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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000200030053-8 ~ ~ ~ 3i DECEMBER 1979 CF~UO 13r79~ 1 0 F 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J~'RS L/8834 31 December 1979 - - USSR Re ort p - INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS ~FOUO 13/79) - ~BIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMA~ION SERVICE - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 ~ NOTE ' JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign neraspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language _ sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with *he original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, ediro?:ial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was - processed. [~here no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or tran5literated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the ~ original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an - item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poii- . cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. - For further information on report content - call (703) 3~1-2938 (economic); 3468 (poli.tical, sociological, military); 2726 - = (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). , COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF = = MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION C' THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFIC~+,L USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8834 - 31 December 1979 USSR REPORT INDUS7RIAL AFFAIRS - (FOUO 13/79) CONT~NTS ~ PAGE AUTOMOTIVE AND TRACTOR INDUSTRY Status Report on Five-Year Plan Automotive Targets (AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANPSORT KAZAKHSTANA, Nos 4, 5, 1979)... 1 ^ Status at ZIL and GAZ, by Yu. Teplovodskiy Status at Other Automotive Plants, by Yu. Teplovodskiy _ - New Passenger Car Models Described _ (AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KA.ZAKHSTANA, No 8, 1979)....... 9 _ Powder-Metallurgy Facilities for Truck Repair Shops Urged (B. Tikhonov; AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA, No 10`, 1979) 12 . Chita Plant Producii~g ZIL-130S Trucks for Use in Far North (B. V. Lapshinov; AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA, - _ No 10, 1979) 17 CONSTRUCTION, CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY, AND BUILDING MATERIALS - Technical Progress in the Construction Industry - - (V. Tolpygin; VOPROSY EKQNOMIKI, Aug 79) 20 - ~ - Moldavian Building-Materials Industry Capital Investment Unbalanced (P. Ye. Tsurkan; IZVESTIYA AN MOLDAVSK~Y SSR, SERIYA - OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK, No 2, 1979) 33 ' a - [III - US5R - 36 FOUO] FOR OFk'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` ~ AUTOMOTIVE ANI'i TRACTOR INDUSTRY - STATUS REPORT ON FIVE-YFJAR PLAN AUTOMOTIVE TARGETS Status at ZIL and GAZ Alma-Ata AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA in Russian No 4, 1979 signed to press 12 Mar 79 pp 28-29 ~ - [First part of two-part article by Yu. Teplovodskiy: "On the Final Stretch _ of the Five-Year Plan"] . [Text] In the automotive industry work is continuously in pregress aimed at more intensive development of this branch of industry. Its objective is to expand the variety of vehicles designed to satisfy the ever growing needs and requirements of our economy and personal transportation. The number of - different models and modified versions being produced by the associations - and enterprises of this branch on the final stretch of the lOth Five-Year - Plan exceeds 300. This figure applies to models. More than 2 million cars and trucks will be produced this year a].one. And the figure will be even higher by the end of 1980. - The Soviet Union is presently the world's third largest producer of trucks. Everybody~is familiar with the plants which huild them. The most popular truck in this country is the ZIL-130. Approxi.mately 3 mil- _ lion of these trucks have been built to date. The Moscow Automotive Plant - imeni I. A. Likhachev is today the AvtoZIL Production Association, which con- sists of 13 specialized plants and has a work force of more than 100,000 skilled workers, engineers, technicians, and white-collar workers. ! At the present time ZIL is the USSR�s largest manufacturer of inedium trucks. It produces for this nation's economy (in addition to the model designated above) the ZIL-131, -133, - 133G, and -157KD. The latter has replaced the _ ZIL-157K off-roaci vehicle with which we are all familiar. It has been in production onZy a comparatively short time (since June of last year), but production is growing every day. ' The ZIL-157KD truck with off-road capability possesses substantial ad- vantages over its predecessor. It features a more powerful engine, an alternator with voltage regulator, and transistorized ignition. It is more reliable in operation and, most important, more economical. It is unlikely that this model will.undergo any design changes in the near future, but the base model (ZIL-130) and models with the identifying 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY numbers 131 and 133 have been radically improved and, beginning with this year, are being delivered to the customer with a number of design~changes, _ - For the most part "hidden" changes. And it is quite possible that those = - who operate and maintain them have not yet discovered these changes. For example, the pistons contain four holes running through the piston body and elliptical skirts, which eliminates the possibility of jamming in the cylinders when minimum heat expansion gaps are maintained; a corrosion- - resistant cast iron insErt has been added in the area of the top piston ring. The connecting rod bearing securement assembly on the crank pin has beea changed: the bolt-nut-locking pin set has been replaced with an increased-hardness bolt-washer-nut set. There have been design changes in the water pump and engine cooling system; a triple-line tubular radiator such as on the ZIL-130 will be employed on the ZIL-131, and the K-88A carburator has been replaced by the new K88-AYe carburator, with the throttle chamber body an2~ aluminum casting. A num- - ber of design changes have also occurred in other units and assemblies on ZIL trucks. In the final analysis they ail pursue a single objective to make truck servicing and maintenance easier. ~ - . The engineers at ZIL are also focusing their attention on improving engine and truck fuel economy. Some of the designated measures have already been carried out, and as a result fuel and lubricant consumption to ignition loss is at the level of analogous forei;n-made engines such as Ford, Leroi, International, and others. In order to achieve further decrease in fuel consumption on the ZIL-130 truck, a fuel feed line with uniform mixture distribution to the cylinders will go into production this year; fuel consumption tolerances will be reduced in the manufacture of carburators; a high degree of precision of metering devices (jets) will be obtained by manufacturing them on special machines; trucks will come with radial tires with reduced unbalance and rolling resistance. The following are to be added to the ZIL-130 by the beginning of 1980: an _ electronically-controlled forced-idle economizer, and an electroni.cally- controlled variable ignition advance. A long-life multiple-viscosity oil will be used, as well as oil control piston rings with a dual-function expander, which will reduce oil consumption. ' A further substantial decrease in fuel consumption on ZIL trucks will be - achieved by changing over to premix chamber or diesel engines. Incidental- = - ly, the ZIL-13QF precombustion chamber engine, based on the ZIL-130, has twice passed interministerial acceptance tests, which confirmed its ex- cellent fuel economy and low level of exhaust gas pollution. This engine was recom~mended for production, and USSR Gosplan is considering putting it into series production. A changeover from gasoline to diesel motors provides a fuel consumption decrease of 30%. To promote greater use of ~iesel power, plant engineers 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY have designed, built and tested the ZIT~ 133GYa and ZIL-133 VYa three-sxle truck tractors. They are powered by 21t7 horsepower KamAZ diesel engines. Set �p as 17-1.8 ton trac.tor - trailer rigs, these trtick tractors success- fully passed interministerial acceptance tests, and they should soon go into production. This is a first important step toward diesel-powering the trucks built by this plant. They have also designed and built experimental models of the ZIL-645 diesel. _ They are presently in the advanced stages of testing. These are 8.74 liter 185 horsepower V-8 engines. It is assumed that the ZIL-645 diesel engine will power the ZIL-130 and _ ZIL-131 truck tractors, which are currently in production. Puttin~ into production ZIL-138D2 pressurized tank trucks and dump trucks and ZIL-138 ~-1 truck tractors will help supply the economy with new, im- ' proved and more economical vehicles. Plans call for increasing the load capacity of the ZIL-133GI three-axle truck to 10 tons. Design, engineering and other�services are currently refining the design and stepping up prepara- , tions to produce the new diesel-pc;wered ZIL-139 truck. Tractor-trailer rigs of various designations with a load capacity of 12-14 tons can be based on this truck, Production startup on this model wi1T constitute an important stage in the development of the entire association. AvtoZIL also produces small numbers of deluxe GIL-114 and -117 passenger cars. One of the la~est models is the ZIL-117V (with convertible top). The association supplies trucks to 50 different countries. The ~ice'Order of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Order of the Patriotic War, lst Class, Gor'kiy Automotive Plant (GAZ Production Association) ex- ports its products to a somewhat smaller number of countries (32). This - is one of 'the country's largest and leading enterprises in the manufacture - ' of 2, 2.5 and 5 ton trucks, as well as the Volga and Chayka passenger cars. The Gor'kiy automotive engineers are constantly improving their product. For example, in 19?0 the GAZ-52 and GAZ-53 trucks ran 120,000 meters befor.e major overhaul, while by the end o� the current five-yEar plan this will be boosted to 250,000. Truck payload will also be substantially greater. ...Various vehicles are being tested in the road testing laboratory of the plant's experimental design division. One of these vehicles is the modernized GAZ-53. What desigra changes have been made? First nf all, it is powered by an improved motor built at the Zavolzh'ye Motor Plant, which has increased mileage to major overhaul by 25%. Fuel consumption is . 4-5% lower than before, and the pollution level of the exhaust gases has ~ been significantly reduced. Thirdly, the hinged steering column and brake system separate lines in- crease operating reliability and safety. Third, Mileage to TO-1 [Main- tenance Inspection-1] is to be increased from 2,50~ to 3,500 kilometers. 3 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY DiFficulty of servicing and maintenance has been reduced 20%. And fourth, the interior has been made more comfortable. There is one more important improvement. Working jointly with USSR Goskomsel'khoztekhnika, the plant's engineers have developed accessory equip- ment mount-on boxbed sides, seals, tiedowns, and a canvas cover. This cargo bed sealing capability totally eliminates loss of grain during naul- ing. Changes have also been made in the design of the GAZ-66 truck. In partic- ular, the front bumper has been extended, and the fold-back and removable sections on the cab provide ease of access for maintenance and repairs. This model will soon be equipped with separate brake systems and transmis- sion located closer to the driver this will improve vehicle operation and control. _ ~ What does th e future hold? An improved model of the GAZ-66-06 truck has been designed. The production startup papers have been issued, and production preparations are already in progress. A new truck, the GAZ-4301, - is currently in the design process. This truck will reflect the latest achievements of Soviet and foreign automotive engineering. An air-cooled ~ - diesel motor will cut almost in half specific fuel consumption per ton of payload. Hooking a trailer to this truck will more than double load capacity to 9 tons, and mileage to major overhaul will be extended to 30Q,000 kilometers. Now a few words about the association's passenger cars, and in particular the Volga f amily of cars, since our magazine has already discussed the Chayka (GAZ-14) in detail (see No 11, 1978). The Gor'kiy Pl.ant has been building the GAZ-24 since 1970. During this _ - period more than 200 changes have been made in this car, increasing its - reliability and durability, driving safety, and making servicing and main- - tenance easi er. This model presently meets the requirements of 26 out of 27 existing international regulatioris. Its service life has increased - from 300,000 to 350,000 kilometers, and this new figure has been added to the car's specifications. Labor requirements of servicing and maintenance have been reduced 22%. Work is continuing on �urther increasing the body's resistance to corrosion, to reduce interior noise and to reduce exhaust pollution. Plans call for producing a model fueled by bottled gas. The plant has begun preparations for building a new GAZ-3102 model, which wiil replace the GAZ-24 in the coming five-year plan (at approximately the end of 1981). Experimental models of the new Volga are presently und~er- - going testing. We can add the following to information which is already - available on the GAZ-3102 (ATK, No 1, 1979): the hood, fenders, grill and _ front bumper will be somewhat restyled. The go-ahead has been given for employment of a precombustion-chamber motor, more rugged front suspension, and antihydroplaning tires; the spare tire will be located under rather - than in the trunk. The fuel tank will be positioned in a safe location, behind the rear seat. Performance will also improve. The new Volga will - accelerate to 100 km/h in 18 seconds, while the GAZ-24 requires 24 ~ - seconds. Top speed will be 155 km/h. - 4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In addition to the GAZ-3102, engineers are readying for production the GAZ-31011, a model offering greater comfort and an eight-cylind~r motor. _ It wjll go into production immediately followi*~g the GAZ-3102 Volga. COPYRIGHT: "Avtomobil'nyy transport Kazakhstana", 1979 Status At Other Automotive Plants Alma-Ata AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAI~iSTANA in Russian No 5, 1979 signed to press 9 Apr 79 pp 28-29 .