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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000200040042-9 ' 1 ' ~ i8 JRNURRV 1980 CFOUO 2r88) 1 OF 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8873 18 January 1980 ~ U SS R R~ ~rt _ p MILfTARY AFFAIRS + CFOUO 2/80) - FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency - transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] - or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last Zine of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- ~ mation was summarized or extracted. TJnfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an ~ item originate with the source. Times with in items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- _ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Goverr~ment. For fsrther information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 346�3 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMIPIATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/8873 - ' ~ 18 January 1980 USS R REPO RT - MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 2/80) - ~ CONTENTS PAG~ Military Budgets: Soviet and U.S. Budgets Contrasted (EKONOMCCHESKIYE NAUKI,- Oct 79) 1 Book Discusses History and Role of Soviet Civil Defense (GRAZ:iDANSKAYA OBORONA--DELO VSENARODNOYE, 1978) 7 Moral-Political, Psychological Training of Missilemen Discussed (K. A. Alekseyevskiy, P. I. Yedemskiy; FAKTOR BOYEGOTOVNOSTI RAKETCHIKOV. 0 MORAL'NaPOLITICHESKOY I PSIKHOLOGICHESKOY PODGOTOVKE VOINOV RAKETNYRH VOYSK, 1979) 28 ~ - a - (III - US~R - 4 FOUO] , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MILITARY BUDGETS: SOVIET AND U.S. BUD~ETS CONTRASTID Moscow EKONOMiCHESKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 10, bct 79 signed to press r 24 Sep 79 pp 126-128 ' [Article in response to reader's inquiry: "Military Budgets: Reflection of a Socioeconomic System"] [TextJ Lieutenant Colonel V. Leynega, Candidate of Economic Sciences, responds to the question of how the Soviet Union is able to maintain its military potential at a ~ level which is not below that of the US if, with refer- ence to their amounts, the USSR's allocations for defense . are smaller than those provided for the American military budget. In order to insure their security, the USSR and the ot~er countries of th~ socialist commonwealth are forced t~ allocate part of the state budget for defense needs. In 1979, these expenditures are totaling 17.23 billion rubles.l They have remained virtually constant (1970--17.9 billion rubles; 1975 and 1976--17.4 billion; 1977 and 1978--17.2 billion rubles annually). The US presents a different picture. Department of Defense2 military budget expenditures here increased from 46.0 billion in 1965 to 107.7 billion dollars in 1978, that is, by more than 2.3-fold.3 The expenditures ~ortion of the American draft military budget should 125.8 billion dollars in 1980 and as American experts anticipate, should reach 168.9 billion dollars by 1984.~' - Comparison of the USSR's defense allocations and the US Defense Department budgat (taking into considerati~n the relationship between the Soviet ruble and the US dollar) shows that with respect to volume, the American military budget considerably exceeds the Soviet Union's budgetary alloca- tions for defense. There is at the same time a recognition of the existence of a military garity between the USSR and the US, that is, of a raugh. balan.ce of the forces of both powers in the military sphere.. There appears _ at first glance to be a contradiction heze: with our total military appro- priat.ions considerably uelow those of the United ~tates, how can we be on roughly the same 12ve1 with them in actual military strength? 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Imperialist propoganda, now openly joined by that of the Bei~ ing chauvinists and aggressors, is employing this apparent contradiction in its intensif ied propagation af.the lie alleging that.the USSR's actual military appropria- . tions are higher than those officially siated and eren exceed American appropriations.5 The purpose behind these statemen~ts is to be found wholly _ contained within the overall approach taken by anti-So~iet propaganda, which conaists in poisoning the people's consciousness "by slandering Soviet activities, blackening socialism, embeltishing imperialism and its pr~datory and inhimman policy and practice,"6 creating a new ~over for another round in the arms tace and in diverting the attention of the peoples of the capitalist countries from pressing social problems. As is the c3se with other inventions of this sort, attempts to cast doubt on the data on appropriations for defense needs given i.n our state budget are absolutely baseless. In actual fact, things are guite different, in consequences of which the contradiction about which we were speaking is indeed only apparent. It is, of course, true that the absolute smounts and the dynamics of mili- tary expenditures as expressed in monetary terms provide a general idea of the character of a country's military activites. But a country's mi.litary power and the combat readiness of its armed forces depend not only an the volume of its military appropriations. Playing the most important roles in this instance ar~ a country's sociopolitical system and the purpose behind and the character of the utilization of military - appropriations as determined by the economic relations~ips prevailing within a given country. The essential difference between the amounts contained in the US military ~ budget and the USSR's defense appropriations~ is tc+ be explained primarily by a fundamental difference between the two antithetical socioeconomic systems and, consequently, between their political courses. If a policy of aggression and military preparations and threats are organically, in- herently cha~acteristic of monopoly capital, then inherently character- istic of the socialist system is a policy of peaceful coexistence and _ friendship between peor_les safeguarding their labor in the name of peace and providing thereby an ever fuller revelation before all mankind of the fundamental, objective superiority of socialism. It would be useful to emphasize in this connection that it.costs less to maintain armed forces which are defensive in character than those which have aggressive plans.8 We shoul.i also keep in mind that, in additior. to preparing for aggressive activities on a global scale, the US is continuously preparing and carry- ing local military actions involving enormous expenditures for military needs. On the basis of the criteria of a state'~ involvement in aggression adopted by the UN General Assembly, it has been calculated that in 115 local wars unleashed or provoked by imperialism during the period 1945- 1977 the US has acted in the role of a~ principal aggressor or of an ac- complice 101 times (including 31 times as the leading aggressor). American imperialism's role as an accomplice in aggression has taken the form of assistance rendered to a direct aggressor in weapons, mercenary forces, 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . . _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY military advisors and instructors and money.9 US i.mperialism countinues to play the role of an initiator of military adventures. Providing clear evidence of this are the plans developed by the Pentagon for strengthening the United States' "military presence" in the Near East, plans which pro- vide for the employment of E1mer~can armed forces to seize oilfields in the Arab countries. The following facts, among others, can testify to the importance of local - wars as stimulants to the growth of military expenditures. Over the period covered by the war in Korea, ~t~e US Department of Defense Budget increased from 12.4 billion (1950) to 50.4 billion dollars (1953).10 During the war ~ in Vietnam, the American military budget grew f rom 4v.0 billion (1965) to 77.9 billion dollars (1969)11 According to calculations by the American econamist T. Riddel, total US expenditures for waging the war in Vietnam totaled 676 billion dollars (which includes financial outlays directly for the war, the cost of military assistance to its allies in aggression, the government debt accumulated in connection with the conduct of the war and payments to veterans, which will continue over a long period of time to come).12 With respect to its financial cost, the war the US waged in Vietnam is entirely comparable with American participation in the Second World War: on the basis of rough calculations, the lattzr cost the US 530:3 billion dollars. 13 These figures do not take into cot~sideration the difference in the purchasing power of the dollar in the periods of the - wars concerned; on the whole, they nevertheless give some idea of the exceptionally high level of exF~enditure required for imperialism's present ' conduct of local wars. These expenditures understandably introduce very serious correctives into any comparison of total military apprapriations ~ on the one hand and the countries' actual military streng~h on the ather. _ It is entirely clear that the country which is not waging local wars will be able to achieve equivalent military power with much smaller expenditures of resources. Yet another very important circumstance consists in the fact that the US military budget is also increasing under the impact of expenditures con- nected with the maintenance and operation of the enormous network of mili- tary bases with which American imperialzsm has enveloped the globe. The GS disposed in 1975 of 429 large and 2297 small military bases in 27 coun- tries covering a total area of more than 10 thousand square kilometers,l4 According to some information, the number of these bases has now been somewhat reduced, but not to the extent that we could speak of any changes in the basic state of affairs. The Soviet Union has no such military bases; it is therefore not forced to expend enormous amounts of financial resources to maintain them. The US military budget is in character, therefore, an aggressive budget. - So in terms of both its essential nature and its volumes of expenditures, it is precisely this factor which defines it difference from the appro- priations allocated for defense in the USSR. - 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -;i ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ A more detailed analysis of the problem under consideration also requires consideratlon oF the character of the uti.lization, or materilization, of bud~;c~~ed fiinds. We should sing.le out a least two points in this connection. l. The purchase of military weapons and equipment is the most important item in a military budget; this accounts for almost one-third of the US military budget. Primarily engaged in arms production in this country are the military-industrial monopolies, the consumer of whose products is the ~ourgeois state and its armed forces. On the basis of common interests and ecunomic and political goals, the military-industrial corporations - and the US government bureaucracy have come together in the so-called - military-industrial complex. It has created exceptionally favorable con- ditions fur the military-industrial monopolies to enrich themselves and plunder Che state' resources. According to data assembled by a US Senate commission, the rate of profit for 164 of 169 American military-industrial corporations is running fro~ 50 to 200 percent, more than 500 percent in the case of 3 corporations and over 2000 percent for one.15 The profit- ability of American military-industrial monopolies is on the average 50- 60 percent highe_ than it is in industries engaged in production for peace- ful Furposes.16 Nothing of the kind occurs, nor could it occur, in the Sovier Union or any other socialist country. Our government makes its military production decisions ~n a tightly controlled manner in strict accordance with pre- _ scribed procedures, insuring thereby the most efficient utilization of mateLial, financial and labor resources and reducing the cost of arms. This was in particular very clearly demonstrated during the Great Patriotic - War, when, at the call of the Party and on the initiative of the workers _ in defense industry enterprises, there developed the All-Union socialist competition for the best fulfillment of orders and requests from the front, for the mobilization of internal praduction resources, fo.r the achievEment = of economies in raw material consumption and for reducing the cost of _ duction. 