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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000200030037-6 ~ i7 ~ECEM6ER i9T9 N0. 2858 ~ ~ i OF 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 JPRS 74784 1 ? D~ecember 1979 ~ ~rth ~fri~cc~ Re c~rt ~ ~a r E ast I~i p No. 2~58 ~ ~ ; FBtS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE } , , , w.. . . ; . . . : : . _ , . . . . - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 , . , : , . - . : _ . ;NOTE , JPRS puhlicdtions contain:information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodical's and books; but also from r~ews agency ~ , transmissio~"s and broadcasts.~:Materials from foreign-language - sources are translateci;.thoEe from English-language sources are transcribed'or:reprinted,.with the original phraaing ~tnd other characteristics retained:~~ Headlines, e3itorial reports, and ~terial en~losed in brackets ~ are JPRS. Proaessing'indicators such as [Text] ' or ;[Excei~pt] in the first line af~ each item, ,.or following. the last line of a brief, the Qrigina.l information was _ processed. ' Where no; indfcator `is' giv~n, ttie in�or- ma.tion was-GUmmarize3 or extracted. ,r~- . ~ _ ' , , ; ; z , ~ Unfamiliar _ \r,ames "rendered phorieticaY3;y or ~~~transliterated are - ~ ~ enclos,ed in parentheses. - Words or iiames; preceded 'fiy: a ques- ` ~ ; , tion mark~ and enclosed in pareritheses were 'no~t c1Ear in the _ origiaal liut have been sugplied'as ~ppxogriate~in context. - Other unattributed parenthetic~.l no~tes ~lithin the body of s'n item originate ~r-ith the source. Times within items` are as 3 given by source. ' . : _ . - The contents of this puh .;;ation in no way, represEi~t'the poli.- a cies,.views`or attitudes of the U:S: GoveYnment. - ? ~ ' .r . . , , , . - , $a ' PROCUREMENT' CF PUBLICATT(3i~S ~ , . ~ , JPRS publications may be orde*~ed .from -the .Nationarl Techaical ~ 4 Informa:tion Service, Spririgfield, Virginia, 22161. In urder- ; ~ ing, it is ,xecoxmnended that the JPRS; .nuaibe~,: .title, ' date~ and : :4 . autlior, if: applicable;, of publicati'on be'ciCed; ~ ~ ~ . ~ . . . ~ ' . : 5 Current .JPRS publications :are announ'ced in Governinent ~Re~orts. Announcemenrs.issued:semi-.montlil'q by.the'National Technical , r~ Inforaoation Service, ~and are li^sted ;iri the, Mr~aLh~l~Gatial.og of ~ ~ ` U.S. Goyern~ent Publications is.sued by Ghe ~~uperinterident~ of" . Documents, U. S. Government~ ~Printing Office,~ Wa~shington, D.C . ' - .20402. , : . ~ : . ~ . :1 ~b ; ~ 'Inde~es to this report (by,~keyword;, authqr, personaL names, ` EitZe'ancl serie's) are ava'ilable~.froin.'BeTl & Ho~oe11, ~ 01.d Mansfield T.oad; Wooster-,.Ohio `44~691;. ? , Correspondence pertaining to matters'other than~procurement. may 'be addressed to, Joint Publ~ications Research Service, - 1000 ~NortH -Glebe Raad, Arlington, Ui'rginia 22201. , , . : , - . . ~ . ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~~i' . , ; , . . _ . . . , ~ ti ' . ~ _ . . - ' . ~ . ~ . ~ ~ - . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ . - p yj . . .C~.: . . ~ :.,i k , ~ , . . . ~ . . . . . . . f,; . . r,.xa'd. k....~.,. ~....4~:.., '1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 sos~s-,oi REPORT DOCUMEMTATION 1� REPORT NO. 2, 3. ReciD~a~t�s Acc~ssion PAGE JPRS 74780 Title and Sublitle 5. RapaR Dste ' NEAR ~AST/NORTH AFRICA REPORT, No. 2~58 17 December 1979 a. 7. Autnor(s) 8. Performing Organieafion Rept. Nu. 9. PeAorming Orga~ization Nsme and Address 10. Project/Trsk/Work Unit No. Joint Publications Research Service 1000 North Glebe Road i~. co~na~uc~ or Grant(G) No. _ Arli.ngton, Virginia 22201 cc~ 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Add*ess 13. Ty~e ot Repart 6 Period Covered As above ~ 14. _a l5. Supplementary Notes lb. Abstraci (limit: 200 words) This serial report contains information on socioeconomic, government, political, and technical developments in the countries of the Near East ar~d North Africa. 17. Docunient Analysiz a. Descriptars - Political Science X Inter-Arab Affairs Libya Sultanate Sociology XNorth African Mauritania ~f Oman Economics Affairs X Morocco X Syria Culture (Social Afghanistan People's Demo- Tunisia Sciences) XAlgeria cratic Republic United Arab Et}inology Bahrain of Yemen ~mirates Geograpl~y Egypt Persian Gulf X WestF�rn Sahara Tec}lolo~ical X Iran Area Yemc_n Arab - Military Sciences XIraq Qatar Republic X Israel Saudi Arabia Jordan _Spanish North _ - Kuwait Africa XLebanon Sudan - D. Identifiers/Open�Ended Terms c. COSATI Ficld/Group SD ~ SC ~ SK ~ 1 S 18. Availrnilily Statement 19. Security Ciass (This Report> T21. No. ot Pages Unlimited Avaiiability I UNCLASSIFIED l52_ Sp~.(~ by '~1~IJ 20. Security Class (This Page) i 22. Pnce Sprin~;ficld, Virginia 22161 UNCLASSIFIED ~ (Sec ANSI-Z39.18) Sse In~truetfon~ on Revarse OPTIONAI FONA1 217. (�:��711 (Formerly NiIS-3:~) Department uf Co~an~erce APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 JPRS 74780 17 December 1979 NEAR EAST/NORTH AFRICA REPORT ' No. 2058 CONTENTS PAGE ~ INTER-ARAB AFFAIRS Gulf Oil Profits Become 'Internationalized' (AZ-NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL-DUWALI, 21 Oct 79) :l. France Opens New Ties With Arab Gulf (AL-MtTSTA~QT,, 27 Oct 79) 5 Briefs Sudaciese, Algerian Presidents~ Talks 7 NORTH AFRICAN AFFAIRS Moroccan Pa,per Carries AOSARIO 'Open Letter' to Tunis Summit (LE MATIN, 22 Nov 79~ 8 - Briefs ACSARIO Victories in Al~eria 10 AOSARIO Rejects Algeria's 'Representation' 10 'Berber Liberation Frontt Found~d 11 AI~GERIA Paper Says U.S. Threat Not Confined to Iran (Editorial; AL-SHA'B, 28 Nov 79) 12 . UGTA-WFTU Joint Communique (EL MOUDJAHID, 10 SeP 79~ 14 - Foreign i~Linister Benyahia Statement to APS on Nonalined Summit (EL MOUDJAHID, 10 SeP 79~ 17 -a- [III -NE &A- 121.] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 CONTENTS (Continued) ~'~e Bc~n Bf~lla Supporter Criticizes Regime's Treatment of Ex - I'rc: : i. c i~ ~ rit ( J~mi_l Raw i; AL -NA~UIR AL-' ARA.DI WA AI,-DUWALI, 11 Nov 79~ ZU Ben Bella's Lawyer Asks Chadli To Grant Her Meeting With Ex-President ~ AI~ -NAAAR AT~-' ARABI WA AL-DUWALI, 11 Nov `j9 ~ . . . . . . . 26 P~arty Coordinator Yahiaoui Discusses Clean-Up Campa.ign (Mohamed Salah Yahiaoui Interview; EL MOUDJAHID, 7-8 Sep 79) 29 Finance Minister Speaks on Ties With USSR (EL MoUD~TAHID, 12 Nov 79) 34 Briefs Postponement of Minister's Trip 37 ~ Economic, Trade Protocol With Bulgaria 37 French Weapons Purchase 38 II3AN Islamic Legal Basis of Khomeyni Rule Discussed (Ed. Fayolle; AFRICA, Nov 79) 39 U.S. 'Sentimentality' in Iranian Issue Critic ized = (Editorial; EL SIGLO, 29 Nov 79) 44 Student Split From 2evolution Widens ~ ( BAI~IDAD, 9 oct 79 ) ! 5 Judicial System To Be Revamped, Sadr Says (F'athollah Bani Sadr; KEYAAN, 10 Oct 79) 47 Costs of Abolishing Judiciary Cited (Azar Khadiv Pur; BANIDAD, 12 Oct 79) ~+9 New Emphasis Placed on Domestic Industrial Development (KEYHAN, 12 Nov 79) 52 Expansion of Domestic Production Ban on Foreign Companies Plans for Independent Industries Review of Foreign Connections Departure of American Managers _ - b - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ~ ~ CONTENI'S (Continued) ~gE Briefs ~ Teheran Students Identified bU IRAQ Land Reclamation Praject F'ound Successful - (GULF MIRROR, Nov 79) 61. Briefs Technological Agreement With Italy b2 _ Rise in Nonoil Exports 62 Industrial Bank Capital Doubled 62 Refinery Expanded 63 Chinese Workers for Highway 63 ISRA.EL r-~ Cooperation With Government on Settlements Policy Urged . (Editorial; AAZOFEH, 28 Oct 79) 64 Stronger Measures Against PLO Terrorists Demanded (Editorial; HAZOFEfi, 28 Oct 79) ~'h Stronger Government Action, Not Change, Urged (Yehudah Meir Abramovitz; HAMODI'A, 26 Oct 79) 6~ Negative Reaction to the Tehia Party Registered (Eliezer Schulsinger; HAMODI'A, 26 Oct 79) 72 Gaza Mayor Fields Questions on Corruption, Israel, PLO (Rashad al-Shawwa Interview; HA'ARETZ, 2 Nov 79) 78 Continued Confiscation of Arab Land Condemned (Editorial; AL-QUDS, 14 Oct 79) 88 Israel Criticized for Condoning Illegal Seizure of Arab - Land (Editorial; AL-QUDS, 16 Oct 79) 89 ~ No Change in Israel's Policy Expected (Editorial; AL-SHA'B, 22 Oct 79) g0 T~F'RANON Junblat Comments on Tunisian Resolutions (Walid Junblat Interview; MONDAY MORIVING, 3-9 Dec 79) 91 - c - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 CONTENTS ( Continued) ' Gemayed on tNew Climate for Palestinian State' (AminJumayyil Interview; MONDAY MORNING, 3-9 Dec 79) lU'~ Statement Issued by Lebanese Front (L'ORIENT-LE JOUR, 17, 20 Oct 79) 110 Release Delayed Murabitun Response Report on Monetary Situation (AN-NAHAR ARAB REPORT & MEMO, 19 Nov 79) 115 Bank of Lebanon Publishes Statistics (L'ORIENT-LE JOUR, 7 Oct 79) 122 MOROCCO Boucetta Explains Morocco's Absence From Monrovia (MAP, Dec 79~ 124 Foreign Minister Answers Questions on Moroccan Stand (Rabat Domestic Service, 4 Dec 79) 126 Boucetta: Morocco Now Views Sahara Issue as 'Strictly Domestic' ~ (LE MATIN, 12 Nov 79) 129 'MApr; Boucetta Expresses Total Support for Palestinian Cause (MAP, 3o Nov 79) 131 Minister Attacks EEC Curbs on Trade (AN-NAHAR ARAB REPORT & MEMO, 26 Nov 79) 132 Briefs Nador Steelworks 134 SYRIA Support for, Solidarity With Iran Reiterated (Da.mascus Domestic Service, 2 Dec 79) 135 Syrian People's Army Commander Receives CSSR Delegation (SANA, 5 Dec 79) 137 - d - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 CONTENTS (Coritiriued) ps~e Briefs Muslim Brotherhood N~zrder 139 Batth Party Elections 139 WESTERN SAHI~RA Morocco Accused of 'Fierce Repz�ession' of Saharans (Francoise Germain-Robin; L'HUMANITE DIMANG'HE, 24-30 oct 79) 140 'APS' Interviews POLISARIO. Secretary General (APS, 22 Nov 79) 144 Briefs POLISARI~O Attack on Bu Craa 147 Successes of POLISARIO Troops 147 - e - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 INTER-ARAB AFFAIRS GULF OIL PROFITS BECOME 'INTERNATIONALIZED' Paris A:L-NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL-DUWALI. in Arabic 21 Oct 79 p 16 [Article: "Gulf Oil Profits: Internationalization or Voluntary Exile?"] [Text] Almost daily since 1974, newspapers have reported the ups and downs of the U.S. dollar, comparing it with gold, the German mark and the Swiss franc. These same reports are aJ_most always accompanied by a story about ~ some Arab financier selling or buying gold or marks or acquiring a new hotel. The theme is always the same: money seeking refuge, away from the dollar, away from a weak Arab economy and the Arab monetary market, away from glutted Arab consumers or from an unstable political environment. The list goes on and on, but the basic fact is that money is leaving the Gulf for the security of better shelters elsewhere. In the Arab Gulf, for example, neither the governments nor the private sectors can absorb the flood of money pouring in, particularly since oiI prices have begun to rise every 6 months. Having bought everything, there is nothing left to buy. OPEC oil revenues this year alone will be $50 bil- _ lion, 82 percent of which will go to the Arab Gulf states. It is certain, however, that these revenues, as has happened automatically since 1974, will leave the area. This strange phenomenon is unprecedented and has its own, unique reasons. . The routine in which these funds are sent abroad is becoming more auto- matic and systematic all the time. In only 6 years, foreign banks have . succeeded in recapturing and controlling the use of oil revenues. Petro- dollars are used for investment in a variety of other currencies, in real estate, and to a smaller extent in industrial development. Since 1977, this phenomenon has been accompanied by the emergence of Arab financial institutions specializing in loans which are recognized in the international financial market. These institutions, now found in Bahrain, � Abu Dhabi, Saudi Arabia and, of course, Kuwait, provide capital investment funds for European industry. Kuwait was the first to establi5h the Foreign - Trade and Investment Company and the Kuwait Investment Company. These two specialize almost exclusively in investment in Western countries. The 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 Kuwait Investment Company, which is 88 percent government owned, issues international bonds in local currency, and often heads a group of foreign and Arab banks specializing in foreign and Arab loans. This company also heads the list of Arab financial institutions offering European bonds in Kuwaiti dinars. Although Kuwaiti institutions were the first to move in this direction, the other Gulf countries were soon to follow with innovations of their own. There was a rush to create local monetary markets even though the term hardly applies to the Gulf's banking system. Abu Dhabi established the Abu Dhabi Investment Company and the Gulf International Bank, partly owned by seven of the Gulf oil producing states, as well as the Abu Dhabi National Bank. _ Saudi Arabia, with help from the Saudi Monetary Agency and the Saudi Central Bank, opted to reorganize the banking system. It acquired controlling shares of all foreign banks. The new banics were renamed the Saudi-French, Saudi-British, Saudi-Dutch, Saudi-American and Saudi-Arab banks. Bahrain, on the other hand, held the door wide open to foreign banks. These now number 51 and have combined assets of $24 billion, compared to only $3 billion in their home countries. These banks, which specialize in for- eign transactions, have acquired the bulk of their assets fr~m the Gulf states. The growth of a local banking system was paralleled by a corr~sponding growth of Arab financial institutions and branch offices in Europe and the United States. The speed with which the foreign offices sprouted was pro- portional to the rate at which Gulf oil revenues were growing overseas. This phenomenon, referred to technically as "internationalization," was viewed in the Arab world as maturation of the Arab economy. In France and - England many social gatherings were held to acquaint the financial com- munities with this or that Arab banking officer. These Arab institutions and banks continue to multiply and are playing an ever larger role in Euro- pean loan operations. The institutions include the Arab International Investment Bank, a joint Arab-foreign venture; the Union of Arab-Fxench Banks; the Arab-Spanish Bank; the Kuwaiti-Libyan-Spanish Bank; the Arab- Malaysian Bank; the Arab-International Development Bank; and the Morgan- ~rab Bank, a joint Arab-American enterprise. In addition, there are 34 ; other jointly owned institutions and banks in Western Europe, the United - States and Japan. Is it reasonable to define this phenomenon of mushrooming Arab banks in the international community as a coming of age or a maturation of the Arab economy? Can we really refer to it as a process of internationalization? It is difficult to equate this "coming of age" with ind~pendence. Accord- ing to one Lebanese banking official, one must examine the history of these - banks to understand what is happening. Before this stage was reached, for- eign banks opened branch offices in the Gulf states with one purpose in 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 mind--to take advantage of rising oil prices and to facilitate the financ- ing of growing Gulf imports. These banks acted as a middleman between the factories of the West and the Gulf states. The majority brought very small _ capitals with them, relative to the volume of business they were exper_ted to do. Most of them had capitals ranging from $1 to i30 million. Their assets now range from $300 to $400 million. At times, their profits ranged from 30 to 40 percent. This stage was followed by "Arabization," when the Gulf states acquired contralling shares of these banks. Their polic{es, however, remained largely unchanged, the only difference was the appoint- ment of Arab directors general. The foreign staff retained their positions. _ Under the new system, foreign capital remained small. As a result of Arab- - ization, the parent institutions in Europe reaped a double benefit: their capital contributions remained small and their share of the profits soared as oil revenues increased. Meanwhile, according to Dr George Qaram, their duties were unchanged. The new banks maintained their Western policies and modes of operation. The profitability of this system is largely responsible for the mushroom- ing of these joint banking enterprises in Japan, Asia and most of the Euro- pean countries. Their task is to channel Gulf money from the parent insti- tution to these countries. Their branch offices serve as bridges between the Gulf and capital hungry companies and industries in every money market, _ particularly in places where the parent institutions formerly lacked the necessary capital to finance their countries' exports in the face of strong competition and declining profits. Dr Geor~e Qaram added that branch offices are most frequently opened as a result of foreign initiative. As examples, he pointed to the Arab Bank for Foreign Investment which was opened at the request of the French bank Societe Generale, and the Union of French Arab Banks which opened at the behest of Credit Lyonnais. The parent institutions not only control and direct overseas financial ' operations, but also they influence local transacticns. Borrowers of local currencies are most often industrial or Third World countries. Mex- ico this year issued $1.2 billion worth of bonds backed by Kuwaiti dinars. All this goes to show, according to Dr Qaram, that "whenever capital is in demand, the financial institutions of the industrial world serve as the middleman in thP Arab market itself." Kuwait, whose dinar is in demand internationally, and whose [financial] institutions are well known on the Eurodollar market, is the best example. Between 1974 and 1977, the Kuwaiti Investment Company helped to finance $1,592,000,000 worth of bonds to the - benefit of the European countries. The total of all such investments by Ku~aaiti institutions in 1978 was $1,724,000,000. This is in addition to the $1.2 billion invested in the Mexican bond issue. This is clear evidence that Arao financial institutions are playing an important role in the out- flow of Arab capital. The rate at which Arab capital is leaving is propor- tional to the financial znstitutions ability to upgrade their technical , capability. Even though the size of these loans is small compared to the depocits in international banks--the so-called excess oil revenues total 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 $180 billion--one must ask whether the Gulf~s financial institutions are doing their job with respect to development. How does one ~ustify their performance and practices in view of a lagging economic development here at home? Observers are apt to attribute the apparent contradiction to the fact that the Arab markets are saturated. But why do these institutions lack the expertise and apparatus to study the local ma.rket and seek ways to activate industrial development as their European counterparts do? According to a French bank with branches in every Gulf state, "The strange thing is that the oil countries which own the bulk of excess oal revenues prefer to have large cash deposits on hand." The oil countries' penchant for maintaining cash liquidity came to the sur- face during the most recent meeting of the World Monetary Fund in Belgrade, .Yugoslavia. The oil countries opposed a proposal to establish a compensa- tory account for draining the excess dollars on the world market and replac- ing them by special drawing rights based on a basket of currencies. The proposal would have frozen a large number of dollars for use by the World Monetary Fund in granting economic development loans. The Arab oil coun- tries' explanation for opposing the proposal was their fear that their cash liquidity would suffer. But, what precisely is cash liquidity? It is the other aspect of the phenomenon of escaping Arab capital, i.e., the constant ch.ange from dollars, t~ German marks, to gold. A West German afficial re- portedly described the situation this way: "If the Arabs stopped buying gold, the price would drop to $70 per ounce." 