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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 20U7/U2/08: CIA-R~P82-0085URU0020U04U056-4 ~ POLIT ~ _ RF ~ ~8 JANURRY 1980 tF0U0 3r8~) ~ OF 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE UNLti' a ~ JPRS L/8~87 - - 28 January 1980 US~R Re ort p POLITICAL A~JD SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 3/80) FB~$ FOREI~N BROAD~AST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language ~ sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. e Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing inciicators such as [Text) or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the _ last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor~ mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original. but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with th2 source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- - cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For further information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULA,TIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF ~ MATERIALS REPRUDUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ODTLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI~Y JPRS L/8887 28 January 1980 USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SOCTO LOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUO 3/80) CONTENTS PAGE REGIONAL Devselopment of Agriculture on tt?e Nechernozem Territory (UZBEKISTAN-NECHERNOZEM'YU, 1979) 1 Overview of Difficulties in Russian Language Teaching (F. P. Filin; VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR, No 5, 1979).. 46 Avicenna Philosophy Analyzed in Relation to Sufism (K. Olimov; IZVESTIYA AKABEMII NAUK TADZHIKSKOY SSR OTDELENIYE OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK, No 2, 1979).......... 57 -a- IIII -U5SR-35~'OUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE NECHERNOZEM TERRITORY Moscow UZBEKISTAN NECHERNOZENI~YU (Uzbekistan to the Nechernozem) in Russian 1979 signed to press 21 Dec 78 pp 1-63 ~Book: UZBEKISTAN NECHERNOZEM~YU by S. M. Mamarasulov, deputy chairman of the Uzbek SSR Council of Ministers, et al and edited by V. T. Piskunov, chief editor, Izdatel~stvo Politicheskaya Literaf~ura, 50,000 copies, 63 pages7 ~ext,~ Chief Editor V. T. Piskunov; Editor Ye. Ya. Tyagay; Junior Editor - V. V. Meshcheryakov; Artist N. P. Peshkov; Artistic Editor S. I. Sergeyev; Technical Editor N. P. Mezheritakaya. The Nechernozem territory is really reviving. This is a broad and important area in our country. Workers from other fraternal republics - came to assist their Russian friends and brothers so that together they could put into practice the tremendous program designed by the Co~nunist Party for reorganizing the Nechernozem area of the RSFSR. - The workers of sunny Uzbekistan, whose patriotic initiati~re was approved by the CPSU Central CoIImnittee, were ane of the first to include themselves in the common drive to transform the Nechernozem area. Four years of intense work haJe passed since that time in the Nechernozem area. How is the assistance being definitely exhibited? How is the work ~ of Uzbek builders and reclamation specialists organized? What has already been done and what problems have arisen? This brochure discusses this. TABLE OF CONTENTS The Decree of the CPSU Central Committee, 14 May 76; ~~On the Obligations of the Collectives of Water Conservancy and Construc- tion Organizations of the IIzbek SSR in Rendering Aasistance to the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya Oblasts in Carrying Out the - Decrees of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Miniaters on the F'urther Development of Agriculture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR~~ 3 1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY S. M. Mamarasulov, deputy chairman of the Uzbek SSR Council of Ministers According to~the Laws of Fraternity 4 Always Together 5 Distant and Near Nechernozem 10 On the Land of ths ~~Red Province~~ 15 - Beside the Wall of Aging Novgorod 22 Our Common Gause 29 V. G. Klyuyev, first secretary of the Ivanovskaya Qblast Committee of the CPSU By United Efforts 36 N. A. Antonov, first secretary of the Novgorodskaya Oblast Cot~ittee of the CPSU Through the Paths oF Friendship ~ ~ 2 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The Decree of the CPSU Central Committee, 14 May 76: ~~On the Obligationa " of' the Collectivas of Water Conservancy and Construction Organisations of the Uzbek SSR in Rendering Assistance to the Iv~novskavfl und Novgorodskaya Oblasts in Carrying Out the Decrees of the CPSU Central C~mmittee and USSR Council of Ministers on the Further Development of Agriculture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR~~ ~ Party, soviet, water conseivancy and construction organizationa of the Uzbek SSR developed measures for rendering assistance to the Inanovskaye and Novgorodskaya oblasts in carrying out the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers ~~On Measures for the Further Development of Agriculture in the Nechern~zem Area of the RSFSR~~ and � actively became involved in putting them into practice. In these oblasts in 1975 the reclamation specialists and builders of Uzbekistan began to work on improving the lsrids and on building housing and industrial pro- � jects. In a short period of time, they completed a significant number of designs and surveys an~ established two construction trusts which were staffed w~th engineers and technical workers as well as with labor per- sonnel, and the necessary machines and equipment. In answer to the decisions of the 25th CPSII Congress, the republic~s labor collectives assumed increased socialist obligations for further assisting the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya oblasts in creatiing a modern msterials and machinery base of reclamation construction, in reinforcing water con- servanef organizations with personnel, and in introducing advanced methods of conduct3ng reclamation work. ' Transferring the great experience gained in the Uzbek SSR in reclamation construction and comprehensive reclamation of lands will be a significant contribution towards the s~zeceseful implementation of the common program for improving agriculture in Nechernozem. - The CPSU Central Con~mittee decrees: 1, To approve the work conducted by party, soviet, water conservancy, and canstruction organizations of the Uzbek SSR in rendering pr~etical assist- ance to the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya oblasts in carrying ot;t measures for the further development of agriculture. 2, To recommend to the Centra~ Co~ittee of the Communist Party of union republics, kray committees and oblast committees of the party to use the experience of the Uzbek SSR while partic~pating in the realization of inea- ~ures for improving agriculture in the Nechernozem area of the RSFSR. ~ Union and republic ministries and branches should in every way poss:ible assist the workers~ collectives of union and autonomous republics, and krays and oblasts in successfully carx~ring out the socialist obligations _ assumed by them in rendering assistance to the rural workers of the Nechernozem in accelerating the rate of agricultural production develop- ment. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I; , . . . _ _ . - i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � S. M. Mamarasulov ~ ' Deputyr Chairman of the Uzbek SSR Council of Ministers According to the Laws of Fraternity A complex and thoroughly scientific approach towards carrying out the task of a comprehensive expansion of the production capabilities of agriculture characterizes the agrsrian policy of the party ~t the present stage--a stage of developed socia~ism. One of the brilliant examples of such an approach is the complex and lorig-i;erm program for the camprehensive development of agriculture in the Necharnozem area of the RSFSR which w~s developed on the 3nitiative of General Secretary of the CPSII Central Com- mittee, Chairman of the Presiditmi of the IISSR Suprc~me Soviet L. I. Brezh- nev. The complex cYiaracter of the indicated program is expressed by the fact, that its realization will allow the insurance of a steady expansion of agriculture, reorganization of the character of the work, and funda- mentally alter the appearance of the countryside and the farmera~ way of life. L. I. Brezhnev ix~dicates that the intensification of agriculture in the Nechernozem area will significantly increase its production powers and essentia?ly, will allow the new virgin soil in the European part of the USSR to be opened up. . The intgnded plan for expanding agriculture in the Nechernozem area is really a tremendous one in its scale and tasks. It is enough to remember that the territory of the Nechernozem area stretches f~om the Balties to the Urals and from the Aretic Ocean to the Chernozem steppes and comprises over 2.$ million square kilometers. It includes 29 oblasts and autonomous republics in which approximately 60 million people live. The Nechernozem area is not only a region of high induatrial development; but also a significant agricultural region where there are about 10,000 kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Today about a fif`th of the grain which is - gathered in tha RSFaR is produced in it, as well as�over 50 percent of the ' potatoes, 43 percant of the vegetables, almoat all of the flax fiber, 30 ~ percont of the meat, 39 percent of the milk and eggs, and many other agri- ~ cultural products. � ~ But the potential of the agricultural industry here is much greate~. L. I. Brezhnev called the Nechernozem, an area of tremendous potentials.~ ~ Thus, the volume of farming and animal husb~ndry ou~put production in t~,lis ~ area by 1990 must increase by a factor of 2-2.5 in comparison with the ' present level. ^f course,.to attain such an increase in production can be I done only by a comprehensive intensification of agricultural production-- � an increase on a tremendous scale of land reclam,~tion, the inti�oduction of chemical procesaes, the comple~c mechanization of production, and trans- - ferring it to industrial methods. If one bears i.n mtnd that simultano- ously with increasing the production of the agricultural industry output, 4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY it is necessary to increase the capacity for its industrial reprocessing, as well as on a tremendous scale accomplish housing-communal and road con- struction, then it will become clear how great the tasks are which are to be carried o~~t in the Nechernozem area. Always Together The decree ~~On Measures for the Further Development of Agriculture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR~~ was approved in March 1974 by the Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers and found a broad and lively response from the entire country. The task really asswned a nation-wide character. The Leninist komsomol announced the Nechernozem area as an Al1-IInion vital komsomol construction project. Many oblasts, krays and dutonomous republics of other areas of the Russian Federation, as well as union republics and large industrial centers began to manage oblast and autonomous republics of the Nechernozem area. One of the first to show such an initiatine were the workers of our sunny Uzbekistan. At meetings of the collectives of water conservancy organiza- tions of the republic, obligations wez�e asswned for rendering practical and efficient assistance to the workers of the Novgorodskaya and Ivanovskaya oblasta. This patriotic undertaking of the reclamation specialists, irri- gators, and builders was supported by the CPSU Central Committee and by the government of the republic. Alreac~y in November of 1974r the first nolun- teers of Uzbekistan entered the Nechernozem. On the eve of the two-year anniversary of the day on which the historical decree of the CPSII Central Committee and IISSR Council of Ministers was approved: ~~On Measures for the Further Development of Agriculture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR,~~ an article was published in IZVESTIYA titled ~~The Fields Will Become More Fruitful.~~ In it questions were raised the f5a.rther development of agriculture in the Nechernozem _ area of the RSFSR, the work of water conservancy organizations of Uzbeki- - stan on rendering managerial asaistance to the Novgorodskaya and Ivanov- skaya oblasts in carrying out the broad program for land reclamation was discussed. The collectives of the Uzbek SSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water - Resources and the Glavsredazirsovkhozstroy came out with a new initiative. They assluned greater socialist obligations for rendering assistance to the Ivanovskaya and IVovgorodskaya oblasts as well as to the Volgogradskays Ob'last in the reclamation, irrigation and complex opening up of the landa. The obligations stipulate the significant increase in the aasistance given the farmers of theae oblasts in creating a powerful base for reclamation construction, its further strengthening, the transfer of the experience gained in the republic in industrial forms of irrigation, and in con- structing agricultural complexes and pro~ects for social amenities. It is intended to construct four new sovkhozes, put into operation 16,000 hectares of irrigated lands, dry 65,000 hectares, carry out cultuPal and 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ professional work on an area of 55,000 hectares, and buil~ 180,000 square meters of housing and many other pro j ects for producti~r. and sor;ial amonities. The Central Committee of the Uzbek Communist Party studied and approved _ the new elevated obligations for reclamation specialists of the republic t'or rendering managerial assistance in carrying out the broad program of the lands of the Nechernozem area of the Russian Federation. The workers of Uzbekistan, just as all of the Soviet people, as it was stated in the approved decree, greeted the historic decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress with a feeling of tremendous satisfaction. From day to day in the republic the production and political activity of labor collectives is growing. The advanced irinovations which arrived during the Ninth Five-- Year Plan are developing and taking on a new sweep. Socialist competition for the successful implementation of the tasks established by the congress on increasi;~g industrial production and putting the agrarian policy of the - party into p:.,etice is growing broader. ~ The decree of the Uzbek Communist Party Central Co~ittee defined new frontiers for building and installation work for 1976-1980 in the amount of 210 million rubles or by 40 million more than was stipulated earlier, including that for the Novgorodskaya and Ivanovskaye oblasts--100 million - rubles and in the Volgoradskaya--10 million rublea. The Central ComYai.ttee of the Uzbek Communist Party obliged the oblast, city and rayon party committees, the primary party organizations, the Uzbek Cauncil of Trade Unions, the Central Committee of the republic~s komsomol, - the Ministry of ~ural Construction, the industries of construction ' materials, installation and special coristruction work of the Uzbek SSR, tt~e Uzkolkhozstroy, the Uzsel~khoztekhnika, the Administration of the - Central Asian Railway and other ministries and branches of the republic to render assistance to the Uzbek SSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources and the Glavsredazirsovkhozstroy, and to define definite measures q for i.ts active participation in carxying out the asstmmed obligations. The good evalUation which the CPSU Central Committee gave the patriotic initiative of the collectives of water conservancy and construction organi- zations of Uzbekistan was met by the republic workers with tremendous ' happiness and pride. Reading and re-reading the decree of the CPSU Central Conimittee, the workers ot' Uzbek cities and rural areas ~poke of the great fraternal friendship which ties the nations of our country. Thousands of people expressed the desire to go to work in the assisted ~reas of nozem~ya. The inspired word of the party also gave new strength to those sent to Uzbekistan who had arrived on the lands of the Ivanovskaya and - Novgorodskaya oblasts in 197/~. In all of this, the strength of the international fraternity is shown clearly. Tha active participation of the workers of Uzbekistan in developing agriculture of Nechernozarn~ya, as it was particularly under- ~ scored in the decree of the Uzbek Communist Party Central Committee,--this 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY is another bright evidence of the glory of Lenin~s national policy, the unbreakable and ever-stronger friendahip and brotherhood of the soviet people, the boundless loyalty of the working class, kolkhoz pea9antry, and intelligentsia of the republic made firm by the principles of creative soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism. This is the contribu- tion of great respect of the Uzbekistan workers to the ~reat Russian p eop le . For the Uzbek people remember something else. They remember lines which ~ saw vans in which after the Great October, the soldiers of the young Red Army--workers sent from Moscow, Petrograd, Inanovo Voznesensk., and other industrial centers of Lenin~s homeland--Russia were hurrying to help their Turkish brothers. ~ Later. they again hurried to the south, to Turkestan, Tashkent, and echelons sent from the very heart of the young Soviet republic. At the railroad p~atforms and on the cars stood the first tractors made by the capable hands of the workers of Piter, motor vehicles with the trademark from the Moscow Automobile Company AMO, and packages of the famous Ivanovakiy cotton... Revolutionary Russia, which was itself hungry, undressed, and lifeless after many years of war, stretched out its brother].y hand to help the people of the Turkestan area who had entered the path towsrds a new life. Those of the working class who were sent from Moscow, Petrograd, Tver, and Ivanovo-Voznesensk lay the f?rst bricl~s for the foundations of future factories and plants on the Uzbek land. The teachers of the first Uzbek weavers were professional textile workers of the Ivanovskiy ~~cotton region~~ Those sent from Russia also cut the first furrows on the land of Uzbeki- stan kolkhozes... Yes, the Soviet people ~re always together--in years of peaceful construc- tion and in years of severe trials of war. When the sacred Soviet land was attacked by Fascist hordes,all of the Soviet people, as a single person, rose to protect their much-loved Motherland, in order to destroy the hateful enemy and defend the victories of the Great October. Together with the soldiers of ftussia and other fraternal republic~, soldiers from Uzbekistan also fought. For them the entire Soviet land is _ their homeland. On many obelisks which were erected on the land speckled with blooc] as a brilliant tribute to the great gratitude of those who are~ living to their protectors who fell and to thase who freed them, the names of thousands of Uzbek soldiers were carved. These were the soldiers who bravely fought outside of Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Novgorod... Upon the ancier.~t Novgorod land outsid~ of Staraya Russa, the now First Secretary of the Uzbek Communist Party Central Committee Sharaf Rashidovich Raahidov who is now a candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU Centrsl Committee and who was then a political worker of one of the units, fought and was wounded. 