2. The fact has to be taken into consideration that, as opposed to the Soviet Union, where the armed forces are established on the basis of a universal military service obligaticn, the US has a hired army; and the pay and support for personnel require sutstantial expenditures. Approximately - - 50 percent of the inilitary budget will be al~ocated for these purposes each year throcgh 1985.17 Without taking these circumstances into con~ideration it would of course - be impossit,le to draw e~ven a rough comparison between Soviet and US miiitary expenditures. "We spend for defense as much as is absolutely necessary. No more, no less. ~ In accordance with whst is required by the situation."18 So the socialist social system creates tlie obj~ctive conditions required for the efficient and effective accomplishment of defense tasics and permits the Soviet Union rF�liably to provide for its security while at the same time spending a sub- - stantially smaller portion of its national incame for military purposes than the US. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I'OOTNOTES l. 5ee "The Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Governing the State Budget of the USSR for 1979," PRAVDA, 1 December 1978. _ 2. Capitialist governments channel substantial sums toward utilization for military purposes through other items in their state budgets in addition to those in the budgets of the individual military ministries. In the US they are channeled through the Department of Energy, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other agencies. 3. See "Statistical Abstract of the United States," Washington, 1976, p 327; "Special Analyses Budget of the United States Government. Fiscal Year 1979," Washington, 1978, p 12. 4. ~e~ "The Budget of the United States Government. Fiscal Year 1979," Washington, 1979, pp 50, 568. 5. See "The Military Balance 197?-1978," 1977, pp 10-11. 6. "Fuxther Improvement of Ideological and Political Indoctrination Work." Decree of the CPSU Central Committee, 26 April 1979. Moscow, 1979, p 6. ' 7. T_t shoud be borne in mind that we can draw only a rough comparison be- _ tween them, since the military budgets of different states, particularly in the case of those part of opposing social systems, are not structured in the sane matter. 9 8. For datails see NUVOYE VREMYA, No 2, 1979, p 31. - 9. See H~~ Rennhack, "Timetable for Armed Imperialist Agression Sir.ce 1945," MILITARWESEN, No 12, 1977, pp 96-99. ~ 10. See "Statistical Abstract of the United States," Washington, 1975, p 314; "The Economics cF Defense Spen~ing," Department of Defense, Washington, 1972, p 8. 11. See "Statistical Abstract of the United States," Washington, 1975, p 316. 12. See S. Melman. "The Permanent War Economy: American ~apitalism in Decline," New York, 1974, p 66. 13. See "Statistical Abstract of the United States," Washington, 1976, p 329. - _ 14. See L. M. Gromov and R. A. Faramazyan, "Voyennaya ekonomika sovremennogo kapitalizma" [The Military Economy of Modern Capitalism], Moscow, Voyenizdat, 1975, p 25. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 15. See PRAVDA, 15 November 1977, p 5. 16. See NOVOYE VREMYA, No 2, 1979, p 31. 17. See "Defense Manpower: The Keystone of National Security. Report to the President and the Congress," Defense Manpower Commission, Washington, 1976, p 35. 18. L. I. Brezhnev, "In the Name of the Happiness of the Soviet Peoples. Speech Delivered at a Meeting with Voters of Moscow's Bauman Electoral District, 2 March 1979," Moscow, 1979, p Y0. COPYRIGHT: Ekonomicheskiye nauki, 1979 8963 CSO: 1801 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - BOOK DISCUSSES HISTORY AND ROLE OF SOVIET CIVIL DEFENSE Moscow GRAZHDANSKAY,~. OBORONA--DELO VSENARODNOYE (Civil Defense--A Nationwide _ Concern) in Russian 1978 signed to press 5 Jun 78 pp l, 2, 80, 3-5, 23-28, 37-41, 65-79 [Annotation~ table of contents, and excerpts from book by S. I. Maykov, _ Izdatel'stvo DOSAAF USSR, 75,000 copies, 80 pages] [Excerpts] The booklet relates tne history of the emergence and development of the contemporary Civil Defense of the USSIt and its role and place in streng- thening the country's defensive capability; its national nature in the accomp- lishment of mi.ssions in the defense of the socialist fatherland is disclosed. Contents Page Introduction 3 A Little History 6 - Civil llefense at the Contemporary Stage 23 In the Name of Life ................................o... 29 ~ Created by the People--Defend Reliably 33 Always in Readiness 37 The Duty of All and Each On~ 42 Canvincingly, Inteiligibly 54 A Common Concern 65 Introduction Under the leadership of the Leninist party and inspired by the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress, the Soviet people are moving confidently toward com- munism. Dur~Ing a very short historical period our motherland has lifted itself from ~ age-old backwardness to the lead~ng heights of economic, scientific-technical, and cultural development and is now marching in the vanguard of social progress. In the year of the 60th anniversary of the Creat October, the special Seventh Session of the Supreme Soviet USSR adopted the ne~a constitution (Basic Law) of 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~I~e Union of Soviet Socialist Republics--a document of outstandir.g historical sign ificance. - At the session, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman . of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet USSR, and Chairman of the Constitution Commission. Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, said, "We are adopting the new constitu- tion on the eve of the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolu- tion. This is not simply a coincidence in the time of the two greatest events ~ in tt~e liFe of the country. The connection between them is much deeper. The - new constitution, one can say, is the concentratPd result of the entire six- ' decade development of the Soviet state. It shows brilliantly that the ideas proclaimed by Qctober and Lenin's behests are being successfully implemented." The successes in the building of communism are having a direct influence on the strengthening of the international positions of the USSR and of all coun- tries of the socialist commonwealth and on improving the planet's political . climate. At the same time, with all the favorable changes in the international situation we c annot fail to see difficult unresolved problems and serious obstacles in - the path of consolidating detente. At the 25th CPSU Congress, it was noted that the enemies of detente and disarma- ment still possess considerable resources. They are functioning acttvely, in _ - various forms and from different directions. Although the possibilities of aggressive actions of imperialism have now been considerably reduced, its nature remains unchanged. Faced by distinct prospects for the improvzment of the international climate, certsin reactionary circles are making more active their attempts to go over to the attack so as to push the world backward, to the times of the "cold war." They are relying on an unrestrained arms race, the creation of new centers of ten sion, and on the preservation of the remnants of colonialism and racism. ^the Chinese leadership is also acting now together with the most reactionary and aggressive circles of the West. The direction of the policy of the imperialist states which is most dangerous = for the cause of peace is the increase in appropriations for the production of nuc lear weapons. The solicitation of the "hawks" to legitimize the production o~ the neutron bomb as well as cruise missiles may become the start of a quali- tatively new round in the arms race. Thus, the forces of aggression have not been rendered harmless and the danger of thermonuclear war has not been eliminated; it remains a stern reality of our time. Therefore, in consistently struggling for peace the Communist Party and the Sov iet government are manifesting unremitting concern for the maintenance of the country's defensive potential on the proper l~vel and for tt~e development 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and strengthening of the Soviet Armed Fc~rces--the bulwark of the freedom and independence of our motherl.and and of the countries of the entire se~ctalist commonwealth. - Today, the SaJiet Armed Forces are equipped with the necessary amount of con- temporary and first class t~pes of ar~rament and equipment. Nuclear missile weapons, the fastest airplanes, nuclear subniarines and the latest surface ships, improved tanks and artillery and means of communication, various _ devices for automation and telemechanics, various a~tomated systems for the control of weapons and combat equipment--this is today's ars~nal of the Soviet Armed Forces. Much has also been done in recent years to improve the Civil Defense of the USSR whose role in contemporary warfare has incrP.ased significantly. Under the leadership of the CPSU and the Soviet goverr.ment and jointly with the Soviet Armed Forces with the active ~,articipation of the entire people, it is called upon in case of war to defend the country`s rear area which, in a broad understanding, is the entire territory of the state with the people and material resources, industry, agriculture, transportation, communications, and scientific and cultural institutions. In implementing defensive measures and the traiiiing of the populati.on, civil defanse has the goal of weakening to the minimum the effect of casualty-producing elements of contemporary _ weapons. The national nature of the Civil Defense of the USSR is furthered by the or- ganizational structure and the scope of the measures as well as the direct participation of the entire population in them. The goals and missions of civil defense ar~ close and intelligible for the Soviet people who are vitally interested in the prevention of war and, consequently, in strengthen- ing the defensive ~ight of *_he motherland. - Civil Defense at the Contemporary Stage _ The basic principles for the organization and conduct of the Civil Dafense of the Scviet Union follow from the Leninist teaching about the defense of the ` socialist fatherland, the program of the CPSU, the Soviet constitution, the decisions of party congresses, and th2 propositions of Soviet military doctrine. "The party proceeds on the basis," it says in the CPSU program, "that as long as imperialism is preserved the danQer uf aggressive wars will remain. The CPSU considers the defense of. the socialist fatherland and the strengthening of the USSR's defense and the might of the Soviet Armed Forces as the sacred duty of the party and the entire Soviet people and as the most - important function of the socialist state." The state, national character of the mission to strer.gthen the country's de- fensive might and the personal responsibility of the Soviet People for this matter are caused by the socialist nature of our society and consolidated legislatively in the constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 ~ FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY in wt~icll it is written that the defense o� the socialist fatherland belongs among the mos~ important state functions and is a matter for the entire people. The strengthening of defense and the preparation of the country and its Armed Forces to rebuff aggressors is a complex and many-faceted mission which en- compasses an entire complex of problems. An important place among the;.i is allotted to civil ~lefense. lii our country, all measures for protection against contemporary weapons are conducted in the i�terests of the people--the masters of their motherland, and in t}~e i.