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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000200030029-5 POLIT - ~ ~ , i3 DECEM~ER i979 CFOUO i61T9) - i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/8816 13 D~cember 1979 _ USSR Re ort p POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGI~AL AFFAIRS ' CFOUO 1~6/79) ~ . FBIS F'f~REIGN BROADCAST IN~ORMATION ~ERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, ~eriodicals and books, but also from news agency _ transmissious and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and = , other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets - are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [TextJ = or [Excerpt) in the first line of each item, or follo~wing the _ last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was - - processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are ~ enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- _ tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the = original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an = item originate with the source. Ti~es within items are as - given by source. _ The contents of this publication in no way represent thE poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. ~ For further information on report content _ call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNTNG OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION - OF THIS PUBLIC.ATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` JPRS L/8816 ~ 13 December 1979 - USSR REPORT ~ POLITICAL AND SOCIULOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUO 16/79 ) - CONTENTS ~ PAGE INTERNATIONAL _ Book Describes U.S. Secret Activities in Latin America - - ( K. S. Tar. as ov; TAYNAYA VOYNA IlvIPERl"AI,IZMA SSHA V LATINSKOY ~~MEftIKE, 1978 ) . . . 1 ~ � ~ r ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � NATI:ONAL ' Atheism and Internationa,lism: Combatting Vestiges of ~ Islam (Irshad Agarzaevich Makatov; ATEISTY V NASTUPLENII. _ PREODOLENIYA PEREZHITKOV ISI,AMA V NATSIONAL'NOM _ ~ saMOSOZ~vrz, 1978) 6 I REGIONAL I Article Hits Critics or USSR Nationality Relations ~ (Zh. Kh. Dzhunusova; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK KAZAKHSKOY SSR, SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYHIi NAUK, 1979) 1~+ Further Improvement in Copyright Legislation Urged ( U. K. Ikhsanov; IZVESTIYA AKlLDEI~I NAUK KAZAKI3SKOY ~SR SERIYA OBSHCFIESTVE~INYKH NAUK, N~ jJ 1979) �~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~e~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~s� 2~ Internationalist Unity of the Soviet Peoples (R. Grdzelidze; S.4KARTVELOS KOMUNISTI, Aug 79) 32 I.d.eological Work Progre~~s, Problems in Abkhazia _ (B. Adleiba; SAY:'iRTVELOS KOMUNISTI, Sep 79) 42 Cadre Policy Progress, Problems in Dm~ nisskiy Rayon (G. Kulidzhanishvili; SAKARTVELOS KOMUNISTI, Sep 79) 51 ~ - a - [III - USSR - 35 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL, USE C~NLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY - = INTERNATIONAL BOOK DESCRIB~S U.S. SECRET ACTIVITIES IN LATIN AMERICA Moscow TAYNAYA VOYNA IM~ERIALIZMA SSHA V LATINSKOY AMERIKE (The Secret War of U.S. Imperialism in Latin America) in Russian 1978 signed to press 23 Jun 78 pp 1-5, 211-216 [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from book by K. S. Tarasov, = Izdatel'stvo politicheskoy literatury, ~?16 pag~s, 50q000 copies] - [Text] In this book K. S. Tarasov, doctor of economic scierices, exposes the subversive activities of U.S. . - imperialism in the Latin American countries, activities wh.ieh are aimed at suppression of the liberation movement of the continent~s peoples against the " domination of foreign monnpoliea, a nwvement which = aiins at true independence and progressive develop- - ment. Table of Contents: ~ Introduction 3 The Si.riister Iceberg of the Secret War 6 The Last Throw of tne Dice i.n the Game The Machinery of the Secret War 12 - Behi.nd the Scenes of. the "Corporation from Delaware" 16 - - The Testimony of a CIA Agent 23 At the Fronts of the Secret War 3~. - A "Quick Kiek" _ ' The Pentagon~s ~'ire Departmen* 46 ' Psychological Operations 55 ~ South of the Rio Grande 66 - Smoke from a Cigarette 77 - The Secret War Against Cuba 82 - The Story of a:.`~icago Gangster F'ive Conspiracies 86 1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Operation'Pluto" 9U - Counter Action by the CIA 99 . .s~+ - Washingtcr~l's Bolivian Scenarios 110 Requiem for a Revol.ution The CIA Appears on the S tage 118 Murder i.n La Igere 123 The Sensation which Did Not Take Place 130 ~ Z~ao Generals � 133 _ Round in Favor of the CIA 138 - "Operation Chile" 145 Prologue Secret ITT Documents 154 _ "A Destabilizaticn Action" 168 The "Daybreak Plan" 183 "Rain ~ver Santiago 194 According to Hitler�s Methods 2~2 _ Conclusion 211 I - Introduction j = _ i The Latin American continent continues to seeth e. More and more of i _ the working massess of South and Central Atnerica are joi.ning the - struggle against the domination and arbitrary will exerted by the USA _ on the continent, a struggle which is being w~ged for national development ~ and the complete independence of these countries, as well as for the elimination of reactionary, fascist and tyrannical regimes. Marching _ in the vanguard of the fighters are communists, who demand the i.mplementation of profound social transformations intended to put an ~ end to ! poverty, the lack of rights, backwardness, hunger and mass _ illiteracyo The high gnal of leading the peoples of this region of the world onto the broad path of. social progress was announced by ~ the communist parties of the Latin American and Caribbean cotmtries at ' - their conference in Havana in June 1975. The attractive force of real socialism and the success of revolutionary - Cuba inspire the peoples of Latin America in their own difficult struggle, ~ Under the cover of demagogic slogans about their own "selfless concern" ' _ for the strengthening of the national sovereignty of the Latin America countries, the imperialist forces of the USA are attempting to halt - the process of social develc~pment in these countries and to preserve - - the control which these fo~ces have over the economies and politics in - these countrieso In violation of the UN Charter and of international - - agreements and treaties, the U.S. imperialists, who view ~he Latin American continent as their raw material base and their strategic rear, interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign states and make use of the local rea.ction in their efforts to impose by any and all means their will on 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY those reg unes which are prepared to serve. Washington's interestso The nur?zerous intelligence services of the USA have a special role to play in this processol As the data cited in this book confirm, the Central Intelli~ence Agency _ 1n~1 r,rh~~r 4imi11r r~i�F,1Tllf11'].Allfi III1~H~fiFlt?cl nn Rn ~nnrmrnir~ ~~c~r~l~~ subversive activity in the Latin American countries, weaving the threads of anti-popular conspiracies and organizing coups d'etat and the murder of state and political figures that they did not like. - In the summer of 1977 F. Castro said: "The i.mperialists and the CIA ~ use the most varied methods rangir~g from direct diversions to incitemento They resort to indirect methods in order to force all the mercenaries, whom they they liave instructed and trained,to act. In some cases they use other governments for their own purposes, for example~ the rulers of Nicaragua, Chile and other puppetso D irectly or indirectly the American Central Intelligence Agency encouraged and armed dozens of counterrevolutionary groups whose macin goal was to murder r.evolutionary - leaders,"2 The U.~. intelligence commi.m ity is azi organic part of the military-industrial complex, and its interests are interweven in the closest possible way = with the interests of the major military-industrial monopolies. This means that when this commtmity carries out secret operations in Latin _ America, it has the support of all the divisions of these monopol.ies which are active i.n this region. These divisions willingly put enormous financial resources at the disposal of the cot~antmity; they use their own links with local business circles and their own intelligence network, and _ a.~ the same time they participate actively in subversiv~ activities against governments which Washington finds objectionable. - The book is based on materials published i.n the foreign press, on = documents of the Latin American communist parties, and on materials issu~=d by UoS, Congressional conunittees concerned with the - _ activities of P.~erican intelligence services. The facts show how high handedly the emissaries of the "cloak and dagger" agency act. The~ - raze to the grotmd the thoroughly false verbiage of U,S. imperialist - propaganda on the sub ject of Washington's respe~ct for "hiunan rights," - the "sovereignty of nations," "freedom," etc. 1, The UoS. in telli,,ence community includes more than 20 secret services. _ The following agencies have an especially far-flung and active secret- ~ service network in Latin America: the Cen.tral Intelligence Agency, tCIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (AIA), ~he Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Di~vision of Information and of - the 'State Department, the Intelligence Agency of the U,S. Atomic Energy Commission and the in telligence services of the U.S, Air Force and ~ S~Iarines, as well as a number of others. 2, ZA RUBEZHOM, 1977, No 23 p 7. ~ 3 = FOR OFFICIEt:. USE l~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 , FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY _ The book is written ir_ the form of es~ays, and this determines to a certai.n degree its structure as well, The first two chapters contain an e-tamination of the nature, goals and basic tr.ends in the secret war ~ conducCed by U.S. imperialism against the Latin American cotmtries. The subsequent chapters contain information on the subversive actions Cuba, Bolivia and Chile, which have become an ohject of particularly energetic criminal activity on the part of imperialism. - Conclusion: In the late fifties and early sixties American imperialism unleashed - a secret war against the liberation movement of the Latin American peoples, It was a reaction by the U,So ruling ci:.eles (and primarily of all the forces which were tmited aroimd the :~ilitary-industrial ~ - complex) to the appearance in the WesCern He.misphere of the ~ first socialist state--Cuba--and the general rise of the anti-i.mperialist struggle of the Lat:in American people. President Kennedy attempted to combine in his Latin American policy "hard" (military-political) and "soft" (economic~ methods in order I to preserve or restore an "order" agreeable to U.S, monopoly capital. ~ The military-industrial complex, the Pentagon and the U,S. intelligence . - commtm ity advocated the direct use of military force as the main I instrument of American foreign policy in Latin A,~nerica. Under pressure = _ from them, the "liberal" ideas of Kennedy with regard to Latin America = were "frozen" and after his death they were completely rejected. - Since the mid-sixties there has been a tendency for U,S. imperialism to - - make a broad counterattack� agaizist the forces of democracy and - socialism and for the establishment in the countries of this region of regimes which are capable of suppressing the movements which threaten ` _ imperialism~s political, economic and military ira.terests. In the early seventies the actions of U.S. imperialism in Latin America which are being carried out under the false slogan of the struggle against the "communist threat," are still further, _ Having made the j:~cret war a very important element in the struggle against the re�~olutionary forces, American imperialism extends assistance , - and support to al'i those who oppose a ra~ical solution to th~ socio- economic problems facing this region, It is natural that a parti~ular role has been given to the U,So secret services, and especially to the - CIA,, which uses methods of .terror, blackmail, hr.ibery and conspiracyo T he Argentinian newspaper CALLE correctly notes: "We should not forget the very obvious fact that behind all the subversive activities, from the assassinations and the pschological campaign of intimidation, the artificial provocation o� su~,ply shortages to conspiracy in govern- mental circles, st~:-~ds the ~IA," The communist parties of Lati.n America and the Caribbean, k~hich gathered for a conference in Havana in June 1975, stated that American imperialism "resorts to new, ever more refind methods" and "and is� th~~ main and common enemyo,." Its . FOR OFFICIAL USE'ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 - - a FOR OFFICIAT, USE ONLY - secret services are beginning to carry out a new strategic plan (under the name,of South Cone) for creating Latin American zones - - made up entire~~y of reactionary militar.y regimes; the purpose is to oppose in eve~y possible way the anti-imperialist tendencies in tt~ae politics of peru, Venezuela and a number of other countries. American � i.mperialism is~carrying out secret operations in Central American countries as well, i.ncluding the organization of conspiracies against the - governments of Panama and Costa Rica, In short~ an escalation--planned by W~.shington~-of counterrevolstion is taking place, _ _ Despite the opposition of a number of countries in this region, especially of Peru and Mexico, the USA Continues to use the military-political mechanism - of the Organization of American S tates to preserve and strengthen its positions on the conti.nent. The results of the latest i.nter-Am~rican military conferences have shown tha,t once again they were used to - examine measures to strengthen the cooperation between the armed forces of the OAS member nations for purposes of eliminating "subyersive communist activity" and of eradicating "~Ma.rxism" in this region; - recommendations were adopted on the subject of increasing the effective- ness of inter-American military organso There has recently been an = increase in the efforts to create an anticommunist, military-political alliance of the dictatorial regimes in South Americao - . - In carrying out a policy of escalating counterrevolution in Latin Ameri- - ca~ Washin~ton stubbornly refuses to ~derstand the . main point~ - _ which is that the situation on the continent has changed substantially, that the Lati.n American peoples cannot and do not wish to live in the - old way and that increasing ~heir exploitation and the eyer infringement of their political rights and freedoms only strengthens the revolutionary situation in the region, - As Comrade L.Io Brezhnev, general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and ehairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, noteds "~e _ . revolution is fed by t'his very activiCy and by the intolerable eonditions . ~ of life i.n which the peoples are placed, It that revolution has its deepest and most ine~adicable roots, And any attempt to - block the road of progress and to suppress the aspiration for freedom - through the use of terror and repression can only strengthen the resentment of the popular masseso"1 And, in closing this work, we would like to r.ecall the brilliant words of Comrac~e L,I, Brezhenvs ~'As for Lati.n America, we are conficent that its historical prospects are inseparable from the development of all humanity; and these prospects are for freedom, independence and social progress."2 ~-o.o rez,env, eninskim kursom" ~y Leninist Policy.Speeches and Articles7, Vol 4, p 406 _ _ _ _ 2o L,Io Brezhney, '~Leninskim kursom"~~y Leninist Policy, Speeehes and Articles7, Vol 4, p 406, - , COPYRIGHT: Politizdat, 1978 8543 5 - - CSO: 1800 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE OTVLY = NATIONAL ATHEISM AND INTERNATIONALISM: COMBATTING VESTIGES OF ISI~AM Moscow ATEISTY V NASTUPLENII. PREODOI~FNIYA PEREZHITKOV ISLAMA V ~ NATSIONAL'NOM SAMOSOZNANII (Atheists on the Offensive. Over~oming the Vestiges of Islam in the Natianal Consciousness) in F,ussian 1978 signed to press 27~Oct 78, pp 2-11, 140-144 [Annotation, table of contents, introductian and conclusion from book by I_ Irshad Agarzaevich Makatav, Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskaya Rossiya," 20,000 _ copies, 144 pages] ~ i - - [Text] This book, which is written in the genre of - a social-psychological sketch, examines specific features of the growth of the national consciousness in followers of Islam, analyz~s the causes and con- ditions which accelerate the process of international convergence of peoples and which promote the over- coming of, ethnic and nationalistic preju- dices under conditions of developed socizlism. - The book is intended for lecturers, propagandists of - atheism, and party workers. - TABLE Or^ CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 = Chapter I - Historical, ideological and social-psychological premises for the interconnection of national and religious conscious- - ness 12 - National and religious aspects in the life of - the Moslem peoples 16 Islam and nationalism 24 - 6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ctiapter II Dialectics of the growth of the national consciousness - and I� 36 _ Feat~res of the growth of national consciousness of believers 38 - Sp~c~fic forms of the manifestation of national . and religious consciousriess 5f, - ~ b~eliever in tlie sphere of national--compatriot, kindred aiid religicus ties 74 Patriotic,_intemationalistic, national and religious f eeliiigs $4 C~iapt_ei III ~ ' . . . _ [Jnityt.of the process of convergerice of nat~orialities, ~ arid of iiiterriational arid atlieistic educatioii 98 , . _ . . : Overcoming religious, ethric and nationalistic _ . . < pre~udices in t~ie process of ttie convergence ~of riatioiialit3es 98 �-s.,,:.: Consi~eration of riationa~ features a`s a necessary . : � _ condition for raising the eff~ciency of atlieistic . - 'education 110 ~Coriclusion 1~0 II~TRODUCTI02~ = Ttie natiorial p'roblem has always ~ieen one of tlie most critical arid coinplex - problems in t~ie history of fiumariity. Na'tional ~~scord and enmity are constaiit coui~~n3ons,of bourg;eo~s society, _ issu~ng., c~i`r~ctly: out of the: very natiure of tti~sa socie`ty in wliicli private property; an~ man's explo~.tat~on by man rule. ~,s l~arx w`ro`te; "for � : ~ ~ . 1 , :c tir peop~es to actually unite tliey mu`st sliare common interests: ~'or: t~ei'r . , , . iriterests ; to be coi?unon. tfie exi�ting p`roper~y, relationshi~s ~mus`t be de- - _ st'royed, fo'r ttie existirig property. relatio~ish~ps ~etetinirie ,~~ie exploita-_ - - tion of `some peoples by otliers, .."1 Tliat is wliy no't a sirigle capitalistic s`tate is ati~e to solve the natiorial pioblem. ~ ~ ~ , c~,;.: . rr � ~ ~ , ~ I't is only in *he USS~t anc~, ttie fraternal countr~e3 of . soc~al~sm by virtue . ~ i E � . . ~ . ~ . , ~ . .1 ~ y a r 1 ~of the co sisterit wise pol~cy of the Commuriist parties that a~l forms.of ~ , social an~ riatiorial o~pression ~rid inequality ~~ve,been dori'e away w~tli by - - radical social; econom~c and political transforniatioris. _ ~ . . , _ The Union o~ Sovie`t Socia'list Republics embodies. a brothe'rliood of more than. . t ; : . . , � , - 100 riations and peoples wfiich liave united into 53 republics; otilasts, arid dis'tricts. 7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ON'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "The Victory of October," said General Secretary of the CPSU CC, Chair- man of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council Comrade L. I. Brezhnev in his report "Great October and the Progress of Humanity," "was simul- taneously a victory in the struggle for national liberation...