9063 CSO: 4802 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 INTER-ARAB AFFAIRS FRANCE OPENS NEW TIES WITH ARAB GULF Paris AL-MUSTAQBAL in Arabic 27 Oct 79 p 16 [Article: "Will the United States Counter French Advances in the Gulf?"J [Text] Kuwait and the other Gulf capital cities are preparing to receive French President Giscard d'Estaing. Prepara.tions are underway to compile a complete file on Arab-French relations in general and French-Gulf rela- tions in particular. In Kuwait, the Foreign Ministry has recalled its ambassador in Paris, Mr 'Isa al-Hamad, to help with the preparations. Immediately upon his return, the ambassador met with Amir Jabir a1-Ahmad al-Sabah and Prime Minister Sa'd al-'Abdallah al-Sabah. He also had a lengthy meeting with the Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah, Finance Minister 'Abd al-Rahman al-'Atiqi and Oil Minis- ter 'Ali al-Khalifa al-Sabah. This flurry of ineetings appear to indicate - that the Kuwaiti Gove~nment is attaching special significance to the French president's visit next March. Observers curious about the visit speculate that Kuwait has long recog- nized France's special standing and importance among Eurcpean countries, - particularly its role in the European Common Market. Kuwait, they believe, has always recognized that Arab diplomatic r elations with Europe have taken a back seat compared to relations with the United States. This state of affairs, they insist, dates back to General de Gaulle's presidency and has continued unchanged through the presidencies of Pompidou and Gis card d'Estaing. Arab diplomacy, they add, has focused its attention on the United States in the belief that a peaceful solution to the Middl e East crisis rests with that country. This belief was encouraged and nurtured by Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat who, in a gesture of good will, gave up 99 percent of his political cards, putting his faith in the United - States, while ignoring other political forces, especially the Soviet Union and Western Europe. From the beginning, Kuwait has recognized that this policy wa~ not in the Arabs' ultimate interest and that its consequences were bound to be nega- tive in the extreme. Ignoring the other international powers, the Kuwaiti Government believed, would once again bring the region to the brink of war. 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 This ass~ssment was not buried in the Foreign M~!nistry's files; rather, Kuwait actively set about to ma~ce its viewpoint known in other Arab capi- tals. The effort ultitnately paid off, as these coLntries became convinced of the necessity of dealing with Europe, particularly France, on a level par.allel to but i.ndependent basis with the tTn?ted States. Kuwait believes that Arab d.Lplomatic relations with the United States should be kept dis- tinct fr~m their relations with Europe, and that the situation in the Arab world calls for a new strategy, one that enables the Arabs to deal with Europe freely, openly and with greater understanding. Convinced of this viewpoint, the Arab states are turning to an Arab-European dialog and Gulf States-European dialog. Joint Kuwaiti-European and Gulf-French working conunittees have been formed. These committees have met and continue to - meet in Paris or one of the Gulf capital cities. They have laid down a framework for political, economic and financial relations between Kuwait and France; the latter has also expanded its relations with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar. Official French delegations have visited several of these Arab capital cities. The result has been better political and economic relattons, evidenced by a growing volume of trade. The increased trade, a good barometer of political relations, has - not gone unnoticed in Washington, which is beginning to feel uneasy about the ultimate consequences of the new direction of French-Arab relations. Observers in Kuwait would not be surprised to see a American move aimed at obstructing French advances in the Arab worldo Should the French thrust remain unchecked, Washington fears, the United States may lose its attrac- tion as the vortex to which all Arab currents flow. Such a tendency, more- over, would not be easy to moderate, particularly in view of the fact that no love or mutual interest is lost between the Arabs and the United States. , 9063 CSO: 4802 6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 INTER-ARAB AFFAIRS BRIEFS SUDANESE, ALGERIAN PRESIDENTS' TALKS--Monrovia, Dec 5, (SUNA)--Chadli Bendjedid, Algerian president, called today here on Sudanese President _ Ja'far Numayri at his residence in the Liberian capital, announced Presi- dent Numayri's press adviser Muhammad Mahjub. Mr Mahjub said the two . presidents discussed the situation in the Arab world and Africa as well as bilateral relations between Sudan and Algeria. Mr Mahjub added that the two leaders' views were identical on all the issues they discussed. President Bendjedid has accepted an invitation by Preaident Numayri to visit the Sudan. The date of the visit will be fixed later. [Text] [JN051816 Khartoum SUNA in English 1755 GMT 5 Dec 79 JN] CSO: 4420 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 NORTH AFRICAN AFFAIRS MOROCCAN PAPER CARRIES AOSARIO 'OPEN LETTER' TO TUNIS SUNINIIT LD051409 Casablanca LE MATIN in French 22 Nov 79 p 4 LD _ [MA,P report providing apparent text of "open letter from the Movement of Natives of Saguia el Hambra and Rio de Oro to the Tunis summit"] [Text] Rabat, 22 November (MAP }-The Movement of Natives of Saguia el Hambra and Rio de Oro (AOSARIO) has sent an open letter to the Arab leaders gathered in Tunis. It has asked the Arab league secretary general to insure its distribution among all members of the league. Here is the text of this letter: Gentlemen, in view of dangers threatening Arab unity and the split which the enemy of Islam has managed to create among the ranks of a nation dear to us all, especially by applying the carrot-and-stick method to certain people, the AOSARIO urges Arab leaders to act with greater vigilance to safeguard their independence from conflicts in which they are used to the detriment of the Arab peoples. Speaking on behalf of the liberation movements and political fronts against the occupier ~~i~ich existed in Sahara beforQ the creation of the "POLISARIO" by Algiers in 1974-1975, the AOSARIO ventures to recall i.n this difficult situation the mission accomplished by the Kingdom of Morocco, which has set a vivid example for all by championing a co~non cause--namely, the cause of Arab unity and territorial integrity--a mission which succeeded in defeating - attempts by French colonialism to make the Algerian National Liberation Front support the fait accompli of an independence already enjoyed by the Touareg people in Algerian Sahara. At that time, the French authorities based their arguments on the fact that so-called Algerian Sahara consisted of territories taken away from Morocco, Mali, Tunisia and Niger and inco:porated into~what was at that time "French Algeria," Furthermore, the same arguments were used by French colonialism, which in fact aimed at breaking up Arab territories, to support the claim that the - Algerian Touareg people inhabitating that region�had no affinity and no - connection with the Algerian people as such. 8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 I As for the Arab nation, it is by no means able to understand the reasons - which have induced some of its leaders to deny this historical fact by, ~ among other things, refusing to recognize a right in support of which the r Moroccan people have fought--namely the right to their territorial integrity. The AOSARIO deems it opportune to remind the Arab heads of state and govern- ment gathered in Tunis that they have a duty to exert pressure by using ' their influence with ~ view to stopping a fratricidal war fostered by governments which have found no use for the riches bestowed upon them by nature other than fostering warfare, instead of using them for humanitarian ~ purposes. Just like international opinion, the AOSARIO feels sure that history will judge all those who, by fostering this fratricidal war, must bear responsi- bility for thQ death of inen, which leaves in its train widows and orphans (in Mali, Niger, Chad, Mauritania and Algeria). Furthermore, it feels certain that this responsibility will be shared by the governments of these countries which, under the pretext of finding a solution to the unemployment problem, shut their eyes to the enrollment of their citizens even though they are aware that tnese men face certain death in the service of a crim- inal cause. Dated: 19 November; Signed by Ahmed Rachid on behalf of the secretary general. CSO: 4400 _ 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 NORTH AFRICAN AFFAIRS - r BRIEFS ' AOSARIO VICTORIES YN ALGERIA--A statement issued today by the AOSARIO [Association of Original Spanish Sahara Natives] announced that 40 Algerian soldiers were killed and scores of others wounded during a military opera- F tion the AOSARIO carried out in southwestern Algeria. The statement added that co~andos of the AOSARIO fighters laid an ambush for an Algerian con- voy on the night of Wednesday and Thursday in the area of ~Zegdou) and Tinfouchy, which lie along the main road linking Bechar and Tindouf. Ten out of the 50 vehicles in the convoy were destroyed during a battle that lasted for 4 hours. Four members of the AOSARIO were martyred and five others were i.njured. On Thursday, two trucks of the Berliet type, which were carrying ammunition, exploded as a result of mines planted by the _ AOSARIO members in the area between (Boubarnus) and (Shanashin) in Algeria. The drivers of the two vehicles and two others were killed. This is the - - second operation to be carried out by the AOSARIO inside Algeria. '!'he first was in the area 40 km east of Tindouf on 7 September. The target was a"unit of the Algerian Army operating under the cover of the so-called POLISARIO. The operation left a number of Algerian personnel killed and scorPS of injured, [Text] [LD240059 Rabat Domestic Service in Arabic 2000 GMT 24 Nov 79 LD] AOSARIO REJECTS ALGERIA'S 'REPRESENTATION'--Rabat, Nov 24, (MAP)--The association of the natives of the Sahara formerly under Spanish rule [AOSARIO] strongly rejects the resolution by which some countries, members of the United Nations, tried to impose on the populations native of the Moroccan Sahara formerly under Spanish rule a so-called wi11 that the Algerian Government personifies on behalf of the 7,000 sequestrated persons. In a communique published Friday, the AOSARIO denounces this "masquerade" and recalls that nothing the world, be it the United Nations, can weaken the determination of a people who have decided to recover their rights. The co~nunique finally states that despite the wi11 of some imperialist powers, who tried to manipulate to their own benefit the mercenaries, some countries, such as Zaire (Katanga), Nigeria fBiafra) and even Algeria lthe Touareg Republic), managed to oppose the plots that aimed at Balkanizing their territories. [Text] [LD241506 Rabat MAP in English 1218 GMT 24 Nov 79 LD] 10 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 'BERBER LIBERATION FRQNT' FOUNDED--Diplomatic sources in the French capital said that the first founding meeting of the "Berber Liberation Front" [Jabhat-al-Tahrir al-Barbariyah] was recently held near Paris. The meeting was attended by a number of intellectuals of Berber origin as well as one Arab ambassador. The meeting was aimed at establishing the front's general policies in the future, the forms of its work, its finance and the extent of linking its actions with one of the great world powers. It appears that the front will concentrate its activity during the present stage within Algeria and will try to revive the idea of an independent national home for the Berbers in the Arab Maghreb. [TextJ [JN271954 Paris AL MUSTAQBAL in Arabic 24 Nov 79 p 19 JN] CSO: 4402 11 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ALGERIA PAPER SAYS U.S. THREAT NOT CONFINED TO IRAN LD060953 Algiers AL-SHA'B in Arabic 28 Nov 79 p 1 LD [Editorial: "Dimensions of a Revolution and the Calculations of Ite Enemies"] [Text] President Carter revealed yesterday that the present campaign in the Western world against the Iranian revolution is not aimed against what is known as the holding of the American hostages in Tehran but primarily at striking a blow at this revolution which has destroyed the imperialist powers' plans in the area and toppled one of the main- stays that protected their interests in this oil-rich part of the world. Carter asserted that he does not believe "that the freeing of the U.S. hostages will end the crisis between the United States and Iran." This is a serious, though implicit, threat that exposes the aggressive U.S. intentions toward this bastion that collapsed while those who were pro- tecting it watched helplessly. Washington would not allow its newborn creation to die at such an early age. The Camp David agreements, by which the Americans believed they had changed the geopolitical map of the area, went up in flames in the midst of the storm unleashed by the Iranian revolution. This happened after the Americans thought that the defunct Iranian regime was one of the basic gua.ran~ees of their implementation. A1-Sadat today is facing isolation even among his own new friends, who are apprehensive about the state of affairs in the Cairo regime. The self-rule project has been rejected by the Palestinian masses. Carter's only gain since he came to office was the Camp David card, which he is now about to lose as he approaches a difficult electioneering period. The U.S. President's open hostility toward the Iranian revolution clearly proves to the world that it is indeed a progressive revolu~tion and a great gain for the world liberation movement which he mus~ atrike at in order to reinstate his~plan to which the shah was a party. This makes it incumbent upon revolutionary and progressive forces, par- ticularly in the Arab world, to coordizate their stands in order to 12 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 repel attempts to abort the Iranian people's revolution and to fortify it against the provocations of agents in the area who fear the coliapse of their regimes hostile to the people; aspirations as a result of the revolutionary fever that has emanated from Iran. - The Arab peop les fully sympathize with the Iranian people's revolution and their stand will not change because of some circumstancial actions that have been exploited by the imperialist powers' media with the aim of distorting the image of the Iranian revolution--a revolution which, as soon as it triumphed, hastened to support the Arab destiny and broke all the ties that the deposed shah forged with the Zionist administra- tion in Tel Aviv. It is regret table indeed that ti� c~rab leaders should ignore the sig- nificance of the U.S. threats against the new Iran and refuse to - receive the Iranian delegation i:hat went to Tunis to explain the reality of the situation and the essence of the conflict, the nature of _ which Carter revealed yesterday when he said that it will not end with "the freeing of hostages." We might have some reservations regarding certain methods of dealing - with events in Iran but this does not mean that the Arab world and the world progressive forces should adopt a spectator's attitude, because we would thus be turning our back on the liberation movement for which resolutions and recommendations stipulate suppart. The conflict today between Washington (in the first place) and the Iranian revo lution goes beyond the limits within which imperialist propaganda is trying to confine it. We would be misleading ourselves to believe that it is aimed at Iran alone. Rather, it is part of a strategic p lan for domination and imposing influence so that the Third World peoples will remain bogged down in problems which are the work of those who used freedom as a slogan to deprive their own people of it. CSO: 4402 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 1 ALGERIA UGTA-WFTT? ~OINT COMMUNIQUE � Algiers EL M~UD.TAHID in French 10 Sep 79 p 3 [Text] Algiers (APS)--Following the visit of a delegation of the World Federation of Trade Unions [WFTU], ~~d by its general secretary, Mr Enrique Pastorino, the following joint communique was published on Sunday: "At the invitation of the General Union of Algerian Workers [UGTA], a large delegation of the World Federation of Trade Unions, led by its general secre- tary, Enrique Pastorino, visited Algeria from 4 to 9 September 1979. "While visiting Algeria, the delegation was received by Brother Mohamed Salah Yahiaoui, a Political Bureau member and party coordinator of the National Liberation Front. "The WFTU delegation held several talks with a UGTA delegation led by its general secretary, Mr Demene Debbih Abdellah. The discussions particularly concerned the various aspects of relations between the two organizations in the context of solidarity among workers worldwide and support of just causes for the national independence of peoples and peace in the world. "The WFTU delegation visited various achievements of the Algerian Revolution in economic, industrial, agricultural and social areas. "The delegation visited the Arzew petrochem.ical complex, the socialist village of 'Aures-El-Meida' and the r.egional trade union school at Tlemcen. "The delegation contacted trade union officials at the wilaya [governorate] and production-unit levels. "The WFTU delegation admired the results and achievements made by Algerian trade unions, workers and farmers in the struggle for development and pro- duction and in building a socialist Algeria. "In the name of its 190 million member workers, the WFTU delegation again expressed its total solidarity with the Algerian people. It vigorously condemns imperialist pressures, reactionary schemes and the threats of the reactionary government of Rabat against the Algerian Revolution. 