[Second part of two-part article by Yu. Teplovodskiy: "On the Final Stretch of the Five-Year Plan"] [Text] The workers at the Belorussian Heavy Truck Association imeni 60th Anniversary of the Great October Revolution are approaching the home stretch of the lOth Five-Year Plan with outstanding success in building modern trucks and trailers. BelavtoMAZ is Europe's largest supplier of tractor-trailer rigs, dump trucks, off-road trucks, tractors, and scrapers. The association's plants build 32 different trucks ranging in size from 8 = to 120 tons, plus 13 models of trailers and semitrailers. Manufacture of a large variety of heavy trucks at BelaT~toMAZ became pos- sible due to a high level of standardization and utilization of the method of designing with standa~dized parts and assemblies. The level of standardization of trucks of the MAZ-500A family to the MAZ-500 base model is 87.3%. We should mention that all series-produced trucks at the Minsk Automotive Plant bear the State~S~al of Quality. Orie of the most important items on which modernization of MAZ trucks is grounded is improvement in truck mileage to the first major overhaul to 300-320 thousand kilometers by the end of this five-year plan. A number of ineasures are b eing taken to achie~~e this figure. Thanks to unique design solutions, for example, durability of the frame on the new MAZ _ = trucks has been increased by 100 to 150%. This was achieved by eliminating holes in the horizontal flanges of the side members and attachment to the - vertical wall of side members of such structural elements as the front ~ bed support, fuel feed linkage, spare wheel holder, radiator and muffler brackets, and forward engine mount. Also adopted was a new-design leaf , - spring mount, which has increased spring life severalfold. To extend the life of the exhaust system, the exhaust piping has been rerouted, = eliminating various bends. Stronger fuel tank and battery mounts are also being employed. Considerable work has been done to improve driveshaft desi~n. Tests have _ shown that as a result of this, universal joint life has increased by - double or triple. ~ 5 ~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Improvement in the quality of trucks produced would be impossible without - increasing the safety of the design, which has been a~hieved by equipping trucks with separate brake systems, increasing the capacity of compress~d- _ air tanks, adding an oil-and-moisture trap, employing asymmetrical beam headlights, plus other refinements. In working on improving the performance of new MAZ trucks, the designers _ do no t ignore the problem of making them more comfortable and easier on the driver. Toward this end they are reducing vibrations at the driver's seat, planning utilization of a new seat with improved shock-absorbing capabili- ty, installation of a higher-output cab heater, and improved cab interior. In addition to the truck, trailers on the MAZ-8925 chassis and a number of semitrailers are also undergoing qualitative changes. In the fourth year of the five-year plan the Minsk truck builders will com- plete acceptance tests on and build an exper.imm~ntal batch of MA7-7516 multi- axle fully power-assisted dump�trucks with excellent off-road performance - and a 20-ton load capacity for service in Siberia and the Far East. The Zhadicio builders of giant trucks will produce experimental models and ccn- _ duct tests on 110-ton BelAZ-7519 dump trucks. - Anoth er and equally important task facing the designers at the Belorussian Automotive Plant is to design a 180-ton dump truck. It will feature an advanced electric transmission. Trucks of this size will naturally need new 2,000-2,300 horsepower engines. And the designers are currently study- the possibility of employing gas-turbine engines in these.trucks. - Anoth er enterprise of BelavtoMAZ the Mogilev Automotive Plant will. also be supplying the nation's economy with new equipment. A series of off- road 20-ton dump trucks, model MoAZ-522A, designed for operations in areas where no roads are available, raill go into production this year. Lates t developments at the Kremenchug Order of Lenin Automotive Plant imeni SOth ann~versary of the Soviet Ukraine lead enterprise of AvtoKrAZ include the new model KrAZ-6435-8570 tractor-trailer rig. At the end of last year two experimental models were operationally tested at Automotive Combine No 28 of Mosstroytrans., under the observation of people from the - automotive plant and the Central Scientific Research Institute of Motor Vehicles and Automotive Engines. Just as all its predecessors, it is powerful, highly reliable and durable, and can operate off roads. It _ bears little resemblance to them externally, and in design it is far superior to the well-known KrAZ-256B. It is powered by a 300-horsepower turbochar~d diesel engine from the Yaroslavl' Motor Plant. Most of the principal components have been redesigned, as has the mode of wheel attach- ment. The load capacity of th e new KrAZ is 3 tons greater than the KrA7,- 256B. It features easy steering. Body and trailer can be controlled from _ the cab an important item in the performance features of this new model. 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ural trucks with excellent off-road capability have recently won the hearts of truck drivers. These off-road-capability vehicles can be en- countered in various parts of the Soviet Union and abroad. They are to be found wherever roads are, where the terrain is rugged and � roadless, and where other trucks cannot travel. They are produced by the work force at the Urals Order of the Red Banner ~ of Labor Automotive Plant (lead enterprise:of the Urals Truck Production Association). The Urals plant recently built test models of a new Ural-432001 heavy- payload truck. It also has good off-road capability. It is designed ta operate under the harsh conditions of the Far North. The load capacity of the new Ural is 5 tons, and it will tow a trailer grossing 11.5 tons. The trailer carries a payload of 8 tons. The cab offers very convenient features to the driver. It carries off- road rubber produced by the Omsk Tire Plant; these tires are designed to operate at temperatures down to 60� b elow zero. ~ao test models are presently undergoing off-road testing in the snowy wastes of the Yakut ASSR. A most important measure aimed at meeting the requirements of the nation's economy is a planned, scheduled increase in the manufacture of KamAZ tractor-trailer rigs. Three models of a large family of KamAZ truck tractors have been in production since 1978. This year the truck builders in Naberezhnyye Chelny have begun assembling the first commercial batch of trucks of the new KamAZ-53212 model. Based on the existing KamAZ-5320 8-ton truck, the new truck, in contrast to its predecessor, carries a payload of 10 tons. The cab contains a bunk space for the driver. The driver's work station is now larger and more comfortable. The truck also longer than the KamAZ-5320. _ The designers took pains to ensure that the plant workers could put the new model into product~on as quickly as possible. Standard~zation of basic assemblies and components with the KamAZ-5320 amounts to 93%. ~ In addition to boxbed 10-ton trucks, special trucks will be built for ` municipal services, road and construction work. Here is another rnew development; a complex series of factory tests on the KamAZ-54112 truck tractor is nearing completion. This vehicle is designed to operate as an overland tractor-trailer rig with a load capacity of ' 20 tons. The design of this vehicle incorporates a num}~er of changes. It is more efficiently laid out. In particular, the items we now see behind the cab of the current model air cleaner, tool box, spare wheel will be "concealed" on the frame.... - Kama tractor-trailer rigs will b e operating in various climatic conditions. _ Association designers have completed development of experimental models 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY designed to operate u*_ider conditi~ns of temperatures ranging from +40 to -60�. Arctic version KamAZ-E541001 truck tractors have returned from ex- ~ perimental service on hauls in the permafrost zone. The Arctic version of . this truck tractor contains additional features for driver convenience. The Kama truck builders have set for themselves the task of providing the nation with improved-payload trucks with better off-road capability, trucks which are reliable and long-lived. Base models of buses will also be modernized. The PAZ-672, for exar~ple, - will be replaced by a new, improved model, prototype units of which have passed gove~nment tests and fu11y meet the demands made on urban transit buses, ttiat is, redu~ced stepup, wider door openings, etc. The L'vov Bus Plant imeni 50th Anniversary of the USSR has begun putting _ a new model into production the LAZ-4202 medium urban transit bus, which is distinguished by excellent comfort and dynamic qualities. It is - equipped with items wh ich make the driver's job easier: automatic trans- mission, and power steering. It is powered by a KamAZ diesel. The. Likinsk Bus Plant has begun developing a model also to be powered by a KamAZ diesel engine. Plans call for standardizing the new bus wiCh a m future standardized family of buses. There will also be imp rovement in models built by VAZ, Komm~inar, the - U1'yanovsk Automotive Plant, RAF and AZLK. In addition to improvement of current models, new models will be developed. Recently the first units ~f the Moskvich-21406 model came off the assembly line at the Automotive Plant imeni Lenin Komsomol. They boast improved off-road capability and are powered by a downrated motor burning 76 octane gasoline. Completion is scheduled on the engineering documentation for another new model the Moskvich 2141. This model will utilize several newly-designed assemb lies. The automotive workers of Tol'yatti are about to bring out more modern, convenient and reliable models. Experimental models of an amphibious - _ veh icle, based on the Niva, are undergoing testing. And the VA'G-2108 Zhiguli, which is presently on the drawinQ boards, is called by the Volga automotive workers the car of the llth Five-Year Plan. In c~ntrast to previous models, it will have front-wheel drive. - COPYRIGHT: "Avtomcbil'nyy transport Kazakhstana", 1979 - _ 3024 CSO : 1821 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AUTOMOTIUE AND TRACTOR INDUSTRY NEW PASSENGER CAR MODELS DFSCRIBED Alma-Ata AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA in Russian No 8, 19"J9 p 44 ~Editorial staff response to letters: "A ~ompetent Companion" ~ex~ The March issue of AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT ZAKHSTANA carried photographs of new models of do- mestic autombbiles and ~ brief description of them in the "New Fquipment" section. One of them--the VAZ-2105 --was of considerable interest to us, the owners o~ "Zhigulis." Couldn't the editorial staff provide more detail on the new product of the Volga Motor Vehicle - Plant? These lines were taken from the letter from Karaganda autom~bile enthusiasts Yu. I. Kurakein, an engineer, and N. A. Gomzyakov, sn electrician. A 6imilar ques- tion was put to the editorial staff by Kustanay resident V. G. Slobodin, V. I. Kr~~vchenko from Semipalatinsk, and a group of automobile enthusiasts from Aktyubinsk. "In more detail"... It is difficult to answer this question posed by our readers, The fact is that the new automobile from the Volga plant has so far been displayed as e~xperimental models; work on it is still being conducted and it is too early to speak about all the refinements. We can add the fo'llowing to the data provided previously: The VAZ-2105 is a comfortable, small-displacement car which seats five. Roads with any surface, except dirt~with deep ruts, are all right for it. It rras desigraQd for operation in outside air temperatures from 45 above to 40 below zero degrees Celsius. The advanced de~ign of the engine, with the use of high-grade lubricants~ ensures its reliable startup at a temperature of minus 25 degrees Celsius without a starting preheater. A toothed belt in the drive of the valve-timing gear and the ~'Ozon-2'~ carburetor with additional systems have made it possible to reduce engine noise and the toxicity of exhaust gases, and to increase its econo~my at the same time. a FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 ~ , . , _ I i~ - � ,:n r_ , . , r, . r%, p - _ ~ ~ I , _ L~ .~a , - ~ , f' ~ �t ~ _ ';:~.x~.+ - u~. . ~ r t t~` S : t -r - 1 5 .,t T ~`.~y p . r~ . ~L ~ b ~,~fy~K ~ ~Lt k ~~1 ~ lY`~ 'icp.r , ~i i :rr'f!~ n~ 1,~'7i~+`�Yw~ R'JCe' , 'C . \ ~i4 ~ 8 $ 3;: 2lC7; 1~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . I- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 ,FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A separate brake system~ a pressure regulator in the rear brake system~ and automatic ad3ustment of clearances between the shoes, discs and drums meet current req,uirementa for safety set forth for the design of a passen- - ger automobile. The light suspension of the automobile, the modern interior, and the nearly noiseless operation of the engine create an important impressior~. when traveling in the automobile and sigriificantly reduce driner fatigue. The new "Zhigulis" have better performance than the ~IAZ-21011, their pre- - decessor; they are more reliable and have a longer useful life, but a].1 - this, in the final analysit~~ wiLZ depend on observance of operating rules and their maintenance. The VAZ-2104 will be produced at the same time as this model. Its basic distinction from the VAZ-2105 is i~s reinforced rear suspension and a multi-purpose '~universal" body. The Vol~a plant workers are constantly improving the design of their mo- = dels and are turnin~ out new ones~ one of which is the V.4Z-2107. Test models of it a'lso came off the plant's assembly line at the end of last year. And it is possible that pr~cisely this model, and not the VAZ-2105, will be put into series production initially. The VAZ-2107 automobile (lower photo) was made on the basis of the 2106 - model. It is characterized by the absence of moldings.ancl.the "~quare" shape of the body; the radiator frame has been moved forward slightly, and because of this it somewhat resembles the Mercedes automobilea of the Daimler-Benz firm. The square headlights have been equipped with wipers. Just as in the VAZ-2105~ the most advanced araterials have been uaed in the interior finishing af these "Zhigulis.~' COPYRIGHT: "Avtomobil'nyy transport Kazakhstana'~, 19?9. 