[sic] Oppression and mistrust in relations between nations have given way to , friendship and mutual respect. Wherever the psychology of national. egoism was prevalent for ages, internationalism has been solidly confirmed... A new historical commonality of peop~es has been shaped--the Soviet people."2 _ Nevertheless the successful resolution of the national question in the - USSR does not remove the separate problems of national relations. - National relations are complex processes which are rich in their content - and bonds and they embrace all spheres of material, political and spiritual life of the peoples of the USSR. "...national relations even in a society of mature socialism are a reality which is ~eveloping and pro- ' moting new problems and tasks."3 - ~ Consequently, improving national relations and uncovering and eliminating ' - whatever prevents this and dictated by the objective requirements of the i modern stage in the development of our society. j- ~ - The extent of the most important prcblems and tasks in the area of ' - national relations under conditions of developed socialism has been de- fined in a number of documents of the CPSU and above all in a resolution of the CPSU CC "On preparation for the 50th anniversary of the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics," in a report of L. I. Brezhnev - "On the fifty years of the Union of. Soviet Socialist Republics," and in _ resolutions of the XXV Session of the CPSU. In these documents the party - has elaborated a comprehensive program for the further maturation and con- _ vergence of all the nations and peoples of our country. Its fulfillment - is an i..~;~ortant stem in the improvement of national relations, in rein- forcing internationalization of a 11 spheres of the life of our society, and it will promote further strengthening of friendship and brotherhood of the Soviet peoples. Therefore, it is completely proper and lawful - that the party attaches great importance to the systematic instructing of workers in the spirit of internationalism and Soviet patriotism, and _ intolerance for manifestations of nationalism, chauvinism and regional superiority. "Strengthening of tr.e ideas of Soviet patriotism and socialist interna- tionalism, pride in the country of soviets and in our fatherland, readi- ness to rise to the defense of the gains of socialism in the minds of = workers, especially those of the young generation was and remains one - of the important tasks of tfie party," mentions a summary report to the CPSU CC at its XXV Session.4 Problems of the development of national relations, the formation of national _ consciousness, its relationships with other aspects of the spiritual and _ - practical life of people stir up broad social interest. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 " FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - However, the groblem of the interconnection of national and religious _ features in the consciousness of aeoples living in a territory with a traditional predominance of Islam, and the effects of the religious aspect on th-~~lifestyles and self-consciousness of these peoples has still been insufficiently studied. National and religious consciousness and their development and evolu- tion are det~ermined by the social and economic structure of society. The development of political, legal, moral, religious and other foxms of social consciousness is based on the economic development according to the classics of Marxism-Leninism. But they all also have an effect on one another and on the economic basis. Not one people has consciously chosen a religion for ~.tself. Religious beliefs, just as language, tastes, customs, traditions and much else, which distinguishes an ethni.c community have come to it histoz~ically. Religious concepts and cults, being a specifically distorted reflection in the ronsciousness of social existence, arose together with the rise - of their bearers--raees, tribes, and peoples--in conformity with their living standards. _ "All ancient religions," noted F. Engel's, "were spontaneous tribal devel- - opments, and~ later religions., which grew out of the social and = . political eonditions of each people and became entwined with them."5 _ Consequently, the interconnection of religion and ethnic formations, - beginning with their earl;~ forms, have an objective nature. To the same degree that the social, economic and natural conditions gave birth in them to ethnic consciousness and self-consciousness, these same condi- tions, wrongYy realized, caused the religious consciousness and self- consciousness in them which corresponded to the ethn3:c cons~i:ousness. _ For the peoples of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Volga R3;ver vaSley, - Is]:am was not a spontaneous'ly arising re~ligion. Zt was brflught in by eastern conquerors. The spread of Islam in these territories,strength- ened the interweaving of national and religious e],ements in all: sphzres of - life of these peoples. Having be~ome the ruling ideologv of feudal society, Islam (just as other class religions) gradually changed into _ a comparatively independent force which in turn more and more deeply invaded the national spheres of life ot the peoR�les, d3.stoiti~~~ and~ subordinating the spiritual and practical activities of the people ~o itself. Under the conditions of developed socialist society the national con- scfousness a:1d self-consciousness are steadiTy liberated from the reli- gious elements, which is explained not only by damage to tl~e social and gnosiological roots of religions, but also by the growth of class, inter- national and national consciousness of all SovieC peoples. ~ 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ In additior., the liberation of the national elem~nt from the religious - element oc�curs nonuniformly in difterent area ot the social and personal - lives and not simultaneously in all categories of people. Religiosity _ in varying degrees and in its varioua forms and relationships with the national consciousnes~.~ and self-consciousness of the believing section - of the.inhabitants is mo re prominently manif.~sted in the preserved folk - traditions, customs and manners. - Tt is not coincidence that the connection of the Moslem religion with the national aspect under conditions of mature socialism is r~evealed - more in the ordinary consciousness, in the spheres of social and family - daily life of the believers and significantly less in the social, poli- - tical and ideological areas of their activity. The attempt of a certain part of the clergy to present their religion as an integral national feature can to a known degree give birth to nation- alistic sentiments and f eelings of Moslem exclusivity in the believers , who are backward in a political sense, which in turn leads to preserva- - tion not only of the religious, but of many other vestiges including ; feudal-patriarchal throwbacks. i _ Al1 this has a negativ~ effect on the development of national relations. ~ The modern believer who is an adherent of Islam is a bearer of both a national and a religious consciousness. In order to successfully conduct - a battle with the vestiges of Islam in general and in the national con- sciousness in particular, one must understand how these contradictory elements are combined in the consciousness and how they manifest in the - behavior of one and the same person, what conditions and causes give _ rise to this phenomenon, determine the principal direction for complete liberation of national processes from the effect of Islam in places where this influence has taken hold. It is no less i7nportant to establish speci- fic ways for the convergence of people of different natibnalities and beliefs in the process of further internationalization of the socialist way of life. - A correct understanding and solution of these problems will permit one to conduct atheistic propaganda in a more reasoned way, and it will deprive modern apologists of Islam of the possibility to take advantage of the national feelings and attitudes of people. In this work the author illuminates the above named problems, and many - problems are examined here for the first time. = The book is based on extensive sociological material which for the most part has not been published before, and which was gathered over a period of many years in the republics and oblasts of the northern Caucasus-- primarily Dagestan and Checheno-Ingushetiya.6 _ 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 20Q7/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R04Q24Q03Q029-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. ~ The author ~i:~cerely thanks all the comradea who took an active part in organizing and carrying out the investigations, and also the administra- tion and colleagues of the Institute of Scientific Ath e~sm of the Academy of Social Sci.ences of tre CPSU CC, of the Dagestan V. I. Lenin State University anc~ the Dagestan State Pedagogic~l Institute for the help given during the preparation of this book. CONCLUSION - A sociological analysis of the problem of overcoming Islam in the national _ consciousness and self-consciousness has led us to the following general ~ - conclusions. - The dialeetics of national and religious elements in the consciousness and behavior of the believing part of the inhabitants is of a complex and contradictory'tiature. The author has made an at~empt first to establish - several, i~n a certain sense, hidden objective and subjective facto~s and conditions which in varying degree show the demand of people for religious forms. Ob~ective knowledge and consideration~mf these forms, the na~uze - and motives of the very conversions of believers determine the op~imal - methods �oz controlling the process of overcoming both the inherent _ religious consciousness and the other elements mixed with them and also the negative aspects in the national-ethnic psychology, whict? directly or indireetly nourish the Moslem faith and are thetnselves nourished from it. Second, to uncover the inner structure of the ordinary consciousness of believers, the interconnections of the components of its relig~.ous and nationa]: elQments in their dynamics and interaction with other� spheres of - human activities. An understanding of all this will facilitate solution of problems of libea-ation of the national consciousness and national relations from the influence of Islam wherever it has taken hold. - Third, to determine the princ ipal tendencies and laws of the~ development of national consciousness and self-consciousness on an international basis, isolate not only the positive but also the negative aspects wl~ich a~ise - in the process of socialization of believers of different nationalities and denominat ional pref erences . _ Thorough knowledge of these distinctive aspects wi11 create a real possi- - bili~ty for mo~e effective control of the process of further convergence _ of nationalities and the internationalization of their way of life. Four�th, to reveal and analyze such spheres and connections in the social- _ everyday and �amily-kin relations, which have been negligibly covered by atheistic, international and patriotic education. In addition to this - specif ic, sociological study of the state and experience of scientifi~- - R . - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 20Q7/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R04Q24Q03Q029-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~theistic propaganda in regions of traditional spread of Islam will enable one to make use of the most efficient forms, methods and means of atheistic education, in which national particular, traditional and modern most-improved grocedures of ideological action are combined. Dagestan, Checheno-Ingushetiya and other republics and oblasts of the - northern Cacasus, in their social and ethnic structure, dynamics of = development to a significant degree reflect the processes which are characteristic for many peoples of the USSR, who have gone through the capitalistic stage of develop~ent and who are on the path to socialism = and communism. - It is well known that Islam at various times became the ruling ideology among the greater part of the inhabitants of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, - Northern Caucasus and Azerbaijan, Tatariya and Bashkiriya and come other - regions. This means that the influence of Islam and its vestiges are naturally preserved in different geographical zones of the country which - are quite remote from one another and which differ in the national com- ; position of the inhabitants. Although the peoples of these regions belong to different nationalities, they still have many common religious and - national features. The similarity of the preserved faiths and religions, . as well as national psychology is determined nor only and not so much by ~ religious identity, but also by the fact that the ma~ority of peoples of - the national outlying districts of Russia on the eve of the Great October ~ socialist revolution were basically at one level of sociopolitical and ` cultural development, from which they began their road to socialism. As a consequence of this the processes which have been subjected to sociolo~ical analysis in this book, in our opinion, in many cases are similar to the processes which occurred in other national republics and � oblasts, and generalizations and conclusions, with the exception of some aspects, can be applied even in the rEmaining locations where vestiges of the Islam religion are still encounter2d. The struggle against religion and religiosity, V. I. Lenin has taught, is not a battle against believers, but a battle for a believer who must be helped to liberate himself from opinions, convictions and attitudes _ which are incompatible with scientific, P4arxistic world view, and whidh - - should thus even more actively involve every Soviet person in the construc- tion of a new society, in the struggle for the triumph of Communist ideals. = The study of the connections of religious and national con5ciousness through liv~ng bearers of these phenomena in the light of Lenin's in- - structions makes it possible, on the one hand, to make a more well reasoned critique of Islam, deprive its modern apologists of the possibilities of - taking advantage of the national feelings and attitudes, the richness of forms of their manifestations, and on the other hand, it perr?its one to improve control of the processes of internationalization and atheiza- tion of the social-everyday and personal life of all people of our multi- national fatherland. 12 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY :Y~ , i ~ ~h,e st~'e~gth of o~r social~st order lies i.~ the consciousness and c,on- ,yict~,o~}, a~d ~~n the high degree of actiVity of all i,ts members. F~?rther ~.n,c~eas;e of th~ effectiveness of ~aork, inc~ud~ng ;L;~}texpa;tio~n~l and a~heistic education, coz~ducting iX ia clos,e .co,o~eration ~tth ia~.q~ and mora~ e~ucation will permit us to raise still higher the - creative energy of all Sovi2t peoples in the name of actualizing the pla~s of construction, noted at the XXV S.essio~ of zhe CPS~J. ~1 ' F.OOTNOTES i. ~C, l~arks ,and F. ~~gel's, Soch. Izd. 2-e. Uol. 4. M., Po~izizd~t, - 1941, p 371.~ 2, "'self-education," 1977, No 11, p 7. 3, I, $Xe~hney. 0~ ti~e fifty years of the Unio~ of Sov~et So~ialist ~.tep~}~~i~cs. M� Politizdat, ~972, p 24. 4. M~tex~~ls of ~l~e XXV Sess~.on of the CPSU. M., Politizdat, 1976. p 75. _ , K, Marks a~d F. E~gel's. Soch., Vol. 19, p 3~2. , 6. In XY~~s book I~ave used materials of investigations of the Sociology - l~bQrator~ of Aage$tan State Pedagogical Institute and Che Dagestan ba~e Qf the Ins~itu~e of Scientific Atheisn~ of the Academy of Social 3cie~.c~s qf the CPSU CC, and also mater~~ls of a~oint study of the - inh~b~.t~nts of Checheno-Ingushskaya ASSR and Aagestanakaya ASSR, by _ the Institute of Scientific Atheism, by the Checheno-Ingushskiy obkom of the CP~U ~nd the Sqcial Institute o� Sociolog~cal Studies of the ~ CESU p~ge$~a~ obkom. These investigations were conducted in 1965-1975 _ anc} ~.~7~-1972. CQE,YRIG~iT; Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskaya Rossiya," 1978 - - ~424 CSO� 1800 ~ . , . 13 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE OI3LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ~ REGIONAL ~ ARTICLE HITS CRTTICS OF USSR NATIONALITY RELATIONS - Alma-Ata IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK KAZAKHaSKOY SSR, SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYIQi NAUK in Russian No 3, 1979 signed to press 26 Jun 79 pp 6F~73 ,LArticle by Zh. Kh. Dzhunusova: "Nationality Relations in the USSR and Their ' Critics'J LTex~ The entire course of international events of our time--the growing might of the world system of socialism, advance of the international working class movement and victories of the national liberation struggle--confirms ~ the correctness and effectiveness of the Marxist-Leninist theory with renewed ~ strengtY.. Millions of new people, who see in socialism prospects for histor- ical progress, rise under the banner of Marxism-Leninism. The movement of revolutionaxy forces gives rise to a fierce opposition on ~the pQrt of the bourgeoisie. Having lost its hope for successf~il Prontal attacks on social- ism by political, diplomatic and econ~ic means, imperialism concentrates its ' efforts in the ideological sphere. The Land og the Sovie.ts is one oP the main ob~ects oP systematic attacks by reactionary bourgeois `~istoriography, whfch takes the stand of anticommunism. _ In the last few years the past and preseut of the Soviet republics in Central ' Asia and Kazakhstan, the Leninist national policy of the CPSU a~nd the rela- tions of friendship and cooperation among the nations of our country have been sub~ected to urirestra3ned slander and falsification. This article makes an _ att~mpt to show the bankruptcy of the methods and techniques of bourgeois crit- - ics, who fal~ify the achievements of the cultural revolution in the republics of CPntral Asia and Ka.zakhstan, of the process of mutual enrichment and rap- - prochement among national cultures and of the Pree develop~ent of national languages under sacialism. Works by K. Marx, F. Ettgels and V. I. Lenin form the methodological basis for Soviet science. They not only equip us with an advanced scientific world out- - look and a truly scientific methodology of gainin;~ knowledge of the historical process, but also give answers to specific problems axising in the course oP analysis and criticism oP modern bourgeois historiograp~y. V. I. Lenin wrote: "The whole spirit of Marxism and its entire system demand that every stetement - be examined only /a/ historically, /S/ only in c~nnection with othera and /Y/ only in connection with specific historical experience."1 l~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~r Bourgeois h~.storians cannot give a scientific analysis of the new phenomena of sqcigl life, because they absolutize some aspecta of the ~henomena to the - detrimeat of others and eubstitute the abstract historical approQCh for the concrete approacfi. Therefore, now a rough a~d now a subtle falsification of re~lity th~ only weapon of our fdeological opponenta. The uxgent tasl~'of scientific crlticism of the ideology of a~ticQ~ununism ia successflxlly solved by the comffion effbrts of Soviet scientists. The ideo- ' logical and methodological principles of antico~anunism were ~ub~ected to a detailed criticism in the works of P. N. Fedoseyev, M. B. Mitin, Ts. A. Ste- . panya~~ V. V. Zagladin and others. The monogrRphs of E. A. Bagratnov, I. A. Grpshev, S. T. Kalta.khcY~ye,~, L. V. Mete~itsa, Ye, D. Modrzhinekaya2 and oth- ~ ers, wk~ere the antiscientific essence of the "investigations" by bourgeoia - id~Qlogista~ is disclosed, axe devoted to the criticism of bourgeois falsi- fication of t~e Leninist theory of nations and t~e natianal po~.icy of' the CPSU. - Many worl~s of Soviet scientists, atnong which investigations by Kazakhstan socia,l scientists hold a praminent place, axe devoted to the exposure of - fa,~s,f~yr~ng fabrications of "~ovietologists'" in connection with a z~umber of ~ ~roblems of building socialism in the republics of Central Asia and Kaz~kh- stazi. 3 The critical an~.lysis of moderu bourgeois falsifice?'~io~s of nationa,lity rela- tio~s, in, tk~e i~SSR, c~espite a signifiGa~t number of investigations of this pxoblem, ce,nnot be considered comp.~ete. Duri~g the ~xe.sent pexiod t}~ere is an evolution pf the forms and methpds of antic~unism a,nd of anti-So~riet i pxopag~,r~da. `�~$.ovie~ologists" and "Central Asian speei,alists" use e~cer more ~ skillful me~~ipds~ to suggest to the nations of deve~op~ng cotuitries the "3ar- possibility" of us~ng Soviet expex ience i~n the soluti,o~, of the n~tionali~y . g,uestion and, developmient of nationality rela~ions.. T~l~'efQ~, under eond3- tions. o~ dev~~pped s,ocialism, when nationa,lity re].atio~s haYe en~ered a new stage in thei:r d.evelopment, the problems of ideological Fight against the hosti~le ~:deas of anticommunism axe w~ge~t as ~evex be#'ore. Duri,r~g the pxes.ent age the struggle between the two world autlooks in ~he ~ queS~~ion of~ na,ti,onality relations is especial],y acute. At one time V. I. Lenin wrote: "We must tirelessly fight against any bourgeois ide~logy, tto matt~r how fashionable and brilliant the uni~orms ~hat it weaxs." 