1~+ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ~ "The UGTA delegation pointed out the WFTU's actions of solidarity and support for the Algerian Revolution since the armed struggle for national liberation. It appreciates the campaigns conducted by the WFTU for consolidation of the anti-imperialist, anti-Zionist and antiapartheid world front for the libera- tion and equality of peoples and for peace in the world. "During their discussions, the two delegations noted the agreement of their views, particularly on the seriousness of the situation in the Middle East and on the threats to the heroic Palestinian people following the Camp David accords and the Washington treaty between Begin and Sadat under the control of American imperialism. "The two delegations condemn all forms of oppression and repression against southern Lebanon, aimed at the massive extermination of Lebanon's progressive, nationalist forces and Palestinian insurgents. _ "The two delegations are of the opinion that there can be no lasting settle- _ ment of the situation in the Middle East without the establishment of the legitimate national rights of the Palestinian people under the leadership of their sole representative, the PLO. "The two delegations noted with satisfaction the progress of the Saharan people's just cause, as a result of their many victories both in the armed struggle and in international diplomacy. The two delegations hail the courageous positions taken by the Mauritanian people and their leaders and those of the Spanish Government. They applaud the just conclusions of the OAU conference in Monrovia, recognizing the legitimate right of the people of Western Sahara to self-determination and independence. "The two delegations vigorously condemn the decision of the reactionary government of Egypt to militarily support the invasion of the Saharan Demo- cratic Arab Republic and reaffirm their full support of the Saharan people and their vanguard, the Polisario Front. "Both delegations express support for consolidation of active solidarity with peoples struggling for their independence in Africa, particularly with the peoples in southern Africa struggling against apartheid and racial � segregation. In this connection, they vigorously condemn the massive air ~ raids conducted by the Muzorewa regime in Zimbabwe against the people of Mozambique. "While congratulating each other on the brilliant victory of the Nicaraguan people, the two organizations again proclaim their full solidarity with people struggling against imperialism and reactionary attitudes, and against ~ fascist regimes, particularly in Chile and Uruguay and in other Latin Ameri- can countries. _ "Both organizations will continue to constantly oppose multinational corpora- tions in favor of establishing a new international economic order and to con- - stantly lend their support to workers and trade unions in capitalist countries ~5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 in their struggle against the economic crisis imposed on them. They have agreed to step up their efforts to end the arms race and military expenditures ~ imposed by world imperialism and to work untiringly for the general progress ~ - of all peoples. "The two entities sharply protest the arbitrary measures taken against immi- - grants in France and particularly against Algerian immigration. They vigor- ously condemn thE xenophobic and racist acts against immigrant workers. "The two organizations note with satisfaction that their joint cooperation, in mutual respect, is helping to strengthen the world trade union movement. They have agreed to step up joint efforts in the interest of workers and, in this connection, to strengthen bilateral relations between the tsao organizations. _ "The WE'TU delegation has invited a UGTA delegation to visit it. The invita- tion has }~~~n accepted with pleasure. "In concluding their discussions, the WFTU expressed i ts sincere thanks to the UGTA for its invitation and the warm welcome accorded it." 11915 CSO: 4400 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 ALGERIA FOREIGN MINISTER BENYAHIA STATEMENT TO APS ON NONALINED SUMI~IIT Algiers EL MOUDJAHID in French 10 Sep 79 p 4 [Text] Drawing conclusions on the sixth summit of non- alined countries, Political Bureau member and foreign affairs minister Mohamed Benyahia, who participated in that conference's proceedings, made the following state- ment to the APS: - "The sixth conference of chiefs of state or governments of nonalined nations, whose proceedings have just ended, was undeniably a great ,success, contrary to the false predictions made well before the summit was held in Havana, foretelling the nonalined movement's inability to deal with both current _ problems and those facing the movement itself. On the contrary, the im- ' portant decisions clearly apparent in the conference's final declaration demonstrate the movement's dynamism and vigor and its ability to strengthen its unity and to consolidate its ranks." Loyalty to Ideals of Nonalinement "The clear reaffirmation of the permanent nature of the principles which have always guided nonalined countries, and the definition of precise goals in compliance with the aspirations of our peoples, are obvious proof of the extent of the nonalined community's awareness and its ability to assume its role in international relations. This demonstraCes not only loyalty to the basic tenets of the policy of nonalinement, bu~ also reflects loyalty to the ideals which have made it possible to mobilize the energies of a large part of humanity. "Far from being an incongruous assembly of a growing number of countries, in its diversity the movement derives its real strength from giving more validity to its principles. This is what must be emphasized first and foremost: the movement's basic principle is national independence in all its forms and in all its aspects. It implies total expression of the move- ment's supgort for peoples struggling for their national independence, whether _ in southern Africa, in Palestine, in Western Sahara or in other areas of the world. 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 "With regard to the Middle E~st problem, th~s most notable point is the explicit and unequivocal condemnation of th-~ Camp David and Washington accords, which signify, according to the ~esolution adopted, a total abandc~nment of the cause of Arab countri~~s, an act of complicity with the occupation of Arab territories and a:~_.lation of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people. "This condemnation, which confirms and supports the decisions made in ,.TUly by African chiefs of state in Aionrovia, induced the conference to request an examination, at the next ministerial meeting of nonalined countries, of _ the question of suspending Egypt from the movement. Thus the conference wished to show its very clear disapproval of the Egyptian Go~~ernment's policy of compromise." - Western Sahara Decolonization Process Incomplete "With regard to the Western Sahara question, there again the chiefs of state of nonalined countries expressed a very clear position. In examining every aspect of this question, the nonalined countries, 94 nations from every con- tinent, actually declared formally for the first time that the process of decolonizing this territory has not been completed. Thus they expressed support for effective application of the inalienable right of the people of Western Sahara to self-determination and independence and endorsed the recent decisions made by the Monrovia summit. _ "The conference also condemned the extension of Morocco's armed occupation of the part of Western Sahara previously occupied by Mauritania. For the first time, the conference mentioned the Polisario Front as an important party in settling the conflict. "Thus after Monrovia, this is the greatest political and diplomatic victory by the Saharan people in the international arena with such a broad consensus, since only four ccuntries expressed reservations. "An exceptional event in an international conference should be noted: seven countries, most of whi ch are located thousands of kilometers from the occupied area, made a point of expressing their support for the principles of freedom - of peoples and their solidarity with the national liberation movement by recognizing the SDAR [Saharan Democratic Arab Republic]. "With regard to southern Africa, besides expressinq the total, solid support of nonaliried countries for the cause of liberation movements in that region, the most outstanding fact is the admission, after SWAPO, of the Patriotic Front of Zimbabwe as a totally separate member of the nonalined movement. This represents a unanimous scathing response by the nonalined community to all schemes of those who wish to impose false solutions intended to deny the peoples of Zimbabwe and Namibia their inalienable national rights. "Economically, which represents the second important aspect of the agenda, the decisions made represent a significant contribution to strengthening 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 coopE~ration and solidarity among nonalined countries as well as a definite platform for these countries' demands for the establishment of a new inter- national economic order. This is the context of the action taken by Algeria, which actively participated in preparing every resolution and in formulating the principal ideas listed in the economic declaration. Thus of the measures taken by the conference, many were approved on the basis of the proposals sub- mitted by the ~lgerian delegation." Algeria's Contribution "This is mainly the resolution stipulating and broadening the program of action for economic cooperation am~ng nonalined countries. Specific measures regarding raw materials, and including en~rgy, were proposed. "Another resolution also submitted by Algeria and considered by the conference proposed comprehensive negotiations between developing and developed countries within the framework of the United Nations and with the goal of restructuring international economic relations. "The obvious success of the cor_ference was larqely due to its perfect organi- zation. President Fidel Castro presided over the summit conference and the debates with a devotion and objectivity which won the admiration of all clelegations. "Finally, I want to take this opportunity to pay trib~ite to the members of ; the Algerian delegation, who made a great personal contribution by going without sleep during the 72 hours of the final phase in to provide Algeria's full contribution to the unity and enrichment of the movement and to the political success of the conference." 11915 CSO: 4400 lg : APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ALGERIA BEN BELLA SUPPORTER CRITICIZES REGIME'S TREATMENT OF EX-PRESIDENT Paris AL -NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL-DUWALI in Arab ic 11 Nov 79 pp 28-29 [Interview With Member of International Committee To Defend Ben Bella by Jamal Rawi; Ben Bella Supports Political Multi-Party System; What Fate Is Awaiting Ben Bella; Will He Resume His Political Role; What Is His Opinion of System of Government in Algeria; Arab Member of Committee To Defend Ben Bella Provides Answers"] [Text] With the publication of this edition of AL-NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL- DUWALI, some change is supposed to have taken place in the status of Ahmed Ben Bella, a former Algerian president, who has been under house arrest in M'Sila since the 4th of last July after having remained a prisoner in el- Do~irate ~ail since 19 June 1965, i.e. for nearly 14 years, making him the political prisoner to spend the longest time in jail in the entire world without trial. A few weeks ago, there were successive reports that the Algerian leader ~ would be freed at the beginning of the current month on the 2~~~~ ?nniver- sary of the inception of the Algerian people's struggle against the i~~nch colonialism. Without reviewing the history of Ben Bella who spent 22 years out of his life in jails, both under the French rule and the national rule, it should be pointed out that this man remained for long years the symbol of the heroism of an entire people, even the symbol of liberation of all the third world peoples. But as of the moment of his arrest, Ben Bella has been subjected to an unprecedented blackout campaign. From 19 June 1965 until 5 July 1979, the day on which the report of his release was announced briefly in the offi- cial newscast, Ben Bella`s name did not appear in any official Algerian source and it rarely surf~~.ced officially in the world. Despite this blackout, B~n Bella has continued to live i:~ the memory of the Algerians. Since h~s transfer to M'Sila, his new prison has turned 20 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 into a pilgrimage ground visited daily by hundreds of people: workers, farmers, old friends and sons of martyrs who come from all parts of - - Algeria to say to him: You are our father. What now? Will Ben Bella be completely freed? Will he be permitted to - receive non-Algerians, to meet the press, to make political statements, to move freely and to leave the country if he so wishes? What is the fate awaiting him? Freedom With Commitments The sources close to Ben Bella find it unlikely, despite all the assertions and all the rumors about his imminent release, that his full freedom will ~ be restored to him unless something lies behind such a decision. It is illogical that Ben Bella's position will shift overnight from one of strict surveillance to one of fu_ll freedom without commitments made by the former president--commitments dealing with the limits and forms of his future activity. But all those who know the former president and those who have met him recently insist that he will make no concessions, will undertake no commit- ments of any sort and will not agree to have his freedom shackled after 15 years of arb itrary imprisonment without being accused of any charge. His departure from prison means to him, primarily, that he will be able to speak after this long wait. OtheYwise, his release will have no meaning. i A period of 14.5 years in jail is enough to change this man and symbol who is also subjected currently to an image-distorting campaign by the Arab and international media that have persistently ascribed to him for years, and especially in recent weeks, positions with which he has no connection. AL-NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL-DUWALI has taken a number of questions to an Arab member of the International Committee to defend Ben Bella which has its headquarters in Paris. This member, who has insisted on not divulging his name, is considered close to Ben Bella, has had constant contacts with Ben Bella's family and knows the details of what has happened and is happening to the former president since his arrest. [Question] How did Ben Bella live in el-Douirate jail? [Answer] Ben Bella remained a prisoner in an apartment attached to a mili- tary barracks of the First Military Province in el Douirate from 19 June 1965 to 4 July 1979 when he was transferred to Messila. Throughout his stay in el Douirate jail, he was only allowed to go to a very small yard close to the apartment surrounded by barriers that block all view. When President Chadli ordered on 22 March 1979 that the screen obstructing the view from Ben Bella's apartment window be removed, Ben Bella stood in 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 front of the window for long hours while his wife was close to him, crying and overcome by emotion. That was the first time that Ben Bella had seen trees in 14 years. [Question] Has there been a change in his situation since his transfer to Measila? [Answer] In Messila, he has been lodged in a huge villa that used to be occupied by an Algerian bourgeois. Giving Ben Bella this huge residence is intended to distort his image among his visitors who will notice the splendor of the place in which the Algerian leader is living. [Question] But it has been said that the villa in which he is residing is the property of his wife's family? [Answer] This is not true. His wife's family is poor and the family head is a migrant worker who lives in a small apartment, which I believe is rented, near the Algerian capital. The family has no other property. Yahiaoui's Reason [Question] It has been rumored that Mohamed Saleh Yahiaoui, the ruling party leader, supports releasing Ben Bella. Is this true? [Answer] No. Yahiaoui has always re~ected Ben Bella's release for a well- known reason. In 1962, Yahiaoui was wounded in the national liberation war and asked Ben Bella to send him to Switzerland for treatment. Ben Bella turned down his request, saying: You are one of tens of thousands of wounded and we cannot send you and leave the others here. Since then, . Yahiaoui has been bearing Ben Bella a grudge which persists until now. [Question] A lot has been written about Ben Be11a`s reading in his jail. It is known that you are one of the people familiar with the books sent to him in jail. Can you give an idea about what he has been reading? [e~~i5wer] Ben Bella has read a lot of books in 14 years. Before his marriage, he used to read an average of one book a day. The first two books he asked for after 9 days of his arrest were the Koran and Lenin's com- plete writings. They were delivered to him by Col al-Sa'id 'Ubayd who was his jailer and whom Boumediene assassinated with his own hands in December 1967. [Question] What are the books read by Ben Bella? [Answer] I believe that he read all the books that reached him methodically. He proceeded from subject to subject, beginning with "Revival of the Theological Sciences" by al-Ghazali and the complete works of al-Hallaj = and ending with the modern and contemporary intellectual cur?