893E Cso: 1821 ~ ~ lI ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AUTOMOTIVE AND TRACTOR INDUSTRY POWDER-METALLURGY FACILITIES FOR TRUCK REPAIR SHOPS URGED , Alma-Ata AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA in Russian No 10, 1979 signed to press 17 Sep 79 pp 22, 23 [Article by B. Tikhonov, candidate of engineering sciences and chief of the machinebuilding sector of KazNIINTI [Scientific-Research Institute for Sci- entific and Technical Information and Technical and Economic Research: "Automotive Repair Operation Needs Powder Metallurgy"] - ~ [Text] It has been estimated that as a result of converting 1,000 tons of ~ articles from ferrous metals to manufacture by powder metallurgy technology, _ the economic effect is 1.3 million rubles, and in the case of conversion ; from n~nferrous metallurgy, more than 2 million rubles. Metal. savings in ' this case are 1,500-2,000 tons. The automotive industry is in first place among customers for powder metal- lurgy output. In order to manufacture one domestically produced truck, the following amounts of special articles are used: for a ZIL 2.31 kg, a MAZ 2.81 kg, a LAZ 3.64 kg, a BelAZ 13.16 kg and a GAZ 3.7 kg. There are 65-70 such articlcs of 28-30 types (depending upon the model) in each motor vehi- - cle produced by the Volga Motor-Vehicle Plant. Their total weight in Zhi- - gulis average 1.2 kg, in the design of the Kama Association's trucks--4.4 kg (51 parts of 19 types). More than 130 specified parts (structural, antifriction and filtering) are being manufactured by powder metallurgy at 11 specialized plants or sec- tions for all models of domestic motor vehicles. The largest ~nter.prise of the industry is the Moscow Powder-Metallurgy Plant, which produces them (5,000 tons per year) for the ZIL-130 truck (figure 1) and the Moskvich-412. ' G The AvtoVAZ [Automotive Production Association of the Volga Motor-Vehicle Plant] system has two powder-metallurgy departments (in Tol'yatti and Dimi- trovgrad). These departments, the largest in Europe, are equipped with the most advanced technology. Parts that are manufactured here are also in- - - stalled on motor vehicles made by GAZ [Gor'kiy Motor-Vehicle Plant], KamA7, " [Kama Motor-Vehicle Plant], ZIL [Moscow Motor-Vehicle Plant imeni I. A. Li- khachev], ZAZ [Zaporozh'ye Motor-Vehicle Plant imeni Kommunar], AZLK [Moscow Motor-Vehicle Plant imeni Leninskiy Komsomol] and UAZ [U1'yanovsk 12 . - FOR QFFICIA`L LTSE Oiv'LY = I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Motor-Vehicle Plant imeni V. I. Lenin. They raise the reliability of many - components. For example, when the shock absorbers of the GAZ-24 truck be- gan to be outfitted with articles of this type, their quality rose sharply. However, the requirement for such parts for the GAZ truck is 25-30 kg, that is, 7-fold to 8-fold the amount now being used. - [Figure i] _ Key: 1. Water pump gasket washer. _ 2. Drive shaft sleeve. , - _ 3. Rotor sleeve. 4. Drive housing. ~ , 5. Compression valve housing. ,'y-S _ 6. Valve guides. ` ';6_ 7. Rings for valve surfacing. ~ 8. Floating washer. ' B 9 9. Oil pump gear. ' - 10. Synchronizer V-rings. 11. Windshield-wiper motor housing. I~?~~ 12. Door-hinge housing. ~ 'ti 13. Window-raising gear. ' ~ 14. Lock rotor. - - 15. Distributor shaft thrust washer. 16. Clutch release shaft sleeve. ! ~ , ie _ 17. Propeller shaft sleeve. > . 18. Clutch pedal sleeve. -i,e- r - 19. Pitman-arm draglink block. , 20. Centrifuge axis thrust washer. _ 21. Cylinder-1_iead bushing. ~ 22. Tie rod block. 23. Shock-absorber piston rod. %';s . 24. Thrust washer for front-axle l_?^ housing. ~ 'L5. Shock-absorber piston. 26. Rod sleeve. 27. Knuckle bearing thrust washer. - The increased durability of powder-metallurgy articles yields great econom- ic effectiveness not only in motor-vehicle manufacture but also in the _ sphere of motor-vehicle t~leet~operation. Thus it is now necessary to solve the problem of providing spare parts made of powder materials to motor-vehicle repair enterprises, motor pools, motor-vehicle technical-ser- = ` vice stations, and the owners of personal transport throughout the Kazakh 't' SSR. All the potential for this exists. - First of all, the spare-parts mix and the republic's requirements for arti- _ ~ cles of this type in the next few years should be determined. The econom- ic benefit wiJ.l be evident from this, and it will become possible to plan with prec~:s~on the development of powder metallurgy in the Ministry of ` Automotive Transport's sphere. It is necessary to organize a powder-metal- ~ lurgy department (or section) at one of the automotive-repair enterprises 13 ' - FOR OFFICI~I. LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Por ~;he large-scale manufacture of various sintered parts for the engines and underframe of motor vehicles and also for some automotive instruments. - For purposes of orientation, table 1 shows the composition of the equip- ment of a powder-metallurgy section with a productivity of 250,000 parts = per year (based on iron and copper powders) which are to execute two pro- cesses (cold compacting and dynamic hot compacting). This section occupies an, area of 430 square meters and calls for two-shift operation. Its staff _ consists of 41 people. Capital costs for the equipment and the construc- - tion ana installing work does not exceed 330,000 rubles. Adequately precise observance of regimes f~r powder-metallurgy technalogy during all operations is required in order to obtain high-quality products. Therefore, equipment that meets definite requirements is necessary. Double- cone powder blenders with electric drive, whose local fabrication can be organized easily, are used most often for nonstandard (preparatory) equipment. , Standard hydraulic presses manufactured by the Orenburg Plant for Hydraulic Presses, mechanical presses of the Saran' Forging and Pressworking Equip- ment P.lant and automatic presses produced by the Ryazan' Forging and Press- working Equipment Plant can be used to compact the powders. Imported presses of various types manufactured by the Dorse and Manesman [translit- erated] companies (FRG), Gidraum (GDR) and Billaud (France) can be used. _ Sintering and thermal treatment are performed in furnaces that differ in , heating principle (resistance and induction furnaces), according to the nature of the charge (batches and continuous-action) and the medium (for ~ operation with protective atmospheres and rarefied atmospheres). These furnaces are delivered in a complete set, ready for connection to the elec - tric-power network. The series manufacture of electric furnaces has been orgar~ized at the Moscow Plant for High-Frequency Furnaces (MEVZ) and some - other domestic enterprises and also at the Degussa company of the FRG. Many automotive spare parts for structural purposes can be manufactured from iron powder by a simple method--by siritering pressed cold compacts. In order to obtain high-strength parts (ievers, cams, racker arms, coup- lings, oil-pump gears, and so on) the method of hot pressing of compacts - after they have been cold molded should be used. Here there is no sepa-~. rate.sintering operation and, with a.view to cutting the costs of the starting material, steel and cast-iron shavings can be added to the blend. The essence of the technological process of obtaining high-strength arti- - cles is evident from figure 2. First, the.molded cold compact made of iron - powder is preheated in a die, and it is compacted in a steel (still better, - in a hard-alloy) die, whose preheating does not exceed 15~ degrees C. , Therefore, the durability even of a steel die consists of several thousand _ parts where the article is extracted from it with ease. ' Thanks to the simple process, the lack of furnaces with a monitored atmos- sphere, eccentric crank presses and standard-model TVCh [high-frequency 14 FOR OFFICIP.L USE OIdLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , a~ ~ ~ . - r' ~n ~ ~n ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ V u~ a~ cd y ~ f~ t~ ~ a a a O tA tA U ~ G. ai RS c~ O O f~ . c~ ti0 4~i ~ a a U U a -S~". r~ ~ r-1 'C ~ t~ ~ _ H a ~ ~ ~ . o ~ N '~-~i ~ ~ 'rt 't3 tn ~n N ~y j.~ N O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O - ~ Lz.~ LTr L*a [x~ ~ 'd ~ > O o0 ~ ~n a0 00 O l~ O tn O rn O O.-i O co 'ri r-I ~ ~n ~ O l~ cD rn O l~ ~ d' .-i O ~n M N ~ tn r~ 'r"~ R1 ~1-~ ~ iy th M N M tn N M M Q~ ~ O O 4-~ N o E-+ U ~I-~ O , ~ , a . - ~ O O M O ~n O~n O cO ~n 1 I a0 O I i � ,i."' O~ O y d' L` t~ c0 tn c0 M M.-I cr C~7 � -F~ F 0 ~ ~ M M . . 3 ' C+ .Z~. I.-I .-i .-i e-i e-i e-i e-i .-1 N.-i .-I N t7 N N tD � . O ~ . ~ ' U N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ d' c0 a0 O N c0 d' O~n in ~ � O .-i ~-1 ~ a~0 ~ O~i N ~ ~j ,\-1 p , ri ~ ~ '7" . ~ . ~ . � ' A p x x x x~ x vE] N c7 1 I I I 1 I ~ ~ � ~ . . . ~ . ~ ~ . . ~ . . . . . ~ i�, . . . p . C7 � N N f.~, � � � C~j � � ~ U) � ~ N N Q � O � c0 � U U O � � ~ ~ ~ 'T3 U U t0 � � e-I � f~ iti ~ � � ~ ~ � � � � � ~ i~+ S~+ ~ . O O � � I . ~ . . ~ ~ . O O ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ i . P, ~ 4-i 4-~ r-I � rl � ~ 4j ( p . ~j ~ C70 , CS' , , ~'-I ~ ; - ~ .O I 1 cd ~ �S ~ c~ � u~ u~ ~ U N � ~ � . . ~ . . - ~ ~ � �,-~i � ~ ~ ^ ~ @ ~1-~ � 4-~ : � . ~ ~ . 4+ cd O o ~ � ~ � ~ �-N~ d0 G~i�~ . . ~ ~ . o ~ ~I-~ ~ ~ ~ O O r~l ~ ~ ~ U � ~ � � ~ � ~ ~ - ~ p . . . ~ � y -I-~ O O U � U � U � O ~n dA � (A . _ ~ ul tn O ~ � ~ � ~ � d' N ~ � ~ O t/] � u . y ~ . p N ~ ~ N d' E ~ G ~ E ~ ~ O ~ C~ U �r-I � � ,p ~ O ~ ~ - ^ ~ Z7 � O O U � ~ U U U � U � U � cC af � ~ ~ f~ � ~ .x 1 ~ � f.~i � ~ ~ �rl �r~ �rl � � �,.1 � U U O � U U O � E-~ I ~ ta4 ~ r-I G" ~ r-i i-I -l-~ � ~ � -I-~ � �r1 �rl �rl � ftf cd ~I-~ � O r-1 .y". ~ c~S W E ~ ~ cd � c~ � af � ~ m � ~ ~ � O ~ � r1 G~ UJ -1-~ V f-~i ~ O U O U O U,.C~ ,t"~ U O � O~ O' ~ U p, r~i E-~ �rl ,,r3 'd Z3 -N f~ ~ t~ fa U U ~ � 4r W �~-I �r-I ~ �rl ~ ~ W .s.'~ ~ 4+ ~ 4-~i ~ 4-~ q E Ra � U U c~C � r~-1 ~ -S~'. ^ ^ 6' ~ ~ I I I G~ ~ q ~--i a~ ~ f~ t7" a~ ^(n ~ ul ~ U1 ~ U. C~ ~ r-1 o rl F~ N~ .."s'~ = U1 V~ U1 ~ v1 ~ uJ tA tA U1 f~ c~ RS t~ T1 i-~ fa U! U1 qI O U1 O uJ O U1 U~ VI O D U-}~ -1~ N O - a~ a~ a~ a~ a~ a~ a~ a~ 4-, a~ a~ m ~n o a~ a~ 3 a a a a a a a a w w H H a m o`~o 0 15 FOR OFFICIAL LTSE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - currents] installations, organizing the production of automotive spare - - parts by this method does not present difficulties for any automotive re- pair enterprise. ~ [Figure 2] Key; . I. Iron powder 99.1- ~ 98.8 percent. II. Lamp black 0.5- ' k'~~ ~ rti, ~ ~ 0.8 percent. ~ 'y`~.''L-~ } ' � ~ � 2~._.-- ~ 1 l ~ ~ 7 III. Pencil lead 0.2 ~ ` percent . - IV. Zinc stearate J~_ i I 0.5 percent. ~ 1 2 3 4 5 1. Mixing the blend. _ - 2. Cold compacting P = 5 tons-force/square centimeter. 3. Heating with TVCh [high-frequency cuxrent] to 1,15Q-1,200 degrees C. Hot compacting P= 8-12 tons-force/square centimeter. 5. Cooling. The TsKTB [Central Industrial-Design Office] of the branch can be charged _ with developing the industrial tooling, suitable raaterials and design for the parts (spare parts) and the experimental operations. Economically ef- ~ fective cooperation with other organizations also is possible. COPYRIGHT: Avtomobil'nyy transport Kazakhstana, 1979 11409 CSO: 1821 ~ 16 FOR QFFICIc~1', LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AUTOMOTIVE AND TRACTOR INDUSTRY _ CHITA PLANT PRODUCING ZIL-130S TRUCKS FOR USE IN FAR NOHTH _ ~ Alma-Ata AVTOMOBIL'NYY TRANSPORT KAZAKHSTANA in Russian No 10~ 1979 P 26 ~Article by B. V. Lapshinov, acting chief of the chief designer's de rta~ent at the Chita Motor Vehicle Assen~bly Plant: "Vehicle for the North" ~ext,~ The "Basic Directions of~USSR National Economic Development in 1976-1980" sta.te: "Ensure the development - - and expanded production of equipment and ma'~erials meet- ing the demands of operation in the different climatic - zones of the country~ and especially in the Far North." In actualizing this decision, vehicle builders of our country have begun producing vehicles for the north. - Thus, Minsk Horkers are already supplying B~AM.~Baykal- - Amur Trunk Lin] builders xith nex 38-ton trailer trucks. These powerful vehicles~ xith their two diesel aotors, are called "die-hards~" after the bison xhich live in the dense Belovezhskaya forest. The first all-terrain _ � "Ambulance" vehicles, produced by the U1'yanovsk Motor _ Vehicle Plant~ have also been sent here. Several mo- - dels produced by the Kama association for the produc- tion of heavy-duty vehicles have been modified for use in the north. A large lot has been tested in Yakutiya and in northern Chitinskaya Oblast. Also in Chita is a branch of the Moscox Motor Vehicle Plant imeni Likha- chev. It recently began producing ZIL-130S trucks~ a _ so-called northern modifica.tion. We will touch on this model in more detail, inssmuch as the "S"-suffix ZIL's - L"S" indicating "northern" have supp'emented the ve- hicle fleets of several bra.nch enterprises located in the northern regions of the republic. It is discussed by B. V. La.pshinov~ acting chief of the chief engineer's depa.rtment at the Chita Motor Vehicle Asc~embly Plant. The ZIL-130S is intended to perform the same functions as the base model, but under the road conditions of the Fhr North~ ~rith air temperatures of -60�C, so the cab is more tightly sealed. It has polyurethane foam insula- tion applied in a 12-15 mm layer throughout the interior surface of the cab. _ 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - All the ca.b glass~ including the windshield,.is double-pane~ the space be- - tWeen the panes being poured full of granules which absorb moisture. The ~ ~ door spaces have additional packing around the edges: leatner substitutes with a thermal insulation layer. The hand brake is equipped xith a pa,cking cover xhich keeps dust and cold air from entering the cab. - The battery compa.rtment~'heated by engine exhaust ga,ses~ is also well-insulated. This is done as folloxs (see drawing)s exhaust gases move from the left ex- ha.ust pipe thmugh a connecting pipe (l~ and receiving fitting~to the heating ~ pipe (2), Which they heat and which in turn heats the air in ths compartment to a temperature regulated by a plate installed in the receiving fitting - Its position is changed by turning a ha.ndle (4) on the top of the transmission access cover to. the right of the dxiver's seat. - to temperature gauge S . ~ - 1 ~ ~ - - \ ~ ! 