7 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY When In April of i966 the raging underground movement imposed heavy los9ea on the capital of stmny Uzbekistan and put to ruin its many areas, Tash- kent was assisted from r~ll directions by helpful hands and, primarily, by its older brother among equal fraternal people--the Russian people. Years passed and the new Tashkent rose, grew, and began to glitter with bril- liant colors. It is a beautiful and modern city in which new sectors appeared-~ioscow, Leningrad, Ivanovskaya, Ukrainian and Belorussian... This is how the Tashkent people called them who were warmly grateful for the rebirth of their beloved city. The handsome metro which was put into operation in the Uzbek c~pital for the 60th anniversary of the Great October is the pride of the Tashkent people and of all the republic workers. Literally the entire nation built it and, first of all, the people sent from the capital of the great Soviet state--the heroic city of Moscow. It is not surprising that the laborers of Uzbekistan always keep in their hearts a feeling of boundless love and gratitude to their elder brother-- the great Russ~an people and to the peoples of other fraternal Soviet republics for the fortune of a free life which came to the once backward and deprived Turl~nen region. As a result of the tremendous assistance from the peoples of eur great Soviet nation, the appearance of the republic is unrecognizable. In 1913 on the territory of modern Uzbekistan, 3.3 miliion kilowatt hours of electricity were generated. At the present time such an amount of elec- trical energy, the republics generate in less than or~e hour! In 1977 the total electrical capability generated by IIzbekistan was almost 35.5 billion kilowatt hours of electricity. Before the revolution in Uzbekistan, it had neither its own working class nor a technical intelligentsia. Today at the enterprises of over 100 branches of industry, hundreds of thousands of trained warkers, and engi-� neering and technical workers operate. Now Uzbekistan produces airplanes and cotton-picking machines, sowing machines for exact seeding and road cranes, electric motors and mineral fer�,ilizers, tractors and excavators, var:ious forms of electrical cables and textile machines, and silk and cotton fabric. In the anniversary year in ~ust single work days, the Uzbek republic produced more than 37 million rubles of industrial products and in each work day, 68 tractors, 2L,. cotton-pioking machines, 17 com- pressors, 15 elevators, 5 spinning machines, and exGavators came off of each working conveyor of the repubiic... Tru1y revolutionary changes occurred in the agricultural industry of the republic. In place of the small, impoverished peasant farms, there arose large and highly mechanized :tolkhozes and sovkhozes. An item of particular pride for the workers of Uzbekistan is the production of such a valuable technical crop as cotton a.s. At ~Lhe present time, our " republic supplies two-thirds of the All-Union production of cotton. In 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1977 the gross harvest of raw cotton reached a recard amount--5,676,000 _ tons. _ ' The goals for cotton growing inte:~ded for the comino years are enen greater. The cotton farmers of Uzbekistan have decided during the last y~ear of the Ninth Five-Year Plan to exceed the six million goal! This exists at the same time that the production of all other branches of agriculture is being expanded. The achievements of the rural workers of Uzbekistan i~ developing various branches of agric�altural production, and first of all in cotton growing, is a direct consequence of the large-scale work i.n the republic on the - reclamation improvement of lands and the irrigation and hydro-technical construction. The ComTnunist Party and Soviet state constantly and thoroughly are cor~- cerned with problems of reclamation of lands and the development of irri~a- tion farming. At the May (1966) Plentimm of the CPSU Central Committee, upon the initiative of Leonid Il~ich Brezhnev, a long-term program �or . reclamation and land irrigation and the deve~opment of irrigation farming _ was approved in order that in the most varied climatic zones of the nation, ~ constant guaranteed har~~*ESts of farming output could be gathered and in o�rder that animal husban~ry be effectively developed to be highly produc- tive. ~~This is a tremenc3ous task,~~ said L. I. Brezhnev in a speech at the Plenum. "We must realize and definitely say to the entire party, all tile pe~ple, that this is not an ongoing campaign, but a program in the a~ea of agri- culture intended for a long period of It is a program requiring tre- mendous efforts and large capital investments and material and technical resources. Carrying out the indicated party program, the Soviet people have achieved great successes in expanding the irrigated land. Thus, its increase during the ten years which have passed after the May Plenum of the Central Committee, comprised almost 11 million hectares, which is quite a bit more than for all of the precedin~ seven fiti�e-year plans. Uzbekistan is a republic with a highly developed irrigation system of agriculture. It is enough to say that the area of irrigated lands here is over 30 percent of all the ~rrigated lands of the nation. The gigantic meliorative and irrigation construction which is being con- ducted in the republic over the course of dozens o~ years, significantly enriched the practice of reclamation of large areas of land. The complex reclamatio~ of new lands, when at the same time with melioratine improve- ment of the lands and the installation of an irrigation network, the con- struction of modern well kept settlements with all of the items intended for the standard of livi~g is being conducted, it originated and passed a practical test at the meliorative and irrigation construction sites of our republic. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The experidnce gathered by the water conservancy collectives and those of the construction organizations of Uzbekistan is being used in carrying out similar work in other republics where there is irrigation farming. It was invaluably important today in carrying out the program for developing agri- culture in Nechernozem, where the complex melioration of lands is, as it is known, the prominent link in the syatem of changing it into an area of stable and guaranteed harvests and one with a high level of fartning and ~ animal husbandry. In its decree ~~On the Obligations of the Collectives of Water Conservancy and Construction Organizations of Uzbek SSR in Rendering Assistance to the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya Oblasts in Carrying Out the Decree of the CPSU Centra.l Committee and USSR Council of Ministers on the Further Devel- opment of Agriculture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR,~~ the CPSU _ Central Committee rated highly the great P~cperience in Uzbekistan on the melioration construction and complex reciamation of lands and it expressed A the conviction that this experience wou:Ld be a significant contribution - towards the successful realization of t:he common program to elevate a~ri- culture in the Nechernozem area. Distant and Near Necherriozem Thousands of kilometers sepa.rate Nechernozem and Uzbekistan, but recently they have begun to be closer to one another. Today the attention of all Soviet people has been riveted to Nechernozem where the program for expanding and transforming this tremendous area has begun to be put - into practice. The word ~~Nechernozem� is now on the lips of city and rural workers of the Uzbek republic. They also imagine very well the pre- sent and future of this tremendous ~rea. _ Presently, the entire Nechernozem area is a tremendous construction territory. Everywhere the rural uorkers of Nechernozem are being helped by people sent from all over the nation and who are met on the Russian . Nechernozem area as their great friends and faithful comrades in work. They are surrounded by concern and attention, they are helped more quickly and better to become establiehed in the new area and brighten up the ~ di.fFiculties of ~~campaigx~.~~ life. Tyie Nechernozem area becomes closer and dearer for those who came here from far away and who arrived due to a call from their own hearts. A5 it was said previously, the first echelon with equipment and volunteers _ left the Tash~:ent railroad sication and traveled towards Novgorod in - idovember of 1974. Then in Novgorod and Ivanovo more echelons moved from Uzbekistan. Captains of industry, trained workers i.n various professions, surveyors, and designers traveled there. The necessary earth-digging equipment, house trailers, transport, and pri.mar3r construction materials were sent. "We tried to do everything in order that from the spring of 1975 we could begin work on the Nechernozem landa. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Introducing meliorative and construction operations into this area generally is a very cc~mplex matter. The swampy land, abundance of rain, severe frosts during the winter and, finally, lack of rain in certain . areas--all of this finally complicated the work done by those sent from ~ Uzbekistan, particularly in the early atages. Finally, all of these diffi- culties did not bypass local builders and reclamation specialista. Howeve~ for the chiefs who had become accustomed to working under the natural cli- matic conditions of Uzbekistan, these features of the Nechernozem area, naturally, were moro complex. For those sent to the Uzbek republic, to these difficulties were added ~~their own~~ which had been caused by a whole number of objective reasons. First of all, a situation had immediately developed which in practice R rarely occurs in construction affairs, where long ago a developed and organized technological chain �wnich is a nacessary ordei� in doing work in order to construct this or that project. At first they conduct thorough - and comprehensive survey work. The designers take the relay baton from the surveyors and thair task includes the elaboration of the project. They issue work doct~entation which is coordinated and ~~~~+�tled" in various ~ instances for the builders. Then next it is time to conduct building and installati~n work from start to finish. The people sent from Uzbekistan to the Nechernozem area simply did not have time to adhere to this single faithful technological chain. In practice, the surveyors, designers, and builders left Uzbekiatan for Nechernozem on a single, so-called, train. At the time while the builders unloaded the echelons with the equipment and construction materials, prepared the most basic housing, the surveyors were urgently working on plans for future roads, for future construction aites, practically in the ~~fiela~~, and transferre~ primary documentation to the designers. In the same urgent manner, they issued local, and at ti_mes incomplete documents to the builders, so that the bu3lders could begin their construction cycle as quickly as possible. It is completely natural, that under such a condition unfinished project estimate documentation could exist. And actually, subsequently a number - of projects had to be completed and drawn, as ~hey say, to the necessary condition. It should be said, that similar incompleted works were the consequerce not only of haste, but also of the fact that our specialists and designers who had not worked a single yga,r under the syatem of such well-known design organizations in Central Asia as those of the Order of the Labor Red Banner Sredazgiprovodkhlopok Institute, Sredazgiprotselinstroy, ~ Uzgiprovodkhoz, Uzvodpromproyekt, and others met for the first time such natural cli.matic conditions which exist in Nechernozem. Another great dif�i~ulty which significantly made the work of Uzbek builders in Nongorod and Ivanov areas more difficult, was the separation of construction subdivisiona from their support bases which supplied 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY org~niz~tions and enterprises which supplied construction materials and equi.pment. For the basic earth-digging, transportation, construction - equipment, assembled ferro-concre~e, construction englneering, joine~ and so on are delivared for the construction pro~ects in the Novgorodskaya and Ivanovskaya oblasts from Uzbekistan and from Tashkent, Angren, Khavast, and Yangiyer... r The break of the meliorative-oonstruction organizations themselves from planning institutes and from the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water ~ Resource~ of the republic, the Glavsredazirsovkhozstroy under which they - found themselves belonged to this category of dif~'iculties. Very oftc~n in construction affairs the necessity of introducing changes into the work design documentation and into the operative decisions of financial issuss - and so on in all forms of urgent coordination, occurred very often. This was not always possible to insure using mail or telephone forms of communi- cation. Of course, it is not easy to begin new and large scale construction from ~~point zero~~ when no housing has been prepared, nor any parking for equip- ment,nor storage. Nevertheless, with the help of local party, soviet, and economic organiza- tions, all of these problems were solved successfully. While by the beginning of work i.n each oblast only one mobile mechanized colu~ was operating, in the summer of 1975 in Novgorod a trust had alreac~y been - established called Uznovgorodvodstroy, and in ivanovo--the Ivanovoirsovk- ~ hozstroy, uniting all the construction subdivisions which came - from Uzbekistan. By the spring of 1975 in the Ivanovskaya Oblast there had already been formed mobile mechanized col~ns, construction brigades, and they had a stock of necessary equipment and materials. However, the project esti- mates documentation was not yet ready. But the people sent from our republic could not sit with folded hands. They used the existing plans from the l;ocal Ivanovomelioratsiya Association according to which they - b egan to supply the project ~which had no~G been provided for in the plan. Thus, on the territory of the Sovkhoz 50 Let SSSR of the Ivanovskiy Rayon there appeared a new reservoir with a capacity of approximately 500 thou~ sand cubic meters. According to the scale of the hydro-technical con- struction carried out in Uzbekistan, this reservoir cannot be called a man-made sea. But for the envoys from the southern republic, it was very dear since it was the first project built by their hands on ivanovskiy land. Considering the climatic, land, and hydro-geological conditions of the oblaets being patronized, it was decided tq simultaneously with meliora- tive work,rapidly introduce the installation of industrial and production bases which would allow the front of construction work to be expanded. Of course, was being constructed at a rapid pace i.n existing populated areas as well as in newly created settlements of reclam,ation experts, builders, and operators. 12 ` FOR 0~'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Speaking of the acale of conatruction work, it ia advisable to bear in mind, that the no.rmal conditions of production activity of mobile mecha- nized co~umna assume the establishment of their own induatrisl areas including in them repair shop9, garages, parlcing for earth-digging equip- - nent, washing installations, and storage for equipment and conatruction material. The average estimated cost of their conatruction was 1.5-2 million rubles. For example, the 9rection of an industrial zone in the Shimskaya mobile coliunn Tashksnt-1, which went into operation this year, cost over 1,5 million rubles, while the construction of industrial zanes in Poddor~ye where the mechanized coltimm Tashkent-7 is situated and in the ancient Russian city oi' Kholma where Tashkent-8 is situated, each cost 2 million rubles. At the present time in the Novgorod area eight such columns and one autono- mous finance construction sector in Staraya Russ~ and the SPMK~ Andizhan-1 ~ which was sent by the workers of the award wi.nning Andizhanskaya Oblast are conducting construction-installation work, meliorative and irrigation work. In the Ivanovskaya Oblast seven specialized mobile mechanized columns and one autonomous finance sector are working. The n~ber of construction subdivisions grew, the production capacity of the trusts incrgased and, accordingly, the volume of work carried out by these collectives increased. For example, in 1975 the Uznovgorodatroy Trust used faur million rubles for construction and installation work, 2,200 hectares c~f swamps and boga were dried, and approximately 3,700 square meters of housing were conatructed. In 1977 the volume of con- - struction and installation work was already over 11 million rubles. About 3,500 hectares of well prepared lands were given to agricultural workers. New residents received about 6,000 square meters of living space. The rate and area of the work is constantly increasing. About the same dynami.cs exist in the construction work of the Ivanovskaya Oblast. The collective of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust in 1975 carried out five million rubles worth of work, and in 1977 approximately 11 million rubles were used for construction and installation work, about 700 hectares of dried land were used in crop rotation, and over 4,500 square meters of housing were constructed. Going ahead a bit, I will note, that next year the collectives of both trusts must surpass the construction and installation projects exceeding 30 million rubZes. In order words, in the course of only one year they will have to do almost the same amount as was done in all four preceding years. This task is not an easy one. But it is within the capability of those who went through Golodnaya, Surkhan-Sherabadskaya, Karshinskaya, and the Dzhizakskaya Steppe and who carry the proud title of those who crossed the difficult territories! - What concerns the settlements built by Uzbekiatan constructors in the Novgorod and Ivanov areas (for now the discuseion concerns only land recla- mation settlements), the designers and builders took care to create for #specialized mobile mechanized column 13 FOR OFFICIA'L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY their inhabitants maximum comfort in order that more time be given to study, cultural rest, and for physical exercise and sports. In such settlements, and they are constructed as a rule in the outskirts of existing cities and villages, alang with the construction of h.ousing, _ projects of social amenities ar9 erectod: kindergartens, stores, dining rooms, clubs, midwifery points, recreation centers, and sports facilities. In order to make a purchase, visw~ a new movie or repair a dress, shoes, or household appliances, they wi:11 not~ have to make a trip to the rayon center or nearby town. Here, for example, is the settloment of reclamation specialists in the out- skirts of the city of Kholm. After construction is completed, it will occupy 18 hectares. The settlement is primarily made up of one-story cottages, but also they build two and three-storied buildings and a trade center, stadium and other projects for the purposes of social amenities are stipulated. AlthougYi it is not far to the center of town, an inhabitant can get whatever the rayon and oblast centers can provide. Let us take, for example, the settlement of builders in the outakirts of Ivanov--in Kokhm . Those sent from Uzbekistan are building a stronb base of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust here- mechanical repair shops, motor vehicle base, parking area for hauling equipment, storage for combustible lubricatir_~ materials, and so on. This is the main industrial area of the _ trust. Right beside this area, a large housing facility developed, 150 sing'!'e story cottages were from white, silicate bricks and a model two-story building for a kindergarten was built. The settlement with the widely disseminated name of ~~Dru~hba~~ in Necher- nozem grew in the outskirts of the rayon center of Poddor~ye. On this same Novgorod land, outside of the settlement of Pol of the Parfinskiy ' - Rayon, the settlement of Melioratorov was built. Settlements with the same pop~alar name appeared in Privolzhsk~ye, Novotalitsy, and Goxkino. In the oblast centers themselves, housing is being built by our envoys. Social and cultural construction in the countryside, and first of all housing construction, is asstmming a very important significance in the Nechernozem area. It has the most direct relation in solving the task of expanding agricultural production and improving its efficiency. It is necessary not only in the plan of providing those who will work in the agricultural industry, but also for those who today comprise the material r.nd machinery base of modern production, and who are transforming the appearance of the Nechernozem countryside--it is necessary for builders and reclamation specialists. For the rate and scale of work is constantly growing in industrial con- struction, melioration and irrigation, as well as in housing and social and cultural construction. This means that more and more trained workers of leading professions are necessary for various construction pro~ects and for work i.n complex technology in melioration. This task can be resolved 1 L,, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ primarily by housing construction. If housing exiats, that means that the present and ~ppointment of old personnel and the infli.ix of new is what constantly is lacking at the construction sites. When the work was ~ust beginning in ~the Novgorodekaye and Ivanovakaya - oblasts, then the parks of earth-digging machines and transportation had only a few machines. And now, for example, in the subdivisions of the Novgorod ~Tznovgorodvodstroy Trust there are about 900 one-bucket and chain-bucket excavators, scrappers, graters, lavelers, grubbers and other earth-digging equipment, as well as over 500 motor vehicles with various trademarks and used for various purposes. The Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy is supplied with all of these types of equipment also. In spite of the great distance which separates construction sitea from supplying enterprises, republic organizations were able to organize affairs in such a way that those who we sent do not experience interruptions in having the construction sites supplied with all types of materials those i.n which there is a sharp shortage. In connection with this, one should mention the great attention which the Uzbekistan Communist Party Central Committee, the government