-ents. He has ` read most of Ka.rl Marx's and Friedrich Engels' work and the complete works 22 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 of Michel Foucault and others. He also familiarized himself with the modern schools of literary criticism, with higher mathematics and with languages. _ Moreover, Ben Bella has kept in close touch with all the political and social transformations undergone by Algeria during his imprisonment. He has surprised all his interlocutors with his profound knowledge of what has happened and is happening in Africa and the Middle East and of the latest international developments. [Question] It has been said that before his death, Boumediene had decided I to release Ben Bella. Is this true? [Answer] Throughout 14 years, Boumediene rejected absolutely any talk about releasing Ben Bella, especially from Arab and world figures. When Lt Col Abu-Bakr Yunis brought up the issue with him in 1978, Boumediene left the hall without any answer. But when he returned from Moscow on the eve of his death, Boumediene experienced a crisis of the conscience in his plane and began to weep before Bouteflika in regret for his treatment of Ben Bella. [Question] How does Ben Bella view the current Algerian leadership? Will he return to the political arena after his release? How does he assess Boumediene's experiment? ~ [Answer] I* is not unlikely that Ben Bella will r~turn to the political _ arena. But in any case, he will not engage in his future political acti- vity within the current leadership. He criticizes strongly the over- whelming majority of the men in power. His wife points out in a recent ~ interview she gave the AFP that he does not approve of any aspect of the ~ policy followed by the regime since 1965, especially in regard to the growing bureacracy in agriculture, the haphazardly industrialization that has produced no results and administrative corruption. He also criticizes the Algerian diplomatic movement, especially in Africa where Algeria has failed to support the countries struggling for their . liberation. As for Boumediene, Ben Bella considers him, contrary to what is ascribed to Ben Bella currently, a counterrevolutionary. He used to say that Boumediene was a"catastrophe" not only for Algeria but also for the Arab world and the third world in its entirety. [Question] What is Ben Bella's position toward the phase during which he himself ruled in the period from 28 September 1962 to 18 June 1965? [Answer] During his imprisonment, Ben Bella has engaged in comprehensive self-criticism. He considers, for example, banning the Algerian Communist _ Party a fault. He is now against the single-party principle and criticizes 23 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 both the western capitalist system and the eastern communist system. He believes that development of the Algerian revolution requires the implemen- - tation of comprehensive self-administration in all the popular circles. He also believes that political multiplicity jmulti-party system] and intellectual multiplicity is a condition f or the growth of democracy which _ is, in his opinion, a condition for the success of the revolut~on. [Question];. What is Ben Bella's present position toward Islam? [Answer] There is no doubt that Ben Bella is a religious man who prays in _ his prison. He was also religious before he entered the jail. But he was and continues to be against Islamic religious fanaticism. He believes in the right of all the religious and national minorities to determine their future freely. He also believes in the right to disagreement in all its f orms . Even though he admires the Iranian people`s movement that toppled the shah, he condemns the fanatic ayatollahs. Worried for His Life ~ [Question] Sometime ago, Ben Bella's lawyer wrote that he had been exposed to two assassination attempts in jail during the rule of Colonel Boumediene and she expressed her fear that he may be assassinated. Are there any justifications that actually call for concern for the former president's life after his release from prison? [AnswerJ The fears are present and they have their justifications. Ben Bella`s enemies inside and outside Algeria are numerous. The Algerian regime, like most of the Arab regimes, has become accustomed to physical liquidations. Between 1965 and 1975, more than nine political figures were assassinated, including Mohamed (Kheider), Karim Belkacem and Ahmed Medgheri. In the fall of 1977, King Hassan II brought up with Carter the issue of the imminent death of Boumediene and the possibility of Ben Bella's return and they studied the ways to confront such a possibility. It is certain that Kasdi Merbah, the former chief of military intelligence and the current secretary general of the Ministry of Defense (i.e. the minister of defense), is one of the fiercest opponents of Ben Bella and that he does not approve Ben Bella's release. Mirbah is the person through whom Boumediene liquidated all his opponents physically. In any case, there is no shortage of scenarios in the mind of whoever wants to kill. Ben Bella may be assassinated and it may be said that the murderer is the agent of a foreign circle (Morocco, Israel...), it may be said that the murderzr is insane or he may be killed on the spot. Naturally, a huge funeral proc::ssion may be organized and led by the ruling crew and . Ben Bella may be th~:: declared the revolution`s martyr. - 24 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 [Question] How does Ben Bella view the treatment he is currently given by the regime? [Answer] Ben Bella considers his transfer from el Douirate to Messila a transfer from one prison to a less restrictive prison. In Messila, he is still surrounded by the military intelligence men who live in the first floor of the villa which is surrounded by police and security men. There is surveillance and bugging equipment in the residence. The intelligence agencies have even tried to sneak some people to spy on Ben Bella in the new prison. Some security men are stationed at the villa's iron gate while a military i_ roadblock set up near the villa watches the visitors, checks their identity - cards and inspects them. Moreover, in all his movements inside Messila, the [former] president is always accompanied by tens of security men. He still cannot get telephone calls or cables and all his correspondence is subjected to censorship. 8494 CSO: 4402 . i i I ~ 25 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ALGERIA BEN BELLA'S LAWYER ASKS CHADLI TO GRANT HER MEETING WITH EX-PRESIDENT Paris AL-NAHAR AL-'ARABI WA AL-DUWALI in Arabic 11 Nov 79 p 29 [Article: "Lawyer Lafue-Veron to Bendjedid: What Harm Is There in My Contacting Him"] [Text] Mrs Lafue-Veron, the French lawyer who has been defending Ben Be lla for 22 years, addressed on 12 August 1979 a message through the Algerian embassy in Paris to Algerian President Chadli Bendjedid asking that she b e permitted ro meet her client. She had addressed another message to the same effect to the Algerian President in April 1979 but received no answer to it. When 10 weeks passed on the dispatch of her [second] message without receiving an answer, Mrs Lafue-Veron decided to publish the text of that message. Following is a translation of the text which is published for the first time: 12 August 19 79 Mr President, I had asked you on 4 April 1979 to permit me to exercise my rights as a lawyer and to contact my client, ex-President Ahmed Ben Bella, whom I have not been able to contact for 14 years. I have received no answer to this request of mine and I am today renewing my request, keeping in mind that my client requested after his transfer to M'Sila that I be permitted to meet him. His status has undergone important developments since 4 July. He was moved . out of the grave in which he had lived for 14 years and transferred from el-Douirate to Messila under good guard--six police cars where following the car that carried Ben Bella a~nd his wife. Finally, the man intended to , turn into a living dead was able to see villages and fields again. 26 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 Today, the president and his family live under house arrest. As soon as his Algerian friends heard the news of his release, they circulated this � news among themselves. As soon as they learned that he was in Messila, they hastened to visit him. Have the measures taken by your pred ecessor been abolished? Only a few, and very few, of them have. Military security elements guard the villa - gate while others are stat~oned ins ide the refuge [villa]. Security patrols still roam around the residence and in the town. At the beginning, the visitors were asked to show their identity cards. But the president pro- tested, demanding that these humilia ting police measures be cancelled. A visit to the president is still cons idered an act of courage. The police has summoned a number~of Messila res idents and has interrogated and threatened a number of people close to Ben Bella. But despite the hardships, despite Messila's remoteness and despite the stifling heat in this area, there are still many visitors. Motivated by the spirit of Islamic and Algerian fraternity, tens of people come to visit, bringing with them f lour, vegetables, mea.~s and sugar to share a meal with this prisoner who spent the first 3 years in a prison where his guards were ordered not t o speak a single word with him. Yes, he lived for 3 years without hearing a human voice, exaept for the infrequent visits of his mother. It has been quickly learned that Pr esident Ben Bella was freed on the con- dition that he give no press interviews and make no political statements. For further guarantees, he has been banned from contacting non-Algerians. ~lowever, one of the correspondents of Channel 2 of the French television has been able to contact Ben Bella by telephone. This contact was controlled and made on permission so that a statement may be recorded and broadcast in the president's voice--a statement in which he asserts his acceptance of the conditions stipulated in return for his release. Except for this single communication, contacting either of the villa's two telephone numbers remains impossible. I have tried s everal times to contact these numbers, but to no avail. One evening, I s ucceeded in contacting Messila after an 8-hour wait. But a voice asked the French telephone operator for the name of the pe.rson making the call and whan I identified myself, the line was cut off without any explanation. Most of the cables, such as the one I sent ~n 5 Ju1y 1979 expressing my joy at his release, do not reach h im. His mail is censored and his letters are opened and then re-sealed in a f lagrant manner and the villa is bugged. There has been a definite improvement in President Ben Bella's condition. The villa put at his disposal is very comfortable and I believe that this new luxury, with which President B en Bella had previously refused to sur- round himself, is an expression of respect for the position that he had occupied and is not intended to is o late him in a splendid villa or to show the workers who visit him ho~w far is the standard of the life he is living 27 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 from theirs. Moreover, Ben Bella can move around only in a BMW car driven by a chauffeur, and possibly bugged, and followed by police cars. Is all this for security or for surveillance? These measures, Mr president, diminish the value of the decision that you have finally taken to put an end to a long injustice--an injustice so unique that it has drawn the attention of the entire world to its victim. I am only recounting these detaiis because you are at the top of the judiciary authority and it is diff icult for you to follow up the manner in which the authorities concerned implement your instructions. Today I am renewing officially and publicly my request to be permitted to contact and meet with my client in accordance with the human rights charter that has been approved by Algeria. What is the harm that could result from . my visit? If the Algerians prefer to be deliberate, then I am firmly bound to my client's interests and bound to speed up completion of the phas e s which my client has been promised for his full and real release. In any case, the world public opinion will from now on focus its attention on the fate of this man who has lived under a ban f or a long time and there is a desire now to be convinced that he is beyond this ban. I do not believe, Mr president, that my work or my life contain anyth ing that could cause concern to the Algerians whose will for independence I supported, in the name of justice and history, since the beginning of the Algerian war. In 1955, I was registered in the Lawyers Union in Paris to - defend the Algerians and this caused me problems with�the judiciary wh o were affected by the colonialist era through which my country was goin g. - Why do you deny me my right to meet a human being I have been defendin g for 22 years? I hope, Mr president, that I will have the honor of receiving an answer this time. I am confident of your political feeling for ~ustice. Please accept my deepest a~,preciation. Madeleine Lafue-Veron 8494 CSO: 4802 28 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 ALGERIA PARTY COORDINhTOR YAHIAOUI DISCUSSES CLEAN-UP CAMPAIGN - Algiers EL MOUDJAHID in French 7-8 Sep 79 p 3 [Interview with FLN Coordinator Mohamed Salah Yahiaoui] [Text] This is the complete text of the interview granted by Mr Mohamed Salah Yahiaoui, a Political Bureau member and party coordinator of the National Liberation Front, to the Algerian Press Service: QUESTION: The Revolution has begun a vast operation aimed at protecting Algerian citizens and socialist achievements. Mr Coordinator, what is your view of this operation's prospects and what is its political context? ANSWER: This operation constitutes a link in a series of ineasures taken by the political leadership to mobilize public forces in the struggle for develop- ment and to use all potential to assure citizens' prosperity and security. - Thus this is by no means an improvised, temporary operation. "At the time of the democratic debates on the National Charter, the people showed great enthusiasm and total willingness to move forward toward broader horizons through more intense and more comprehensive action. The people also confirmed their loyalty to the Revolution's achievements and their rejection of weaknesses and inadequacies. The people also showed support for all mea- sures which the political leadership might take to protect our people's revo- lutionary enthusiasm, instilled by wonderful examples during the struggle for liberation. "Through the resolutions and recommendations adopted, the debates of the Fourth FLN Congress provided undeniable proof of the unshakable will and persistent desire of party cadres and militants to decisively and equitably end all forms of delinquency, regardless of their source and regardless of the level of their perpetrators in the hierarchy of responsibility. Algeria, which sacrificed its best sons and paid the high price for national liberty and dignity, could not stand idly by in the face of external phenomena intro- duced by fringe elements who have managed to take advantage of militant toler- ance and modesty in order to hinder the progress of the Revolution and to tarnish its reputation." 29 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 Assure Vitality of Revolution "The time has come to implement revolutionary texts and documents as well as their related criteria and provisions. This action will require us to _ have faith with every trial in performing our duty. "Our patriotic duty must be assumed under the required conditions. We must be moved by a self-critical spirit in carrying out our mission impartially. "It is als~~ our duty to instill in ourselves a revolutionary spirit by taking action in e~ccordance with the principles of order and discipline. In thi:s context, Brother Chadli Bendjedid presided over a meeting during which h~~ ave g precise, detailed instructions for permanently eliminating every obstacle to the Revolution's progress, by mobilizing all structures to provide for a better implementation of the directives intended to assure the protection of the Revolution and citizens. "Our revolutionary values and our devotion to our country require all of us, wherever we may be, in the factories, in the fields or in any productive job, to mobilize ourselves for this operation, which will require a'lot of inspi- ration' and which concerns the citizen, above all and in the final analysis. - "When we establish security and clean up our human and material environment and when we consider that our responsib ility as individuals and as militants, - we will then have performed a national duty which is part of the heritage o~ our Revolution and our deep-rooted traditions. "More than once, our people have demonstrated a high level of awareness and an amazing ability to perform their duty every time that the Revolution has called on them to mobilize and to swear allegiance to our glorious martyrs. "The measures which the political leadership has begun to implement are aimed mainly at protecting the Revolution and citizens and severely and vigorously ` punishing offenders. In their political content, these measures go beyond the struggle against apparent aspects. "These measures thus go beyond superficial characteristics, tending toward radical elimination of these phenomena, and will affect all areas of the country. The assigned goal is not simp ly limited to the struggle against delinquer?cy and its eradication, but also to educating the citizen and urging him to participate fully in the struggle for development in a climate - in which trust and security predominate, so that everyone will also know that the Revolution is vigilant and that it is able to make investigations, to demand explanations and to punish. - "The secret of the Revolution's vitality and the strength of its progress lie in its own ability to reinforce itself, to defend its principles, to mobilize its forces and to have a clear understanding of the people's realities, aspirations and demands." 