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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE= 2007/02/08= CIA-R~P82-00850R000200030045-7 ~ ~ i979 ~ i i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 , ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L,~8828 21 December 1979 - . - ~ Korean Affai rs Re ort p ' (FOUO 3/79) _ ~ FBIS FOREIGN BROADC/~ST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources _ are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. - Headlines, editorial reports, and material. enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Pr~cessing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informatir~n was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the _ original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Othex unattributed par.enthetical notes ~aith in the body of an , iteffi originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, ~r~iews or attitudes of the U.S. Government. - _ ~ For further information on rep~rt content call (703) 351-3067 (Japan, Korea, Mongolia); 351-2760 (Vietnam, South and East Asia). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 , FOR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY ~ -I JPRS L/8828 . i ~ 21 December 1979 ~ ~ KOREAN AFFAIRS REPORT - (FOUO 3/79) CONTENTS PAGE i ~ souTx xox~, ~ ~ PO~ITICS AND GOVERNMENT Y i NDP, Christian Academy Activities, Y.H. Incident Aaaalyze~ ~ (T.K.; SEKAI, Oct 79) 1 - ~ ' SCIENCE AND TEi,HNOLOGY ROK To Try Sma11 Business Computer Production With Japanese - Aid (THE JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNA.L, 27 Nov 79) 15 ~ ~ NORTH KOREA FOREIGN TRA.DE : Kong Chin-T'ae Appointed To Improve DPRK-Japan Trade (NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUN, 1 No~r 79) 16 ~ i . ! - ~ ~ . ; - u - [III - ASIA - 109 FOUO] ! FOR OFFICYAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY S. KOREA/POLITICS AND GOVERNI~~NT NDP, CHRISTIAN ACADEMY ACTIVITIES, Y.H. INCIDENT ANALYZED Tokyo SEKAI in Japanese Oct'79 pp 213-225 [Article by T. K..: "Power at Its Limit"] [Text] The New Democratic Party in Struggle 13 August 1979 Dispatch Just because the 17th of July is the day the constitution was promulgated, ~ the 86 political prisoners and~prisoners of con~cience who were accused of ~ violating the emergency decrees were released. 'They were hustled out the back door of the prison and into a car instead of being let ou~ the front door where many of their friends were anxiously waiting. The release of these people may be a gift for Carter's visit to Koreas,but this may - not do any good even as a cosmetic job or save face for the Carter admin- ~ istration and the Pak regime--this is how it is regarded in Seoul. Among those released, 20 attended a welcome rece:~tion given by. the Friday _ - prayer meeting held on 10 July. Reverend Pak Hyong-kyu of the S2oul First Church and others could not attend because they were put under house-arrest - (soft confinement) at a hospital. Young people at the welcome reception - called themselves "the generation of the emergency measure No 9." The unfinished revolutio.z is being carried out by "the generation of 19 April" produced by the student revolution of 1960, "the generation of 3 June" _ produced by the movement opposing the Japanese-Korean talks of 1964, and "the generation of the emergency measure" of Lhe present. These young people say that strategies and tactics should be developed on the basis of ` the experience gained f rom the so-call:ed "Democratic Youth and Students League Incident" of 1975. They are the courageous minority who ~;uards the freedom of this country. . New Democratic Party [NDP] President Kim Yong-sam, who is leading anew the _ opposition, is also putting up a pathetic fight to guard freedom and democracy which are on the brink of disappearance in Korea like the flickering light _ of a candle. At "the seminar for justice and peace" held in the Catholic Hall, Chonchu, North Cho11a Province on 17 July, he gave a talk on the,topic 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of "~eligion and politics.~~ He said: "Religion shou~d stand by the poor, _ the oppressed, and the downtrodden; it sfiould not serve as the lackey of the powerful and the rich." By so saying, Prestdent Kim came under a counter- attack from the government and the ruling party for his transgression of the principle of the separation of church and state. In response to this, Reaerend Kim Kwan-sok, director of the I:orean Christian Church Council, said at the Friday prayer meeting welcoming th~ ex-prisoners: "The way the government argues is strange indeed. They have always demanded the support and cooperation of religious organizations. When they do this, they dis- regard the separation of church and state. But when r~ligion takes a critical attitude toward the authority, the slogan for the separation of church and state emerges. They do whatever pleases them." With the Catholi~ movement becoming active, the government seems to have become jittery. Father Mun Chong-hyon of the Chonchu Catholic Church who sponsored this meeting was taken into custody by the police. On account - of this, many churches in Chonchu have reportedly displayed placards reading "stop human rights violation" and "release democratic personage." The i meeting at Chonchu went on for 2 days from ~he 16th to the 17th of July, ~ - and more than 150 priests and nun$ gathered from all over the country. At the meeting they reportedly renewed a resolution to live by "the Gospel a which com~ands us a11 to say yes when we ought to Say y~s, and to say no I when we ought to say no." ~ I Newspapers afterward reported that Father Chung Ho-kyong and two farmers, having distributed at this meeting a pamphlet titled "the trampled agrarian people's movement, were arrested for violating the emergency measure. The police explained the arrest, saying that the pamphlet spread a false rumor of kidnapping a branch head of the Catholic Farmer's Association. Further- more, according to the police, the branch head simply skipped town after his illicit affair was revealed. He was probably obliged to make such a confession under the threat of the police. The authorities fabricate things of this sort out of their desperate attempt to find a momentary means of suppression; then, when it comes to tangle with the matter of public trial , they become flustered at the revelation of truth. Perhaps there is another ; " way of~controlling them than think~ng of temporary evasion. Ev::n with the ielease of the $6 prisoners of conscience, there are still - 250 more cf the~-counting only those confirmed by the Human Rights C~mmonCee _ of the Kor~ean Christian Church Council--suffering in the sweltering p under this weather. As the 15 August Liberation Day approaches, how much , "generosity" will the Pak regime show in its effort to curry favor with the United S.tates? The future of the released people is dismal indeed. Young people's chance of returning to universities is closed. Moreover, they are sent to serve in the military, as reported before, even though they are so-called excon- victs. This is a political retribution. Th~se who criticize this by saying that the sacred duty of military service is used in lieu of the con- centration camp were arrested for violating the military service law. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Because of conditions such as this, the young people become more radical. - If expelled from school or work, they are bound to become revolutionary. . If jailed, their famiZies fight ferociously. Tf not released and returned to school or work, they may become profess3.ona1 revolutionaries. On the - other hand, if released and returned, they may create a big wave and start _ trouble--here lies the dilemma of the Pak regime. _ At the present.moment, every effort is made to suppress an organization such as the Democratic Youth Council which is made up of "the generation of the emergency measure No 9," who are not allowed to return to the campus - atter being released. The main concera is to prevent those who were released from taking ariy c~ncerted action. As an example of this, a bloody incident - caused by the mobile police's suppression of a welcome reception for the re- leased persons, which was scheduled on 23 July at 1830 hours, at the Iong- daemun Catholic Church, can be cited. It was a meeting promoted by the Demo- cratic Youth Council and supported by the Catholic Clergy's Organization for the Realization of Justice, the Korean branch of Amnesty International, and the Conference of the of the Prisoners of Conscience. The police had given a permit for this meeting. But, at about 1500 hours 1 on '~ne day of the meeting, th e police ordered the cancellation of the meeting saying that it was~directed b_y the_Y~IA, and by 1800 hours the nearby stre~ts were completely blocked by the mobile police ~orce of about 1,000. In response to this, the women who were waiting for the meeting began to throw at the police broiled chickens, kimchi and the likes which they had brought with them to entertain those,who were released. It developed into a bloody affair when the police used violence against them. Over 10 persons ' were taken into police custody; they were n~t even given supper, but were released by midnight. Inside the Tongdaemun Catholic church, 30 persons _ staged a demonstration, and before daybreak they were joined by 20 more - persons who came pretending to attend the early morning mass, from the First Seoul Church where they had locked themselves in all night. These people demanded an apology from the police, compensation of 400,000 won for the spoiled food and drinks, payment for the treatment of the injured, - and a meeting permit. The police authority, miraculously accepting these conditions in the afternoon of the 25th, paid 350,000 won for the food and drinks, gave a permission to hold a meeting on the 31st, and promised not _ to interfere. However, this again proved to be a On the 31st, a mobile police force of over 200 appeared on the scene and forbade the meeting. In response to - this, aUout 70 young people who went there early to prepare the meeting put up a resistance at the place and kept it on until 6 August. At one time during this resistance they sent out messages through the microphone as the voice of democratic youth. They appealed: 'If you are a democratic - golice, return to y~our quarters; let us accomplish unification independently; - let us build a democratic society, and so on. According to the story of a friend of mine, the concession given by the police on 25 July was due to the visitation of Mr Snyder, Lhe offic3al in charge of human rights at the - U.S. Department of State. He left Seou1 on 31 ,7uly. This is the kind of ~ shallow game that the Pak regime plays. _ 3 - FOR OFFICIAI~ USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 'FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The lang house-arrest of Yun Po-;~Dn, Ham Sok-hon and Kim Tae-chung is still _ going on. Though their wives are permitted to go out, it ~.s only far gro- cery shopping. Even on this occasion they are, to be sure, e5cort~d by plainchothesmen. In response to criticisms raised agfiinst this by a member of the opposition party, the prime minister answered at the National Assembly that they are being protected so that they will not violate any law. My friend, a journalist, whispered in my ear about the recent house-arrest of Kim Tae-chung. "Kim Tae-chung proposed a meeting with the Japanese ambassador. This is why he is under house-arrest: They Japanese appear to cover up by saying that although the Japanese Government did its best, nothing could be done because he was put under house-arrest by the Korean Government. Foreign - reporters are able to see him; if so, why can't the Japanese ambassador? To provide the Japanese Government with an ex~use, even Mr Yun and Mr Ham were victimized. The Japanese Government the~ can say can't you see, all those in the top class are under house-arrest. With a cunning trick like this, both governments try to ride out. Isn't this typical of the Japanese Government? Isn't it a fact that Mr Snyder, the official in charge of human ~ rights affairs at the U.S. Department of State, has seen Kim `Tae-chung even i though he is under house-arrest? By the way, I hear that there will be I a Diet election in Japan soon. When it takes place, do you think Kim ~ Tae-chung will be able to breathe the.outside air once in a while? When , I say things like this, the Japanese side may ask m.e to cool down for a whr.le, lest the revelation cause them embarrassment." While all these things were going on the Director of the Defense Agency and others from Japan came. They will probably stir up even more from here on about the North-South tensi~n in South Korea and the tensian between the regime and the anti-regim~ in the South. The Japanese Government e~idently took up a role in