~terests of preserving socialist public property. Virtually the entire Saviet people is an active part in them. The instruction of the public _ in methods for protection against weapons of mass destruction and the rendering _ of ~irst aid to causalties has a universal and mandatory nature. This causes primarily the state and national nature of Soviet civil defense. The mass, national nature of our civil defense is also determined by its humane intention. The pro~ection of the public and the national economy from weapons of mass desrruction and the most rapid elimination of the 3ftereffects of pos- sible a~gressar nuclear-missile strikes are the most h~norable and most noble missions. This stimulates the defenders of the country s rear area for self- less and unselfish soldierly labor in the name of accomplishing lofty humane goals and causes a surge of patriotic feelings which are directed toward strengthening the state's defensive capability. The Soviet people are perform- ing their civil defense duL-ies on the call of duty and their hearts, being ec~ual to the most important principle oF the moral code of the builder of com- munism: man to man--friend, comrade, and brother. _ - The national nature of civil defense is also mar_ifested in thP fact that under the l.eadership of party organs trade union, Komsomol, and other public organi- zations are taking an active part in its measures. Today, the country's civil defense has been transformed into an important com- pon~nt part of the system of defense measures and has becomP one of the most important factors in supporting the state's vital activi~~~ under ~ondi~~ions of - military tests as well as during natural disasters. - A state approach to civil defense problems is nanifasted especially perceptibly in its organizational structure, the basis of which is formed by the territorial- production principle. This means that its organization is structured from top to bottom as applicable to the state and local organs of authority as well as to the system for control of the country's national economy. All organs of state autYiority are involved in the accomplishment of civil defense missions: councils of ministers of union and autonomous republics, executive committees of Councils of Peoples Deputies of krays, oblasts, rayons, cities, settlements, and villages, and economic organs, ministries and departments, organizations, - insti.tutions, enterprises, kolkhozes and sovkhazes, and educational institu- tions. Their leaders are civil defense chiefs and are completely responsible to the state and the people for quality and timeliness in accomplishing the 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200044442-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 - necessary measures. Ttiis principle ensures coordination ~nd harmony in its organization 2nd permits the best joining of efforts of local party and soviet organs as well as CD [civil defenseJ organ~ and those of the military connnand, ministries~ and departments for the effective accomplishment of ci~i1 def~nse missions. The fact that executive organs of SovieC the lowest elements to republic councils of ministers--stand at its head attaches purpose- fulness~ authorit~tiveness, and e�fectiveness to civil defense. ~ The increa~e in the activity of rayon and city Councils of Workers Deputies in the direction of civil defense measures is furthered in considerable measure by the Ukazes of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet USSR of 19 March 1971, "On the basic rights and duties of rayon Councils of Workers Deputies" and "On the basic rights and duties of city and rayon (in cities) Councils of _ Workers Deputies." These documents stress especially the responsibility of rayon and city organs of authority in the matter of directing civil defense. Close collaboration between the Armed Forces and civil defense is strengthen-� ~ ing fro~n day to day. This collaboration is one of the important bases for the further strengthening of the unity of the army and the people and, in the Final analysis, is the most important condition for ensuring the reliable de- fense of the socialist fatherland. The basic content in the contemporary development of civil de�ense is that - under the direction of party and soviet organs and with the active participa- tion of the military command a number of ineasures have been implemented in recenr. years in its further strengthening and in the study and introduction of new forms in training the public and preparing the national economy for defense against weapons of mass destruction. CD plans and missions which are accomplished in peacetime and under special conditions have been refined. Measures have been adopted for the complete outfitting of civil defense sub- units and paramilitary formations with organizational property and equipment. Instructi.on of all population ~roups in CD questions has improved considerably and the level of training of leader and command-supervisory pErsonnel }~as been rai.sed. In this matter, a large role is played today by combined insta].lation exercises which have become the basic form in training installations, farmations, workers. employees, and lcolkhoz farmers Eor the accomplishment of civil defense r.?issions in peacetime as well as in time of war. Much has been done in providing the Soviet people wirh gro~ip and individual protective equipment. Such an important question as ensuring the stable - opera~ion of installations of the natio~lal economy is being solved systematical- ly. A firm training-material base is being creat~d--training grounds, life- size sectors, training centers, and c.lassrooms. - The leading role of party organs has grown in the system of civil defense. They are manifesting constant concern for its improvement and strengthening and for making more active and increasing the effectiveness of party-political work in the interests of civil defense. The primar~ mission of this work is the firm and consistent implementation of party and government decisions in 11 - FnR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY questions of the country's civil defense and ensuring the successful accomplish- - ment of its plans in peacetime as well as in wartime. - Direction of party-political work in institutions and paramilitary formations is accomplish~d by local party organs and party organizations of installations of the national economy. They determine its content, forms, and methods and attract trade uni~n, Komsomol, and other public organizations to its conduct. To strengthen political-indoctrinational work directly in the paramilitary for- mati_ons, deputy commanders (chiefs) of formations and evacuation echelons for political affairs are detailed from among the party activists. Considering the grear responsibility which is placed on the political deputies, the party organizations select and approve Chem from among the communists with the greatest authority and the most initiative. With consideration of the party-Komsomol stratum in the detachments, teams, groups, and brigades, party and Komsomol groups are created in them and party organizers, Komsomol organizers, and agitators are appointed for the time of the conduct of training assemblies and exercises as well as for the period of their participation in the elimination of the aftereffects of natural disas~- ters and the conduct of rescue and urgent ~mergency-restoration work. Political-indoct.rinational work with formation personnel is organized di- rectl5 by the deputy commanders for political affairs. They rely on the com- munists and on the Komsomol and Propagan.dist activists of the formations in their activity. Their daily work encompasses a broad range of questions. The primary task of a deputy commander of a paramilitary formation for political affairs consists of indoctrinatir.g the personnel in a spirit of Soviet patriot-, proletarian internationalism, boundless devotion to the mo*_herland, the _ Communist Party, the Soviet government, and the cause of co~nunism and of ex- - plaining to the fighting men the domestic and foreign policy of the CPSU, the labor successes of the motherland and the given production collective, and the - defensive missions accomplished at the enterprise. For these purposes, he makes wide use of the combat traditions of the Armed Forces and Civil Defense, the heroic .labor exploits of the Soviet people, experience in combatting natural disasters, and the practic~ of combined CD exercises. He is responsible for putting together the collective of formations and main- taining the combat rPadiness and liigh political and morale state of the per- sonnel. He moUilizes them ~or the selfless accomplishment of CD missionswith the display of initiative both in peacetime as well as in wartime and adopts measures to ensure coordination and combat collaboration with other CD forma- tions and troop subunits in the joint accomplishment of mi.ssions as well as to strengthen discipline and organization. The po]itical deputy assists the co~nmander in organizing socialist competition in the form3tion and is concerned with the publicizing of those who have dis- tinguished themselves and their timely encouragement. He instills in all per- sonnel responsil~il.ity for increasing special knowledge and the mastery, care, and skillful operation of equipment and property. 12 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200044442-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A no less important task for him is the study of political~ professional, and moral qualities, the demands and attitudes of the personnel, and concern for their material and everyday s.upport and health, timely fe?ding and rest, and observance of the established safety regime and measures for the period of combined exercises and in accompl.ishing special ta.sks. Deputy formation commanders for political affairs, just as commanders, train at the appropriate CD courses. Other forms for training the political deputies are also widely practiced: instructive lessons and lectures which are conduct- - ed at the enterprise in accordance with the plans of the party organizations. However, the best school for improving the skills of political personnel con- - sists of installation CD exercises where each political deputy performs the practical working out of his dL~ties and acquires well rounded experience. The leading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ensures the re- _ liable organization of civ~.l defense and transforms it into a smoothly func- tioning organism. The assistance and daily attention of party organs to CD pre- determines an atmosphere of high demandingness and party devotion to principle in the work of its cadres in accomplishing difficult and important missions which face the defenders of the country's rear. These missions, which are diverse in nature, are divided into three basic groups: the protection of the populati.on against weapons of mass destruction; _ an increase in the working stability of installations and branches of the - national economy under wartime conditions; and the conduct of rescue and emer- gency restoration work in stricken areas and, in peacetime, in areas of natural disasters and big production mishaps. Always in Readiness One of the most important missions assigned to Civil Defense by the Communist Party and the Soviet government is the conduct of rescue and emergency restora- = tion work (SNAVR) in stricken (contaminated)areas and, in peacetime, fighting huge forest fires and the elimination of the aftereffects of natural disasters and production mishaps. The accomplishment of SNAVR is usually taken to mean primarily the actions of CD forces in rescuing people and material valuables. Rescue work includes: scouting stricken (contaminated) areas, localizing and extinguishing fires; clearing passages to buried and destroyed protective structures and opening them; the search for, extraction, and removal of victims, rendering them first aid and medical assistance, and their evacuation to medical institutions; removal of the population from threatened ar~as, medical proces- sing of people, decontamination of clothing, transportation, equipment, build- ings, roads, and territory; and other measures which are directly linked with the rescue and protection of the public. Emergency restoration work is just as difficult and diverse. It is conducted to support rescue operatians and prevent further destruction and losses and includes: laying hasty roads and creating conditions for the commitment of CD forces to stricken (contaminated) areas; the construction of lanes and - 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY passages and the localization and elimination of destruction and damage to municipal engin~ering systems; elimination of the danger of further destruc- tion of damagecl buildi.ngs and structures. . it is extremely pr~bable that it will be necessary to conduct SNAVR under con- dtt.l.c,ns oF r.adi.u~ictlve ~nd chemica.l contamination, n~ass fires~ and floods. The sCtuation may become more