figure 1 on preceding page] 1.. External permanent storage 2. Address bus 3. Joining with processor interface 4. Processor inter.face 5. Address bus and command bus 6. Discrete signal shaper - 7. Data bus 8. Console of control computer complex 9. Initial-data semipermanent storage ~ 10. Analog-to-digital converter 11. Master oscillator and clock - 12. External pulse scalers 13. Digital-input channel 14. Digital-output channel 15. Address bus (4 bits) 1.6. Address bus and command bu s 17. Address.and command decoder 18: Digital-storage-signal 19. Display 20. Digital-to-analog converter 21. Discrete-signal shapers 22. Digital storage 23. Mode timer 24. Timers 25. Data bus (8 bits) 26. Data bus bits) Z7. Interrupt bus 28. Controlled object furnaces), but the UVK-1 will. be used for controlling these complex ~~nd unique electrothermal intallations, such as electroslag re~nelting furnaces, vacuum- arc furnaces and so on. Naturally, the scope of application of the above- described computer complexes cannot be limited to electrothermy. These acl- vantages of the UVK based on microcomputers and microprocessors--Izigh reli- ability and small dimensions, low cost, high information content and simplici- _ ty of operation-�-provide the prerequisites for using the UVIC in different sectors of the national economy. So this WY.-0 complex will be installed in control systems of automatic operators of coating galvanization lines and printed assembly board production lines; systems of automated climatic control in greenhouses and grain driers of agricultural projects will also be con- structed based on the complex. A task has been posed of applying tba UVK-0 as a local commutator as part ot automated technical process management sys- tems (ASUTP) of l~ot rolling stands. The scope of application of the WK has reached also the mill: a data acquisition, observation and control system is being built for clinical operations; the WK-0 will also be used as the main control, computing and recording unit. This is a graphic illustra- tion of the range of uses for the UVK constructed on the basis of microcompu- ters. 7 FOR OFFICIt~L USE UvLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 I ~ rui: c?t~t~t.c?ni, u~~. u?vt.Y For broader scope of apnlication, in developing both complexes the aim was to make them standardized,~suitable for service as part of automatic control systems of any purpose. To do this, in the complexes the parameters of j.n- put and output signals were standardized, as were structural memhers, cir- cuits of a series of assemblies and so on. Electronic assemblies of com- plexes were constructed of series K155 microcircuits of a small or medium . degree of integration, also using semiconductor nL~nerical displays and light- emitting diodes, operational amplifiers and so on. Software for complexes, in addition to the standard software supplied with the microcomputers (checking and microcommand system, test system, dispatcher system and autonomous input/output program), includes programs for inter- ~ changing information in the complex units, as well as the necessary test and debugging programs. Applied process control programs for specific pro- jects are under development and are being debugged by computer complex users. Debugging of these programs is possible with modeling programs on general- purpose B~SM-6 and Minsk-32 computers. Functional capabilities of computer complexes UVK-0 and WK-l. The control computer complexes UVK-0 and UVK-1 are intended for automatic control of parameters, represented by voltage, and for automatic management of techni- i cal processes. They perform the following: ~ successive interrogation and measurement of the voltage of an47.og-signal transducers parallel interrogation of discrete-(binary)-signal transducers program processing of interrogation results and the shaping o~ analog and discr.ete control actions on the actuating parts of the control. system 1 automatic print-out with coupling to elapsed time for data on the readiness ~f the process installation for operation, unacceptable deviations of the ( monitored parameters, the presence of emergency situations, nanual interven- tion by the operator and so on ~ automatic print-out and automatic presentation on a visual display, with ' coupling to elapsed time of data characterizing the performance of the pro- cess installation reading of time integrals with given period of number of pulses arriving from the process installation and com- parison of the result with the set point. ~ The UVK-1 complex, in addition, can perform the following: manual initiation of any of 15 process control routines during the carrying out of the main program 8 ~ FOR OI'FICIt,L L'SE UNLl' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 20Q7/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R04Q14Q10Q007-2 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY / ~ ~ TN\I:{I4CChNr A8p3K1'C~MICTIINH ~ ^ ~ YBK�0 3 ` YBK�1 ~ G ~ J I' y ~ ' Knnrno.iup~c~tWC a~~ (~ot ~eae AartmcN: ~ ~ K0.1119C1'1HU \5~ ~ YdCTl~TB r,n~~x, Fatw.~oe/c ~6~ R B . llIG71WdOH H.\i('(1CHHA~ B C I> ~44"""~~...d...{~0 -i~...Q..-F~~ - IIUf'~10iLHOCTL H3HC~IWA~ 8~ O, ~CIICC ~.4 Mexee 0,'1 KOHT(%1.7Np)'C11WC Jlf K~fCTl~lt JlBTYIXt1~ ( 1,0 h07N4CCTB0 ( 5~ $ YI �N~ �~`1�C8 ~ 11 ~ ~ 12 ~c~�xoA KarrnKT' ne6o , NCTP4N19: TOIfB IU MA ~T.7LU2Hf14P.ClSII ~38A3.71flIWC ~~~I~jC 8~ . - .'101'OPNC )71~87AIULLll~ Cllf ~ 1 ~onNVecTeo cNreanod , ~ 4 8 ,~ian:iox nanpsr.ueewA. B( l 5) 0-10 0-10 f o.ibrarw~eck~~ pa3eHaawtbte eeocoAHae Ane- K~~Tnde crtpae~ArouWe cHruand t'nme ,cY- xotl xo~rra~cr�~: Ko~xverteo xaxanoe ~ 17 } ~~'6 ~ / 16 IG eio~w+ocn. cti~rr+a.~a ~ i8 ~ l 19 ~ 0.~ A upe 220 8 Lli+~poeoe oto6paaceetw+ rexxo~o~~rte- cKwc napaNetpoe: %0.7H4EC7~0 ~rpoK ~ 21 20 ~ B . P83PAANOC~ ~ , 4 6 ` ~ E~cKOCn Yacoo Tcicyattero epe~ew!, v~ 23~ 44 100 Kon~~verrao oso6pawaenimc paapaQOe ~ 6 Konuvec~reo xaaa~oe ~raea~epoe 1 1 D,~fanaaoti otcvera ~ 2J~ ~ ~ 5~ qo ~2 v uo 59 utnt~ 2( ~ Ko~xyecTPO xat~anoe cverouwe m+e 2 ~ 11Mf1y~16C08 r~ e~+KOCre cver~nKa. iLW1Y16C08 ~ ` ~ Z~ 06bex 3ano~~xttaroutwc ycrpoAc~re 2 noczoa}woA naa~nTx 3BM, CaH~r 2K 6K oneparxeHOA na�srrx 3BM, 6afrr 11 95S 8R 0[It'f187NBHOri H1i~ilRSE~ R2NATHr Q3 ~T ~'f 1 ~ j"jCT Z~K + \ G / Ko.wvecTSO axewrwx npepuea~A ( 33 ) 8 2~ Haii+~~~~e nepx~ep~iAw,o; y rpoRcre ~ 3~ ~ ~yorocvHrb~arqab ~ 35 ~ Her R40B ne ~aTO ( ?H~ ( Her EF';t5 T�.~e~rpa�twttt hMt~" r ~ 37 ~ ` 38 ~t{er PT'A-6 Il~rtaiuie ~:o.wineKCa ~ 39 ~ twrpAHCe~uie cerp. 6 ~ ~}p ~ 380/220 narywu-ee.~iaA +iouu+ocn, KB�A 4]_~ 0,3 � I,Z [Key to Table is on tne �ollowing page] 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Key to Table presented on p~,ge] l. Technic~7. characteristics 2. UVK-0 3. UVK-1 4. Monitored ana.lo~; transducers 5� number 6. Interro~ation frequency, channels per second 7. range of ineasurement, volts 8, error of ineasurement, percent 9. Less than 0.4 10. Monitored discrete transducers 11. kind of transducer 12� "dry contact" or 10 mA current source 13. Galvanically decoupled output analog control signals 14, number of signals 15. voltage range, volts - 16. Galvanically decoupled output discrete control signals (of the "d.ry contac~t" type) 17. number of channels 18, signal strength 19� 0.1 A at 220 V 20. Digital display panel of process parameters 21. number of lines 22. bit len~th 23� Capacit,y of elapsed-time clock, hours, number of bits represented 24. Number of timer channels, reading range 25. up ~to 12 hours 26. u.p to 59 minutes , 2?. Number of channels of external pulse scalers 28. capacity, pulses . ~9� Capacity of storage units 30. permanent computer storage, bytes 31. in~ernal computer stora~e, bytes 3~. external immediate-access storage, b,ytes 33� Nwnber of ext~rnal interrupts 3~+. Inclusion of peripherals ~ 35� photoreader 36. key punch 37. telegraph set 38. rJo 39� Power supply of complex 40. line voltage, volts 41. poWer consumption, kVA 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 \ r~~i c~rr~:c i nl. usz oNi,Y printout on punched tape of any file of the program in the storage updating of the caurse of the industrial process by inputting a directive manually by telegraph. Comparative technical characteristics of the UVK-0 and UVK-1 are given in the table. . UVK~O architecture and description. The WK-0 complex is built on a model 55-11A microcomputer. Multichannel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters (ATsP and TsAP), a sem ipermanent storage PPZU for input of initial data and other peripherals--shown in the block diagram (Fig, 1)--(except f.or Che external permanent storage ZU) are connected to the microcomputer through digital input/output channels (Tsvkh and Tsv kh~' The limited number of chan- y nels required building auxiliary address and command systems of peripherals with address buses ShA, data buses ShI and command buses ShK. Data are ex- changed with the controlled object over the data buses ShI and the interrupt buses ShPR. _ The possibility of connecting the external storage was realized directly through the processor interface with control buses ShU, data buses ShI and address buses ShA, using a special interfacer; the necessity of connecting the external storage (immediate-accessor semipermanent) inevitably occurs in the debugging of industrial process programs. Co~~nection of the RTA-6 telegraph set is provided as a recording instrument. ~~11 the parts of the complex (except for the external storage and the RTA-6) ~~re housed in a single 480x475x240 mm block, which can be built into standard control cabinets. iNK-1 architecture and description. Basic to the compl.ex is an S5-O1 mi,cro- _ computer, modif ication A4, with a teletype version of the dispatcher system and with the addition of a photoinput and key punch control board (Fig. 2). A 15-channel analog-to-digital converter ATsP-1.5K, an 8-channel digital-to- - analog converter TsAP-8K, a master oscillator and an e.lapsed-time clock, an external pulse scaler SVI and other peripherals (in add ition to discrete output drivers FDV) are connected to the microcomputzr through an input/ output interfacer USIV. With the USIV the potential levels and the time ~ ratios of the components of the peripherals and the inicrocomputer are matched; ins~erfacing is also carried out with a two-way data bus of the microcomputer " with two one-way buses for the peripherals ShIA and ShIK. , At the base of organizing interchange with the microcomputer, just as the SS-O1 itself, is the bus principle with parallel connection of the peri- ; pherals. Included in the input/output interface is a one-byte data bus ~ ShIW , address buses ShAW, control buses ShUW, as well as one-bit reply bus KP. The external immediate~-access storage VOZU, with a capacity of lOK 16-bit words, using a processor interfacer U~IP is connected directly the microcomputer processor interface with the buses ShU, ShA and ShI. - 11 FOR OFFICIr~,'_, L'SE UvLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY m ~ ~ c'v c�~t m z s m,o�po ^ . ~ ~-k~ N ~ ~ ~~~m ~ ~.J1 Z v CQ ~ v m v b ~ ' ~ r. ,o m N b r-1 N t~'1 ~ v_ ~ Q BOZZ^~ w m . m E ~o tN ~-I ,O ~ ~t C r-F- hl ~ p ~ ri ~ E . a oo tr~ . ` u ~ v ~ a 9dU ~w ~o 0 vs ~ nv~urngvdnWdv~i o ~v . ~ ~ m N (Ov1 ~ 30. v 40 co C ~ a N v QQ ~ ~ ~l!'OU - 0,70d~ N I y E O . ^ S ao r-~1 v V ~ ~~+b~N9/A ~hi O ~ ~ t~ a~ 00 0~0 ~ GO m m O~ t~i ~ ~ I ~ 7 , b ~ C R'L ~v ~ p0 GO QO ~0 dj y~ ~ C C e C C C I~D O ~ ~ m ~ ~ OF/l11 ~ o duud ~ E ~ ~ v a~ ~ �O ~ N N ~ ~ (u9[fA'D'/f1 Q ~ ^ v 0 0 0" o00o g`~ ~ F~ ~ ~o ~-i ~ ~ ~ ` ~ Fv F ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~0 ,s - ~ v cp ~ 4 i^ O C k \O ^ ~O O U~ ~ N ~ S ~ ~ adva A o ~a t~~ N -OahOdU bp0 g ~ M b ~ ~ O onad~dau~Ny ,~,~ardderuNy o ~ m " ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~o� 'E� j ~ ~ .-.Q `b Q Q~ y q e~~c ~ ~ R ~ tr? CD 40 ~ ~ ~ ~ U1 r'~ ~ p b ~0 ~ ~ Lf~ ~ ` Q ~ ~ ~~~l~Y/// e V ~ " ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ z ~ r~l. s ~ S ~ ~ C/1 Q ~ v ~ ~ N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ll~ m~ i-. M i-. Z ~-I U v v c~n ~ ~ S~ e ~ W ~ " "C~' q ~ � a 12 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - _ [Key to ~igure pres,ente~ on the preceding page] 1. Input/output interfacer 2. Control bus 3. Address bus 4. Data Bus 5. (18 bits) 6. External immediate-access storage 7. RTA-6 teletype 8. R-40V photo-input _ 9� YeR-35 key punch 10. Pqwer supply 11. Approximately 220 vo'lts 12. Automatic power supply 13. Approximately 220 volts . 14. Data bus (18 bits) - 15. Address bus (15 bits) 16. Command device 46. Analog-to-digital converter, 17. Tnput�/output interface i5K 18. S5-0.1 A2 microcomputer 1~7, External pulse scaler 19. Input interrupt t+8, Sha ers 20. To RPPR [ex.pansion unknown] l~9, Timers 21. Digital input/output 50. 0.1 second 22. Processor interface 51. Master oscillator and clock, 23. One-b,yte control bus output transformer 24. One-byte address bus 52, Output transformer 25. One-byte data, bus 53. Display 26. Address data bus 27. Cross-field 5~+. Working control console 28. Input interrupt 55. Control address bus (Slt) 29. To devices 56. Interlockin~ 30. Input interrupt drivers 57. Control motor bus (16k) 31. Stepping-motor bus 58. Common address bus 32. Input interrupt bus 59� Input data bus 60. ~bject 33. Command data bus 61. Stepping-motor bus 3~+. ~~nc-byt~ address bus . 35� Input/output interface 36. On~-bit reply bus 37. Input interrupt bus 38. Address data bus 39� Command data bus 40. One-byte addr~ess bus 41. Onc-byte contr~ol bus 42. Control address bus 43. Block 44. LTVK-1 console ~+5�'Discrete output driver 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tnterrupt d-rivers PRV, like k'DV, ,a,re connected to the microcompute.r th.roiz~;}1 digital TsW. The inte.rrupt system provides for the multi- mode of problem-solvin~. The number of priority levels is 5, with the o~tion of construr.ting a queue of up to eight tasks at each level. Taskycalling is done either by an external call signal over PRV buses, or by programming means. The real-time moc'.e is executed with an elapsed-time clock with a capacity of up to 100 h and also with four autonomous channels of timers with a maximum reading time of up to 59 min each. Supply of the complex with DC and AC voltages is organized frum a secondary power source IP. When the UVK-1 is used in conditions of power troughs and large (up to +30 percent) instability of the industrial line current, it is possible for the complex to operate from an uninterrupted power supply (ABP) unit speci- fically constructed for this purpose, based on an SGV-2/1500 synchronous ~enerator. In this case the ABP is powered from one of two independent fe~ds with power consumption up to 3 kVA. The UVK-1 complex was built by design in the form of five standard blocks; they can be housed in a support, a special pedestal with the telegraph set and a Prepama~ (YeS-9021) ~table, where the photoreader and the key punch are placed. Complexes of th.e UVK-1 equipment developed and ma,nufactured in 1g77 under- went debugging and testing in 1978 E2]; a.t the time the applied and test sof'tware pro~ram~ were debugged in order to use the complex as part of the automatic control system (SAU) for electroslag remeltin~ furnaces. At the close of 1978 one UVK-1 complex was installed and i~Ztroduced into pilot- p1~,nt service in the SAU of a 40-ton electroslag remelting furnace at one of the machine building plants. Alreac~ ~the first melts of steel conducted using the UVK~l in the data mode strikin~ly demonstrated the advantages of the complex: operato.r labor was easier through automation of computations; accuracy of ineasurements and calculati.ons of process parameters was somewhat upgraded; major convE:- niences came to li~ht for the operators, associated with the high inform~s- ti.on content and the vividness of representation of the operational infcr- mation and wi~h. the accuracy and objectivit,y of recording the course of the industrial process. ; BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. Gal'perin, M. P.; Zhulov, Ye. I.; Kuznetsov, V. Ya.. et al "Famil,y of Domestic Broad-Spectrum Microcomputers," UPRAVLYAYUSHCHIYE SISTEMY I MASxINY, No 6, 1976. 14 FOR OFFICI~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY 2, Vinogradov, L. S.; Medvedev, V. S.; and Stel'mashenko, M. B. "UVK-1 Control Gomputer Complex based on Elektronika S5-01 Microcomputers," filektronnaya Promyshlennost', No 10 (70%, 1978. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," "Elektrotekhnika," 1979 10123 CSO: 1863 15 FOR OFI'ICIt,L liSE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY C. Programming and Software ~ unc 687..3.068 i UNIFIED COMPUTER SYSTEM MICROpROCESSOR SOFTWARE DEBUGGING SYSTEM Kiev KIBERNFTIKA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 78 p 141 [Article by G. I. Korniyenko, Ya. I. Barsuk, 7.. A. Pikh, A. N. Kolesnikov . and A. L. Reyzin, submitted 4 May 78] [Text] An effective means of reducing the cost and development of microprocessor computing systems is the use of cross programming devices which use large and medium capacity all-purpose computers as an instrumental computer. Cross devices are intended for design, simulation and debugging of systems and applied software programs, as well as for simulation and eva].uation of. algorithms during the development and operation microprocessor systems. The broad equipment and programming possibilities of large all-purpose com- puters make it possible to design cross software using high level languages and utilize the powerful debugging means of these computers. This reduces the cost and raises the reliability of cross devices themselves as comparecl with resident devices designed using microprocessor systems. T~tis article deals with questions of designing cross packages and in particu- lar, a description of debugging packages of the cross system for microproces- sor complexes which use Unified Computer System computers as an instrumental machine. The program debugging system assures the possibility of effective control of *_he debugging process and makes it possible for the developer to initiate ,~rogram operation of a si.mulated system, The debugging process may be done in the interactive mode or in package mode where the entire debugging process . is pre-planned by the developer. The following type instructions are in- cluded for effective use system. ].6 FOR OFFICInL L'SE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ! STOP type instructions indicate those conditions of the simulation . process where model operation ceases and a user-communication mode is established. In other words, these instructions sort of set "traps" permittinq cut-off of the process under certain conditions. TRACE type instructions describe conditions where in the simulation process operative information is put out on the state of certain system objects (registers, memory segments, I/0 devices, etc.) without stopping model operation. The instructions thus make it possible to establish the state of elements of the microprocessor system during simulated operati.on of its programs. LOOK type instructions make it possible to inspect various objects of the system model in a static state, i.e., after stopping model operation for one reason or another. ESTABLISH type instructions permit the developer to alter certain objects of the model in a static state. EXECUTE type instructions initialize simulation of execution of certain sections of the system program. Program simulation media are summoned at that time. The types of instructions, depending on the features of the specific system and requirements of developers, including instructions which implement the following functions: . load programming modules into interpretative memory; . replace certain simulation and debugging modes; . work with initial program's symbol array; . put out debugged programs in form required for loading into a real system; . media permitting recall of the state of the simulated system at an _ arbitrary moment with possiblity of subsequent recovery of this state (realization of control point apparatus). For operational intervention in the simulation process using debugging systems, the external interruption device of the instrumental computer is utilized. This device makes it possible, if necessary, to stop the process of model operation at any instant and insert instructions required for further operation. The simulation block includes programming devices for operation of mi- croprocessors and peripheral devices and the debugging system is called forth when the appropriate user instructions are received. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 The I/0 si.mulation system, by using the model of the micropro~essor interruption device, simulates information exchange between the micro- processor and peripheral devices. A subroutine which simulates its operation corresponds to each device. The simulation programs of peripheral device operation may be written by the user and can describe the operation of devices having the most arbitrary characteristics. The chief function of the statistics collection unit is to take into account the real time of execution of the debugged simulated program and its separate fragments. Furthermore, variables are specified for storage of a quant,ity of encounters of specific instructions, access to various devices, etc. During operation of the debugged model of the system, the necessary statistics are collected; on that basis a conclusion is drawn on the quality of the instruction system, on device loading, on operating ~ efEiciency of software in a given configuration of the microprocessor system. Fragments of a software debugging protocol for a microprocessor computer are cited which illustrate the possibilities of a cross media debugging system. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka", "Kibernetika" 8617 CS0:1863 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ FOR OFP',ICIAL USE ONI,Y II. GFNERAL INFORMATION A. Conferences - THIRD INTERNATIONAL SUMMER SCHOOL ON THEORY OF PROBABILITIES AND MA- THEMATICAL STATISTICS Ki~v KIBERNETIKA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 78 p 144 , (Article by A. M. Zakharin] (Text] The Third International Summer School on Theory of Probabilities and Mathematical Statistics was held from the lOth through the 20th of May, '1978 at the Creative House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Varna, Bulgaria): participants included mathematicians specializing in th~o- retical and applied probabilities from socialist countries. The international schools in probability theory and mathematical sta- tistics held by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences are aimed at informing specialists from socialist countries in the fields of probability theory, - mathematical statistics and their applied uses of the latest research fidings of their colleagues, and at developing scientific contacts between probability theoreticians and applied mathematicians. The Third School of 1978 consisted of 129 mathematician from nine socialist countries and three capitalist countries. The USSR Academy _o,f ,Sciences delegation consisted of six persons. Nine lecture cycles were given by noted mathematicians.from Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. Professor M. Arato (Budapest) presented a series of problems and results concerning questions of optimum planning, design and operation of com- puting systems in a cycle of lectures entitled "Probability models in computing syste,~s". Lectures of profe.~sor R. Bartoszinski (Warsaw), "Stochastic models in biology" mainly with an examination of dynamic probability models of the interaction o1: two populations, assuming a random change in their makeup. The lecture topic of professor M. Iosifescu (Bucharest) was the latest achievements in the theory of addition of intermixed random quantities. In the lectures of professor K. Mathes (Berlin), "Generalized Gibbs' distribution and similar problems of the theory of point processes", some questions were examined on the theory of Gibbsian distribution and theory 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 L Va\ vLl' iVlAL UUI:I l/lYL1 oE point processes as well as their application, primarily in the field of theoretical physics. The investigation of robust (i.e., stable with small alterations of the model) statistical procedures was covered in a cycle of lectures of , professor J. Jureckova (Prague) "Robust statisti~al derivations in linear regression mode].s. Asymptotic behavior of linear rank statistics". E'oux cycles of lectures were given by Soviet mathematicians. . In lectures of professor I. A. Ibragimov (Leningrad), "Some nonparametric problems of the theory of estimation", the main focus was on questions of asymptotic behavior of statistical estimates of an infinite number of parameters. A.cademician V. S. Korolyuk of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences (Kiev) in lzctures entitled "Resolvent of a uniform process with independent increments with inter.cept on the semiaxis" examined several interesting findings obtained by himself and his students for both theoretical and applied uses. The cycle of lectures of professor V. V. Sazonov (Moscow), "Estima~es of the rate of convergence in a central limiting theorem" dealt with the study of complex questions of classical theory of estimation of the rate of convergence in a central limiting theorem for the case of finite- dimensional spaces. The head of the USSR Academy of Sciences' delegation, Academician V. A. Statulyavichyus (Vil'nyus) gave a cycle of lectures "On methods of inv~stigating distributions of sums of dependent random quantities, multiple stochastic integrals and polylinear forms from random processes" in which were presented several results obtained by V. A. Statulyavichyus and his subordinates in this field of the Lithuanian school of pro- babilities. An extremely successful and utile measur.e of the Third School was a poster session run by the organizational committee in which 37 mathematicians participated. The poste~ session was organized as follows: in a specially set aside area were hung the reports of all participants desiring so, with the time when the results coulci be discussed with the author. The poster session greatly activated the activities of most of the attendees of the Third School, making them active participants. This considerably expanded the framework of the school and established closer scientific contacts among its participants, In addition to pre-planned measures, the organizati_onal committee of the third School made it possible for the Program Committee of the llth European Conference of Statisticians to set up several fruitful meetings from the 16th through the 18th of May. The conference is planned for September, 1979 in Varna. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , ~ The organizational committee of the Third School felt it was possible to permit members of the Program Committee of the 12th European Conference of Statisticians to give hour-long reports. Professor A. Smith (England), chairtnan of the Program Committee, gave a report entitled "Sequential classification in the event of uncontrolled instruction". Reports were also tead by professor P. Hensler (West Germany), "Selected questions of the theory of empirical processes" and Z. Sidak (Czechoslovakia), "Stable procedures of ordering and selection". The lecturs and numerous scientific conversations permitted participants of the Third School in the theory of probabilities and mathematical statistics to obtain a grat deal of useful information on the state of the art. The Third International Summer School on the theory of probabilities and mathematical statistics was wonderfully organized; consequently, the . atmosphere was business-lihe and exceptionally friendly. This fact makes it possible to give the highest evaluation to the activities of the organizational committee of the Third School, headed by professor A. Obretenov, the famous scholar. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka", "Kibernetika", 1978 8617 CS0:1863 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ THEORY OF RAPID LINEAR DISCRETE TRANSFORMATIONS: SEMINAR SC??OOL ID? KIEV Kiev KIBERNETIKA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 78 pp 14_~-147 [Article by V. k. Zadiraka] . [Text] Since 1965 many studies dealing with the theory of rapid linear discrete transformations have appeared both here and abroad. These studies are aimed at reducing (by an order) the number of computational losses and rounding error estimations in the computation of discrete transformations, to permit factorization of transformation matrices. The number of operations is reduced from N2 to N1og2N (by N/log2N times) , where N is the dimension of input information. This fact generated much interest among specialists in the theory of rapid lienar discrete transformations and the incorporation of the corresponding algorithms and programs in solving a wide range of problems: spectral and correlational analysis of random processes; digital simulation of filters, analysis of seismograms, analysis and synthesis of speech signals, processing of two-dimensional images, simulation of optical systems and synthetic holograms, solution of boundary problems for partial derivative equations, numerical integration, etc. In view of the urgency of these th~mes for familization of a wide range of specialists with the Iatest achievements in the field of research and accelerated incorporation of research findings in the national economy, as well as to coordinate research, the UkSSR Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the Republican House of Economic and Scientific and Technical Propaganda conducted a seminar school in Kiev from the 16th through the 19th of May, 1978 entitled "Theory of rapid linear discrete trans~ormations", the first such school on these topics in the USSR. The seminar was oriented toward scientific coworkers of computing centers, scientific research institutions and instructors ot educational in- stitutions. Representatives of 35 scientific research and educational institutions of our country took part in its work. Among these were the following: Institute of Cybernetics of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences, Lvov branch of the Institute of Mathematics of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Materials Technology of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrodynamics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow . Institute of Electronic and Computer Technology, bioscow Institute of 22 rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Engineers of Civil Aviation, Institute of Electronics and Computer Technology of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Kiev, Belorussian, Lvov State Universities and others. _ A total of 100 persons participated in the seminar. These included the following: one aorresponding member, three doctors o~ sciences, 28 candidates of sciences; others: scientific coworkers, instructors of educational ~nstitutions and engineers. Leading specialists of the country in the field of theory of linear , W discrete transformations and their applications were invited ta give , courses. The basic work of the seminar consisted in giving lectures with subsequent discussion and talks by participants on the pertinent topics. By the start of the seminar, a collection "Theory of rapid linear discrete transformations" (Izd. Znaniye, Kiev, 1978) had been prepared; it covered questions in general theory, algorithms and programs, use of rapid linear discrete transformations, and specialized computer devices. The col- lection contains lecture summaries. Attention was focused on questions of effectiveness of proposed algorithms and programs, and construction of optimum speed algorithms for computing discrete transformations. The welcoming speech to participants of the seminar was given by V. K. Zadiraka, senior scientific coworker. He emphasized the urgency of the seminar, the import of its themes; he defined its basic tendency and the direct relationship to enhancing the quality and effectiveness of solving ' national economic prcblems. The working portion of the program of the seminar was begun with a series of lectures by professor V. V. Ivanov, in which he touched upon elements of - general theocy of optimum computer algorithms and gave a detailed examination of optimum speed computing algorithms. - Lectures of V. M. Amerbayev, corresponding member of the Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, were entitled "Some questions of Fourier calculus"; they covered the structure of rapid Fourier transformation in a chain of residues in terms of a constituent modulus, organization of high-speed computations based on methods of Fourier calculus and the use of rapid Fourier transformation for numerical transformation of the Laplace trans- form via a Laguerre series and Neumann series in terms of Bessel functions. The possible acceleration of matrix and vector operations was covered in talks by professor Z. L. Rabinovich and senior research coworker V. A. Vyshinskiy. The proposed method is based on the representation of matrix and vector operands as actual numbers. This employs the device of associative and commutative hypercomplex numbers. ?3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The lecture series ot V. K. Zadiraka~ senior scientific coworker, was devoted to the construction of optimum accuracy quadrature formula of calculating integrals From rapidly fluctuating functions of varying degrees of smoo~hness, optimum c~~mparative ana~.ysis and optimizat'ion of rapid Fourier transformation programs, and economic algorithms of cal- - culating an estimate of the autocorrelation function of an ergodic stationary random process by the s~ctionalizing mett~od. Attention was focused on questions of constructing optimum (accuracy and/or speed) algor.ithms and comparison o� the corresponding programs with domestic and foreign analogues known to the author on such characteristics as accuracy, memory and time. A. A. Skripiy gave a talk about optimum speed algorithms for calculating complex derivatives and estimates beneath the volume of computational losses. Grid systems, which are discrete cluster-type dynamic systems assigned in a finite number were covered in the report of T. E. Krenkel' . This spectral approach to the detection of states of the grid system is based on the theory of linear algebras of finite rank and permits a linkage of the concept of shift, cluster, system of basic functions and their cor- responding rapid linear discrete transformation. In the speech of L. L. Boyko, "Rapid orthogonal transformations from the viewpoint of theory of gr~ups", algorithms of "fast" orthogonal trans- formations of the rapid r~urier transformation type and Khaar type were considered from a theoretical and group point of view. It was shown that - the basis Eor the existence of "rapid" algorithms is the presence of a "long" ccrnpositional series in some finite commutative group. ProEessor A. V. Xefimov spoke of the multiplicative Fourier integral and - its quantization, on computation and application of discrete multipli- cative transformations. In particular, he noted the use of discrete multiplicative transformations for problems of information compression and their economy. New requirements for algorithms and programs to solve problems of com- putational mathematics were covered in a speech by M. D. Babich, senior scientific coworker. He particularly noted that programs contained in libraries should be reliable and stable in operations, computer-in- dependent, portable and should have evaluative modules and underlying - description. Docent V. A. Morozov spoke on the subroutine package--"Analysis and synthesis of series. Rapid transformations"--and about several appli- cations of rapid Fourier transformations in computational mathematics. Information was given on algorithms and programs developed at the Laboratory of Numerical Analysis of the Computer Center Science Institute of Moscow University dealing with rapid Fourier transformation and BPU contained in the Library of Numerical Analysis o� the Computer Center Science Institute; comparative characteristics of speed and memory of _ 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFrICIAL USI's ONLY algarithms were cited. The following applications of rapid Fourier transforma- tion were presented: for analytic presentation of discrete data, solution of some antenna problems, integral Fredholm equations of the first type with nu- cleus from the of arguments and problems of wave physics. The re- sults of numerical exper3ments were cited. S. S. Vasilenko's lecture concerned a library of computational and evaluative modules for rapid rourier transformation which has been developed in the Di- vision of Theory of Computations of the Institute of Cybernetics o� the UkSSR ~,cademy of Sciences which is based on the use of modification of. the rapid Fourier transform algorithm: it employs a special preliminary preparation of required transform matrix elements. The distinctive feature of this li- brary is the optimization of algorithms in terms of the number of operations and the presence of evaluative modules which estimate error of the proposed algorithms, memory and computer realization time. Three program libraries--computation of discrete Fourier transforms, estimates of correlation functions and spectral densities of stationary random processes and solution of the problem of detecting covert cycles--developed ar the In- stitute of Cybernetics of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences were discussed by N. P. Novitskaya. L. M, Soroko, candidate in physico mattiematical sci.ences, gave an overview of work on modern algorithms of pseudo-conversion of linear transforms and also presented the rapid algorithms of Viner and Carnoonen and Loewy. The use of rapid transforms in problems of computation of bilinear f.arms was discussed in the report of 0. M. Makarov, candidate in technical sciences. The author exam ined varieus algorithms of accelerated computation of cycli- cal and acyclical clusters, multiplication of polyvalent numbers, pol.ynomi- - al.s, matrices using algorithms of rapid Fourier transformation and Adamar transformation. Estimates under the complexity of computation of bil.inear forms are cited. I.. P. Yaroslavskiy, candidate in technical sciences, talked about displaced discrete Fourier transforms and their application. The logic construction of sensing a two-dimensional data bank using a two- dimeasional system of Khaar functions grouped in pairs was discussed in a lecture by G. D. Tolstykh, candidate of technical sciences. A. I. Derevyanko, candidate in physico mathematical sciences, devoted his talk to the use of a definition of a dyad derivative for simulation ef sys- tems possessing invariance to dyad' displacement. In proposed algorithms, the speed of the realization program is increased by eliminating procedures of binary inversion and Grey's code. In talks given by Yu. F. Koval', P. M. Siverskiy, S. 0. Derum and V. I. Sumkin, candidates in technical sciences, "On one special processor of rapid Fourier transforms," the subject concerned one version of a rapid Fourier transform processor in which the following computation procedurt~s are presented: FOR OFFICInL USE UNLY 25 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 I~Uh c)H'I~ 1.C I ~L lltil; c)NLY . forward and reverse discrete Fourier transformation (DrT); . m~i;lt.ip].icati.on of time r.ealization by "data window;" ~ dtvi~ton of DI~'I' r.oefftcienCS wiCh simultaneous proce~sing two actua.l slgttrtl s; . squaring of DFT coefficients. In this processor, speed in the computat3onal mode is defined by the access time in main storage with input and output of results of intermec~iate compu- tations. Computations are performed in parallel on four multipliers and add~r/subtracters. Computation time of 1024 complex DFT coefficients is undPr 50 m/sec. Specialized processor of the rapid Walsh transform were discussed in the speech ~iven by V, V. Losev, candidate in technical sciences, A. A. Bud'ko and V. D. Dvornikov. The authors gave an overview of the basic methods of constructing specialized BPU (rapid Walsh transform) processors and spoke of the classes of BPU special processors and the structure of processors of Cllese classes. The lecture of V. V. Losev, candidate in technical sciences, was devoted to the use of rapid transformations for decoding correction codes, which are intetided for detection and correction of errors occurring in the transmis- sion between various objects. The most effective (from Che viewpoint of minimized probability of error) method of decoding a code is the method of the maximum likelihood. The process of computation is acceler3ted by fac- toring the transform matrix. Various possibilities of factoring were dis- cussed. The use of rapid algorithms for detecting polynomial representation of functions over finite f ields was discussed by A. K. Frolov, Yu, A. Galis and V. A. Pashchenko. The authors investigated a polynomial approximation of function of. n variables, defined and using values in some finite Galois t ield. Coefficients of the polynomial are defined by t?~^ corresrc:.~ing f.orward transformation; it is computed with the aid of rapid algorithms similar to th~se of Kuli-Taki and Good for DFT. This method is applicable in synthesis of combinatory schemes of bivalent and polyvalent logic. The program of the seminar envisaged speeches by participants and discus- sions on these talks. Reports were given by T. E. Krenkel', S. P. Ushakov, V. Zelenkov. Taking part in the discussions were V. A. Morozov, S, B. Vaysman, V. V. Losev, V. K. Zadiraka, etc. Original studies and results were widely discussed during the seminar and personal contacts were formed. Young scientists were able to become famili- ar with the laeest achievements in the theory of rapid linear discrete trans- formations, to find out some new theoretical problems and possible trends in their research. 26 FOR OFFICIr",L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FUR OFF]:C TAL USI: ONLX In summing up the work of the seminar, it can be noted that it was conducted on a high scientific level, and was useful and interesting. A resolution was adopted at the f inal session of the seminar: 1. An ex~ansion of the front of studies in theory of rapid linear discrete transformations and their application to the solution of various classes of problems, the creation of program packages and specialized processors is now being observed, 2. .The series of lectures given at the seminar were meaningful and scien- tifically profound. They wi11 surely promote the expansion of studies in the country to develop and improve methods and algorithms for solving many classes of problems on computer and enhancement of quality and effectiveness of the corresponding computations. 3. The chief goal of the seminar was to study questions of accuracy and ef- fectiveness of proposed algorithms, construction of optimum speed algorithms for computation of discrete transformations--we may consider that this was achieved. 4. In considering the urgency of topics of the seminar, it should be con- sidered advisable to have other seminars on the theory of rapid linear dis- crete transformations: the second seminar on these topics will be held in 1980. 5. The organizing committee of the Second Seminar and School should re- ceive the recommendation to attract specialists from large scientific centers of the country as lecturers. 6. If it is possible during the seminar schools, a concourse of programs of rapid conversions should be organized after the algorithm language and computer are established. 7. It is advisable to organize a division on rapid linear discrete trans- format'ions in the Republic Bank of Algorithms and Programs (Special Design Bureau of the Institute of Cybernetics, UkSSR Academy of Sciences). 8. The program of seminar schools should have more time for speeches by participants and discussions. 9.~ Gratitude should be expressed to the Order of Lenin Institute of Cyber- netics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and the organizing committee of the seminar school for its organization and conduct. COPYP.IGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka,'' "Kibernetika," 1978 8617 CSO: 1863 27 FOR OFFICIr,L USE UNLY 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 i ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY THIRD ALL-UNION CONFERENCE ON OPERATIONS RESEARCH Kiev KIBERNETIKA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 78 p 147 [Article by the Organizing Committee] [Text] From the 24th through the 28th of May, 1978 in Gor'kiy was.held the Third All-Union Conference of Operations Research; it was combined with the Fourth Conference on the Theory of Games. The conference was organized by the USSR Ministry of Higher and Middle Education, USSR Academy of Sci.ences, Gor'kiy State University imeni Lobachevskiy and the USSR Academy of Sciences' Computer Center. The organizing committee, headed by N. N. Moiseyev, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, included noted Soviet scientists. Leading specialists from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Novosibirsk, Gor'kiy and other science centers of the country participated in the conference (a total of about 250 participants). N. N. Moiseyev, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, gave a welcoming _ speech on the state of the art and developmental trends of operations research in his function as chairman of the organizing committee. The work of the conference was divided into five sections. 