2'he 25th CPSU Congress ra,i,sed, the problem of the need to proanptly rebuFf hosti]:e ideo- - logical subuers,i,ve activities: "To engage in a wel.l-xea~son.e,d criticism of - bo~geois, zdeo~ogy. to expose various types. of fa].sif3:ers. of~ histto~yc,, who try t4 aispax~age the i,nternational significance of the Oc~ober Revolution " and qF the pat~h traversed by our paxty and na~i:on and to resolutely, rebu~f - anticqmmunism.'r5 - Generali,zati:on.of the experience of the Soviet Union in the solution oP the national~ty question is of special importance under present conditions. There are about 2,000 nations and_national and ethnic groups in the world. At the ~ same time, more than three-fourths of them undergo the process of national and state Pormation. In connection with this the progressively minded part --5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FGR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ of society in mar~y countries turns more and more often to Soviet experience in the solu~ion of the nationality question, which has demonstrated the pos- sibility for the formation and successful deve].opment of new types of na- _ tions--socialist nations. This is especially cleaxly shown by the new USSR Constitution, from whose provisions it Pollows that the resolution of the nationality question in our c~untry irref~tably demonstrates the capacity of all nations without exception for active independent historicgl creative work. The Basic Law affirms t:~e Lenini~t principle that socialism "creates higher, new forms of human community..." The preamble states that the USSR '~is a society of mature socialist social relations, in which, on the basis of the - - drawing together of all classes and social strata and of the ~uridical and factual equality of all n~.tions and nationalities and their fra:ternal coop- ~ eratior_, a new historical community of people--the Soviet nation--has been formed. - The stronger the sociopolitical and ideological unity of Soviet society be- comes, the more persistently the bourgeoisie and its ideologists strive to falsify the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism and the political and organi- i zational acta.vity of the CPSU. The present stage in the evolution of bour- ~ geois ideology combines anticommunism, anti-Sovietism and subtle bourgeois nationalism, retaining chauvinistic and racists ideas to one extent�or an- other. The ideological and theoretical roots of the bourgeois ~~theories" of nation - axe various idealistic concepts of bourgeois philosophy and ethnopsychology and the gnoseological roots, an exaggeration of individual characteristics of a specific nation, detachment of the particular from the general and transformation of this particulax into something exceptional and eternal, , reevaluation of the role of nation in the development of society and absolu- tization of ~he national-specific. The nation is proclaimed as the highest individuality and the na~ural and eternal form of people's existence and dif- ferences and frictions between nations, as permanent. A special branch of bourgeois sociology--sociology of racial and ethnic re- lations--studies the nationality question. It is "investigated~~ by the fa- mous bourgeois sociologists A. Toynbee, G. Morgenthau, E. Bogardus, R. Nor- - ton, L. Dut, G. Kon and others. The imperialist propaganda becc~es more and more differentiated and its strategists try to take into consideration ~he characteristics of a certain region, its population and traditions. There are "specialists" in the Transcaucasian, Baltic, Central Asian and other re- gions. So-called "Central Asian specialists" use other "concepts'~ and "the- ories" different fr~n others, but, in principle, they are called upon to ~ solve the same problems, that is, to undermine the confidence of USSR nations in the national policy of the CPSU, to depict the policy in the wrong sense and to "substantia~Ee" its "local" significance. Approximately from the end of the 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's, af- ter the attainment of the complete and final victory of socialism, the Soviet - country is at the concluding stage in the socialist cultural revolution, in 16 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i: ~ , the course of ~ich the prerequisites (ideological and cultural) nacessary for transitionrto communism ex�e cre8ted. This corresponds to the stsge of developed soci~iist society in the USSR. - ~J The formed socialist spiritual culture of the Soviet nation is national in ~ f~rm and sociaTist in content. Aa V. I. Lenin noted, international culture is not devoid of natioaality. The national policy of the C~'St7 established ~he ~ull equal~ty of nations, languages and cultures, eliminating the he- geffiony of ar~y one cul~Gure and thereby '.'cultura3. autonomization" and "cul- tural plure.l~sm".as ~eli. _ _ . In the most g~neral form national culture is the limitation of general humen culture to the speciPic national and ethnic characteristics of e~ certain na- tion. Hasrever, everything that is inherent in general human culture is also available to any national culture. These concepts--general human and na- tional culture--do not coincide fully. They correle,te each other as - s~rhole and part, content and f~rm. Since g~neral humen culture is prim- _ arily the totality of national cultures, every specific national culture is ~ an organic pext of worldwide culture. National cultwre is a form of a~eai- festation of the general hwman content of culture. At the same time~ how- ever, nationa3. culture is specific. In addition to the fe,et that it forms - ~ part of general hume,n culture, something individuel remains in every ne,tion- ' al culture. Sovietologists try to demonstrate in every possible way that the feeling of protest by non-Russian nations egainst the "center'~ end a"mood of cultural - uprising~" primexily against Russi,an culture, are ripening in the Soviet _ - multine~tional ate,te under conditions of developed sociai3sm. For example, ~ the following axe typical statements: "The treasures of individual national culture were lost in the sea of socialism and internationalism,"7 or "the - me~ority of netione~l minorities m~de material advances, no matter how im-- presaive they msy be, at the expettse oP spiritual and cultural restrictions and suppression oP the featurea of their ind~vidus,l3ty. Al1 of them xere sub~ected to the pressure of Russification." National cultures elso develop in the ch+anr?el of socielist ideology during _ the period of developed socialism. They bring with the~m their tradit3ons and experiettc~ in the e,rtistic d~velopment of the world. The best aorks of literature and axt convincingly desnonstrate their genre, stylistic and in- - dividual wealth and diversity. The growth of international relations and stre~gthening oP mutuel spiritual ca~munication among USSR nations were clearly reflected in the creative work of Ke,zakh writers; that is, in the verses and poems of Zh. Sain~ A. Tazhibayev, S. Maulenov and A. Saxsenbayev, in the writings on public topics of M. Auezov, S. Mukanov and A. Alimzhanov and in the stories and novels of G. Musrepov, B. Ma~ysh-ule., A. Nurpeisov and others. The enrichment of cultures is also rmanifested in the fact that the Armenie.n poetess 8. Kaputikyan, Georgian writer I. Noneshvili, Ukrainian masters of the word A. Desnyak and 0. Donchenko and others devoted their - works to Kazakhstan and to its historica,l victories and new people. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 r~ux ur�r~lc;i~ u~~ UtVLY The development of Soviet multinational art is accompanied in the West by a flow of Sovietological literature, which is called upon either to reflate or distort real facts. The statement that culture in the USSR is "stand- ard" and in the West it is free is the height of deinagogy. Falsifiers call _ _ the modern literature of the ngtions of Central As~a and Kazakhstan "exti- - ficial education," whsre allegedly traditional eastern sub~ecte are absent. _ They see a policy of coercior. and "Russification" in the fact that writers criticize the harmful customs of old times and Islam, write about friendship with the Russian nation and stress the people~s rising standaxd of living. - A fierce battle of ideas is wsged in the modern world. The socialist real- ism of Soviet ar~ sets humanistic ideals ag~.inst modernistic unbelief and - humiliation of the human personality. This can be clearly illustrated by Kazakh literature. Modern Kazakh literature is one of the most developed, - interesting and artistically rich national literatures. Its prestige is es- pecially obvious ~rhen reference is made to the founders of Kazakh literature, whose nemes have become paxt of its stock of gold. They are Saken Seyful- lin, I1'yas Dzhansugurov, Beimbet Maylin, Mukhtax Auezov, Sabit Mukanov, Gabit Musrepov, Gabiden Mustafin and others. i I At present the role of literature has increased considerably; ma~or, new ; works have appeaxed az~d their ideological and artistic level has risen. ' The novels of M. Auezov "Put' Abaya� LAbay's Pat~ and "Abay" LAbayf were ~ awarded the Lenin Prize, writer-academician G. Musrepov is hero of social- _ ist labor, writer A. Alimzhannv, winner of the prize imeni J. Nehru and A. Nurpeisov and D. Muldagaliyev are winners of the USSR State Prize. _ An important place in the works of "Sovietologists" and "Central Asian spe- cialists" is given to a distortion of the principle of partisanship in lit- erature . - The principle of paxtisanship in art formulated by V. I. Lenin also now de- termines the content and methods of the pe,rty's cultural policy. Partisan- ship is not an invention of party members, but an ob3ective factor. Any literature expressing the interests of ar~ class, if not sub~ectively, ob- ~ective~y is partisan. The 25th CPSU Congress again stressed that both t'lib- _ er~l" evasiveness and unprincipled "noninterference" on the one hand and ar~y bureaucratic administration on the other are alien to communist partisanship and to the Leninist principles of guidance of the development of artistic - creativity. "The party approach to the problems of literature and axt com- - bines a sensitive attitude towaxd the artistic intelligentsia and help in its - creative seaxch with a principled nature."9 In its very essence this ap- _ proach is profoundly constructiv~ and principled. Bourgeois ideologists, ignor~ng the aspiration of the Soviet creative intel- ligentsia for an ob3ective reflection of reality on the basis of the Marxist- _ Leninist theory and metaphysically contrasting partisanship and high axtis- tic value, repeatedly talk about the hopelessness of art in the USSR and co- _ ercion with respect to the creative work of Central Asian literary figures. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 y "-cX FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ For example, this is what R. Baxret writes in the collection "Ne,t~ons,lity Question in Ce~ltral Asia: "The official statements and criticiam emanating fram the prestigious USSR Writers' Union are the li~erary policy sanetioned by the CPSU. ThE.congreeaes oP the Writera' Union, at which men of letters from all th~ Union republics meet, axe the transmisaion belts along which the pol~cy ~rom the center is trans~ittec3 to the periphery."10 ~ ~ Such a statement azms at setting writers againat creative unioris; through w~iich tfie perty carries out itq line (so that lite'reture may be eloser ~o - the people anci express their interests and aspirat,ions), belittliiig the im= ~ por~ance of national.literatures and, ulti.mately, enkindling nation&lism. - = However, the e~~ire 6ayear history of the Soviet regime conviaciiigly afiows ~Fiat t~ie par~y sees its m~,in task in the field of ext in directing the ~f- - foTts of the crea~ive intelligentsia toward constructive activi~y. TYI~ fa= _ vorite method of contr'asting partisanship and artistic v~,~.ue uBed by 5ov~et- ologi.sts isa in reality; the manifestation of bourgeois paxtisenship in art _ maskec~ by neu~ra}ity and indifference to politics, but, actua313r, reflecting the cl.ass interests of the bourgeoisie. Hypocr~tically "concerned~' with the develop~ent of socielist netions, bo~T- - geois ideologists in every possible way impose the thesis on t$e need to retain originali~y of national cul~ure, by this meaning only the erch~ic - features of this originality. N. Dodge, editor of the book "The Soviets in Asia," writes in ~he foreword: "The center carries out pers~.s~en~ly, but les~ successfully, the cultural assimilation of f~ations inhebi~ing tYie So~iet - territory. The ~heories of the formation oP the 'Soviet man' e,n& tHe 'draw- ing ~ogether of national cultures' into a special socialist cultur~ se~re to _ mask the ob~ect o~' blending national minorities with ~he Rusaie,n cultitre:~'ll - With the unquaiified ques~C for the preservation of the "originality," but, - in f~,ct; isole:tion of culture all the che,nges ob~ectively occt:i~ririg 3n the culture and t'raditions of nations are perceived by the ~.dvoca~es of the pe~- triarchal approach as a loss of originality, departu~e froin it e,iid decline in na~ional culture: 6ince the ob~ective processes of iriteraationalize,t~on of all social life and the drawing together of natione sre some of the ob- vious reasoi~s for the ch~,nges mentioned, the quest fo"r the conserva~ion of the arch~,ic fe$tures of ~he originality of culture is directed agRinst the - developrtnent of n~tional cul~ure, against the drawing together of nations and agairist ~Yie demanc3.s of progress. ~ Th~e policy directed toward the drawing together of nat~orial cultu~es opens up possi~ilities for t~i~ manif~station of tru~ origina.~ity, which is - illustrated by the crea,tfve work of Ch. Aytmatov, R: Geinzatov; R. Babadzhan - and others: Prospects for an all-around development of p~ogressive t"re,di= tions an~. detection of the wealth and unique peculiarity of forms in the culture of every nation open up in the process of movement tawerd com?~unism. A$ t#ie s~ine time; mutual relationships are intensi~'ied and thef~e is mutuel = enrichment of socialist cultures on the basis of the ideas of international- - isin. Spiritual fellowship has becoQne one of the best traditions of multi- - _ . national Soviet art. Ten-day art and literature celebrations, festivals - ~g FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and an exchange of the best artistic groups with other fraternal republics are important events in the cultural life of Kazakhstan, as well as of oth- - er republics. Ten-day art and literature festivals of the Russian Federa- tion, Ukraine, Latvia, Armenia and Uzbekistan were held in Kazakhstan in the last few years. De,ys of literature of Soviet Kazakhstan were held with great success in Leningrad during the year of the 60th anniversaxy of the Great October. Days and weeks of the Soviet Union held abroad contribute to a greater in- terest in the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan and to their cul- _ ture. A large group of creative workers representing Kazakhstan in Octcber 1975 during the days of the Soviet Union in France, which was reported by - the progressive press of that country, en~oyed exceptional success. Such acts with the participation of Kazakhstan people were held in many social- ist countries, Norway, the F'RG, India and Angola during the anniversary year. The ideologists of anticommunism try in every possible way to distort the principles of the Leninist national language policy. Falsifying the his- ~ torical course of events, they advance a false thesis on the allegedly ar- ~ tificial character and forced dissemination of the Russian language. '~The - - Soviet policy of rapprochement tries to create a new supernational individ- uality based on bilingualism (native tongue and Ruasian)."12 With such statem~nts bourgeois critics want to drive a wedge between the Russian and ~ other nations of the USSR. A profound understanding and propeganda of the Maxxist-Leninist national language policy and demonstration of the ob~ective and progressive nature of functioning of the language of internationality coffinunication in the country can be the best answer to this. ' Overcoming the language barri~er is af great i.mportance for the further de- velopment of nations and their cultures and for the internationalization of - their life. The experience of the Land of the Soviets shows that socialism has found the only correct way of solving the national language problem. � This is the free development oP all national languages on the basis of equal rights and mutual enricYunent with a simultaneous extensive and voluntary , ' utilization of one of the equal languages--Russian--as the language of inter- - nationality communication. This is not a privilege due to the superiority of the Russian language over other languages, but a historical mission that fell to its lot owing to historically formed circumstances and to the need for overcoming the language barrier in the life of USSR nations. The language of every nation possesses the ability to reflect and express . the wealth of culture. Hence the ob~ective need to develop in every pos- sible way national languages and the Russian language as the language of internationality communication. Bilingualism is the most correct and ra- - tional way of developing the language culture of t~e era of socialism. The socialist system creates, not only enunciates, practical conditions for the implementation of the equality of languages. At present we have attained a ' level when leaning on two languages--national and international--has become a daily need for every nation:and nationality and one of the mandatory con- - ditions for their further flourishing and rapprochement. Whereas according 20 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 _ ,j FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ;:t~ - ~~s th~ z959 Cens~s out of 94.7 million non-Russian people the netive tongue j ~hc~ n~,tionali~y~_of 11.7 million people (12.4 percent) did not coincide3 ~c= ~o~ding to t~ie Z~70 census this figure increased cons~d~rably==out of' 112:7 _ idillioii ilo~i-R1~~~ans 1~+ million (12.98 percent) did not considex~ t2i~ laii= ~uage of ~h~i~ rie,tion~,lity ~Eo be their native tongue. At the samE~ ~ime, in _ 1959 ~ f^~al of.,k0.2 million and in 1970 a total of 13 million non-Rusaia;ns iiaai~d th~ Russian langue,ge as their native tongue. TI1e 19?0 census sho~red - ~h~~ 14:5 p~re~nt of tY~.e Uzbeka, 41.8 percent of th~ Ke,zakY~s, ZS:~+ p~f'c~nt _ of the ~`a~.~P~~s., 15.4 percent of the Turl~en, 19.1 percent of the ~fi~~i~~s, - 3~.6 p~rcen~ of' the Uygurs, 10.~+ perGent of the Kare,kalpal~s and sa for~h ~.iv~ng in the USSR were Fluent in the Russien langu~,ge. A volu~i~~,x~ ~~udy of t~ie Russian language contributes to tMe furtlier flotir- i~h~Ag ~nci dr~ifi~g together of aations and ne,tionS~].ities and fn~~~~t9~ in _ ~2i~$r ednt'r~:bution to the gener~l cultural treasur~ of USSR ri~tiori~~ As F~ ~ A ~ Kur~~.y~~r r~oted, +~by ~ oining through the Rus~ian langu~ge the ~re~sures of i~or~ci ei~]:$~e, our (Kezakh--Zh. D. ) people grei~ ~piritue,l~.yy t~~g~n ~o - t~i~i~k 3n b~~ sd~i~l categories and th~ir horizon gr~w immeasura'bj.y:.. 't'he voca~t~aTy df ~~ie I~az~kh language has never been es rich ~.nd t~~ nu~llie~ of ~iook~; rie`isp~p~rs ~~ici 1ournals published in the R~zs,k~i langua~~ H~,s n~il~~ ~ ~~n as ~.