3 4 ~ i ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ' ~ ~ - ~ ~ _ When the plate is wide open, the current-source conpartment is heated very intensively~ and the driver must keep track of this by xatchin the tempera- ture ga,uge on the ca.b dash. The tempera~ure pick-up itself (5~ is mounted on the front of the ba,ttery ca,se. . The ba,ttery heating system is sxi~ched on only in the xinter~ xhen the tem- - perature reaches -20�C. The ~ir in the housing is heated t~ +40�C, since the ~ mastic on the ba,ttery melta at higher temperatures. In the summer~ the top of the case must be opened when the temperature exceeds +30�C and the plate is closed. _ At customer request, a Hinch to pull the vehi~le out of trouble is insta.lled on the ZIL-130S. It ha,s a maximum tractivp force of 5,000 kg-force and a maximum cable length of 65 meters. Amon~ the other equipment installed on - the northern-modification ZIL are fog lights (atta,ched inside the front bum- per opposite a special cut-out) and a pivoting searchlight. ~ 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 F0~2 OFFICIAL USE ONLY The vehicle is equipped with additiona,l entrenching equipments shovel, ax, cross-cut saw~ cable, xinch (block and tackle) to increaee traction force or to cha.nge traction dixection. This "northerner" is equipped xith an ad- ditional 170-liter fuel ta.nk (it greviously? had a 60-liter tank} situa.ted xhere the spare wheel is secured, and the "spare" is put in a holder at- tached to th~ frame at the rear of the vehicle. _ COPYRIGHT: "Avtomobil'nyy transport Kaza,khstana"~ 1979 iio52 _ . cso: i8z1 ~ - 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CONSTRUCTION, CONSTRUCTION MACHINER~ AND BUILilING MATERIALS TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIKI in Russian No 8, Aug 79 pp 118-128 . [Article by V. Tolpygin; continues discussion begun in VOPROSY EKONOMIKI No 7 by Academician T. Khachaturov in article "Ways of Improving the Effectiveness of Capital Investments"] _ [Text] The USSR has a powerful construction industry capable ef accomplishing _ large and complex tasks. The construction of large enterprises and installa- tions is generally carried out on schedule using advanced processes and with high-quality construction and installation work. At the same time, many enter- prises are giving in to delays and breaches of schedule norms. The average duration of construction of production facilities is 1.8 times the norm. The annual shortfall in introductian of capacities is reaching 35-40 percent. Of these cases, 85 percent of enterprises and installations are finished behind schedule through the fault of the builde:s and 15 percent through the fault o~ _ the purchasers, primarily because of late provision of equipment and planning and estimate documents. An industrial base has been developed for dwelling construction, which now uses - standard plans, but the actual duration of construction in 1977 was half again as high as the standard. The norms for duration of construction are observed only in the first year, and even in this year the builders are performing no more than half of the prescribed quantity of work. In,the following plan year, _ the specified annual quantities of capital investment in construction and in- stallation work are reviewed by purchasers and contractors. Immense res~urces are being put into the construction industry (35 billion rubles in the Ninth and Tenth five-year plans). During the Ninth Five-Year Plan, about 18.2 billion rubles was allocated for development of the production base for construction, 3.4 billion rubles or 19 percent more than called for in the five-year plan. Fixed production capital of contracting organizations increased by 89 percent, while the quantity of contracting work increased by only 40 � percent. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan 17.4 billion rubles was allocated for the construction industry. In 1976-1977, capital investments worth 9.6 _ billion rubles were utilized. 20 FOR OFFICIAL L'SB Oiv'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Nonetheless, the level of industrialization of construction work and the scale _ and capabilities of the material and technical base still do not meet current requirements and are not making possible accomplishment of the tasks assigned by the 25th Party Congress and the November 1978 plenum of the CPSU Central Committee as regards capital construction. The technical and economic performance indicators of the work of construction organizations (particularly in the main general construction ministries) remain unsatisfactory. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan, owing to systematic nonfulfillment of plans, the increase in construction work in these ministries essentially ceased, In the USSR Ministry of Heavy Construction [Mintyazhstroy], for example, _ the amoun*_ of construction and installation work performed with its own manpower increased by 31.4 percent from 1970 to 1975, with an average annual rate of increase of 5.6 percent, while in 1976-1977 the increase was 0.1 percent. The same rate of increase for these two years was realized by the USSR Ministry of Construction, while during the Ninth Five-Year Plan the rate of growth was 5.3 percent and the growth over 5 years was 29.3 percent. In the USSR Ministry of Industrial Construction [MinpromstroyJ, the quantity of construction and installation work in 1975 was 29.6 percent higher than in 1970, giving an average annual growth rate of 5.3 percent. In 1978 this ministry did work at the same level as 1977. A decrease in the quantity of construction and installation work in 22 territorial construction administrations began in 1975, and accordingly the amount of work done by them in 1977 was 6-31 pQrcent lower than in 1974. ~ The construction industry has not achieved the planned growth of labor produc- tivity. In t�Iintyazhstroy USSR and Minpromstroy USSR the increase of labor pro- ductivity in i977 was 0.3 percent, while in 1975 it was 5.2 perr_ent and 4.6 percent respectively; in the USSR Ministry of Construction it was 1.9 percent - ,in 1977, compared with 5.3 percent in 1975. We should note here that in the _ Tenth Five-Year Plan an increase in labor productivity of 2.3 points over the level achieved in the Nintti Five-Year Plan is called for. It is clear that while the percentage of inechanized work incr.eased with a con- comitant decrease iii manual labor and the percentage of construction materials and structural members of higher cost increased, construction ministriesfind it relatively easy to meet their plan assignments for increased labor productivity, According to data from a simultaneous calculation by the USSR Central Statistical Administration for 1 August 1975, of 5.5 million workers employed in construction and installation work and ancillary activities, 2.8 million or 50.2 percent were engaged in manual labor. Particularly large was the percentage of manual labor among plasterers, masons, painters and carpenters. Of 1,428 thousand builders in the above trades, 1,031 thousand, or 72.3 percent, were doing manual work in that year. The reason for this circumstance is primarily that in construction the inadequate development of small mechanical tools, the requirement for which is only 25-30 percent satisfied, is a bottleneck. The industrial output of many types of small mechanical tools required by construction has not yet been organized, and 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . construction organizations have been forced to manufacture them in limited quan- tities by a semi-caorkshop method. However, labor productivity has failed to increase not only for workers engaged in manual labor but also for those performing mechanized labor, since the aver- age daily work time For machines in 1977 was practically at the 1975 level. Output of machines and mechanisms in natural [nonmonetary] terms is increasing only slightly, which indicates inadequate attention to the development and - incorporation in practice of better construction procedures which have already - been developed. _ At the same time, the plan calls for attaining the entire increase in amount of construction and installation work through an increase in labor productivity. With a planned increase in labor productivity amounting to 33.3 percent, every fourth worker will be freed up, which is extremely important given the scarcity ~ ~~f labor resources, and the three remaining workers will be doing the work of _ four. But such an increase in labor productivity has been achieved by none of the general construction ministries. As a rule, construction projects com- - pleted on time have had an abc:ve-plan number of workers. The other projects did not have the planned number, ~~hich has been the main cause of nonfulfillment of the plan for commissioning of productive capacities and of behind-schedule completion of the completion of non-production f acilities. The main construction materials remain the traditional ones: concrete, rein- fc,rced concrece and brick. Beginning in 1950 and down to the present, precast reinforced concrete has undergone the greatest development. Between 1950 and 1965 the output of in-situ reinforced concrete increased by 25.5 million cuble meters and that of precast reinforced concrete by 54.9 million cubic meters, or more than double the in-situ f igure. Between 1965 and 1977 the absolute growth of in-situ reinforced concrete - production decreased to 18.8 million cubic meters, while the growth of precast ~ reinforced concrete production increased to 64.9 million cubic meters, or 3.8 times the figure for in-situ concrete. The increase in outpLt of piece wall materials between 1950 and 1965 was 89 million cubic meters and that for 1965-1977 was 39 mill~.on cubic meters, a decrease of half, while the decrease in building brick was two-thirds (from 65.5 ro 22 million cubic meters). Here the maximum increase in brick production (65.5 million cubic meters) was achieved in 1951-1955, while in the subsequent 10 years it remained level, beginning to increase again only in 1965. Since 1975 the production of brick has ciecreased from year to year. , The mass use of precast reinforced concrete items begin in the SO's in the USSR. At thattime brick production was at a very low technical level and labor produc- tivitv in brick plants was about 50,000 pieces per man-year, which was equivalent � to 1.5 cubic meters of laid brick. Low labor productivity also occurred in rein- forced concrete plants (80 cubic meters per man-year), but because the thickness of the panels was a third that of brick walls, labor expenditures for the - 22 FOR OFFICI?~L L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Production of Reinforced Concrete, Concrete and Wall Materials Measurement 1950 1965 1977 1977/1950 - Unit 1. Reinforced concrete million 12.9 93.3 177.0 13.7X cubic meters Precast " 1,2 56.1 121 Increase " 54.9 64.9 " Times 3.2 1.5 4.8 2. Wall materials Billion 11.2 46.6 61.9 (building brick, pi.eces of artifi~ial and standard natural stone) brick Increase " 35.4 15.3 - " Times 4.2 1.35 5.5 Wall materials Million m3 28 117 155 - Increase " 89 38 Building brick Billion 10.2 36.6 45.4 pieces of _ - standard brick brick Increase " 26.2 8.8 " Tirtes 3.7 1.24 4.4 Building brick Million m3 25.5 91 113 Increase " 65.5 22.0 3. Slab concrete Million m3 102 production of 1 square meter of wall panel were less than for the manufacture ~ of the brick required for 1 square meter of wall. - On the construction site, labor productivity in the installation of reinforced concrete products was also higher in natural terms than for the bricklayers. Accordingly the switch to p~ecast reinforced concrete at the time led to an 23 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240030053-8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY increase in labor. productivity not only in the construction industry enterprises _ but also on site and thus was unqueationably a great shift in construction tech- - nology which made possible a sharp increase in the quantity of construction work. The situation in the 70's is different. The provision of automated euqipment for brick production in a number of plants made it possible to increase brick output per worker to 500,000-800,000 pieces a year, or by a factor of more than 10 10. Now one automated equipment operator produces every year the bricks required _ for manufacture of 1,250-2,000 cubic meters of laid brick, while the reinforced concrete products plants have a labor productivity in the range of 130-300 cubic mters. For 1977 it averaged 187 cubic meters or 0.7 cubic meters per shift. It should also be borne in mind that in the 50's reinforced concrete wall panels were three-layered with fibrolite or other fillers, and their thickness was no - more than 20 centimeters. Currently outer wall panels are mostly single-layered with keramzit gravel and their thickness for the middle zone of the USSR is 40 _ centimeters, as a result of which concrete consumption per square meter of wall _ has doubled, while for buildings zs a whole ~.t has increased from 0.6 to 0.9 cubic meters per square meter of useful area, i.e. by half (in the northern ~ re gions the thickness of keramzit-concrete panels is 60 centimeters). This circumstance has significantly changed the relationship of the total labor ex- - penditures in bricklaying and the installation of keramzit-concrete panels. - As an example, let us consider data from the RSFSR riinistry of Con- structionl. The actual annual output of bricklayers in natural terms for the RSFSR Ministry of Agricultural Construction in 1977 was 1.25 cubic meters and that for a worker engaged in installation of reinforced concrete members was 2.76 cubic meters. On this ground the conclusion is drawn that a rapid change- over must be made from brick to wall panels; labor expenditures on manufacture _ of bric'~c and panels and the consumption of materials and fuel supplied to a - residential construction combine for the manufacture of reinforced concrete axe wholly ignored. Of what do these expenditures consist? The manufacture of 2.76 cubic meters of precast reinforced concrete, which is installed by a single worker in one shift, requires 4 man-shifts at a reinforced concrete products plant.(assuming an = average labor productivity of 0.7 cubic meters a shift). Total labor expenditures on the manufacture of 2.76 cubic meters of keramzit- ~ concrete panel and its installation amount to 5 man-shifts, ignoring labor ex- _ - penditure on the production of inetal for fdttings, ceramic or other panels for - external facing, and fuel for steam curing of the panels. Production of the same quantity of laid brick requires 2.2 man-shifts (2.76 :1.25). The manufac- _ ture of keramzit gravel and keramzit sand consumes the same amount of labor as manufacture of the same quantity of brick for 1 cubic meter of wall. l. See PEREDOVOY OPYT V SEL'SKOM STROITEL'STVE No 9, 19?8 p 12. 24 _ _ FOR OFFICIAL LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Since a wall laid with 2.5 courses of brick has a thickness of 66 cm and a keramzit-concrete panel is 40 cm thick, we increase these expenditures by 60 percent, and reducing them to 1 square meter of wall we obtain 3.5 man-shifts. Since brick walls require plastering, we add another 0.5 man-shifts for this - operation, assuming a plasterer to have a productivity of 12 square meters a shift, obtaining 4 man-shifts. The ratio of total labor expenditures on the installation of an external wall made of keramzit-concrete panels to expendi- tures on one made of brick is thus 5: 4(for different latitudes this ratio may change somewhat in either direction), and leaves out expenditures on materials, raw materials, fuel and electrical energy occurring before these reach the reinforced-concrete panel plant. Thus the changeover from brick walls to single-layer keramzit-concrete panels at the current stage of development of the construction industry will notdecrease total labor expenditures on construction. Rather, labor expenditures and heat losses in the use of the dwelling will be increased, the user value will be decreased, excessive quantities of inetal, cement and facing material will be consumed and there will be expensive steam curing ~f the panels. Heating the clinker required for production of the cement used to manufacture 1 cubic meter ~f keramzit-concrete panel requires 60 kg of standard fuel, while 70 kg is required for steam-curing the panels. In addition, production of keramzit and - keramzit sand requires another 206 kg of standard fuel. As a result, each cubic _ meter of keramzit-concrete panel requires 336 kg of standard fuel, while the production of 400 bricks (drying and heating) requires only 95 kg, or 2/7 as ~ much. The concept of degree of prefabrication2 has been introduced for technical- - economic evaluation of building and installation plans. For buildings with - panel walls, the degree of prefabrication is 60 percent, while it is about 50 percent for brick dwellings as a result of the cost of the brick required for construction of load-bearing walls. Indeed, in terms of labor intensity the difference resides only in the assembly of load-bearing walls, since all in- _ ternal partitions,:ceilings, sanitary units [sankabiny), elevator shafts, stairways and other preassembled units are the same for these two types of - building. However, the idea has taken root that panel dwellings are completely prefabricated, while dwellings with brick walls cannot be considered prefabri- - cated, The degree of prefabrication is customarily considered to be zero for the latter and 100 percent for panel buildings, which of course is incorrect. ~ 2. The degree of prefabrication of buildings and installations is defined as the ratio (as a percentage) of the estimated cost (collected at site) of pre- fabricated structural members and parts, along with preassembled units of ~ sanitary engineering, electrical and technological systems, included in the total amount of construction and installation work to the estimated cost of all construction materials, prefabricated members and parts and preassembled units. 