of the republic, Candidate Member of the Polit'ouro of the CPSU Central Committee, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Uzbek Communist Party Sh. R. Rashidov shows to the Nechernozem construction sites. In the Central Co~ittee of the Communist Party of the republic and in the Uzbek _ Council of Ministers, on the initiative of Sh. R. Rashidov issues are con- sistently studied which are connected with the work of those whom we have sent to the construction sites of Nechernozem~ye, on the progress of carrying out the intended plans, on the leadership of their sub-branch organizations in Nechernozem on the part of the Ministry of Land Reclama- - tion and Water Resources of the republic, and Glavsredazirsovkhozstroy. - Managing party, soviet, and komsomol workers of Uzbekistan regularly travel to areas of Nechernozem construetion whero our envoys are working, in order that many issues which arise in the courae of the work can be solved on the spot and in a day-to-day manner. Daily attention, assistance from party, soviet and economic organizations of our reputilic and local organs allow the successful handling of int;ended plans and allows the rate of reclamation and construction work to be in- creased and the encoun~ered difficultiea to be overcome. On the Land of the ~~Red Province~~ Ivanovo is the homeland of the first Soviet of the Peoples Deputies. The first Soviet province as an aclmministrative unit was created by the decree of the Soviet government in this famous textile area. The residents of ~ Ivanovo were proud of the great and wonderful revolutionary traditiona of their first ~~Red Province~~ snd of the selflesa effort to increase the fame of the textile area. Although now the Ivanovo area is far from being only ~ ~ ~5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a textile industry and one of famous Ivanovo fabrica. Today the Ivanov- skayci Oblaat ie one of inetal working and loom mr~china9, truck arane, con- trol-measuring equipment, automatics equipment and a great deal of other " things which are produce~ at its industrial enterprises. But, of courae, Ivanovo still rightly carries the honorable title of a~~textile shop~~ nation. For every fourth meter of fabric, processed by all of the tex- tile industry enterprises of the Soviet Union is from Ivanovo and enexy third meter produced in the Russian Federation is also f`rom Ivanovo. . Now the workers of the Ivanovskaqa Oblast have begun a great campaign to renew the lands and to expand agriculture, - The Uzbekistan envoys are proud of the fact that they are helping the residents of Ivanovo i.n solving such a great and responsible task, they are working on the land of the first ~~Red Provinc~~~ and on the homeland of the first working sovieti During the current five-year plan Uzbek rec~amation specialists and irri- gators have taken on the task of drying over 12,000 hectares of land, to conduct cultural and professional work on 25,000 hectares, and construct irrigation systems on an area of no.less than 5,000 hectares. It may seem strange that in an area with a surplus of moisture and with overly wst lands, suddenly a necessity arose for irrigating lands for cultivation. But there is nothing strange in this. The natural condi- tions for almost the entire Nechernozem area are such thst often during the s~mer period, during the peak of plant growth, not a single drop of - rain may fall which greatly threatens the fate of the future harvest for - ' literally all agricultural crops. But the party and government, by issuing forward through the Soviet people a tremendou8 program for ex- panding the Nechernozem, haye set a task to transform it into a zone of t stable and guaranteed harnests which do not greatly depend on the meteoro- logical conditions. This most important task was again underscored in the decres of the CPSU Central. Comm,ittee and USSR Council of Ministers ~~On the - Plan for Land Reclamation for 1976-1980 and Measures for Improving the Utilization of Improved Lands,~~ which was approved in July 1976. In a number of places in Nechernozem, including the Ivanovskaya Oblast, they are installing drainage syatems with so-called dual regulation. When there is an excess of moisture in the land, the syatem will work to dry it and to divert the excess into a break, or as it is called in Nechernozem, into a water recipient. When it becomes necessary to irrigate, the breaks ~ will be covered and the water will go to moisten the soil along the same drainage systems. It should be mentioned that in Nechernozem spray irrigation will be widely used for watering cultivated lands by using the efficient native equipment Volzhanka, Fregat, and Dnepr. . Large scale reclama,tion work is being done by our envoys in ivanovak~iy, Shuyskiy, and Furmanovskiy rayons of the oblast. In the time of their 16 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY work here, the reclamatian specialists have alreac~y handed over to the agricultural workers approximately 2,000 hectares of dried lands, about 600 hectares with irrigation syatems, and almost 7,000 hectares of lanc] which does not require drying and where cultivation work w~a done, that is, clearing the lands of low-growing trees, bughea, boulde~�s, and rushes and planting them. The Kolkhoz imeni Ar4eniy, the Sovkhoz Ros~iya of the 5h~rskiy Ray~on, the Sovkhoz imeni 25th CPSU Congress of the Fiarmanovskiy Rayon, the Kolkhoz Novaya Zhizn~ of the Vichugskiy Rayon and many other farms of the oblast received hundreds of additional heetares. In the stimmer of 197g Member. of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Co~ittee and Chairm,an of the USSR Council of Ministers Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin ' was in the Ivanovskaya Oblast and becanne familiar with the life and work of the laborers in the textile area, The head of the Soviet State also visited the Kolkhoz imeni Arseniye where he became familiar with the work of Uzbek reclamation specialists and highly appraised the quality of the improved lands and their use in the econoiqy. The kind words addressed to the Uzbekistan envoys inspired them to do even better work. The collective of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust and its subdivisions do not exclu.sively conduct meliorative and irrigation work here. Through the efforts of Uzbekistan builders, over 10,000 square msters of housing have alreacly been built, and in the future it is planned that they will con- struct several times more. Specifically, in just 197~ the increase in space will be no less than 16,000 square meters. Sinultaneously, ths rate and scale of industrial construction is growing significantly. This will allow the improvement of the lands of Nechernozem to be speeded up. Thus, for example, in Shua for a long time alreac~y there have been on-site yard works of ferro-COncrete goods with an annual capa- city of S,COG cubic meters of gouds per year. Howeve7�, the need for ferro- concrete at construction sites is considerably greater. The question arose _ concex� the renovation of the Shua on-site yard works, which the Uzbek builders began, and particularly the six specialized mobile mechanized column of the Ivanovoirsovkhozs+,~oy Trust. The task turned out to be dif- _ ficult, for the renovation and ~xpanaion of the plarit had to be done with- out stopping it. But the collective handled this honorably. The Shua on-- . site yard works of �erro-concrete goods, which ia always found among the ranks of operating enterprises, increased the capacity fourfold--from 5,000 cubic meters of ferro-concrete per y�ear to 20,000! At one time in the outskirts of the capital of this textile area, there was~ a city d~?p. Now a tremendous construction area has spread itself out here. On it the construction industrial base of Glavnechernozemvodstroy ia being This project is one of the most important of those being erected by Uzbek inhabitants on ivanovskaya land. The industrial construction base of Glavnechernozemvodstroy is a ferro-- concrete go~ds plant with a capacity of $Q,000 cubic meters per year. 17 rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Moreover, its production is used not only for construction in the Ivanov- ~ skaya Obla~t, but also in the ones o~ Vladimirskaya, Kostram- skaya, and Yaroslavskaya which will allow the rate of renewing the Necher- nozem lands to be speeded u~. The indu~trial conatruction Toa9o is a powerful motor transport eatabliahment i:'or 200 l.arge hauling vehicles whic;h were equipped with the lstest eqrdpment r~nd ia a base for the Admini- - stration of Industrial-Technical Sets oY the Glevnechernozemvodstroy with an annual turnover of 30 million ru~les. This is the p~ozluction of inetal installation procurement in the stmi of approximately 700,000 rubles per year. Therefore it is completely na~ural, that at the present time the leaders of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy and the entire colloctive of the 106th spe- - cialized mobile mechanized colu~ which is building the construction _ industry base are living through the interests of this great construction site. This year the weather in the Nechernozem area was tiard on the builders. The long cold spring, the rains which did not cea3e throughout the entire summer--all of this brought on ~orreci;ive production plans. For a long time reclamation work on the land was curtailed. The equipment literally _ got stuck in the mudc~,y soil and the front for construction and installation ' work was reduced. However, under these difficu].t conditions the collective of the mechr~nized column which was led by an experienced expert who had worked for many years on the pro~ect in the Golodnaya Steppe, I. G. Omel~chenko, was able to have a great labor victory in erecting a construction industry base. The increasin~ vol.~nne of work in constructing this base required a greater and gr.eater amount of concrete. However, the suppliers were not able to do it in the time of the increasing rate of construction--th;s affec~ed the inadequate capacities. There was one solution: to speed up putting into operation their own cement mixing center which would solve the problem of supplying the construction site with mortar. ~ ' The komsomol shock group which is led by Talibdzhan Zuparov, took on the important and difficult task. In the most extreme weather conditions, the installation workers from the V. Glazyrin brigade and the road builders from the I. Paka brigade (along with the installation concrete mixing center the construction of' approaches for it were built) did not leave the project. Here was the first very important victory; ahead of achedule with a surpassed schedule, their own concrete mixing c~nter was put into operation. _ The collective of the coltmmn which was inspired by the success, is speeding up the construction of other projects of induatrial construction - bases. Alreac~y in the current year, the main production block should be completed. It is necessary to hurry and also not forget about high quality in the work, Everyi~,hing constru~ted Ysy those sent from Uzbekistan to Nechernozem should serve the people for many years. 18 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ . ! ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An item of particular pride for the builders, reclamation specialists and irrigators of our republic are the new sovkhozes, which are the Uzbekistan and the Druzhba which were constructed as a gift to their Ivanovskiy friends and brothers. These will be large-scale farms for vegetables, meat, and dairy purposes and located on 6,000-7,C~00 hectarea of agricu7.- tural lands, and not 3ust lande, but improved areas which were treated by the capable hands of reclamation specialists and irrigators. These farms will annually produce over 3,000 tons of mi1k, over 400 tons of ineat which wil~ be a significant increase on the tab:.e of the workers of the oblast. These sovkhozes will also have an important mear,ing for the rural workers of the Ivanovo area in the social sphere. Before the first workers appeared on the construction areas of the new Uzbekistan Sovkhoz, oblast residents and guests of the te~ctile area could also become fami.liar in the Ivanovskaya Oblast area studies muset~n with the central farmstead of the fut,ure farm where its scale model is presented. A trade center, a park for recreation and leisure, a sports complex, and a tea house... This does not count the Houses of Culture and ~tecreation, kindergartens and nur- series, cafes, and dining rooms which were set out in rural pictures. Such is the appearance of the future sovkhoz province. All work in the field, and in animal husbandry on the new farms is intended to be conducted according to the newest technology, with the broades~ uss of equipment, most recent achievements of science and the practice of agri- cultural p~oduction. What concerns housing and every-day conditions and the organization of cultural leisure, will not give way to the living - conditions,.everyday life, and rest of the workers in the city. The settlements of the new sovkhozes are being built with two-storied cottages with apartm~nts on ~wo levels, with outside facilities for keeping livestock and poultry and for storing feed. It is interesting to note that even farm buildings do not rlave anything in common with those barna which we have beaome accustomed to in rural areas. They are good-looking from the architectural point and do not disturb the external appearance of the new settlement. In the homeg there are complete sets of city con- - veniences--central heat, plwnbing, and electricity. A portion of the housing fund on sovkhoz properties will be composed of multi-story buildings and.the inhabitants of the settlement will be given - the right to choose where they want to live: in a cottage or in a~~city~~ two-three story building. And, finally, a maximum amount of attention is given here to the smallest inhabitants: the construction of kindergartens and nurseries is intended to be one of the first projects. They began building tne Uzbekistan Sovkhoz and the Druzhba Sovkhoz with what every construction project must begin--with a road. Eveiy~one who ~ travels on the highway of Ivanovo--the Kostroma, 15 kilometera outaide of the famous Vo].ga Ples, will notice a building with a unique architerture in which the ancient eastern architecture and the madern style are com- bined. This is the Uzbekistan tea room. From it begins the nine kilometer 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ road to its central farmstead. Just recently in poor weather this road could be negotiated only on a tractor. Not counting the usual earth, over 20,000 cubic meters of gravel eeaily lay on this road--that is how awampy this area i~. And now the road is like any other road. It aervee the people under any weather conditior~s and at any time of the y~ear. Beside the road there is a canal lined with ferro-concrete sheets from Shuyskiy on-site works. Along the canal, made by the hands of Uzbek irri- gators, the water from the great Volga via the water sys�cem of the Volga-- the Uvod~ will arrive on the fields of the IIzbekistan Sovkhuz. At the entrance to the sovkhoz settlement is a village called Novaya. Two mobile mechanized collmms are busy here with building production facilities, _ housing and cultural buildings, and reclamation work on the lands of' the young farm. The construction of the settlement and of the production-- economic centers is being led by a specialized mobile mechanized col~n No. 21 and all work on reclamation has been placed upon the 35th collective SPMK� This alone indicates the great significance which the leaders of the Glavsredazirsovkhozstroy give to the creatiun of a new 90V1{YIOZ. _ Not far from the oblast center, on the road to Ki.neshm, the envoys of our republic are building another sovkhoz, its name is Dru~hba. The name given to the farm which is being built can i.n no better w~y symbolize the friendship between the people which grows stronger from day to day and from year to year. The constru.ction of the settlement of the Druzhba Sovkhoz also basically is being constructed o.f two-story cottages with apartments having two stories. Here several houses have been built using sssembled ferro-- co~crete which was obtained by our 'builders fram the Moscow subur'dan Bun~kovskiy experimental plant of lar~e-panel construction in the country- side. The houses are comfortable arid have an attractive external appearance, but still the specialist-builders and the inhabitants them- selves are in favor of squ~red tzmber and ~refabricated-panel houses lined , with steel or silicate bricks. They suit the local climatic conditions more than houses made of prefabricated ferro-concrete. Houses with many apartments are being built here also. Trade, medical, cultural and doms3tic services for the inhabitants of the settlement will be organized with consideration for the great demands in these are~s. It is quite symbolic that buiiding the central farmstead of this farm and introducing primary project~ on it began with th~ ceremonial opening of the kindergarten. This once again underscores that the concern for the people and for creating the best conditions for rural workers in their life and work is really put in first place. ~~Today,~~ said General Secretary of the CPSU Central Co~ittee and Chairman of the Presidit~ of the USSft Supreme Soviet Leonid I l~ich Brezhnev in his speech at the July (1978) Plenum of the CPSU Central Conunittee, ~~the issue can be put onl~ this way; About satisfying the hous ing and domestic needs 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 - ' FOR ~FFIGIAL USE ONLY the increased cultural request~ of rural workers, the leaders of the farms, party committees, soviet and trade union organizations must show no less concern than for the development of production.~~ Not only ~he settlements of the sovkhozes indicated, but alyo many rural populated areas which are growing and ~eing built in city and rayron centers ~ of Nechernozem~ya are being built according to such pro~ects that satisfy in the best way possible the housing and domestic needs as well as the increased cultural demands of the rural workers of this area. , In the design institutes of the Sredazgiprovodkhlopok and Sredazgiprotsel- ~ instroy which are carrying out the tasks of those who first came to the Necherriozem area, there were created special departments in whicn the - development of the project estimates document~ation for constructing new bui.ldings in ivanovskaya Oblast were created. Planning the projects for housing, cultural and socisl amenities and thoae intended for industry in the Ivanovskaya Oblast was assigned to the Sredazgiprotselinstroy a.nstitute. In particular, the workers of this institute were given design doc~entation for expanding the Sht~yskiy on-- site yard works for ferro-ecncrete goods which was discussed earlier. The workers of t:~e complex division for designing Ivanovskiy Sredazgiprot- selinstroy projects are working i.n close contact with their colleagues from Z~Iosnechernozemindustproekt and Ivanovogradanproyekt which are helping them in becoming acquainted with local conditions and with formvlating technical docuaentation and issuing model designa. The project estimates doc~entation goes from the design institutes to the direct users--the bw.lders, who must finish the job, invigorate the land, and construct a new settlement or production complex. After the documen- tation is prepared, everything is in the hands of engineers, technicians, other production chiefs of various sectors, and within ~the hands of the workers themselves--installers, bricklayers, electric welders, c;arpenters, and finishers. Remembering this, those in charge of the Uzbekistan organization are trying to direct to the Nechernozem area the best reclamation specialists, mechanical experts, builders of large buildings, and leading persons in the ~ professions. The ma~ority of the workers, engineering and technical workers who were sent from Uzbekistan have had considerable experience in the reclamation of nQw lands, and in civil and industrial construction. The excellent, training and great experience allow them i.nanediately upon arriving at the Nechernozem construction site, to become involved actively in the direct process of transforming the Nechernozem area. For those tivho have not yet had the to acquire the more needed profes- sion in the Nechernozem area, there has been a spe~ially created educa- tional combine in the system of the Ivanovoiraovkhozstroy Trust where experienced teachers and tutors help students master tr~e basic or ad3acent professions. 