~r~e ~,g naw: "i~ A dis~ortion o~'the foundations of the socialist sys~emi its soci~l proc- ~sses ~,nd ~~tpeY'i~i~ce in the ~olution of the nationality qu~ation in th~ USSR - ~,nd felsific~,t~:6ti of nationality relations gt the pr"~s~nt steg~ e,~e the gims - of "So"vietologists Tfie social raots of suc~i fal~iPications dt~e ~~tid~~it. _ ~hey ~,re d.ic~~;$ed by the desi~e to creat~ ~.rtifici~.l bar~ier~ ~tong n~,tione; to eat agai~st ttie gtrengthening of tfie unit~r among the~ri e,nd to demonstrei~c th~ "u~accepta~~:lity~' af the experience in the USSR in the ~olu~ion of ~he n~:tionality que~tion for other states. The danger of' ~,nticommuniam lies in ~ ~Fi~ f~et ~2igt its icl~ologists; app~aling to m~.n's emotions, ~~e~i~l~it(~ in ~he . su~i~le f'~~~iil~ of n~tione~l dignity. Hot~ever, th~ a~td~cl~s 'by ~idui�~eoi~ ~po~- cs~~s~~ y~r~io ~~l~ify tYi~ dialectics af the national ~i"td int~rri~~ion~f tiridtr _ ~iici~,l~.snli ~rE ~efuted liy lif~ i~self and by~ the ~nti~~ pr~,etic~ of' 1~uilclirig tY~e ri~w socie~y. - V, I. L~nin foresaw that our country, including the republics of the Sovie~ E~st~ would champion the ideas of the October Revolution in A~i~n ~nd African ~oitfi~~~~~ ~nd n6ted in his letter '~to comrades paxty members of ?.'urke~~~,n'i ~2ie,t tY~e ~gt~'6]:ishment of correct relations ~rith the na~ioris aP Turlt~st~ln "~iit2~a~~ exdgg~ration, on~ can say, of gig~riti~ ~n~ ~vorlc~ Yi~et~ric~l im= p6r~$ii~e, ~'h~ ~~Et~f~sive ~,nd instructive experience of Ke~~,kl'i~ U~b~l~~ Tad~hik; Turlt~?en ~~id Ki~'~iti n~t~on~, which carried out the t~anSitib~ to socialism3 tiyp~gsing eapit~lis~i, ~d tY~e present stage i~i the d~v~lopmienti oP n~tidtia]:ity` rele,~ions = in o~ eburi~~y rttak~ it possible to draw important coriclusions on the ~ys and f`ao~~ of so~ial progress in developing coun~ries. _ 21 ~ F'OR 0~'F'YCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ FOOTNOTES 1. Lenin, Y. I., "Poln. Sobr. Soch." 1,Complete Work~, Vol ~+9, p 329. _ 2. Bagramov, E. A., "Natsional'nyy Vopros i Burzhuazneya Ideologiya" LNa- tionality Question and Bourgeois Ideologyf, Moscow, 1.966; Groahev,I. I. and Chechenkina, 0. I., "Kritika Burzhuaznoy Fal'sifikatsii Natsional'- ~ noy Politiki KP5S1'1Criticism of Bourgeois Falsification of the National Policy of the CPSUJ, Moscow, 197~+; Ka.Ztakhchyan, N. M. and KaltakhcY~yan, S. T., "Leninskaya Teoriyra Natsii i Yeye Fal'sifikatory" ,LLeninist The- ory of Nation and Its Falsifier~, Moscow, 1973; Modrzhinskaya, Ye. D. "Antikommunizm i Natsional'nyy Vopros" LAnticoummunism and the National- - ity Questio~, Kiev, 1972i Metelitsa, L. V., "Natsionalizm v Sovremennoy Ideologicheskoy Bor~be~',LNationalism in the Present Ideological Struggl~, Moscow, 1971. 3. Baishev, S. B., and Alimbayev, M. N., "Criticism of Bourgeois Views of the Economic Development of Kazakhstan Under Present Conditions," IZVES- - TIYA A1~ KAZSSR. SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK, 1976, No 2, pp 25-35; ~ Dzhandil'din, N. D., "Priroda Obshchestvennoy Psikhologii" ,~Nature of i - Social Psychology/, Alma-Ata, 1971; Yesmagembetov, K. L., "Deystvitel'- ~ _ nost'i Fal'sifikatsiya" LReality and Falsificatio~, Alma-Ata, 1976; Kshibekov, D., "Kritika Burzhuaznoy Fal'sifikatsii Opyta Stroitel'stva ' Sotsializma v Kazakhstane" LCriticism of Bour~e,ois Falsification of the Experience in Building Socialism in Kazakhsta~, Alma-Ata, ~972; Nusup- - _ bekov, A.~ and Bisenov, Kh., "Fal'sifikatsiya Istorii i Istoricheskaya Pravda" LFalsification of History and Historical Trut~, Alma-Ata, ~964; Tursunbayev, A., "Protiv Burzhuaznoy Fal'sifikatsii Istorii Kazakhstana" LAgainst the Bourgeois Falsification of the History of Kazakhsta~, Alma- Ata, ~963. 4. Lenin, V. I., "Po1n.~Sobr. Soch.," Vol 6, p 269. 5. "Postanovleniye TsK KPSS '0 60-y Godovshchine Velikoy Oktyabr'skoy So- tsialisticheskoy Revolyutsii''~ LDecree of the CPSU Central Committee ~'On the 60th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution~~, - Moscow, 1977. ` ~ 6. Lenin, V. I., '~Poln. Sobr. Soch.,~' Vol 26, p 40. 7. "Kulfurpolitik der Sow~etunion," Stuttgart, 1973, S. 321. 8. Wayne, J. Vucinich (ed.) "Russia and Asia. Essays on the Influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples," Stanford, California, 1972, p X. 9. ~~Materialy XXV S'yezda KPSS" LData of the 25th CPSU Congress/, Moscow, 1976, p 80. - 10. E. Allioorth (ed.),"Nationality Question in Central Asia," N. Y.-Wash.-Z. ~ 1973, p 23. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , . 11, N. Dodge (ed), "The Sovieta in Asia," Meche.nicsville, Gre~nona Founda- tion, 1972#'p 6. 12. G. 9hopflin (ed.),"T:1e Soviet Uninn and Eastern Europe," Z, 1970, p 203. 13. In the collection "V Yedinoy Sem' ye Bratskikh Nerodov~~ 1,In Orie Fami~y oP Fra,terrial Nation~, Almar-Ata, 1971, pP 76-77. 14. Lenin. V. I., "Poln. Sobr. Soch.,'~ Vol 39, p 304. - COFYRIGAT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka" Kazakhskoy SSR, 1979 i1,439 ~ _ cso: 1800 ; ~ , 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ REGIONAL FURTHER IMPROVENSENT IN COPYRIGHT LEGISLATION URGID Alma-Ata IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK KAZAHIiSKOY SSR SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYKH _ NAUK in Russian No 3, 1979 signed to press 26 Jun 79 pp 74-79 LArticle by U. K. Ikhsanov: "USSR Constitution and Some Problems of Impxov- ing Copyright Legislation"/ i LTex~ In his concluding remarks at the seventh special session of the USSR ~ Supreme Soviet L. I. Brezhnev, ~eneral secretary of the CPSU Central Commit- tee, chairman o~ the Constitutional Commission, said that the entry of the _ USSR Constitution into farce pre~upposes the fulfillment of an extensive program of legislative work, including the introduc~ion of a number of ' changes in and supplements to current legislation." As applied to republic , l~gislation this was discussed in the report by D. A. Kunayev, member of the , Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, first secretaxy of the Central Com- mittee of the Communist Party of Kaza.khstan, chairman of the co~ission on , the preparation of the Kazakh SSR draft con~titution, at the ses~ion of the Kazakh SSR Supreme Soviet on 19 April 1978. The statements presented pertain to many branches and institutions of Soviet legislation, including, without any doubt, such a civil law institution as - copyright. The USSR Council~of Ministers, which embaxked on the organization of work on bringing the legislative acts of the USSR and decisions of the ' USSR Government in correspondence with the USSR Constitutzon, among others, formed a commission, which should submit proposals on the introduction oY changes in and suppleme:~ts to the Fundamentals of Civil Legislation of the ! USSR and the Union Republics.3 Of course, after the completion of this work _ it will Be necessary to bring the civil legislation of the Union republics and, in particular, copyright legislation in correspondence with the new constitutional legislation of the USSR and the Union republics. During this revision it is necessary to take into account the experi~nce in - the legal regulation of author's relations at various stages of development of the socialist state and to greatly improve copyright legislation so that it may more fully correspond to the USSR Con~titution and the constitutions of the Union republics, which, in accordance with the aims of building com- - munism, guaxantee freedom of scientific, technical and artistic creative work _ - to the Soviet people (see article 47 of the USSR Constitution and article 45 of the Kazakh SSR Constitution). 24 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ I ~ - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 ~ "fz FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY - B~fbr~ th~ b~ginning of the 1960's copyright~legislgtion, cori~isting bf the A11-Unioa Func~ei~ent~ls of Copyright of 1928, apecie.~ copyright laws of the Union republics and other acts of Union, as well as republic, significgnce, ~xist~d dutside th~ system of republic civil codes. Copyright provisioris were includ~'fl in the civil code in the form of a sep~rate sectioh (pl~,t...,~ b~~wee~i the sections "Law of Obligations" and "L~w of Succession'~) only fn _ the Azerbai~an SSR. In our opiniori, such a difference in the determin~,tion of the pl~,~e of copyright wa,s due to the fact that at the time of ratiffca- tion bf the RSFSR Civil Code of 1922 and of the civil codes of other repub- lics there were no systematized copyright provisions (the first systeniati~ed cbpyright act was w~orked out on an g11-Union sc~,le on],y ~y 1925 in the form of the Funclamentals) and, owing to their com~lexity ~nd specificity, in prac- tic~, it vras impossible to ~rork ~hem out anew in the sYiort tim~ during ~rhich th~ ci~il code--was adopted.7 The fact that in th~ decr~e dated 22 I~a~ 1922 of the R~FSR All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On B~,sic Property Rights," which ~ras to serve as the ba~is for the ~l~.boration of a dr8,ft of ~ the RSFSR Civil Cod2, among the other civil rights recognized by the Soviet Republic arid protected by its courts copyright was e,lso mentioned can serve ~ as the basis for such a, conclus3on, or at lee,st as a demonstration of the lack of fundainental ob~ections a~ainst the inclusion oP copyright provisions i~ the civil code. - With regard to the Azerbai3an SSR Civil Code, ~rhen the "copyright" section was included in it (this section was first incluc~ed in the so-called thir`d edition of the civil. code promulgated in 1927) the Fundamentals of Copg- - right of 1925 had alrzady been in effect. In essenc2, the i~idic~.ted sect~.on of the Azerbai~an SSR Civil Code initially reproduced the Fundamentals of Copyright of 1925 quite accurately. The changes made in this s~ction at the end of 1928 (decree dated 15 December 192$ of the Azerbai~~;n SSR Central Ex- ~ ecutive Committee--Collection of of the Azerbai~an SSR of 1929, No 1, _ article 17) resulted ma,inly from the replacement of the o Copy- - right of 1925 with a n2w all-Union act--F`undament~;l~ of Copyright of 1928. Other republics, neither ~,fter the adoption of the ~`uridainentals of Copyright of 1925, nor after the promulga~ion of the Fundamen.tals o~ Copy~right of 1928, ~ did not fol].ow the path of inclusion of copyright provisibns in civil codes and retained their own cop~right laws as sepe.r~,te and iridependent acts. , The USSR Constitution adopted in 1936 affirmed the regulation that the s,cl.op- _ tion of a civil code pertains to the ~urisdiction of the U$SR. To execute this regulatio~, dr~,fts of the USSR Civil Code began to be irb~k~d out. The question o~' the need to include copyrighz provision8 in the Civil Co~e b~gan to be discussed,in the literature during that period. In p~rticular; Ni. V. Gordon wrote: "There can be no fundamerital consifl~rgtions Po~ not incluciing copyri~ht provisions i: the USSR Civil Code."7 Ye. A. Fleyshit~ was also in favor of inClufling "det~,iled r'egulation" of the personal rights of authors of liter~.ry, scientific and artistic works _ in the future USSR Civi1 Code.B ~ ~ 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r~- ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI1LY As is well known, however, the USSR Civil Code was not adopted. In 1957 the legislator revised his position with regasd to the codification oP civ- il legislation and placed the adoption of the Fundamentals of Civil Legis- . - lation of the USSR and the Union Republics, not of the civil code, within the competence of the USSR. In accordance with this redistribution of powers in the field of civil leg- islation the F`undamentals of Civil Legislation of the USSR and the Union R~publics, which devoted one of the sections (V) to copyright, were rat- i.:''ied in 1961. This meant that copyright was included in the general sys- tem of F�ovisions regulating civil legal relations for the first time. - Since the F~ndamentals are an act called upon to establish only the most im- portant general provisions, in accordance with which all branch legislation is built, a detailed regulation oP author's relations had to be made by oth- er civil legislation acts sub~ect to elaboration by Union or republic organs _ in accordance with their competence. ~ Part 1, ax~icle 3, of the Fundamentals places the regulation of the over- whelming ma~ority of property and personal nonproperty relations under the ' ~oint ~urisdiction of the USSR and the Union republics. On~y the relations I enumerated in parts 2 and 3, article 3, of the Fundamentals constitute the ' = ob~ect of regulation oP the USSR. Relations occurring in connection with the creation and use of literary, scientific and artistic works, in contrast _ to blood (kindred) relations occurring in connection with discoveries, in- ventions and rationalization proposals, are not indicated on this list. - This means that the regulation of author's relations is placed within the ~ ~oint competence of the USSR and the Union republics. Such a distribution of competence in the regulation of author's relations - at first seemed legitimate and valid. However, the practice of legal regu- lation of author's relations during the last decade evokes doubt as to the ~ advisability of retaining such a distribution. - On the whole, the regulation of author's relations in the civil codes of the _ Union republics, as compaxed with the Fundamentals, is not only more complete, but, as a rule, concluding: The codes do not "misuse" reference provisions. This is understandabley because codes are acts called upon to directly re~- , ulate the pertinent axea of so~ial relations, not to perform the role of _ republic fundamentals.9 But it was impossible to completely give up the ref- erence to acts, primarily delegated acts outside the limits of civil codes. The specificity of regul~,ted relations requires the adoption of standard au- = thor's contracts, rates of author's remuneration and other acts, which can be called '~minor" copyright legislation. It must be i~mmediately asserted that the state of the "minor'~ legislation in effect leaves much to be desired. And that is why. Rates of author's remuneration constitute a significant paxt of the "minor" legislation outside the limits of the Fundamentals and civil codes. At pres- ent some of the existing rates of author's remuneration are approved by 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY Union organs, wh:Ile others, by republic organs. Usually, however, it is impossible to substantiate why some rates are approved, for example, by _ the USSR State Gommittee on Labor and Social Problems, others, by the USSR _ Council of Ministers and still others, by the Council of Ministers of a - Union republie.' At times it ie im~o~sible to disclose the principles on - which the system of rates of author's remuneration ~or the use of certain - types of works is built. A number of shortcomings of the existing system of rates of author's remuneration have already been indicated in the lit- eratur-e. In pdxticular, I. A. Gringol'ts notes the lack o~ coordination in payment with~different types of use of similar wor.ks, in large measure, an arbitraxy selection oP indicators on which author's additional remune- ration is based, and some other shortcomings.l~ V. L. Chertkov tirrites that the rates of pajriiient in effect in copyright have a direction that is mo~e quantitative than qua,litative.11 To this it can be added that ~o~ soms - types of use of works to this day there are no rates approved in a proper manner. _ Standard author's contracts and other delegated acts aPfiliated with them, approved according to the general rule in a departmental manner, form an important part of "minor" copyright legislation. However, being departmen- - tal, such acts at times establish rules that conflict with civil codes and infringe upon the interests of authors. If a departmental act contradicting - the civil code were oP republic significance, the question as to ~rhich of them is sub~eet to application would be solved simply, on the basis of ar- " tiele 123 0~ the Kazakh SSR Constitution, according to which ~~ministries and _ state committees of the Kazakh SSR within the limits of their competence promulgate acts on the basis of and pursuant to the laws of the USSR and the Ka,zakh SSR..." How~ver, the point is that almost all the existing standard contracts and other similar delegated acts axe approved by Unio~1 departments. In our legislation there are no indicatiqns on how to solve the problem of the hierarchy of aets iP the law (normative act possessing a superior ~urid- ical force) is a republic law and the departmental act opposing it is an all- _ Union act. Both the USSR Constitution previously in effect and the present or~e envisage only a case of discrepancy between the law of a Union republic - and the all-Union law. It is true that from the content oP article 7~+ of - - the USSR Constitutior_ it follows ~~u~,i; ~uy ui,i~er act, apart from an all-Union law, including a Union departmental act, does not have an advantege over the � law of a Union republic. However, in each case of a discrepancy between a - depaxtmental act and the law (even if these acts are of the same order) there is real fear that the organization that uses a work will apply the depart- - mental act, not the law. In order to avoid such cases, it is necessary, ia - general, to eliminate the affirmation of acts regulating relations between - authors and organizations in a depaxtmental manner. In our opinion, the examples presented indicate quite convincingly that it is necessary to further improve copyright legislation. One must agree with _ 0. A. Kra~avchikov's opinion that the general (in his expresaion) codiPica- _ tion of civil legislation (Fundamentals--republic civil codes) does not re- - move from the agenda the problem of specialized codification of the legal ~ 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 rvt~ urrl~.ltu. uou V1~L1 = institutions that are most important and ma~or in their normative composi- ' tion.12 Without any doubt copyright pertains to both important and ma~or institutions. To develop his point of view, 0. A. Krasavchikov proposed that the problem _ of working out drafts of housing, construction, bank and other codes be dis- cussed. _ To some extent the fact that the proposal on the adoption of Union fundamen- - tals of housing legislation and republic housing codes wa.s approved at the _ special seventh session of the USSR Supreme Soviet of the ninth convocation - can be considered evidence of the vitality of such a measure.13 With rea- pect to copyright it is not superfluous to recall that the Al1-Union Funda- _ mentals of Copyright of 1925 and 1928, as well as republic copyright laws, ~ already existed in the history of this institution. Now, however, an inde- = pendent elaboration of a11-Union fundamentals of copyright and republic copy- right laws (codes) is necessary provided the regulation of author's relations, as before, will constitute the ~oin~ competence of the USSR and the Union ; republics. Meanwhile, the events of the last few years, in particular the conclusion I by the Soviet Union of bilateral agreements with a number of foreign social- ' ist countries on the mutual protection of authors' rights and the accession ~ to the World (Geneva) Copyright Convention, make it necessaryr to discuss the ; problem of the advisability of retaining such a distribution of competence. As alread,y indicated, article 3 of the Fundamentals places the regulation of - - author's relations under the ~oint ~urisdiction of the USSR and the Union - ` republics. It would seem that with such a distribution of competence, if not i all, then the overwhelming ma~ority of delegated acts, to which civil codes ; are referred, ~rill be worked out and approved in republics. Such a conclu- sion also suggested itself from the fact that such acts, first, in no way can be classified with the most importa.nt general regulations and, second, they ~ should supplement and develop the provisions of the civil codes of the Union _ republics, but the latter often have their own characteristics. However, practice followed another path. When the new civil codes were _ adopted in the Union republics, a number of standard author's contracts and ` other acts approved by Union organs (standard contract for production dated 24 March ~956, standard publishing contract for graphic axt works and stat- _ - ute on wages for nonstaff artists and photographers performing graphic art work for reproduction in the press dated 20 July 1963 and so forth) had al- - ready been in effect. With the promulgation of new civil codes not one of ~ these acts was considered invalid. Conversely, in tiune the number of such acts on an a11-Union scale kept increasing. In 1967, while republic standaxd publishing contracts were available in the Union republics, the Committee on Press under the USSR Council of Ministers approved two all-Union standard publishing contracts.l~ 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ For the purpose of establishing ra-tes of royalty for literary works unified in the country, the d~cree dated 25 April 1968 of the USSR Council of Min- isters instructed the governments of the Union republics to eatablish rates of royslty in the amounts envisaged in the indicated decree. A numbg5 of - other acts aimed at unifying author's legal provisions were adopted.l - As a result, a situation was created where, according to article 3 of the Fundamentals, the regulation oP author'.s relations constitutes tYla ~oit~t competence of tfie USSR and the Union republics, but, in fact, these rela- lations axe regulated primaxily in a centralized manner. In pextic~.