compticated by the necessity to combat enemy airborne assaults and sabotage groups and to destroy unexploded bombs, rockets, shells, and other ammunition. - Rescue and emergency restoration work must be accomplished day and night, under any weather conditions, efficiently, with the full straining of strength up to its final completion. This is caused by the necessity to rescue people and render assistance to victims who may be in buried shelters, destroyed and burn- ing buildings, in areas of contamination, and in zones of inundation. ' Technically equipped and practically trained civil defense forces are engaged in the conduct of the entire SNAVR complex. They include troop subunits and paramilitary CD formations. The most numerous of them are the paramilitary formations. They consist of workers, employees, and kolkhoz farmers. They are created in all cities, r rayons, and populated places, in all enterprises, in institutions, organiza- tions, sovkhozes and kolkhozes, and educational in:'~itutions. It is the main civil defense force, its shock detachment which iy called upon to be in constant readiness at any time. Organizationally, the formations consist of detachments, brigade~, teams, groups, _ - troops, squads, elements, mobile posts, transportation columns, and posts. They can be used for the accomplishment of civil defense missions in the interests of the republic, kray, oblast, city, or rayon as well as for the conduct of - protective measures and the conduet of SN:~VR directly at installations of the national economy. The experience of civil defense exercises which have been conducted and of the formaiions' participation in eliminating the aftereffects of natural disasters shows that the high level of readiness of the majority of the formations is ensured by the quality selection of their personnel, by their complete out- fitting with equipment, coordination, and constant and exacting checking of their training. An important test of the professional skill, moral-psycholo- gical tempering, and readiness of the civil defense fighting men is their ~ work at the sites of natural disasters and prodi:ction mishaps. In recent years, the personnel of the CD subunits and formations have participated in the ex- tinguishing of forest and peat fires, in combating flooding in several. of the country's oblasts, and they have assisted in eliminating the aftereffects of earthquake~, mud streams, snow storms, and snowdrifts. The difficult tests - were passed with honor. Organization, .liscipline, a sense of duty and re- - sponsibility, and the striving to accomplish their combat mission without con- sidering difficulties and danger--this is what characterized the civil defense fighting men. _ 14 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ...A terrible natural event b~fell the small mining town of Kyzyl-Kiya in the Kirgiz SSR at the beginning of June 1977. ~ The tiny Dzhal riverlet with a width of only two to three meters flows through Kyzyl-Iiiya which is located in the foothills of high mountains. But. suddenly the quiet I)zhal overflpwed tta banks and raged. A cloudburst of unprecedented force occurred in the mountains was the reason for this. A mud stream - up to 300 meters wide and up to 8 meters high was formed. This avalanche of ~ water, dirt, and stones rushed downward with noise and a roar, tearing age-old trees out by the roots. Breaking through dams, it came down upon a ferro- concrete bridge. One of its spans collapsed. "On its way," the stream took about 2,000 cubic meters of wood from a timber yard and fell upon the city structures with a fury. Logs rammed the walls, forming high obstructions in the streets. A considerable portion of the city found itself under water in a short time. The population and the fighting men of the civil defense paramilitary formations joined in a single rank under the leadership of local party and soviet organs to fight the elements. They quick:iy rendered assistance to vietims, eliminated dangerous damage on municipal power networks, and saved the people's property from spoilage and loss. The workers of the cargo vehicle base operated selflessly. Drivers Yu. Mamedov and Sh. Rakhmanzhanov and the chief of operations, Kh. _ Gafurov, removed 11 children from the roof of a kindergarten. Drivers M. Sergeyev and V. Kalinin drove right into the mud stream in their KrAZ's, took casualties into the bodies of the vehicles, and carried them to a safe place. When a~:ontainer with gasoline suddenly caught fire at a petroleum bulk plant, the vehicle operators in cooperation with formations of the fire- fighting service and the public-order service joined in battling the fire. ~ The energeti~ actions of party and soviet organs, commanders and political ` workers of the formations, and the stubbornness and mass heroism of the popu- lation, soldiers, and personnel of the civil defense formations permitted the subduing of the elements and eliminating all aftereffects in short times. Civildefense bomb disposal experts are continuing their heroic and unparalleled battle for the country's peaceful life. The same resolve and the same bound- less love for the motherland are found in today's actions as were found in the actions of the soldiers and the fighting men of the MPVO [local air defense] in the years of the Great Patriotic War. CD soldiers and fighting men of the formation, Warrant Officer [praporshchik] V. Get'man, Private First Ctass A. Tsitserev, Privates N. Litvin and V. Gontar.', and machine operator of an SMU-lltruck-mounted crane,I. Soybel'man,displayed high skill, bravery, and valor in disarming and destroying 250-kg aeria]. bombs which had lain dormant on one of ;.he construction sites, 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A German unexplcded aerial bomb lay in the ground on the territory of the Velikolukskiy locomotive repair and building works imeni 50 years of the USSR for more than 30 years and was discovered when digging an earth foundation pit - for a new shop building. 13nmh cl[~;~~c~~~il uf f ir~~r. N. S. Kruglov disarmed the fascist bomb at great risk. - It wa~ the 24th r~erial bomb to r~{s combht credit. For his exploit, Kruglov was awarded the Order of the Red Star. In performing their dangerous work, the civil defense bomb disposal exper.�ts clear the lethal heritage of the war from Soviet soil and thereby protect the peace- - f.ul ].abor of the Soviet people. _ A worthv and honorable place in the combined formation of civil defense forces is occupied by formations of the medical-sanita*ion service and their most massive detachment--the medical detachments and posts of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR. Their many-faceted activity is sub- - ordinate to the highest goal--the preservation of the life and health of the - Soviet people. Proceeding from their humane purpose, they ar2 constantly in a state of increased readiness. During the eartY.iquake of 1976, on the decision of the Extraordinary Commission the medical de~3chments of a number of rayons of Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Turkmenia were involved in rescue operations. They tirelessly rendered first ai3 to victims and sent them to medical institutions. The s2lfless combat work of personnel of CD units and formations in rescuir.~g people and the people's property when fighting the aftereffects of natural disasters and destroying unexploded ammunition in various regions of the coun- try always encounters the heartfelt gratitude of tl?e population. Improving their skill in the process of combat training, on various exercises, and in the course of eliminating the aftereffects of natural disast~rs, the civil defense personnel are making a worthy contribution to the cause of the further strengthening of our motherland's defensive might. A Common Concern The training of millions of Soviet people for de�ense against weapons of mass destruction and their involve~nent in 3efense measures are only possible ~ with the combined organizational and propagandisC efforts of many state, mili- tary, and public organs of the country. "Civil defense must be improved," it was pointed out in the sumn~ary report of , the CPSII Central Committee to the 23d Party Congress, "and military-patriotic work among the workers, especially the youth, must be upgraded.... The entire party and the entire Soviet community are required constantly ro be occupied with Chis matter." 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tlianks to ~he concerns and fixed attention of the Communist Party and the Soviet governi~ient, civil defense has now heco~ne a matter for the general ` ~~ub1lc. Various m~ss public organizations anc.' voluntary societies are talctng _ ~ :in r~ctlve part in itc~ measures under the leade:rship of party and sovi~t organs. Unquestionably, this testifies to the national nature of Soviet civil defense. The role of Soviet trdde unions, which are a mighty so~ial force and active assistant of the CPSU in communi,~t construction, indoctrinating the SOViP_t people, and strengthening the state's defensive capability, is great in r_hi.s. In accordance with the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress and with the requixe- m~nts which the party and the government have imposed on civil defense at the contemporary stage of its development and on the strength of accumulared ex- perience in joint work, the VTsSPS [All-Union Central Council of Trade lJnions] - required the trade union councils and committees to actively assist and render practical assistance to the civil defense organs in the conduct of its measures. It was recommended that propaganda be conducted on CD questions among t_he popu-- lation, using for this purpose the rapabilities of press organs, local radio and television, trade union club installations, parks of culture and rest, libraries, auto clubs, portable film projectors, and red corners, and that inspection competitions of cultural and educational establishments be conducted ~ for the best presentation of CD propaganda. It was also recommended that there be active participation in the conduct of civil defense measures in pioneer camps and in the "Zarnitsa" and "Orlenok" yo~xth military-sports games. A powerf~il lever for the improvement of CD and indicator of its national nature - is socialist competition which is directed toward the successful accomplishment of production and defense tasks. Many factory-plant and local trade union committees together with the leaders of enterprises and installations are working out conditions for socialist com- petition in the accomplishment of civil defense tasks and are establishing tlie procedure for summing up results and rewarding the victors. Special socialist obligations are being assumed in a number of places while at other installa- tions of th~ national economy CD points are included in the socialist obliga- - tiona for the accomplishment of prnduction assignments. Thousands of produc- tion collectives and hundreds of thousands of workers in the national economy are participating in the competition. ~ The Khabarovsk railroad rayon stepped forth as the initiator of such a com- petition and turned to all rayons of the kray with the appeal to struggle for - the title of "Best rayon and installation for civil defense." The obligations which were assumed have been accomplished. The kray newspaper TIKHOOKEANSKAYA ZVEZDA [Pacific StarJ reported on the instructive experience in organzzing the competition of this rayon. Socialist competition between enterprises and kolkhozes of Khersonskaya oblast' in 1976 took place under the slogan: "For accomplishing the decisions of the 25th CPSU Co ngress. For an outstanding installation in civil defense." 