30 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 Extend Operation to All Levels and Sectors QUESTION: Security services are making great efforts and assuring that practical measures aimed at protecting the Revolution and citizens are carried out within an organized f~amework. Have directives been issued to prevent mistakes and abuses? ANSWER: "The great efforts made by security services are primarily aimed at protecting citizens. Thus such efforts cannot result in any harm to them. And if we consider the capital as the first area of application-- where the measures taken by the government are beginning to be implemented-- ~ we note that citizens unanimously agree on the need to quickly and radically put an end to the vagrancy, theft and assault prevailing in certain districts, to such an extent that the citizen no longer feels safe, neither for his per- son, nor his residence, nor for his family, and lives in fea-r of being the future victim of those living outside the law. Similarly, we also note the negligence, absence of sanitation and total deterioration of buildings and accumulation of rubbish in the streets, ~o such an extent that our capital, which in principle should be a bright showplace and an object of pride for our country, is in a critical situat ion, about which no one can be silent. "I do not wish to analyze here the underlying causes which have led us into such a situation because, as everyone knows, the citizen and his material and social environment form a whole which reflects its own particular cultural features. ~ ~ "Thus the citizen will be taught respect for order and for responsibility and personal initiative and we will instill noble aspirations in him by enabling him to perceive the limits of right and duty. "Once all social structures have been unified, from the family to the school, the mosque, the enterprise, the party cell, to coimnunication and information media, we will then be able to isolate fringe elements, for it is better to prevent than to cure. "The action of security services is aimed at respect for order and moral standards in accord with the principles of our Revolution and the traditions of our society, which is known for its noble and earnest character and its support of the weak and oppressed. "President Chadli Bendjedid has issued precise, detailed directives to the = security services implemen~ing these measures in order to avoid any excess or error. "Thus for example, foreigners will not be affected by this operation at all, nor will they be in the event of an ordinary misdemeanor. "And if an excess ever does occur, it will be rectified by the security ser- vices themselves. It will by no means continue, for the operation was estab- lished with the purpose of protecting the Revolution and its social, economic 31 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 and political achievements and to enable the citizen to live his life lIl peace and security. "And judging from tlle initial responses which have reached us through party cells and informat ion media, we note the degree of enthusiasm shown by all social classes for these measures and their desire to see them continued and extended to all levels aiid all sectors." End Passivity and Negligence QUESTION: How do you explain the satisfaction and support shown by the mass - of the people for implementation of the measures to protect the Revolution = and citizens? ANSWER: "A true revolution is one which expresses the great aspir.ations and daily concerns of tiie masses and which is able to deal with problems boldly and effectively. The Revolution must not be afraid to punish those who have become accustomed to fishing in troubled waters, to "enlarging" problems and ` distorting their meaning, and to working to retard the progress of the Revolution. "The course of the Revolution will force them out, as it has routed their predecessors in the past. "President Chadli Bendjedid has expressed the Revolution's determination to assume its responsibilities, for an individual must be told: 'You have com- mitted an offense, you must render an account and you must be punished accord- ing to the offense committed,' just as a deserving citizen must be told: 'You have done well and you must be rewarded according to the effort which you have made.' "Responsibility requires duties t~ be put before rights, as stipulated by the National Charter and the recommendations of the Fourth FLN Congress. Every militant and every citizen must assume his responsibility to his country and to his Revolution. According to his level of responsibility, he will provide fo r his own security, his own happiness and his own prosperity, as well as that of his neighbor and of the country as a whole. "The feelinq of national pride and the development of the Revolution's achieve- ments in production and service sectors must prevail from now on, and shirking of responsibility, negligence and passivity will no longer be tolerated. The 'beylic' mentality must be permanently abandoned. "In reality, these principles and moral values on which the Revolution of 1 November is based are rooted in our Arab-Islamic heritage and in our social traditions. "Al1 Islamic precepts encourage hygiene, even acts of piety require hygiene, for the mind, the body and for the environment. 3~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 "The true Moslem is one who tries to understand the Koranic verse which states that 'God will not change the situation of a people unless they change themselves.' "In our present-day terminology, good citizenship in society, the responsi- t~ility which each person has to his neighbor and which Islam values, is a corollary of freedom, responsibility, civic duty and limits to rights. "We greatly need to revive the ancestral traditions of our heritage and our values so that the~� can be put into practice in our daily lives. j- ~ "Islam is the first religion which callec3 for harmony between faith and ~ action by not being limited merely to intentions," the party coordinator concluded. - 11915 CSO : 4' 400 i I i 33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 ALGERIA FINANCE MINTSTER SPEAKS ON TIES WI'1'H USSR LD031107 Algiers EL MOUDJAHID in French 12 Nov 79 p 3 LD [APS report providing "full text" of speech by Algerian Finance Minister _ Mohamed Yala at 10 Novembe-r opening of fifth session of Algerian-Soviet Intergovernmental Standin.g Commission for Economic, Scientific and Tecti- nical Cooperation: "Potential for Strengthening and Developing Relations Between the ~tao Countries"--passages between slantlines published in bold- faceJ [Excerpt] Algeria's policy in the domestic sphere and in the international sphere constitutes an integral whole and thus it is quite natural that our - country should have been prompted to establish firm relations of friendship with the states of the socialist camp and the USSR in particular, in the same way Ehat Algeria maintains very close relations of fraternity and solidarity with the Third World countries, This means that essentially Algeria's policy is in many respects very close - to your country's in the international sphere and in particular as far as everything relating r.o strengthening the anti-imperialist and anticolonial- ist front is concerned, Moreover, I would like to tell you that Algeria has never tried to avoid its duties of solidarity with developing countries and that, despite its difficulties and the exacting demands of socialist building, Algeria sets aside a considezable part of its GNP each year for totally disinterested aid to certain extremely underprivileged partners. Indeed, we have always believed for our part that the idea of solidarity could not be an abstract philosophical concept or a fantastic notion, but something that gives meaning to life ar.d the relations between peoples and makes it possible to find specific solutions for certain specific situa- tions. Furthermore, we are deeply awt�re of the existence of cour_tries that are richer than others and countries that are poorer than others, just as there are nations that are "rich as a result of our wealth" because they have for centuries indulged in frantic exploitation of the Third World. ~ 3~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 /It is for all these reasons that we have always believed that the imper- ialist states could not be sincere friends of the developing world/ and that it is necessary to work ceaselessly for closer links between all peoples and all countries that cherish peace, freedom and progress. We know that those are the objectives assigned to the policy of cooperation between our two countries, which, moreover, have an obligation to collabo- rate increasingly closely to set others an example of solidarity that is true, healthy, fruitful and beneficial to our two peoples. - In this connection great things have been accomplished together, and Algeria can only express satisfaction at what has~ been done. However, we can and must do more and do better since real opportunities are available for increasingly broad, increasingly large-scale cooperation covering more and more fields. In this connection I am happy tc say that cooperation is experiencing increased vitality because we have been able to keep our rela- tions sheltered from the hazards of an international capitalist market whose crisis is having pernicious effects on a11 the operations implemented within this framework. 4 The eminently noble goals that we are seeking to achieve within the frame- work of our conac?ission's activities--namely, the strengthe~ning of solidarity between our two countries and understanding between our two peoples--give the two sides a special responsibility in this sphere. /I want to reassert the Algerian Government's firm desire to spare rio effort to further develop the traditional ties of profound friendship and mutually advantageous cooperation that link our countries./ It was in this spirit that the Algerian delegation at the preparatory meeting for our commission's present session, which wa~ held 18 through 26 October 1979 in Moscow, submitted a complex of specific projects, em- bracing the main priority sectors of our economy, whose implementation could be insured together in a very short time. This huge program, which is also based on the Soviet side's real potential, would make it possible to create the necessary conditions for harmonious and balanced development of our relations provided that a suitable financial framework can be de- termined by our two governments. Within the prospect of solidarity and complementary relations, every opportunity must be investigated and catalogued. - Our two delegations have already started objectively assessing all our re- lations in the economic, scientific and technical, and commercial and financial spheres. Many agreements have already been concluded between tilgeria and the Soviet - Union. These farm a solid foundation for relations and a secure guarantee 35 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 for their future, New agreements between our governments may be signed or elaborated during the present session. Thus an additional contribution will be made to the enduring nature of Algerian-Soviet friendship at the prompting of the leaders of our two countries, which are equally committed to promoting more equitable relations between developed and developing countries and strengthening solidarity among progressive f~rces in the world. CSO: 4400 ~ 36 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 - ALGERIA BRIEFS - POSTPONEMENT OF MINISTER'S TRIP--Algiers--Algerian Foreign Minister Mr Mohamed Seddik Benyahia will not go to Paris until late January, it was announced in Algiers on 27 November. This trip, planned for early Decem- ber, has been put back by co~anon consent because of a crowded calendar, particularly for Algeria: The Monrovia meeting of the OAU ad hoc committee on the conflict in the Western Sahara, local elections on 14 December and, around 20 December, a session of the National Liberation Front Central Com- mittee. However, it is not impossible that there are other reasons behind . the postponement. The file of Algerian-French relations is particularly delicate and declarations made on this subject by President Chadli Bendjedid on the anniversary of 1 November 1954 have been assessed in various ways. Many people believe that dialog cannot really be restored until Paris I adopts an attitude of "true neutrality" in the Western Sahara conflict and , clarifies its intentions with respect to immigrant workers. The Algeriana are certainly disposed to "write a new chapter" in bilateral relations, but opinions differ on the conditions which must be fulfilled to achieve these goals. The postponement of Mr Benyahia's trip gives extra time for thought on this point. This doubtless does not suit Paris, which wanted to see the cycle of discussion and consultation envisaged at the time of Mr Francois-Poncet's visit to Algiers last June begin before tht. end of the year. [Daniel Junqua] [Text] [LD050907 Paris LE MONDE in rrench 29 Nov 79 p 4 LD] , ECONOMIC, TRADE PROTUCOL WITH BULGARIA--Morocco and Bulgaria have signed a trade and ecoxiomic cooperation agreement covering the period 1980-84. According to this agreement, Bulgaria will export to Morocco a plant for the manufacturing of inechanical equipment and electrical and chemical products. In its turn, Morocco will export phosphate, phosphoric acid, nonferrous ore, fish, citrus fruit and olives to Bulgaria. The agreement ~ was signed by Mr Azzedine Guessous, minister of commerce and industry, ~ and by Mr Khristo Khristov, Bulgarian minister of foreign trade. The first trade agreement between Morocco and Bulgaria was signed in 1957. In 1965, the two countries concluded an economic, scientific and techni- cal agreement. [Text] [LD061440 Rabat MAP in Arabic 1300 GMT 6 Dec 79 LD] 37 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 FR~NCH WEAPONS PURCHASE--Algeria is holding talks with France on the possi- ble purchase of French weapons, according to a well informed source in - Paris. The source indicated that Algeria is interested in buying Fouga 90 jet training aircraft, AMX-10 tanks and other armoured vehicles as well as artillery. The Fouga 90 can be adapted to serve as a ground attack air- craft. According to the source, the negotiations are due to the improve- ment in Franco-Algerian relations following the death of President Houari Boumedienne. The French, the source noted, were hesitant because they are among the principal suppliers of arms to Morocco, which is at war in the , Western Sahara against the Algerian-backed Polisario Front. The Algerians were understood to have replied that they did not link the purchase of arms to the Saharan conflict. [Text] [Paris AN-NAHAR ARAB REPORT & MEMO in English 26 Nov 79 p 3] CSO: 4420 38 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 IRAN ISLAMIC LEGAL BASIS OF KHOMEYNI RULE DISCUSSED Dakar AFRICA in French Nov 79 pp 100-101, 110 ~Article by Ed. Fayolle: 11The I~omeyni Program"T [TextJ Is it necessary to read Ayatollah Khomeyni? Given the level to which events have carried him the shaper of his own policy and the model for practices it is more important to see what he does rather than to know what he says in his speeches. Nevertheless, we propose the experiment of reading the few short doctrinal pages which follow, referring, when it is a question of facts, to the practices of the Islami~ tribunals and other amenities of the regime. One will cGnclude that behind the innocent remarks of the "good news," God is very dangerous when his prophets organize the government in his name. In all good conscience, the Khomeyni who wrote "An Islamic government is not despoti~..... The chief of state is not a despot," would now reject the accusation of despotism. He is just a very pious old man...but beware of hypocrits when God is in command! The Islamic government resembles no other government now in power. It is not despotic. The chief of state is not a despot who plays with the goods and lives of people and does with them what he wants, who kills whomever he pleases and enriches or ennobles whomever }ie wishes, handing out the land and property of the people right and left. The prophet Ali and the caliphs never had those kinds of powers. An Islamic government is neither despotic nor absolutist; it is constitutional, not in the usual sense of the word, naturally, with laws being approved by people and a majority. Ra.ther, it is constitutional in the sense that its leaders are bound by a set of "condi- tions" defined in the Koran and in the Sunna of the Prophet with respect to the chief executive and the aaministration. These conditions are nothing but Islamic laws, the very laws that must be observed and applied. In this way, an Islamic g~~vernment is the government of Divine Law over the people. That which constitutes the basic difference between an Islamic government and other constitutional, monarchic and republican governments, another cardinal fact, is that under these systems, the people's electe~i officials, 39 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 or the monarch are the legislators, while under Islam, the only legislator is God, The Holy Legislator. No one has the right to make laws and no law is applicable if it is not made by The Legislator. That is why under an Islamic government, instead of having a legislative assembly which usually represents one of the three branches of government, there is a planning assembly whose role is to organiae the different ministries in keeping with Islamic laws and to determine, with the help of these plans, the way to perform public services throughout the territory. All of the Islamic laws found in the Koran and the Sunna have been accepted by Muslims and the latter obey them. This facilitates the task of the govern- ment, which thereby becomes the coordinator of the people. However, under other constitutional systems, the majority of those who pass themselves off as the representatives of the majority of the people approve whatever they wish as laws and then impose them on all the people. A government of Islam is a government of the Law. Under this method of government, sovereignty belongs exclusively to God and the Law constitutes God's order and decree. The Law of Islam, the Order of God, reigns in an absolute fashion over everyone