�,1ar, while the civil codes oP the Union republica have provisions (see, for ex- ample, article 503 of the Kazakh SSR Civil Code), according to which stand- ard eontracts are approved by the republic's Ministry of Culture (as a gen- _ eral rule), except for cases when USSR legfslation places the approval df these contracts under the ~urisdiction of the USSR (as an exception), ia practice not a single standard contract has been approved in the Union re- - publics. However, can such a practice be considered a negative phenomenon 6uid vi~wed as an inPringement of the rights of the Union republics? It appeaxs that the answers to these questions must be negative. ~ At the time of elaboration and ratification of the Fundamen~als of Civil v Legislation (1961) the Soviet Union did not have a single agreement with other countries on mutual copyright protection. Therefore, the resolution . of many copyright problems at a republic level was quite undere~endQble. - FIo~ever, the first bilateral international'agreement on mutual copyright = _ protection concluded in 1967 with the Hungarian People's Republ.ielb putting the - problem of unifying some author's legal provisions of republic legislation on the agenda and required the adoption of a number of other measures aimed - et the realization of the agreement. In particular, it wa,s necegsary ~o es- _ tablish "averaged" rates of royalty for the use in the USSR of works Pirgt _ published (executed) on the territory of the state with Khich sn agreemen~ on mutual copyright protection was concluded. The existing rates oP author's remuneration for the use of works published in the USSR could aot be ap~lied - to the indicated cases, because the ma~ority of these rates were not s~rictly ~ determined. With the accession to the World (Geneva) Copyright Conventioni7 the indieated problems axose again, because, according to the principles of this eo~ventiony every state guaxantees the same copyright protection to citizens of other- countries that are parties to the convention as to their oWn cit~zene. The aecession to the World Convention also required a uniform solution of gome other problems. For example, the ukase dated 21 February 1973 of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet stipula~ed that the procedure of` trans- _ ferring the copyrights of USSR citizens to foreign successors, ~he proeedure = ~ oF permissioM by competent orge,ns of the USSR for the translatior~ of a work fn~o another.language (in the absence of the consent of ~he author himself - , for this) and the procedure of resolut~on of a number of other problems are , established on~y by USSR legislation.l 2g FOR OFFICIAL USE ONZY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2'he above stated gives reason to conclude that the ter~dency toward the uni- fication of author's legal provisions and toward the centralization of their promulgation, which has appeared in the last few years, is due to ob~ective reasons, that is, in connection with the accession of the USSR to interna- tional agreements on mutual copyright protection and in the interests of en- suring copyright protection under th~ new conditions (not only on a country- - wide scale, but also on an international scale). Since this is so, in our _ opinion, it is more advisable to place the legal regulation oY author's re- lations primarily under the ~urisdiction of the USSR. The implementation of such a measurz will make it possible, first, to begin the elaboration of a single copyright law. Second, this will mean that, sub- - sequently, the legal regulation of all relations connected with the products - of creative activity will be carried out in the same manner. FOOTNOTES l. Brezhnev, L. I., "Concluding Remarks at the Seventh Special Session of ~ the USSR Supreme Soviet," IZVESTIYA, 1977, 8 October. ~ ~ I - 2. Kunayev, D. A., "On the Draft of the Kazakh SSR Constitution (Basic Law) i and the Results of Its Nationwide Discussion," KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA, ' ~ 1978, 20 April. _ 3. See SP SSSR 1978, No 2, p 8. - CZ SSSR 1928, No 27, p 2~+6. 5. The legal structures of bourgeois legislation could not be used, because _ there copyright was interpreted as the right to literaxy (musical, ar- - tistic) property, which could be sold to a publisher or another entre- _ preneur. However, the Soviet Government in its decree dated 10 October - 1919 "On Terminating the Force of Contracts for the Acquisition of Full _ Ownership of Works of Literature and Art" resolutely and forever re~ected the theory of literary ownership (see SU RSFSR 1919, No 51, p 492). 6. SU RSFSR 1922, No 36, p~+23. - 7. Gordon, M. V., "The Concept of Soviet Cop~rright," "Uchenyye Zapiski - Khar'kovskogo Yuridicheskogo Instituta" 1,Scientific Notes of the Khar'- kov Juridical Institut~, Moscow, Yurizdat, ~939, Issue l, p 90. ~ 8. Fleyshits, Ye. A., "Personal Rights in the Civil Law of the USSR and Capitalist Countries," SOVE'TSKOYE GOSUDARSTVO I PRAVO, 19~F0, No 7, p 72. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY '1:~ 9. Yaksberg, M.~A., "On the Draft of the Kazakh SSR Civil Code,~' "Nauch~sya _ Konferentsiya po Teme '~Toprosy Primeneniy~ Novykh Kodeksov Soyuzr~ykh Re- _ publik i Zadachi KodiYikatsii Zakonodatel'stva'" LScientif~c Conferen~e on the 6ub~eQt 'Problems of Application oP New Codee of the Union Repub- lics an~ Taeks of Codification of Legisletion~, Alma-Ata, 1962, p 87. lp, Qringol'ts,, I. A., '~On the Theory of Author's Remuneration for Works of Literature_~ '9cience and Art," "Ucher~yye Zapiski VNII$Z" LScier~tific Notes pf the AlYJUniou Scientific Research Institute of Soviet Legislatio~, issue 11+, Nioscow, 1968, p 154. 11. Chertkov,.V. L., "Interosts of Socialist Society and Copyrights of Cit- - ~zens," SOVE~SKOYE GOSUDARSTVO I PRAVO, 1977, No 10, p 126. _ 12, Kras~vchikov, 0. A., '~~rther Codification af Soviet Civil Legislation," in the collection "Grazhdanskoy~ Pravo i Sposoby Yego Zashchity1� LCivil LaK and Methods of Protecting I~, Sverdlovsk, 197~+, P 8� _ 13. Brezhnev, L. I., "Concluding Rem~~ks at the Seventh Special Sesaion of the USSR Supreme Soviet," IZVESTIYA, 1977, 8 October. ~ 14. The order dated 2~+ February 1975 of the State Committee for Publishing - ~ious~s, Printing Plants and the Book Trade replaced the mentionec3 stand- ard co~tract~s with a new contract. See BYULLETEN' NORMATNNYIQi AKTOV ~IINISTERSTV I VEDOMSTV SSSR, 1975, No 7, p 34. 15, SP SSSR 1968, No 9, p 52� _ 16, sP ssSR 1967, No 30, p 213. 17. SP SSSR 1973, No 24, p 139. - 18. ~OMOSTI VERI~iOVNOGO SOVETA SsSR, 1973, No 9, P 138. COPYRIGFF~PP; Izdatel'stvo "Nauka" Kazakhskoy SSR, ~979 17~, 439: CSO: 1800 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 REGIONAL INTERNATIONALIST UNITY OF THE SOVIET PEOPL~S - Tbilisi SAKARTVELOS, KOMUNISTI in Georgian No 8, Aug 1979 pp 12-19 [Articte by Professor poctor of iiistorical Sciences R. Grdzelidze under rubric "The 25th CPSU Congress: Problems of Marxist-Leninist Theory": "Strengthen the Unity of the Soviet People"] [Text] The vital party document "Further Improvement of Ideological and Political.-Indoctrination Work" emphasizes that the party is successf~lly - carrying out V. I. Lenin's legacy and instilling in ever;? Soviet citizen a ~ Soundless Love for his socialist homeland and a sense of the Soviet peoples' unshakable, br.otherly friendship, and it is promoting the further strengthen- ing of the Soviet people's unity and alliance. ieveloped socialism is a new stage in the development of the whole system of ~oviet social relations, specificatly relations among socialis[ nations and Tne characteristic features of this stage are these: alt- _ round flourishing of the socialist nations and nationalities, intensive and ongoing rapprochement, strengthening of national consolidation and inter- nationatization in all spheres of social life, deepening and broadening of relationships among nationalities, the formation and development of a historic new human entity--the multinational Soviet people, and strengthening of its _ internationalist unity. , _ Practical experience in the building of the communist social-economic forma- ; tion has confirmed the inevitability of the creation of a new internationalist ' - human entity under socialism, which V. L. Lenin scientifically foresaw long before the victory of the October Revolution. In his 1914 article "The - Pr.esent State and Tasks of the Socialist Internationale" he wrote: "The ~ socialist movement creates new, higher forms of people tiving together, in which the lawful demands and pro~ressive aspirations of the working masses of all nationatities wilt be met for the first time in internationalist unity on ' condition that the pr.esent national ~arriers are destroyed" ("Works," Vol 21, PP 29-30). In the past decade, definite progress has been made in investigating the _ _ theoretical problems of the Soviet people as a new historic human entity. ~ 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . . . . . . _ . _ , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . - 13umerous stud~:es have been published concerning the formation and development of the Soviet people, its place and role in the social-class structure of our - society, and prospective development. Yt~ the lite~tature that has been published concerning the Sovieti people, tY~ere are dif~erences of opiniofi with regard to the peYiodization af the ~ormation of this new social-political human entity. Some wriCers believe tytat the ' - ~ new hiscoric human entity arose along with the cre~tion of the foundacio~s of ~otialism in the USSR; other writers believe that ttie formatian of the 3oviet p~ople has come about only within developed sociali5m. It must be emphasiaed that the formation of the new social phenomenon--the muZtinational Soviet people--has been a lengthy, complex, and multifacet~d hi5tbrical p~ocess which began at the time of the victory of the October Revolution and was completed after the full and final victory of socfalism. In this lengthy historical period, the process of forr.iation di th~ Sbviet people has gone through two basic stages: First, the transiCional period from capitalism to socialism; secondy the building of developed socfalism. In the first stage, along with the laying of the fo~ndations of the socialist society and the basic victory of socialism the p~erequisites for [h~ formation of the n~ta social human entity and its economic and political foundations came fnto being, and the outlines and characteristic features of the new historic entity were revealed more clearly and tangibty, but tihe riew historic ~ - human entity as a complete social phenomenon came in[o being cinly under creations bf the building of the developed socialist society?. ()rtly ~t this stage have its shape, developmental tendencie5, and prospectg c~m~ into focus. '~hus, the completion of the lengthy process of formation of the Soviet peopte is linked to the transformation of a state of the dictatorship of the prole- tariat into a state of all the people, and the transformation of a party of the working class into the party of the waole people, the complete and final victory af sacialism; hertce, the uniting of the Sovi~t p~ople in z new - hisEoric etitity has taken place along with the building of mature socialism-- that is, it~ the late 1950's and the early 1960~s. _ The 22nd CPSU ~ongress sutnmartzed the experience of d~velopment of relation- 1 ships among the socialist nations and nationalities under mature socialism _ ~nd noted for the first time that a riew historic human entity had come into ~ being in the Soviet Union--the Soviet people, whos~ basic characteristics are: a common socialist homeland, the USSR; a cotmlon economi~ base, th~ svcialist economy; a common social-class structure; ~ common world view--- Marxist-Leninism; common traits of spiritual life-~a uriified Soviet culture, - sctci~list in content and national in form; in psychology, ~ single sense of family; and a common goal--the building of a communist society. . The 23rd CPSU Congtess focused attention on the mbst important characteristics - of the Soviet people, its multinational character. In the CPSU CC report, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev pninted out that the strengthening of the friendship and unity of the multinationat Soviet people a~d the deepening and broadening ~ 33 FOtt OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 - of the economic and cultural relationships among its constituent socialist nations and nationalities would continue to be the most important task of the CPSU. A profound theoretical analysis of the historic process of the further development and perfection of the Soviet people is presented in the decisions of the 24th and 25th CPSU congresses and the new USSR Constitution. _ The 25th CPSU Congress emphasized that in the years of the Soviet people's heroic struggle and efforts to build a new society an unshakable unity of all of our country's classes and social groups, nations, and nationalities was created and tempered . This unity and alliance is the foundation of foundations of the historic human enti.ty--the Soviet people, the most impor- tant feature of tile Soviet way of life, one which has entered the very marrow of our reality. The formation of the new historic human entity is declared to be one of the ~ most basic characteristics of developed socialist society in the new USSR Constitution, which states: "It is a society of mature socialist social ~ relationships in which a new historic human en[ity has come into being--the ~ i Soviet people--on the basis of rapprochement of all classes and social strata, ~ - [he de-jure and de facto equality of all nations and nationalities, and I fraternal cooperation." (Constitution (rundamental Law) of the Union of ~ Soviet Socialist Republics), Tbilisi, 1977, pp 4-5). ! The economic basis of the formation and development of the Soviet people is the socialist system of production3 a strong and unified national-economy complex which encompasses :.he national economies of all the union republics. It is developed in accordance with a unified state plan on the basis of th~~ - interests of the whole coun[ry and of each Soviet republi~, combining the ~ advantages of the socialist organization of society with the achievements of ~ the scientific-technical revolution. The strength of the national-economy complex that has been created on a nationwide scale is attested by the fact that in the past decade our country's economic potential, created in the course of the preceding half century, has practically doubled. This unified economic organism is [he firm material foundation of the new historic human entity, the friendship and cooperation _ of the peoples of the USSR. The prime condition for the optimal administration of the USSR's national- economy complex is the harmonious reconciliation of th eeconomic interests of the whole Soviet people with the specific economic interests of the Soviet republics, of all nations and nationalities. In the process of creating the material-technical base of communism, careful attention to overall and local - interests, factual equality of all nations and nationalities, and further equalization of their economic development levels constitute one of t~e basic premises of the CPSU's unswerving implementation of the Leninist nationality policy. 3~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY Under condition~',,of mature socialism and the modern scientific-technical revolution, it is of vital importance to the economic development of the uniot~ republics to ensure the growth of the national economy not only in tercns of quanti:~y but also quality--in particular, the development of pro- gressive spheres"of production and the implementation of basic structural - Changes iri Che sphere of economic life. Th~ strengthening of the USS~'s unified national-economy complex,. Che rational deploymerit of productive forces, the rational distribution of natural and labor resources, and the improvement of production quality and - effectiveness all serve to boost the economic potential of the Soviet republics and enhance their role and importance in the nation's cause of the building o~.communism. Broadening and deepening of economic relation- shxps among the fraternal peoples under developed socialism will strengthen = even more the economic basis of Leninist friendship and brotherhood among the peoples. - '~he firm social basis of the Soviet people as a new historic human entity is the unshakable alliance of the working class, the kolkhoz peasantry, and the people's intelligentsia, in which the guiding role is assigned to the Soviet people's uniting social force--the working class. The new historic human entity has come intc+ being and is develaping on the basis of broaden- ` ing the social base of Soviet society and strengthening its social-political - unity; in this, the key role is played by the working class. "It is the _ wbrking class," remarked L. I. Brezhnev, "which by its nature is the most . - internationalist class, playing a key role in the rapprochement of all of _ our country's nations and nationalities." ("Fifty Years of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics," Tbilisi, 1972, page 26). The political basis of the Soviet people's development and consolidation is the multinational socialist Soviet state, the common socialist homeland of Soviet citizens of all nationalities. Our new constitution states that the USSR is a socialist state of all the people, which reflects the interests of the whole people--the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia, all of the country's nations and nationalities. The Soviet people exercise state power throught the Soviets of People's Deputies, which constitutes the political basis of the USSR. The Soviets - - of People's Deputies--the most massive organs of Soviet power--staperbly reflect the profoundly internationatist nature of the socialist state. It is su~ficient to note that 2.2 million deputies of more than 100 nationalities have been elected to local Soviets of People's Deputies and that in addition - to 1.8 million deputies 2.6 million citizens and activists of various nationalities are taking part in the work of the permanent commissions of the snviets. _ Being the most democratic bodies, the Soviets of People's Deputies ra11y the working people of all classes and social strata, of all nations and nationalities, around the working class and the Cottgnunist Party. ~ 35 - a FOR 0~'FICIAL US E ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 ~ The ideological basis of the new historic human entity is Marxism-Leninism, which reflects the internationalist class aims and tasks of the working people of all nationalities. As V. I. Lenin pointed out, the ideas of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism awaken the class cc,nscious- ness of the working people and unite them in shared tasks and goals. An essential condition for the strengthening of the triumphant progress of the Soviet people and its internationalist unity is the creative develop- ` ment and enrichment of Marxist-Leninist theory on the basis of generalizing - new historical experience, the struggle for the purity of communist ideology against any kind of opportunism and right-wing or "left-wing" revisionism. Finally, the social-psychological basis of the formation of the Soviet people as a new historic human entity is the sense of a single Soviet family, a consciousness of shared national pride. The consciousness and psychology of Soviet citizens has been essentially transformed on the basis of the unity of communist ideals and the socialist way of life. The Soviet people have acquired such remarkable traits as ; - faithfulness to the cause of communism, socialist patriotism and inter- nationalism, high labor and social-political involvement, mutual help, ~ intolerance to national or racial prejudice, and class solidarity with the i working people of all countries. We may state confidently, therefore, that j the world has never before known the kind of unshakable unity of interests and aims, will and actions, the kind of spiritual and psychological affinity in the relationships