the reconciliation between the Pak regime and the United - States. And, for now, it will probabl~~ show some "good will" in the midst of the economic crisis. It will thus penetrate from economy to politics, then from politics to military affairs. Can it be asserted that the tragic history running from the end of the 19;*h Century to the beginning of the 20th Century is not being repeated under new circumstance~;? The shallow i manner in which the Japanese handled the Kim Tae-chung Incident will leave ~ - many hard feelings in Asia from now on. It is a lamentable thing. Kim Yong-sam is confronting a struggle that can endanger his life. The 1 Jutly issue of THE DEMOCRATIC FRONT, the official publication of the NDP, could not be put into circulation because of the police intervention. Because the paper contained the account of Mr Kim's interview with reporters, hi.s speech made at the foreign press club denouncing illegalities under the Pak regime, and his call for the restoration of democracy, it was ruled not to be circulated in its original form. Finally, as the result of the censor- ship, the NDP decided to publish the paper with numerous holes. Then, on 13 July, more than 50 people from the party the President, the assemblymen, and members began to se11 the paper, standing at the main _ thoroughfares such as K~rangwhamun, 1Kyongdong and the Seoul railway station, to the passersby hurrying to their work early in the morning. 4 ' ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Now lying on my'desk ~s fihe newspaper full of The front page is adorned with big headlines: "To k'ight to the End for Restoration of Demo- cracy", "To Do Utmost To Establish People`s Bas~c R~ghts", "To Protect - Rightful Interests of People," etc. Continued in the second page are: "Opening a New~Era for People To Become Master of History", "Willingly Accept Sacrifice for Blossoming of Democracy", "Opposition Party Positively Participates in Unification," etc. The last paragraph of the speech made at the foreign press club, which is on the second page, was cut out at its beginning and ending parts, and it read: "because there is God and the masses of people are on our side, we have hope." After this, there was a line and a half of blank space, then it concluded with "thank you." Indeed, Kim Yong-sam was determined to guard a home which was full of holes as this paper. Published in the 25 July issue of "the Democratic Front" was the full text of the speech made by Kim Yong-sam at the 102nd Interim Session of the National Assembly. It was a declaration to the effect that the emergency decrees which has been in effect for 4 years and 2 months is a violation of the constitution, hence null and void. Let me quote part of it. ....Even if this country has been transformed to a paradise on earth as a result of skillful politics and even if this country has been elevated to the level of advanced countries, holding on to power for 19 years is simply too long. In several months when the New Year arrives, it will be a record ~ 20-year holdover of power. I got the following question from the son of my friend who is about to become a college freshman. "Mr President, I have seen only one president since I was born to this world. When do you think I can see another president?" Doesn't it evoke in us a vivid sense of reality when told in this manner? A simple question like this is said to be the genuine expression of the people's hearts. Thus, Kim Yong-sam dared to challenge the false claim of the Pak regime that the nation can defend itself independently without 1 day of petroleum reserve, and question the responsibility for the failure of the economic pol.icy. Also, he demanded to know, in his speech at the foreign press club, why there was no arrest for the criminals who started a riot, tore up the flag of the NDP and charged Mr Kim of being a communist - for proposing a dialog with the North. He protested the unspeakable reality of subjecting even the priests and clergymen to torture and called for the restoration of democracy. It was a demand to establish a regime which allows _ the people to elect the President directly; to guarantee freedom of press and speech, human rights, and the independence of the judiciary, and to estab- lish an economic order which guarantees equitable distribution. The Interim Session of the National Assembly which opened on 20 July for a short duration of 12 days accomplished nothing because the ruling party made no response to the proposal submitted by the NDP on the formation of a spe- cial constitution committee. For this reason, the NDP boycotted the Assembly and turned, instead, to the street-vending of "the Democratic Front" which 5 FOR OFFI~iAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY contained the text o~ the key speech, Recause this speech was cons~dered to be dangerous, some deletions had to be made even ~n the transcript of the National Assembly. Consequently, Mun Pu-s~k, the editor-in-chief of "the Democratic Front," was arrested ~or its publication on the night of 30 July and held for detention. - - In spite of this, the NDP is becoming vigorous owing to the Kim Yong-sam stance for the restoration of democracy. The so-called anti-mainstream led by Yi Chol-sung, the former party head, is waiting for a chance to stage a counter-attack in collaboration with the government. Song Won-yong, the - former head of the parliamentary party, who was considered belonging to the Yi Chol-sung faction, was attacked by Yi Chol-sung for not obeying the order to criticize Kim Yong-sam. Assemblyman Song was reportedly hospitalized for 2 days, and it is rumored that he has declared independence from Yi Chol-sung. It is reported that many people are leaving Mr Yi, and every- body is on the watch to see what c?e and his followers will do in collabora- tion with the KCIA. The NDP's fight for the restoration of democracy will not be an easy one. ~ However, newspapers took it up with a big splash when Kim Yong-sam made the i keynote speech. Also, stories about the struggle for democratic restoration I began to adorn the newspapers from time to time. Nobody can tell how I ~ong this will last. But there is no mistake that the newspapers began to I make an irretrievable challenge to the emergency measure system. ~ . The Trial of the Academy Incident As for the newspapers, it seems that they can no longer maintain silence _ about the people's discontent with the Pak regime which assumes no respc~nsi- bility