and over the Islamic state. Al1 men, from the Prophet on down to his caliphs and common mortals, are alway~ subject to th~ Law, which is sent by God and explained in the Koran and by the Prophet. If. the latter assumed the responsibility of the caliphate, it was upon God's order. He is God's caliph on earth and not caliph acting upon his own initia- tive with the intention of becoming leader of the Muslims. When risks of conflict appeared within the community, given the recent nature of conversions to Islam, God revealed himself to the Prophet and exhorted him to announce the caliphate immediately, in the middle of the desert. Muhammad then appointed Ali as caliph, obeying the Law, not hecause the latter was his son-in-law or because he had rendered services, but because he himself had received the divine mission to do so and because he was obeying the divine order. Under Islam, the government means obedience to the Law and only the Law exercises its authority over society. Whenever a certain limitation was placed on the powers of the Prophet and the imams, it is the work of God. Every time the Prophet expressed something or announced a law, it was in obedience to the divine Law, the Law which everyone without exception must obey, the government as well as those governed. Obeying the Prophet is also an order of God which says: "Obey the Prophet." Submitting to the _ government officials or the imams is also an order of God which says: "Obey the imams who have come from you." The opinion of individuals, even of the Prophet, has no power over the divine Law. Everyone yields to the will of God. An Islamic government is not royal, much less imperial. This means that it rejects any system tending to master the lives and property of the people or arbitrarily intervening in their affairs. Likewise, and unlike other regimes, an Islamic government has no grand palaces or grandiose construc- ~ tions, no servants or stables or private court secretaries or any other 40 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 royal requirements that gobble up half of the national budget and more. You all know the life of the Prophet as head of the Islamic state. You also know that up until the pre-Omayyad period, his way of living and governing was respected. The first two persons apparently imitated the character and life of Muhammad in their private lives, even if in many other domains, they manifested their opposition, which led to the great deviation of the Ottoman period, a deviation that plunged us into all the misfortunes we are now experiencing. At the time of Ali, the system of government was correct. Although he reigned over a vast territory, of which Persia, Egypt, Hejaz and Yemen were only provinces, he lived in the greatest simplicity, like a humble student. It is reported that having bought two shirts, he gave the best one to his servant Ghanbar and then cut off the sleeves of the seccnd, as they were too long, and wore it as it.was, without even having them hemmed. And yet, he commanded a vast territory that was densely populated and very rich. If this art of governing had been maintained, there would never have been any domination, royalty, imperialism, oppression or looting. There would never have been any stealing from the public treasury, any prostitution or other reprehensible actions. Many of these forms of corruption are rooted _ in the team in power and in the family of the despotic, capricious sovereign. It is the sovereigns who create the places of corruption, prostitution and drugs and devote holy movie theaters! If all of these costly receptions of the Court and this wastefulness did not exist, there would never be such a huge deficit and we would never have to bend down before America and England to beg for their aid and protection! _ If we have become a poor country, it is because of this waste and theft. Do we not have oil? Do we not have enough reserves and mines? We are rich, but it is all the corrupt administration that has impoverished us. If all that did not exist, he (the shah) would not have to go to America ~ to bow before the "nice man" (the president of the United States) and ask for aid. There is also all the superfluous administrative organiaation with all of its bureaucracy and red tape so completely foreign to Islam and which cost the national budgetso dearly, practically the same sum as the expenditures pre- viously mentioned. None of this has anything to do with Islam, nor does it give the people any- thing but worry and a waste of time. The methods used by Islam, on the con- trary, are very simple, practical and fast. Let us take the example of peti- tioning for rights, the solutions of conflicts and the application of punish- ments. When Islamic justice was followed,, the judge, with his two acolytes, a pen and inkwell, put an end to enmities and sent the people back to work. Now, with the judicial organiaation and the resulting formalities, God only knows that they are endless and lead nowhere! Al1 of these things make the country poor and cause nothing but problems and wasted time. 41 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 I Conditions To Fulfill To Become Head of islamic Government The conditions necessary to the exercise of governmental authority depend directly on the nature of the Islamic government. Outside of the qualities required of everyone that is, reason and wisdom two other conditiona are esser.tial: knowledge of the Law and a sense of fairness. Even after the death of the Prophet, when differences appeared having to do with the choice of the caliph, all Muslims were unanimous in declaring that the caliph had to be erudite and virtuous. The cause of the controversy had to do with the choice of the proper person. 1 Since an Islamic government is the government of the Law, knowledge of laws ~ is indispensable to ttie authority ~n charge of them. This also applies to anyone occupying any post hut in varying degrees. As the ravayat affirm, it is obvious that the highest official must also have superior knowledge. Our imams have always advanced the same argument for access to the post of imam. The objections which the Shiite ulemas have formulated to others dealt preci~ely with the ~'egree of knowledge. According to them, a caliph who could not respond to a question about the law did not deserve the cali- phate or the office of imam. Furthermore, i` he did not act in conformity with Islamic law, he was no longer worthy of the office of imam. Therefore, a knowledge of the laws and a sense of fairness are, in the eyes of Muslims, the conditions sine qua non of exercising power. Other aspects do not count. For example, a knowledge of the nature of angels or the qual- ~ ities of the world's Maker dues not have anything to do with the office of imam. Even if he were the most learned man in natural sciences, even if ; he were the best musician on earth, a man would not thereby deserve to be , caliph and would no~ outrank the doctors of Islamic law in competition for ~ the post. With respect to the caliphate, of which there was a great deal of ~ debate during the time of the Prophet and the imams, one must say that the caliph must know Islamic laws above all, be a true jurist, and second, be Fair, a firm believer and have perfect morals. Reason demands this because an Islamic government is a government of the Law and not an arbitrary government under the authority of one or several persons. If the supreme magistrate of Islam does not know the laws, he does not deserve to be in government because if he copies from others, the power of the government will wither away, and if he does not copy, he will not be able to govern or apply the laws of Islam. It is obvious that: "The faqin govern over the sultans." If the sultans are Muslims, they must pbey the faqih and ask them questions about the laws before carrying them out because the real rulers are the faqih thems2lves. Sovereignty therefore officially belongs to the f aqih and not to those who, out of igno~ance or a lack of knowledge of the Law, are farced to obey them. Naturally, it is nat necessary for all officials, border guards and civil servants ta be faqih. It is sufficient that they know the laws relating to th.e off.ic~ or post entrusted to them. This was su at the time of the Prophet and Ali. Only the supreme leader must be endowed with the qualities pre- viously ci.ted. As for the others, they must go to him with questions when - they ~~re still confused by the law. ~+2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 _ The head of the government must have perfect faith and morals, be just and not be tainted by sin. The person who must apply the penal code or manage the public treasury and who receives from God the mission of repre- - senting Him in the administration of his followers must not be a sinner. God does not give such powers to an oppressor. If the head of the government is not just, he will not be just in giving each person his rights, in collecting taxes or using them or in imposing the penal code. He will risk imposing his family, his relations and his friends on society and misappropriating the public funds to satisfy his whims. Thus, the position of Shiism toward the system of government and persons in power since the disappearance of the Prophet and until the apParition of the Imam of all times is clear: The imam must know the laws and remain fair in their application. 11,464 CSO: 4900 ~+3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 IRAN U.S, ' SENTIMENTALITY' IN IRANIAN ISSUE CRITICIZED ~ PA072230 Bogota EL SIGLO in Spanish 29 Nov 79 p 5 PA [Editorial] [Excerpts] No matter how the crisis between Iran and the United States is solved, there will apparently be a fundamental breakdown in international law and a reduced influence by the United States in iCs role as leader of the free worldo The White House's handling of the crisis has been inconsistent and inde- cisive, and this has revealed the lack of a guiding hand and the incapacity of the present government to hold the reins of the country and to announce policies that represent the common will. For 3 weeks President Carter has had the public opinion of the~entire world, and to a leaser degree, of his own country, on his side. During this period the opportunity to make dramatic decisions was not exploited, and since then the intermittent U.S. reaction has lacked coherence, that is, "direction." It is not known just what U.S. policy pursues. The entire "negotiation" has revolved around the problem of the hostagzs, to the sudden detriment of the national inter- ests of the state. It would seem that to the U.S. mind world peace may be endangered because of a threat to the lives of some U.S. officials. Although by law and by logic the United States is right, this attitude belittles the objectives of the Western alliance. The United States does not believe peace can be threatened by the political events of recent years which, in truth, do seriously endanger it, but when the n?atter touches its society internally, then there is a reaction out of proportion to the real dimensions of the problem. The United States supported Somoza until, in an obacure episode, a U.S, newsman was killed in Managua. Then the great power of the north reacted, changed sides in a political de~ision dictated by emotion and accelerated the dictator's fall. Now the U.S. attitude toward Iran is is subject to the same personal minutiae to which a foresighted and ser- ious policy should be impervious. Now, when an agparently similar situation has occurred, the lives of U.S. citizens in the Tehran embassy have emerged as the primary consideration. We hope that in the final analysis decisions about war and peace in the world will be based on basic considerations and not, as on other occasions, on emotions and sentimentality. Moreover, it would seem that the U,S. public feels defeated and is in a state of isolation and what had seemed to be an outbreak of national indignation againat Iran that had the virtue of uniting the country is being rapidly diluted and now the variance of opinion makes decision-making difficult. CSO: 3010 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 IRAN - STUDENT SPLIT FROM REVOLUTION WIDENS Tehran BArIDAD in Persian 9 Oct 79 p 2 [Text] Following an announcement by the prosecutor general of the Islamic Republic of Iran based on the fact that no one has the right to depose or install employees or to change or cancel regulations, the Society to Defend the Respect and Rights of University Staff and Scholars, in an open letter addressed to the prosecutor general, announced that the group regards itself dutybound to bring the prosecutor into the midst of the ~ antirevolutionary activities which have been tak~ng place throughout all the universities, and especially the University of Tehran, which was the guiding inspiration for the institutions of higher learning. The statement said: 1. The temporarily appointed administrations of the universities, in opposition to the wishes of the Imam, instead of performing during the las~ 7 months, have caused so much destruction in the universities, and so destroyed their prestige, honor and reputation that it is unimaginable. Illustrative of this matter are the articles of thinkers and writers con- tinually complaining about university staff, recent protests by His Excellency Mehdavi Kuni, president of the Central Committee, printed in _ Bamdad, the sharp reprimands and criticisms of Mohandis Bazargan, and every- _ thing else. Unfortunately, the administrations, with their antirevolutionary activities, are daily increasing the split between students and the revolution, and with the continuous announcements of discharges of a number of researchers, professors, and investigators, some evidently religious students have caused much negative sentiment concerning religion. - The administrati�ns, of their own accord, established staff investigation committees or similar organizations in the universities and removed staff members against all existing laws and regulations, and announced their names publicly by means of organizational newsletters and thereby destroyed the credibility and positions of those people and gave university personnel a bad name and created in this group of researchers and scholars a pessimistic feeling and a state of depression, mortification, despair, and discomfort. ~+5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 Keeping in mind what has been published everywhere, in the staff investi- gation committees of the universities, especially the University of Tehran there are several clergymen present who confirm to what extent pessimism concern ing religion is found in the hearts of university employees. - 2. For 7 months now, with complete disregard far all order, regulation and law, many professors have been dismissed behind closed doors at the hands of lay p eople with no infor*.nation and without any right to a court trial, and their salaries were cut without any justificiation. "It has been revealed that in the staff investigation committee of the University of Tehran there were two Savak agents." Unfortunately there have been no ; investigators to vindicate these university employees, and, unsalaried and helpless, subject to persecution and oppression, some of them have become counterrevolutionaries and bullies while wearing the mask of the revolution, and for the same reason they have gathered together the oppressed members _ of the university commu::ity and established a 100 percent unified organization f or the purpose of alerting responsible officials to the antirevolutionary and revolution-destroying activities of the ruinous and destructive adminis- trations and to become themselves effective obstacles to activities and practices opposed to the people and their education. - 3. The activities of the administrations are a kind of autonomous government within a governmeat, because despite all protests, and esp ecially the criticism ` of Mohandis Bazargan of the reprehensibls and ir.correct practices of the administrations, they continue to operate as before and pay not the slightest heed to the orders of the government. Among the prime minister's ; orders, which, according to the command of the Imam, must be obeyed, and if not it is a violation of religious law and the revolution, the prime minister, in Circular No 12/998 dated 31 July 1979, which is presented herein, detailed the unjust and immoral activities of the administrations and plainly ordered that salaries be issued to the professors. Until now, however, a month and a half since the issuance of the order, the temporary univers ity administrations, under the instigation of the temporary adminis- tration of the University of Tehran, have not paid the slightest regard to this order and continue as before to refrain from paying salaries to the pzofessors. ?f the university employees are guilty, then prosecute them and take ven- geance upon them, and if they are innocent, do not allow counterrevolutionaries posing as revolutionaries to carry on with every kind of ugly practice, to go abo ut settling accounts and taking revenge in the name of the revolution . and thereby destroy the revolution. The Society for Defending the Respect and Rights of University Personnel and Scholars insistently demands of His Excellency that he issue an order that anyone, under any conditions, who is guilty will be punished and the events of the last 7 months will become clear. It must not be left unsaid - that unfortunately with the practices of the administrations, the universities have b ecome empty and thousands have left the country. Only patriots remain to serv e the country. The Society expects the rights of professors to bF defended, and the process of disunity and the split between clergymen and f aculty, which they 3eli- berately created ar.d continue to spread day by day, to be stopped. 