25 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - In building construction making use of state resources, the percentage of buildings with brick and panel walls was equal in 1978. On the basis of the thickness of panel and brick walls and the volume of production of wall panels for dwelling construction, which in 1977 was 20 million cubic meters, we can _ make a rough estimate that about 37 million cubic meters of brick and block out of tfie total quantity of masonry laid (155 million cubic meters) was used in dwelling construction. During th~ Ninth Five-Year Plan the quantity of dwelling construction was 110 million ~quare meters a year, It has remained at that level during the Tenth Five-Year Plan. Nobody is planning to decrease the output of brick. Thus there arises the question: Why is it necessary to increase the proportion of panel- type dweliings and to further increase the use of brick in dwelling construction? - To the contrary, not 30 million but 50-60 million cubic meters of brick should _ be allocated for dwelling construction and its use in industrial construction correspondingly decreased, thereby decreasing the construction of panel-type - dwellings. This question merits special attention, since in the last ten years the consump- tion of thermal energy per meter of dwelling construction has doubled; primarily as a result of large heat losses in panel-type dwellings (because of poor-quality joints between panels). With the same material and labor resources expended in construction, it would be possible solely by a certain redistribution of them between industrial and dwelling construction to increase the number of dwellings with brick walls and decrease domesr_ic heat loss significantly. The outside facings of panel dwellings are not durable and rapidly lose their appearance as a result of atmospheric action. Shortly after construction is finished such dwellings look slovenly and uninviting. Panel-type dwellings also require considerably greater expenditures on repair than brick dwellings. In addition, there have arisen purely technical problems associated with con- densation of water vapor on the joints between panels, the appearance of mold, and in many cases even leakage and freeze-through. It should be noted that it _ is not only the exterior walls that freeze through, but the interior load-bear- _ ing walls as well, They are made of cold-weather concrete, and when they come in contact with outside air at the joints they are cooled quickly, As these dwellings settle, cracks appear, as a result of which cold bridges are tormed. As the exterior temperature decreases, heat losses increase rapidly, and the - apartment dwellers are compelled to use gas burners for heating, so that gas consumption increases rapidly during cold spells; the consumption of electrical energy for heaters also increases. Brick differs from many modern materials by its high thermal and sound insulation qualities, and its freedom from shrinkage and cracking. Practice indicates that it is possible to build tall buildings with brick load-bearing walls, The 14-16 - story dwellings in Moscow are an example, The decisive factor in developing economical ceramic wall material is the change- _ over. to mass production of effective perforated brick and block, which will im- prove the technical and economic performance indicators of production and make 26 FOR OFFICIAL LTSE Oiv'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY possible a decrease of 20-30 percent or more in consumption of wall material. . Although they are effectively the basic type of brick and block products in ~ number of republics (72.5% in Lithuania, 65.5% in Latvia, 25.0% in Estonia and - 43.9% in Kirgizia), for the USSR as a whole the output of hollow brick with a~ hollowness figure of up to 25% is only 9.6%. There is almost no production of - brick with a hollowness figure of 50-70%, which is used extensively abroad. Of all the varieties of structural materials used in building, the output of ` brick is the largest, and apparently will remain so in the near future in spite of the fact that further growth of production has practically ceased. However, the construction of dwellings with brick walls could be significantly expanded Uy increasing the percentage of perforated brick in overall brick production. The implementation of a complex of technical measures in existing brick plants and the ~onstruction of new automated lines would make it possible in the next few years to organize the mass production of cost-effective brick and ceramic block everywhere and make them account for 40-50 percent of the total quantity of brick produced. Expanded use of lightweight brick walls is also important in improving masonry technology. , _ We now compare labor expenditures on precase and in-situ reinforced concrete structural members. This is rather difficult, since statistical reporting on - in-situ concrete is lacking. In contrast to precast members, in-situ concrete is included in nonindustrial production. In the 50's, almost all roofing and flooring in buildings made of block was in-situ reinforced concrete, The labor consumed in this work was considerable. . Considerable labor expenditures were required for the building of one-time wooden casings, and even more labor was expended on their removal. Almost all of the concrete cast in column and floor casings was prepared by hand. The use of standard casings and the pouring of concrete with cranes and special pallets by the "crane-pail" systein was considerably delayed. With this method, the total labor expenditures (both on-site and ~n preparation of _~ncrete at the plant) were considerably .less in natural terms than for precast reinforced concrete. Then slidin~ casings became available and concrete ~~unps began to be - used to pump concrete to almost any floor. '1'his made it possible to increase - worker labor productivity by a factor of 3-4 in comparison witH crane-bucket puring. In-situ constructions called "steel-reinforced concrete" in which'sheet steel in the form of shaped decking replaced reinforcing rods was used in constructing the Sheremet'yevo Airport. This decking serves as both casing and reinforcement for in-situ steel-reinforced concrete floors. The concrete is pumped onto the decking and leveled, which concludes work on the flooring. In Sochi it took 18 days to pour the concrete for a hotel using sliding casings and supplying cement by the crane-bucket method. Compared with similar hotels made with precast reinforced concrete, the amount of concrete used was decreased by 37 percent, metal consumption by 24.5 percent and estimated cost by 20 percent. In spite of such successful experiments, the pouring of in-situ reinforced con- crete has not yet reached a desirable level of development here. Its share of ~ 27 - FOR OFFICIAL LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the total does not exceed 1 percent. The production of concrete pumps and movable casings has not been organized. The construction industry's production base is oriented only toward precast reinforced concrete. The extensive use of ' in-situ concrete is hindered not only by the degree-of=prefabrication l:ndex but also by the present system of prices in which it is more profitable to use - precast than in-situ concrete. As an illustration we may give prices per cubic meter of materials and structural members delivered to the construction site by a cost-accounting brigade: precast reinforced concrete 60 rubles red facing brick and mortar for 1 cubic meter of masonry work 22 rubles commercial concrete 19.6 rubles. We now consider how the prices for these materials affect worker output and plan fulfillment in contracting work. In the installation of precast concrete _ members, the norm for worker output is 2,5 cubic meters a shift. Accordingly, assuming a wage of 10 rubles a shift, output in money terms comes to 160 rubles. In laying block, the productivity norm per worker per shift is 1.2 cubic meters, the cost of materials used per shift is 26.4 rubles and the wage is 10 rubles. Thus in money terms the output per shift is 36.4 rubles, 5/22 of that for in- ~ stallation of precast concrete. In pouring 4 cubic meters of in-situ concrete per shift, the cost of materials is 78,4 rubles and the wage 10 rubles, so that the total output is 88.4 rubles, or 2/9 that for precast concrete, even though in natural terms it is almost twice that for the latter. Thus the construction _ organizations have an interest in including more expensive materials in their estimates. In spite of this defference in prices for materials and structural members, according to accounting by the USSR State Statistical Administration dwellings. made of precast reinforced concrete are the cheapest ~although only by 4-7 per- cent). This is because, first, overhead expenses for precast concrete dwellings have been set at 13.5 percent and those for block dwellings at 20 percent. Second, the vast majority of panel-type dwellings are built in areas of mass con- struction according to standard plans, while block buildings are primarily in point construction where old buildings are being removed, and generally are built ~ to individual plans with better layout and finishing and superior amenities. At the same time, according to data from GIPROidllzdrav [health facilities planning and research institute] the estimated price of construction and installation work fcr frame-and-panel hospital buildings exceeds that for similar brick buildings by 18 percent. According to data from TsNIIEP [Central Scientific Research Insti- tute of Experimental Planning], frame-and-panel school buildings are 10-14 percent more expensive than brick ones. - The higher prices for precast concrete items make it easier to fulfill contracting plans and lead to higher wage funds and increased labor productivity indicators in money terms. Accordingly it is quite understandable that the construction - organizations do not favor plans calling for cheaper types of construction than precast concrete. ' 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - In order to justify the extensive use of precast reinforced concrete, total labor expenditures are compared under completely nonequivalent conditions (e.g. - layout and finishing of buildings), while labor expenditures for the materials delivered to the reinforced concrete products combines are not taken into ac- ~ count and output is considered separately for industrial enterprises and con- struction and installation work. All of these factors lead to errors in plan- _ ning manpower support for the construction industry. For the Tenth Five-Year Plan, the labor expenditure for precast concrete build- - _ ings was fixed at 43 percent below that for brick buildings. On the basis of this figure it was calculated that increas3ng the degree of. prefabrication of buildings to be constructed would make it possible to save 10 percen*_ on con- struction labor, coming to about 780,000 persons. This calculation cannot starid - _ up to criticism, but nonetheless it is used as the basis for determining man- power requirements for construction and installation work and for the growth of labor productivity in the construction industry. Let us make a comparison of two dwellings with identical layout, finishing and number of floors, one with brick walls and the other with ker.amzit-conr_rete panels. Th~e proportion of total - labor expenditure devoted to the walls is 20 percent for a brick dwelling, while it accounts for 15 percent of the estimated cost. All other construction members and materials for these dwellings are identical: flooring, stairway units, ele- - vator shafts, floors, window and door units, electrical wiring, sPwage, running water, gas and sanitary units. If we imaging a house without walls, the labor saving would be no more than 20 percerct. What basis is there for assuming a 43-percent saving on labor? It has also been proposed to achieve a manpower saving during the Tenth Five- , Year Plan by decreasing idle time within the shift. But investigations made by the State Statistical Administration show that in-shift idle time has not de- - creased, and that this is primarily because of incomplete deliveries of precast reinforced concrete parts to construction sites. A sta~idard-design reinforced concrete dwelling includes 680 different type items. Frequently a brigade is receiving items from 32 different plants. But for block or in-situ concrete dwellings the matter of complete sets of items is considerably simplified. When we consider questions of increasing worker output in construction and in- stallation work, we must also devo~~e some attention to a factor from which it is proposed to obtain a third of the total increase in labor productivity, namely the development of more productive machinery. But this task has not been accom- ~ plished, since the production of the base machines, 300-500 horsepower tractors, is still in the initial stage. Certain conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the foregoing. The increased labor productivity in the construction industry during the Eighth and Ninth five- year plans was primarily the result of increased output not in natural terms but in monetary terms. This is because of the structural shifts which resulted from accelerated development of the production of more expensive reinforced concrete items and the retarded growth flf masonry, the use of in-situ reinforced concrete, - _ and a decrease in the quantity of wooden dwelling construction and of inetal structural members used, resulting in decreased monetary and total labor expen- . - ditures. The high labor expenditures on factory production of precast reinforced 29 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY concrete are included in the output of workers on the construction site, as a result of which the indicators of growth of labor productivity by the builders expressed in money terms improved significantly. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan, the rate of production of precast concrete has decreased sharply. While during the Eighth and Ninth five-year plans~the annual increase was 5.6-5.7 million cubic meters, during the Tenth Five-Year Plan it has not exceeded 2.5 million cubic meters, or a rate of 2 percent, which now - can make no significant contribution to increased output in money terms for workers in the general construction ministries. In addition, during the Tenth Five-Year Plan the increase in output of steel construction members has accel- erated. About 100 plants are currently producing such items. Their output exceeds 6 million tons a year, as compared with 1.5 million tons at the begin- ning of the Ninth Five-Year Plan. The main work on production buildings made from metal p3r~~s is done by special- ized ministries, while the job of the general contractors boils down to laying = the foundations, putting in flooring and interior partitions and finish work. Thus the real bread-and-butter work, the installation of precast load-bearing reinforced concrete members, has disappeared from among their functions, as a result of which worker output in money terms has decreased and the quantity of construction and installation work has not grown. During the Tenth Five-Year ' Plan wooden dwelling construction dwelling construction has begun to expand and in-situ concrete and reinforced concrete are coming into wider use, which is also decreasing the general contractors' output in money terms. The price of precast reinforced concrete wall foundations is 2-2.5 times as great as that o� in-situ foundations, while worker output in the installation of these foundations is 3-4 times as great. Previously this increased cost was explained in terms of a stepped-up pace of construction. But how can it be _ explained now, when in-situ foundations have become even cheaper and are alid faster than precast ones? One aim of the expansion of technical progress in the construction industry is ~ decreased material consumption. Fewer materials should be u~ed per unit area - made available, and they should be cheaper, In the process, labor productivity measured in money terms will inevitably decrease. This is the essence of the _ contradictions which are holding back the technical progress of the construction � industry. The decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers "On - Improvirig Planning and Strengthening the Influence of.the Economic Mechanism on Tmprovement of Production Efficiency and Work Quality," adopted in June 1979, assigned Gosstroy USSR together with the construction ministries the task of implementing, during 1979-1980, measures aimed at preparing the estimation and standards base for a gradual transition during the llth Five-Year Plan to the ; planning of labor productivity in the construction and installation organizations in terms of net (normative) output or some other indicator which more accurately reflects changes in labor expenditures. In our view, the increase in labor pro- ductivity in natural terms based on output norms (independent of the fact that 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY output in money terms may decrease in some cases) is an indicator which could play an important role. No assignment for increasing labor productivity in = natural terms has yet been included in a plan. In 1977 the output of a mason in the RSFSR Ministry of Agricultural Construction was 1.25 cubic meters a shift, that for the best brigades was 2.5 cubic meters, and that in a competi- tion between different trades was 4.6 cubic meters. This shows quite convin- cingly that better masonry processes are in existence, but their incorporation has not been called for by any plan. The laying of lightweight brick walls has not been disseminated. One thing has made it possible to increase the labor productivity of masons: movable scaffolding. ` The USSR Central Statistical Administration had 23 indicators of plan fulfillment applicable to the incorporation and expanded use of progressive methods of con- struction in 1977, 10 of which applied to precast reinforced concrete, ? to metal structural members and one each to modular installation of equipment, glued wood members, conduitless laying of heating networks, and the use of channel cross-section glass. As can be seen, none of these indicators applied to masonry, in-situ concrete or in-situ reinforced concrete. A great decrease _ in material consumption on in-situ reinforced concrete results from the use of poured foam concrete. Foam is introduced into the concrete mixture. The re- sulting poured foam concrete has a density of 400-1,600 kilograms per cubic meter, as compared with 2,000 kilograms per cubic meter for ordinary concrete. _ The development of in-situ reinforced concrete has reached a level at which the time required for construction of large buildings is measured in days rather than years. For example, an American construction company in Florida built a _ reactor building 58 meters high and 47 meters in diameter with walls 91 centi- meters thick in 17 days using a sliding casing. It would have taken 14 months for the same company to construct a similar building using ordinary movable casings. . In spite of the large number of plan indicators applicable to expanded use of - progressive precast reinforced concrete construction (10), in effect they in- _ clude no measures aimed at improving the production and installation of precast concrete which would make it possible to increase productivity in comparison with previous accounting periods. Millions of rubles worth of construction and installation work using large-size - components, assemblies, panels and modules has been ordered. But most of this - involves obsolete types of structural members including non-prefabricated types. This is the state of affairs in large-panel and modular-unit dwelling construc- tion as well. As a result of stagnating technical progress in the application of precast rein- ~ forced concrete, the labor productivity of workers employed in the installation - of reinforced concrete parts is not increasing. We have already mentioned the _ average productivity of a worker engaged in installing reinforced concrete mem- ~ bers: 2.76 cubic meters per shift. Advanced brigades have achieved an output ~ - of 4.65 cubic meters, 1.7 times as high. _ 31 - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ The possibility of increasing labor productivity in the utilization of precast concrete members 3epends on increased panel area with a corresponding decrease in thickness and density. Our keramzit-concrete panel is S times thicker and 5-6 times as dense as its French counterpart, which means that per square meter of wall it is 25-30 times as heavy. An increase in panel dimensions will de- , crease the time required for installation of walls and floors and finishing - ~oints, while improved thermal insulatiion characteristics and decreased density will make it possible to decrease material consumption for both enclosing and load-bearing members in buildings. _ Of interest in connection with the development of steel structural members in our country is the experience of the Ministry of Power and Electrification in carrying out countruction abroad. This ministry mastered factory production of 18-meter sections of single-story industrial buildings, In two working shifts, ~ a five-man brigade can assenble a building with an area of 1,000 square meters from these sections, while they could complete only 20 square meters in piece- by-piece assembly of inetal structural members. In our view the main cause for decreased effectiveness of capital investments is the great structural shift toward expanded use of more expensive precast reinforced concrete. In spite of the high production cost of this material, plants producing precast reinforced concrete parts and structural members h~ve an inordinately high profitability. For example, profitability reaches 55-66 percent in the enterprises on the Ministry of Agrici~ltural Construction.3 Accordingly we must first of all alter the proportion in the development of production of precast and in-situ reinforced cr~ncrete, as well as of wall materials, by favoring cheaper types with better qualit~es. In identifying structural shifts we must also take into account the extremely high cost of construction industry facilities for the production of precast reinforced con- - crete, which is 3 times that of the construction base for in-situ reinforced concrete. The higher costs of precast reinforced concrete members and the higher one-time expenditures on the constructioa base in comparison with in- situ concrete cound be compensated by the effect resulting from decreased time required for construction. But such suggestions have not been borne out. Using current processes, the construction of bu:ildings and installations from in-situ _ reinforced concrete requires less time and labor. - The possibilities for tehhnical progress in the construction industry are immense, but it will be impossible to correct the situation in capital construc- tion without instituting serious measures to incorporate more progressive pro- - cesses. The use of lightweight insulators instead of keramzit-concrete and a switch in reinforced concrete products plants and dwelling construction combines from the production of single-layer keramzit-gravel wall panels to three-layer panels made of thin large-dimension plates are the main ways to improve the tectinology of large-panel construction. In addition, the expansion of con- crete pouring by means of pumps and of lightweight brick walls should be under- taken. 3. See PEREDOVOY OPYT V SEL'SKOM STROITEL'STVE No 2, 1978, p 12. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda", "Voprosy Ekonomiki", 1979 ~ 8480 32 - CSO: 1821 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CON5Tl2UCTI0N, CONSTRUCTION MACHINFRY, AND BUILDING MATGRIALS - MOLDAVIAN BUILDING-MATERIALS INDUSTRY CAPITAL INVESTMENT UNBALANCED Kishinev IZVESTIYA AN MOLDAVSKOY SSR, SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK in Rus- sian No 2, 1979 pp 15-25 [Article by P. Ye. Tsurkan: "An Analysis of the Capital-Investment Struc- ture of the Moldavian SSR~Building-Materials Industry"] _ [Text] The Moldavian SSR building-materials industry is one of~the repub- lic's leading branches of heavy industry. It has an exceptionally import- ant role in promoting capital construction and in speeding up the pace of introducing facilities and capacity into operation. The quality of con- struction and installing work, the level of rhythmicity of construction output, and, based thereon, support for growth in construction-enterprise operating effectiveness are linked inextricably with the pace of growth in the output of building materials and with improvement in the structure and quality thereof. The building-materials industry exerts a considerable influence on the de- velopment of other branches of both the material and nonmaterial spheres. Construction time and quality and the cost and longevity of the facilities being erected for the country's economy depend upon the dynamism of devel- - oping the production of construction materials and of realizing the achieve- ments of scientific and technical progress in this branch of industry. V. I. Lenin, in characterizing the role and importance of the building- materials industry in developing the machinery industry, noted that "one of the necessary prerequisites to the growth of a large machinery industry (and an extraordinarily characteristic companion of its growth) is develop- _ ment of the industry that produces fuel and materials for construction projects and of the construction industry."' High development rates and constant improvement of the production structure are characteristic for the Moldavian SSR building-materials industry, as they are for all the republic's industry. The pace of growth and the struci~ure of _ production of this industry are of a relatively independent nature, because they are based on the task of satisfying the requirements of ~he repub- lic's capital construction--the basic customer for outpui; of the building- materials industry. Capital construction requires that anticipatory 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 r vn vr r t~. ~L uoc, vivt~ i develc~pment of the production of effective building materials, structurc and ;i i�1. i c I crti ancl a further rise in thei r qual.i~:y, reliability and degree of' - f'abrication at the factory, as well as the preparation of complete sets of them for delivery to construction projects at the prescribed times, be pro- vided for. These requirements are dictated by the need to further indus- trialize the ~ahole construction cycle, and to reduce the time taken to erect tacilities, thereby providing for growth in labor productivity and im- provement in the use of machinery and mechanisms and material, labor and energy resources in construction. Capital construction, as affected by the scientific and technical revolu- tion} determines the production structure of building materials, as well as the pace and proportions of their development. So the development of these two branches of production should be viewed in a mutually related and inti- mate unity, as the development of a single regional production complex. This article devotes attention basically to an analysis of the departmental, branch, technological and reproduction structure of capital investment and _ certain trends that have prevailed in the Moldavian SSR building-materials industry during the last 12 years. The Moldavian SSR building-materials industry is one that has many branches. It includes such subbranches as the cement industry, the industry for produ- cing prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete articles and structure, the industry that makes wall materials and quarried building materials and porous aggregates, the industry for the quarrying and processing of facing material made of' natural stone and for producing limestone, gypsum and loc- al. cc~menting materials and articles made therefrom, and the industry for rc~c~f'ing and water-proofing materials. The subbraneh of the building-mater- ials industry that produces constructional wooden structure and carpentry _ articles has been developed widely in the republic. In the hloldavian SSR the main supplier of building materials is the Ministry of Construction Materials Industry. Its share in production in 1977 was 100 perceiit for cement, asbestos-cement sheet (roofing) and pipe, 55.6 per- cent for reinforced-concrete articles, 55.1 percent for brick, 41.6 percent for wall blocks made of natural stone, 74.6 percent for