among dozens of nationas and nationalities, that characterize the Soviet people. In the shaping of an internationalist consciousness, psychology, and - morality, great importance attaches to instilling in Soviet citizens a spirit of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, a sense of _ belonging to the Soviet people, and a consciousness of shared national _ pride. At an all-union scientific-practical conference held in Tbilisi in October 1976, Comrade E. A. Shevardnadze rightly noted: "One of the chief and most essential features of internationalist indoctrination of the workers is that of instilling in the warking people the feeling that they - belong to the Soviet people, a new historic human entity. Whereas the sense of belonging to one's own nation has been passed down from generation to generation, the sense of belonging to the Soviet people, a new historic human entity, is a new social feeling given birth by the Soviet way of life, by Soviet reality. Therefore, the necessity of stepping up efforts along these lines and focusing attention on the problem is dictated by life - itself The basic distinguishing feature of the Soviet people--a new historic human ~ _ entity--is that it is a social-political and social-class entity of a new type, one which embraces alI classes, social strata, nations, and nation- aZities of Soviet society. It is an inter-class, multinational entity whose 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~r~ ; _ birth`signals'a'.new kind of social structure of society and constitutes~one o`f` the` basic criteria of the` maturity of deve~lop~d~ socialism~: . . ~ .i : � . . We' find~ the` concept Soviet people in oiir scientific` and~-propagai?d3seic~ lite`ra'Eure~ a`s,-early`as the 1920's, but at that~ tim`e the` te'rm'~d2signated-"the - p~li't~ical' uriifica~tion of the Soviet peoples as` a~ state. As fot the~ Soviet ` peo'p"l;e~ as a new his~toric human entity, it is the pioduct of a who�te~ complex of s~cial relations` under~ mature socia�lismi~ and~, corl"se~ju~n~~ly', n"atioi~al re`~lations; it' is the' result of internationaliza~t`io~n~ of' all a~sp~~~'s` af social life. - - A`t: th'e` piesent sta~g"e' of the buildirig: of comcriunisiii; the' ba'sic~ log'ic~l, tre#~~ds _ of [h~e furthe'r, d~velopment of the Soviet peo~le' include the ha~rrii'briiou~s- urii~f'icatioi? of [he national and the internation"a-1, th`e` ca"rrect' recon"c~iliat~ion o~f a11~=uiiion arid~ republic interests, the deeperiirig arid' br~va~de~irig o�~ in~e'r- na,t~ional' rel~ationships ih all spheres of social life, interiszv@ ragp"ro~eh'e~nent of the Soviet nations and nationalities on tlie basis of tlieir a1l-round devel'opment, deep inculcation in citizens' consciousness~and-ps`j~cHology af~ a` serise of belonging to the Soviet p'eople and a feel�ing- of pr~ide i~i the - w'~o1`e nation~, and so on. The developed socialisC s`ociety crest~es~ a11- of the condiCions necessary for the ~ti'aximti'm' delineatiori of tH~~e"' trends~ a"tid' ttieir practical realization in life. ~ . The harmon'ious reconc'iliation of [he national and'the inCernatiori~l iri'a~11 s:p~ieres of socia'T Iife and the dialectical uiiity of nationi~ide' and local, inter'ests a're superbly confirmed in Soviet Gporgia--one~ of tti~ fourid~ing rep"u~Yics of ttie fraterrial union of peoples, sahere representa~iv~s~ of more tfi~n 80 ri'ations and nationalities live side 6y side arid'worlt fogerher ir commui?ist Tabor. Ttiariks to th~e Cc~minunist Part}~'s uris~erving impTemeritation of ~fie I~eninist : ; . nationaTiEy policy, in a historically short Eiri'te Georgia~has iieen t~ans- - formed fro'i'n a 6ackward coloni~l possession of Efie Russian Erripir'e irito an ind~ustriall~ and agriculturally well-developed ari~ scienfifi~aZly and - ~ cuLC~ratly adsa~ced republic.' Alon~ w~iEh Eh'~ ris~ df its ~eo'notni~ p6t~ntial, . the Geor'g�ian SSR h~as made an increasingly irtiporta"nt contr"ibution to ftte cominon cause of the building of co'mmunism. 0`ur" rep"ublie's eoritae[s artd `relationships with the fraternal republics; [he couritiys of Che sotia~list camp; and many other countries in tli~ world ~iav~ 6een eitpanc~irig arid develop- ~rig in marijY aspects year by year. - Iii the yea'rs of 5oviet rule, r?ore than 1,200 lar'ge indiisErial ent~r~t~5es fia'v,e ~ieeri fiuilt in Geofgia; sending prodticEs Eo all i~gions 6f 6eir" cduntry and ~o more tHan 100 countries in the world. Gebrgia! iiot~ prdditceg mbt~e . goods in ~wo days ttian in the enti're year 1920: Iniiustrial oi~tput in the 5ovie~ period has risen more than 162=fold: Soviet Georgia noia gene~ates mo're electricity than did a11 of Ru`ssia's poraei plants tiefo'r~ ETie Octot~~r _ . , . . c �i ,.,r ~2evo~utien: A large number of new sectors of indu's"try ha~e be+eri created in , - Geo`r~~a; and as a result tHe t~or[cirig class u~fler �o~i~t rl~le tias growrt from - 37 ' ~dR '6FFICLAL USE b~TLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 20Q7/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R04Q24Q03Q029-5 50,000 to 1 million. Of these, more than 600,000 are Georgians, while the rest are of various nationalities. Soviet Georgia's national income has more than d~ubled in the past 15 years. The per capita national income rose by 20 percent compared to the five-year . plan target of 12.4 percent, and this year's plan calls for a rise of 25.6 percent versus the targeted 17.8 percent. A similar proportion will obtain _ in the dynamics of usable national income. The most important indicator of social production effectiveness--social labor productivity--rose by 18 per- - cent in the past three years, an1 30.1 percent in accordance with the four- ` year plan, surpassing five-year plan targets by 4.5 and 6.7 percent, . = respectively. All the peoples of our multinational republic have been highly successful in economic and social-cultural development. It is sufficient to note that the - volume of industrial output in 1977 was more than 10 times greater than in the prewar year 1940 in the Abkhazian ASSR and almost 30 times greater in - the South Ossetian A0. _ i Such are the real, tangible results, in the language of econom~ics, of the . itinplementation of the Leninist nationality policy and the strengthening and development of the friendship of the peoples of the USSR. - ~ _ i _ Under developed socialism, Georgian culture, national in form and socialist ' in content, has flourished as never before. In terms of many indicators of . scientific and cultural d~velopment, Soviet Georgia holds a leading place in the world. The republic's scientific institutions employ more than 25,000 scientists. In the 58 years of Soviet rule, the republic's higher - educational institutions have trained and given to the national economy - _ more than 600,000 specialists. The pop~llation's cultural needs are served - by 2,259 clubs and houses of culture, 81 museums, 23 professional theaters, - 1,965 movie,theaters, and 3,858 libraries with holdings of about 30 million - _ volumes. In the three centuries prior to the establishment of Soviet rule, Georgia published 6,000 book titles with a total printing of 1 million. Today the republic's 11 publishing houses annually release an average of 2,350 titles totaling 16.4 million copies. "We must remember," said Comrade - E. A. Shevardnadze at the 26 June 1979 party aktiv meeting, "that the Georgian nation's finest national aspirations have been realized urider the conditions of the internationalist fraternity of the peoples of the Land of - the Soviets. Such is the dialectics of national and internationalist - _ principles." r In the strengthening of the internationalist and cultural unity of the multi- _ national Soviet people~ a vital role is played by the Russian language--the _ language of cooperation among the peoples of the USSR and of international communication. The intensive relationships among the peoples of the USSR in all spheres of social life have made Russian the language of fraternal cooperation and friendship among the peoples. At the same time, there is an ongoing process of consolidation and development of the national , 38 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 languages. Acenrding to data of the last census, the number of persons who report the lariguage of their own nationality as their mother tongue has risen. Some 3:2 to ~ million persons--68.8 percent of the republic's popu- ' letion--consider Georgian their mothsr tongue, whereas Georgians constitute _ only 66.8 percei~r of the total population. Some 174.089 persons--3.7 per- _ - cent of the republic's population--speak Georgian fluently and consider it a second language of the peoples of the USSR. In a statement submitted for discussion at a meeting of the Society to Promote Liter~cy Among Georgians in November 1879,the outstanding Georgian pedagogue and social figure I. Gogebashvili wro[e: "Tn all Tbilisi there is just one Georgian public school. For this reason, young Georgians of ou~r capital city either lack instruction entirely or have to go to foreign schools, where`the intellect is impaired and the language deteriorates.t0 - Only after the establishment of Soviet rule was the Georgian people given ' the opportunity for instruction and education in the native language. In our republic, in addition to Georgian newspapers and books are published in tZussian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Abkhazian, and Ossetian. There are regular radio and television broadcasts in the languages of the peoples lfving in the republic; creative unions of writers, composers, artists, architects, and journalists, and theatrical societies or branches of them, have been , - ' formed in Abkkhazia, Adzharia, and South Ossetia; national sections are affiliated with the Georgian writers' union, and literary almanacs and collections appear in the different languages. ~ Nevertheless, as was pointed out at the 25th GCP Congress, the educational - and cultural level of some of the national minorities is below the republic- wide indicatur. In the future, therefore, we must approach problems of development of the national minorities living in the republic with even more care and differentiation. Bright confirmation of the vitality of the Leninist nationality policy is - seen in the CPSU CC decrees concerning the work of the Tbitisi Gorkom and the republic's party organization on measures to further develop Georgia's national economy and measures to further develop the economy and culture of the Abkhazian ASSR, the.GCP CC and GSSR Council of Ministers decree "Measures = to Further Develop the Economy and Culture of the South Ossetian A0," and others, the implementation of which will further s[rengthen and consolidate the economic, social-political, and cultural-ideological foundations of Leninist friendship and internationalist unity. The bourgeois ideologues and falsifiers of the Leninist nationality poiicy are portraying the historic process of the rise and development of the - _ multinational Soviet people--that new social-political human entity--as an _ alleged "russification" and "denationalization" of the socialist nations of the USSR resulting in their forcible absorption and, on this basis, some kind of single "Soviet :tussian-type supernation." , � 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 A. Bramberg, editor of the well-known anticommunist journal PROBLEMS OF COMMUNISM, tries to "prove" that the Soviet Union's nationality question - remains unsolved to this day, so that, in his opinion, "the traditional con- flict between local nationalism and the official policy of assimilation" is - increasing, "posing a great danger to Soviet rule." L. Tillett, another anticommunist, writes in the same journal that the very idea of a multi- national human entity is unacceptable, because such an entity is incompatible with the psychophysical specifics of peoples. In 1975, a collective work under the overall title "Ethnicity" was published in the United States. This included papers and reports delivered by well- _ known American sociologists T. Parsons, M. Kilson, 0. Patterson, M. Gordon, , R. Pipes, and others in contiection with a conference on international ethnic problems organized by the Ford Foundation. During the conference another ~ new trend in Amercan bourgeois sociology emerged. The aim of the purveyors of this trend is a political and sociological analysis of the characteristics - - of development of the whole complex of world nationality problems, to shift attention to the process of "desocialization of ethnic groups," so that they may drift away from the sphere of class relationships and struggle. T. ~ Parsons, for example, declares the nation to be the most mature form of ! ethnos and attempts to use it against those who, in his words, emphasize the ~ primacy of class in the sphere o� social relations. Bourgeois nationalist i_ ideology representatives K. Davis, A. Lowe, P. Urban, and others attempt to ~ distort the basic principles of the Marxist-Leninist theory, program, and policy with regard to nationality questions and argue that Marxism-Leninism ignores a nation's interests when it subordinates national questions to the - themes and tasks of the class struggle of the proletariat. In reality, however, the experience of history shows us that only through the class struggle of the proletariat, through the socialist revolution, is it possible to liquidate social and national oppression and resolve the nati.onality question fully and completely. Under mature socialism, t't?e dialectics of the development of national relations and the practice of implementation of the Leninist nationality policy reveal the bourgeois falsifiers' erroneous interpretation of th e _ correlation between socialist nations and nationalities and the national and the internationsl in the development of the Soviet people, the merging of nations and the crea'~ n of a single "Soviet nation." At t:~ extraordinary Seventh Session of the USSR Supreme Soviet, Comrade L. I. Brez�::~-: stated "As is well known, a new historic human entity has come into being in the Soviet Union--the Soviet people. Some comrades--a very few, to be sure--have drawn an erroneous conclusion from this. They suggest that we introduce into the constitution the concept of a single Soviet NATION, that we abolish the union and autonomous republic or sharply restrict the sovereignty of the union republics and abolish their right to secede from the USSR and maintain foreigh relations. Of the same stripe are proposals to abolish the Soviet of Nationalities and create a one- chamber Supreme Soviet. I think the erroneousness of these proposals is 4 40 � - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . . , _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 ; . r~' obvious. The:'social-political unification of the Soviet people by me.ans ~entails the di:5appearance of national differences... The fr.iendship of the So7riet .people.s- is unshakable.. The~ are coming closer and .clflser toge.t~ter �in t~e proces~ of building communism; their spiritual life i~s becamirg enri~l~d, But we would be following a dangerous path if ~ae wer~ - to.beg;in to spee~l up this objectiare process of the rapprochEment of nations. _ I, Lenin insistently warned us about this, and we will not depa-rt h~is Legac.y." ("D.raft.of the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of thQ [~nion of ~oyi_et Soci_a.list Republi~$ and Results of Nationwid~e Discussion of :IL," ~ T~ilisi, 1977, page 13). V. I, Ler?in poi~ted out mqre than once that the ~rflluntar~y rapprochement of ,nat~ions can t~t~e place only through the complete rebirth and flourishing of - the fqrmer~y oppressed peop.les and by deepening and broadeni~ng the ~national ,c~ltures ~nd lang~ages and international, internationalist relationships.. _ The ;~.yild~ng o� a developed socialist society by no means entails Che o~f nations and nationalities. National differences xaill p~rsist f.o~ ~ long time be�ore nations leave the arena of history and give ~aay to a _ - M~.tiqnless society. Under developed socialism, therefore, to strengthen t:he ir~tern~tionalist unity of the Soviet people it is very importent to take propex account of specific national traits and characteristics and ensure - ~ harmonious reconciliation of the national and the international, of nation- s~ide and l~cal interests. _ ~h,e main force which unites all of our country's classes, social strata, nations and nationalities into a new historic and internationalist - entity is the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionf rhe party of Leninist - intern~tionalists~, which is the true embodiment of the social-political unity of the multinational soviet people, the inspirer and organizer of the Leninist friendship and internationalist unity of peoples. COP'YRIGHT: "Sakartvelos Komunisti", 1979 6$.~4 ESQ; 181Q ~ . 41 , - FUR OFFICIAL IJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 REGIONAL IDEOLOGICAL WORK PROGRESS, PROBLEMS IN ABI{HAZIA - Tbilisi SAKARTVELOS KOMUNISTI in Georgian No 9, Sep 79 pp 28-36 [Article by Abkhazian Obkom First Secretary B. Adleiba under rubric "The Ideological Front: Tasks and Prospects": "The True Compass of Ideological - Activities"] _ [Text] Almost five months have passed since the CPSU CC I- passed the decree "Further Improvement of Ideological and Political-Indoctrination , Work." The republic's party organizations have done a great deal to implement it. How this programmatic decree is being implemented in I Abkhazia is the topic of Abkhazian Obkom First Secretary ~ B. B. Adleiba's article. (Transcribed by I. Tkeshelashvili). The CPSU CC decree "Further Improvement of Ideological and Political- Indoctrination Work" is a document of great political and practical impor- tance in our time. ~This programmatic decree elaborates the postulates and conclusions of the 25th CPSU Congress and subsequent decisions of the Central Committee regarding the integrated resolution of ideological- indoctrination problems. The tasks of Abkhazia's party members with regard . to unconditional implementation of this decree were discussed by us at the Fourth Ptenum of the Abkhazian Obkom, plenums of the party's city and rayon committtees, and mee[ings of the primary organizations. The discussions showed that all of Abkhaaia's party members and workers have preceived - this decree as a most important political document, as a compass showing ~ the right way to further perfect and develop our ideological work among the masses. On the basis of the ideological content of the CPSU CC's 26th April decree _ and Comrade L. I. Brezhnev's speeches and books "Malaya zemlya," "Rebirth," "Virgin Lands" Abkhazia's party organizations have done considerable work on improving their ideological-indoctrination activity and raising its effectiveness. ~+2 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 In its efforts to'implement the decisions of party congresses and the CPSU CC's decrees~concerning the Georgian party organization, Abkhazia's obla~t party oKgani2ation is attempting even more diligently to perfect its . ideological Work: So~id prerequisites have been created for this. Party cotpmittees a~d id~blogical institutions have set about to implement currenC and loqg-range integrated ideological-political work plans. As ~+~s to be ~xpected, ~.mproved ideological and politi~al~indoctrination work haS in many ways helped in realizing ou~ nat~onal economy plan~. For instance, industty workers completed the program of the first three years of the Tenth--Five Year Plan ahead of schedule and produced 33 million rubles of ~oods above the plan for their homeland, This year's seven-m4nth ta~gets werQ a~so fu1fi11Qd. We have achieve~ success in agricui[ure~ especiall.y tea and citrus ~arming. The pace of capital construction ha$ quickengd. ALL of this is L$rgely due to the fact that we have m~naged to ereat~ a rather solid industrial base. In ~~rther perfe~ting ideological work, we havs been greatly helped by Che decisions o~ the recent meeting of Georgia's party ak.tiv~ especially Cqmrade A. Shevardnadze's report at the meeting "j,~t us Implement Ch~ - CPSU C~ decree 'Further Improvement of Ideological and Political-Indoc~rina _ tion Work."' They have required that we ensure a high scientific level af _ propaganda and agitation, that we strengthen their effectiveness and - concreteness~ ensuf�e ciose links to real Life, and strive foi unity of - economic and political tasks. Abkhazia's working people were greatly gratified and politically