931~ 46 , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 IRAN JUDICIAL SYSTEM TO BE REVAMPED, SADR SAY S Tehran KEYHAN in Persian 10 Oct 79 p 12 [Article by Fathollah Bani Sadr, president of the Supreme Court: "The National Judi~ial System will be Changed"] [TextJ The President of the National Supreme Court, during a telephone interview with KEYHAN's correspondent, discussed a plan for dissolution of the provincial courts, the regional courts, ~he government employees courts, the provincial prosecutors` co urts, and the rural courts, and pro- vided explanations in this area. He indicated that until the publication of the complete text of the proposal in the offi~ial national newspaper is approved, the courts will cont:inue to op erate as usual, and that this dissolution would be contingen;. on a 15-day time lapse after such publication and the establishment of a general court system. - Fathollah Bani Sadr, president of the 5upreme Court, in the matter of the proposal for dissalution of the regional and provincial courts and other judicial institutions, which after approval of the proposal, will be changed, stated: "The approved proposal related to dissolution of the provincial, municipal, and employees government courts is not yet at the stage of implementation and the courts are still being administered as bef ore. The proposal is now in the hands of the Justice Department and the minister of justice and a study for its implementation is underway. At this time, the task of selecting judges for the general courts and method of establishmen*_ of this type of court is also under study, and when these studies come forth, _ the proposal must be published in the official national newspaper and 15 _ days must pass after this publi~ation. Af ter the passage of 15 days from the publication of the afore-mentioned law in the official national news- paper, and the coming of a general court system, the proposal will be - implemented. On that basis all of the provincial courts, municipal courts, government employees courts, hearings courts and provincial circuit courts will be dissolved." The president of the Supreme Court then referred to the issue of the general courts, saying: "The general courts are comprised of three sections, the civ~l courts, the criminal courts and the general ~-7 r= ~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 courts, each of which deals with certain types of cases. In another portion of his discussion, Bani Sadr said, with regard to the anticipated power of the judiciary in the forthcoming constitution: "The power of the judiciary in the initial draft of the forthcoming constitution been taken into consideration, but what will be done is still not c~ear, and this issue is still urider study in the special committees ~.f the Assembly of Experts. A definita opinion and discussion in this is still not out. - This matter is contingent on a plan for matters related to ~udicial powers, and, studies of anticipated needs in this area are under way in r.he Con- stitutional Study Commission." I Bani Sadr added: "What is certain is that after confirmation of the issues and grinciples which have been taken into consideration concerning the judiciary, and of course, after the Imam's approval, extensive changes in the courts, the Supreme Court, and the current judicial system will be _ brought about." 9310 CSO: 4906 ~ 48 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 IRAN COSTS OF ABOLISHING JUDICIARY CITED Tehran BANIDAD in Persian 12 Oct 79 p 5 [Article by Azar Khadiv Pur, 3ustice Department lawyer: "Before Abolishing ' the System and Institutions of the Present Judiciary, Sufficienr Atrention Must be Devoted to the Motives and Apparent Nonsuccess of the Courts"] [Text] Every protester who has raised issue- against the court, against this great house of justice, which is the outcome of the efforts and struggles of past generations, especially the administrators and judges, has believed and does believe that a truly strong, independent, and effective court which is the home of justice and protects the rights of the people and the social order is not effective without fundamental and basic revisions. The necessity for a revision of this institution, an;: purging and reforming it in a way that is becoming to the circumstances c o~ir present-day and ever-changing independent Iran, with compilation and E~purg :.ion of the present laws and government regulations pertaining to it, is affirmable without any doubt or hesita.tion. There are people also who have spared - no pains in the development and protection of this institution, but before any steps are taken to abolish this tower of judicial machinery, it m~ist � be po~nted out that this is akin to playing with the tail of a 1ion. It is necessary, before destroying this present system of ~udiciQ- apparatus ~ ' which is the result of the historical experience and scholarly effort of 50 or 60 years and is the true guarantor of social order and defender of national security, that ca~eful and sufficient attention be given to the causes and apparent nonsuccess of the courts. Thus, when those who are calling for reform of the judiciary produce more useful suggestions and express their ideas in a more sophisticated way, it will be time to put them into action. Otherwise, what a mass corruption and confusion will arise out of the void. The want of a judicial system will once again involve the suffering people in the problems experienced prior to the - constitutional revolution, just as at the beginning of the constitutional revolution protest arose out of a lack of an impartial recourse for those with grievances. Why? ~+9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 i According to evidence found in the proud history of our constitutional - revolution, in the times of the Qajars and in the times prior to them resolution of lawsuits and judiciary matters of the country were under- taken in a court known as the "Shar' Court," which, for various reasons, among them the lack of well-ordered and responsible institutions adhering to common laws, the lack of cooperation and agreement in making decisions, and the issuance of often-contradictory legal opinions of Shar' judges based on different and numerous sources and events, created cause for social unrest. Therefore, because of a f ailure to obtain uniform procedures for dealing with litigations and claims, the nation rose up and demanded a ~ justice department and a judiciary system based on order and secular laws ' , and regulations, and, as the history of the constitutional revolution shows, they realized their demands through continual demonstrations. A point worthy of attention is that always during a crisis of the ~udiciary it is the common man who suffers, and basically, the imposition of tyranny on the people is not possible without resorting to undermining the judiciary and eliminating law and order. In actual practice, we saw that the agents of the deposed regime, in proportion to the weakness of the judiciary, increasingly brought forth their illegal and illegitimate recommendations and proposals, and the more the sphere of influence and power of the judiciary was restricted, the more the sphere of power of the despotic ruling group, which usurped the rights of the people, increased. Thus motivated, they restricted the vitality of the judiciary as much as they i could, and day by day they weakened this institution. In any case we now turn from the history of the judiciary in order to explain the real reasons for the apparent lack of success of the Justice Department, for the benefit of the government body which has taken on the enormous - responsibility of dissolving and renewing the courts. Initially, it should be said that despite the many criticisms that have been levied against our modern Justice Department and will be levied against it, most of them either arose out of ignorance or self-interest, because comparatively and relatively our jus~ice system as it is currently reflected is not without positive consequence. If we dispense with inadmissable objections and criticisms and look impartially at the contributions and accomplishments of this institution, taking into consideration the restrictions of the former regime, and bearing in mind the obsolete ideas which were in opposition to the development and fruition of this institution, and review the positive and negative effects it has had in its short life of 50 or 60 years--we will acknowledge the distinguished position of this agency in the previous despotic regime. Only if we persi,t in our narrow and prejudiced thinking and unjust accusations can we deny the positive accomplishments of this institution. , 50 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 - Proof for the claim of a higher position for the power of the judiciary relative to the other political and administrative branches of the govern- ment was the instantaneous creation of special courts, among them the military courts, whose increased power we witnessed every day and every hour as we witnessed the shrinking power of the courts of the Justice Department, and the proliferation from all sides of slander and unjust accusations. If the judicial institutions of the country had been in league with the oppressive and despotic regime and its illegal activities and agents and they had endorsed the desires of those who would trespass upon the rights of tl~e people, their power would certainly have increased and there would have been no need to establish special puppet courrs. The most frequent complaint about the judiciary has been its .~lowness in rendering justice, and both in appearance and in reality this :~s a justi- fiable complaint, but the reasons for the slowness that prevails in the administration of justice in the courts should be studied from two points of view. First, the nature of the judgment process, which is directly connected with the fate of one and all should be carefully, deeply, and sufficiently considered, because so many times only one mistake has resulted in the taking of an innocent human being's life, or caused someone irreparable material and intellectual loss. Therefore, judicial decisions anc; tiie issuance or just judgments are dependent on complete study, and though this causes delay, it is better than an unjust and hasty decision against a person without guilt. Secondly, the slowness of the judicial process in the Justice Depar.tment - was connected with the overall policy and nature of organization of the previous regime which absolutely stopped the process of increasing judiciary power by implementing the legal authority of the Justice Department, and of reinforcing the independence of the judiciary, and as we were obstructed we were prevented from improving and expanding judiciary and administrative staff resulting in a disproportionately small pool of lega].ly trained and administrative manpower on the one hand, and, on the other hand, an annually increasing accumulation of backed-up cases arising out of a widening of social, political, legal and econor~ic relations in society which slowed the judicial process. This mattar will become clear if one compares the statistics of accumulated cases in the Ministry of Justice through the years with the inequitably small number of judicial personnel. As a result, the _ people, who are not aware of the judiciary's problems, through this process have been made pessimistic and unsupportive toward this system, because every regime that trespasses on the rights of the people and violates a - nation's freedom has feared the power of the judiciary and the power of a law before which both strong and weak and rich and poor have equal responsi- bilities and duties and from which bodily penalties neither rich nor poor can be exempted, even by paying 5 million rials gotten by cooperating with the fo~er regime, nor can one escape its punishment simply by changing one's colors after years of big talk, bragging and flattery, and wishing well to the oppressors, supporting the regime, baclcing up traitors, and bolsrering the foundations of oppression and corruption. With the hope that we will accept counsel from the experiences of several of our political ages, and that we will strive to preserve the accomplish- ments of our proud history. 9310 Cso: 4906 51 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 IRAN - NEW EMPHASIS PLACED ON DOMESTIC INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Expansion of Domestic Production ~ Tehran KEYHAN in Persian 12 Nov 79 p 9 /Text/ The country's industries are under economic siege by imperialisrr~; liowever, in spite of rumors, the country's domestic production has not de creased following t1~e triumph of the revolution--rather, according to re- search by experts in the Ministry of Industry and Mines, the output of the nation's industries has been 83 percent above that of 1977. Dr Ahmadzadeh Heravi. minister of industry and minea, in the course of a special interview with KEYHAN in which he discussed this matter, held that every kind of shortage in the countr,y has been artificial and said "A num ber of people have engaged in hoarding the country's output in order to raise prices." In ti;is conversation, the minister of industry and mines considered t1~e shortage of cement a mere rumor and declared, "The country's current cement production i~as increased by 3 percent relative to the six spring and summer monti~s of 1977 in thirteen plants." The minister of industry and mines tnen asserted that a number of people have proceeded to hoard cement and have created artificial shortages in various fields as a result. The min- ister of industry and mines then warned, on describing tiie country's econom- ic progress ac~d the proble~ns which are facing the country's industrial and productive units at the present time, "We will not allow a number of prof- iteers and middlernen to lay the ground for a shortage in cement or any type of requirement needed by the public through their plots." Once again, Ahmadzadeh referred to the problem of the cement shortage and pointed c~ut, "The cement producFn~.capacity of the cauntry's current factories in tlie course of the past 6 months was 3,301,000 tons; at the present time 2,000 tons of cement are being p~oduced and supplied on the market daily." 52 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 Ah~,~adzadeh the~: referred to tlie iron producCion and distribution systero ar~d sai.d "In ~;eneral, ~ae have tried to sell iron products to nun,erous [~i dividuals and class t+~o and three bendors to avoid the einer~;ence of a black market in iron, so that we can also control the distribution of iron and consequently provide the iron required by people in the market by prevent- i;ig the }~oardin~ of iron." The minister of industry and mining stressed "A number of people are ~ry- in~ to l~oard iron in order to raise its price." In another portion of I~is conversation, Ahrnadzadeh referred to the efforts of the coun~ry's industrial - and productive units and said "In general, through the efforts of Irani~ri workers, the 1eve1 of output has risen. For example, the production capac- ity of textile units in our country has increased 71 percent above the 1977 level. Of course one must not ignore the problems which foreign countries t~ave created for us at the hands of inperialism; our industries' dependence on the fo~eign world is one of the big problems we have iiot yet heen sUle to eliminate or b~ring to a reasonable limit." He expressed the hope that all such types of dependence on the industries of foreign countries caot~ld be eliminated in tl~e future and that we coould attain self-sufficiency. '~he r~~inister of industry and minin~; added "The foreign couiltries, at the hands of irnperialisni, l~ave placed us in an economic sie~;e and have cut off all their credits related to our industries. However, in spite of all these problems, industries are active and possess considerable capacity; I must state that we have had an 138 percent increase in the food process i~ig sector, and tire and household appliance manufacture also shows a 67 percent increase." Ahmadzsdeh ther. pointed out "The foreign countries have cut off our credits because they think that the temporary government of tl~e Islamic Republic of Iran does not have the necessary stability as they see i~. liowever, through our efforts, we have shown ttiat we do have the ~iec~s- sary stability and on the other hand we have replaced their credits with our own and have allocated the sum of f~0 biilion rials to this matter, so _ that we can purchase the primary materials for cash and import them. We have placed existing credits at the disposal of domestic industries with a iuaxi~~lum of economization and wp have tried to have most of these credi.ts take the form of foreign currency credits." The minister of industry and mining L-hem emphasized, "Another reason for our dependence on foreign industries is the shortage of specialized man~ power, because foreign experts and specialists left Iran with the triumph ` of the revolution and in order to put pressure on us are refusing to re- turn." The minister of industry and mining then said "One foreign company in the previous regime would receive 300 marks a day for one of its experts. . After the triumph of the revolution it increased this amount to 720 marks; for us, this is unacceptable." Ahmadzadeh then announced "We have entered into discussions on a long-range plan for the Krupp company, in wtiich Iran also has a share, so that we ~vill be ahle to train the technicians the country requires." The minister of industry and mining then declared "Another reason for the recent high prices was the volume of currency in 53 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 circulation in 197~~ and 1979 and prior to the revolution; all at once, this volume of printed currency doubled--that is, it iiicreased from 40 to ~2 hillion tomans. This is also affecting prices." _ Al~�tadzadeh Heravi added, "In the three summer months of 1979, 79 construc- tion permir_s were issued for capital investment, machinery imports and the erection of new factories. In ti~is field ca~ital investment was - l., ;E9,30Q,~)(10 rials, ~f which 912 million rials were allocated to the i~n- portation and purchase of machinery; 304 million rials of the total per- centay,e of capital were allocated to construction activities, 152 million rials to the purchase of land and S00 million rials to operating capital." Tl~e �~inister of industry and mining added "We have talked with the Bank P4elli and 5 billion tomans i.n loans approved by the National Economic Council have been placed at the disposal of small industries. In addition to this, Bank Sepah has also declared its readiness to pay 2 billion tomans in loans to the country's industries." - Ban on Foreign Companies Tehran KEYHAN in Persian 12 Nov 79 p 3 [Text] Yesterday afternoon the open session of the Council for. the Final In- vestigation into the Constitution met under the chairmanship of Ayatollah Dr Beheshti and examined and ratified three principles of the constitution. In yesterday's session the representatives presented their views and recom- i mendations upon presentation of the principles, and they were ratified by a majority of the votes following their review. The principles which were ratified at yesterday morning's session are as follows: "Principle 24. The official flag of Iran is green, white and red in color ; and bears the special insignia of the Islamic republic.'' "Principle 32. The Oversight Council is in charge of supervising prest- de~itial elections and elections to the National Consultative Council and auditing the general and referendum votes." "Principle 15G.1. If material or moral damage befal'ls a person as a result of an error or mistake by a judge on a subject or verdict on a private mat- ter, the person at fault, in the event of the fault, will be held respons- ihle in accordance with Islamic criteria." In another area, a session of the final investigation int~ the constitution, under the chairmanship of Ayatollah Montazari, was convened yesterda}~ after- noon; during that, six additional principles of the draft constitution were rati�ied~ , The text oE P rinciple 13.1 is as follows: "In accordance with the sacred /Koranic/ verse 'Turn not from tbose wtio have not fought wirh you over religion or expelled you from your homes: be generous ~aith them and treat them fairly,' the government of the Islamic - 5~+ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 Itepublic of Iran, and ~~loslems, have the duty of treatinti u~u-Moslems ~,,oral- ly and with Islamic justice aitd fairness and of tookii?;; after their hun~an - ri~hts. This princi~le will be valid as regards persons who do not con- spire or take meas~res against Islam and the Islamic Republic of Irat~." This principle ~~as ratified with 50 votes in favor, two votes against and one abstention. Thc text of 1'rii~ciple 8~..