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Many Eelorussian industrial enterprises compete among themselves annually for ttie best organization of civil defense. The Vi.nnitskayaoh].ast trade union council generalized and propagated favorahle experience ir_ CD competition in the sewing combine imeni Volodarskiy. A mass and effective form for mobilizing people and the development of a competitive spirit in the matter of improving civil defense consists of in- sper_tion competitions of installations of the national economy and cultural and educational establishments as well as of contests for the best CD material.s for the nress, television, and radio. They are conducted under the direction of party and soviet organs, ministries and departments, aud on the initiative of trade union organizations and CD _ staffs on the scale of the~republic, kray, oblast, city, rayon, and branch of the national economy. - The Khmel'nitskiy oblast trade union council together with the oblast CD staff organized an inspection competi~ion for the best propagandizing of civil defense in trade union cultural and educational establishments. In Moldavia, the re- public trade union council, Committee on Cinematography, Ministry of Culture, and CD staff conducted an inspe.ction competition of amateur training films on civil defense. In the Littiuanian SSR, an inspection for the best organization of CD propaganda at installations of the national economy was conducted in two stages: first, the besr installati.ons in the city and the rayon were deter- mined, and then they participated in the concluding republic inspection. Matiy factory and plant and local trade union comm;.ttees as well as cultural and educational establishm~nts within their jurisd.iction render constant and necessary assistance to CD chiefs of installations of the national economy and to their staffs in the preparation and conduct of planned lessons and com- bined i.nstallafiion exercises as we11 as of civil defer~se days, weeks, and ~ monr_hs~ They participate in equipping training centers and full-scale CD sectors, classrooms, and corners, in organizing the passing of CD norms in the sports complex "Ready for labor and defense of the USSR," and in the con- _ cluct of youth "Zarnitsa" and "Orlenok" military sports games and the Al1-Union - trip of Komsomols and the youth to places of revolutionary, combat, and labor glory of the Soviet people. In implementing systematic military-patriotic work and participating in CD measur~s and the propagandizing of its knowledge, the trade unions and their cultural and educational establishments are making a worthy contribution to the cause of str~ngthening the country's defensive capability and bringing up loyal defen~ers of the motherland and the achievements of socialism. An important role in�the successful accomplishment of civil defense missions belongs to the Lenin Komsomol whichs under the directiion of party organiza- ti.ons and jointly witk~ CD organs, trade unions, DOSAAF, and other public organi- _ zations is taking an active part in the military-patriotic indoctrination of the youth and in propagandizing knowledge and practical actions in the defense against weapons of mass destruction. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFTCIAL USL ONLY Many Komsomol organizations of republics, krays and oblasts, cities and rayons, enterpris~s, kolkhnzes, sovkhozes. and educational institutio*~s have amassed . cons~iderable experience in this work. Civil defense questions are ar the cc~nter. of attention of youth organizations and are discussed at sessions of Komsomol ~ommittees and bureaus, at meetings of Komsomol activists, and in the ~rimary c~rganizations. For exampl.e~ the secretariat of the Latvian Kam4omol c�enrral committee provided an analysis of the work by Komsomol ciry and rayon _ committees and primary Komsomol erganizations on mass-d2fense work and propa- gandizing civil defense among the y~uth, and specific tasks for its improvement have been assigned. The committees of Komsomol primary organizations and the Komsamol rayon, city, and oblast committees of many republics are maintaining close ties with civil defense headquarters and are participating in the organization of Iectures, reports, and talks, in the publication of wall newspapers and operational new sheets, and in drawing up graphical agitation on civil defense subject - matter. They maintain a constant check of the youth's instructiou in measures for protection against weapons of mass d~struction and participate directly in the preparatior~ and conduct of combined installarion (rayon) exercises, compe- titions and contests, and CD days, weeks, and months. Every approval is merited, for example, by the initiative of the Kostyukovichi Komsomol raykom in the Mogilevskaya oblast of the Belorussian SSR [ESSR] which worked out a specific plan for the participation of Komsomol organizations in instructing the youth i�.i methods of protection against weapons of mass destruc- tion. Together with the rayon CD staff, it conducted a special seminar for secretaries of Komsomol organizations with the agenda, "The task of Komsomol committees in increasing the ar_ti~~ity of work in civil defense. Tts essence and significance in our time." Training groups have been created at enter- prises. in institutions, and in kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the rayon and com- petitions are conducted on which elements of civil defense are worked out. - The Komsomols have set up CD corners everywhere. Many Komsomols head paramilitary civil defense formations and are leaders of groups for the study of the mandatory minimum of CD knowledge. Tor example, the medical detachment of the "Khimpolimer" scientific research institute is widely known for its patriotic deeds. From year to year, the detachment re- tains first place in the rayon and oblast and, in 1977, it occupied fourth place in the all-Russian competitions. Great credit in its successes belongs to Komsomol S. V. Dement'yeva. A junior scientific associate, Svetlana Dement'yeva is the deputy secretary of the institute's Komsomol committee. She is a shock worker of communist labor and an expert of the Lenin examination and has been awarded the badges, "Expert of inedical defense of the USSR" and "Ready for civil defense." By her personal example of the irreproachable accomplishment of her service duty and public obligations, she mobilizes the members of the medical detachment for selfless, unselfish labor in the name of . the Soviet people's life and health. Interesting experience of mass participation in civil defense measures has been accumulated by the Komsomols of the city of Berdichev (Ukrainian SSR). Here, 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 ~ FO.R OFFICIAL USE ONLY each May competitions in civil defense are conducted between Komsomol organi- zations on the decision of the city Komsomol committee and under direction of party and Soviet organs. The competitions are con3ucted by the ~~relay race" method which consists of 11 stages. The judges considar the speed in passing through the stages and the time and accuracy in aecomplishing the procedures and norms at each of them. Here, the readiness of the youth for defense against weapons of mass destruction is checked and practical skills in using protective equip- ment are consolidated. The relay race includes: the assembly of the gas mask, tuning instruments for radiation and chemical reconnaissance, shooting the air rifle, crossing a light treadway bridge on a motorcycle, and so forth. The competitions begin with a meeting and the participants' passing in a cere- monial review, and they end with the rewarding of the victors and a concert by a~.mateur p~rformers. They are con3ucted on days off in the city park of culture and rest, attract the attention of thousands of resid~nts, and serve as an excellent form of propaganda in civil defense among the population. Recently, quiz contests on civil defense received broad propagation in the _ youth newspapers of Estonia, Lithuania, North Osetia, and a number of other republics and oblasts as well as in factory newspapers of installations of the national economy. Their popularity is growing and the number of participants - is increasing from year to year. The Komsomol organizations ir. the ed~cational institutions of Chuvashia and e Rostovskaya and Zhitomirskaya oblasts hava amassed valuable experience in patron work in the ZhEK's [housing operation offices] and house managements. . StudenLS and pupils in the senior classes give lectures and talks to the popu- lation which is not engaged in production and the servicing sT~here and they conduct practical lessons with them. The "Zarnitsa" and "Orlenok" military-sports games have become a fascinating, truly mass form of work in the military-patriatic indoctrination and training of the student youth in civil defense. They are conducted by the Komsomol com- mittees jointly with the organs of popular education, DOSAAF, and the military commissariats. Their program is saturated with CD elements. The knowledge and skills of school pupils in protection against weapons of mass destruction are also consolidated on various trips, games, and qui.zzes on CD which are organized in pioneer camps. The Komsomol is conducting important work together with the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in trainin$ medical detachments and posts and organizing and propagandizing blood donations free of charge. Thus, the Komsomol organizations are rendering inestimable assistance to CD staffs and services in propagandizing knowledge on defense against weapons of mass destruction and in training the youth for the accomplishment of practical civil defense missions. 20 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In tl~e development of mass-defense work in the country and in ttie training cf tl~e workers for the defense of the socialist fatherland as we11 as in improv- ing civil defense~ an important ~ole belongs to the twice order-bearing Volun- tary Society for Cooperation with the Armed Forces--one of the most mass public c~r~anizations of our motherland. - In implementing the instructions of the party and the government concerning active assistance in the conduct of civil defense measures, the defense society together with CD organs cflnducts important work in training the population for defense against weapons of mass destru~tion. The businesslike collaboration and close contact between DCSAAF and Civil Defense _ USSR are based on the unity and indissolubility of the goals and missions which _ they accomplish in the interests of increasing the defensive might of t~-~e So~iet state. One of the specific directions in the activity of the society's organi- zations consists of military-patriotic indoctrination and the propagandizing of military knowledge. The training of the population for civil defense is a component part of this important work. Combining efforts and working hand in hand, the organs of civil defense and - DOSAAF mutually supplement one another and ensure the combined accomplishment of the missions assigned to them by the party and the government. It should be stressed *_hat active participation in the training of the country's popula- tion for defense against enemy air attack ahead of time is an old and glorious DOSAAF tradition. Its roots extend far into the 1920's when the Voluntary Society of Friends of Chemical Defense and the Chemical Industry [Dobrokhim] was formed. Dobrokhim's activity was continued from January 1927 by Osoaviakhim [Society for Assistance to the Def.ense,Aviation and Chemical Construction of the USSR]. In a speech at the 8th DOSAAF Congress which took place in January 1977, when ~ awarding the society the Order of Lenin, the secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Ya. P. Ryabov, spoke of the great services of the defense society in training reserves for the Red Army, in teaching the population air defens~, - in collecting resources for the country's defense fund, and in clearing mines from Soviet territory which had been liberated from the fascist aggressors. He called all this the unforgettable pages in the history of the voluntary society. The DOSAAF committees and organizations are sacredly preserving and adding to these traditions. Their initiative in the more efficient and effective assis- tance in civil defense measures is growing and expanding with each passing year and considerable experience in joint work has been amassed. It is general- ized in the materials of the 8th DOSAAF Congress and the decrees adopted by the Central Committee of DOSAAF USSR. Practical measures are worked out in them for a further improvement in propagandizing CD among the population and train- ing specialists for the paramilitary formations, and they give recommendations to the society's committees for their accomplishment. The 8th All-Union DOSAAF Congress again stressed the necessity for active as- sistance in the conduct of civil defense measures in the future, for streng- - thening businesslike collaboration with its leading organs, and for active 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ participation in propagandizing knowledge and training personnel of the mass technical professions in the interests of civil defense. Joint nieasures in mass-defense work and propagandizing civil defense are planned under the direction of the party organs by DOSAAF committees and CD staffs in Chetyabinskaya, Tul'skaya and a number of other oblasts cf the RSFSR as well as in the Ukraine. in Belorussia, and in Lithuania. The staffs are taking a mo~r active part in the months for mass-defense work dedicated to Soviet Armed Forces Day which are conducted annually on the iniciative of the Central Committe.