for the economic slump brought by inflation and shows no golicy to improve the situation.. That the newspapers slowly began to show activity - despite the emergency decrees may be worthy of at~.ention, together with the movement of the NDP. In this respect, it can be'said that the Pak regime's ; violence began to show its limitation. Incidents ha-pened even at the CHOSON ILBO and the KYONGYANG SINMUN in June. ; The CHOSON ILBO suddenly began to publish in the 14 June issue a 10-part ~ series on the problem of rural villages with a headline on the front page, "New Agrarian Policy Should Be Developed." _ Its first article was called "Wandering Rural Village", and its subtitles contained such expressions as: "Wheats That Wind Up as Ca~tle-Feed," "Bumper-Crop Garlic Abandoned on the Street," "Crumbled Foundation of the Cattle Industry," "Farms Around Industrial Districts Ruined by Pollution," and "Flight From Farm Leads to Another Flight, Only O,ld Workers Come and Go at Every Farm House." These subtitles alone tell more than what the article was trying to point out on the conditions af rural villages. It was fac- tual reportage on the pathetic conditions of rural villages which were entirely diffezent from the government's propagandistic slogan about Semaul (the new village) or its claim that the rura.l income exceeded the city 6 ~ - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . income. On the other hand, on the upper ~.e~t column of the front page which ~ is being reserved as the Pre~identFS co~ner, or~e could see the dashing figure of Pak Chong-hu%::enjoying a badminton game at the B1ue House (the official residence of the'President). The readers of th3s newspaper could not helr but feel anger at this ironic contrast. This series in the CHOSON ILBO was stopped after the first article by the order of the KCYA without any word of explanat~on. And, four members of the editorial staff and eight local news reporters were taken 3.nto custody and were rigorous].y interrogated while detailed in ~ail for 2 or 3 days. Even the president of the newspaper company and 3ts editor-in-chief were taken into custody at one time. The incident ~id r~ot spill over beyond this, but it was a rarity that the CHOSON ILBO displayed such courage. Prevalent among the people is a cold response interpreting it as the paper's reaction to the readers' criticism of its collusion with the government and the resultant loss of readership. Nevertheless, it required considerable courage. Noteworthy above all is the fact that the pressure of the people _ grew to such an extent and that the men of power came to fear it. When that happens, the KCIA trick is really childish. In the KYONGHYANG gINMUN, over which the KCIA can exert more control, an article praising the agrarian policy entitled, "Transitional ~Period, Today's Rural Villages, Advanced Korean Agriculture Stands on its Tiptoe," was published on 16 June. It waid that the rural village has entered a period of dynamic growth, and - that "having shed the old pre-modern shell by means of revolutionalizing - consciousness and doubling income on the basis of the Semaul work, it is _ about to enter the second stage of leap toward the formation of a new pro- totype of rural village comparable to that of,the advanced countries." Because of this article, reporters with considerable conscience at the KYONGHYArTG SINMUN sensed unl~earable humiliajiion. They felt that their col- leagues in other newspapers were pointing their fingers at them. Having judged that this is unethical journalism, these reporters staged . a 15-hour strike on 19 June with a resolution "to restore the trampled autonomy of editorial right." Furthermore, they demanded the resignation of the editor-in-chief, an apology from other executibes, and normal opera- tion of the newspaper. Thereupon, the editor-in-chief and the group of _ division-chiefs made apologies and they promised to make efforts for the = integrity of editorial right. They also gave an assurance that "if an article is rejected, its galley will be kept from now on" and that "should any , ~ - problem arise, the editorial bureau will call a general meeting. At the TONGH ILBO newspaper firm, most of the employees launched a fight - - for a wage hike. They succeeded in winning a 70 percent raise through 4 _ days' struggle since 12 June. At the TONGH BROADCAST, a reporter an3 a deputy bureau chief were taken into police custody for interrogation on 7 June because the network released the news that a visa application by the Korean team to participate in the world badminton game to be held in China was denied. Stories like these were told in detail by the TONGA ILBA and ' the CHOSON ILBO's Committee on the Struggl~e for the Protection of Free ~ Press, which is composed of the purged reporters. _ 7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is also noteworthy that the TONGA BROADC~,S~ and the CIiURCH BROADCAST regain~d vitality to some extertt. The CHRTSTTAN CH'IJRCH BROADCAST coura- geously reported in mid-June that the General Council of the Presbytarian received a notification that it would be subject to a tax audit - for a week. It is said that a tax audit of churches such as this was unheard of even during the 36 years of Japanese rule. The proposed audit is reported~y attributable to the fact that the church is supporting the _ school for missionary education which provides a seminary education to thos~ students who were expelled from universities or who served a grison - term. To the church, these people are a hope far the future; to the govern- _ ~ ment, they are the source of insecurity and displeasure. It is a clear protest by the church again~t the expulsion of conscientious students. F;very church belonging to the Presbytarian Church Council has resolvedy in alliance with other denominational churches, to refuse tl~~ tax audit. - Because af this, the authority is now putting up an appearance of having postponed the implementation of the notification. _ As the radio began to show a.sign of regaining some vitality, the govern- i~ ment unilaterally announced that the effective period of the broadcasting i permit would be shortened from 3 years to 1 year. In addition, it required a recommendation from the Minister af Culture and Information for obtaining I a permit to open a broadcasting station and an oath pledging "not to hamper the national interest." In explaining tne reason for amending the Elec- ~ ~ tronic Wave Control