crushed rock, 100 percent for gypsum, 83.3 gercent for builders' lime, 87.3 percent for sand and 100 percent for soft roofing. It is well known that the Moldavian SSR industry, like the industry of the country as a whole, has undergone pro- found progressive changes in accordance with decisions of the 24th and 25th CPSU congresses. _ _ The CPSU has adopted the policy of a sharp rise in the role of intensive factors in providing for further growth in the effectiveness of social pro- duction, based on intensification of the processes of improving organization of' the management of industry.. Decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress and the - decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers of ~ 2 March 1973, "Certain Measures for the Further Improvement of the Manage- ment of Industry,j2 point to the need to enlarge enterprises, create pro- duction associations, raise the level of concentration and specialization 34 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of production, and eliminate small enterprises and departments that use manual labor, obsolete equipment and lagging tecilnology. The CPSU and USSR Council of Ministers decisions to further improve the management of industry has been itnplemented appropriately only in such subbranches of the republic's building-materials industry as the production of wall materials and quarried building materials. The Kishinev production association Nerudstrom and the Krikov Quarrying Association, which are sub- ordinate to the Molda~~ian 5SR Ministry of Construction Materials Industry, are opcr~at,ing in these subbranches at present. These progressive changes still have not been applied, unfortunately, to other subbranches of the ~ building-materials industry, primarily such a subbranch as the industry for prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete structure and articles, which is so promising in this regard. On the contrar~�, the building-mater- ials industry, especially the production of prefabricated reinforced con- crete, is increasingly being dispersed over a multitude of other ministries and agencies of the republic, leading to dispersion of capital investment and a reduction of its effectiveness as well as of the effectiveness of social production as a whole. At present, aside from Moldavian SSR Ministry of Construction Materials Industry enterprises, building materials are being produced at enterprises subordinate to the ministries of construction, rural construction, the construction and operation of roads, land-reclamation and water resources, municipal services,and local industry, Moldglavenergo [Main Power Administration of the Moldavian SSR], Mezhkolkhozstroy [Interkolkhoz Construction Association] and others. - Production-type capital investment for developing the building-materials industry of the republic's ministries and agencies during the Eighth and _ Ninth five year plans and the first 2 years of the Tenth are shown in _ table 1. _ Table i ' Departmental Structure of Capital Investment for Production Purposes in the Moldavian SSR Construction Materials Industry, by Perc~zt of the Total* ~ Ministries and agencies 1966-1970 1971-1975 1976-1977 Total capital investment 100.0 100.0 100.0 By ministry: � Building-materials industry.......... 82.0 67.4 71.8 Construction 0.~ 3.8 1.0 Rural construction 1.1 4.7 0.7 Land reclamation and water resources. 4.3 2.6 2.1 Municipal services 0.1 - 0.2 _ Local industry 0.1 0.5 1.0 Construction and operation of roads.. - 0.9 1.0 - Moldglavenergo [Main Power Administration , of the Moldavian SSR] 0.1 0.1 - _ ~ Mezhkolkhozstroy [Interkolkhoz Constr.uc- ' tion Associatian] 11.8 20.0 22.2 *The grouping of capital investment by ministries and departments has been 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 Table 1 data tcstify to the fact that the main share of capital expenditures For the buildi~ig-materials industry goes to enterprises subordinate to the Moldavian SSR blinistry of Construction Materials Industry and to the Mezh- kolkhozstroy Association. Major changes occurred in the departmental struc- i,ure of capital investment during the 12 years being analyzed. The share of - the Ministry of Construction Materials Industry in the total of the repub- lic's capital investment that was directed to developing the building-mater- ials industry was reduced appreciably. It was reduced from 82 percent in 1966-1970 to 71.8 percent in 1976-1977, while Mezhkolkhozstroy's share of capital investment doubled--from 11.8 percent during the Eighth I'ive-Year Plan to 22.2 percent in 1976-1977. The interests of the modern scientific and technical revolution, a rise in _ the quality and level of factory preparation of output,and improvement in the use of material, labor and financial resources dictate the urgent nec- _ essity for a radical change in the practice of interbranch distribution of capital investment in the republic's industry. It is necessary to further develop the materials and equipment base of the building-materials industry and to expand production (by new construction, among other measures) on the basis of the republic's Ministry of Construc- tion Materials Industry, since the main portion of highly qualified workers and engineers and technicians who have gained major work experience has been concentrated here. There are within this ministry's framework broad possibilities, especially in the industry for prefabricated reinforced- _ concrete and concrete structure and articles, for the concentration, spe- cialization and cooperation of production. This will serve as a decisive base for growth of the effectiveness of capital investment and of produc- - tion as a whole. The distribution of capital investment among various building-materials subbranches is affected by the inereasingly changing structure and nature of modern capital construction and the requirements of the scientific and revolution, both in construction and in the production of bui.ld- - ing materials. In the Moldavian SSR, as in the country as a whole, in 1966-1977 ~he ~ building-materials subbranch that produces prefabricated reinforced-concrete ` and concrete articles and structure has been further developed. Larger sums - of capital investment are being directed toward it, as a most promising = branch, one that exercises a decisive influence on the intensity of growth and industrialization of capital construction (table 2). In 1967, for ex- ample, 48.7 percent of the total volume of capital investment for the repub- lic's production of building materials was directed toward developing the prefabricated reinforced-concrete subbranch. This indicator was 36.5 per- cent in 1970, 35.9 percent in 1974, 34.8 percent in 1975 and 30.8 percent i.n 1977. prepared for the first time (based on data from the current files of Moldav- ian SSR Central Statistical Administratior~ by the Sector for the Effective- ness of Capital Investment and New Equipment of the Economics Institute of the Moldavian ~SR Academy of Sciences. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 2 Branch Structure of Capital Investment for Production Purposes in the Moldavian SSR's Construction Materials Industry* Branches of the building-materials industry 1966-1970 1971-1975 1976-1977 Total capital investment 100.0 100.0 100.0 By subbranch of the iiidustry: Cement 15.3 15.1 27.6 _ Soft roofing and water-proofing materials..........a 1.1 0.5 0.4 Prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete structure and articles 37.5 35.6 29.6 Wall materials 17.5 13.8 8.3 Quarried building materials......... 20.4 13.8 18.5 Mining and processing of facing ma- terial made of natural stone...... 1.0 1.9 1.3 Limestone, gypsum and local cement- - ing materials and products made ' therefrom 3.9 4.3 1.1 Thermoinsulating materials......... - 3.1 6.5 Porous aggregate - 5.1 4.2 Wooden constructional structure and carpentry products 2.5 4.2 2.5 Other branches . 0.8 2.6 - *Compul:ed from data�from the current files of Moldavian SSR Central Sta- tistical Administration - In the period that we are sxamining, major capital investment was allocated to such an important subbranch of the republic's heavy industry as the ce- ment indu~try, which determines to a very great extent the development of all branches of the republic's economy, primarily the production of prefab- ricated reinforced-concrete structure and articles, as well as capital construction. In expanding the rebuilding the firstling of thE Moldavian SSR's cement in- dustry, 17.5 percent of all capital investment for the republic's building- _ . materials industry was directed in 1968 to the Ryhnitsa Cement-Roofing Com- bine imeni Oktyabr'skaya Revolyutsiya, while the figures were 30.9 percent ~ in 1969, 20.2 percent in 1972 and 12.9 percent in 1974. Construction started _ in 1975 on the Rezina Cement Plant, where, as cen~truction and installing - work has progressed, the share of capital investment in the cement industry grew substantially in both 1976 and 1977, reaching,respectively, 28.8 and 26.3 percent. � In 1966-1977 substantial capital investment was also allocated to the sub- ~ branch of the building-materials industry that produces wall materials. As - a whole, during the Eighth and Ninth five-year plans and 2 years of the Tenth, 35.2 million rubles, or 13.3 percent of all the indus~ry's capi�al expenditures, were allocated here. ~ 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 L' VL\ Vl' L' iV 1L'1L V JL'+ VLYL 1 - Of all the capital investment directed toward developing the production or wall matcrials during the period under study, 43.2 percent of it was devot- " ~d to expanding and rebuilding the Kishinev Building-Materials Combine and _ the Tiraspol'skiy Brick Plant and reequipping them with machinery, and 56.8 percent was the share for enterprises that quarry natural stone for . wall materials. The process of building up this industry's technical po- tential was most intensive in 1967-1973. The republic's industry for quarrying building materials has been in third ~lace among other subbranches of the building-materials industry in capita] _ i.nvestment, following the industry for prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete structure and articles, and the cement industry. Throughout the whole period being exaniined, capital investment in this subbranch was substantial. Its share fluctuated by year within the 14-24 percent range. During the period being examined, 16.7 percent of all capital expenditures _ for the building-materials industry was allocated here. Nevertheless, the rates oF growth of capital investment in the quarried building-materials industry that were sustained for a number of years did not provide for the required growth in production. While, during the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the rate of growth in capital investment in developing the materials and equip- - , ment base of the republic's construction industry was 155 percent that of the Eigh~th Five-Year Plan and it was 179.3 percent in the industry for - prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete structure and articles, it was only 127.8 percent for the production of quarried building materials. r Such a ratio in capital investment growth rates in the indicated subbran- ches inevitably leads to v~olation of the proportionality of development of the construction industry and the production of prefabricated reinforced concrete. This ~vill be reflected negatively in the fulfillment of plans For capital construction and the production of prefabricated reinforced concrete in the republic. The interests of capital construction and the industry for prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete structure and articles require an outstrip- ~ ~ing pace of development in the p roduction of quarried building materiais, - For the republic has begun to feel increasingly the shortage thereof re- cently. P'or this purpose, it zs necessary to change radically the practice - of distributing capital investment in subbranches of the repttblic's b~:ild- ing materials industry, sharply increasingy in so doing, the share of capi- tal expenditures f~r the quarried building-materials industry. The production of cement, prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete articles and structure and the production of wall materials and quar- ried building materials are leading subbranches of the building-materials industry. In practice, they determine the pace of growth and further ~ prospects for the development of capital construction in the republic. The indicated industries' share auring the Eighth and Ninth five-year plans - and the first 2 years of the Tenth was, respectively, 90.7, 78.3 and 84.0 percent of all capital expenditures allocated to the building-materials - industry. 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' / APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - _ liy t.hc end of the l:ighth F'ivc-Year Plan caPacity that basically met the - rcc~uiremcni:s c~f' t;he re;public's economy hac~ been created at eni:erprises Cor the production of prefabricated reinforced-concre~:e and concrete articles and structure and of wall-building materials. This made it possible dur- the Ninth the start of the Tenth five-year plans to reduce cap.ii:al expenditures in the indicated subbranches and to redistribute ~;hem in Pavor of ~he industry for the quarrying and processing of facing mater- ial made of natural stone, the industry for limestone, gypsum and local ce- - menting materials and of articles made of them, and the production of wood- _ en structure and carpentry products. Improvement of the branch structure of the building-materials industry re- flects the achievements of the modern scientific and technical revoluiion in this industry and the growing demands of capital construction on the - structure and quality of the building materials being consumed. The pro- found changes that are occ~irring in the building-materials industry struc- ture invariably are accompanied by improvement of the production apparatus itself. This problem always has been and still is at the center of at�en- - tion of the CPSU and the Soviet Government. It was reflected in the Party Program and received further creative development in the decisions of the 24th.and 25th CPSU congresses. These documents give the ba~ic principl.e about the necessity for stepping up the pace of increase in capital invest- ment for equipment, machinery and mechanisms. Basically positive changes in the technological structure of capital in- vestment oecurred at Moldavian SSR building-materials industry enterprises during the Ninth Five-Year Plan. These changes can be illustrated more - graphically by the individual subbranches. The grouping that we have made by subbranch of the republic's building-materials industry (not counting _ the Mezhkolkhozstroy Association),which showsthe changesin the technological structure of capital investment, indicate that the share of capital invest- - ment for construction and installing operations increased only in the pro- duction of cement, limestone, gypsum and local cementing materials and of articles made of them during the Ninth Five-Year Plan (in comparison with the Eighth). In the cement industry the share of these expenditures grew - , from 49.3 percent during the ~ighth Five-Year Plan to 56.0 percent during _ the Ninth, and, in the industry for limestone, gypsum,and Iocal cementing materials and products made therefrom, from 53.9 to 60.6 percent. _ In the other subbranches of the republic's building-materials industry, a persistent trend prevailed during the Ninth Five-Year Plan and the first 2 years of the Tenth toward a growth in expenditures for equipment, ma- chinery and mechanisms. In the industry for prefabricated reinforced-con- crete and concrete structure and articles, expenditures for equipment rose - from 47.9 percent during the Eighth Five-Year Plan to 51.9 percent in 1976-1977, in the wall-materials indust'ry from 44.2 to 58.4 percent, in the - industry for quarrying and processing facing materials made of natural _ stone from 35.1 to 55.6 percent, and so on. For the republic's building- materials industry as a whole, the share of capital investrnent in the ac- tive portion of fixed production capital for 1966-1977 was invariably - reduced (table 3). 