1. Models and methods of operations research�in planning problems. 2. Models and methods of operations research in problems of control of industrial and economic systems. 3. Models of decision making. . ' 4. Methods of optimization. 5. Theory of games. ~ At joint sessions of sections on basic trends of operations research, the ~ following lectures were given. A. B. Kurzhanskiy (Sverdlovsk): "Control and evaluation of parameters of dynamic systems under conditions of indefinability". A. V. Sergiyevskiy (Gor'kiy) "On studies of t~~e Scientific Research Institute of PMK [expansion unknown] on models and methods of decision making 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY D. I. Batishchev (Gor'kiy): "Dialogue optimization". 0. N. Bondareva (Leningrad): "Development of theoretical and game methods of optimization in cooperative games and their application to multi- ~ criterial problems". V. A. Gorelik, F. I. Yereshko, A. F. Kononenko and N. N. Moiseyev (Moscow): "Information theory oF hierarchical systems". Yu. M. Yermol'yev, V. S. Mikhalevich, B. N. Pshenichnyy and N. Z. Shor (Kiev): "Problems of minimization of nondifferentiated functions". R. G. Strongin (Gor'kiy): "Construction of algorithms for numerical solution of multiextremum problems". V. F. Dem'yanov and V. K. Shomesova (Leningrad): "Conditional sub- differentials of convex functions and their application". ` A. A. Korbut, I. Kh. Sigal and Yu. Yu. Finkel'shteyn (Leningrad, Moscow): "On the effectiveness of combinatorial methods in discrete programming". The Kiev school of optimization, in addition to the plenary report, presented the following reports: "Decomposition in problems of structural planning of complex systems in terms of reliability" (Volkovich, V.L., Voloshin, A.F. and Pozdnyakov, Yu. M., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev State University; "Some optimization problems of organization of container shipments in maritime transportation" (Krivets, T.A., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences); "Automated models of research and optimization of complex systems" (Kostina, N.I., , Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences); "Some modi- fications of sequential algorithms of opfcimization" (Zak, Yu. A., Ukra- inian Scientific Research Institute TsBP)'~ "On direct methods of sto- chastic programming with constant spacing" (Yermol'yev, Yu. M. and Kaniovskiy, Yu. M., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences); "Conditions of optimacy in stochastic programming and their applications" (Yastremskiy, A. I. and Golovko, V.I., Kiev State Uni- versity); "On asymptotic behavior of some methods of stochastic pro- gramming" (Knopov, P.S. and Kaniovskiy, Yu. M., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences); Dialogue means for solving some classes of extremal problems" (Raspopov, V. B., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences); "Global similarity of the method of linearization for one problem o` convex programming" (Panin, V.M., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrain:ian,Academy of Sciences); "Retrieval of extremal strategies in one" general conflict situation with non-contradictory interests" (Beyko, I.V. and Yasinskiy, V.V., Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Institute of Mathematics); "On runaway conditions in a nonlinear dif- ferential game: (Chikriy, A.A., Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) and others. *Fxpansion unknown. Possibly "Central Gieather ~ureau"1 ?9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In conclusion a general discussion was conducted, during which a series of questions on theory and practice of operations research was discussed. During the conference an exchange of work experience, ideas and views on key problems of oper~tions research, theory of optimum control in dif�erential games took place; this surely facilitates further intensive development ot these important trends of modern applied mathematics. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka", "Kibernetika", 1978 8617 CSO: 1863 ~ 30 FOR OE'FICIAL IISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 rOR UFF]:CIAL US~ ONI,Y UDC /061.3:/801:62//(478.9) , F.NGINEERINC LINGUISTICS INTROSPECTION AND PERSPECTIVE Moscow NAUCHNO-TEKHNICHESKAYA INFORMATSIYA, SERIYA 2, INFORMATSIONNYYE PROTSESSY I SISTEMY in Russian No 5, 1979 pp 9, 29-30 [Article by Kh. A. Arzikulov and R. Yu. Kobrin] ~ [TextJ The Second Al1-Union Conference "Automation Precessing of Text by Applied Linguistic Methods," organized by the Ministry of Higher and Second- ary Specialized Education of the USSR, the Ministry of National Education of the Mo].davian SSR and the Kishinev Polytechnical Institute imeni S. Lazo, was held in Kishinev in the fall of 1977. Methodol.ogical problems of engi- neering linguistics, the linguistic aspects of artificial intelligence and robot technology were discussed at the conference. A great deal of atten- tion was devoted to development and realization of machine translation algo- rithms, linguistic support of ASU [automated management system] and IPS [In- formation retrieval system], problems of man-machine dialogue, thesaurus referencing of scientific-technical texts on computers and problems of en- gineering-statistical linguodidactics. More than 200 linguists, mathematicians and specialists in the field of com- puter technology from 86 VUZ's, scientific research institutes and design institutions of Moscow, Kishinev, Leningrad, Kiev, A1ma-Ata, Minsk, Gor'kiy, Samarkand and other cities of our country participated in the work of the conference. . R. G. Piotrovskiy's report (Leningrad) "Automatic Processing of Text: Theory, Experiment and Introduction," was heard at the first plenary session, in which it was emphasized that the fundamental. theoretical problems of engineer- ing linguistics at its modern stage consists in working out the theory of reproducing engineering-linguistic models capable of reproducing linguistic objects or simplified analogs of them on the computer. D. A. Pospelov's plenary session report (Moscow) "Semiotic Mode].s and Dialogue Systems," in which the main creative problems solved in man-machine systems were considered, evoked great interest. 31 ~ FOR OFFICIri; USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tmportant questions of the relationship of information languuge~ (IYa) and natural language (YeYa) were analyzed in C. G. Belonogov's report (Moscow) "Mett~ods of Providing Compatibility of Information Languages." V. I. Perebeynos (Kiev) emphasized that solving the paradox of the openness _ of natural language and the closed nature of information languages should rest on construction of a baseline language which includes a minimum of those language devices which are necessary and sufficient to describe the given sub~ect area with a given degree of accuracy. This language can be developed only on the basis of terminological analysis of texts and a system of concepts of the given subject area. Theoretical and practical problems of developing machine translation systems. were actively discussed at the conference. The direct relationship of ma- chine translation problecns and problems of terminological analysis were point- ~ ed out in V. N. Gerasimov and Yu. N. Marchuk's report (Moscow, All-Union Translations Center) "The Terminological Service of Transl.ations and Auto- matic Information Processing." Reports devoted to machine translation may conditionally be divided into two groups: 1) reports in which general theo- retical and problem areas of machine translation were considered--the report of. V. V. Goncharenko et al "The Systems Approach to Solving Machine Transla- tion Problems;" A. I. Chapli and G. S. Osipov's report (Makhachkala) "On the Problem of Formal Recognition of the Meaning of a Text;" the report of N. M. Ivanova (Leningrad) et al "The General Structure of Syntactic Analysi.s and Synthesis in the rtachine Translation Algorithm;" and 2) reports containing a description of specif ic machine translation algorithms--the report of K. B. Bektayev (Chimkent), L. N. Belyayeva (Leningrad), V. S. Krisevich (Minsk) et al "The F.xperience of Realizing Industrial Machine Translation of Et~glish Texts to the Russian Language," the report of S. M. Shevchenko (Moscow) et al "Word by Word Machine Translation of Japanese Chemical Texts into Russian," the report of E. D. Tikhomirov (Moscow) et al "Program Realization of Inter- editing in Machine Translation Systems," and also the reports and communica- r~ons of L. I. Belotserkovskaya (Alma-Ata), A. V. 7.ubov (Minsk), Ye. M. Luk'yanova (Leningrad), I. V. Mikhaylova (Irkutsk) and others. P. M. Alekseyev and V. Bychkov (Leningrad), R. Yu. Kobrin (Gor'kiy) and others reported about statistical-distributive methods of text analysis. Reports devoted to thesaurus referencing of scientific-technical texts and to - che theoretical prospects for development of man-machine dialogue systems (Z. I'. Marashlets and A. N. Popeskul--Kishinev; Ye. V. Vertel'--Minsk; Ye. M. I.eonova,D. L. Spivak and Ye. A. Shingarev--Leningrad; E. V. Zinov'yev and E1. A. Maslak--Riga; and Kh. A. Arzikulov--Samarkand) evoked great interest. M. L'. Tolstopyatova's report (Moscow) "Semantic Means of Translation from Natural Language to Explication Language," in which the structure of ineta- languages based on algorithms for semantic text analysis not realizable 32 FOR OFFICIl~L USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR Ob'FtCIAL US~ ONLY on a computer (such metalanguages are being developed at MGU [Moscow State University] under the supervision of B. Yu. GorodetRkiy) was related, evoked discussion. The reports of A. S. Chistovich (IQZabarovsk), B. A. Avdeyev and V. V. Borodin (Gor'kiy) and others were devoted to linguistic support of ASU and IPS. A discussion on probl.ems of linguodidactics showed that it does not adequately utilize mathematical and engineering-statistical methods in optimization of language teaching. This exchange of opinions between linguists, mathematicians, logicians and cybernetioists, according to general opinion, contributed to an increase of the effectiveness in developing industrial machine translation systems, automatic annotation and referencing systems, linguistic support ot ASU and IPS and also stimulated investigations of the linguistic aspects of artiFicial intelligence. The range of new problems requiring analysis and discussion was determined . at the Kishinev conference. These are primarily the bank method of present- ing linguistic data, making linguistic support of dialogue systems more specific, making the "frame" coz~cept more specific and attempts to utilize this concept to interpret the meaning of text and also the principal capa- bilities of natural languag~ understandinq systems." These problems require detailed discussion since it is difficult to count on development of indus- trial machine translation algorithms, man-machine dialague systems ana also specific advances in the field of robot technology and construction of artificial intelligence systems without solving them. These problems were supposed to be discussed at the school-seminar on applied and engineering linguistics held from 3 through 14 July 1978 at the Dagestan State University imeni V. I. Lenin. 2'he school-seminar was organized by Minvuz [Ministry of Higher Educational Institutions) of the RSFSR, DGU imeni V. I. Lenin jointly with the All-Union Translations Center of GIQVT [State Committee for Science and Technology] of the USSR and the All-Union'Speech Statistics" Group; more than 80 linguists, mathematicians, engineering- programmers and psychologists from higher educational institutions, insti- tutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and republic academies and other organ- izations of the country participated in the school. The work of the school-seminar was carried out at two plenary sessions and at 20 sectional meetings within the framework af 8 topical sections; general problems of applied and engineering linguistics, programming of linguistic problems, automatic dictionaries and grammatical analysis of text, linguostatistics and optimization of foreign lanquage teaching, industrial machine translation, thesaurus representation of semantic in- formation, dialogue systems and the frame method of interpreting the meaning of text and linguistic support of ASU and IPS. 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY Four working seminars functioned within the �ramework of the school: "The Bank Method of Presenting Linguistic Data," "The Algebra of Ratios," "The Statistical-Probability Structure of Text," "Machine Translation of French Patent Texts." The report of R. G. Piotrovskiy (Leningrad) and A. I. Chapli (Makhachkala) "Linguistic Automatons and Engineering Linguistics01 was heard at the first plenary session. It was noted in the report that engineering linguistics is concerned with the construction of those models which, being realized on the computer, are capable of generating real linguistic objects. The funda- mental task of modern engineering linguistics is to develop linguistic automatons. The plenary report of D. A. Pospelov and L. F. Pospelova (Moscow) "Time and Space in Artificial Intelligence Systems and in Language," in which the main ideas of organizing the space-time concept in linguistic automatons were outlined, evoked special interest of the school-seminar participants. Development of machine translation systems, including workinq out its theory, experimental check of the theoYy and introduction of results into practice, is one of the most timely problems of engineering and applied linguistics. The lively discussion of engineering-linguistic and sociological problems of mass machine translation indicates the elevated interest in this important cybernetics, engineering-linguistics and general linguistics problem, which has been under development in our country for more than 20 years. The history of the development of machine translation in our country, the current state oE the art and prospects were briefly outlined in the plenary report of Yu. N. Marchuk (Moscow) "Machine Translation Based on Translation Conformity." Specifically, the reporter noted that during the initial period of work on machine translation within the framework of studying the similarity and dif- ferences of intellectual and machine translation, the hypothesis was made that translation can be divided into purely translation and interpretation. It is paradoxical, but interpretation emerged to the forefront during devel- opment of investigations on machine translation, while transl~tion accordinq to translation conformities was of little interest to specialists. Moreover, it is probable that the solution to the problem of constructing oper~ting machine translation systems can be found in the very method of translation modelling in the natural sense of the word. An example of the practical approach to the problem of machine translation was the first USSR industrial machine translation system of English and Japanese texts, prepared by the "Speech Statistics" Group, which is operating at the Chimkent Pedagogical Institute of the LGPI [Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute] imeni A. I. Gertsen. The technology of industrial machine translation was illuminated, its results were demonstrated and problems of improving the algorithms were 34 J FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY posed in the reports of representatives of the Chimkent group, headed by K. B. Bektayev and P. V. Sadchikova. The section reports of T. A. Apollonskaya, L. N. Bely~ysva, Z. G. Manukov et al were devoted to compilation of automatic dictionaries and grammatical analysis algorithms for machine translation in matarial of different languages. The reports of S. M. Shevchenko (Moscow) "The Use of Context in Interpreta- tion of Japanese Written Characters" and of T. N. Koroleva (Leningrad) "Representation of Japanese Texts on Carriers and Experimental-Industrial Machine Translation," in which the different approaches to representation of the idiographic writing on machine carriers were related, evoked a lively discussion. High quality of translation cannot be achieved without actualizing the values of lexical units and without removing morphological-syntactic and syntactic- semantic ambiguity. These pr~blems were considered in the reports of V. N. Bilan (Minsk), V. V. Kolesnikova and Yu. I. Gorbunov (Makhachkala), M. I. Vasi1'yeva and M. Yu. Popova (Leningrad) and others. Some capabilities of theoretical developments in these fields and some com- pletel}* unexpected relationships of engineering linguistics were shown during discussion of the general problems of engineering and applied linguistics. Thus, the need to develop automated retrieval systems for Buddhist texts, specifically, the engineering problem of "cleaning up" the texts written in ideographs and syllabic writing, was justified in the report of A. N. Kondratov (Leningrad) "Engineering Linguistics and Buddhology." Problems of mathematical support of different linguistic problems solved on ' computers of the unified series were subjected to especially detailed dis- cussion. The reports of A. V. Zubov (Minsk), Ye. M. Luk'yanova (Leningrad), Ye. V. Vertel' and G. L. Gorlin (Minsk), D. M. Skitnevskiy, L. G. Obukhova and A. G. ~bukhov (Irkutsk), O. G. Abakarov and G. S. Osipov (Makhachkala) and others were devoted to this problem. Linguistic support of ASU and IPS of different types was the topic of the reports of A. A. Piotrovskaya (Leningrad) "The Indexer of Russian Titles in the AIPS [Automated infarmation retrieval systemJ 'Petrochemistry'," N. Yu. Rusova et al (Gor'kiy) "Linguistic Suppart of ASNTI [Automated systems for scientific and technical information] of the Construction Materials Industry"," L. P. Kolusheva and F. I. Rybakov (Moscow) "Organization of the Main Means of Communication in ASU" and others. The mathematical model of the thesaurus semantic system designed in the "Speech Statistics" Group on material of different languages was considered � in the report of Ye. K. Kozlova (I~eningrad) et al "Combining Thesauri." One of the varieties of reproducing engineering-linguistics models (VILM) thesaurus annotation of a document, which utilizes the thesaurus semantic system, was described in the report of Kh. A. Arzikulov and Zh. Kh. Arzikulova (Samarkand) "W'hat is a VILM?" Ir.formation language 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . based on the thesaurus semantic system was the topic of Ye. A. Shingareva's report "Arti�icial Languages of Object-Subject Type and a Quasi-Referencing Dialogue System." V. M. Bryabrin (Moscow) in a report "Processing Natural LanguAge in the - DILOS System" considered the DILO5 system,which consists of linguistic, information-retrieval, computer and logic processors and is based on the frame idea. The reports of I. V. Mikhailova (Irkutsk), F. I. Rybakov, Ye. A. Rudnev and V. A. Grigor'yev (Moscow) and Ye. M. Leonova and R. D. Kozhamberdina (Leningrad) were devoted to the theoretical prospects for development of "man-machine" dialogue systems operating on the basis of natural language. Problems of constructing reproducing engineering-linguistic models (VILM), ~ related to solution of a number of complex problems of a general methodo- loqical nature, were subjected to detailed discussion. Thus, the question arises on the basis of what principles should a VILM be constructed? Should one rely on the linguist's introspection and then derive from it by deduction one or another formalized linguistic scheme or should one pro- ceed from~the intormation which can be extracted fram real texts? P. M. Alekseyev, Yu. K. Orlov, R. Ya. Chitashvili, T. G. Gagechiladze, K. T. Mi;caladze, T. P. Tsilosani (Tbilisi), Yu. G. Novikova (Krasnoyarsk), B. Ya. Slepak (Kirovograd) and others came out in favor of the second ap- proach, related to the statistical-distributive method of extracting the required information from text. The plenary report of R. Yu. Kobrin (Gor'kiy) "The Statistical Distribution of Term Models," in which the hypothesis significant to construction of the VILM was advanced, according tn khich term models, unlike the terms themselves, have normal distribution, was devoted to this approach. D. A. Pospelov, who gave a talk in discussing the reports, noted that mathematicians and engineering-programmers are begin- ning to understand the entire complexity of natural language, and, therefore, the participation of linguistic~specialists in development of infarmation 9ys~ems in absolutely necessary. Tnteraction between engineering lingustics and linguodidactics, during which objective methods of selecting language material for~optimization of natural language teaching are being worked out, has recently been manifested more appreciably. Problems of engineering-statistical linguodidactics.were con- sidered in the reports of Associate Professor Kh. G. Azayev, S. G. Chapli, V. A. Yegorova, A. A. Zamanskiy, N. P. Abramova (Makhachkala) and otners. A number of fundamental featuxes which occur during mathematical modelling of a system and normal natural langu3ge and also during construction of machine algorithms and text-forming programs was determined as a result of discussion at the school-seminar. A method of algorithmization of linguistic problems, relying on network models, methods of information-statistical model- ling of text and the thesaurus method of interpreting the meaning of text, was formulated. Attention was turned in some reports to facts of 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040140100007-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY terminological ambiguity arising upon introduction of the "frame" concept. It was noted that the method w~?ich utilizes the frame concept largely repeat~ the facet analysis methods and also different methods oP constructing so- . called "positional" grammars. It was emphasized that the first domestic experimental. automated systems having linguistic support for working in the � dialogue mode (the DIIAS system realized at the VTs [Computer Center] of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the TAND and "Otvet" systems constructed at the Tishinev, Minsk, Leningrad and Samarkand collectives of the'Speech Statistics" Group) have now been developed. Special attention was devoted in the.decision of the school-seminar to the need to expand investigations in the field of engineering linguistics, linguistics for robots and development ~f programs which realize grammatical processes. In summarizing the results, the school- seminar in applied and engineering linguistics noted that the main task of the seminar, consisting in exchange of scientific ideas and methodical ex-- perience and also in coordination of efforts in the field o~ engineerinq linguistics, was fulfilled. The model organization of the school-seminar was also noted. COPYRIGHT: VSESOYUZNYY INSTITUT NAUCHNOY I TEKHNICHESKOY INFORMATSII, 1979 6521 CSO: 1863 , ; 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY B. Publications SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING Kiev NAUCHNO-TEKF.iNICHESKOYE PROGNOZIROVANIYE I YEGO INFORI'~[ATSTOPINOYE OBESPECHENI~YE (OPYT ORGANIZATSII) [Scientific and Technol~~gical Forecasting and Its Provision for Information (Experience in Organiza~ion)] in Russian 1978 signed to press 6 Apr 78 pp 2, 110-118, 121, and 127 ' [Annotation, table of contents, Section 3 of Chapter 3 and Appendix 2 from book by Larisa Georgiyevna Khromchenko and Ernst L!vovich Lortikyan, "Vishcha shkola," 3,000 copies, 127 pages] [Text] The monograph is devoted to the question of scientif ic-technological and socio-economic forecasting in the system of socialist planning and ad- ministration and represents an attempt at a concentrated account of the main achievements in the area of forecasting in general and scientific and techno- logical forecasting in particular. In it, experience in the organizing of forecasting in the USSR and abroad is generalized, the first experience in the preparation of forecasts in our country is investigated, and particularly in the Ukraine in the years in which the Soviet planned ec:onomy was being estaUlished, and var.ious views on forecasting advanced in contemporary pub- lished works are evaluated. special place is given to examination of the information means of scien- tific: and technological forecasting, the sources used in the preparation of r.orecasts by various methods are characterized, a procedure is given for ana- lyzing the structure of information flows and the role of the information and patent services in the forecasting of technological progress by informa- tion means is shown. The monograph is intended for students and graduate students of UU7's who�are problems of scientific and technological information and forecasting, and also for specialists of the national economy, Contents Page Chapter 1. Forecasting--an Important Link in the System of Soca.alist Planning and Administration g 1. Experience in forecasting in the years when the Soviet planned economy was being established 3 3f3 FOR OFFICIti:. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY Page 2. The placP and function of forecasting in the system of planning and administration 26 Chapter 2. The Essence, Functions and Methods of Scientific and Technological Forecasting 36 1. C~ntent and functions of scientif ic and technological fore- casting and its importance for determination of the direc- - tions of scientifi^ and technological policy 36 2. Methods of preparing scientific and technalogical forecasts 50 - 3. Organization of the preparation of forecasts in the USSR and abroad 65 Chapter 3. Providing Sc3.entif ic and Technological Forecasting With Information 69 1. Characterization of sources used in the preparation of forecasts of scientific and technological development 69 Primary documents of scientif ic and technological inforrnation 72 Patents, author's certif icates and application mater.ials 72 Normative and technological documentation 76 Documentation on completed scientific research work and deposited manuscripts 79 Books and periodicals 82 Expert estimates 85 Secondary sources of scientific and technological information 90 , Bibliography indices Q1 Abstract journals 92 Indices of scientific references 93 Factographic data from records of absooute and relative growth of the number of new articles and study of market competition 97 2. Structure of flows of scientific and technologica"1 information as an indicator of change of the character of scientific in- vestigations. Procedure for analysis of the structure of in- formation flows 101 3. '~'he role of information and patent services in forecasti_ng scientif ic and technological progress by information means 110 ~ Appendix 1. 119 Appendix 2 121 Bibliography 122 39 FOR OFFICIr",L USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 . FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY Chapter III, Section 3 The role and importance of informaCion in the system "f.orecasting-planning- administration" are indisputable. The use of the latesC scienCific and technological achievements in the natlonal economy is regarded not only as one of the main economic taslcs but al~o as a very important political task. An important condition of Che solution of that task is improvement of the scientific and technological information system in the country. The atten- tion of the party and government to these questions is constant. In the CPSU Program adopted by the 22nd Party Congress it was noted that the party will cantribute in every way possible to an exemplary organization of scientific and technological information and the study and distribution of sov.iet and foreign advanced experience [5, p 127]. In the last 10-15 years in our country a unif ied state scientific arid tech- nological information system [obshchegosudarstvennaya sistema nauchno-tekh- nicheskoy informatsii--GSNTI] has been created for the first time in the world. Today a staff of over 150,000 is working in that system. Its makeup . is determined by all-union, sector and intersector information organs and the information services of enterprises and organizations. Scientific and technical libraries and technical offices at individual enterprises and houses of. technology should also be classed as information organs. The division of functions among organs of scientif ic and technological in- formation in our country is based on distinctive features of the processing of data flows. All scientif ic information sources published periodically or once (books, journals, patents, standards, reports on scientific research and experimentzl design work) and technological and technical information on practical experience in industry, construction and transport and other ~ _ branches of the national economy are divided into two independent informa- tion flows. One of them, obtained by centralized processing of the world ~cientific and technological literature and the results of Soviet scientific research work, has been called descending. Al1-union and sector centers and ~ntersector organs of scientif ic and technological information participate in the creation of that flow and the dissemination of its results. The second flow is formed by unpublished documents in which are reflected the results of scientif ic research and experimental design worlc, technologi- cal experience, rationalizers' suggestions, created and arriving, as a rule, from lower scientific and technological information organs. This flow has been called ascending. The documents of this flow, as a rule, have a service character, When they arrive at the central sector organs from the lower cells they are synthesized and published in the information organ of the given branch. Starting from the principal.division of flows of information sources the activity between separate GSNTI links has been coordinated. 40-41 FOR OFFICIl,L USE UIVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 _ FOR OFi~'IC1AL U513 ~NI~Y Directly connected with the VNTITsentr is the activity of the Al1-Union Scientif ic-Research Institute of Intersector Information [Vsesoyuznyy nauch- noissledovatel'skiy institut mezhotraslevoy informatsii--VIMI], created some- what�later, which, like the VNTITsentr, is engaged in the collection and pro- ~ cessing of information on advanced scientific, technological and production experience of an intersector character. The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Information, Classification and Coding does much work on information in the areas of standardization, metrology and measuring equipment. The institute publishes ind:ices of state standards and specifica~ions and thematic bibliographic surveys of the for- . eign literature on questions of standardization, metrolog~y, cla:asification and coding. _ The all-union center of information about soviet and foreign inventions is the Centra]. Scientif.ic Research Institute of Patent Information [Tsentral'- nyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut patentnoy informatsii--TsNIIPI). It investigates the technological and economic effectiveness of Soviet and for- eign discoveries and inventions, completely processes patent co.llecti.ons and spreads iniormation about production and technological achievements reflected in authors' certificates and patents. The TsNIIPI publishes and distributes specif'ications for authors' certifi- cates for Soviet inventions, translations into Russian of a number of foreign periodicals on foreign patients and information about foreign patents current- _ ly arriving and summaries of patent specifications. The All-Union Patent and Technical Library, on the base of which the TsNIIPI works, provides biblio- graphic information on patent publications and makes photocopies of patent specifications and distributes them at the request of*. One of the olde~t organizations engaged in providing scientific and technical information is the All-Union Book House [Vsesoyuznaya knizhnaya palata--VKP]. The VKP issues publications of current bibliographic info.rmation and summary bibliographic re~erence works. Its most important publications are: "Knizh- ~ naya letopis" [Book Chronicle], "Letopis' periodicheskikh izdaniy [Ghronicl.e of Periodical Publications], "Letopis' zhurnalnykh statey" [Chronicle of Journal Articles], etc. The Institute of Scientific Information on the Social Sciences [Institut nauchnoy informatsii po obshchestvennym naukam--INIONJ collects, generalizes and analyzes scientific information on the social sciences. The main ascend- ing information flows are provided by the publication of abstract journals, express-information, scientific and analytical surveys of indivi.dual problems *The "Patent" Polygraphic Production Fnterprise also makes copies of patent documents upon request. 42 FOR OFFICIt,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ f and the results of development of the social sciences, bibliographic bulle- tins and retrospective bibliographic indices. The State Public Scientific and Technical Library [Gosudarstvennaya publich- naya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya biblioteka--GPNTB] is the leading multibranch library in industry. It has the country's largest collection of scientific and technical literature and documentation, including foreign and domestic industrial catalogs, a unique collection of literature published by minis- ' tries and departments in small printings, and algorithms and programs for electronic computers. The GPNTB publishes the bibliographic index "1~'ovosti tekhnicheskoy litera- - tury" [News of the Technical Literature], indices of translations of techni- cal literature, a catalog of bibliographic indices for technology, compiled by tTSSR Libraries, indices of foreign pe~iodicals issued ~by organizations of the country, etc. In ~.ccordance with the program for the further intensification and improve- ment of collaboration and the development of the socialist economic integra- tion. of CEMA-member countries, an International Center of Scientific and Technical Information [Mezhdunarodnyy tsentr nauchnoy i tekhnicheskoy in- form.atsii--MTsNTI] has been created~in Moscow and publishps abstract collec- tions for al1 branches of science and technology .that are published in sepa- rate branch series in Russian. In those collections information is given about completed discoveries of scientific research work and dissertations defended in the~socialist CIIKA-member countries*. An importar~t place is accupied in the organization of the descending flow of informational documents by sector and interbranch centers. The main task of sector. infor~nation centers is.the processing and prepara- tion of information about actiievements of enterprises, sclentific research at.d planning organizations. For that purpose they make a direct connection with all organizations of the sector and provide centraliz'ed publication of ir~formational materials and the collection and systematization of unified reference information collections. The sector information centers publish bibliographic, ab:stract ~nd survey , information on the most important questions of the bra~ch. number of circumstances brought about the creation ~f the intersector cen- ers. A considerable number of industrial enterprises that are subordinate ~ to ministries of republics and kray and oblast councils are in practice not ~ serviced by the sector centers. In addition, the efficient obtaining of in- formational materials by those organizations is made difficult by distance. In a number of cases information must be prepared in national languages. *Except work done in the USSR, as information about that work is published in publications of the VNTITsentr and VIMI. 43 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FUR OF~'1'CIAL USli ON1,Y Intersector or~ans of scientific and technological information are institutes of scient:ific and technological information of the republics and the terri- torial NTI centers of the autonomous republics, krays and oblasts. Institutes of the republics organize reference information collections with consideration of distinctive features of the economic development of the republic, conduct technical and economic investigations of problems of great importance to the development of the national economy of the republic and issue informational publications. Translations of materials published by the branch centers are issued in the national languages. Materials of sci~ entif ic councils, republic scientific and technological conferences, meet- ings and seminars and separate surveys on problems of the leading organs of the republic are published in Russian. The intersector territorial centers perform functions similar to those of the republic institutes of information, but the scales of their work and their publishing activity are more limited. Each year the all-union, central, sector and intersector ?~TI organs publish over 14p,000 publisher's sheets of informational publications reflecting in various forms data on all the information sources which can and must be used in scientific and technological forecasting. An vnportant role in the organization of the use of those materials by re- searchers is played by lower organs of scientific and technological informa- tion--divisions of scientif ic research institutes or p'lanning organizations and technological information bureaus of enterprises. ThE~y participate in the planning and organization of investigations and develapments, providing them with the documental.information needed for scientif ic and technological progress. That work can be done by: analysis and generalization on the basis of study of information flows (periodicals, patents and company publications) in order to determine trends in the development of science and technology and the inclusion of the most prom:;.sing and urgent themes in the plans of organizations; the accumulation of scientific information about the main directa.ons of the activity of 2n organization in the process of creating reference informa- tion collections*; the discovery of ways new_in principle to solve problems arising on the borders of adjacent disciplines, and sometimes between disciplinPS very far from one annther; *The aggregate of primary and all secondary documents on a selected problem. 44 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY 1 the coordination of scientific investigations and developments; the establishment of business and creative relations between organizations and enterprises related in prof ile and themes; retrieval, processing and transmission of required scientific and techno- logical information. In connection with the brbad expansion of work on forecas2:ing ar~d the improve- ment of pla.nning and acministration of the national econorny the State Commit- tee for Scj.ence 3nd Tec,hnology under the USSR Council of 1~iinistNrs and the USSR Gosplan in February 1972 adopted a special resolution determinir~g the proce- dure in the. presentat3.on by organs o.E scientific and technological informa- tion to planning organs, ministries, departments and managers of enterprises and organizations of informational materials on the most important Soviet achievements in the areas of science, technology and production and their con- sideration and use. In accordance with that resolution, information organs of a11 units are obliged, on the basis of the processing, analysis and gener- aliz.ation of arriving information, to compile reports reflecting the data on the most important achievements in the areas of science and technology whieh must be taken into account in the preparation and examinat:ion of plans. Of all-union centers those obligations were entrusted to t:he VNTITsensor, VINITI, VNIIKI and TsNIIPI, and also to all sector, territorial and lower NTI organs. In that connection the information organs of the main sector scientific re- search institutes have greater responsibility for the organization of work connected with the establishment of forecast information. As is known, work on forecasting, embracing different areas of creative and production activity, is done on different leve~.s. Thus, the managing and planning organs of ministries require forecasts of the development of their sector as a whole and its principal areas. If forecasting on the whole for the sector can be accomplished by the technical administration jointly with the ;;ector institute of information, tt~en the preparation of forecasts on individual directions as a whole is entrusted to the sector scientific re- search institutes. Hence the task of each institute is to determine the prospectiveness of created technology, designate on the basis of formed trends the main directions of development and consider and analyze thoroughly the most important competing areas of technology. ~ The management of an institute needs forecasts on each thematic direction in - preparing thematic plans of scientific research work, The leaders of them- atic directions require forecasts characterizing the prospectiveness of the articles being developed and knowledge of the trends in investigations of the thematic direction. " 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The solution of these tasks will depend to a considerab].e degree on the or-- ganizational of scienti�ic information work as a whole, and especially sur- vey analytical work. The partic:ipation of information organs in the preparation of forecast informa- tion requires the introduction into survey analytical work of statistical meth- ods of information analysis, which assures it great purposefulness. An analy- sis of the scientific and technical achievements according to literature ~ sources is acquiring great importance. In those sources one can often f i*~d a direct indication of the development of new promising directions or changes in scientific and productive orientation. - A large place is also occupied by analysis and generalizarion of materials of scientific and technological conferences, meetings and symposiums where spe- cialists in the course of exchange of experience often exI~ress judgments about the prospectiveness of a given problem. Of special value are confer- ences conducted on the international level, and also in countries where a given problem has received very great development. Until recently information organs were limited only to the extraction from those materials of the most interesting solutions from the point of view of their own institutes. Today those materials must be thoroughly studied, es- pecially for the purpose of discovering new ideas and trends in the develop- ment of the given area of science or technology. The accumulation, systema- tization of that material and its comparison with the data of statistical analysis serve as the basis for the preparation of documents for management by the information division. The preparation and publication of survey analytical materials created by information organs jointly with eminent scientists and sp~:cialists is becom- ing one of the most important forms of scientific information activity. Thanks to it, especially when the principle of continuity is observed in the preparation of such materials, information divisions must prepare with suffi- cient objectlvity materials on trends and paths of development of the corres- ponding area of science, technology and production. Observation of that principle, and also the continuous character of the work of an information division on the discovery o~' trends in the development of science and technology permit recording and evaluating any changes in the scientific and productive orientation of a given area. It is important to objectively shed light on the actual situation; to a considerable degree this results from the fact that in the information analysis conducted by an NTI c,rgan, side by side with published material factual data also are used that reflect the dynamics of investigations and production in the area under investigation, 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICTAL U5E ONLY The work of NTI organs on scientific and technological forecastin.g does not propose final decisions on trends in the development of science, technology or production. Its task is to discover in time the systems of varying or formed trends and extract and systematize the statements of specialists. The final estimate of the results of analysis and conclusions are made by scientif ic forecasters, investigators and management. , The reference information collections form the basis of qualitative discovery of forecasting information by NTI organs. A unif ied systzm of r.eference in- formation collections has been created in the country one which permits ob- ~ taining complete information on any question of interest. In scientific research and planning institutes various subdivisions can be a part of the reference information collections: technical files, standardi- zation divisions, patent subdivision collections, etc. In that case not only the completeness of the collections of primary and secondary documents but also the system of organization oL- retrieval of nec- essary information 3s very important. In accordance with the latter, at the present time the development of inechanized and automated information retrie- val systems of a documental, and especially of a factog~aphic character, is acqu iring great urgency [56]. In addition, the organization of work on f inding forecasting information by NTI organs requires no special reorganization. A need arises only to rein- force with qualified personnel the subdivisions engaged in the analysis and generalization of information, and the style of activity and approach to work with information sources changes. At the present time an engineer curator in examining the literature is limited, as a rule, only to making clear the correspondence of the information source to the subject under investigation. A general concept of the content of Che ~naterial is suff icient for that. Intensif ied working of the material, assuming the extracti_on from the source of factual data, the stated points of view of specialists, etc, is necessary in the selecti~n of forecasting information. It becomes necessary to study the ~conomic information. It was no accident that in 1967 the NTI divisions of the leading scientific research institutes began to be called NTI divi- sions also of technical and economic investigations*. Many information services and patent organs in our country and abroad, along with the performance of traditional functions in providing current informa- tion about scientific research work and special design work, to some degree participate in work on forecasting. *In the same year the supplement "technical and economic investigations" was introduced into the names of branch and republic institutes of information. 