inspired by the fact that on the basis of last year's results our autonomous repu4lic was a victor in all-union socialist competition and was awarded the chal~enge Red Banner. This means that the party and the government are paying attention to Abk~azia's working people and appreciate ['ne~.r work. The wisdom of the Leninist nationali~y policy, which is being implemented by the CP~U CC under the guidance of that outstanding party and state figure Comrade Brezhnev, is once more manifested in the ~act tliat ~ast year - the CPSU CC and the USSR Council of Ministers passed the decree, of hiskroric significance to our autonomous republic, concerning the economic and cultural - development of the Abkhazian ASSR; this decree has evoked in our working - people a sense of profound gratitude and the will to achieve new success in the building of Communism. A litCl~ more than a year has gone by since that remarkable document was passed. A little while ago at the Obkom plenum we heard a report concerning the cuxent status of the implementation of that decr~e and the CPSU CC � decree conc~rning the further development of the economy and culture of the Abkhazian ASSR and measures to strengthen organizational and ideological- - indoctrination wozk among the working people of the autonomous republ~c. ~+3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 Discussion of the matter showed that we have achieved a certain amount of - . success along these lines. At the same time, however, we are well aware that many reserves have yet to be put into action, that we have not utilized all our capabilities. The whole spirit of Abkhazia's 34th Oblast Party Conference and CPSU CC Politburo Candidate Member and GCP CC First Secretary - Comrade E. A. Shevardnadze's speech at that conference were infused - with an implacable passion against anything which hampers our rapid forward progress. In this regard, one of our main tasks is to overcome the short- comings in our ideological work. - The mistakes we made in the internationalist indoctrination of the workers, especially young people, gave the GCP CC every reason to emphasize in [he decree concerning the Abkhazian ASSR that the internationalist indoctrina- tion of the working people in the autonomous republic has not always paid off, has not achieved the desired effect. Thanks to the constant help of the CPSU CC and the GCP CC in recent times ~ we have implemented a large number of ineasures to correct the situation. _ Considering that the heart and spirit of the idPOlogical-political indoctri- ` - nation of the masses is their mastery of Marxist-Leninist theory, Abkhazia's party organizations have focused attention on improving the instruction in ~ the political and economic education system and on further strengthening the ! link between instruction and the resolution of economic and cultural tasks. Control of the course of instruction has been strengthened. In the last ' while the obkom has discussed the state of Marxist-Leninist instruction in - the Tkvarcheli, Gali and Gagra party organizations, the Sukhumi City Komsomol Organization, and the party organizations in several big enter- prises and construction projects and taken measures to improve it. _ - At present about 3,000 lecturers of the party and Komsomol committees and the Znaniye Society are conducting propaganda lectures. Obkom, gorkom, and raykom lecturers are now presenting more frequent tecture cycles, arranging out-of-town lecture series, social-political readings, thematic evenings, ~ and scientific-political conf2rences. A lecturer refresher course has been set up under the obkom. However, the quality af tecture propaganda is not yet up to today's requirements. In this matter we will have to exercise more control; we will have to certify lecturers and upgrade their - qualifications. In carrying out integrated ideological-indoctrination work, the party _ attaches great importance to political agitation. The CPSU CC has directed party committees to diligently improve mass-political work in the labor collectives and places of residence, to reinforce agitator, political information, lecturer, and speaker staffs with party and Komsomol members _ from the ranks of leading workers, kolkhoz members, scientists, specialists, and cultural figures, and to make more active use of visual aids. 44 FOR OF'FICTAL USE ONLY ~ _ . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 I . Despite considerable success in this matter, we still have serious short- comings. Both ve~rbal and visual agitation in the autonomous repubtic is - substantially below today's requirements. In many places, not enough con- cern is shown for the selection and instruction of agitators and political information spee~ialists, and mass-political work is considered to be o.f low priority. The mass information and propaganda media in Abkhazia have been developing rapidly, especially in recent times. New journals have been established, ~ and a big the social-politic~l and cultural life of the autonamous republic was the establishment of its own tele~~ision broadcasting. It must be admitted, nevertheless, that our newspapers, journals, teleuision, and radio lack consistency and purposefu.lness in elucidating many vital _ problems. This is especially true of the implementation of the party's a~nd .government's decre`es concerning the Abkhazian ASSR. The newspapers and radio broadcasts do not adequately reflect the current state of socialist - competition, the spread of advanced experience, and the workers' efforts to improve work quality and effectiveness. Criticism has not been effective enough. It must also be admitted that the obkom's departments are not work- Ing diligently enou&h. In the future, party committees ~aill have to pay - more attention to the job of enhancing the authority of the press:; they will - , have to work hard to root out shortcomings, to promote the expansion of = criticism and self-criticism in the press. An essential prerequisite for success in all indoctrination work is close interaction between ideological-political and labor indoct.rinat.ion. In:thas matter, the party attaches great importance to socialist compet.ition.and - its highest form--the movement for a communist attitude toward labor. The autonomous republic's party organizations ar.e implementing to further develop labor rivalry and to disseminate innovative initiatives and the use of various forms and methods of incentive for economic leaders. - Vital experience in worker indoctrination ha.s been acquired by the tabor ` _ collectives of the Sukhumpribor Plant, the leather and footwear combine, the locomotive depot, the sewn goods mill, the mining administrations imeni V. I. Lenin and N. Lakoba, the Gudautskiy Rayon Order of Lenin.Duripshi Kolkhoz, Che Ochamchirskiy Rayon Mokvi Tea Sovkhoz, and others. They have emerged as fron[-runners in competition in the struggle to successfully complete the target of the lOth Five-Year Plan. ~ Unfortunately, we still have too many enterprises, construction,projects, and farms where competition lacks mass character and openness, zahere ~eop,le are not concerned for the labor indoctrination of ~he collectives and put up with considerable losses of work time and other violations due to ' absenteeism and idleness. Some enterprises have forgotten the Rustavi _ workers' patriotic initiative "Not One Lagging or Undisciplined,W,orker ~ Alongside Us!" and other good initiatives. All of this is the result of an ir~responsible attitude toward labor indoctrination. Some party or,ganiza- " t~inns and administrations are not doing enough to combat indolence and ~5 ~ - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 mismanagement; they are apathetic toward this vital matter. For instance, _ - competition's indoctrinating Lunctions are not properly appreciated on Kolkhoz imeni XXV S"yead KPSS in Tagiloni and Kolkhoz imeni Rustaveti in - _ Achigvari (Gal'skiy Rayon), Kolkhoz imeni S. Chanba in Atari and Apsni Kolkhoz in Gupi (Ochamchirskiy Rayon), and the Sukhumi Tobacco Factory. In the Sukhumi rish Combine frequent catch-up campaigns have reptaced rhythmic - work organization, competition resutts are not regularly posted, and the collective knows nothing about its effectiveness. There are other serious shortcomings in thP communist indoctrination of the workers, and all too frequently we observe negative phenomena and violations of the rules of socialist life and the norms of communist morality. The Abkhazian Obkom Second Plenum (1979), which heard reports by administration officials, rightly noted that violations of the law are not diminishing and that the fight against crime is still and acute,problem. Recently, cases of ~ilfering of the people's property have come to light in the Ochamchire Poultry Plant, the Gagra Zone Druzhba Kolkhoz, the Sukhumi ~ Meat Combine and some other organizations. ~ It seems perfectly clear to us that the vital condition for rooting out ctime and other negative phenomena is to create a healthy moral-psycho- - logical atmosphere in each labor collective, in each neighborhood. I It is essential every step of the way to root out all wrongdoing and inform i the workers not only of labor successes but also the current status of ideological-indoctrination work. All of our attention is now focused on - maximizing the.use of public opinion, nipping crimes in [he bud, and carry- ~ ing out preventive measures. We must nat forget for a second that the main goal of the GCP to liquidate all negative phenomena once and for all. , Strong efforts are being made against harmful traditions and customs. In ' - this regard many good decisions have been made, but we have not yet gotten ' rid of campaignism and sporadic catch-ups. At the same time, unfortunately, we have as yet done very little to establish new socialist customs. Thus - we are leaving a vacuum to be filled by the carriers of harmful patriarchalism, the clergy, and all manner of suspicious elements. This is also worsened i by the fact that scientific-atheistic propaganda has slackened in many - places. One of our party du~ies is to wage systematic and aggressive efforts to liberate people's minds from the opium of religion, to activate atheistic activities, and to enhance the workers' culture. In order to instill in every party member, Komsomol, and worker an active life stance and an intolerance toward any ph'enomenon that is incompatible with our Soviet way of life, it is essential to enhance education and culture further. This requires the broad development of social science and ' _ the publication of various kinds of literature. Significant progress has been made in recent years in Abkhazia. Substantial attention has been 46 FOR OFFIC?AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 fOcu~ed on new res~arch in economics, history, and other social sciences - and art translating important works into Adkhazian for publication. Fdr ~~E~~iple, "History.of the Commumist Party of the Soviet Union" has already ap'p~~tred in Abkha~ian, and a textbook of MarxiSt-Leni~list philosophy is in prt~~~ration. Scholars of the Institute of Abkhazian Language, LiCeratufe, and HfsEory irileni D. Gulia have published a number of works. Ainong th~rti, _ $peci~l mention should be made of ~SSR Academy of Sciences Corresponding l~ertlber Professor G. Dzidzaria's capital monograph "The Emigration and Prol5leins of the History of 19th-Century Abkhazia," which won th~ GSSR State Pri~~. Also in preparation are "History of the Abkfiazian Party Organiza- tion," "A Short Sketch of Abkhazian History From Ancie~it Ti~nes to Che Presenti" and "Abkhazian History in the Soviet P~riod" in two par[.5 (ori Ehe otcasion of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of Soviet rul~ in Abkh~iia). AC the same time, some of our scholars need to refine th~ir knotal~dge of Mar~ist-Leninist methodology in interpreting the hi~tory of th~ir native regibn. In this regard, great importance attaclies Eo e~Ctensivt contacts bet~teen Abkha~ia's multinational det~chment of scholars and theix~ coll~agues _ in bur repu6lic's capital city Tbilisi, in Adzharia, $ouEh Ossetia, and oth@r s~cipntific centers of our country. One inter~sting recent ev~nE wa~ fh~ meeting of Georgia's sci2ntific historians in Sorzhomi, which pTayed a ' viEal role in improving coordination of their efforts. This i$ esp~cially important for the scholars of our autonomous republic; Eh~y must tontinue to elucidate current questions of Abkhazian history according to plan. - fn Ehe future we must expect more creative effort froin our economists; - philosophers, and specialists in other social disciplines: At pres~nt, for example; there is an acute lack of works which present a profout~d analysis - and generalization of problems relating to organizat~on of labo~ and n~~terial and moral incentive in variaus sectors of 9ubtrbpical agriculture. 5t~nda~tds have been raised in our higher educational est~b2ishfi~nts, schools, _ and tecfinicums. Abkha2ia now has two higher educational ~stablishmenEs-- - th~ Abkhazian State University imeni A. M. Go~'kiy and th~ Geoi~gian $ub= tropical Agriculture Institute. Regardless ~f their specific function$, bo[h of them face general problems as well: The ta~ks of the current st~ge af the building of communism require further improv~m~nt of the training and ` ir?doctrination af specialists. Under conditions of rapid growth o~ pro- - ciuction--and this is especialty characteristic of Abkhaaia Eoday--there is a big deinand for highly-qualified cadres who are skilled in running pro- - ductiort processes and are capable of handling the t~~k~ bf 5ci~nEific or~anization of labor efficiently. We are focusing serious atEention on etihancing the role of the party organizations of the higher ~ducation~l - establishments, for they are responsible for properly organizing the train- ing and ideolbgical-political indoctrination of futur~ specia~lists. - ~ . ~ ~+7 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 In the training of cadres for Abkhazia's economic and cultural centers a - vital role is assigned to the secondary specialized institutions, which are ~ training hundreds of specialists yearly. About 2,000 young qualified - workers are coming into the national economy from the vocational-technical schools. This is a significant source of labor resources, yet here again the task of perfecting the training and indoctrination process is an acute one. In [he autonomous republic the teaching staffs of many general- education schools are doing fruitful work and utilizing all their knowledge and experience on behalf of their pupils, sharing with them achievements in science, technology, and culture, and instilling a love of labor. Neverthe- less, in the activities of the public education bodies, teaching staffs, and ' party, Komsomol, and Pioneer organizations we still find serious gaps in the training and indoctrination of children and young people. Almost three- quarters of them are getting mediocre grades or are failing certain subjects. There are serious shortcomings in the ideological-moral indoctrination of the students, shortcomings which are frequently ignored by the Abkhazian ASSR Education Ministry and its local bodies. For their part, the gorkoms and raykoms will have to improve the combativeness of the school primary organizations. To intensify party influence on all aspects of educational i endeavor is one of our most urgent tasks. , i- . j Literature and art have a Iarge and honored role in the communist indoctrina- ! tion and spiritual shaping of Soviet. men. Our autonomous republic's culture has flowered in the years of Soviet rule. This has been greatly influenced by the culture of the peoples of the USSR, especially the great Russian and brotherly Georgian peoples. In recent times, Abkhazian literature and art have achieved new creative successes. Our popular poet B. Shinkuba's historical novel "The Last Ubykh" has been published in Russian. The translation was done by prominent - Soviet writers K. Simonov and I. Kozlovskiy. This novel has been published in Georgian and the languages of other peoples. Recently, popular writer � _ I. Papaskiri published a new story "Man and Fatherland." Readers have also greeted works by other authors with great interest. - The party's and government's historic decrees concerning the Abkhazian ASSR are impelling our cultural figures to new fruitful endeavor, new themes, new directions. Our writers' main task is to elevate literature to the level of the social-economic and spiritual transformations characterizing developed so~ialism, to portray by artistic means the images of those actively fighting our communist ideals. It is essential that we continue the internationatist traditions of Abkhazia's literary and arts figures meeting with the broad masses of readers in Tbilisi, Adzharia, South Ossetia, and other fraternal republics, oblasts, and cities. Recently, Abkhazian Music Days me[ with resounding suc~ess in Tbilisi, , Rustavi, and Telavi. Music lovers in these cities had high praise for the ~ ~+8 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 r~ growing professionalism of Abkhazia's composers and the masterful per- formance of the Abkhazian State Choir. The Abkhazian State Dramatic Theory imeni Chanba~�won the hearts of the workers of Makharadzevskiy Rayon in iate June when they took part in the thematic festival. "Vfllage LiEe on the Theater Stage.".. The residents of Sukhumi showed greai: interest in an exhibiEion of the works of Georgian women artists dedicated to 8 March, International Women's Day. We could cite many such examples of creative iaternationalist eontacts. There are stiLl'mahy unresolved problems in the efforts of both the Abkhazian and the Georgian~Eheater. This applies especially to the ideological and _ professional indoctrination of the actors, well-considered selection of the plays, and improvement o~ the ideas and artistry of the performances. Un- foxtunately, neither of the collectives' repertoires adequately depict themes of peoples' friendship today. The work of the directors also needs improvement. ' - The network of cultural and educational establishments in the autonomous - republic is getting larger year by year. We have cultural centers doing substantial creative work and competently meeting the growing needs of the working people; unfortunately, however, there are not enough such centers. ' Many clubs and libraries are working as they always did and failing to _ i assist the party organizations in indoctrinating the workers. This means we must focus more a.trention on their everyday activities. One of our main tasks is work with young people. We must instill in every young person civic maturity and a sense of responsibility to society. On _ the basis of the party's directives and L. I. Brezhnev's statements at the 18th All-Union Komsomol Conference the party obkom is striving to transform [he work of ttee Abkhazian Komsomol organization, to discern the needs and requirements of young people, and to help the party more actively in the tommunist indactrination of the rising generation. The accomplishments being made every day in Abkhazia's economic and cultural development testify tb the great transforming power of the Leninist nationality policy. Questio~s of patriotic and internationalist indoctrination hold a prominent place in the oblast party organization's efforts. Various forms and mdthods ' . are being used in this vital ma[ter. The development of patriotic and internationalist feelings is being well facilitated by the Abkhazian working people's socialist competition with the workers of the fraternal republic and oblasts. Engaged in fruitful competition with one another, for example, are the workers of the cities of Sukhumi, Batumi, and Kirovakan and the workers of Gudautskiy, Tskhakayevskiy, and Skadovskiy (Khersonskaya Oblast, Ukrainian SSR) rayons. Ochamchirskiy Rayon is in competition with Abashskiy Rayon and with Armenia's Idzhevanskiy and Azerbaijan's Lenkoranskiy rayons; Gal'skiy Rayon is in competition with Terzhoi'skiy Rayon; Gulripshskiy Rayon is in competition with Kedskiy Rayon; Sukhumskiy Rayon is in competition with Khelvachaurskiy Rayon; Tkvarchel'skiy Rayon with Tkibul'skiy Rayon; and Gagrskiy Rayon with Kobuletskiy Rayon. Participants in the competition are sharing their experience with one another and helping to achieve new ' goals. ~+9 ; ~'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 ~ Along with all the peoples of our multinational homeland the Abkkhazian