~.1 which was ratified yesterday is as follows: "The president must be selected from among religious and political met~ who meet the followinb conditions: Iranian origin, Iranian citizenship, matur- ~ ity and experience, possession of a good personal l~istory, trust and piety, devotion, and belief in the laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran and rhe official religion of the country." This principle was ratified with 52 affirmative votes, iour vo~es and four abstentions. The text of Principle 29 which was also ratified yesterday is as f.ollo4ls: "The holding of ineetings and unarmed demonstrations will be permitted on condition that they not be prejudicial to the principles of Islam." This principle c,ras ratified wil-h 51 votes in favor, two a~;ainst- and seven abstentions. The text of Principle 17.1, which was ratified, is as f.ollocas: "On very irnportant economic, political, social and culkural ~ratters, the actions ot the Legislative power may be carried out by a referendum anci direct referral to public vote. The request for a referral to a general election must be ratified by two-thirds of the total representatives of the :~ational Consultative Assembly." ~ - This principle was also ratified, with 54 affirmative and one ne~ative vote and five abstentions. T1~e ~ext of Principle 67.1 is as follows: "In the pul~lic sector, the grant of concessions to foreigners by the gov- ernment to form companies and organizations for commercial, industrial, agricultural or mining activities and services is absolutely forbidden." This principle was finally ratified by 19 affirmative votes after two vote tallies. The text of Principle 54, which was ratified by the Council for the Final Investigation into the Constitution yesterday, is as follows: 55 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 ~ ~ ' "T~:e ~iiscassi ons of ti~e I~ati.anal Consultative Council must be open and a fu11 ~ep~rc rnu~t },e nuhlished by the radio and the country's official - dazette for public information. In emergency condi[ions, in tl~e event - national security considerations so demand, an open session will be held on request of. the prime minister, a minister, or 10 representatives. "The ratified actions of the executive session will be valid in tt~e event the session is held in the presence of the Oversight Council and the ac- tions are approved by three quarters of the total representatives. The report and ratified actions of these sessions must be presented for public it~formation after the emergency conditions have come to an end." 'This nrinciple was ratified with 52 affirmative votes, one nebative vote ' and four abstentions. In yesterday afternoon's session, Principle 13Z was also presented, but it was not ratified by the majority of those present. The text of this prin- ci.ple is as follows: "The Cax system must be in accordance with social justice and the taxpayers' ability to pay and must be in conformity with necessary general expenditures." The report by PARS hews Agency parlia- rnentary correspondents on the Council for the Final Investigation into the Constitution states that in a speech prior to the decree the Zoroastrians' representative presented a petition with the signature of 200 Zoroastrians statin~ that Zoroastrians have been considered second class citizens of the country and that Zoroastrians are considered fire worshippers althou~h tne object of Zoroastrians' worship is light, not fire. After this petition was read out b~ the Zoroastrians~ representative in the Council of Experts, Ayatollah I4ontazari said "The rights of all minorities have been recognized and we recomrnend that all our brothers and sisters observe the criteria and commandrnents of Islam with reoard to the rights of others." Plans for Independent Industr~es Tehran KEYHAN in Persian 12 Nov 79 p 1 [TextJ The Conference to Guarantee the Independence of Iran's Industries was held yesterday afternoon at the permanent Iranian International Expositions site with the objective of announcing the Ministry of Industries and Mining's policies to protect local industries and replace industrial _ imports by local products; in attendance were the undersecretary of industry and mining, a group of Iranian economic and industrial personages and industrialists and interested persons. Ahmad Yazdanpanah, the supervisor of the Iranian International Expositions, said, The losses Iran has sustained frc>m assembly industries are economic, social"and political. The high cost of assembled goods for one thin~; is due to the �act that factories must be planned on a broader scale and have massive production--however, massive production damages imperialism's in- ~ernational market. As a consequence, production is below capacity ~odec~ the per-unit costs of installations become high. The government's p tionist policies are making the import supply of simiLar goods scarce and 56 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 costly. A sibnificant portion of spare part accessories in assembly plants are imported Erom abroad and the fact that there is inflation in the in- dustrial world is causing the price of assembly goods to increase. Another matter is~the presence of middlemen and the expense of transportin~; access- ories. Another reason why low-quality ~;oods have an expensive uttimate price is the Fact that Western assembly bo~ds are expensive, and this re- sults from the fact that the mother country protects the export market ancl Iranian skilled workforces are new at the job of producino industrial ~oods." The second speaker at this conference ~oas ArdeshirWDovsIIidl,�,AfterLtheuc~oup secretary of the P4inistry of Indus~ry and Mining, d'etat of 1953, when their spirit was to some degree relieved as far as political dominance over Iran went, America, and the ;Jesterners in general, as a result of the experiences they acquired in their relations with the Iranian nation and the obstinacy of the people in the face of the forei~;ti pocaers--indeed, their essential perseverance against the foreigners and their refusal to accept influence on Iranian culture--hit llj)OT1 the idea of not just satisfying themselves with political dominance but oi also convert- in}:; their dominance into the economic, cultural, and social dominance of the society in order to alleviate their anxieties over the future. There- fore, when the economic system of the Iranian counroundworlc~forpmigration, created opportunities in the cities and laid the b so that they could del~ver a bi~; blow to the country's economy. - "Anotl~er matter one might discuss is that Tehran, Tabriz, Esfahan, Shiraz and otlier big cities expanded unreasonably and acquired immense urban problems." kle added that about 2 million people were working in the nation's industries - and about 150 billion tomans' worth of manufactured materials were imported fro~n abroad every year. He said, "About 50 to 60 billion revioushreeinees ~ spent in constructing these industries. ~+1e see that the p careCul plan Followinb America's political dominance in 1953 was only to - expand dependent industries. "Unfortunately, industries are not bein~ helped as they should and could be and we are not measuring production capacity in terms of the volume of shortages in the country. As a result, measures are not toinn un a Untfory fashion to import /materials in/ shortage and prices are g g P� tunately, import and e:cport regulations have not been reformed in the light oE revolution of the Iranian nation in 1979." The fourth speaker at this conference, Kadi.var, a professor at F,sfahan In- dustrial~~University, concernin; means for attainin~; industrial independence, stated, The Faculty of Science and Industry and the Polytechnic need two stages to attain industrial independence and eliminate dependence; the first sta;;e is to draw technolooy for technical ability or scientific education and the second is ro proceed along a road similar to that which Japan has 57 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 taken." Ite added, "Re~;ardin~ economic a~td industrial dependency, we aiso need a� econamic a~~ industrial revolution." }ie added, "It is inventions and innovations which nourish industrial outptit. This is the way Japan has followed and which our universities must follow also. "My recor~unendation is that we need a ministry for mediun~ and small indus- trial production so that industrialists themselves can assume the guidance of this ministry and substantial progress can accrue to the i ndustrialists and tt~e nation." Review of Foreign Connections ~ I Tehran KEYHAN in Persian 12 Nov 79 p 2 [Text] In their revenues for 1978-79, 50 out of 144 private sector productive units Yost 8.3 billion rials in all. - Statistics show that 30 percent of economic activities in the private sec- tor sustained losses. All privileges for foreihn participation in compan- ies ii~ which for~_igners were stockholders have been abrogated. Accordinc; . " to a proposed plan, the purchase of primary materials from monopoly organi- zations will be broken up. ' This ~;~atter was addressed by t4ohsen Ameli, ~;eneral director of the Financial i - Organization to Expand Ownership of Productive and Industrial Units. Ile ~ added, "The government is a 20 to 49 percent shareholder in 144 productive con,panies. The volume of the ~overnment's participation is 20 billion rials." ~ Ameli then stated, "The owners of units of this type are refraining from declaring losses, in order to avoid being included under the Law to Protect and Develop Iranian Industries, in order to avoid being included in this law. In connection with this, 50 of the 14~a productive units in existence in the fiscal year 137::-79 had collective losses of ~.3 billion rials." - Regarding the departure of foreign currency, he said: ''Only in one case was tlle fligh~ of ~:~0 million rials in foreign currency per year in one coin- pany avoided. We are currently enbaged in investigating this maCter so that the company may be managed on the basis of justice and equal ribhts ol shareholders, be they domestic or foreign. To this end, a review has been made of the bylaws of all companies which were in partnership with forei~ners, and all stock privilege~ of foreign individuals holding shares ir~ this kind of company have been abrogated. "Similarly, in order to provide primary materials inside the country, t}~roubh the expansion of such existing industries as petrochemicals, we will ue able to eliminate the monopoly over materials of this kind by one or several forei;;n countries." Ameli then referred to the matter of industrial management and said "The mana;;ement in these industries is a fundarnental issue. Good managers are 58 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 extremely rare. After the law nationalizino industries, an absence of coordination arose in the management of the major portion of these 414 unils, with the incorporation of the relatec3 ort;anizations; one wust pzy attcntion the need to es~al,lish full coordi~iatic~n, ahov~~ and bey~nd t!~e question of ownersl~ip, since it must be said that these industries belonf; to the country and must be administered in a manner devuid of any kind of orhanizational or personal fanaticism under rules and re~ulations which ~oill protect public rights. "ilse will even be made, i~ special conditions, of for.~er managers oF these _ units caho have remained in the country, have not fled and are prepared to cooperate--of course under the surveillance of the government." Departure of American Managers Tehran KEYHAN in P ersian 12 Nov 79 p 2 [Text] The managers of 200 ?,merican companies who resided in Tehran left Tehran af ter the takeover ef the American embassy. After the signing of the $40 billion agreement reached between Henry Kissinger and Hushang Ansari in the era of the 3 eposed Shah, the Americans expanded their commercial activities in Tran and set about establishing mixed companies, although in reality all the shares in these companies were at the disposal of American managers. After this agreement was si~ned, the American ~overnment estat~lished t~oo crnrm~ercial centers in Tehran, which engaged in selling international - American products to Iran. The Arnerican commercial center in Tehran en- coura~;ed Iranian importers to purchase Arnerican goods by establishin~ a~~ international exposition. Con~nercial relations between Iran and America were always one-sided; be- cause of this onesidedress, ttie American companies always won big bid com- petitions durino the previous regime. Ttany examples of this agreement were to be observed in the t~istory of Iran's commercial relations caith America. One er.ample of these agreen~ents is as follows--the asreement to construct _ 200 factories for the manufacture of prefabricated parts. The hillion- dollar a,~,reement to sell conmiunications equipment, and construction of 1,000 kilometers of roads by American companies, are other examples of tnese agree;nents. 11~3:i7 CSO: 4906 59 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034437-6 IRAN BRIEFS ~ TEHERAiv STUDENT~ IDENTIFIED--Amor:g the "students" involved in the taking of hostages at the U.S. IInbassy in Teheran, [unspecified] European in- _ telligence services say they have identified same Marxist fe3ayeen leaders. - [Text] [Paris LE POINT in French 3 Dec 79 p 75~ CSO: 4900 I 60 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030037-6 z~ I P.~~Q _ 1.ANll RL'(:].APIATIUN PRUJF.CT FOiJND SUCCESSFUL Manama Gi:I,F t�1IP.}tOR i.n F.n~lish 4 Nov 79 p 33 [Text ] IN thc Arnbian Gulf wherc maintains thc 5,l)ll(I yrar u!d petrodollars conjure up heritagc of irrigation in Ir,~y Distributic?~i images of Cadillacs and other ti~id to be the uldcst ir. nc~ cornucopias, Iraq is plough- wc,rld. Britain's Sir M MacUun;il~l ing its o~l revenues back into In thc earlicst days the p~rtners, who h~id the carth. inhabitants of Mcsu~otamia ricd out an initial fcasibility "This leftist state looks posi- relied on thc natural flc,~ds ~~f ti t u d y i n 1 9 7 1, w e rc tivcly austere next to it~ the rivers Euphrates ancl'I'ig- ~~Puinted consultants lu petro-ncighbuurs. But its ris to water their crop~. Later design and supervise thc g~~~:rnment is determined to a com~lex netw~,rk ~~t canals work by the newly-formed �irhieve a self-sufficient state was developcd ~+nd thc land General Agricultural Gstabl- hy the time its oil rescrves flourished. ishment. Their job over a ,tart to dw~indle. it was around 1,0OO years period of five years was to Unlikc the descrt oil states, ~hat this stretch uf the develop a progressive agricul- a~here grcater emphasis is put F e r t i l e C r e s c e n t w a s tural plan based on cereals, nn indus~rialisation, Iraq has rendcred barren by a national fodder crops and citrus fruits. lurmc~l a long-tcrm antl com- proccss which left thc sc~il Sub-consultants for agricul- ~~rnc~nsivc plan tc~ dcvclcip its nddcn with deposits cif ti~ilt. tural and sorial ~ispccts arc ' ,~riculture. 1Uhen the Lower Khalis Hunting Tectinic~l Services pruject is completed, it will c~f t3ritain. I'~ertllity bring high intensity irrigation A major dcl~y, and unc - and mechanised agriculture Which is becoming common .n fcw wcck~ agu thr firsi to 90,000 hcctares of land ,uch ru ~cts thc world � in~r i~f harlcy wati ready for between the Tigris and P 1' h;~rvctitin~ i~n a site known Diyala rivers, an economi- rner, is that of land distribu- unubtrutiivcly ati �'K3." callyimportant area immedi- tion and administration. l hing~ havrn't hecn so ~oocl atelynorth of I3aghdad. Some Some 7U pcr cent of the ~hrre for almost a thc~usand y,~~0 kilometres of field land is still owned by 5 per dru:ns are to be constructed cent of its people. A sin~lc ~``~r~, crsnn is not su oscd to own I'he product ~if several in the arca. more than 3(V)0 donumti '.,ars of labour hy~ tcams uf ~~~hcfirstcontracttostart- intcrnational consultants and "K3;' in 1975 - imolved (roughly 1.2O0 hcctares). - r~intractors, thc barley har- thc construction .,f I.OO0 With its x>cialist stratcgy, thc vetit marks the rcturn of fertil- kilometres of field drains. It is g,~~hdad government duly i~y to the barren, semi-desert now 9O per cent complete. p~~~p~sed to confiscate all thc Luwer Khalis region. And 'fhe net cultivable area of land concerned and redistri- I~;;e agood omen forthis mas- "K3" is 6,000 hectares. The bute it in packages of 30U tiive irrigation and land sccond :ind third contracts donums to thc local farmrrs. rrdamation project, this first (K2 of 24,900 hectares and T'hat has not h'r~v' ;r.F>>Ying (las�week) under the chairmanship would in t!~rr~ :~~.ccl;;r~:~,~~� t:~~~; ~~~ace r.,~; i~;-;;~!.:,7-:. ~~ad a "i r~e :r,uod was o~~e of determination, and - genera! iC~na. ~'OC iil;~di'~'t?. ~~f' ,^~~S