~ of DOSAAF tJSSR. In the period of the conduct of such months, per- sonnel of DOSAAF and CD staffs and courses give lectures and reports on defense subjects to include subjects on the defense against weapons of mass destruction, they conduct motion picture festivals and competitions on applied milit~ry types of sports, and they organize tests for the GTO [Ready for Labor and Defense] norm. In turn, many DOSAAF organi~ations give great assistance to CD staffs in the conduct of civil defense months, Wee'~cs, and days. In a number of oblasts of the Ukraine, the first day of the CD training year (1 Decembcr) is spent as Civil Defe~se Day. In Chernigovskaya oblast in 1977, on this day the personnel of CD staffs and DOSAAF committees conducted inspec- tions of formation personnel and the showing of films on civil defense. They gave lectures and reports and the population passed the norms for. the generdl mandator; minimum of knowledge. At a number of installations, inspections of the training material base took place in the course of which civil defense corners were brought up to date or were newly created. Question and answer soirees, thematic soirees, oral publications of journals, and other mass measures proceeded in an organized manner in many libraries, Houses of Culture, and clubs. As a rule, on these days, the results of joint work are summed up by the CD - staffs and DOSAAF committees in the rayons and cities: they grade the results of socialist competition and conduct an inspection of CD forces of the city, ~ rayonY and installation of the national economy. On Civil Defense Day, many DOSAAF organizations conduct sports competitions and competitions of machine operators, communications personnel, and other specialists who have been trained by DOSAAF schools. This increases the population's interest in the mPasures which are conducted and furthers an increase in the number of parti- cipants. The concluc~ing day of the CD month which was conducted in the city of Vil'nyus is instructive in this regard. Inspections and contests of the best civil defense formations and DOSAAF sportsmen and testing for the GTO norm took place in parks. stadiums, and squares ~f the city. In conclusion, the parachutists demonstrated their skill. The cuntest areas were crowded with people. The leaders of r.he party and soviet organs gave a high grade to the measures which were condurted. 'The selection of CD staff and course personnel to be members of the defense _ society's committees has a favorable influence on the fruitfulness and effec- tiveness of joint work. Being members of leadi~~~, DOSAAF organs, they steadily 22 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY r - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , implement the line for the establishment of closer contacts and ties between CD staffs and DOSAAF organizations, and they render them constant assistance in the conduct of mass-defense work. For example, the make-up of the DOSA.'~F primary organization committee of the "Komintern" kolkhoz, Mogilevskiy rayon (BSSR),includes the chief of staff, P. P. Grechikho~ and nther civil defense activists. A training area and life- size sector have been created here by their common efforts. This is where lessons and exercises of the paramilitary formations, competitions in motor- cycle and shooting sport, and competitions of inedical detachments, reconnais- sance elements, and rescue t.eams are conducted. The conduct of civil defense and mass defense work days, weeks, and months is organized jointly. The llOSAAF committee takes a direct part in the combined kolkhoz CD exercises. Specific directions for assistance in civil defense measures are worked out in - the course of the joint work of DOSAAF -ommittees and CD staffs. One such di- - rection is the spreading of knowledge on civil defense and explaining to the workers the methods and equipment for protection against weapons of mass de- _ struction and their duties in implem~nting CD measures. - In recent years, the defense society together with the CD staffs t~as done much for the practical solution of these important problems. Their discussion at sessions of DOSAAF committees has been put into practice. Thus, at an en~arged presidium the Moskovskaya oblast committee heard and discussed reports by the chairmen of the Lyuberetskiy and Elektrostal' committees concerning the status of work in propagandizing civil defense knowledge by organizations of the defense society. The presidium noted that recently the activity of the society's city an d primary organizations had become considerably more active in the matter of propagandizing knowledge and skills in prot action against weapons of mass destruction. There are training classrooms or CD corners in almost all training centers of the Lyuberetskiy rayon and the city of Elektro- _ stal'. Lectures and reports are given for the predraft youth, thematic soirees are conducted, and training films are shown. . Measures for the further improvement of this work are discussed by the DOSAAF Central Committees of Belorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Turkmenia and by the committees of other republics, krays, aiid oblasts. Important work is conducted by the DOSAAF House. In the Moscow DOSAAF House, for example. a large group of public-spirited lecturers is engaged in propa- gandizing civil defense questions. An interesting initiative has been displayed in the city of Uman', Cherkasskaya oblaat (Ukrainian SSR). Here, personnel of the city i,JSAAF committee and the CD staff under the direction of the party gorkom conducted a practical-scien- - tific conference on propagandizing civil defen~~. Questions of the state of CD propaganda in installations, ZhEK's, and educational institutions were studied in detail in the course of preparations for it. The conference was opened by the CD chief, chairman of the gorispolkom A. Koloskov. Reports were 23 - Fult OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200044442-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ g:iven by the chief of si:aff~ N. Yurchenko, and the chairman of the DOSAAF city committee, V. Novose_1_ov. They made a thorough analysis of the practice in J ~ropag~inda wor.k at the viramin plant and cannery and in secondary school No 7 wiiich was awarded a certificate of the DOSAAF Central Committee for good mass- deFense woric and military-patriotic indoctrination. 'I'I~e ~~xp~rience of the Umanites has been spread, and mai~y cities of the republic Follotaed its example. The teaching of the ~rinciples of civil defense ~o the youth at train~nfi centers For primary military training has improved. Teachers and masters of produc- tion instruction of CD courses have begun to be more and more i.nvolved in the conduct of such lessons and their training-material base is being used more actively. DOSAAF committees assist civil defense organs in the preparatian and conduct of combined installation exercises. For example, DOSAAF members of Moskovskaya oblast, especially of the cities of Lyubertsy, Lytkarino, Istra, Zvenigorod, and Podol'sk, are taking an active part in CD exercises. Problems in prepara- tion For the exercises and organizing mass agitation work were discussed at the presidiums of city DOSAAF committees and meetings of primary organizations. In al.l shops of the enterprises which took part in the combined exercises, the activist:~ of civil defense and DOSAAF prepared displays, "Everyone must know and he al~le to do this." organized exhibitions of literat~tre, thematic ~oirees, and q�izzes on CD, published wall newspapers and operational news sheets, and gave lectures and reports. The broadcasCs of local radio centers were widely used Lor these purposes. Important significance is had by DOSAAF's assistance in the training of para- military civil defense formations and specialists for them. In the majority of the formations, 50 percent of the personnel are DOSAAF members, which de- termines rhe importance of DOSAAF organizations' participation in this matter. The favr~rable work in training specialists for civil defense by the DOSAAF or- - ganizar_ions of Tul'skaya, Volgogradskaya, Kuybyshevskaya, and a number of other oblast~ is noted. In Leningrad, DOSAAF courses are training motorcyclists and _ drivers for the CD formations of the "Svetlana" optical-mechanical association. In the "Komintern" kolkhoz of Mngilevskiy rayon (BSSR), 50 drivers, 50 motor- cyclists, 20 radiotelegraphers, and 30 rractor operators were trained in 1976. Twenty-five DOSAAF members received the rights o~ first- and second-class drivers. Al1 these specialists are members of the kolkhoz's paramilitary CD _ formations. These are not the only examples. - Activel.y assisting in CD measures, DOSAAF USSR is attracting the broadest masses - of the Soviet people to them and is ensurir.g the further strengthening and de- velopm~nt of. ries between the men ~f the Armed Forces and the workers of fac- tories, plants, kolkhozes, and sovkhozes. The Order of Lenin Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies--the most humane organization of our country's broad masses of workers--cooperates close- ly with the Civil Defense organs. 24 - FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200044442-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In the decree of the 8th All-Union Congress of SOKK i KP SSSR [Unj.on of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (USSR)], which took place in May 1976, it is written that one of the essential tasks in the activity of SOKK i KP SSSR is raising the quality of training of the population and Civil Defense ~ medical formations of the country to render efficient and effective fi~bt aid to victims in various stricken areas and in natural disasters. The local CD staffs together with public health organs and SOKK i KP cot~ittees work out annual plans of ineasures which ensure the timely and quality training of the population in the section on medical protection. Cotmnittees af the society and public health organs organize the instruction of cadres of nedical instructors for the conduct of lessons in civil defense, create the requisite training-material base, provide it with graphic aids, improvised bandage - materials, and individual protective equipment, and conduc,t purposeful pr~opa- - ganda on blood donations and medical-defense knowledge an?ong the population. The Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies assigned a noble mission to its organizations--to see tt~at each Soviet family has at least one trained perGOn who performs the function of permanent assistant to medical personnel and that all citizens acco::.plish the practical study of the rules for medical- _ hygienic care of the sick and are able to render fi~st aid with sudden illness and traumas. And good results have been attained in this direction. The most numerous and best trained activists of the Soviet Red Cross are the members of inedical detachments and medical posts--genuine patriots of the Country of Soviets. They are giving their free time, strength, knowledge, and experience to the important public matte~' of the military-patriotic in- doctrination of the population and the youth, their training for the defense of the motherland, and the accomplishment of the most humane task--protecting the life and health of Soviet people. Tn the course of lessons, drills, com- petitions, and participation in combined CD exercises, they are mastering the procedures and methods for rendering first aid with traumas, burns, poisoning, and sudden illnesses, and they learn actions in areas of natural disasters and, in case of war, in stricken areas. Together with professional medical personnel, the members of the medical detachments are always ready to come to the aid of victims, the sick, and the weak. At competitions of the best medical detachments of the Russian Federation (1977) which were dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Great October and the SOth anniversary of the medical detachments, and operating under the most ~ difficult conditions of fires, obstructions, and smoke, the members of the medical detachments demonstrated high special training, the ability to func- tion in stricken (contaminated) areas, great physical endurance and psycholo- gical steadfastness, ar~d the ability to accomplish difficult civil defense missions. The first three pl~c~s in the RSFSR, by right of the strongest, were occupied by the medical detachmerits of the hero cities of Moscow, Leningrad, and Novorossiysk. The medical detachments of SOKK i KP SSSR are an integral component part of , the civil defense forces and, together with other formations, participate actively in all its measures. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OTFICIAL USE ONLY Hundreds of thousands of inedical detachment members and members of inedical posts constantly help the medical peraonnel in the conduct of preventive- medical, hygienic, and anti-epidemic work. They mak~ house-to-house rounds, and medical "raids,"disclose those sick with and suspected of having infectious diseases, participate in the medical inspection of installations, conduct talks with the population, and distribute literature on medical education. The medical detachments and posts are taking a most active part in the inspec- - tions und competitions of CD for~~es during the conduct of civil defense days, weeks,and months. A multimillion-mdn army of health service soldiers is con- stantly ready to join the ranks of the motherland's defenders on the call of = the Communist Party and the Soviet government. Under the direction of the party and soviet organs, the Soviet community is conducting important and useful work on strengthening civil defense in our country. This stresses itsnational nature and inseparable tie with the broad masses of. workers. The entire history of MPVO - CD USSR, its goals, methods of operation, and the forces and equipment which are involved, confirm its internal, defensive _ _ purpose. ~ However, the militaristic circles in the West are trying to distort the true nature of our civil defense, its goals, and its missions, and are portraying ~ the matter in such a way as to allege that Soviet civil defense contains some potential danger for the countries of the West and "threatens to destabilize the strategic correlation of forces." _ The goals of the campaign being conducted on the "Soviet military threat" in general and civil defense in particular are clear. Using this regular "scare- crow," the militarists ~ustify new increases in appropriations for military i purposes, intensify the attacks on the relaxation of international tension, and do everything to sow mistrust and hostility toward the Soviet Union. It is completely clear to any sober-minded person that the Civil Defense of the USSR is no "secret weapon" of the Russians. Because of its purpose and the procedures and methods to protect the population and the national economy which are well known to all, it never threatened a~d does not threaten anyone, it does nat carry any danger for the countries of the West and, what is more, _ it does not destroy and cannot destroy the "Soviet-American balance of forces." This is also well known to the most ardent opponents of international detente-- the American "hawks." The Civil Defense of the USSR poses as its primary mission the defense of the Soviet man--the worker and builder of a communist society, and the preservation of the material and cultural valuables which belong to the entire pPople. This also explains the activity and selflessness which our people are displaying in improving civil defense and in the mateer of the practical realization of its humane goals. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Soviet civil defense at the contemporary stage is an ob~ective necessity which is called into being by imperialism's aggressive aspirations. As long as the arms race and preparations for a new world war do not stop, the Soviet people are forced to strengthen civil defense. And no one, no heart-rending cries of imperialism's ideologist~, and no fabrications of the bourgeois propagandists can distract us from the accomplishment of this important state and common task for the entire people. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo DOSAAF SSSR, 1978 6367 CSO: 8144/0270 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MORAL-POLITICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING OF MISSILEMEN DISCUSSED Moscow FAKTOR BOYEGOTOVNOSTI RAKETCHIKOV. O MORAL'NO-POLITICHESKOY I PSIKHOLOGICHESKOY PODGOTOVKE VOINOV RAKETNYKH VOYSK in Russian 1979 pp 1-5, 61-63, 146-148, 197, 198, 228-229, 254-256 [Book by K. A. Alekseyevskiy and P. I. Yedemskiy) [Excerpts] Title Page: Title: FAKTOR BOYEGOTOVNOSTI RAKETCHIKOV. O MORAL'NO-POLITICIiESKOY I PSIKHOLOGICHESKOY PODGOTVKE VOINOV RAKETNYKH VOYSK (A Fac- tor of Missilema.n Combat Readiness. Concerning the Moral- Political and Psychological Training of Troops of the - Strategic Missile Forces) Authors: K. A. Alekseyevskiy, P. I. Yedemskiy - Publisher: Voyenizdat Place and year of publication: Moscow, 1979 Signed to Press Date: 12 March 1979 - Number of Copies Published: 2A,000 Number of Pages: 256 Annotation: This book examines pressing problems in the moral-political and psychological training of troops of the Strategic Missile Forces. The authors reveal the unique features in the development of the missileman's personality, the role of ideological and political indoctrination in this process, the forms and methods of ideological work concerned with moral-political and psychological training of ~he personnel, and the ways and means of raising the effectiv~ness of work at shaping, in the soldiers, the necessary moral-combat quali- ties in the course of combat training and service. 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The book is intended for unit and subunit commanders, political workers, and active party and Komsomol members, as well as for the students and cadets of military institutions. Table of Contents P3ge Introduction 3 Chapter I. Content, tasks and unique features of moral-political and psychological training of missilemen 5 1. The role of the moral factor in modern warfare 6 2. Requirements on the spiritual strengths of missilemen, and some unique features of their moral-political and psychologi- cal training 13 3. Formation of the missileman's personality 20 4. The role of the military collective in moral-political and psychological training of the personnel 40 Chapter II. Ideological and political indoctrination--the foundatian of the moral-political and psychological training of the personnel 62 1. The role of ideological indoctrination in development of hiqh military qualities in missilemen 63 . 2. Basic directions of ideological indoctrination, and their influence on development of moral-political and psychologi- cal qualities in the soldiers 69 3. Forms and methods of ideological indoctrination used in the moral-political and psychological training of missilemen 102 Chapter III. Formation of the moral-political and psychological qualities displayed by s~ldiers in military labor 147 _ 1. The combat proficiency of the soldiers--a prerequisite of their moral and psychological steadfastness 148 2. Moral-political and psychological training of miss~.lemen serving combat duty 165 3. Ways and means of raising the effectiveness of personnel _ moral-political and psychological training 178 4. The role of socialist competition in formation of the missileman's personality qualities 191 Chapter IV. Moral indoctrination as a factor of moxal-political and psychological training 198 1. The Cbmmunist Party on formation of an active life position in Soviet people 198 2. Moral consciousness--the foundation of a soldier's high moral qualities 201 3. Ways for raising the effectiveness of missileman moral indoctrination 211 Chapter V. An integrated approach to indoctrination--a prerequisite of successful moral-political and psychological training 229 1 . 1. The essence and significance of the integrated approach to � indoctrination 229 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. Problems in i.mproving control over indoctrination 233 3. Psychological preconditions for attaining unity in ideological, political, labor, and moral indoctrination 242 Introduction The 25th CP5U Congress demonstrated on the basis of a deep Marxist-Leninist analysis of the present international situation that the foreign policy of imperialist states continues to provide more and more new evidence of the constancy of imperialism's reactionary, aggressive nature. Contrary to the wishes of the peoples of the world, the forces of imperialist reaction are _ continuing the arms race, they are hammering together blocs, and they are _ threatening mankind with another world war. Under these conditions the Communist Party and the S oviet government are displaying untiring concern for strength.-aning the economic and military might of the Soviet Union and raising the combat readiness of the Soviet Armed Forces. "...our party," states the Accountability Report of the CPSU Central Committee to the 25th CPSU Congress, "will do everything to see that the glorious Armed Forces of the Soviet Union will continue to possess everythinq necessary to complete their important mission--that of standing guard over the peaceful labor of the Soviet people and serving as the bulwark of universal peace."* Tlze responsibility state agencies, public organiza- tions, officials, and citizens have for insuring the security of the country and strengthening its defense capabilities is documented in the new USSR Constitution, which declares protection of the socialist fatherland to be one of the most important functions of the state, and a matter of all the - people. Among the numerous tasks concerned with preparing the country for defense in modern conditions, the problems of strengthening the moral potential of the Soviet Union and increasing the spiritual power of the people and soldiers of the armed forces occupy an important place. The CPSU Central Committee and the Soviet Sovernment are guided in this area by Lenin's premise con- cerning the role of the moral factor in war, by V. I. Lenin's statement - that the revolutionary decisiveness of the masses, their consciousness, their firmness, and their readiness for self-sacrifice are "a decisive, winning factor . * A modern war, were it to be unleashed by imperialists, will impose require- ments of unprecedented stiffness upon the spiritual strengths of the soldiers. * Materialy XXV s"yezda KPSS." (Proceedings c~ the 25th CPSU Congress), ~Ioscow, 1976, p 83. ' **Lenin, V. I., "Poln. sobr. soch.," (Complete Collected Works), Vol 40, p 249. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - To emerge victoric;:_ over the enemy, we will have to be politically mature, ideologically persuaded, well trained, steadfast and fearless, and capable of enduring all trials. Great is the significance of these qualities in peacetime as well. Troops serving combat duty and maintaining modern weap- ons and combat equipment in constant combat readiness must exert considerable moral and physical effort, and they must be capable of enduriny high moral- psychological loads. All of this immeasurably increases the role and significance of moral-poli- tical and psychological training of the personnel. We must achieve a posi- tion, it was emphasiaed in this connection at a scientific-practical confer- ence of executive political workers of the army and navy held in 1976, in which every commander and political worker responsible for organizing per- sonnel training and indoctrination would understand the sort of new moral, physical, and psychological trials our soldier is likely to encounter, and the reserve of strength--comk~at, ideological, and moral--today's defenders of the motherland must be furnished with. This book examines problems in moral-political and psychological training of missilemen. Without claiming to exhai:~cively illuminate this proc:ess, the authors made it their objective to re�~eal some of its unique features on the basis of experience accumulated in the training and indoctrination of per- sonnel in missile subunits. _ Chapter I. The Content, Tasks and Unique Features of Moral-Palitical and - Psychological Training of Missilemen The content and orientation of troop t-raining and indoctrination are de- fined by the nature and unique features of war, and by the laws and means of conduct of an armed conflict. Arisal of qualitatively new weapons and combat equipment as a result of the scientific-technical revolution has caused, as we know, major changes in all areas of military affairs. The new resources of armed conflict have elicited a need for i.mproving the struc- ture of the troops and the forms and means;of their acmbat activities, and they have gone a long way to change the nature of mi.litary service itself. As - a result the responsibilities carried by servicemen of all ranks have be- come much more complex, the content of their combat proficiency and its role have broadened, and the significance of the discipline of soldier and of his attitude toward his military duty has risen. - All of this imposes greater requirements on the moral-political and psycho- logical training of tiie troops. Missilemen must possess especially high moral-political, combat, and psychological qualities, inasmuch as each ~if them is a direct party, even it peacetimG to a task of special state impor- tance--that of serving combat duty with the purpose of insuring the sec- urity of our motherland. In order to successfully complete this task, the missilem an must possess high professional skill permitting him to put the weapon entrusted to him into action, political maturity, high ideological conviction, and a deep understanding of the interests of the Soviet state and of the entire socialist fr.~ternity. 31 FOR OFFICYAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 I~;'t~ ~,I:!.I 'f;1i, l~;;l C1NL1 It follows from this that moral-political and psychological training is not some sori, of unique, independent form of troop training. Its purposes are attained by the entire organization of the life an~3 activities of the per- ~ sonnel, by their training and indoctrination. In ~~ddition to commanders, political workers, engineers, and technicians, the army public, and mainly the party and Komsonbl organizations, take an active part in forming the moral- political, combat, and psych~logical qualities needed by the missilemen. Compete~itly organized interaction of the factors of ideological-political, labor, and moral indoctrination of soldiers in the concrete conditions of their life and service plays a decisive role in this process, as is pointed out by the 25th CPSU Congress. - Chapter II. Ideological and Political Indoctrination--The Foundation of the Moral-Political and Psychological Training of the Personnel - As was noted earlier, we need to distinguish two aspects within the struc- ture of the army's spiritual strengths: moral-political, the main components of which are philosophy, ideological conviction, and class self-conscious- ness, and psychological, which includes social feelings and emotional states. - These two aspects are closely associated with one another. Moreover the domi- nant role in this dialectic unity belongs to ideological conviction, to the political consciousness of the soldier. "In the end, the decisive precondi- tion of our movement forward in all directions," emphasized L. I. Brezhnev, "is precisely growth in ideological conviction, in the political conscious- ness of the laborers."* We know that all of our Soviet reality and the just and noble goals of de- _ fending the socialist fatherland and fraternal socialist countries promote development of ideological conviction and political consciousness in - Soviet soldiers. But this is only one aspect of the process of forming a soldier's spiritual world. Its other aspect is represented by the resources of ideological influence, by purposeful political indoctrination. Defining the purpose of ideological indoctrination, the CPSU Central Committee emphasizes that it is ~o bring the program goals of the party, its tasks, and ~ its calls for help to the awwreness of the laborers, to see that the laborers _ actively support these goals and promote their attainment, to insure greater strength in the tie between the personality andthe society, and to insure development of the individual's responsibility for the state of affairs in the _ area assigned to him in the struggle for communism. Thus ideological indoc- trination is an important factor in the task of communist development, a de- precondition of our society's successful progresa in all directions. "The strength of our structure," point out the documents of the 25th CPSU Congress, "lies in the consciousness of the masses. And the party believes that it must constantly concern itself with instilling communist conscious- ness and the readiness, will, and ability to build communism."** *Brezhnev, L. I. "Leninskim kursom. Rechi i stat'i (Following Lenin's ~ourse. Speeches and articles), Moscow, Vol 5, 1976, p 315. **"Materialy XXV s"yezda KPSS," p 71. 32 - FOR OFFICIA~ USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 ror. crr~~ r~:r~r, us~; ~tv~,Y Thus moral-political and psychological training makes up an inseparable part of the political and combat training system, and ~~f military indoctrination of the personnel. Dominant within this system are measures aimed at increas- ing the ideological maturity of the soldiers, a complex of ideological meas- ures called upon to develop, in the missilemen, political consciousness, bravery, steadfastness, and other moral-political and psychological quali- ties necessary for performance of military duty, and called upon to teach them to control their behavior in combat and be constantly ready for it. Chapter III. Formation of the Moral-Political and Psychological Qualities Displayed by Soldiers in Military Labor The classicists of Marxism-Leninism demonstrated that labor is the foundation of human society's existence, and the main source of formation of the ' society's material and spiritual valuablas. The blessings necessary for the life of the individual are created through labor. Furthermore the individual himself develops and i.mproves through labor. It is precisely in the process of social labor that he gains the experience of former generations, enriches himself spiritually, assimilates moral norms, improves his mental qualities, ' acquires professional habits, and so on. It is in labor, wrote Karl Marx, that man, "acting...upon external nature and modifying it..., at the same time modifies his own nature."* Of course not every form of l.abor improves the spiritual and physical quali- ties of the individual equally. A decisive condition governing the mani-- festation of labor's educational role is its nature, its social content, the relations~ip between the social goal of the labor and ~he personal motives of the individual's work. From this standpoint socialism, which insures the unity of the social goal of production and the personal interests of the individual, offers the greatest possibilities. Free, conscious labor for - the good of society in socialism has an immeasurably stronger educational influence upon formation of the thoroughly developed personality of the Soviet citizen. There are great educational possibilities within the military labor of Soviet soldiers as well, which is a unique form of the socially useful activities of the Soviet people concerned with armed defense of the socialist fatherland and of the achievements of w~rld socialism. Military labor is a necessary and vitally important prerequisite of successful development of communist society in the face of the threat of agression by imperialist states. It is precisely by this high social meaningfulness that the educational possi- bilities of military labor are defined. Military labor is performed by means of specifa.c resources--weapons and com- bat equipment. It has a unique organizational structure associated with the need for high exertion of physical and moral strengths, and it proceeds in - an atmosphere created by high responsibility and by the glorious combat tra- ditions which have evolved in battles for the liberty and independence of *MarR , K., and Engel's F., "goch." (Works Vol 23, p 188. 33 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY our motherland. This structure helps to form, in soldiers during their military labor, high moral-combat qualities, the ability to control one's behavior in complex situations, and moral-psychological preparedness for combat. The educational and forming possibilities of military labor are broadeninq continuously under the influence of the scientific-technical revolution, which has elicited significant changes in the content and nature of military service. The creative nature of many military occupations is growing, the technical culture of the principal military specialties is rising, and the intellectual content of labor is broadening. This is especially typical of the service of missilemen. Their labor is ~ypified by an extremely broad range of educa- ti.onal possibilities and factors. Its content, structure, and organization, which require soldiers to exert high amounts of intellectual, emotional, and physical effort, create favorable conditions for formation of qualities in the personality necessary for successful completion of missions in all situa- tions. Thus military labor includes within itself a broad range of educational possi- bilities and factors that have an influence on formation of all ~pects of the Soviet soldier's personality. Competent utilization of these possibilities in military pedagogics by commanders, political workers, and all officers, and in the work of party and Komsomol organizations is a neces- sary prerequisite of increasing the effectiveness of moral-political and psychological training of personnel in missile units and subunits. ~ Chapter IV. Moral Indoctrination As A Factor of Moral-Political and Psy- chological Training Thus moral indoctrination of the personnel includes within itse.lf an entire complex of educational factors and conditions utilized by commanders, poli- tical workers, and party and Komsomol organizations with the goals of instill- ing the norms of communist morality in enlisted men, sergeants, warrant officers, and officers with the consideration for the unique way these norms manifest themselves in military service. This work promotes formation, in the soldiers, of high moral qualities, their development and consolidation, and development of an active life position in each serviceman, thus raising the effectiveness of moral-political and psychological training of personnel in missile subunits. - Chapter V. An Integrated Approach to Indoctrination--A P rerequisite Of Successful Moral-Political and Psychological Training An analysis of the experience accumulated in the troops would show that success- ful implementation of the party's directives assumption of an - integrated a~proach to indoctrination, further improvement of control over - indoctrination, and a knowledge and competent use,~in indoctrination, of~the psychological laws governing the spiritual life of the people afford the possi- ' bility to significantly raise the effec~iveness of the entire system of personnel training and indoctrination, and for more effectively solving the problems of forming, in the soldiers, high moral-political and psychological qualities necessary for successful actions in the complex conditions of modern battle. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus the moral-political and psychological training of missilemen, which is one of the most important factors of high troop combat readin~ss and successful completion of assigned missions, is a complex and multifaceted process in which all factors of the work and life of the personnel of missile subunits, the li`e of the armed forcea, and the life of Soviet society as a whole interact. In this case the main resource for raising the spiritual strength of the soldiers is that of insuring close unity of their ideologi- cal-politica?, labor, moral, military, and legal indoctrination, and of farming their communist philosophy, firm ideological conviction, high moral qualities, bravery, steadfastness and stubborness, alertness, and a constant readiness to perform a mission in all situations. COPYRZGHT: Voyenizdat, 1979 11004 CSO: 1801 END 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040042-9