21 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ The leaders of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust K. V. Smerdov, V. N. Gri- shina, U. V. Rakhmsnov and other production commanders have worked for dozens af years. - Many experienced specialists are in charge of the work of specialize~d mobile mechanized columns, construction sectors, brigades, and drainage excanator crews. The head of the Shuyskiy SPMK-6 B. V. Tronov has worked over 30 y~ears on reclamation construction sites. The head of the SPNII~-35, - A. P. Zadorozhniy has worked for dozens of years at the construction sites of the Golodnaya Steppe. The same is true for the ch~.ef engineer of this mechanized col~?n A. I. Terent~yev and many other production commanders. The brigade leaders G. Sharipon, V. Zacypalov, B. Bozhkov, V. Moskvi.n, S. Khalimov, the engineer of the drai.nage excavator Yu. Volkov, the driner of the large-hauling vehicles A. Kozlov, and many other workers of the large labor collective of those sent from Uzbekistan enjoy a good reputa- tion ~n the nlunerous collecti.ves of the Ivanovoirsovkhozatroy Trust. The members o~ V. Moskvin~s brigade are not tied by blood, but all of them are true friends and brothers in work which directly intertwines their life and fates. There are 15 persons in the collective of this complex brigade and all of them came to the Nechernozem area from the Golodnaya St,eppe together. The brigade successfully and ahead of schedule built the main production complex of the plant for ferro-concrete goods without out- side help. In V. Zasypalov~s which is also complex, the entire ~amily of the brigade leader works: his wife, son and daughter. This type of rTfamily life~~ can only be welcomed. Generally, with good reason it can be said that on the conatruction sites ~ of the Nechernozem area a kind and good family has developed, a large collective in which the people work selflessly and who are tied together by the single concerns and by one great goal. In a single working row of those who came first, those sent from many republ.ics of the nation stand out, who together with native Nechernozem residents are doing a common job. They are putting into practice a program written by the party for the reclamation of this tremendoas area of our nation. Besides a large working, many builders find their own personal happiness here also. Often the sparkling sounds of happiness car. be heard from komsomol weddings. Those sent from Uzbekistari have families here, This means that the young people who came for purpo~es of the recla- mation of the Nechernozem virgin soil, decided to permanently tie their fates wit~i this ancient russian land and that tney became attached to it - with all their hearts. B eside the Wall af Aging Novgorod The Uznovgorodvodstroy is the headquarters for those sent from Uzbekistan to the old Novgorod land and is a subdivision of the republic~s Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources. The Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust ~ 22 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY began with a single specialized mobile mechanized column called Tashkent-1 and located in the rayon center of the Novgorod srea--Shimsk, and with approximately 200 laborers and engineering and technical workers. It :~hould t~e notod that thie column f`rom the very beginning of ita organiz~- tion wss headed by engineer and reclamation specialist f`rom Na~oangan _ V. S. Mimi.dinov, now the deputy of the Shimskiy Rayon Soviet. At the present time the IIznovgorodvodstroy is composed of nine mobile mechanized colwmns, one far~.ning area in which over 3,000 persons work. This is a powerful technical supply of equipment and available power for all sub- divisions. ~his was already mentioned earlier, but in order to have a more complete picture, seVeral more figures can be shown. The collective of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust in addition to the fraternal IIznovgorodvod- stray Trust is competing with the collective of the Ivanovomelioratsiya Association which includes the local Ivanovo reclamation-construction sub- divisions. In the current year, Uzbekistan envoys in the Ivanovo area ~ must over 20 million rubles for construction and installation work, and in the Novgorod-~almost 22 million. The collsctive of Ivanovomeliorat- siya is acquiring 14 million rubles. If these figtu~es are calculated for the planned tasks for the third and key year of the Tenth Five-Year Plan, then it will appear that the Uzbeki- stan builders intend to clry approximately 3,500 hectares in the Ivanov- - skaya Oblast, about 9,000 hectares in the Novgorodskaya, and build no less than 16,000 square meters of housing in the Ivanovo area and no leas than ' 18,000 in the Novgorod area. For the Ivanovomelioratsiya Association, these figures look this way, accordingly: 6,000 hectares of dried land and over 7,000 square meters of housing. From the beginning of work on the Novgorod land which was done by the Uznovgorodvodstroy T?-ust and by the sub-contractors included by the organi- - zations and sub-branches of the Uzbek Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources, they carried out construction and i.nstallation work which = exceeded 26 million rubles. this period of, that is in three years, the collective of the trust transferred to kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the oblast 9,000 hectares of dried swamp and overly moist land, and over 10,000 hectares where they had conducted cultural and professional work (clearing low-growing trees, shrubs, boulders and leveling of land), about 19,000 square meters of housing were constructed. For the entire current five-year plan, the Uznovgorodvodstroy must carry out construction and installation work worth 100 ~illion rubles: insure - the utilization of dried lands in an area of /~,2,000 acres, and of irri- gated lands in an area of 6,000 acres, carry out cultural and profes- sional work on 25,000 hoctaxes which c]o not require preliminary drying, to build conv4nient housing of no less than 80,000 square meters. On a broad scale ihe project for cultural and socisl amenities will be equipped in arder to give rural workers the best conditions for living, working and rest. 2~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . _ . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is completely natural that an increase in the grain sowing area, which is now about ?.00,000 hec~~~ares, with 70,000 hectares (moreover on 6,000 ~ there are irrigation systeme) will be a considerable influence on the grain � halance of the oblast. Fol~ exampld, this is how the picture of sown areae in the Soletskiy Rayon of the Novgorod area will change after the reclamation specialists of Uzbekistan carry cut their socialist obligations for this five-year plan. At the present time ~.n this rayon all of the agricultural crops--grain, potatoes, vegetables and perennial grasses occupy 3~,000 hectares. During - the five-~~ear plan the Uzbekistan reclamation experts give the rural workers of the rayon over 11,000 hectares of dried land and no less than 5,000 hectares where cul~ural and professional work will be done. In this way, the sown area in the Soletskiy Rayon will increase by almost a half: - , there w~;re about l~0,000 hectares of useable land and there will be about = 60,000 hectares. And again it must be added that on 1,500 hectsres of arable land, irrigation systems will be constructed. On the whole the sowing areas in the Novgorodskaya Oblast, as in the Iv~anovskaya Oblast, is expanding. The collectives of local reclamation and construction organizat,ions--the Novgorodmelioratsi.ya and Ivanovo- m~,~i~ratsiya associations in a united force with whom those sent from the~ ' Uzbek kE~ublic are working have assumed graat obligations for renewing the land and increasing its productivity. - The example:; of individual Nechei~ozem farms are even more obvious. Thus, - in the course of the current five-year plan, only the specialized mobile mechanized column Ta9hkent-1 will give 10,000 hectares of arid land ~.~d over 3,000 hectares of land with irrigation systems to the workers of the Shimskiy Rayon. From this total amount the Stroitel~ Kolkhoz and the Leninskiy Put~ Sovkhoz will each receine 1,000 hectares of well-prepared , land, and the Leninskiye Iskry Kolkhoz and other farms will receive over , 1,000 hectares. In the Volr_a Revolyutsii 5ovkhoz the sown area will increase during this period of time by almost 2,000 hectares. A very ponderable i.ncrease! ~ The positive aspect of the work done by reclamation specialists at the present time is the fact that the land improvement is being conducted on large tracts. On that same Volna Revolyutsii Sovkhoz, one of the areas under reclamation occupies over 90G hectares, at the same time that pre- viously reclamation specialists ha d to work on sections and areas which made up 30-50 hectares. Under such a condition, of course, it was diffi- ~ cult to use the equipment and advanced technology of inelioration work in a br~ad and efficierit manner. The significant increase i.n driod lands, undoubtedly, promotes the ~ strengthening in the belief of rural taorkers and agricultural speGialists in the power of reclamation and irrigation which repeatedly increases the - production of the land. In other words, life itaelf and the practice of agricultural production on meliorated lands i.ntroduced the necessary ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY corrective measures into this important work and forced excessive precau- tionary measures on the part of farm leaders and agricultural specialists to be avoided. Just as with everything that is new, the reclamation of land in the north- western part of the Russian Federation was met with caution. Apparently, a certain role in this wa~ ~layed by plans for drying which were compoaed without comprehensive and thorough surveys and economic planning and which . subsequently had to have neceesary changes. - However, life and the practice of agricultural production showed that under the conditions of an overly wet n.rthwestern Russia, the reclamation and irrigation of sown areas can create and actually do create real miracles. _ In the Shimskiy Zavet Lenina Kolkhoz, where reclamation work was done by builders from Uzbekiatan, the harvest for grain is now 4~-42 quintals per r~ectare. On the meliorated lands of the indicated Volna Revolyutsii~ Sovkhoz a harvest of rye on individual plots comprises 5~-5z quintals per hc~ct;are! When such unprecedented harvests are achieved here, there are fewer and fewer of those who do not believe in the power of reclamation. Another point is that meliorated lands require conatant and considerable care on the part of farmers. But what land, regardleas of whether it is ~~new~~ or ~~old,~~ does not require and lave care? There is one thing that is unfortunate: the rate for drying land ia still slow because in practice this work is being done for only five months-- fro~ May to September. Of course, there are objective reasons for this which must be taken into account. Earlier springs and later autumn'months of work on drying lands is held back here due to the fact that the earth is swampy and this does not allow the fu11 use of equipment. Bulldoze�rs which do the preliminary preparation of the land for drainage excavators, tractors with hookups and vehicles literally stick in th~ mud. Moreover, there is not enough equipment for swamp modification which has a greater capacity for moving through it. In the winter there is another problem--the deep freezing of the gi^~ound (up to 1.5-2 meters), which lasts from late sut~n to early spring. Then again the equipment which the reclamation specialists have ~r. nand is powerless, since it is also not adapted to working under such condition~;. Special digging machines or rotary attachments are needed for the drainage excavators E'!`Ts-202. However the IIzbek irrigation trusts do not have such machines and the attachments in their own shopa are made under almost amateurish conditions and do not have the desired effect since they are out of operation very quickly or just are not in a condition to handle the deeply frozen earth which is full of dozens of cubic meters of rock per - hectare. The question of supplying the reclamation and construction organizations which are improving the Nechernozem area, with the best equipment which is suitable for working at all times of the year remains a primary problem. , ~ 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' Besides reclamation work, the Uzbekistan envoys are conducting large-- scale industrial and housing construction in the Novgorod area. 'rhe erec- tion of industrial zones and settlements in Sol~tsy and Volot, Kholm and Poddor~ye, and Shimsk. and Parfino has already been mentioned. Large-- ' scale construction has begun outside of Staraya Russ~, the city where in the years of World War II the Soviet soldiers including Uzbekistan fighters, became famous. On th~ glorious montunents and obelisks the names of those who died here in deferiding the blessed Soviet land are inscribed in gold. But the best tri- bute to the glorious memory of those who fell will be the renewed and beautif'ied land, new sovkhozes and settlements, and new plants and roads which have appeared where the heroes defended the land from ~he hated attackers. Now on the vacant property beside the long operating ferro-concrete goods plant, a construction area has spread out. Here, beside the already established motor depot Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust, its base with a repair-- mechanical plant, a ferro-concrete goods plant with a capacity of 25,000 cubic meters per year, with a loading-unloading railroad platform, approach roads, and storage facilities for various purposes is being con- _ structed. Housing will also appear here, since putting all of these pro- jects into operation will mean that the niunber of laborers, engineering and technical workers, and employees will reach an impressive figure. This means that there will be child-care facilities, enterprises for cul- tural and domestic services, and trade. In the Novgorod area, as in the Ivanovskaya ablast, the Tashkent and Druzhba sovkhozes are being constructed as a gift to the Novgorod friends and brothers. Both of these farms are also vegetable meat-dairy orient~ed r and are about equal in the planned nolume of agricultural production. For a more or less complete characteristic of these new farms it would not be out of place to cite this figure. The Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz will pro- - duce as many early vegetables as aJ_1 the farms of the Novgorodskaya Oblast produced in 1975. The area of this sovkhoz expanded on both sides of the highway leading from the oblast center to Shimsk. Cultural and profes- . sional work has expanded in full force hera and on individual areas they ~ are installing closed drainage, and underground irrigation.~ With, vegetable plantations with glass-covered ground and housing for animal raising will begin to be constructed; moreover, all of this will be done at truly rapid ratea. Towards the end of the five-year plan, the new sovkhozes must put into operation working agricultural enterprises, aithough their first output they will begin to issue quite a bit earlier than the official reception by state commissions. - To the left of the Novgorod highway is Shimsk which is a neighbor of the Lesnaya village, There a settlement is growing, and actually a small city b` of the Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz. Very recently builders came here, but multi- storied buildings already tower i.n the center and the smokestack of the - 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . boiler room rose, and the first four hostels for workers were filled. The smallest inhabitants in this beautiful lovingly constructed Cheburashka kindergarten celebrated being in their new home. In the Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz, as everywhere, whe~re Uzbekistan bw~tlders are working, kinder- gartens are part of primary pro~eats and in or~~~ to have them built in time, the strictest and effective control have been ea:gbliahed on the part of trust leaders and theii� aubdivisions, party and sc.^ial organiza- tions. The scale of building the Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz is fairly convincingly anc3 el~quently explained by the fact that two mobile mechanized columns are building it- Tashkent-5 and Andizhan-1, Moreover, the former in order to better coordinate the work and to have a more effective guidance in the construction, combined two SPMKs within itself. Now the annual volume of construction~and installation work done by this collective already exceeds ` seven million rubles with a leaning towards a considerable increase, for time doesn~t wait and the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan in which the task for ~he new sovkhoz was intended, is not far away at all. There is one more figure; the project cost estimate of the Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz is approximately 35 million rubles, moreover one-half of this slun ~ will go to erecting a sovkhoz settlement, and tha other half will go t~ meliorative i.mprovement of ]ands, constructing an irrigation network, and production facilities. An equal of the Tashkentsltiy Sovkhoz is his fellow Druzhba Sovkhoz. The estimated cost of the complex construction for th~is sovkhoz will be 39 _ million rubles; on the lands of this farm there are plans to construct drainage and drying systems in an area of 6,000 hectares and irrigation systems on 1,000 hectares. With putting these modern agricultural enterprises in the Novgorodskaya Oblast into operation, the production of vegetables and products for ani.mal husbandry increases significantly. As a ru1e, almost all planning and aurvey iaork fo?�, u�r~r~ovgorocivodstroy for meliorative improvement of the lands, irrigation construction, cultural - and professional measures are done by one of the senior institutes of Uzbekistan- Uzgiprovodkhoz. Within the framework of this institute a - special department for Nechernozem construction for the Novgorod area has also been created. Its employees give all of their knowledge, experience, ability, and creative enthusiasm to auch an important and great business as the transformation of Nechernozem~ye. The head of the department V. Mansurov, chief engineers of the ;~roject V. Rozenshteyn and I. Veslitskiy, group leader T. Tyrina, engineers A. Nichkasov, A. Zhdanov, G. Ioffe, M. Rybak, and others of the best surveyors and designers can without a - doubt be called the first to cross the Nechernozem virgin land. They are really the first to cross it. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ What concerns the design projects of the production, housing, and cultural - and domestic service area, it is being carried out by the collective of the design institute Uznodpromproyekt which comes under the syatem of Uzbek SSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Reaourcee. The division of the Novgorodskaya Oblast submitted to the large design organization the entire pro~ect estimate documentation for building housing settlementa and produc'cion bases for Uzbek specialized mobile mechanized columns in Novgorod, Volota, Kholm , Staraya Russ~, Shimsk, Sol~tsy, Poddor~ye, and Pole. Of course, as in everything, there were difficulties here too. Designers and builders are working in full contact, in a friendly manner, and harmoniously, lrnowing what a great honor and along with it responsi- - bility has fallen to them. Now when surveys are made and builders are given the full extent of the necessary plannir~g estimate documentation, the job rests in the hani~s of production commanders, engineers, technicians, installation workers, bricklayers, excavator operators, and drainage crew members. The fate of the new construction sites depends and will depend on them while it is imprinted on the designer~s tracing paper. Who in Uzbekistan puts into practice that which has been designed, who realizes the lines of the tracing paper into drainage and irrigation systems, into industrial areas of specialized mobile mechan~zed coltunns, and housing settlements for reclamation specialists and builders? It is impossible to *_zame all of them, but it is necessary to mention at least some of them. The Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust is headed by an experienced engineer from Tashkent Yu. Mukhamadiyev, a person who has worked on big construction sites and is well acquainted with industrial, civil, reclamation, and irri- gation construction. Large-scale projects in the republic~s capital, work on new construction in the Golodnaya and Karshinskaya steppes-~this is far from his complete list of service. Now he is working on Novgorod land. And is it not noteworthy, tnat Yu. M. Mukhamadiyev has been selected as deputy of the Novgorodskaya Oblast Council of the People~s Deputies. Tne Alimzhanov fanily is well-lrnown to the builders of the new irrigated zone in the Golodnaya Steppe. There are several brothers in it and all of them have i.nvolved their lives with reclamation and improving new lands. Now the eldest brother, V. M. Alinzhanov, is head of the engineering ser- vice in the Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust and is its chief engineer. The youngest brother, R. M. Alimzhanov is head of SPMK Tashkent-4 and is in charge of reclamation and construction work on one of the distant rayons ~ of the oblast--in Volotskiy Rayon. There are many years of experience in construction organizations behind the deputies of the trust administration A. F. Adiyanov and N. A. Guzev, the head of the production department 0. I. Zhedulev, head of the SPMK Tash- kent-.o A. I. Luk?yanenko, and other production co~anders. For example, 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the head of the SPMK Tashkent-1 V. S. Mimidiminon worked in water con~ser- vancy organizations of the Namanganskaya Oblast of Uzbekistan. He was one of the firat to move to the Novgorod area'. The mechanized coltunn which ia led by them is one of the best in the truat system. It ie exaotly in thie brigade that work does not cease in reclamation even in the winter time, - for here record construction is conducted. Among the best crews is the small international team of drainage workers which is headed by Namangan komsomol member Tursunpulat Rasulov. There - are five people in the team and they belong to four nationalities of the Sovist IInion. The komsomol workers operate in such a way that the teams of drainage excavators of all trust reclamation subdivisions try to equal them. In 1977, T. Rasulov~s teaie installed 114 kilometers of closed drains with an annual asaignment of 50 kilometers. The name of the excellent reclamation specialist was carried on the Novgorodskaya Oblast Plaque of . Honor, For the selfless work i.n renewing the Novgorod land, 23 of those who were victorious in the socialist competition of the recent year including R. Baltayev, I. Turdyy~ev, A. Bidin, G. Zorin, T. Rasulon and others were sent into the Book of Labor Glory of the Novgorodskaya Oblast, and 40 of the best reclamation specialists and builders were awarded the Mark of Winner of Socialist Competition for 1977. The young envoys of Uzbekistan are not only working in an excellent manner on Novgorod land, they do not forget about sports and artistic independent activity about organizing cultura"1 and beneficial leisure. In the office of the head of CPMK Tashkent-1 V. Mimidiminov one can see many prizes, diplomas, and documents which note the sports achievements of young Uzbek builders. The'city and settlements of the Novgorodskaya Oblast are becoming more beautiful, newer and newer lands are being used in agricultural cultiva- tion, and production capacities in enterprises of the construction industry are growing. All of theae are the frui.ts of joined labor among brothers and friends--workers of the Novgorod area and those sent from sunny Uzbekiatan. Our Common Cause Above we told in detail about the labor collectives and people who directly participated in improving the land in the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya ob~_;:sts. But in fact, in this great creative era, literally all workers � of the republic participate. Some by their direct participation, and others who by sending their friends from the brigade, workahop, and plant to the new conatruction sites are carrying out production tasks which . were done by those comrades who left; and the third group works at carrying out the requests of Nechernozen and Zavolzhtye at enterprises of the construction industry; while the fourth group is occupied with designing irrigation and domestic services projects as well as with composing esti- mates doc~entation and so on. 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Together with the komsomol of the entire nation which eent over 70,000 persons to the Nechernozem area, the komsomol of Uzbekistan is actively participating in transforming the landa of the Ivanovskaya and Novgorod- skaya oblasta. In juat the paet two and a half yeara, the komeomol of the republic sent over 3,500 young men and women to work at permanent posts on - new construction in the Inanovskaya and Novgorodskaya oblasts. Each year during the summer season for their ~~working seme~~cer,?~ hundreds - and thousands of student construction work groups go ou+, and make a signi- ficant contribution in carrying out the established tasks. Just this y~ear at a new construction site of the Nechernozem area, atiout 4,000 student-- ` construction workers left Uzbekistan, includin~ ~bout 2,000 to the Novgorodskaya ar_d Ivanovskaya ablasts. In the .l.ast, a~lniversary y~ear the student construction work groups from Uzbekistan fulfil~ed over six million rubles worth of construction and installation work at the i:ew construction site of Nechernozem. In the process of studying, the future warriors and student construction work groups are becoming specialized as brickla;~rs, installers, finishers, and carpenters so that during the ~~work semester~~ they could be of maximwn assistance to the collectives working on tho Nechernozem lands. In higner ! education facilities of the republic schools for experts have been estab- lished in which during the period of for the student work stunmer about 500 students studied. Studies with student construction work groups have been also organized in safety, protection of labor which raises the efficiency of their work at important construction sites. In TasY~kent, Andizhan, Namangan, Fergan, Karakalpakiy, and other citi~~~s and oblasts of the republic new construction work groups are being fo~:m~d which are intended for the lands of the Nechernozem area. During the period of August-September 197g, the collectives of Uznovgorodvodstroy and Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy gained more than 3,000 trained builders, irrigators, and reclamation specialists. Among them were many young people and kom- somol members. . Th~re are representatives of our republic.withixi the All-Union shock kom- ~ somol work group i.mer~i 60-letiye VLKSM also, which i.n ~eptember 1978 lef`t for the construction work of the Nechernozem area. In his greeting to the ` participants of this work group, L. I. Brezhnev wrote: ~~I am aure that ~ your patriotic example will be worthily continued and the new thousands of youn~ men and women from various corners of our Motherland will enter the rank9 of construction worknrs who are transforming this broad area of the = nation. Here young hands and work enthusiasm as well as inexhaustible energy of the komsomol is necessary.~~ At the enterprises of the republic which are out the tasks of the Nechernozem area, the young production workers are laboring under the _ slogan: ~~Nechernozem Orders- Ahead of Schedule and with High Quality and Improved Reliabilityl~~. And there are many of these orders. Just from the enterprises of the Promstroym,aterialy Trust under the Glavsredazirsov- khozstroy system, in the l.ast two and a half years the new construction ~ 30 FOR 0'FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY projects of the Ivanovskaya Oblast was given about 60,000 cubic meters of pre-fabricated ferro-concrete and over 2,000 tons of constructional engi- neering, ea well as many other construction materiels. A great desl of uqul~morrl; ~nd oonntrue~tiori mr~teri~la f"rom entorprl8es of the oonetruution industry of the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water fteaourcea of the _ republic are going to Novgorod and Volgograd construction pro~ecte. A good word should be saic~ to ~he workers of the Cantral Asian railroad, who in spite of the difficulties with the rolling stock, in spite of the great distances, insure the movemant of this huge mass of cargo in the planned amount of time. ' For example, the delivery of pre-fabricated ferro-concrete for housing and Gultural and domestic conatruction in the Ivanonskaya Oblast is being realized by the Dzhizakskiy combine of fex~x~o-concrete goods; the Yangiyer- skiy combine of construction materi.als sends goods far i.ndustrial and civic construction there as well as goods for hydro-technical and irriga- tion construction; the Chinazskiy combine--for industrial construction and underground road construction. Tile, ~~~oiner,~~ sanitary engineering squ~p- ment are sent t;o the Nechernozem area by workers from the Angren, Tashkent, Bekabad, and other industrial centers of the Uzbek republic. Many other labor collectives working in various areas and branches of the national econo~y of the republic could be named which directly or indi= _ rectly help the workers of the Nechernozem area in improving its land. All of this attests to the fact that for the workers of Uzbekistan, putting into practice the programs for renewing the lands of Nechernozem has become a close and dear business. For four years now the workers of our republic have been giving super- visory assistance. All of this time they have been working shoulder to shoulder with their Ivanovo and Novgorod frisnds and brothers, feeling great concern, attention, and the kindest and warmest relations from local party, soviet, and economic organizations. The first secretaries of ~ the oblast party co~mittees: IP8ri048~i8~8--V. G. Klyuyev, Novgorod~skaya-- ~ N. A. Antonov constantly and thoroughly examine the needa of construction and construction workers. They help to solve effectively the most varied problems which arise in the course of construction. For example, in August of the current year, the Novgorodskaya Oblast party co~ittee bureau discussed the work of the Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust col- _ lective and its party organization in carrying out socialist obligations - and planned assignments. According to the x~esults of the diacussion, the First Secretary of the CPSU Ob].ast Co~nittee N. A. Antonov had a meeting with the party and economic aktiv of the trust and with construction sub- divisions. At the meeting there was a business-like and interesting dis- cussion about the tasks which have been carried out and those which remain, about the achievements and shortcomings in the work, and about the _ large and not yet -~ouched reaources at the construction aites and ways of using them. 3~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r The Deputy Chairman of the Novgorodskaya Oblast Party Executive Committee N. I. Bavykin, ckiairm~an of the Shimskiy Rayon executive committee Yu. M. Levkov and fr~om the Parfinskiy Rayon executive committee V. V. Bukovskiy, . and other leaders of the oblast ~nd rayons constantly visit the pro3ects under construction. Problems of work for the supervisors from Uzbekistan are practically never off the agenda of the meetings of the bureau of party coffinittees and execu- ~ tive co~nittees of the Soviet of People~s Deputies of the Ivanovskaya Oblast. In July 1978 at a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Furmanovskiy Rayon Soviet of Peop].e~s Deputies, the issue concerning the progress of construction of the Uzbekistan Sovkhoz was discussed. Not a single issue raised by the leaders of the mobile mschanized coltu~s remained without the attention of the rayon organization. The Chairman of the Rayon Executive Comm.ittee L. P. Zhirovigin consistently visits the construction areas, _ attends planning and production meetings in the SPMK, and devotes a great deal of attention to the cultural services of the builders. The construc- tion workers of Uzbekistan are obliged to the chairman of the ray,on execu- tive co~.ttee for the fact that a projector has appeared in their trailer- town. In a word,a firm friendship and strong business-like ties are character- istic for the mutual relations of the aupervisors and their subordinates. And wherever there is a great, real, and strong friendship, there are also great work achievements. They exist even now and they will be even greater in the near futurel Since the day of the approval of the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministera on the further development of agriculture in the Nechernozem zone of the Russian Federation, almost five years have passed. In this relatively short period of time great changes have taken place. ~'In our plans a great dea"1 of attention is given to the Nechernozem zone of the RSFSR,~~ said General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet Leonid Il~ich Brezhnev at the July Plen~ of the CFSU Central Committee (1978). ~~It can be noted with satisfaction that the planned comprehensive progran for realizing the transformation of the agricultural indu.stry of this broad area is.beginning to have a positive affect upon increasing production out- put, and improving the conditions for work and everyday life for rural laborers. And yet work on improving the Nechernozem area has not been expanded to the scale and business-like efficiency which are necessary for , ' successfully carrying out the established tasks. Judging by the results of two years of the five-year plan, there ia a lag in carrying out the tasks on reclamation and increasing the productivity of the la~d, creating an industrial base, housing and social amenities constructi~n. Little has been done in building roads. Work on settling families fror~ sparsely populated areas into comfortable settlements is 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY being done slowly. The capacities of. flax-manufacturing, food and meat and dairy industries are behind the plana. Apparently, not all the workers of the central, republic, and local organizations have underatood the - c+c;oT~~mi c rind ~~olitical eiqnifiaenae of the aalutian to the Neoh~rnozem problem. The mini3tries and branches have been entrusted with conducting the - work in the Nechernozem area, as well as party, soviet, and economic organizations, must do everythin~ in order to overcome the lags and carry out the tasks ahead of schedule in the entire complex of ineasures for transforming the agr~.cultural industry in thia are~. Of course, in the plans of the 11th Five-Year Plan, the problems of the Nechernozem area will be given the necessary attention.~~ Discussing the materials of the July (1978) Plenum of trie Central Com- mittee of our party, party, soviet, water conservancy organizations of the republic, Uzbekistan envoys to the Necnernozem area sub~ected the results of their work in rendering assistance in the reformation of the Nechernozem area to a thorough and comprehensive analyais of the first result of their work. Shortcomings were discovered in the material and machinery supply for construction, in the organization and quality of work done on various construction projects, in the organization of mass-political and cultural-- educational work among reclamation specialists, builders, mechanical experts and a system of ineasures was developed,the realization of which will allow the r ates, scales, and efficiency of our supervisory assistants to be improved in the Nechernozem area. - In the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers concerning the further development of agricultural in the Nechernozem area, the necessi~y for a complex solution of the problems in improving the lands ~ and using natural resources of this putentially most rich area was parti- cularly underscored. It is exactly in thi3 comprehensive manner that the improvement of the land in Uzbekistan is being conducted--in the Karshin- skaya, Dzhizakslcaya, and Surkhan-Sherabadskaya steppes, that is, simul- taneously with the meliorative improvement of the lands, hydro-technical construction, while the construction of new settlements, projecta of pro- duction and social amenities for toda~~s builders and tomorrow~s users of the great land masses is boing carried out ahead of schedule. Improving the Golodna,~a Steppe conninced one of the fact that the effec- tiveness of these expensive works can be achieved with such a complex resolution. Wherever these necessary conditions were not adhered to, there the output of the newly improved lands inevitably was held back, and individual plots fell out of crop rotation sirice there was no one to work them. At the present time state commissions simultaneously accept land masses from reclamation specialists and irrigators while new sovkhoz settlementa with a f`uZl complement of social amenities--from the builders. In our opinion, such a principle of having state commissions accept introductory ~ 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY complexes would be advantageous to spread in the Nechernozem area in order thr~t to eliminate thi~ st~d situation when there ia land waiting for ita - plowman, but there is no plowman... In the Ivanovo and Novgorod areas Uzbekistan is building four new and _ modern farms where, as was mentioned previously, animal husbandry and farming will be placed on an industrial base and will be based on the most recent achievements of science and technology. The new technological base of modern agricultural production requires well trained and qualified per- sonnel who are capable of efficiently handling this machinery. Therefore, preparing the personnel for the newly created farms in the Nechernozem area and other zones of the country, today is of primary significance. One of the vital sources for increasing the ranks of builders, reclamation spe- cialists, and irrigators is the expansion of the network of rural profes- sional and training schools and of secondary specialized and other educa- tional facilitias. The influx of new working power at the new constrnetion sites of the Nechernozem and Povolzh~ye areas frequently restrsin the housing shortage and in a number of cases the absence of adequate social amenities. It should be noted that although the rates of housing and cultural amenities construction in these areas are increasing, they still do not correspond to the growing scope of improved new lands and the mnnber of people warking at these projects. Increasing the rates of housing construction could be promoted by a wider transfer to the pre-fabricated method of construction and to changing con- - struction plots into installation ones. In its turn, this presents new problems for trie designers--problems of working out large-panel housing with heating and northern modification and with consideration for rural conditions. City models for mass housing can not be blindly transferred to the countryside. Life and practice refute such a method of planning the population of newly created settlements. The rapid solution of the housing problem rests on the shortage of capa- bility for housing construction combines. Expanding the network of enter- ' prises producing ferro-concrete goods is the pressing nead of the day. It is also important that the combines and plants for panel house-construction supply installati.on sections not only with building components for single and two-story buildings, but also pre-fabricated ferro-concrete for con- - structing projects used for social-cultural and everyday use--kindergarten, schools, medical facilities and so on, which will bA very advantageous with time, In the plan for improving and up construction, the question con- cerning the place for the production of pra-fabricated ferro-concrete and other construction materials used by the increased demand in new construc- tions in rayons is very important. At present the vast majority of con- struction materials is supplied to Uzbekistan~s subordinate supervisory rural construction sites of the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya oblasts from 34 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY enterr~rises of our republic, that is a distance of 3,000 kilometers, at the same time that they can be produced dire~tly on ~ite. There are more problems which require a rapid solution. For example, the problem of using forests and shrubbery on lands which are being put to use for agriculture. At the present, this forest is practically unused and almost all the wood turns into gigantic bonfires carrying into the wind a great deal of national money. Even shrubbery areas are both a techno- logical kindling, wood alcohol, wood shavings stoves, wood tar, and many many other things. An improved hectare is expensive for the national budget and each hectare of new land must be treated with the greatest care. However, everywhere one can observe a scene when fairly large cultivated areas are covered with boulders brought from rec~amation areas. Throughout the Nechernozem area such ~~rocky deposits~~ on the improved land comprises many hundreds if not thousands of hectares. But theae lands can and must be used for agri- cultural oultivation and aan and must serve man. In many rayons of the Nechernozem area, there is a shortage of road metal, p~rticularly now when massive construction of hard surface roads has begun. Establishing rock crushing aggregates in these places will allow the land to be freed and to a certain extent it will supply the need for road metal. I would like to alao discuss the role and contribution of science in the improvement of Nechernozem. In our opinion, it appeara to be advantageous to create a single scientific center in Necherrxozem patterned on the Siberian or Far Eastern branch of the USSR Acade~y of Sciences. Presently, the problems of transforming the lands of this region are heing handled by dozens (if not hundreds) of the most varied scientific and planning organi- zations which operate, for the most part, independently and in f~.ill or partial isolation from their related departments. In the Ivanovskaya Oblast the survey-planning work is done by eight planning organizations. A much greater effect can be achieved when all aurvey, planning, and research work i.n the most varied areas--reclam,ation and irrigation, in industrial and civic construction, in seed raising and so on--will be con- centrated in a single scientific center which conducts a single scientlfic and technical policy. Years will pass and this ancient Russi~n land will change beyond recogni- tion. According to the plan for transforming the Nechernozem area of the Ruasian Federation, already within the course of the upcoming 15 years, here work on melioration and irrigation will basically be completed thusly: by 1990 9-10 million hectares of agricultural farm lt~nd will be dried, _ 2-2.5 million hectares will be irrigated, and on 8-10 million hectares cultural and r~rofessional work will be carried out. The renewed land will generously ~hank man. The renewed Nechernozem area will 'become another brilliant confirmation of the fact that the will and intelligence of the Communist Party are multiplied in the work heroics of the people and are capable of creating and really do create miraeles. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY V. G. Klyqyev First Secretary of the Ivanovskaya Oblast Committee ~ ~ of the CPSU By United Efforts - : An impressive and indestructible friendahip directly ties the nations of our multi-national Homeland. Born during the difficul~ years of struggle for Soviet power, it matured, hardened and grew stronger on the fronts of the Civil War and those of World War II and during the geaceful days of building a mature socialist society. Strengthened by the new IISSR Consti- tution and the unfading glow of light, now w~ien our nation is ur~ited around the Leninist Communist Party, it is erecting a bright communist building with enthv.siasm. One of the manifestations of the creative Leninist national policy, prin- ciple of proletsriat internationalism, f`raternity and friendship among the peoples of the Soviet Union has trtt7.y become the sincei�e and heartfelt closeness, direct and constantly strengthening tiea between the workers of sunny Uzbekistan and the Ivanovskaya Oblast. This tie goes back to the years when at the call of the party, the Ivanovo Voznesensk ~~red weavers~~ under the command of M. V. Frlmze together with the poor Uzbek peasant~ fought for establishing Soviet power in Central Asia. The task was not ; only to get rid of the yoke of oppression, but also to give an economic - life to Uzbekistan. The Ivanovo textile workers together with the Uzbek peasants worked on cotton fields, participated in the organization of kolkhozes, sovkhozes, assiated in the denelopment of a textile industry in ' the republic, and were active propaganda workers for socialist reform. ~ ~ In 192g during the time of intense struggle for IISSR independence in cotton, socialist campetition unfurled under the slogan ~~The Road of Thousands,~~ ! ' _ which really became a massive school for progressive methods. Including i the new collectives, which were reformed and improved, this form of compe- tition is becoming more-and more a powerful incentive in international ties, friendship and cooperation among n~tions. , Within the great fraternal family of peoples of Uzbekistan and within an unprecedentedly short period of time the outskirts of Russia changed from a backward and semi-feudal order into an area of powerful industry and - modern highly mechanized agricultural industry. The economic and cultural ties between the workers of the textile area and the Uzbek SSR have become ~ even more durable. 7 Old-timers from the Ivanovo area remember how the first Soviet textile industry was put into operation in 1g29__the melange yarn combine. The ~ cotton growers of IIzbekistan attended thia celebration. The first fabric 3E . ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , � g; , , . _ , : . . . . .;w . _ , . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY was woven from cotton which was supplied by this delegation. Since that time, along the steel highways echelons with ~~white gold~~ travel to the textile ~hop of the nation: ?0 peraent of all the cotton which is pro- cesaed in eur oblast is, raised by the caring hands of Uzbek peesants. Beautiful and strong fsbric is procesaed from them by Ivanovo textile ~ workers, and even more beautiful and stronger are the ties of friendship and z~raternity ~~hich unite the people. - Along ~~Dogovoru Tysyach~~ ~greement of the Thousands7, hundreds of Ivanovo residents traveled to Tashkent and in that woncierful sunny city met with - its excelient people, shared their experience, and adopted it from Uzbek comrades. And when the unprecedented earthquake destroyed Tashkent, and e liminating over two million square meters of housing, the Ivanovo resi- dents sent their best builders to rebuild the destroyed city, who with their own hands erected new buildings and housing blocks in the capital of UZbekistan. A new era in the development of o~r mutual ties was 1974, when the CPSU - Central Commi.ttee and USSR Council of Ministers ordered the intensive development of an agricultural production center in Russia--the RSFSR Nechernozem'zone. The workers of Uzbekistan were one of the first to express a desire to actively participate in i.mproving this huge area of our country, in changing it into an ~rea of high yield and stable harvests, the high productivity of animal husbandry, and the broad social reforms in the countryside. Only in our Ivanovskaya Oblast the capital investment in agriculture' was 750 million rubles in the 10th Five-Year Plan. This is over twice what was in the Ninth Five-Year Plan. The oblaat communists assigned the workers of the countryside who were supervising the industrial enterprises, to considerably increase the volume of all types of agricultural products and during the current five-- year plan meet the demands of the people for basic food products by using their own production. ~ The production of the gross output per worker laboring in the agricultural industry will increase i.n the 10th Five-Year Plan, in comparison with the - past one, by more than a factor of 1.5. The entire increase in the gross output will be achieved by increasing the productivity of labor. From the sale of basic types of produots and by reducing its cost, in 1980 it is expected that an increase of 73.5 million rubles will be gained as opposed to the 7.3 million rubles in 1975 and a lenel of rentability of 23.9 percent will be insured. The ob].ast party organization put together a clear program for the further specialization and concentration of agricultural production~and transfer it to an industrial base. Large-scale measures have been indicated for an improved utilization of land, and particularly for reclamat3on construction for the construction of which 151 million rubles have been allocated during - _ the current five-year plan. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 ~ FOA i.~e'FICIAL USE ONLY Uzbek reclamation specialiats deaided to m~ke a sizeable contribution for the successi'ul realization of the intended program. Party, soviet, water conservancy and construction organizations of the Uzbek S5R developed . measures for rondering assistance to the Ivanovskaya and Novgorodskaya oblasts in c; out the Decree of the CPSU Central CoBUnittee and USSR - Council of Ministers ~~On Measures for the Further Development of Agri- culture in the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR.~~ The Central Committee of . the party approved this initiative. In 1975 the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust of the Main Central Asian Admini- stration for Irrigation and the Construction of Sovkhozes was created on Ivanovskaya land and now it is composed of seven mobile mechanized columns, two autonomous ~inance construction sections, on-site works for ferro-- concrete goods, and a motor depot. From the institutes of Sredazgiprovod- khlopok and Sredazgiprotselinstroy two groups of work planning in water conservancy and industrial-civic projects operate. In order to train per- sonnel for mass professions, an educational combine has been organized - ' under the trust and a branch of the Yangiyerskiy Communal-Construction Specialized Secondary School has been opened. The envoys of sunny Uzbekistan are now conducting reclamation constrtzetion ir. six rayons of the oblast. ~'or example, in the Furmanovskiy Rayon, an irrigation system is con- structed on the so-callecz Krasinskiy meadows. These natUrally low-yield _ lands occupy almost 2,000 hectares. By the end of the construction, 25 sprinkling machines ~~frigate~~ will work here simultaneously. The produc- _ tivity of this mass of land shou?,d reaeh 12,000 tons of feed units annually. Such a quantity will be enovgh to keep 4,000 high milk-yielding ' cows. Similar irrigating systems are also planned to be built in the Shuyskiy and Ivanovskiy rayons. During the years of the five-year plan, the Uzbek reclamation specialists plan to dry a total of 12,000 hectares, irrigate ~,000 hectares, and carry out cultural and professional work on z3,gU9 hectares. , The project of the complex construction of large-scale specialized vege- _ table-dairy Uzbekistan and Druzhba sovkhozes ~ahich is being done by our friAnds from Uzbekistan is very important in the plan for developing land reclamation. These farms have a decisive significance in out the program designated by the oblast party organization on increasing the pro- duction of vegetableg on the basis of concentration and specialization of the branch. Presently, almost every second farm of'the oblast is occupied ' with their production. With the completion of the construction of sovkhozes, vegetable raising will be concentrated on nine farms. Moreover, 4 ~ the Uzbekistan and Druzhba sovkhozes will assume the main burden in pro- viding the people of the oblast with ve~~~tables. Of the 80,000 tons of vegetables which are intended to be produced by 1980, over half will be raised on these sovkhozes. They will be produced on irrigated I.ands using advanced irrigation machinery with an automatic control system. ` 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At the present, the planning institutes of the Main Central Aaian Ac3mm3.nistration on Irrigation and the Construction of Sovkhozes are devel- oping designs for expanding the Uzbekiatan and Druzhba sovkhozes and tech.nical plans for the fira~t stepe of construction have been isaued. Today their territory repreaents a tremendous con~truction area. Now in the Uzbekistan Sovkhoz the contoura of the future central farmstead are being drawn. Here four and two-story buildings will appear, as we11 as cottages with attached lots and of course, a trade complex and movie theater, a Houae of Culture, kindergarten, and nursery. A total of about five million rubles of capital investment have been acquired for the construction of the Uzbekistan Sovkhoz. Besides this, Uzbek reclamation specialists are creating a large baso of a construction industry of Glavnechernozemvodstroy in the oblast. Upon - putting it into operation, the needs of reclamation construction in pre- fabricated ferro-concrete will be completely insured, which will allow the creation of more reliable and long-lasting systems of drying and irri- gation systems. , The republic envoys are to render great assistance in designing bases for reclamation construction in the Il~inskiy and Yur~yevetskiy rayons and in - the, expansion and construction of the production bases for repair-construction PMK in the Komsomol~skiy, Furmanovskiy and Ivanov- skaya rayons. Simultaneously with the work on the reclamation and improv,ment of the lands and with the creation of bases of the construction industry and the ~ exploitation service of water conservancy organizations, the Ivanovoirsov- khozstroy Trust is expanding its capabilities. The pr~~uction base with housing area is being built ir: Kokhm, the construction of their own PMK base has begun in Privalzhsk, Rodniki, and Novo-Talitey, and their con- struction is being designed in the cities of Shua and Ivanov. The re- modeling of the Shua plant for ferro-concrete goods, the capacity of which is being increased by more than threefold, is being finished. During the 10th Five-Year Plan, Uzbek irrigators decided to car~-y out con- struction and reclamation work worth 100 million rubles. The production ~ program has been carried out (for October 197g) by 28 percent and 28 million rubles have been ~ Many bri.gades, builders, and mechanical experts are successfully carrying out their asstuned socialist obligations and are selflessly wox�king at carrying out the tremendous px~ogram for improving the Nechernozem area. Among the best production subdivisions is the collective headed by the leader of the sector PMK-6 of the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust K. N. Medvedev. The reclamation specialiats of the aector submitted an impor- tant project with a~~good~~ evaluation--cLrainage systems in the Dulyapin- skiy Sonkhoz and on the Oktyabr~ Kolkhoz of the Ivanovskiy and i.meni 39 FOR OFFICIAI., USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Gor~kiy Shuyskiy rayons. The ~collective, hea~ed by the work auperintendent V. Ye. Shuranov, put into operation an irrigation system on the Lezhnev- skiy Sovkhoz. The communist crane driver of the caterpillar A. A. Volkov, excavator operators A. A. Medvedev and N. I. Makushin, blacksmiths A. D. Barinov and mtxny others achieved high production indexes. Together with this, the Ivanovoirsovkhozstroy Trust is con- siderable difficulties. Cadre stability has not been attained and at times there is a shortage of local construction materials. The charac- teristic weather of our area unfavorably influences the reclamation work. B asically, the work is done during summer and autu~ months. Unfortu- nately, the problems of organizing everyday life and public catering for reclamation specialists, the timely allocation of lands, organization of work for cultivating land masses are not being solved effectively every- where. Now the efforts of party, soviet and economic groups in the localities are dire~ted at eliminating these shortcomings. There is no doubt that the combined efforts of the workers of the Ivanov- skays Oblast and their fraternal Uzbekistan in carrying out the tremendous _ program for the Nechernozem area will become another brilliant page in the history of the development of oiar mutual ties, friendship and fraternity, and it will be one more touch in the strengthening of the power of our multi-national Homeland. . 4~ - FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY N. A. Antonov First Secretary of the Novgorodskaya Obleat Conmiittee _ of the CPSU Through the Patha of Friendship Novgorod residents, ~ust as all Soviet people, are working enthusiasti- cslly and fwll of determination to carry out the assigned tasks for the five-year plan and to realize the reaolution of the July (1978) Plenum of the CPSU Central Coimmittee and the orders of the General Secretary of the CPSII Central Committee and Chairman of the Presidi~ of the USSR Supreme Soviet L. I. Brezhnev which were expressed by him during his trip through ' the areas of Siberia and the Far East. ' In the arulivRrsary year of 1977, the workers of the oblast worked intenaely ~ and now are trying to fully utilize the experience gained and increase it having takeM the order given by L. I. Brezhnev as a fighting grogram of activity. The order concerns the fact that it is necessary to preaexve and strengthen the work effort and rhythm oP the anniversary competition. � In the past yea,ra of the 10th Five-Year Plan, the industrial potential of the oblast 3ncreased and the production of gross output for agriculture grew. From year to year, the volume of acquired capital inveatments are growing and the base for construction organizations is growing stronger. In the achievements of the rural workers of the oblast, our friends, the envoys from sunny IIzbekistan, made a significant contribution. Thousands o� kilometers separate the Novgorodskaya Oblast from the Uzbek SSR, but this did not interfere with the Uzbek people~s stretch~ng out their hand 3si helping the Russian brothers in improving the Nechernozem land, for which we express the most heartfelt gratitude and thankfu]ness. The heated interest of the Uzbek brothers for their mutual success is a natural exp~ession of the fact ~hat all of us have a single cause-- because of aur party, common expectation and hope, and goals and ambi- tions. This is the source of one of the most powerful moving powers of the Soviet society--the friendship of the peoples of the USSR. . The strength of the friendly ties between the people to a great extent depends upon that which they have experienced and lived through together. Our friendship is strengthened by blood. Many Novgorod residents helped the Uzbek br~others establish Soviet power, struggle against the basm,ak, and build the Turksib and Bol~shoy Ferganskiy Canal. During World War II thousands of Uzbek people fought on our Novgorod land. 4~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The war cost many h~unan lives, swept away from the Novgorod land hundreds - of settlements and villages, and damaged the arable land. The first steps in reestablishing the destr~ye8 cultivation of the burned land were diffi- cult. Fuil of enen~y shells, it was fraught with death. The war from time to time reminds us of itaelf by the explosion of an untriggered bomb, remoned from the depth~ of.the earth by an excavator or dug up by a tractor plow. From the first days of peace, the party and Soviet state have given a great deal of attention to reestablishing and further developing the - national econo~y and to the standard of living for the people. The Decree of the CPSII Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers ~~On Measures for the Further Development of the Nechernozem Area of the RSFSR~~ was a bright example of putting into practice the course taken for inten- sifying agriculture which had been developed at the March (1965) and sub- aequent plenums of the CPSU Central Committee and approved by party con- gresses. For us it is a long-term program for uplifting the economy of the oblast, the countryside and villages into comfortable set- tlements which resemble the city type, creating fields of crops and pasture lands, which are suitable for widely inclusive aggregates and more powerful machinery. For us it is also a program for to use all resources and capabilities in ordor to increase the agriczz].tural produc- � tion output. The basic realization of these t~sks is the reclamation of the land. On the Uzbek land, for thousanda of years a struggle for water for irriga- tion went on. As a result of the centuries old ~eveloped of irrigation, most valuable experience in using water resources for increasing agricul- ture production was gathered in the republic. Today the Uzbekistan envoys generously share their experience with us. Right after the appearance of the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers concerning Nechernozem, the communiats of Uzbek- istan came forth with an initiative concerning rendering assistance in carryirig out meliorative work in a n~unber of oblasts of the Nechernozem area of the RSFSR. And altho~ugh the measures indicated in this decree were intended to be realized during the 10th Five Year Plan, in November.