47 FOR OFFICIE~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFTCIAL [ISE ONLY The entrustment to the information and patent services of functions connected with. the forecasting of the development of science, technology and production stin~ulates a creative attitude of their specialists toward work with informa- tion sources, increases purposefulness and specificity in the organization of retrieval of necessary materials and assures the participation of those subdivisions in one of the most important processes in the organization of science and production. The degree of participation of information organs is increasing still more in connection with the creation of automated forecasting systems. In accord- ance with the plans of such systems that are being prepared [69, pp 165-166] it is proposed that prepared sector forecasts, after being approved in the glavk, be sent to the corresponding sector information institutes. There the forecasts are unitized, supplemerited with new information and directed to the sector computer centers, where the forecast models are stored. Those models are corrected on the basis of new information and in unitized form arrive at the ministry for f inal approval. - After approval by the ministry they are directed to the appropriate glavks, institutes and enterprises. At the same time those models will be sent to the VNTITsentr, where they will be combined with the forecast models of other branches. Then they can be directed to directive and planning organs through the State Committee for Science and Technology under the USSR Council of Ministers. The successful implementation�of these plans even now requires from informa- tion organs high-quality functioning of the system of ref~rence information collections and the development ~f effective means of information retrieval. 48 j~ FOR OFFICIr'~L USE Ui~I,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 6~J1\ v~.~+.Vi/4J VuL V1\IJL AppE:ndix 2 Str~uctural mul�tilevel diagram of the construction uf tables of expert estima,tion of the prospects af developme:nt of computer technulogy z n~wueeu Odua~ ~ens __j 3 I1Ymu peWd u~ n~WC~s.rv _ ~ . _ _ _ 6.. . _.L..---= . _ . rlonxr~,m,~,~ �n~y~~,,,, llnm~rw1niy , uM oxwweNUx nptHe.innAumunh neNweeus npuuleadume,wJ vi~"~~~i~in~~ :JHM (m~~nnr~ruu~� 3BM N~u:mu omJun~Hnu 3BM Nucmu nopKU 3BM cmon~n, I . ~ I- --r.... . _ ~ _ . . . . . , � . _ . . . 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Fi a ~i K F u ` h � ~ , ~ ' a y a ~ ~ ~c, . v ~ a ~C,' 3 `5 ` o b$ ' i I n ~ ~ o- i ti i^ ~ i �i ~ N~ u y I:, , p n ~ a~ v; n~n k.o i i' i ~:i ~ ~ ~ t. m i ~ 'q pt~ i . ~i u! ~ i R~ i l t ~ nl ^ ii t1 ` 1 ~i; N.., i~l u 1; n~ ~t ~ ni 4 ~i 1~i R ~ A y 7 � or o u'~ 0~~ c ai h~' v� 7~ a~ u~ Q~.'3 h ~ 7 i� v~ pi ~ u1 ~�1 ati i i+ o .i ~ N R V i~ ~ a c~~ ai ;V ~ U k~r~j y y1l m C 1y V m~ yi aj ~pm s ry~~ d~ i j~ N G yx 4 N Y b O C p i q~ k U q ~ S ~ i~ ~ R ~ ~ K.~ m ~ q p ~ k > d 3 . ~ m Q e�c ~ m x~" a �t ~ ~ O t'p~ a o; ~ c m s a, ~ e m m 4 a Y m ~ N m 6 e = o ~ e O~ C1' ~ 6T ~ s~ d' d' ~ ~ b i{ey: 1 General goal 2 Subgoal 3-- Ways to solve a problem ~H Facilitation of man-computer communica,tion 5-- Increase of the electronic computer's "intellect" 6-- Increase of the capacity of an individual electronic computer 7-- Increase of the capacity of the country's electronic computer pool 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 8-- Directions of investigations (means of attaining the goa.l) 9-- Improvement of the element-technologica,l ba,se 10 Improvement of peripherals and communication technology 11 Development of d~,ta processing methods 12 Improvement of programming means 13 Improvement of the electronic computer structure 14~ Development of inethods of planning electronic computers 15 Creation of formal languages for separate scientific directions 16 Development of engineering psychological investigations of the system "ma.n-ma,chine" 17 Improvement of thP organization of use of electronic computers 18 Estimate of ~the relative importance of'the development of different directions of investigations in t~e�area of peripherals 19 Estimate of the relative importance of the development of different directions of investigations in the area of software 20 Distribution of statements regarding the most advisable system of organi- za�~ion of the control of single-program electronic computers in solving problems in a "dialog" 21 Estimate of the optimum proportion of multi-program electronic computers 22 Distribution of expert opinions on the problem of improving the use of electronic computers 23 Estimate of the correlation (in total r~achine time) of problems~in "dialog" and bath processing regimes 24~ Estima,te of the time required for completion of an ~vent--production of an electronic computer with a cycle length of the main storage of 10 nanoseconds (ma,in storage ca.pacity--4~,000 words) 25 Estima,te of the time required for completion of an ~vent--multifunc- tiona,l element circuits adjusted to a program were introd.uced 26 Estimate of the time required for completion of an event--autom~.tic formation of a logical elemental circuit was introd.uced into integrated circuit ma.nufacturing technolooy 27 Estimate of the time required for completion of an e,vent--~rod.uction of an electronic computer having a speed of 20 million operations per second, 200 million opera�tions per second and 1 billion operations per second 2$ Estima,te of the time required for completion of an event--cost of inte= grated circuit electronic computers below the cost of discrete-element electr.onic computers with a similar capacity 29 Estima,te of the time required for completion of an event--production of electr.onic computers with a main storage capacity of 200 million bits COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'skoye ob"yedineniye "Vishcha. shkola"t 19'~8 2174 cso: 1870 50 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COMPUTER RELIABILITX AND CHECKING Moscow NADEZHNOST' I KONTROL' EVM (Computer Reliability and Checking) in Russian 1978 signed to press 25 Apr 78 pp 2-4, 415-416 [Annotation, foreward and table of contents from book by Yuliy Pavlovich 7.huravlev, Leonid Arkad'yevich Kotelyuk and Nikolay Ivanovich Tsiklinskiy, Izdatel'stvo Sovetskoye Radio, 9,000 copies, 416 pages] [Text] Methods of calculating the indices of computer reliability based on probability theory and the theory of semimarkov processes are outlined. The general principles of organizing apparatus and program checking of computer . functioning are considered. Analyses of the effect of various methods of checking on indicators of reliability, productivity and complexity of com- - puter equipment are presented. Some aspects of the problem of ;;ystems plan- ning of single- and multiprocessor computer reliability ace outlined and problems of information security in the memory of technic~~l systems and dur- ing transmission over communications lines are discussed. The book is intended for engineering-technical and scientific personnel znd also for instructors and students of technical VUZ's. :'oreword r:lectronic computers (EVM) are finding ever greater application with each year in all spheres of activity. They are used in computer centers, auto- mated management systems (ASU), information retrieval systems (IPS) and so on: therefore, increased requirements on ensuring reliab.le functioning and high dependability of the results of problems solved by computers are placed on them. Various types of mathematical apparatus, each of which is adapted for analyz- ing computer dependability with specif ic assumptions and limitations, are now utilized to calculate the reliability of complex systems to w::ich com- puters are re].ated. Correct selection of the method and the initial. assump- tions permits one to increase the dependability of the results. 51 FOR OFFICIr"~I, USE OI~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The method;; of. checkin~ calculations and the correctness af functioning used ` have a significant effc~ct on the indicators of computer rc~liability and es- pecially on the dependability of the results issued by the.m. Each of the methods affects in its owrx way the indices of computer ef�iciency. Combined use of various methods of checking in many cases makes it possible to achieve a compromise between expenditures for the monitoring system on the one hand and expenditures for computer productivity and the dependability o� results on the other hand. Knowing how to correctly analyze the effect of one or another monitoring sys- tem on the dependability of the results of solving problems by a computer, to select the corresponding method and to calculate its indices of reliabili- ty is especially required of computer systems developers. At the stage of systems planning when only a concept about a future computer is being formed, ~ problems related to distribution of the norms of reliability between its con- stituent parts, selection of the relations of the efficiency of various com- ponents of the monitoring system, optimization of the frequency of including various types of monitoring into the work and so on are solved. The specif ics of the computer and its sphere of future application must be taken into ac- count in this case. The book offered to the attention of readers has the purpose o� illuminating a number of problems, knowledge of which the specialist requires in develop- ment and operation of modern highly reliable computers Eqtiipped with various means for enhancing their efficiency. The inaterial of the book reflects current scientif ic and t:echnical views in the Eield of computer reliability and control. Sections 4-8 are based on original results of the authors' work. Section 3.1.was wr.itten by N. I. Tsiklinskiy and the remaining material was written by all the authors jointly. The authors express gratitude to A. I. Dolgov and to I. I. 3urnvikov for a number of comments which contributed to improving the contents o� the book.. Table of Contents Page Eoreword 3 _ The Reliability of Computer Functioning ~ :1. General Propositions l.l. Main concepts and definitions 5 1.2. Main indices of r.eliability 9 1.3. The dependability of computer f.unctioning...,.........., 13 ~ 2. Methods of Calculating the Indices of Computer Re]_iabil.ity 2.1. Elements of probability theory. Main concepts and ~ definitions 19 r - s2 FOR OI'FICI~,;. USE UNLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL iJ5E ONLY 2.2. Calculating the indices of methods of probability theory 25 2.2.1. Unrestored ob~ec~s 25 2.2.2. Restored ob~ects 34 2.3. Laws of distribut ion of random values used in reliability theory 42 - 2.4. Elements of the theory of markov and semimarkov processes 50 2.5. Method of calculating the reliability of computers and of their devices 81 2.5.1. Approximate analysis of computer reliability using the exponential model 82 2.5.2. Analyzing rel.iability by minor information..... 84 2.5.3. Method of calculating reliability using the theory of semimarkov processes 85 2.5.4. The dependability of computer functioning...~~.. 99 Computer Chec king 3. General Propositions 3.1. Apparatus checking 103 3.1.1. General characteristics of apparatus checking.. I03 3.1.2. Numerical apparatus checking by module......... 109 - 3.1.3. Monitoring the function of devices operating with words represented in a residual class system.. 126 ~ 3.1.4. Code apparatus.checkirg by.module 139 3.1.5. Monitoring by using correcting codes........... 152 3.1.6. Majority checking 167 3.1.7. Apparatus-microprogram c~ecking................. 172 ~ 3.2. Computer p~ogram checking 178 ' 3.2.1. Characteristics of program checlzing............ 178 3.2.2. Algorithm checking 178 . � 3.2.3. Logic checking 185 3.2.4. Repeated accounting checking 192 3.2.5. Checking tests 196 3.2.6. Diagnostic tests 203 3.2.7. Failure analysis and correction pro~rams....... 207 4, Effective of Monitoring on Computer Quality Indices 4.1. Effect of the monitoring system on the frequency of computer errors.. 210 4.2. Effect of monitoring �on.the val.ue.of .the�avE:rage ~ time for restor~ng a computer,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 213 4.3. Effect of the monitoriag system on the computer readiness coeff icient 218 4.4. ~ffect of monitoring on the problem-solving time . and productivity of computers 222 4.5. Analyzing the effect of monitoring on the increase. in the quantity of computer equipment..........~-..... 231 53 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Systems Planning of Computer Reliability 5. General Propositions 5.1. The concept of systems planning of computer reliability.... 237 5.2. Distribution of reliability norms between computer devices 243 5.3. Selecting the ratio of the efficiencies of various types of monitoring 250 5.4. Opti.mizing the frequency for test diagnosis of computer devices 259 5.5. Selecting the computer monitoring system 264 6. Single-Processor Computers 6.1. Problems for systems planning of the reliability of single-processor computers ......................o........ 273 6.2. Absolute and parametric equipment redundancy of operating devices and storage devices 275 6.3. The internal language of computers and the redundancy of storage equipment.. 288 6.4. Selecting the monitoring�module 297 6.5. The operating stability of storage devices and methods of improving their dependability 299 6.6. An example of comparative analysis of the reliability of two computers with different internal languages....... 308 7. Multiprocessor Computers 7.1. Problems of systems planning of the reliability of multiprocessor computers 315 7.2. Analyzing the effectiveness of utilizing the natural - apparatus redundancy of mul.tiprocessor computers~......... 317 7.2.1. Criteria of the effectiveness of utilizing natural apparatus redundancy 317 " 7.2.2. Analyzing the potential effectiveness of natural apparatus redundancy.........~........... 321 7.3. Optimizing the distribution of processors among - programs 335 8. Information Security 8.1. Problems of information security 347 8.2. Program methods of information security,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 351 _ 8.2.1. Protected subsystems. The nucleus af security..... 351 8.2.2. Users of ASU 358 8.2.3. Protected objects of ASU 359 8.3. Passwords . 367 8.4. Information security programs 37g 8.5. Cryptographic methods of information security in.ASU....... 391 8.6. The effectiveness of information security 400 54 FOR OFFICInL U5E UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOIt OrFTCiAL USE ONLY Bibliography 403 Subject Index 411 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskoye Radio," 1978 - 6521 ' CSO: 1870 1 55 FOR OFFICIE~L USE UvLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ MANAGING THE EFFICIENCY OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY Kiev UPRAVLENIYE EFFEKTIVNOST'YU NAUCHNOY DEYATEL'NOSTI (Managing the Efficiency of Scientific Activity) in Russian 1978 signed to press l.l May 78 pp 2-5, 239-240 /Annotation, foreword, list of abbreviations and table of contents from book by Gennadiy Mikhaylovich Dobrov, Eduard Mikhaylovich Zadorozhnyy and Taisiya Ivanovna Shchedrina, Naukova Dumka, 3,200 copies, 240 pages/ /Tsxt/ The monograph is devoted to problems of increasing the efficiency of the activity of scientific r2search institutions and of improving plan- ning practice. The results of investigations are contained in it and a number of problems for improving future and current planning is formulated. Progressive methods and procedures are suggested for justifying the topics of scientific research and experimental-design elements and of analyzing the efficiency of the results of scientific activity. Methods for improving the quality and efficiency of scientific activity by well-founded forecasting support of the strategy of science, improvement of the technical-economic justification of research and development and reasoned analysis of the efficiency of scientific investigations and analysis of the activity of scientific institutions are considered. The book is intended for specialists of planning-economic bodies of scien- tific research organizations and also for scientific anci engineering-technical personnel interested in the problems of planning the work of scientific re- search institutions. Foreword Improving the efficiency of research and development and fulfillment of its social mission by $oviet science at the current stage of de~elopment of socialist society require transition from extensive methods of conducting scientific affairs to intensive methods and of intensifying the effective- ness of the unified state scientific and technical policy at all levels of its formation and implementation. A methodical and information systems revolution of the practice of managing the "research-development-adoption of innovations" cycle becomes necessary. in this regard. 