Ordinance, the usual phraseology--"this is to insure ~ the superior pasition in the war of electronic wave with the puppet regime of the North and to insure the security of the nation and the sovereign integrity"--was provided. Threat from the North is thus used as the most effective means o� oppressing the people. f Although the mass media regained its considerab le strength, it cannot as yet report the trial proceedings of the prisoners of conscience nor news regarding the opening of such trial. For this reason, the trial of the Christian Academy case which began in 9 July remains entirely unknown. This trial has been going on every Monday and Saturday, often on Wednesdays - to speed it up. Reportedly it's proceeding is to be completed by the middle of September, and its sentence to be handed down by mid-October. Especially _ impressive about this trial is tne fact that an effort is made to soften - the atmosphere of the court as much as possible. It must be due to the - attention paid by the churches of the whole world, including the German _ church. The judge is also known to be a relatively respected person: The German and American churches h.ave sent their representatives to the court. Let me introduce a commEnt made by a friend of mine about this trial. "This too is a political trial. It questioned them why they have read the Communist Manifesto, why they have urged others to read it, and why they - have listened to the broadcast from the North. To these questions, the answer given by Sin In-yong, one of the female defendants was cogent indeed. She countered sharply by saying that one ought to broaden the knowledge for the sake of accomplish3ng peaceful unification and one should be able to understand the arguments advanced by the North. Democracy is not, she ! 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY went on, an ideology; it is nothing more than preserving the attitude cul- tivated for social progress; how could there be social progress if we follow blindly what older. people tell us to do? Only by seeking enlightenment through our own thinking, she said, can there be a future. Those who are in politics havic even visited the North. Why then should we be charged of - being communisr_s when we merely uttered the word of Marx? The prosecutor has determined.that every word the defendants said in their debates was tantamount to their belief. He also tried to ra3lroad a charge that the - defendants attempted to organize a seditious organ~zation. But most of the prosecutor's charges were rebutted. As a result, even some of those in the government are reportedly saying that a trivial incident has been blown up out of proportion and has created problems wii.h other nations. If ttie extent of the crime involved in this case is no more than having listened to the broadcast from the North or having circulated dangerous literature for reading, can it be settled with handing down a light sentence? To make things worse yet, the defendants showed their tarture-induced scars _ = to the spectators in the court. The prosecutor unwittingly acknowledged the torture by a slip, saying: your king deserves a bit of beating. The spectator's section became flurried with sardonic laughter." The friend toZd me that he was moved by the fact that the defendants have - caorked with such devotion and under such a methodic plan to bring about a new era. And, he thought highly of them fo~r their sincere search for definite ideas about the future of their society. "Reportedly, they have gone through a constant soul-searching in writing - down the mottos. Among them are: Let us live arm in arm with our brothers and die arm. in arm with our brothers; we will carry out to the end what we have decided; we will make our daily life systematically effective; we wil~ _ study continuously and strengthen our body and minc~; let us always have a broad, bright and deep mind; we should be punctual and keeg our promises; let us r_ejoice in the joys of the masses; we should always be proper in our speech ~xnd be.:iavior; and so forth. They upheld socia.'.ism, which is said to be close to the West German type of democratic socialis~?. It ca11s for the publi~~ ownership of basic industries; gradually expanding the public owner- ship;.'to medium and small industries. It opposes violent revolution; it _ calis forth a sucialist regime, which ~aill come about when political parties _ are organized by means of activating the political c~nsciousness of workers and farmers to participate in parliamentary politics. This incid~nt has - more concrete ideology than any other cases known to this date, and it has - actually gained some practical results by activating the consciousness of _ workers and farmers, though it has not taken any organizational form as yet. _ I was impressed by this." . In fact, the Academy Movement reportedly made some real accomplishments - recently, especially among farmers. When the planting of a new rice seed ~ called Nopung which was forced on the farmers resulted in a disasLrous crop failure, those farmers who had received education from the movement scored - several successes including the forced resignation of a county ~hief. The , 9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY = authority, by ferzetting out thqse people whotn the farmezs shared ~oy with, implicated them tr this case by fabxicatio~, so it is repoxted. Be that as it may, it can be ~aid that they were toa careless. The fr~end also told me of a few episodes connected with the trial. ' "When the trial was over on 14 July, two spect~at~rs received a 5-day jail sentence from the court for having applauded 1:he dtfendants for encourags- ment. Also, another incident took place at the trial proceedings of 30 _ July. The prosecutor addressed the defendants the denigrating form _ of "you" and spoke to them in co~rse language. The wives of the three _ defendants shouted "watch your language." On account of this, the court - was recessed. The prosecutor inv,olved. in this inci3ent was Cho Chun-ung, - the most infamous who handled the case of Kim Tae-chung, and he is said to be the son-in-law of the commander of the.f~rmy Security Fdree. The proee- cutor urged the judge to hand down the contempt-of-court citation for the outburst; but the judge let the three wives go after reprimanding them and ~ said to the prosecutor "you understand their feelings, don't you? They are after all your family." Rumor has it that the prosecutor challenged - this