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 rvn vrrt~~L u~~ uivLx Table 3 I = T}?e Technological Structure of Capital Investment for Production Purposes - in the Moldavian SSR's Construction Materials Industry in 1966-1977,* - in Percent of the Total - Indicators 1966-1970 1971-19?5 1976-1977 Total capital investment 100.0 100.0 100.0 ' For: _ - Construct~on and installing work..... 49.5 53.2 54.4 l~;c~uipment, tools and implement;s...... 45.6 42.9 41.5 Other capital operations and � ~ expenditures 4.9 3.9 4.1 - *Computed from data from the current files of Moldavian SSR Central Statis- tical Administration. An analysis of the technological structure of capital investment of indi- vidual Moldavian SSR ministries and agencies is of interest.3 For the Moldavian SSR Ministry of Construction Materials Industry, which is the main supplier of building materials in the republic, capital investment _ for construction and installing work during the Ninth Five-Year Plan rose by 4.2 points over the figui~e for the Eighth Five-Year Plan; this is much higher than the growth of these expenditures for the Moldavian building- ma~~erials industry as a whole. This considerable growth in capital expen- - ditures for construction and installing work occurred through the construc- tion of new capacity and the expansion of existing capacity. During the - Ninth Five-Year Plan an expansion of production capacity was effected at the Rybnitsa Cement-Roofing Combine imeni Oktyabr'skaya Revolyutsiya, the t3e1'i;s,y Keramzit Gravel Plant and other enterprises through new construc- t; i.on . = Gxpenditures for equipment for the ministries of land reclamation and water - resources, construc~:ion, and rural construction of the Moldavian SSR,grew substantially. During the Eighth Five-Year Plan they consisted of, respec- tively, 28.3, 31.3 and 21.0 percent, and, during 1966-1977, 85.5, 54.5 and 36.4 percent. The 25th CPSU Congress has directed planning and managing organs to further improve the structure of capital expenditures for the reproduction of the _ fixed capital of the country's economy. In so doing, special attention was paid to the necessity for a more intensive increase in capital inves~- _ - ment for expanding and rebuilding existing enterprises and for reequipping them with machinery. The principal was stated at the congress that capital ; investment will be allocated not to br�anches of the economy and to enter- prises iri general but to growth in the output of products. Nevertheless, a firm tendency was noted in the Moldavian SSR building-materials industry in 1972-1977 toward a growth in the share of capital investment for new construction. The share of capital investment for the construction of new enterprises in the period indicated was: 17.1 percent in 1972, 29.8 in 1973, 50.5 in 1974, 65.7 in 1975, 73.1 in 1976 and ?2.4 in 1977." This is - explained by the fact that during this period the construction of a large 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY munber of construction-industry enterprises--the Itezina Cement Plant; the Kishinev Housing-Construction Combine, the Kagul plants for large-panel housing construction and for reinforced-concrete articles, the Pervomayskiy Crushing and Grading Plant, the Bendery Thermal Insulation Products Plant, the Bel'tsy Keramzit Plant and the Dnestrovsk Porous Agglomerates Plant-- was being started. As a result,an ever-decreasing share of capital invest-- meni: went into expanding and rebuilding existing plants and reequipping them with machinery. However, the trend toward a sharp growth in expenditures for new construc- tion was not characteristic of all subbranches of the republic's building- _ materials industry. For example, expenditures for new construction for the production of prefabricated reinforced-concrete and concrete articles and structure in 1972 -1977 was stable and high enough (44.4 percent in 1972, 60.5 in 1973, 82.6 in 1974, 69.7 in 1975, 66.6 in 1976 and 59 percent in _ 1977).S The high growth in expenditures for new construction that existed ~ _ in the building-materials industry as a whole was not observed here. Un- _ like other subbranches of the building-materials industry, a substantial growth in the share of capital investment that was aimed at maintaining ex- isting capacity was characteristic for the industry for prefabricated rein- forced-concrete and concrete structure and articles during the period being studied. In 1972-1977, 11.2 percent of all capital investment was spent for these purposes, and in 1975 and 1977 these expenditures reached 15.9 and 29.7 percent respectively. In such subbranches of the building-materials industry as the industriesf'or - mining and processing facing materials, limestone, gypsum and local cement- _ ing materials and articles made therefrom, for producing soft roofing . and water-proofing materials, and for producing wooden structure and car- - pentry products, all capital investmerit was allocated to expanding and rebuilding enterprises and reequipping them with machinery. The realization of plans for the construction of new enterprises, depart- ments and production facilities and the expansion and rebuilding of exist- ing facilities has enabled substantial growth of the republic's production of building materials to be provided. The output of prefabricated rein- _ forced-concrete and concrete articles and structure grew in 1976 to 2.5- fold that of 1965's, while the manufacture of structure and parts with pre- stressed reinforcement grew 4.1-fold. During the indicated period a high rate of growth in wall-panel production was achieved. In 1976 it sur- - passed the 1965 level by 44.8 percent. Accordingly, production grew 3.4- _ fold for crushed rock, 2.2-fold for construction sand, 1.5-fold for gypsum, and so on. A significant growth in the production of still other types of building materials also was provided for. It must be noted that in the Moldavian SSR the share of volume of produc- 1;ion of prefabricated reinforced-concrete structure and parts with pre- stressed reinforcement in the total volume of prefabricated reinforced con- crete was lower than for the country as a whole. While in ],977 this indi- cator was 23.3 percent for the country, it was 21.5 percent for Moldavia, although the pace of growth in production of reinforced conerete with 41 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 prestressed reinforcement in 1965-1977 in our republic was higher than for the country as a whole. Capital investment for expanding capacity for the production of reinforced-concrete with prestressed reinforceme;?t must be increased, ;~ith a view to bringing its share in total output up to the All- Union level. - ' As the construction of new facilities is completed, it is necessary to change radically the practice of planning capital investment for the build- ing-materials industry. The time has come when it is increasingly neces- _ sary to renovate production equipment and to remove from operation on a pl.anned basis machinery that is worn or obsolete. This must be done pri- marily at enterprises that are subordinate to the republic's Ministry of Construction Materials Industry. Studies of the operating condition of fixed capital of the Moldavian SSR indusi:ry that were carried out in the Department for the Effectiveness of - Capital Investment and New Equipment of the Economics Institute of the AN [Academy of Sciences] of the MSSR [Moldavian SSR] indicates that the deter- ioration process is rapid. The Moldavian SSR Ministry of Construction Ma- terials Industry was in third place in 1966-1977 among Moldavia's industri- al ministries and agencies in degree of wear of fixed capital of the build- ing-materials branches. The physical wear factor for fixed capital of the building-materials industry subbranches of this ministry was 0.1 during the - _ Eighth P'ive-Year Plan, 0.25 during the Ninth Five-Year Plan, and at the end of 1977 the wear factor was 0.33.6 The data that mark the operating condition of fixed capital, the scientific and technical revolution in the building-materials industry, and the condi- tions and nature of the functioning of the production apparatus in this brarich of the republic's heavy industry urgently dictate the necessity to allocate substantial resources to the upkeep of existing capacil;y and to the renovation of fixed capital. For these purposes, 6-7 million rubles of capital investment and depreciation funds must be allocated each year to overhaul. - An analysis of the capital-investment structure in the Moldavian SSR build- ing-materials industry has permitted the discovery~ of cases of the dis- persion of capital investment by a number of ministries and agencies that has led to a reduction in the utilization effecti.veness thereof. An inade- quately substantiated distribution'of capital expenditures among the vari- ous building-materials industry subbranches has been attended at i;imes _ by a reduction in the share of capital investment (for example, in the quarried building-materials industry), or the share thereof in this branch has been sustained at a low level. In 1966-1977 the branch ministries and agencies allocated inadequate amounts of capital investment to reequipping building-materials industry enterprises _ with machinery and to maintaining existing capacity. As a result, the share - of machinery and equipment in total capital investment during this period was substantially reduced, and the physical wear of capital, primarily the active portion thereof, was extremely intensive. The fitness factor . 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ot' fixed capital for a number of ministries, agencies, branches of indus- tries, and entcrprises was, in 1977 for example, extremely low. Thus, for the MSSR Ministry of Construction Materials Industry as a whole it was 0.67, and for such subbranches of it as the industry for prefabricated rein- forced-concrete and concrete structure and articles it was 0.59, the cement industry 0.65, and the quarried building-materials industry 0.63. For 10 out of 28 enterprises of the republic's Ministry of Construction Materials Industry the fitness factor for capital fluctuated in the 0.46-0.55 range, while for the MSSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and-Water Resources it was as as 0.69.' . During interagency distribution of capital investment, determinations of the amounts required for developing individual subbranches of the industry . and enterprises, did not consider the technical condition of the fixed capital and the structure thereof. The.dates and level of assimilation of production capacity was not considered. _ It is desirable to plan capital investment to.take the factors enumerated into account, and also to introduce certain changes into the practice of planning capital investment, particularly in expanding and rebuilding en- terprises and reequipping them with machinery, using as a basis for inter- agency and interbranch distribution of capital investment the indicators that char~cterize the technical condition of fixed capital in general and of the fleet of machinery and equipment in particular, and the degree of _ use and dates of assimilation of installed production .capacity. The materials and equipment base of the Moldavian SSR building-materials industry ought to be deveioped on the basis of a specialized Ministry of _ Construction Materials Industry, and capital investment for developing this branch ~f industry within the framework of other branches of the republic's - ministries and agencies should be restricted. - It is necessary, first, to increase total capital investment in the build- ' ing-materials industry subbranch that produces quarried building materials (this.will~help to eliminate the lags in the production and delivery of ' crushed rock, gravel and sand that have b~een noted); and,.second, based on ~ the indicatorsthat characterize the status of fixed capital, including the fleet of rtiachinery and equipment, and also,based on the amounts of capital investment for the renovation thereof, establish, upon representation of ministries and agencies, planning tasks for them for withdrawing obsolete ~ equipment from operation and updating it, after coordination with current ~ and long-range plans for delivering domestic and imported equipment to them. This in itself will create the bases for long-range planning for renovating the machinery and equipment fleet and improving the agency, branch and technological structura of fixed capital. The accomplishment of the indicated measures will enable more purposeful - action on the structure and reproduction of capital, especially`,the active portion thereof, to be provided. This will help in the timely elimination - - of obsolete and worn equipment and moderation of the pace of the obsoles- - cence of capital. All this taken together will be a most important factor 43 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200034453-8 in raising the utilization effectiveness of capital investment, fixed capi- tal and social production as a whole. FOOTNOTES 1. V. I. Leifi`~i'. "Poln. sobr. soch:' [Complete Collected Works], Vol. 3, page 525. 2. "Resheniya partii i pravitel'stva po khozyaystvennym voprosam" [Party and Government Decisions on Management Questions]. Moscow, 1974, Vol 9, - p 415. 3. Not counting Mezhkolkhozstroy [Interkolkhoz Construction Association] enterprises. 4. Computed according to data from the current files of TsSU MSSR [Mol- davian SSR Central Statistical Administration]. . 5. Ditto. 6. "Narodnoye khozyaystvo SSSR v 1977" [The USSR NationaJ.'Economy in 1977], p 177; and "Narodnoye khozyaystvo MSSR 1977" ~The Economy of the Moldavian SSR, 1977], p 51. - 7. Computed on data from the current files of TsSU MSSi2. . COPYRIGHT: unavailable. 11403 CSO: 1821 END 44 FOR OFFICLAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200030053-8