~ ~974. Novgorod residents met the first rank of Uzbek reclamation specialists. In the Shimskiy Ray~on they established the first specialized mechanized coliuan Tashkent-1, and in 1975 tYie Soletakaya SPMK Tashker~t-2 was created. In the first year of work the Uzbekistan envoys dried ~?,200 hectares of wet land. In 1976 two more mechanized culumns were established--the Shimskaya SP;�qC Tashkent-3 and the Volotovskaya SPMK Tashkent-4. In the same year al]. of the SPMKs w~re united in the Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust. Px~esently there are 2,500 persons working in the trust. Reclamation specialista from Uzbekistan are working on a territory of seven rayons of our oblast and ar~.carrying out an extensive program on drying and irrigating lands, and on constructing Tashkentskiy and Druzhba sovkhozes and bases for the SPN'K. 42 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . In the 10th Five-Year Plan the aubdivisions of the trust must aoquire 100 million rubles of capital investteent, dry over 40,000 hectares of wet and awampy landa out of 100,000 hectares which must be dried in theae yeara. From the:beginning of the 10th Five-Year Plan, the U~bek reclamation ape- cialists transferred almost 11,000 hectarea of dried lands to the kolkhozes and sovkhozes, prepared and put into operation 400 hectares of dried pea~t bog, enriched ~4,500 hectares of lands which did not require drying and cultural and profeasional work, and put into operation 21,000 square meters of housing. Among the right-flank is the collective of the first to be on the Novgorod land, the SPMK Tashkent-1. From the beginning of its work, this collec- tive insured the introduction of 4,500 hectares of dried lands and _ acquixed 8.5 million rubles of capital investment. On 5,000 hectares of lan~ whiah did not require drying, cultural and professional work was conducted anc3 over 4,000 square meters of houaing were put to use. The collective of the SPMK Tashkent-1 alreac~y put into operation 776 lzec- tares of dried lands and in the future another 400 hectares of improved land will be tx~ansferred to the Volna Revolqutsii Sovkhoz. With the first team of Uzbek reclamation specialista came Begiyev Rashid Abubekyarovich and since that time he has worked as a bulldozer operator in the Shimskiy SPNII~ Tashkent-1 and carries out the monthly norm by 170 percent. The machine operator of the one-bucket excavator Mamutov Sarved Gani~evich came to the Soletskaya SPMK Tashkent-2 from the Andizhanskays Oblast. From day to day he exceeds his assignment and carries out the norm by 140-180 percent. The crew of the drainage excavator which is led ~ by machine operator Resler Viktor Andreyevich began to work in the Shim- - skaya SPMK Tashkent-1 in 1976. He fulfilled.his five-y~ear plan assign- ment by the time of the anniversary of the approval of the new USSR Con- stitution having inatalled 266 kilometers of drainage. In December of ~976 bulldozer operators BlyLmm Valentin Nikolayevich and Gopkin Fedor Semenovich came to the construc�tion project ot' the Tashkentskiy Sovkhoz. There was not a single time that they carried out their shift norm by less - than 140 percent. Many more examples of shock work on the part of Uzbek representatives at rural construction sites of the oblast can be given. Our cooperation w3th the Uzbek comrades is not limited to,ation alone. Three construction PMKa which erect production bases, are building dairy and feed complexes and pro~ecta of social amenities and everyday needs . It can be said without exaggeration, that there is no area of life where the fraternal unity of our peoples is not reflected. Its 3oining power . are the x~elations between our republics and oblast party organizations. In 1977 a group of writers from Uzbekistan came to us. In the Solets:iy 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY House of Culture a lit~rary evening was held. Tr~e writers gave the bLUlders a series of classical and contemporary Uzbek literature. This year in Novgorod an exhibition was organized called the ~~Decorative and Practical Art of Uzbekistan.~~ Our national ensemble Sadko went to give coneerts in Tashkent. The Central Comm.ittee of the Communist Party and the Uzbek SSR Council of Ministers are constantly attention to the work of all those who find themselves in the area of the Uzbek organizations and to providing their material and labor resources. In almost every SPMK economic sectors are created which work on a sub- contract basis. They are composed of 1~00 persons who came from various obiasts of the republic. The Central Committee of the Lenin Komsomol of the republic rendered a great deal of assistance to the subdinisions of the Uznovgorodvodstroy Trust having formed a team of young volunteers. Without a doubt, the supervisory assistance rendered by the Uzbek friends in reforming our oblast is truly tremendous. It is natural that in such a large business difficulties arise which sometimes are based on objec~3ve reasons, and sometimes on organizational inadequacies. Thus, for example, the comrades who arrive are often not adequately acquainted with the con- ditions and technology of the forthcoming work, and teaching them on-site has not y~et been organized on the necessary level. The assistance program has not provided resources for this goal. As a result, people together with the machinary are sometimea used inefficiently. Resources for acceleration are used in the organization of the work also. The natural conditions of our area are such that the extended period of daylight allows one to work a considerable part of the year in two-three shifics. But, unfortunately, in not a single subdivision is a multi-systemi of work organized. Naturally, this negatively influences +he rate of work and the productivity of the machi.nery and labor resources used. � ~hese and certain other inadequacies could not but i.nfluence the realiza- tion of the production program. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes-of the rayons, wher.e specialized mobile mechanized coltmms of the Uznovgorodvodstroy - Trust work were short by over 10,000 hectares of dried land and almost ' 2,000 hectares of irrigated land. About 600 hectarea of dried peat bog were not put to use. Putting housing into operation is also behind. I Local party, soviet and agricultural groups are rendering great assistance in the organization of more constructive work for~reclamation specialists and construction coltunns of the trust. ~We hope that� through joined efforts we will be able to achieve more rapid work in i.mproving our area. The assistance which the envoys from sunny Uzbekistan unselfishly give us is considerable and versatile. It has not only an economic significance, but also a political one and serves as a bri.ght example of international friendship. 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FUR UHFICiAL USL ONLY ' We are certain that in the process of future, the fraternal cooperation of the Novgorod reaidenta and Uzbekistan workers will become broader and deeper and the mutual exchange of the achievem~ents of materiel und ~ptritu~l cu].ture will grow etronger. COPYRIGHT: Politizdat, 1979 8714 C50; 1800 ~ I 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ : . , . , : , . - : . ~ , ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - REGIONAL UDC 800.7 OVERVIE~V OF DIFFICULTIES IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEACHING 1Koscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian No 5, 1979 signed to press 4 May 79 pp 9-17 [Report b~ F. P. Filin, Director of the Russian Language Institute of the AN SSSR [USSR Academy of Sciences] and corresponcling member of the AN SSSR; to a meeting of the Presidium of the AN SSSR: "Further Development of Research of Problems of the Functioning and Study of the Russian Lang- uage arid ~he Teaching of Russian Literatur~ in Unibn and Autonomous Re- publics af~d Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs of,the USSR;" a report of the � ensuing discussion and a decision by the Presidium of the AN SSSR] [Text] Questions on a study of the functioning of the ~tussian language in the national republics and autono- inous oblasi;s of the USSR, as well as measures for im- _ p'roving the teaching thereof, had been examined at a meeting of the Presidium of the Acad"emy of Soiences and at the 34th Session of the Council on Coordination of the Scientific Activity of the Academies of Sciences of the Union Republics.* The shifts that have occur`red ~ecently in this area and new tasks ~hat face the sci- _ entific academies were discussed at a recent me~ting of the Presidium, where Director of the AN SSSR Russian ' Language Institute and coY~responding meinber of the AN SSSR F. P. Filin clelivered a report. Report of F. P. Filin A task of enorinous state importance faces us--that of promoting in every way the fd'rther development and blossoming of all the Soviet Union's na- tionality languages and simultaneously that of sesing to it that the _ whole n~tionality population of our count'ry possesses the Russian lang- uage: This is a task not forjust one year ~r for just 2 years but fo"r a longer periiod. It can be solved only 1~y the joint efforts of all *See ~ESTNIK EiN SSSR [Herald of the USSR Academy~of Sciences] Nos 3 and 8; 1977. 46 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY elements of public education, linguistic institutions of the USSR Academy . of Sciences and its branches, the republic academies of sciences, and other institutions. Ii must ~e said that after the question had been discussed at a meeting~uf the AN SSSR Presidium and the 34th Session of the coordinating council, the matter was appreciably enlivened. The ministries of education and of higher and secondary specialized educatiorr and the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Science's, with whom we are in close contact, undertook to work out the methods problems of teaching Russian in schools for the na- tionalities and to prepare different types of lesson plans, *.extbooks, study aids and dictionaries, which are now being published by the hund- reds in our country. And among the most important concerns of academic institutions are those of raising the scientific level of teaching per- sonnel and improving Russian-language study literature. Nut so long ago only the UkSSR Academy of Scier~ces, of all the republic academies, had a special section for the Russian language; this was cre- ated in the Institute of Linguistics at the initiative of its director, Academician I. K. Beloded.* This section continues to do multifaceted ' ' work on spreading the Russian language in the Ukraine and on extending assistance to all elements of public education, and it is developing a theoretical foundation for the functioning of Russian where there is Russian-Ukrainian bilinguality. This section has published, in particu- lar, a series of monographs that have been evaluated highly by the scien- tific communi~y. A portion of them has been translated abroad. For ex- ample, Russian and German.language editions of the book, "Velikiy - Oktyabr' i russkiy yazyk" (Der Grosse Oktober und die russische Sprache) [The Great October and the Russian Language] were published simultane- ously in Kiev and Leipzig recently. We also have strong ties with this section, and much work is being carried out jointly. And how is the matter going in the other republics? A Russian-language section was recently established in the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the Belorussian SSR. Right now all of Minsk's schools are conducting studies in the Russian language-- this is the desire of the populace. For Belorussia as a whole, work on raising the sophistication of Russian speech is first priority, since almost all the republic's population possesses the basics of the Russian language. Special scientific subdivisions have been established in the Moldavian and Armenian and in the Latvian and Lithuanian academies of sciences; a laboratory for the study of Russian has been created in the Tbilisi In- stitute of Psychology; Russian-language sectors have been established in the acadamies of sciences of Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan and Uzbekistan; and - Russian-Tanguage sections have been created in the academies of sc.iences *See Beloded, I. K. "Vsyak sushchiy v ney yazyk"-[Everything That Exists in It Is Language), VESTNIK AN SSSR, No 6, 1978. 47 ~ FOR OFFICIAL LTSB ONLY ~ _ . : . : _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ of the Azerbaijan and Kazakh SSR's and an interagency Itussian-language council has been established in Estonia. Russian-language topics are ~ included in the work plans of philological institutions of branches of the USSR Acaclemy of Sciences. However, all this is just a start. Most of the specialists in Russian philology in nationality academic institu- tions are still inadequately trained, and there are few of them. There are fewer than 200 specialists in Russian philology of higher qualifica- tions--doctors of sciences--in our country. A fourth of them ~vork in the Russian Language Institute of the AN SSSR, more than half live in hloscow or Leningrad, and more than five-sixths of them live in RSFSR cities. ~ Meanwhile, in some republics, in Turkmenia and Uzbekistan for example, there is still not one specialist in Russian philology--a doctor of sci- ences; in other republics there is one. _ What is the way out here? The Russian Language Institute of the AN SSSR can in the next few years train tens of highly qualified specialists in the Russian language through special-purpose graduate study and on-the- _ job training and, in the next 5-10 years, provide the republics of the nationalities completely with the needed personnel of higher qualifica- tions. We can provide scientific direction for 30-40 special-purpose graduate students and on-the-jab trainees, or even more. Inaeed, in the _ institute we have about 45 doctors of sciences and about 20 graduate stu- dents (only 4 of them are special-purpose). I hope that the situation is changed radically. The problem of training personnel as specialists in Russian philology for the scientific-research institutes and for in- stitutions of higher learning of the nationality republics is completely feasible. And the main thing--the training of teacher-philologists for middle schools--depends up.on the institutions of higher learning for teachers. We have recently held many conferences and consultations for beginning specialists in Russian philology from the Union republics. An All-Union Conference on the Russian language convened in Frunze in October 1978. A conference in Baku and a conference of supervisors of Russian-language sections and~groups of all repuhlic academic institutions in Tashkent " were dedicated to similar problems. Thus, we are striving mainly to co- ordinate the efforts of our academy and of the Union-republic academies of sciences in research on the functioning of the Russian language in the coming years and in the long term. I hope that in the future there will be fewer conferences and we will pay the main attention to daily creative work. And now about Russian-language textbooks and study aids, as well as meth- . ~ ods works that have been published in our country. Not all of them are of high quality. Unfortunately, the publishing houses--those at the cen- ter and local ones--still have not put into practice the transmission of even the most important manuscripts to the AN SSSR Russian Language In- stitute or to other authoritative scientific institutions for scientific approbation. 48 FOR OFFICI~i., L'SE OIvZY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY And what are we ourselves doing in this regard--~our sector for study of thc Kussian language in the nationality republics and the Itussian Lang- uage Institute as a whole? We are publishing collective monographs; for - example, "Russkiy yazyk kak sredstvo mezhnatsional'nogo obshcheniya" [The Russian Language as a Means for Communication among the Nationali- ties] (a collection that has been highly assessed by society), "Kul'tura russkoy rechi v usloviyakh russko-natsional'nogo dwyazychiya" [The So- phistication of Russian Speech Where There Is Bilinguality in Russian and a Nationality ianguage~, and "Russkiy yazyk v sovremennon mire" [Ths Rus- sian Language in the Modern World]. A dictionary of the most-used words that contains 5,000 words,with equivalents in the English, French and Spanish languages,has been published. A second edition of it is being pr.oposed, specially for our nationality republics. A defining diction- ary of 4,500 words of the Russian language for school children, and a dictionary of foreign words of the same volwne, for pupils, as well as a study aid, "Slovar' slovosochetaniy" [Dictionary of Word Combinations] have been prepared. ' An experimental Russian-language textbook for grades 4-8, which can be - oriented to the peculiar�ities of the various languages of peoples of the USSR and was nrepared by our institute, should be published in 1979. Ozhegov's one-volume dictionary is being reprinted in a large number of copies. An orthographic dictionarv was republished recently in 100,000 copies. I will note that there is a gigantic demand for this literature, which we are not satisfying completely. At the instruction of the president of our academy, A. P. Aleksandrov, and the Russian L3ngua~e Institute imeni A. S. Pushkin, we have made an analysis of Russian-language textbooks that are in use in our schools for the nationalities and compared them with the textbooks of the English and French lar~guages for foreigners that are published in England, the USA and France. The conclusions obtained are very curious. In some things our textbooks are in the lead, in some things we have to catch up. The results of this analysis and the main conclusions will be published. For the first time, a one-volwne encyclopedia, "Russkiy yazyk" [The Rus- sian Language], whicli discusses in abbreviated popular-science form the structure of the Russian language, its categories, history and so on has been published. The encyclopedia is intended for philologist teachers of the Russian and the nationality schools (there is also in it a methods chapter and a bibliography) and, in general, for everyone interested in the Russian language. It is planned to create a series of diversified short dictionaries for various specific purposes. It can be said that the Russian Language Institute is preparing diction- aries, textbooks, encyclopedias and other Russian-language aids without a special orientation to specific languages of the Soviet nationalities. In this connection, I should declare the following. While there are many institutes in the world for physics, mathematics, philosophy, economics, linguistics and so on, our institute is the only ~ 49 F~R OFFICIAL USE OI3LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY one in the world, a unique scientific-research center, for the Russian language, and it faces very great tasks. Although the science of the Rus- sian language has a long and rich history, much less has been done yet than remains to be done. In the coming years we int;end to complete a cycle of operations dedicated to the Russian language (beginning with its primitive Slavonic origins and ending with the language of our day), its grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, morphology, syntax and all its diverse forms: the literary language and the dialects. This is a work that our scientific predecessors could not even dream about. We are getting ready _ to carry it out, but it will not come easily for us. The institute is very small--there are in all about 200 scientific workers in it. They know Russian and other Slavic languages but, as a rule, they do not know enough Turkish, Finno-Ugric, Caucasian and other languages of peoples of the USSR. We are capable of preparing and we have prepared dictionaries and study aids--standards that can serve and already are serving as mod- _ els in the creation of aids applicable to each specific language of the nationalities. But the creation of such aids is a task for the linguis- tics subdivisions in the Union republics, with whom we have established close contacts. Work is also needed on fundamental problems of the Rus- sian language and on a study of its functioning. We have augmented our sector for the study of the Russian language in the nationality republics through internal reserves. There is now a severe need for specialists in Russian philology who know the languages of the peoples of the USSR. The sector's work can and should become still more fruitful. Much depends upon our institutt and other linguistic institutions if the level of research and teaching of the Russian language in higher institu-. tions and schools of all the Soviet republics is to be raised. Discussion of the Report A number of questions were put after the conclusion of F. P. Filin's re- port. One of them--by Academician V. A. Ambartsumian--touched on a dif- ferentiated approach to the study of Russian by representatives of the peoples who are included in the Slavic, Indo-European and non-Indo-Euro- pean language groups. The speaker concurred with the fact that this problem is exceptionally important in both a sc'ientific and a practical sense and that a differentiated approach is necessary, but until now the . degree of differenc~ between the students' native tongue and the Russian language has not been considered much in the nationality schools when making up Russian-language programs. Right now the job is to see to it that the number of nours allocated to the si:udy of Russian in the nation- ality schools is increased and, in so doing, seeing to it that the pecul- iarities of the native tongue of the pupils and its closeness to Russian or its remoteness from it is considered. Academician B. N. Petrov was interested in whether we had developed sys- � tems for the study of language limited in extent and in short periods, and he explained that he had in mind the arganization of special courses 50 . FOR OFFICIaI. US~ ONLY ' r.. . . . . _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY under which i.t would be possible, without being taken from the job, to master the habits cf Russian conversational speech. F. P. Filin answered i.hat 5uch courses already rx i tii. Find, moreover, they are being dissem inated increasingly in braadcasts by radio and television as an aid to Russian- language study. But, it goes without saying, these f.orms of work should be disseminated more widely. Academician B. S. Sokolov called attention to the necessity to inculcate experience in handling the pui~e Russian literary language, which the extremely imperfect language of certain newspapers and books prevents at times. In answering the question of Academician Ye. M. Zhukov about the contacts of Soviet and foreign Rus- sian-language philologists, the speaker noted that ties here are very strong, despite the known differences in the essence of the problems be- ing solved. Academician I. K. Beloded indicated in his comments that the Academy of Sciences is responsible for improvin~ knowledge of the Russian language - as the language of communication among the nationalities of the peoples of the Soviet Union, a language of international action, and an arm of culture. No little has been done in this regard. Important conferences on scientific theory and scientific practice have been conducted, partic- _ ularly in the Ukraine. In the Ukraine the Ukrainian language ~s studied in Russian schools, while Russian is studied in the Ukrainian, Moldavian, Hungarian and Polish schools. We are working with linguist specialists of Belorussia, Moldavia and Carpathia, said the speaker, on methods for improving language teaching in the nationality schools. But of course this work ~hould be expanded. Special attention should be paid to rais- ing the skills of teachers and to improving the training of teacher ling- uists.