ruling, and the judge threatened to withdraw himself from this case. ; The judge even made an apology at the next proceeding of the trial, saying ; that he was to blame for the commotion created in the courtroom. Many ' - people whispered that there is some decency still left in the judiciary. _ - People like him would not last long, and we decided to keep an eye on him. At trial~ like this, the prosecutor is indiscriminately using terms like socialism, democratic socialism and communism as though they all have the same meaning. Furthermore, the case allegedly involving a plan to reestab- _ lish the Revolutionary Party of Unification implicating Professor Pak Hyonchae and others, which was unjustifiably separated from this case, is being tried almost concurrently with this case. It must be a design to dif- _ - fuse the attention of the spectators. People are worried that this kind of - KCIA trick might dilute international interests on this case. The families , of those implicated in this case, too, are under house-arrest and under . strict surve:illance. ~ As was the case with other incidents, this incident too was disclosed at the time when everybody was speculating that a disclosure of some incident would be forthcoming around 19 April: namely, on 20 April. It was aimed at clamping down on the spring activities of students. Although newspapers - reported this case with a big splash as a movement to reestablish the Revolu- tionary Party of Unification, there was no mention3ng of it in the indictment. - Implicated in this case were Yim Tong-kyu and his two brothers who have - relatives in Japan and four others. However, newspapers did not mention at all about the relationship among relatives of the accused. The case has - almost rio substance except the receipt of some money and books. If this is the extent of the case, are they trying to fabricate the act of spying by ' torture? Furthermore, the person who holds the key to this case is a rela- tive living in Japan, who is deemed to be an agent from the North; but there is no evidence to prove it. The houses where the accused lived are now 10 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIr1L USE ONLY regarded as' houses, and the V~,7.1age wheze they ].ived as spies~ villabe, - which is under close watch. Hung ot~ their houseS sre signs x'eading "let us report spies." Moreover, their famtlies are ~eportedly tota~ly isolated - from the village. I was told that documents containing this type of information are secretly compiled and sent out to various circles to appeal to their supports. I am most anxious to see a detailed investigation of the trial records of the Academy Incident conducted overseas, and to see people have an interest in _ - this case i:zvolving Professor Pak Hyon-chae. _ Y.H. Export Company Incident ~ Right now is the period of low wages, and on top of this inflation has ~e~ in. Most businesses are gasping in the recession caused by t'le oil-shock, ~ slumped exports and stagnant domestic demands. Newspapers; citing the small and medium industries, for examples, reported that of more than 2,400 - textile mills centering around Taegu of which 60 percent are small or medium industries, 229 companies have cut down their operations ai~d 106 companies have either shut down or temporarily stopped their operations. The present state of all industries in this country is such that they are suffering from surplus equipment. Unpaid wages are epidemic. Even such giant enterprises as the Hyondae Construction and the Daehan Electric Wires accrtied unpaid wages for more than 3 months. There are numerous stories about big industries _ suffering from a variety of malaise. For example, a company shortened the retirement age from 50 to 45; another company was sued for its decision to _ terminate its workers and was defeated in 2~he suit; and another company was forced to retain its workers by the pressure exerted by the KCIA for the fear o� labor disputes. For these reasons, the university graduates have - a dismal future. Prevalent among the intellectuals are deprecating remarks: _ "In the Korean economy, there is a hot kettle because there is fire." "Haven't we been toid that we have joined the ranks of the advanced countries? _ TrJhatever happened?" "Hasn't our president breathlessly told us that we have oil in Korea? Whatever happened to the oil drill? It naturally takes time to drill for oil in Arabia, don't you see?" Such sardonic remarks are widely heard. Faced with this crisis, there is no concern.on the part of the people to treat it as their common problem. Would this be a spiritual decadence resulting from the corrupt dictatorship? The can never _ be maintained if the emergency measure is lifted. Rumors are abound, pre- _ dicting that the next 6 months would be most critical, or that the Harvest Festival of August 15 by the lunar calendar would be most dangerous. It is said that the Pak regime, having exhausted a11 available means, is merely drifting from one day to another clinging to long as possible. There is a story that industries too, being aware of the crisis, are making gestures to the opposition party and other forces of resistance, but became - hzsitant after hearing that the Yulsan Enterprise was destroyed because of _ its political contribution to Kim Tae-chung. Probably because of this, the KCIA is closely watching the comings and goings of the enterprises' 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY money. On the o~hex hand, a.s a way a~ g~.'Vxn~ a bxeak to big companies, the KCIA is reportedly racking xt~ brains to convert ~gx~cu7~ture into big business _ enCerprisPs by the ce3.lfng oP ~andholding ~mposed on the big business to increase profits. No matter how hard the farmers are taught by the Semaul movement, it is impossible for them to expand--so goes the argu- ~ ment. And at ttiis point, the plan is to make them work as agrar3an laborers under the management of big business. But in that event, the farmErs' _ land will be taken away, and big bus~ness wi11 only increase even more the - pollution in food by using more fertilizer. _ r - Even in the exportation of human labor to the M3ddle East, a limitation seems to have set in. There is concern that the Korean economy may be subject to a harsher impact because of the emergence of Communist China and its low wages. Some argue that Taiwan, in spite of everything, is doing remark- ably well with no recession or inflation; hence, its economy should be