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Dtiring the past decade, Soviet scientific inanagers have formulated a sF~ecific theoretical and methodical base which makes postulation of the ot~tlined problem real. The richest experience of planned development of Soviet acience and the worldwide experience of improving the organizational forms of research may contribute to solution of it. An important prerequisite for successfull development of the systems and systems eningeering trend in scientific management are the acientific methods of investigating specific operations during the past few years, combined under the name "Organization and Management of Scientific Research and Experimental-Design Aevelopments" (NIOKR). The analytical and calculating methods, the models and algorithms for justifying solutions and methods of utilizing modern electronic data processing equipment contained in them are passing an experimental check in different fields of the practice of forecasting, planning and analysis of the efficiency of scientific activity. The theory and practice of socialist planning regard forecasting as a p're- planning stage and auxiliary tool called upon to continuously orient the planning process. This is the essence of an integrated approach to future planning. With this approach, the results of forecasts create specific boundaries for planning with the necessary quantitative analyses. The function of planning is to select those problems from the list of fore- casted problems which may and can be solved during the considered planned period, based on its tasks and available resources. ~ Forecasting, future and current planning and also analysis of the efficiency of scientific activity are the links of a unified chain. Problems of man- aging the development of science and new technology cannot be solved by relying only on one of these links a system of managing scientific and technical progress must be created in which forecasting, future and current planning and analysis of the efficiency of scientific activity are combined into a unified whole. The authors of the monograph have not set themselves the goal of considering all the existing problems of managing the efficiency of scientific activity and a11 the possible methods of enhancing it. Attention was concentrated - only on those problems which, from their viewpoint, are especially impor- tant and correspond most of all to their professional interests. Results obtained during the past several years were used in the paper. They reflect to a specific degree the need to manage the efficiency of scientific activity. In this regard the contents of a number of sections are outlined in the form of inethodical recommendations which may be employed in the prac- tice of managing scientific activity. An attempt was made in the book to institute a systems approach to consid- eration of the problems of analyzing the efficiency of scientific activity. The systems approach was provided in the very structure of the problems touche~' upon and it is also typical for the proposed aggregate of steps- probJ.ems of processes for creation and use of inethods of analyzing the 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY efficiency of scientific activity. The systems approach is one toward solution of some problems, for example, problems of formulation and order- ing of evaluating features. A manifeatation of the systems approach may be regarded as coordination of inethodical recommendations related to differenC objects of analysis (investigations proposed for incluszon into the plan, completed investigations and the resulta of the acti~ity of scientific col- lectives during a specific time period). We hope that the monograph will be useful to scientific and engineering- technical personnel, to specialists of planning bodies and scientific- organizing services of scientific institutions and will contribute to in- creasing the quality and efficiency of future and current planning of NIOKR - and also in managing the activity of scientific collectives. We express - gratitude to V. N. Arkhangel'skiy and to A. I. Omel'chenko for useful advice on improving the contents of this book. List of Abbreviations ASPR automated system for planning calculati~ns ASAS automated situations analysis system ASUNT automated science and technology management system VINITI All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information VNITITsentr All-Union Scientific and Technical Information Center GKNT State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on Science and Technology INPROGS information-forecasting system ISTOK information system for thematic orientation and complexing KO coordinacing body KTB complex creative brigade NII scientific research institute NIO scientific research organization NIOKR scienti�ic research and experimental-design development NIR scientific research development NIU scientific research institution. NPO scientific production association NTP --�scientif.ic and technical forecasting . OGAS ~tate-G~?i;le Autou}ated System ~P experimental production OKR experimental-design work � � ~ ~ ONTI department of scientific and technical information PKTO planning-design and production organizations RFAP republic bank of algorithms and programs SPU programmed evaluation and review SEV Council for Mutual Economic A~sistance TEO technical-economic justification TsNIIPI Central Scientific Research Institute of Patent Information TsOTI Center for Exchange of Current Information TsSU Central Statistical Administration ' TsEMI ANSSSR Central Economic-Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 5~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table of Contents p8ge Foreword 3 Chapter 1. The Complexity of Managing the Efficiency of Scientific Activity.. ~ The strategy of scientific efficiency 7 The macromodel of scientific policy 26 Models of managing the activity of scientific research~institutes, planning offices and experimental production 35 Chapter 2. The Forecasting Basis of the Topics of Scientific Institutions .44 The mechanism of the generation of scientific and technical problems . 44 ' Analyzing the state of inethodical and organizational support of forecasting developments.. 55 Determining the need for scientific support........... 71 Analyzing the capabilities of research and developments........... 83 The systems concept of the goals and tasks of research and . development 95 Chapter 3. Plannin~ Purposeful Scientific and Technical Complexes of Work..... 105 ~ The content of program-goal planning� scientific activity 105 Compilation of scientific and technical programs..........� 118 ~ Improving the coordination of research and development........... 129 The technical-economic basis of planned investigations........... 146 Chapter 4. Analyzing the E�ficiency of Scientific Activity......... 156 The general principles and methods of analysis 156 Measurement, analysis and evaluation of the efficiency of completed scientific investigations 168 The economic effects from the results of scientific activity..... 184 Analysis and evaluation of the efficiency of the scientific and technical activity of scientific institutions 194 Conclusions 208 Appendix 1. Structure of the Indices and Characteristics Reflected in Technical-Economic Justification in the Questionnaire Form 210 Appendix 2. Questions Which Must be Recorded When Keeping a - Record of the Intermediate Result of NIOKR 220 59 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . _ . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ' FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY Appendix 3. Measuring Qualitative Indices 221 Appendix 4. Specific Analysis Indicatora ..............................225 Appendix 5. Forms for Evaluating the Data and Activity of Scientific Institutiona 230 Bibliography ...........................................................232 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka", 1978 6521 CSO: 1870 l- 60 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL i1SE ONLY CONTROL OF THE COMPUTING PROCESS IN COMPUTERS Moscow UPRAVLENIYE VYCHISLITELtI~TYM PROTSESSOM V EVM (Control of the Comput- ing Process in Computers) in Russian 1978 signed to press 24 Aug 78 pp 4~ 5, 6-8, 240 [Annotation, foreward, introduction, and table of contents from book by Oleg Ivanovich Aven and Yakov Afroimovich Kogan, Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," 12,000 copies, ?.40 pp) [Text) [Annotation] This work examines the theoretical and technical problems that have arisen in the development of control mechanisms in modern electronic computers. Control models and algorithms for allocating three basic computer resources--central processing unit (CPU) time, internal (core) storage time, and seconaary (external) storage time--are studied. The book is intended for spec:Lzl.ists in computer,technol~ogy, applied probability theory, developers of computer ;~oftware, and computer programmers. It is also useful to undergradu- ate and gradu~te students in these specialties. Foreword . The problems of controlling the computing process, examined in th~is work, have appeared in the implementation of multiprogramming and time-sharing. The problem of eff icient use of computer capacities, built into the design of a computer through control of the computing process, arose in the early stages of their use. With the creation of the third generation of computers the prob- lem became particularly critical. Problems in simultaneously allocating com- puter resources among many programs were encountered in the designing of these r_omputers and stimulated many studies, associated with various aspects of the cheory of control of the computing process. The completeness of data, ob- tained recently, makes an attempt to explain the ba$ic divisions of this theo- ry from a common perspective worthwhile. This work systematically organizes the findings on key problems in controlling the allocation of basic computer resources. The complexity of even a simpli- fied, analytical description of how a computer operates in general will not enable one to investigate the algorithms for allocating various resources with- in the �ramework of one general model. Queing models are applied in the analy- sis of resource time utilization, while problems in storage allocation are 61 FOR OFFICIA:. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR ~FFICIAL USE ONLY formulated on the basis of various program behavior models, Specif ic features _ of the control a'lgorithms being examined and the need to compute nontradition- al criteria for them resulted in the creation of new branches in queuing theo- ry, the theory ot stochastic automatic machines and digital optimization. The book's material reflects the nonuniform state of research on these prob- lems. Research connected with the coordinated allocation of several computer resources is furthest from completion. However, it is here that one can ex- pect the most interesting theoretical results in the years ahead, Introduction I'rom the point of view of control of the computing process, the electronic computer is a combination of resources ~ahich are subject to allocation be- tween programs, users, and processes. The control system for allocating com- puter resources must regulate their use by programs when the time for program entry and the number of resources using them are not known in advance and fluctuate within a broad range. Such operating conditions and the presence of a significant.number of controllable parameters make it possj.ble t~~ assign the control systems under examination here to a special class of large sys- tems--a task comparable in compleXity to investigating economic or organiza- tional systems. The principal difficulties, which one of necessity encounters in the develop- ment of inechanisms for allocating computer resources, arise from two contra- dictory requirements, to which the organization of the computing process must respond, Eff icient use of a computer assumes that downtime of its resources is minimized, requiring the creation of a non vanishing queue for each of them. At the same time providing an assigned time to solve problems of a definite category of users requires accelerated processing of their programs, which superfluous queues prevent. Thus, the control system, first, must sup- port non-vanishing queues to the computer resources; secondly, service queues with as much carrying capacity as possible, and, finally, take into account the time limits for completing a program. Let us look at the kinds of prob- lems these demands create in the development of algorithms for allocating basic computer resources--CPU time, internal (core) and external (secondary) storage. The CPU is the fastest part of the computer. For constant loading of the CPU, the internal storage must carry a queue of programs, on-line for processing. A new program from the secondary storage area must take the place of the pro- gram, whose processing has finished. This is how the computing process in a multiprogrammed computer is organized. However, the simpl.est algorithm for allocating CPU time, in which programs are processed in the order of their entry, is extremely unsatisfactory from the point of view of the majority of users. With such a programming algorithm, a pragram, requiring a lot of time, delays the completion of subsequent programs. It would be much fairer to al- locate CPU time in such a way that its rapid operation would be evenly 62 FOR OFFICIr~:. US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY clividad betwcen ~11. progrnm4, on-line �or processing tn the :Internnl. nnd secndary atorage areae. As long as at the moment of program entry into the computer execution time is unknown, the realization of a fair allocation of CPU time will result in quantum processing of the programs. The simplest algorithm of the type, in which a program, having obtained a quantum of CPU . time, is moved to the end of the existing queue, results in an excessive num= ber of exchanges between internal and secondary storage, which lowers the carrying capacity of the camputer. To reduce the frequency of these exchanges it is advisable to lower the priority of programs after reception of.the next quantum of time, and, if possible, augment each new quantum a program can re- ceive. An investigation of the basic characteristics of this type of algo- rithm for allocating CPU time makes up the contents of Chapter 1. Basic p~oblems in allocatin,g internal storage space are connected with meet- ing the following two requirements. In order to avoid CPU downtime, internal . storage must hold a sufficient reserve of programs, awaiting processing. From this flows the second requirement: for efficient storage use ir~ternal storage must preserve only that part of each program which will be processed next. The rule determining the part of a program to be kept in internal storage is called a replacement algorithm. The theory of replacement algorithms is pre- sented in Chapter 2. It turns out that even for sufficiently simple models of program behavior an evaluation and ~omparison of the performance of various replacement algorithms will lead to problems of enormous dimensions. A way out has been found by creating nonparametric methods of analysis, which make it possible to determine the limits of applicability of the algorithms under - study. Intensive use of secondary storage is one of the basic characteristics of the organization of the computing process in modern computers. Under such conditions the carrying capacity of the computer is, to a large degree, de- termined by actual speed of sPCOndary storage, i.e., by the mean time to process a single inquiry. Chapter 3 analyzes the rules of accommodating in- yuiries to secondary storage, which increase the real high speed response of the secondary storage because of a review of the entire queue and the rules ror establishing the order of inquiry, which reduces the total passage time of the read-write heads. Optimization in the placement of data files in secondary storage also pur- sues the goal of minimizing the total transit time and distance of the read- write head in the case of magnetic disks, and in the case of magnetic tapes-- minimization of the frequency of changes. Effective methods of solving the problems of combined programming that arise here are examined in Chapter 4. To solve the problem of allocating computer resources, examined in the first four chapters, mathematical models have been developed which distribute each resource individually. The interrelation between other resources is included in these models by the assignment of corresponding quality criteria or by 63 FOR OFFICIhL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the introduction of additional parameters. However, not all problems in allocating computer resources can be formulated in this way. One of the most important among them is the problem, already mentioned, of allocating internal storage between several programs. The number cf programs, simul- taneously kept in internal storage, is called the multiple programming level. The models, examined in Chapter 5, reflect the compatability of allocating three basic computer resources--CPU time, internal and secondary storage capacities--and make it possible to establish the dependence of the CPU load factor and time for executing a program on the multiple programming level. ~ In general, it should be stressed that this book deals with the methods of investigating algorithms for allocating computer resources. The area of application of these methods is hardly restricted to the scope~~f the models examined here; many of them can be applied in solving problems of controlling the computing process in multicomputer and multiprocessing computer complexes and networ ks. Contents ~age ~ Foreword 5 Intruduction 6 Chapter 1. CPU Time Allocation Control 9 1,1, Structure of time allocation algorithms.......... . g 1.2. One-level algorithms . 16 1.3. A cyclic algorithm in a transient service mode..�~��..~.~~~ 31 1.4. Multilevel algorithms,..................,.,.,,,.,~~~~~~~~~~ gg 1.5. Synthesis of the simplest multilevel algorithm 54 1.6. Algorithms, defined by a resource summation function....... 63 Chapter 2. Page Replacement Control in Two-Level Storage gg 2.1. Concept of the replacement algorithm 68 2.2. Class of multilevel replacement functions....... 71 2.3. Program behavior models and quality criteria 76 2.4. Examples of the adequacy of program behavior models........ 81 2.5. Optimum replacement algorithms 93 2.6. Clear terms for quality criteria 103 2.7. Asymptotic quality criteria for the replacement.algorithm.� of the page, used longest ago 112 2.8. Nonparametric analysis of replacement algorithms.........�� 117 2.9. Optimization of program paging structure 131 Chapter 3. Control of Queuing for Magnetic Disk Storage 138 3.1. Rules of queuing for magnetic disk storage 138 3.2. Assessment of the effect of SGF,N rules in comparison with the P'IFS (first in first served) rule 142 64 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3.3. A case where FIFS is:better than FSSF (fastest scan served f.irst) 159 Chapter 4. Optimization of Data Arrangement in Secondary Storage 162 4.1. Problem of optimum arrangement of mass data in storage units.. 162 ~ 4.2. Priority�algorithms for optimizing the arrangement�of�mass data 168 4.3. Optimization of the arrangement of single magnetic�disk... recordings . 178 4.4. Optimum magnetic tape storage organization 190 Chapter S. Analysis of Multiprogramming 195 5.1. Simplest multiprogramming computer model 195 5.2. Model of a computer system with virtual memory, operating in a time sharing mode 213 5.3. Control of the multiprogramming level 233 Bibliographic Commentary 231 Bibliography 234 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," 1978 8506 cso: is~o 65 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ELECTRONIC KEYBOARD CALCULATORS WITH PROGRAM CONTROL DESCRIBED Moscow KLAVISHNYY~ VYCHISLITEL'NYYE MASHINY (KONSTfiUKTSIYA I TECHNICHESKOYE OBSLUZHIVANIYE) [Keyboard Calculators (Design and Technical Servi.cing)] in Russian 1978 signed to press 19 Sep 78 pp 2, 5-7, 454-456 [Annotation, Section 1 of Chapter 1, and t~ble of contents from book by Aleksandr Gavrilovich Borbov, Vladimir Nikolayevich Dumov and Valeriy Ivan- _ ovich Kasterin, released by Main Administration of Educational Instruction , of 44inistry of Railways, Izdatel'stvo Statistika, 20,000 copies,456 pages] [Text] The textbook examines the bases of the construction, the principles of operation and the technical and operational potential and questions about technical servicing of inechanical and electronic calculators based upor? discrete elements (Part I) and also of electronic billing machines with and without digital information output on punehed tape (.Part II). The textbook was written in accordance with the program af course, "Key- boar�d Calculators," and is intended for students in tekhnikums for the No ~ 0643 specialty and also for practical VU [computer device] workers. Part I. Calculators. Chapter 1. General Information. - Section 1.1. Classification of KVM's [keyboard calculat:,rs] and EKVM's [electronic keyboard calculators]. GOST [State All-Union Standard] 16346-70, "Machines, KE,yboard, Calculating, Mechanical," was disseminated for machines with manual and electrical drive. They are divided into five groups, according to operating purpose: first group--adding machines; second group--calculating machines without recording of numbers; third group--calculating machines with recording of numbers; ' fourth group--bookkeeping machines; and - fifth group --billing machines. 66 FOR OFFICI~. LTSE 0~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The groups of machines are subdivided into the following types: a) According to the design of the devices for numer:ical inpu~;: machines with full keyboard (or multiple ke,yboards); machines with ten-key numerical keyboard; and lever machines; b) According to the nature of the information introduced: digi~al machines; and textual (and alphanumer~c) machines; and v) According to the degree of automation of control of the actuating mech- anisms' operation: automatic machines; semiautomatic machines; and nonautomatic machines. i In accordance with GOST 15816-70, "Machines, Calculating, Electronic Key- board," these machines are divided into types, groups and classes. All EKVrii's are made in two types. ~ The first type includes machines with~ut program control that are intended for carrying out the four arithmetical actions and frequently encountered operations: accumulation, operations with constants, computation of per- cent;s and of percentage ratios and of elementary functions, and others. The second type includes machines with program control that are intended ~or automatic execution of computations in accordance with instructions and a prescribed program (figure 1.1). ~ Professional Nonprofessional With program control Without program contro With program With conditional control commands transfer commands With external ZU [memory device] Simplest Figure 1.1. EKVM [electronic calculating machine]. This textbook examines EKVM's only of the first type. Each type of machine is divided into three groups. The groups are dis- tinguished from one another by the number of registers that are used in - 67 FOR O1~FICI~L LTSE 0'~ZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the machines, by different digit capacity~ and by operational indices. As the number of the group rises, the basic parameters of the machines rise. I?KVM's oi' the first group of the first type have no more than three work- registers and one memory register. 'The digit capacity oP such ma- chines is 8-12. The machine executes at least four operations automati- cally: the arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplicat;ion ~ and division. The average time for carrying out arithmetic operatior?s does not exceed 0.5 second, and the rated input is 40 watts. EKVM's of the second group have 1-4 memory registers and a digit capacity of 12-16, and the number of operations carried out automatically is 6. EKVM's of the third group have at least 5 memory registers, the digit ca- pacity is 12-20, and the number of operations carried out automatically reaches 8. These machines of the first type of the third group are called the simplest and are the subject of study of this textbook. They include the Iskra-11, Iskra-12, Elektronika-68 DD [coded decimalJ, Elka-22 and Zoyemtron-220. The simplest EKVM's are designed basically for carrying aut the four ~ arithmetic operations, as well as the accumulation of al~,ebraic sums of the results of arithmetic operations, the extraction of square roots, and work with constants. The digit capacity of the machines does not exceed - 12. The simplest models are used for bookkeeping, ecunomic and other noncomplex computations. EKVP~I's without program control belong to the class of nonprofessional ma- chiiies. These machines are intended for widespread use. _ Electronic keyboard calculators with program eontrol belong to the class of professional machines. They are intended for business and scientific ' calc;ulations. Professional machines are intended primarily for carrying out complicated engineering and economic calculations. Professional ~KVM's have up to 128 commands for program control and no more than 16 memory registers, and, moreover, are additionally supplied with commands for conditional transfer and can be unitized with external memc~ry devices . In thi.s case the program control commands of such machines can number 512,the memory registers 64. Professional machines with program coni;rol can have up to 3 working registers and a digit capability not exceeding 16. . EKVA?'s for business calculations are included in the professional machine category. In addition to the operations carried out by the simplest mod- els, business EKVM's can operate with percents of numbers, and they have accumulator and working memory registers. The information output of these machines is produced on a digital display or a numerical printout. For scientific purposes, EKVM's that have a greatly expanded potential for carrying out operations are used. They are intended for solving scient~.fic, 68 FOR OrFICIai LTSE 0?