people are absolutely faithful to their beloved Party of Lenin and the " magnificent friendship of the Soviet nations. We will continue to cherish - the unshakabte, brotherly friendship of the peoples of the USSR and help to strengthen it. We must struggle even more diligently for the patriotic and internationalist indoctrination of the working people. We must show more vigilance and never allow a single attempt to cast aspersions on the repre- - sentatives of other nations and nationalities, a single case of ethnic prejudice, to go unanswered. - It is possible to further improve all ideological wark by constantly per- fecting the style and methods of the activities of the party committees. Practice shows that our gorkoms and raykoms have not yet managed to trans- form their work in the field of propaganda and agitation and communis[ indoctrination of the working people in accordance with the decisions of " the 25th CPSU Congress and the 25th GCP Congress. The situation will have to be corrected promptly. B. Adleiba noted in conclusion: In implementing the CPSU CC decree "Further j Improvement of Ideological and Political-Indoctrination Work" we sense ' keenly that many of the shortcomings mentioned in it are also characteristic of the Abkhazian Oblast party organization. Our ideological-indoctrination i efforts frequently lack effectiveness and boldness in the examination of j current problems of social life and in the struggle against harmfut vestiges ~ ~ of the past. We do not always take account of the exacerbation of the ideological struggle in the international arena. The CPSU CC's decree maps out for us the way to eliminate these shortcomings as soon as possible. We will resolve these tasks through the use of tried and true forms and methods of political, organizational, and ideological-indoctrination work. Abkhazia's party organization will continue to strengthen the combativeness - of its ranks, to strengthen the will and resolve of party members and all the working people to work with more dedication and more effectively for the happiness and welfare of their beloved homeland. ~ COPYRIGHT: "Sakartvelos Komunisti", 1979 6854 CSP: 1810 - 50 - FOR OP'F'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 itEG io~t~L CADF'tE POLICY PROGRESS, P$03LLMS IN D~'.ANISS:CIY RAYO~ Tbilisi SAiCARTVEL05 :COt~I[JNI~TI iri Georgian No 9, Se~ 1979 pp 46-53 ~ArEicle bq Dmanisskiy Raykam rirst Secretary G. Kulidzfianishvili under rutlric "Party Life: Caares--Qesponsibility, Combativeness, Coi:ipeterice": - "Up to Tdd~y's Needs"] [TextJ ?n our party's activities, the main focus is on political leader~hip iri a~l s~sheres of tne life of developed socialist society and the formi~lation and iin~ler.leritation of the correct political cotirse: 'P~is; in tuin; de~~~cis eri[i~ely on peo~le; on their organizat~ional woric. V. I. Lenin taught that policies are carrie3 out tiy peo~le. ConseqUently, - - wo`r'~ %aitfi people, with cadres, tneir correct selectidn ~nd placement, has always been the '~asic condition of implementing the paity's political course. This is why at t.-?e 25tfi CPSU Congress Coinrade L' . I. Bre~hnev er.ipfi~sized: "Tfie powerful lever by which the pa'rty influences the course of social development is its~policy in regards to cadres" ("~laterials of the 25th CPSU Congress," Tbilisi, 1976, p 95). Yaturatly; work with cadres, further improvement of cadte policy; arid un- siaeivirig coi'npliance with Leniriist principles along tHese lines ~lso consti- tiite tlie coiice'rri 'of our rayon party organization. It i~ si~ffici~ent to note _ tiiat in tfie pas't E~iree years the raykom :i~s on 15 oc'casion$ discussed pio= - blems of improving cadre work. The raqkom's buro h~s Held p'rinci~iled dis- - cussions of Ehese problems: "Cadre Selectiori ~4i~ Placeifien[ in the E~tecUtive Corihiiittee of the ~ayorl Soviet of People' s Deput ies i'n Accord~~tce wf t:1 the _ 'C~'S'J C`C Jecree Coricerning Georgia's Party Orgariii~tion;" "C~d're Selection; ~i~~do'ct'ririation, and Place'rrient in the Gomareti Sovknoi parE~+ Co;ni~ittee ~~i~ in tfie ~'r~mary pa'rty ~rganiza'tions of 'the Irgancli~i Livestock Sovkli~di aitd th'e ~ _ ~a~?'on ~iospital and c,fforts to Raise Ca'dre ?es~oiisilii~ity for tHeir Assi~4~e'd '~ask;" aiid "Par'ticipation in the Cori?munist Indoc'triri'~tioit of the W'or~Ciiig - people by ~,eaderstiip Ca'd`res and Natiorial ~coriomy Speci~lists`." Thes~e dis- cilssions have tiad a'oeneficial effect on the furttier ~trei~gtherlirig of tH'e ~:eriinis't st`qle of pa'rty work, on the developmerit of int'r'~p~r'ty ~'er~'ocr~'cy, eri~i~ricemerit of the co'mtiativeness ~of the prima'r~ pa'rty,o~ganiiations and strengttieiniiig of the political leade'rship of state ~4~'d soc~al or`g~niz~atioris. ~ _ t . _ . 51 . FOR OFF'TCI'AL tJSE dNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 ~n _ In Ymplementing cadre policy, the raykom and the primary party organizations _ are taking the integrated approach to this natter; they are bringing to the _ forefront the task of selecting cadres carefully on the basis of their business and moral qualities and organiz~tional capacities as revealed in practical performance. The source of our cadres' strength is their communist ideological integrity. In this regard, special importance attaches to the CPSU CC's programmatic decree "Further Improvement of Ideological and Political-Indoctrination Work," which assigns us the task of helping cadres to ~saster [he science of - Marxism-Leninism, helping them to get a clear grasp of social-political - events and formulate a precise class orientation to them. '~he raykom is now carrying out important integrated measures to implement this programmatic decree. The aim of these efforts is to make revolutionary theory and a knowledge of the party's policy the credo of workers in all links, an active position in the strugg~e against any manifestations of ideology that are alien to communism, a guideline of action for resolving the pressing problems of sociat life. ! _ i ~aising our cadres' consciousness, their labor and political indoctrination, ' is one of the main conditions for successfully carrying out the tasks of the ~ building of communism. At the present.stage, therefore, when the ~arty ~ organizations have begun to prepare for the new school year in the political - education system, we are Yocusing prime attention on improvement of the - cadres' political education, on raising the ideological-theoretical level of the learning process, making its content more profound, and sCrengthening its world-view orientation. New subjects will be introduced in theoretical seminars for leadership cadres: "Developed Socialism: Problems of Theory and Practice," "The Economic Policy of the CPSU," "Agrarian Theory and Policy of the CPSU," and "The Socialist Way of Life." On the one hand this - wilt substantially enlarge our party organization's capabilities and make it pc~ssible for us to take a differentiated apnroach to ~he political train- ing of cadres and specialists in various spheres of the national economy and link Marxist-Leninist theory instruction directly to the practical building of communis~; on the other hand, it will ma:ce it possible for leadership personnel to broaden their ideological-political and cultural horizons, take ~ more profound agproach to the organization of indoctrination work among the _ working people, and ensure the unity of ideological-political, labor, anc~ ~ moral indoctrination. These are today's requirements, and of course it is on the basis of these ~ requirer~ents that we must transform the political and economic training of - cadres on all levels in the basic links. - - Under conditions of intensive industrial and agricultural development and continuous enhancement of the scientific potential and the cultural level, the demands placed on cadres of all profiles and, categories are increased. ~ The party committees' responsibility for the correct selection and indoctri- nation of cadres is also increased accordingly. How big this responsibility ~ 52 . ~ FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 J . . . , ~ , . . . ~ . . . . is can be seen clearly in the following data. The raykom's nomenklature - numbers 400 posit~ons. The constituent Links of this nomenklature are coinstantly in motion: There is an ongoing process of personnel transfer characterized by the cadres' qualitication indicators. For example, at the . b~eginning of the Ninth Five-Year Plan 63 percent of the nomenklature per- _ sonnel had a hig~ter or a partial higher education; now this indicator stands at more than 80 percent. _ Th'e rayko"m is h~n~ling the cadre reorgani2ation process in a responsible - manner, promoting,to posts of leadership and responsibility t;~ose prninising - coinrades who are able to keep up with the time, who know and make practical use of modern methods of economic management.. But without constant concern - for creating reserves of promising and resourceful personnel it is impossib'ie to carry out such,a policy. _ In our iayon, the leadir?g sector of the economy is agriculture. Henre, the local party and soviet bodies' special concern is to supply the sovkh'oi~s with highly qualified specialists. _ Life in Dm'anisskiy Rayon presents a clear picture of ttie changes that :~ave - taken place in the villages since the N:arch 1965 CPSU CC plenum and th'e 25'th ' CPS'J Congress and the 25th GCP Congress. Our sovkhozes' material-technical base i's stronger, thei�r energy ratio is higher, arid th'eir mo'dern irrachinery o , fleet is bigger. Per tiectare grain crop yields and purchase have almost doubled in the 10'th rive-Year Plan compared with the Ninth Five-Year Pl~n. Now we are annually del.ivering to tne state 2,300 tons of high-qualitjr grain. This made it - possible for us to overfulfill targets of the first three yeais of the _ current five-year plan and sell to the state 2,700 tons of ~iheat above the plan. Our cattl"e, sheep, and hog herds have grown substantially. In 3.5 years we sbld tne state 780 tons of ineat and 2,105 tons of milk ab'"ove the plan. - The quality indicators of our faiin products have also improved sabstantially, - especially meat. In the lOth Five-Year Plan the ra}?on's sovkhozes h~ve earned "an additional 1.5 million rubles just from the delivery of top- ~ _ condition an.imals and heavy-weight young stock. The successes achieved by the rayon's working people have cortie about, on'the a otie hand, because our party and goverrimerit are 'constantly co`ncerned fot "the _ development o'f socialist agriculture and for improving the material well - being of farin workers and, on the other han~, because of th'e raykom''s im- proved organizational and ideological-political wor'~c; the higher qualit~ of political leader's~ip in all spneres of agricultu're, the implementation of - Leninist principles of cadre selection, indoctrination, and piacement, and "concern for higher personal responsibility and commitment on the part of _ cadres on all levels with respect to their jobs. 53 ~ FOR OFF2C IA:L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 In this regard, the raykom is paying special attention to work with farm = specialists in order to raise their qualifications and role. V. I. Lenin advised us "to study men and seek out competent workers." Guided by this advice in our work with farm specialists, we are looking for - promotable cadres in production, where we directly study their poli[ical and businesslike qualities and try to pick out and correctly determine in what section and in what post the worker will best and most completely manifest his talent and abilities. In the correct implementation of cadre policy a vital role is ~ssigned to the gri~ary party organizations. In the selection, indoctrination, and placement of farm specialists, therefore, the raykom relies on the party _ organizations and takes account of their opinion concerning a particular worker. This is only logical, because it is the worker collectives, where the party organizations are directly involved, that ensure implementation of the party's policy with regard to cadres and the successful resolution of [he tasks of economic and cultural development. It is in tne worker = collective that the individual's particular qualities are manifested, and it is to the worker collective that a man owes responsibility for his actions and behavior, it is in the collective that public opinion about a man is formed. I It should be noted that in this regard we demand of the party organizations ~ that they express their opinions not only on the ray'~com's cadre policy as a I whole but also on each ~aor~cer, that they help the administration in the correct selection and placement of cadres, that they act boldly in recommend- ing promising and knowledgeable young specialists, that they strengthen - - control over the correctness and substantiation of the administration's decisions, and that they implement effective measures to promptly correct any mistakes made in the selection of local cadres. . As a result of this approach, tne rayon has extensively established the practice of promoting rank and file party members to posts of leadership on the basis of the party organization's recon~nendation. For example, on the _ recommendation of the general meetings of the primary party organizations of the Dmanisi and the Sadzha village Azerbaijani secondary schools comrades N. Dilbazov and E. Aliyev, who proved to be talented organizers of the educa- ~ _ tional indoctrinational process, were elected ~arty buro secretaries. The worker collective's trust in nim was justified by rank and file agronomist _ 0. Dzhincharashvili, whom we first placed in charge of the Vardisubani _ Sovkhoz party organization and then promoted to the directorship of that sovkhoz. And we were not mistaken. Under Comrade Dzhincharashvili's leadership the sovkhoz's labor collective successfully completed the procure- ment and storage of haylage and silage, ~arvested the crops in good time, and delivered to the state 950 tons of grain instead of the planned 380 tons. On the recommendation of the collective of the rayon Selkhozte!chnika k*e pro- moted Comrade Sh. O~:riashvili to the directorsnip of the local industry combine because he had earned the love and respect of his colleagues with 54 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 - his principled attitude toward the co~r~?on cause and his responsiveness to people. The combine successfully completed its 1978 targets, and as of _ 1 August 1979 hSld fulfilled its year's production output plan by 132.~ per- c~nt. This m~ans that instead of the planned 1.32 milliori rubles of output th'~ Combine praduced 1.63 million rubles. - ~~al life shows that if personnel are chosen on the basis of their" political, b~siness, and moral qualities, if cadre reserves exist in fact and not just cn~ p~p~r, and if_~he party committee keeps track of the workers' growth, guiding it wisely and tac*..~fully and taking account of th'e workers' talent and th~ cbllective's atid social organizations' opinion about tfiein, this pt~actice always yields positive results. The result of this praceice is thaE tbday tn6st;;of our rayon's sovkaoz officials and key speci:alists are p~olitically cnat~iYe and professionally well-trained comrades having a highei - education. a Ii is also worth noti^g that along with higher educatiori~l qualifieatiofis - th~ pr~stige of party members in posEs of leadership has also risen; tfie ~~ecialists' sphere of influence has broadened, and tney are playirig a bigger role in the adoption of scientific advances and progr~ssive praetiees ~nd in organizational efforts to resolve the economic tas'~cs faeing fhe worker collectives. A clear example of this can b~ se~'n in the suceesses achieved by the wor'~er5 of the formerly lagging Vardisubanr arid Gant~ia~i _ ~ovkhozes. Last economic year tnese sovkhozes completed the cuTrenf five- ~ }+ear plan's plan of grain sales to the state. And the ~,grisi 8ovkhoz tom- pleted the plan of ineat sa2es to the state in 3:5 years. Many comrades in posts of Leadership and key 5pecialists are w~fdely knowm and respected in the rayon, including Gomareti Sovkhoti Di~ec[ot V: GFialid2e, ~inner of the Orders of Lenin and the October Revolution. Tti~ sov~Clioz Comra~de Chalidze heads has been many times a winner in socialist competftion; last year the Gomareti feed procurement workers were winnets iri republic - ~ocialist competition. Widely respected as nighly-qualified specialfsts a~te Vardisubani Sovkhoz Chief Agronomist Faremui6v and the Satne ~ovkh6z's - - crew leader I. Aslaniants, who increased the daily weighf gairi of caEtle to - ~20 gra~ms an~ Ehe average delivery weignt of young stock Eti 350 kilog.~ams. W~ have m~ny sucti workers now. With tlieir dedicatied labo~ a~nd Eliei'r broafl digariizationatl 2ffoits they are making a worthy contritiu[fori to Ehe rayon's economlic debelopment and the timely and high-quality fulfi~lmenE of staEe p~ans. IkE pr~sent the raykom is doing considerable integrated wo"rk Eo streng~fitri the cadres' id~ofdgical irrEegrity and high moral qualiEi~s, to ~rihanc~ Ehefr poliEical maturity and piofessiorial mastery; and to impr'ove fhe s�yle and methods of ~aork with cadres on all levels. Reliable guid~~iries iri the�e ~f~oits a're ttie decisions of tHe July 1978 CPSU CG P~~num,� tHe deer~es of the GGP CC, the directives of CPSU CC General Secreta=y ari3 USSR Suprem~ Sovi2't Presidiurii Ctiairman Comrade L. I. Brezhnev; and �he GPSU EC and USSR Council of Mihisters decree "Impiovement of Planning an@ StrengtHenirig of _ ~ _ 55 . FOR OFFICIAL .USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030029-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ2QOQ3Q029-5 i the Influence of the Economic ~Iechanisr~ on ~aising Production Effectiveness - - and Work Quality." Now every party organization is concerned to improve planning and strengthen the influence of the economic r~echanism on raising production effectiveness and wor'~c quality. Naturally, our urgent practical task is to teach cadres - how to improve planning work, rationally coordinate Long-range and current plans of sector and territorial development, and perfect intersector and intrasector proportions, to help them ensure a balanced economic course. Our job is to ensure the active participation of the uroduction associations and worker collectives, their leadership personnel and key specialisCS, and _ every wor'~cing man in drawing up five-year and yearly plans, also the - exercise of effective control by the party organizations over their fulfill- ment. Most importantly, we nust look for specific ways and means to imple- ment the measures stinulated in this timely CPSU CC and USSR Council of eiinisters decree. In recent years tne main concern of the republic party organization has been the correct and rational use of middle-link specialists. Efforts along these Lines in our garty organization became especially active after the raykom buro and open party meetings discussed the CPSU CC decree "The ~ Rostovskaya Cbkom's Work to Supply Agriculture with ,Siddle-Link Cadres, i t4ach?nery Operators, and Other Mass-Profession Workers." In accordance with i this decree we drew up a plan of action and set up machinery operators' , schools to train the necessary numbers of machinery operators for the rayon. i In addition, we set up and the raykom buro approved a schedule for manning ~ the various departments and field and livestock crews with middle-link ~ specialists--qualified farm personnel. We carried out certification testing of middle-link managenent ~ersnnnel and found out that many renresentatives of this link, especially nractitioners [prakti'~cij, were not up to today's standards in terms of qualifications and were therefore released from their posts and transferred to approoriate jobs. These neasures also revealed t:zat the work of some party organizations is _ not yet up to tne necessary level. Tnere are party organizations in the - rayon that are not doing enough to help the administration in cadre selec- tion and placement and are showing no initiative in the adoption of experience accumulated along these lines in the republic. This is why some party organi- zations in the rayon are not doing enough to strengthen socialist discipline, which is a powerful lever in resolving economic and political tasks; they are not naking effective use of criticisr.~ and self-criticism, and tht:y are - exercising the necessary control over cadre wor'~c, with the result th