fol- lowed. In any event, the economic crisis is now pressing hard. Restaurants are closing down. There is no tenant willing to rent office in the high- - rise buildings. Even big businesses are moving out from downtown to find cheaper rents. i In the midst of all this, the biggest incident which took place recently I ' is the Y.H. Export Co. Incident. This company is an export firm sper_ializing in wigs and sewing goods. When it declared a shutdown last spring, the female workers of the company resisted it by coizfining themselves within, - thereby securing the promise to resume operation. This time, again the company declared a shutdown. The female workers thought that a political consideration was involved in this second shutdown. Though the company, the bank and the Labor Agency all insisted that there was no other remedy, t'ney have never made any serious effort thus far. Besides, the leaders of this company's labor union are very active owing to the fact that they re- - ceived the church-sponsored labor education. - Furthermore, the president of the company, after sending merchandise worCh ; 1.5 billion won to the United States, decided to stay in the United States without remitting the money to the company. Why wouldn't.the Chohung Bank ; which had lent more than 4 billion won against the merchandise do anything ~ about it? Is it not a fact that the president is operating departme:~t . ; stores, hotels and many other businesses in the United States? Thus arguing, the labor union of the Y.H. Export Co., after passing a resolution on 25 July, appealed to the bank, the company and the Labor Agency for cooperation to rebuild the company. The union claimed that it is unjust to victimize _ _ only the workers who to~.led most with their sweat and hardship. : When they began to realize that nobody would heed this appeal, however, ~ 200 women workers rushed to the New Democratic Party headquarters in Mapo on 9 August, and staged a lock-in at the auditorium on the 4th floor. At 0200 hours on the 11th, the mobile police stormed into the place, and it developed into a grisly bloody affair. People were beaten indiscriminately, including Assemblymen and reporters. A great many people were wounded and 172 were taken into police custody. Moreover, Kim Kyong-suk, a woman worker, was found dead with a severed artery in her right arm. She was reportedly lying at the entrance to the basement. 12 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The women workers, determined to ~ace death~ d~y~.ded themseXves into a death- _ by-throwing unit and a death-by--d3.sembowe~me~t un~.t and fcught on with cider . bottles in their hands. Kim Yong-sam, president of the NDP, wh~ went there to reprove the.women workers w3tnessed this cruel event. The mobile police broke in througfi the glass as if charging into the enemy encampment, smashed = furniture and fixtures, and ~hrew whatever they could get their hands on. a Even bricks were reportedly thrown at the workers. Ms Kim who lost her life ~ reportedly had a large and deep wound on the back of her head. It may have ~ been another case of slaughter by ths police. Young members of the NDP, Professnrs Yi Mun-yong and Mun Tong-hwan, the Poet Ko Un, and others were taken into custody by the paiice. (in account of ttixG, _ the assemblymen and young members of the NDP have been staging a lock-in to express their protest against the violence. Most newspapers repcrted this incident with big headlines. This is one of the noticeable changes. Maintaining political power as its supreme objective, the Pak government _ _ repeatedly committed unreasonable and wasteful acts. There was a total lack of a far-sighted program. This is the very reason for causing the bi~ bankruptcy. Moreover, the government is unwilling to assume responsibility for it and is unable to present ideas to remedy it. It simply kept on intensi- fying the violence. A friend of mine who is active in the democratization � movement told me the following: "If there is an arrangement with President Carter, they may cautiously release n~ore people, 1~ut certainly not everyone since they've got their hands tied even with those few who wEre released. A friend of mine, a - pastor, receiv.ed over 200 telephone cails congratulating him for his release. When the caller was asked his name, he replied that you might not know me but I~know you very well. This is what you might call the voice of the people. Suppressing this has been the greatest task of the Pak regime so - _ far. This posture will not change in the coming days. The house-arrest will go on. Perhaps, more ingenious methods will be used for repre5sion. Threatening phone calls are coming in ceaselessly nowadays. But there are some countermeasures for us too." The most important task to be dealt with now is, he said, a movement for the repeal of the anti-communist law. This country brands outstanding people as communists. For this reason, anti-communism became dubious. There is a climate to call genuine democrats communists, he said. ~ "We are living in a world in which the speaker of the National Assembly - spreads the word that the members of the Christian industrial mission are communists. The workers responded to this by saying: If that is the case, - aren't the communists great? The anti-communist law is not a law as such; it is nothing more than a law to torment those people with critical attitudes by applying its vague provisions. Giving aid to communism is considered to be violating the anti-commiunist law; therefore, criticizing the govern- ment can be regarded as aiding communism. If the North happens to cite the 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY = APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ very criticism, it becomes ~,ndi$puta,bl,e, fox a~.d~,ng communism. By applying - the national security 7,aw, spies can be pun~.shed. The anti-communist law is then an instrument of hunting down democrats on the pretext of com- - munism. Those ir_ power are saytng that the door is open to the Soviet Union, Communist China, and North Korea; at the same time they are putting the fetter of anti-communism to the people's neck. This is the eptiome of contradiction. Against the regi~me rules with the anti-communist iaw, - we must alunch an anti-communist law movement." The agonies of the intellectuals, who are chanting to guard to the home, must be fathomless. Is democracy still far down the road? The grouzdwork sustaining the dictatorship may