~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 technical, info:rmation, research and control tasks. The digit capacity of these mode~ls can exceed 20-22 places. EKVM's for scientific calculations operate with powers and trigonometric functions, convert operands and have program control and, sometimes, program language. 7.'hey are used in scientific and technical sections, NII's [scientific-resc:arch institutes], ICB's [design bureaus], institutes and VTs's [computation,; centers]. They are unitized with external devices. They can operate aui:omatically or according to a prescribed program and introduce programs and baseline data with magnetic cards, and they have an output on a cathode-ray tube. Despite all the diversity of the enumerated machines, all EKVM's have much in common in the nature of their construction. Contents page Introduction 3 Part I. Calculators. Chapter 1. General Information 5 1.1. Classification of KVM's [keyboard calculators]�arid EKVM's.�. [electronic keyboard calculatorsJ 5 Chapter 2. Mechanical Keyboard Calculators 8 2.1. General information and computing elements on the SDB-107 and SDK-133 machines..... g 2.2. Schematic diagram of the operation�of�adding.machines....... 13 - 2.3. General information and computing elements on VMP-2 and VMM-2 machines.. 18 . 2.4. Schematic diagram operatiori 22 Chapter 3. Computing Components and General Principles of the - Construction of EKVM's 28 3,.1. Computing components for EKVM's 28 _ 3.2. Standard structural scheme for EKVM's 35 3.3. The component base of EKVM's 38 ~hapter 4. Arithmetic and Logic Fundamentals of the Construction ' ~ of EKVM's and EFM's [electronic billing machines]..... 51 4.1. Arithmetic fundamentals 51 4.2. Logic fundamentals 62 Chapter 5. Coniponents of the Arithmetic Unit of EKVM's and EFM's... 71 5.1. The "AN1)'~ circuit (conjunction) 72 5.2. The "OR" circuit (disjunction) 73 5.3. The inverter . 74 5.4. Di.fferentiating RC [resistance-capacitance] circuits........ ?6 5.5. Coupling circuits 79 5.6. Static triggers 81 5.7. Multivibrators 86 5.8. Monostable multivibrators 90 69 FOR OfiFICI~: L'SE O~vZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5.9. Memory circuits 93 5.10. Schmitt triggers 94 5.11. Power amplifiers 98 5.12. Printout electromagnet amplifiers 103 5.13. Nll1,l,-signal amplifier 105 5.1~. Minus-sign indicator-tube amplifier 106 5.15. Amplifier of the digital cathodes of the indicator tube... 106 5.16. Amplifiers of the digital anodes of the indicator tubes and of the comma sign 108 5.17. U~ified complex of Mir~10 modular performance components... 110 5.18. Realization of the logic-algebra functions in EKVM and EVM circuits 110 Chapter 6. Power Sources 117 6.1. Principles of power,source operation 117 6.2. Power source of the Zoyemtron-382 and -383 EFM's............ 121 6.3. Power sources of the Zoyemtron-220, Iskra-12, Elka-22 and Rasa EKVM's 130 Chapter 7. The Arithmetic Unit and the Control Unit 134 7.1. Basic principles and composition of. the unit 134 7.2. Registers 135 7.3. Counters 142 7.4. 150 7.5. The control uni~ 163 Chapter 8. The Information Input and Output Unit 168 8.1. The function and construction of the keyboard unit.......... 168 8.2.. Components of input devices 169 8.3. Encoders 169 8.4. Block;,diagram of ~:he input unit 172 8.5. Specifications of the keyboard unit 173 8.6. Components of information output units 173 8.7. Decoders 175 8.8. Operation of the indicator unit 177 Chapter 9. Memory Devices 181 9.1. ZU's [memory devices] based on magnetostrictive delay lines. 182 9.2. ZU's based on ferrite cores 188 Chapter 10. Logic Fundamentals for Executing Arithmetic Operations. 209 10.1. Execution of operations on Zoyemtron-220 EKVM's............ 209 10.2. Execution of operations on Iskra-12 EKVM's 215 10.3. Principles of microprogram control in the Elektronika-DD [coded decimal] EKVM 226 10.4. Elka-22 EKVM programs 227 Part II. Billing Machines. Chapter 1. General Information 228 1.1. Characteristics of technical operation 228 70 FOR OrFICIAi. LTSE 0'~ZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1.2. Application and function 230 1.3. Bloclt diagram of the machine 232 1.4. Principle of synchronizing operation of the computation unit 235 1.5. Monitoring of the posi~:ions and the registers 239 ' Chapter 2. Uni.t for Input and Manual Control 246 2.1. Keys for switching on the machine and the indicators........ 247 2.2. Keyboard for input and deletion of digital information...... 248 2.3. Keyboard for automatic search of a�graph 250 2.4. Keysfor tabulation and earriage return 251 2.5. Functional keys for engaging a program 252 2.6. Engagement and disengagement of the machine 254 2.7. Digital information input 257 2.8. Minus sign input 265 2.9. Deletion of UE register information 268 Chapter 3. Unit for Information Output on a Printout 269 3.1. Drive meehanism 269 3.2. Carriage 271 3.3. Printing mechanism 278 3.4. Color-ribbon shifting mechanism 282 3.5. Mechanism for raising and switching the color ribbon........ 284 3.6. Spacing mechanism 286 3.7. Single-space carriage-return mechanism 289 3.8. Register sw:itching mechanism 289 3.9. Printout iine-switching meehanism 293 3.10. Carriage-return mechanism 294 . 3.11. Carriage return with printout-line switching 297 3.12. Tabulating mechanism 299 Chapter 4. Program Control Unit 304 4.1. Operating principle of program-control unit 304 4.2. Engagement of program control 308 4.3. Engagement of automatic start-stop carriage -shift regime.... 315 4.4. Transcription of information from the input register........ 318 4.5. llisengagement of program control 323 4.6. Preliminary engagement of program control 324 Chapter 5. Information Printout 326 5.1. Forming of the information output command 327 5.2. Preparation for output of the highest order of a number..... 328 5.3. Printing the digit of the highest order of a number......... 333 5.4. Printing speed monitoring 334 5.5. Arithmetic operations and transcription of register information 337 5.6. Preparation for output of the next digit of a number........ 338 5.7. Printout of the minus sign and the symbols �/oo, and 339 5.8. Printout of the comma and the period 341 5.9. Printout speed for digital information, signs and symbols... 348 5.10. Printout stop 351 ~i FOR OfiFICI:it. LTSE O:~ZY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 . ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . 5.11. Deletion of MR [memory register] information during printout 351 5.12. Overflow of programed output capacity 352 Chapter 6. Arithmetic Operations and Transcription of Register Information 355 ~ 6.1. Transcription of register information 355 6.2. Algebraic addition 369 6.3. Multiplication 381 Chapter 7. Punched-Tape Information Output Unit 399 7.1. Perforator drive mechanism and main shaft 401 - 7.2. Tape-handling mechanism 404 7.3. Punching mechanism 407 ?.4. Punched-tape return mechanism 408 7.5. Tape rewinding mechanism 409 Chapter 8. Output of Digital Information, Signs and Symbols on Punched Tape 411 8.1. Engagement of the perforator's electric motor 412 8.2. Control of processing of the heading and the calculating part of a document 414 8.3. Engagement of the punching readiness 416 8.4. Punching of digital information, signs and symbols.......... 418 8.5. Disengagement of punching readiness 421 8.6. Punching of the carriage-tabulation code TAB 423 8.7. Punching of the carriage return code WR 425 8.8. Punching of IR [i.nformation retrieval] error codes, start of' RA computations and final result at step PK20 427 8.9. Punching of punched-tape feed holes and correction code C... 429 8.10. Disengagement of punching in the program and in the graph of comma, period and minus signs and of symbols �/oo , < > and * 430 8.11. Disengagement of punching of the WR carriage-return code... 432 8.12. Engagement and disengagement of single-line punching....... 434 8.13. Monitoring of a break and end of the punched tape.......... 435 8.14. Interlocking of the machine in case of disengagement of the puncher's electric motor 436 Chapter 9. Fundamentals of Programing and Technical Servicing of the Machine 438 9.1. Fundamentals of programing 438 9.2. Technical servicing of EKVM's and EFD4's 445 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1978 11409 CSO: 1870 72 FOR OrFICI~i.. L'SE 0'~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTEGRATTON OF PRODUCTION PLANNTNG Moscow INTEGRATSIYA PROIZVODSTVENNOGO PLANTROVANTYA in Russian signed to - press 10 May 78 pp 3-4,~229-230, 231 [Excerpts from the book "Tntegratsiya proizvodstvennogo planirovaniya" by R. S. Sedegov, N. M. Orlova and Yu. T. Sidorov, Moscow, Statistika, 1978, 12,000 copies, 231 pp] [Excerpts] Introduction The improvement of the system for the management of the national economy involves an extremely large complex of problems: the scientific substant- . iation of planning, improvement of the structure and organization of management systems, improvement of the system of material incentives, improvement of data collection and transfer systems, improvement of electronic data processing systems, etc. Nor are these problems of equal importance with regard to the realization of the main goal: the improvement of the entire system of management of the national economy. The main problem is to increase the scientific substantiation of the planning of economic development (the reference is to planning in the broad sense c~ the term which embraces the entire system of production and distribution of material goods and which defines the activity of each national economic llnk and ranges all the way from the workplace to branches and interbranch relations). The resolution of these problems is a matter of no little importance to enterprises and enterprise subdivisions that are the actual p�roducers of material goods. "he development of integrated data processing systems [integrirovannyye ~istemy obrabotki dannykh - ISOD] as a part of automated management systems (ASU) is one of the principal ways to using the systems approach to the improvement of management and especially to planning. ~ In the process of integrating production planning, it is essential to consider and use the economic laws that operate under a developed socialist society. TSOD must be based on patterns inherent in the science of manage- ment in general. 73 FOR OFFICI~L LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . The development of integrated production planning systems is not an erid in itself. The expedienc.y of their development is determined by the general tasks of improvement of the planning of the national economy at � all levels of management and especially by the task of increasing the ~ de~ree o.f scientific substantiation of plans and the tasks of enh~ncin~ the lev~l of organization and efficiency of planning. We can enumerate specific aspects of the overall problem of increasing the degree of scientific substantiation of planning in the present stage of economic development. Chief among them are: the enhancement of the program-goal character of planning, an integrated approach to planning, the optimization of planning, the establishment of long-range norms, and securing the proportionality of plan indicators. The 25th CPSU Congress observed that the improvement of the system of , economic management is one of the key issues in the party's economic policy. The implementation of our plans depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of management and the degree of promptness and completeness with which the available reserves are drawn into economic circulation. The integrated system of production planning determines the results of economic activity that must be attained by the enterprise and also the permissible volume of resources and expenditures that may be used in the attainment of these results. In this way we determine the objective function and constraints that must apply to the production of basic products - over a certain period of time. Operational management here ensures the fulfillment of given targets with regard to available resources and the task of rationalizing their use. In other words, the effectiveness of operational management is evaluated on the basis ;~f the economic result attained for each period. The concretization of targets in the national economic plan, the refinement of the composition and volume of production, and the substantiation of the requirement for labor and material resources are based on established indicators. The mission of integrated production planning is to encompass the development of long-range, five-year and operational plans of enterprises and all its subdivisions, to optimize these plans, to determine indicators for the production and sale of products, to ensure the normative and planned levels of production costs. . The Program of the CPSU notes that the growing scale of the national economy and the rapid development of science and technology require a higher scientific level of planning, project-planning, acco~:nting, and statistics. The increased scientific-technical and economic substantiation of plans gives them greater stability which at the same time presupposes the timely correction and updating plans in the process of their fulfillment. The Program emphasizes that planning must be continuous and must be closely combined with all types of plans long-range or current. 74 � FOR OFFICI~L LTSE 01V'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ In the present work, the authors attempt to show the basic parts of the integrated system of production planning, the experience of creating and using these systems and their influence on the improvement of the enterprise management system. [Annotation] The book examines questions relating to the development of an integrated production planning system at industrial enterprises. The authors propose ways of creating the informational base of ISOD and principles underlying the construction of models of the enterprise economic information system. The book devotes considerable space to analyzing the experience of foreign countries in the utilization of integrated production planning systems. The book is intended for developers of automated control systems, for information and computer center personnel, for personnel of economic planning and production services of industrial enterprises, and may also be useful to students attending economic VUZ's. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Chapter I. Rationalization of Production Planning Under Conditions of ISOD 5 Chapter II. Optimization of Long-Range and Current Production Planning.. 11 1. Principles in the Optimization of the Pro~iuction Program....... 11 2. Construction of a Mathematical Economic Model of the Optimization Problem 20 3. Calculation of an Optimal Production Program and Its Effectiveness 33 Chapter ITI. Operational-Calendar Planning 45 1. Models of Operational Planning and Monitoring 45 2. Tntegration of Calculations on Planning and Monitoring Production... 70 Chapter IV. Forming the Planned Level of Construction Costs 77 1.~ Normative Calculations 79 2. Calculative of Normative Prime Cost.... 91 3. Calculation of Planned Prime Cost 96 Chapter V. Integration of the Enterprise's Economic znformation System.. 113 Chapter VI. ISOD Information Base 128 75 FOR OFFICI~,L L'SE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ 1. Computeri,zed O~gani zat~on af ~~ormat~.on ~.n Znteg~ated pata Systems... 128 2. Basic Principles in the Construct3on of the ~SflD ~~o~+mation Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . 143 Chapter VII. Directions and Pex+spectives ~n the Development of ~nteg~+ated Data Processing Sy~tem~ Based on Third Genex~ati,on Computers, 159. 1. Features. in the Development of TSOD. . . . . . , . . . . . 158 2. Economic Organizational Suppoxt and Functional Structure of ISOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 3 . ISOD Hardware and So~ttaare. . , . ~ . . , . , . ~ ti . . . . < < 177 Chapter VIII. The Experience o~ Fox~ei,gn Countries in Developing and Using Integrated Producti.on ~'lanning Sy~tems. . . , . . , , ~ . 18 3 l. An Integrated Production Planning System 184 2. An Integrated Data Processing System in the Realm of Electric Power Supply 195 3. The Electronic Data Processing System at Renault Plants........ 203 4. Systems Design and Troubleshooting 210 5. Training Specialists in Integrated Data Processing Systems..... 222 Bibliography 228 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1978 5013 CSO: 1870 ~ 76 FOR OFFICIr~L LTSE OiV'LY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MODEL OF AUTOMATED INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Moscow MODEL' ASU PROMYSHLENNYM PREDPRIYATIYEM (Model of Automated Industrial Enterprise Management System) in Russian 1978 pp 3-5, 102-104 [Editorial comments by V. Yu. Bunakov, director of the Soviet-Bulgarian Sci- entif ic Research and Planning Institute Interprpgramm, introduction and ex- cerpts from the book by V. A. Kureyev, L. N. Kuranova, Ye. A. Perfil'yeva, - G. D. Rakhmanin and V. F. Stafeyeva, Moscow "Statistika," 1978, 126 pages] [Text] Modeling as one of the steps of investigation and design has found application in the most diverse f ields of science and technology. Modeling- mathematical, simulation, laboratory, half-scale and so on--has become espe- cially widely distributed in the f ield of systems design, specifically in design of technical systems. The model described in the given book is related to the si.mplest type of modeling--laboratory, but it is the first complete model of digital the field of automated management systems (ASU) for industrial enterprises. The idea of the need to use modeling occurred to the authors of this paper with regard to the fact that modern high-capacity software--applied program packets (PPP) which include complex and efficient methods of solving various manage- ment problems of industrial enterprises--have been made available to develop- ers of ASU. The ASU developer, utilizing this software, should have a good knowledge of the specific economics of the enterprise, know how to conduct economic analysis of the production system, to correctly apply mathematical methods contained in the PPP and also methods and means of constructing data processing systems and to have the skills to design ASU based on third-genera- tion computers. It is natural that the aggregate of the qualities indicated above is far from inherent to everyone. Moreover, the ideology of management of an enterprise contained in the PPP system is not described in explicit ~ form in the documentation to the packets themselves. The presence of al- , ternative solutions in the packets makes the process of ASU design even more difficult. Therefore, the initial problem postulated by the authors was to create an ASU prototype on the basis of PPP. This determined the approach to development of the model itself--selection of some arbitrary enterprise and development for it of an automated management system using PPP. The limited quantitative indicators of the enterprise should provide good visibility of the produced model and the quite real nature of production, technology and organization of production should provide adequate representation of the result . - 77 FOR OFFICIE~L USE O~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It became clear to the authors even at the beginning of the book that the application of the model is not limited by use of it for demonstration pur- poses. The model is a convenient tool for organization of training both developers of ASU and o� enterprise personnel. Moreover, business games can be developed on its basis for activation of the teaching process. The process itself of developing the model is a part of ASU design (the unique feature by which the development of the model is distinguished from design of a real ASU is the fact that conversion from a real system of management at the enterprise to the system being designed is not taken into account in it). Consequently, the technology of ASU development is worked out to a significant degree in development o� the model. With regard to the fact that the model is the final programming system, it may serve to join additional programs or new packets with the program system of the ASU constructed on the basis of standard PPP. However, the most important application of the model was determined after completion of development described in the given book. Since the arbitrary enterprise that was the basis for the model has features inherent to a rather wide range of real enterprises, direct introduction of the system realized in the model at real enterprises of this type was possible. 