h,ave crumbled, but they sti11 have the weapon to oppress the people. Even though the dictator~s power might have lost its legitimacy completely, it will probably continue so long as violence is not in the hands of the people to counter that violence. COPYRIGHT: Iwanami Shoter 1979 ~ _ I ~ _ i 9368 ~ - CSO: 4105 ~ ~ I I I 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 . _ _ . ; _ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY :j - S. KOREA/SCIENCE AND TECHI~OLOGY ~ i ~ ROK TO TRY SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTER PRODUCTION WITH JAPANESE AID Tokyo THE JAPAN ECONODiIC JOURNAL in English 27 Nov 79 p 8 ~ ] I [Text I ~ The Republic of Korea is ex- Under this agreement, the initiate production of general- pected to initiate production of Japanese company has been purpose electronic computers small business computers early assisting the Korean firm in eventually. in 1980. instailing production facilities ~ Training oF Korean enginecrs ~ W:th technical assistance and training engineers and and technicians was started in pruvided by Hitachi, Ltd. of technicians. July at Hitachi's computcr : Tokyo, Tongyang Nylon Co. of Korea's first computer plant plants in the fields of syste~t~ ~ Seoul will begin producing the is being installed in Seoul. It engineering, marketing, type of computers probably in will be completed by the end oF production control, main- _ ' January, according to a Hitachi this year and put in operation tenance and services. ~ i executive. ~ in January. About 30 engineers and tech- I In the initial stage, the Shipments of the first com- nicians of Tongyang are Korean company will have a pleted units from the plant will scheduled to complete the ' production capacity of between proh~ibly be initiated in June, current training courses early 'lll and :30 units a munth. 1980. ~ ~ in Deccrnbcr and to bc placed This means lhat S~~uth Korea Tools and equiprnenl in- in the computer division to be will become Asia's second � s~lled at the plant are largely created wifhin the Korean computer manufacturing coun- supplied from Hitachi, and in- company. try after Japan. tegrated circuit (IC) chips to be AE ' present, only several Computer praluction in Ko- used for the eomputer pro- hundreds of computers are in , - rea will be initiated under the duction in ~ Korea will' be operation in South Korea, but - ~ Korean government policy of primarily shipped from the~ production of Korean-made developing the computer and Japanese company. computers is expected to ac- , related industries with the aim The Korean Government, celerate thc use of cumputers _ of promoting higher value- however, has. a policy of raising in that country. ; added exports in the long run. the ratio oF Korean-made con- It is also feared am~mg somc , Tongyang Nylon, a manufac- tents, and it has been agreed Japanc~se that Korca, favored turer of synthetic fiber, I;~eetween the Korean and Japa- by the availat~ility o[ abund;int ' clothing and tire cords, was nese firms that Hitachi will and highly skilled manpuwer, _ named the first computer give technical assistance for may eventually Fc~se a serious ` pruducer in South Korea by the the manufacture of ICs in the lhreat to the Japanc~e industry i Korean Governmcnt, and Ton� long run. on internati~nal markets for yang concluded a tectinical It is also said that the Korean some types oF computec�s. agreement with Hitachi last Government has a plan to summer. (JEJ-July 31 issue) t ~ COPYRIGHT: 1979 THE NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUN, Inc ; - ~ CSO: 4120 i - -j 15 i G FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i~:l~~ . N. KOREA/FORkiIGN TRADE ~F ~.r:. KONG CHIN-T''AE APPOINTED TO IMPROVE DPRK-JAPAN TRADE Tokyo NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUN in Jaganese 1 Nov 79 p 7 [Tokyo Daily Summary of Japanese Press] - [Text] It has become clear recently that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is preparing to tackle, on a full scale, the ~ normalization of economic relations with Japan, by appointing Deputy _ Premier Kong Chin-t'ae of tfie State Council (corresponding to the Cabinet of Japan) to the post with supreme responsibility for *rade with Japan. This was clarified by Japan-Korean Trade Account Settlement Consultative Council Representative Yoshihiico Nomura, who has returned from North - Korea, after exchanging documents concerning final agreement, at a press - conference held on the 31st. According to representative Nomura, the economic situation in North Korea is "better than expected," due to a good harvest of agricultural products. It is expected that Japan-Korean economic relations will head toward normalization, when a responsibility structure becomes clear. - According to i~epresentative Nomura, the North Korean side is extremeZy enthusiastic about the normalization of Japan-Korean economic relations, ~ and it has clearly formulated the responsibility structure, by appointing Kong Chin-t'ae, vice premier ~f the State Administr3tion Council, which corresponds to the Cabinet of Japan, and foreign economic af6airs minister, _ to the post with supreme responsibility for trade with .Tapan, and also, by appointing Chosen Soren (General Federation of Korean Residents in Japan) � Chairman Han Tok-su and Vice Chairman Yi Kye~paek as persons responsible for establishing contacts with Japanese cred3.tors. Concerning the problem of settlement of trade accounts between Japan and Korea, Representative Nomura and North Korean Trade Bank President pang Ki-yong, who are persons concerned on the two sides, conducted negotia~ - tions for 2 months in July and August. As a result, basic agreement was _ reached as follows: 1) The payment of the arrears, including overdue interest, should be completed in 10 years hence; and 2) the interest rate on the overdue interest should be set on the line of the interest rate on ~ 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , , . ~ . . . , . . .�.:..i~~~ . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034445-7 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY loar:s as rc~ ::iie Bank of London plus 1.25 percent. Representative Nomura and others were in NortYe Korea from 12 to 26 October, for the purpose - of exchan~ing final-stage agreed documents. - COPYRIGHT: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha 1979 CSO: 4105 ~ , END . . 7 ; ~ i ; i ~ i - ; ' i ~ ; 17 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030045-7