3'he volume of re- visions of model programs was extremely insignificant in the given case and reduces essentially to regeneration of the basic programs by using standard means of adjustment contained in PPP and also to reprogramming of some blocks which process input documents and which issue tabulogram~. With the presence of a collective of "producers" at the enterprise who know their own enterprise well and of specialists having programming experience on YeS EVM [Unified computer system] (with total number of nat more than 6-10 persons), the enterprise itself can successfully introduce the ASU based on the model by using its developers (purely consultative). If some significant character- istic not taken into account in the ASU modeZ is found at the real enterprise, it is included into the information base of the arbitrary enterprise and the model is adjusted. This process is called "loss of complex situations" by the authors of the given book. Z'hus, the ASU model is an effective multipurpose means which also determines the significance of the proposed book. The book should undoubtedly be of interest to enterprise managers who come into contact in one way or another with automation of enterprise management. It may also be useful to a wide range of professionals working in the field of data processing. Introduction The ASU model described in this book can most simply be defined as the ASU for a hypothetical enterprise having the most important characteristics of 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICI~L USE ONLY some class o~ enterprises. Let us turn our attention to the following to ~ imagine how ~he ASU may operate at the hypothetical entezprise. The program-- ming complex in any ASU is related to its information model, represented in the form of an information base on machine carriers, rather than to material production itself. The ASU contains service programs of the information base, the task of which consists in maintaining agreement between it and the plant. Consequently, it is sufficient to develop an information model which reflects the characteristics of a specific plant or class ot plants for operation of the programming of the complex of the ASU. Operation of the ASU model is also based on this. Instead of real production information, user data are fed to the input of the information base service programs and the programming complex then operates with them and with data of the real plant: it gener- ~ ates solutions, fo~-mulates reports, controls data and so on. During the course of operation, the user may introduce new data which reflect the results of completion of solution and the course of production. In this case the model will continue to operate on the basis of the previous and new information. The main components of the model are the information base, functionaZ structure - (process of system operation and methods of problem-solving) and the program- ming complex. These components wi11 be considered in detail in the correspond- ing chapters of the book (from Chapter 3 through Chapter 6). The hardware complex of the system is illuminated here only in the part of requirements on computer configuration. The main prerequisite for development of the ASU model was the new problem- oriented sof.~~ware of YeS EVM applied program packets "Information system for enterpr~se management" (ISUP). The applied program packets are generally adjusted program complexes capable of realizing a set of algorithms on the computer for solving a specific class of problems (mathematical, economic, information and so on), while the ISUP is a system of applied program packets capable of realizing the main production control algorithms and of providing _ the management of the enterprise with information for management. The PPP ISUP are considered in detail in [1-5), but since the principles and algo- ri.thms of the ISUP are the foundation of the ASU and since they are still not sufficiently known to a wide range of readers, they will be briefly out- lined in Chapters 1 and 2 of the given book. Hardware of the ASU model. Minimum configuration of the YeS EVM is required for startup and operation of the model: internal storage device with capaci ty of 64 K; three YeS-5056 (5052) direct-access devices; YeS-6012 punchcard input device; . YeS-7030 (7032, 7033) printout device; two YeS-5010 (YeS-5012 and IZOT) magnetic tape storage devices. 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Of the three direct access devices, one is designed for the model resident which includes the DOS YeS [Disk operating system of unified system) and the generated program complex of the model; one is designed for seven files of the information base and tasks of the demonstration versions of the model and one is designed for the working files of the PPP and for the systems _ working files of the DOS YeS. - ~vo magnetic tape storage devices are required only for the demonstration mode of operation of the model these are the working magnetic tapes. ~ operation of peripherals is not provided here in the standard ASU model. Preliminary information can be prepared on any punchcard data preparation _ devices. Information is derived in the ASU model in real time in the form of tabulo- grams. ~ Conversion of the model to the DOS YeS 2.1 version and also use of the SIOD2 packet for the ISUP and the use of peripherals comprise the subject of further e~perimental investigations and methodical developments based on the ASU model. [337-6521] COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1978 6521 CSO: 1863 ~ 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MORE AND BET'Z'ER PERIPHERALS OiJTWEIGH NEED FOR MORE COMPUTERS Novosibirsk EKONOMIKA I ORGANIZATSIYA PROMYSHT,ENNOGO PROIZVODSTVA in Russia.n No 5, 1g79 ' [Review by Yegor Belyayev of the book "Super-EVM" by A. P. Kochur, Moscow, 1978, 64 pages] [Text] The classification of today's computers and their characteristics, main problems and trends in improving computers (based on foreign experi~nce) can be profitably read about in the booklet under review, even by specialists. A. P. Kochur--the author of inventions in superconductive cryo-computers-- knows what he is writing about: his information is not second-hand. Superlarge computers with operatingspeeds of tens and hundreds of millions of operations a second "today stagger the imagination even of people who work with computers" (page 36). But without beccming amazed by the many still-future technical miracles described in the booklet, you begin to re- flect on how the supercomputer will perform, how much and in comparison with what they wi.ll~ be effective. Operatin~ speed is not the main indicator of computer effectiveness and by ~tself is not an indicator of effectiveness. Without a doubt, increasing computer operating speed is extremely useful for numbers of tasks and some- times simply just a necessit,y. But this indicator can never be viewed as , suitable for a11 cases in li~'e. Nor can we move on to far-ranging general- r izations. For example, a generalization such as the following: "Total com- puter productivity, or the computer capability of the country, is a most importa.nt indicator of the technical-economic'level of a country's growth, and indicator of its "intellectual might" (page 4). ~,~hy does this appear invalid? The point is not even that for some number of operations within the computer obligatory input/output operations have to be completed, and that we must think about what to input and what to have outputted. Increasing the oper�a~ing speed will stimulate intellectual acti- vity, but more likely the ability to compare costs and results, to take � account of public tax money, will be a real~indicator of "intellectual might." 81 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 . . . . . . ~ Y 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' The vast ma~ority of control computers in industry were until recently ~ equ:ipped with 1932 model German teletype units. The output speed is six cha:racters a second. For one symbol to be typed with this teletype requires an average of fmur commarids. The maximum operating speed that is required - from the computer when outputting information with a single teletype is 24 operations a second. Le~ us assume the,t we actually have a computer with a capability of 2~+0,000 operations a second. Then in the time it takes for the letter bar to travel to the paper and back (1/6 second), the computer is able to execute 40,000 operations. Now to the solution of the problem: how to use the remaining (40,000 less operations--there are two ways of looking at this. TYie first is equipment-oriented--build an intermediate, buffer storage ~or the teletype. Entries can be made in this storage and outputting can be done slowly. 'I'he second way--program-oriented--is deve- loping a special complex of programs, called the operating system, that would ensure not only a symbol-by-symbo' output at the r~.te of 6 charac- - ters per second, but also the carrying out of other independent operations at the same time. The operating system has~a lot of things to keep track of. It must, in particular, regularly check wfiether the letter bar sent to the paper many thousands of operations ago has returnE~d to i.ts normal position. _ And converting "ma.ny thousands" to "mar~y million~" requires that we think about parallel increase in the technical level of the peripherals: them operate faster and make human and computer access to the peripherals easier. The unpromising situation with respect to peripherals indicates that a sharp rise in their number and quality is a challenge that, in any - case, is no less urgent than increasin~ the operating speed. Page 60 of the booklet we are reading makes reference to a book by A. Apokin and L. Maystrov, "Razvitiye vychislitel'r~ykh ma,shin" [Advances in Computers), in which we find a table that shows that in 1970 the cost of central pro- , cessinE units in U.S. computers amount to 70 percent, and peripher~,ls-- 30 percent. In 10 years the figures switched places. In 1960 40 percent of computer costs were represented by programs and 60 percent--by the com- puters proper; in 1972 these figures also changed places. So improving the operation of the processing unit, in particular, increas- ing the operating speed, permits raising the effec~tiveness of only 12 per- cent of all outlays (30 percent--the cost of central processing ~:nits--is multiplied by 40 percent--the cost of computers apart from programs). Can this 12 percent really by the most important part of the outlays? On becom- ing familiar with the literature on computers, it is hard to fi.nd any econ- omic considerations for this position. Perhaps, A. P. Kochur, is not familiar with the figures from the book we have cited? No. He knows of even more recen~t statistics. On page 36 he writes: - "`I'he use, for example, of 50 percent of computer capabilities, permits low- ering the costs in programming by a factor of four." What then is viewed as primary, and what as secondary? The author would hardly admit t~-at in~reasing 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY operating speed is an auxiliary trend in lowering costs for programming. Then we would have to compare this t~end with others that today can � turn out to be more effective. For example, boosting programmer qualifi- cations. Advances in computers determined by fulfilling the~ planning indica- tor "computer production by units." Practically deprived of peripherals and software, orphaned central processing units move o.ut of the gates of computer manufacturing plants. Originating under the beautiful name of first or base sets, in their hordes they bring joy to some and sadden others. We can take one more step and establish a new control figure-- the total operating speed of all installed computers. Al1 the more so, in that not only A. P. Kochur is certain that a total productivity of the entire stock of the country's computers is essential to handling "mass tasks" (page 18). What is sweeter: thousand s of units of computer.s or billions of their oper- ations a second?--this is the question. As a start it w~ould be good to analyze in the future the effect of boosting the operating speed. It is never simple to dash from one beautiful indicator to another. Computer users, on experimenting ~o see what "increasing the available computer stock" means in practice, are awaiting with a form of impatience quite their own the planning calculations about "increasing the total computer capability." This emotion is what motivated this response. [Portions of the book : reviewed in this article have been translated and appear in TUST~PST, DTo 22, 10 May 78, JPRS L/7761+, which is FOUO). COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Ekonomika i organizatsiya prom~yshlennogo proizvodstva", 1979 10123 c5o: 1863 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY DISCUSSED IN NEW BOOK Kiev AVTOMATIKA in Russian No 3, 1979 pp 90-92 [Review by B. B. Timofeyev of the book "Spravochnik Po EVM i Analogovym Ustroystvam" by V. I. Grubov and V. S. Kirdan, 2nd edition, revised and supplemented, edited by G. Ye. Pukhov, Kiev, Naukova dumka, 1977, 464 pages] [Text] The reviewed reference manual is the second revised and supplemented edition of the boo~c by the same authors "Computers and Modeling Devices,'' published by Plaukova dumka in 1969. Taking into account that the development of computer technology has undergone great changes since publication of the first edition (appearance of third- generation digital and analog computers, minicomputers, development of fourth- generation computers and so on), the authors attempted to make the appropri- ~ ate corrections in the second edition, supplementing it with descriptions of new computer equipment and classes of machines. At the same time descrip- tions of many tube, electromechanical and other computers and analog machines, which are of historical interest, were excluded: It should be noted that the greatest changes in the references manual were the chapters related to digital computer technology and to a lesser extent to analog computers, which corresponds totally to the developed real situa- tion. The problem of describing no,t only series produced computers (which it is - - very difficult to do in total volume, since their nomenclature is renewed almost every year), but also those computers~and devices which were produced previously and have been operated until now at computer centers, at enter- prises, at scientific research institutes and VU7.'s, was postulated in the reference manual. The latter is of interest especially for instructors and ' students of VUZ's and technical schools, since it permits one to follow the development of the circuitry and design solutions of computers and transcend the development, permi!cs one to compare different computers according to specif icat'ions and so on during study of the corresponding courses. The approach to development of c~mputers has undergone significant changes recently: instead of independent development of apparatus and some types 84 FOR OFFICIr"~:. USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' of software, a system consisting of an aggregate of apparatus and programming devices has begun to be developed. The modern software system with which produced d~igital computers are usually equipped and on which the capabilities of their practical use depend to a signif icant degree, was established for today. Taking this into account, the authors were quite justified in adding to the characteristics of the described digital computers such an i.mportant characteristic for.modern machines as software. The inclusion of two new chapters--"Electronic Keyboard Computers" and "Cen- tralized Control Machines"--sHould also be regarded as wholly justif ied. Keyboard computers based on integrated microcircuits have recently attained very widespread distribution in different spheres of human activity due to the simplicity of use, small overall dimensions, high dependability and so on. � Different centralized control machines acquire no less important signif i- cance in development of ASUTP [Automated management system for technological processes] and ASUP [Automated production management systemJ. This group of machines has recently been supplemented by a large number of machines and devices used to record digital information in development of ASUTP. The reference manual consists of two parts and the seven chapters contained in them. Each part and chapter is preceded by brief general propositions which characterize the main features of the computers and devices described in them. In this case the authors quite correctly do not go into the details of the construction of one or another classes of computers and devices, men- tally referring the reader to the special literature of academic and theoreti- cal nature. The first part of the reference manual is devoted to digital computers and the second is devoted to analog and analog-digital computers and devices. General-purpose digital computers are described in Chapter 1. Thus, Ryad-1 models are described in detai]. among YeS EVM [Unified computer system] and the brief characteristics of Ryad-2 models are also presented. Detailed description of Ryad-1 models is preceded by a block diagram of YeS EVM hard- ware, the minimum composition of YeS EVM inodels and the composition af YeS EVM hardware. The specifications of individual models are well supplemented by layouts of *_he arrangement of the machines in the machine room and also in some cases by photographs of the overall views of the machines. The approximate costs of the machines are presented. General-purpose universal digital machines such as the BESM-6, Vesna, MIR-3, NAIRI-4 and also some other machines of earlier manufacture are described ~ in this same chapter. 85 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � -,r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Digital control computers are described in Chapter 2. The modular system of computer technology (ASVT) is separated into an independent section and M-40, M-60, M-400, M-1000, M-2000, M-3000, M-4000, M-4030, M-5000, M-5010, M-6000, M-6010 and M-7000 complexes are described. The description of the M-6000 model contains data on 24 standard complexes. Data on digital control machines and general-purpose systems (for example, the Dnepr, KTS LIUS [Hardware complex for local information and management systems], Raduga, K-50, Elektronika--K-2000, Elektronika TZ-16 and a number of others) are also presented in the chapter. Specialized digital computers used in ditc?rent sectors of the national economy, in transport, in the academic pr~cess and so on (for example, AISI-3, _ Baykal, Kashtank, Kyyiv-70, Kolkhida-2, Sever-2 and so on) are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 is devoted to a description of keyboard (EK~1M): numerous EKVI~I models of types Iskra and Elektronika and also a number of well-recom- mended machines of types Kontakt,'Ros', EDVM and so on. Data on such well-recommended centralized control machines (MTsK) in industry as AMUR, Zenit, IV-500, KREM-3M, MARS and ELRU are presented in Cha.pter 5. ~ Data are presented on digital data recording machines, used extensively in development of ASUP at enterprises with digital production (Donets-l, Signal, URI and so on). The descriptions of the machines are illustrated by the appropriate block- diagrams. Data are presented on multichannel pulsed regulators of type MIR. Chapter 6 contains data both on well-known general-purpose analog computers of type Analog, MN, MPT, EI, ELI and EMiJ and on_such analog and analog-digi- ta1 computer complexes that have appeared comparatively recently as AVK, ATsEMS, GVS, MGVS and so on. These complexes are used extensively for modeling complex problems with in- - creased accuracy and are constructed by the combination principle in a uni- _ fied system of analog and digital forms of display of machine variables to combine the best properties of analog and digital computers. A number of unique general-purpose analog computers (network electric inte- grators KGU and USM, the Elektron analog computer and so on), wtiich played an important role in their time in solving important national-economic prob- lems. I'inally, data are presented in Chapter 7 on different specialized analog com~ puters and devices (apparatus for automatic optimization of analog computer solution of boundary-value and variation problems, specialized control 86 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100104407-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY machines, analog computers for solving network planning and management prob- lems, machines for calculating statistical characteristics, energy, thrust and technological calculations and a number of others. The bibliography very completely encompasses the reference sources pub- lished in our country in the field of computers and analog devices. Thus, practically 311 classes of computers and analog devices are described in the reference manual and a large number of computer types produced by domestic industry and operated at computer centers and in organizations of the country is presented. In this sense the reference manual may be regarded ~ as unique in domestic publishing practice. ~ However, the reference manual is not devoid of a number of deficiencies: there is lack of coordination in the figure captions (."~strukturnaya sl~hema" in some cases and "blok-skhema in other similar cases); technical descrip- tioiis of the computers are nonuniform in volume in some cases (for example, the descriptions of YeS-1060, NAIRI-4 and MGVS computers contain very sparse data); not all the latest computers and devices are supplied with illustrated material (for example, the YeS-1033, YeS-1060, NAIRI-4, Signal, GVS-100, MGVS, Saturn, KMM-12 and others); the prices are not indicated for all the computers and devices; some recent developments in the field of computer technology are absent (SM EVM [International System of Small Computers]) SM 1-4) and others); and there is no subject in3ex, which makes the use of the reference manual somewhat difficult. However, taking into account that the authors have for the f irst time in domestic practice taken on themselves the job of creating a reference manual in essentially all trends of computer technology and have placed a very sig- ~ nificant number of types of computers and devices in it in.a comparatively - limited space, the indicated def iciencies cannot interfere with extensive use of the reference manual in the practical activity of scientific workers dnd engineers in the field of computer technology. Republication'of the indicated reference manual is a timely and useful matter and wi11 be of significant assistance to all persons who utilize computer technology in their activity. Taking into account the fact that computer technology is developing at tempos which exceed several times the otlier branches of techn~logy and also the ever broader introduction of computers into various s~heres of human activity, the reviewed reference manual must be systematically improved and republished every 4-5 years. [240-6521] ` COPYRIGHT: "Izdatel'stvo "Naukova dumka," "Avtomati~.a," 1979 6521 - END - CSO: 1863 - g7: ~ FOR OFFICIiiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100100007-2