� Speaking about the training of Russian-language teachers, I. K. Belode'd emphasized that an older generation of linguists and Rassian language teachers had been obligated to abandon a meritorious inter- change. The graduate of a university's philological department or of a department of Russian language and literature of a pedagogical institute should possess a good knowledge of the Russian language, but, unfortu- nately, this does not always happen. And so, aids both for the pupil and for the teacher-linguist are necessary. It is necessary to have a plan for the production of books on the Russian language, not only at the central publishing houses but also at the publishing houses of the na- tionality republics. It is necessaiy to know precisely what we will pub- lish for Armenia,what for Georgia, what for Kazakhstan, what for the Ukraine. Accordingly, the ceilings on paper for the publication of dictionaries and texts should be raised. Perhaps no other publishing house produces as many dictionaries as ours, said Russkiy Yazyk Publishing House director V. I. Nazarov, but the choice of definitive dictionar'ies for the nationality republics is extreme- ly limited. Right now a new definitive dictionary of 5,000 words has been created that can be used successfully in the nationality republics, the more so sifice this dictionary is illustrated. But we have practically an absence of study dictionaries of the Russian language that are addressed to students and pupils for whom Russian is not the native tongue. Soon, for the first time, an illustrated dictionary-study aid for Russian, 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY based on 4,000 words, will be produced. In 1978 an All-Union Conference on Publishing-House Workers Who Produce Dicti.onaries was held, and it was explaine~ at that conference that we have in practice a poorly developed t,ypc,logy t'or dictic~nar.ies and that there is not a single eenter tht~t i~ occupied in the methodology of their prepa~ation. This must be correct- ed. We have undertaken to expand the output of Russian dictionaries. With the help of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Russian-language vocabu- - laries have been prepared that can be used successfully in the republics of the nationalities. (These include, for example, the 4,000 most-used words). The time has come to use electronic-computing technology for the systematic processing of Russian-language glossaries. It is to be re- ~ called that the textbook literature on Russian for foreigners that the " publishing house produces costs more, in our opinion, than what is being ~ published for our pupils. We are producing up to 2 million phonograph records and 80,000 cassettes per year--technical resources that foreign- _ ers are using successfully to acquire Russian speech. Pione of us is as yet conducting such work on the teaching of Russian to Soviet citizens on such a wide scale. It is planned to produce in the next few years phi~ase books, supplemented by cassettes, for the na~ionality republics that will enable more effective and correct teaching of Russian conversational speech. Summing up the results of the discussion of the report, Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences Academician P. N. Fedoseyev touched on cer- tain questions that were raised during the discussion. The first question was that of the study of Russian outside the school or in addition to school instruction. The draft of a resolution that had been presented to the AN SSSR Presidium was aimed primarily at helping ' the school, but it is necessary to consider also the needs of the adult population. Mention should be made about Russian-language study in pre- , school institutions, in earlier childhood. This task should be examined jointly by the Academy of pedagogical Sciences and the Institute of Psy- cholog,y of the AN SSSR. What B. N. Petrov said relative to helping the populace to master the Russian conversational language is also extremely important. - At the same time, it must be emphasized that our linguistic institutions - should also conduct a theoretical study of the language and develop in an appropriate form and clarify the problems of ;;he relationships of lang- uages, particularly the historico-cultural and psychologico-cultural problems of bilinguality. _ It is known that language is a basic core of nationality eulture. The study and propagation of the Russian language does not in the slightest ~ infringe upon the nationality language, and, consequently, nationality _ culture. Therefore, bilinguality, from the social and historico-cultural point of view, is a progressive phenomenon. A correct understanding of the role of bilinguality and the role of Russian as the language of com- munication among nationalities is one of the basic factors in the suc- cessful propagation, study and teaching of Russian. In this connection, ` 52 FOR OFFICI~i:. LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY P. N. Fedoseyev dwelt on the tea~hir.g ef R,~~s;an ;n h;ohPr educational institutions. You know, he said, that in the postwar years the teaching - of various special disciplines was converted to the nationality languages in many higher educational institutions of the iTnion r.epublics. From the historico-cultural point of view, this was, of course, a progressive phe- nomenon, since it expanded the social function of the national languages and was a sign of their progressiveness. But there is another, society- wide aspect to the question that should not enter into contradiction with the historico-cultural question-~the necessity for the all-around train- ing of specialists from the nationality republics, so that they, knowing the language of communication among the nationalities, will be able to woi�k also in other Soviet republics. Therefore, the task is posed of ex- panding experience in the teaching of special disciplines in Russian in higher educational institutions of the nationality republics. An account- ing of the actual activity and the actual requirements here is telling. We proceed frcin the fact that, oiven the present level of development of nationality cultL~re and the nationality language, when it has been given wide social functions, there is no danger of any kind that the teaching of special discipl~nes in Russian in the higher educational institutions - of the nationality r~~publics can infringe to any extent upon the natiun- ality lan~guage or the iiationality culture. On the contrary, the intro- duction of the principle of bilinguality and the study and propagation of the language of communication between nationalities, along with the na- tionality language also serve society-wide purposes and the business of cultural development and the blossoming of each nationality. Along with . working out the problems of the Russian language and of inethods for teach- _ ing it, propaganda of a correct understanding of the principle of biling- uality and of the relationship of the language of communication between nationalities to ~he nationality languages, based upon the principle of internationalism and the Leninist nationality policy, is very import- ant for linguistic institutions. It has been said here many times that the main thing, of course, is per- sonnel, especially to teach Russian. In the nationality re;~ublics, espe- cially in Central Asia, and especially in rural schools, the teacher of - Russian often is poorly trained and he h.imself has a poor cummand of the Russian language. Therefore, a number of practical measures is being � undertaken--and our institutions should take part in this --to extend as- sistance in an organizational procedure to create Russian-language peda- gogical institutes in the nationality republics, where cadres who know the Russi~n lan~uage well and are able to teach it in the middle school, including schools in rural areas, would be specially trained. A very important problem is the publication of dictionaries and textbooks. This has its difficulties, which are connected with a lack of paper and the tightness of the printing base. We should express our ideas also on these factors and see what our Nauka Publishing House can do with regard to publishing literature about the Russian language and to helping the Union republics to produce the necessary literature. 53 FOR OFFICIAL BSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I L ~s ~,~a;,;~;,u g ' a !:~i i*! Ta~hkent in Mav 1979 a lar e All-Union Confer- ence on Questions of the Functioning ~f the Russian Language. Its organ- i i i n~; c~~~mm i t.l.c~e i ti under Aeademi e i an M. fi . K rfiE~chenko . Tnc] udcd i n the organizing committee are the USSIt Minister of liigher and Secondary Spe- cialized Education, the USSR Minister of Education and the ministers of education of all the Union republics. The USSR Academy of Sciences and the republic academies should take a most direct and active participation in the preparatior.s for and the conduct of this conference. Decision Having examined the question of further improving the study and teaching of the Russian language and Russian literature i~i the Union and autono- ~ mous republics and the autonomous oblasts and okrugs, the Presidium of t~te USSR Academy of Sciences considered it necessary to intensify the participation of philological institutes of the AN SSSR and of the Union- republic academies of sciences in executing the measures that are being. conducted in this field by the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, the USSR Ministry of Education, the USSR Ministry of Higher and Secondary ~ Specialized Education, and Union-republic ministries and agencies. The ` USSR Academy of Sciences and the Union-republic academies of sciences now face the task of substantially intensifying work to study the functioning of the Russian language as a means uf internationality communication, to improve its teaching in the schools and vuzes of the Union republics, and to improve the teaching of Russian literature. The Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has decided to charge the AN SSSR Russian Language Institute, with the cooperation of philological institutes of the Union-republic academies of sciences, with developing a long-range program of scientific research and practical measures on the topic, "The Russian Language as a Means of Communication among the Na- tionalities," and called for the development therein of the fpllowing basic areas: the theoretical development of problems that are connected with study of . the growing role of the Russian language in the nationality republics, an expansion of its social functions in the sphere of public education in an environment of Russian-nationality language bilinguality as an important factor of social progress, and the development and enrichment of the na- tionality languages of the peoples of the Soviet Union; research of the processes of the functioning of the Russian language in the republics, taking into account the nationality specifics of each ' republic; . ' a study of the real situation of knowledge of the Russian language among _ the non-Russian populace and the preparation of practical recommendations about raising the level of mastery of Russian where there is Russian- nationality language bilinguality; 54 FOR OFFICIAT., LTSE O1V'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY development of the principles of creating new practical works on the Rus- sian language that are intended for use in the nationality r~pub.lics (contrastive grammar~ and basic Russian defining dictionaries); and improvement of the study-raethods base for teaching Russian in the nation- ality republics with a view to improving the methods and principles of teaching and to raising the qualifications of teachers and to expanding technical support for the teaching process. The AN SSSR Russian Language Institute, moreover, has been charged with constantly coordinating scientific research on problems of the function- ing and study of the Russian language with the special subunits that have been created in linguistic institutes of the nationality republics, ex- tending them assistance in scientific methods to increase the effective- ness of scientific developments and of practical recommendations for im- proving Russian-language teaching in Union-republic schools and wzes. The Russian-Language Institute has been given the responsibility for de- veloping recommendations on scientific methods for the preparation of grammatical, syntactic and le xical minima for teaching Russian-language conversation in short courses to groups of various vocational orienta- tions of the adult population of the nationality republics, and for en- ~ gaging in the pre~aration and scientific approval of a series of small defining dictionaries that are designed for various groups that are studying the Russian language and are equipped with the necessary infor- mation about the norms for sophistication of Russian speECh (pronuncia- tion, the syntactic and lexical combinability of words, the elements of inflection,and word-forming). The Institute of Russian Literature (the pushkin House) of the AN SSSK and the ~nstitute of World Literature imeni A. M. Gor'kiy of the AN SSSR have been charged with establishing closer collaboration with scientific instituti.ons of the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, the USSR Mini- stry of Education, and the USSSR Ministry of Higher and Secondary Spe- cialized Education, having in mind the systematic participation of USSR Academy of Sciences in the creation of textbooks, study aids and diction- aries and the development of standard Russian-language and Russian-liter- ature study programs for Union-republic schools and wzes, and with de- veloping and presenting to the AN SSSR Division of Literature and Lang- ~ uage by 1 January 1979 a program for the participation of scientists of the division in the publication of a library for the teacher of the Rus- sian language and literature in the nationality school. The Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has appealed to the presid- ia of the Union-repLiblic academies of sciences with a request to again charge the Russian-language sections of philological institutions that have been created to help Union-republic schools and Yuzes to devel- op textbonks and study programs, to improve the training of Russian lang- uage teachers, to improve the study process, to call for the preparation of nationality-language-to-Russian and Russian-to-nationality-language defining dictionaries for si:udy purposes in the plans for scientific 55 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY research for the next few years, and also to promote research aimed at creating comparative grammars of the Russian and the nationality lang- uages that will serve as a scientific basis for new Russian-language textbooks and that will consider�the specifics of the nationalities. The Editorial and Publishing Council of the AN SSSR and the Nauka Publish- ing House have been charged with examining the question of expanding the production of Russian-language dictionaries and scientific-methods litera- ture for the nationality republics, and the AN SSSR Division of Literature and Language and its linguistic institutes have been charged with taking _ an active part in the preparations for and the conduct o~ the All-Union Scientific-Theory Conference on Problems of Further Improving Teaching of the Russian Language in Nationality Schools (Tashkent, May 1979). The Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has required the journals of the AN SSSR's Division of Literature and Language--IZVESTIYA AN SSSR, S~RIYA LITERATURY Y YAZYKA [Herald of "~.e USSR Academy of Sciences, Lit- erature and Language Series], VOPROSY YAZYKOZNANI'YA [Questions of Ling- uistics], RUSSKAYA RECH' [Russian Speech], VOPR~JSY LITERATURY [Questions of Literature] and RUSSKAYA LITERATURA [Russian Literature]--to regular- ly publicize questions of Study of the Russian language and Russian lit- erature in the nationality republics and of the development of the scien- tific bases for teaching them. The API SSSR Russian Language Institute has proposed to expand the sector for Russian-language study in the nationality republics through special- ists in Russian-lan~uage philology who have mastered languages of the peo- ples o~F the US5R. ~ - It is recommended that Union-republic academies of sciences use more widely the possibilities for raising the qualification of scientists that exist in AN SSSR head institutes--special graduate training and on- the-job training of young specialists. Copyright: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR",~1979 11409 CSO: 1800 - S6 FOR OFFICIAL. IISE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Y REGIONAL = AVICENNA PHILOSOPHY ANALYZED IN RELATION TO SUFISM Dushanbe IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK TADZHIKSKOY SSR OTDELENIYE OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK in Russ~ian No 2, 1979 signed to press 16 May 79 pp 59-66 [Article by K. Olimov: "Ibn-Sina [Avicenna] and Sufism"] [Text] Defining the relationship between Avicenna and Sufism is important not only for investigation of the world outlook of the thinker himself but also because it helps in gaining a more profound understanding of the inter-. action and reciprocal influence at work in the various schools and trends in the history of the philosophy of tl:e countries of the Near and Middle East. This question has been the subject of debates among various scholars, ~oth west European, foreign eastern, and Soviet. The subject is discussed mainly in connection with the reputedly lost book "Khikmat-ul-Mashrikiya" ("The Philosophy of the East") of Avicenna. ~ ~ In the opinion of L. Gardet, "Khikmat-ul-Mashrikiya" was written in the spirit of a mixture of Pythagorism, Platonism and Neo-Platonism rather than Aristotelianism. According to Gardet, Avicenna wrote this book in this spirit because both P'ythagorism and Platonism originated in the East: Moreover, Gardet observes that thereafter Avicenna exhibited a learning toward a dis- tinctive rationalistic Sufism (Irfoni Akli).2 S. Pines thinks that "Khikmat-ul-Mashrikiya" differs from the Aristotelian philosophy and consequently Avicenna, perhaps moving away from peripateticiscp, is seeking a new path for his awn philosophy.3 A.M, Bogoutdinov, supporting A. Guashon, writes: "In reality, Abu Ali Sino, particularly in the last years of his life, was not satisfied with the theories of Aristotle; he - wanted to find his own mode of thinking and for t~is purpose he tried first of all to establish his awn new system of logic." According to A. Korben, "Khikmat-ul-Mashrikiya" is not just a geographic name. For Ayicenna and Sukhravardi, he writes, the "East" is used in the 57 FOR OFFICIti;, USE ()NLY ~ _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY sense of the world of abstract and reasonable substance, the world of light, and movement "upward" means separation from the material and sensual world. - It is from this that Henri Korben derives his recognition of the link ~ between Avicenna and the Sufistic philosophy. Khoben, following Massin'on, asserts that in the creative work of Avicenna ~Sufism was transformed into a distinctive "naturalistic Sufism." Develop- ing this idea further, Gardet writes that "naturalistic Sufism" loosened the roots in the philosophy of Avicenna and consequently, if one ignores this, one cannot grasp all the aspects of Avicenna's world views.5 Guashon rejects entirely any relationship between Avicenna and Sufism.6 Said Nurullo Takvo, on the other hand, believes that Avicenna was an active practitioner of Sufism.~ B. Furzonfar states that the treatises "Khay ibn - Yakzan" and "Ptitsa," which discuss combining human reason and active rea- son, are not specifically applicable to Sufism. However, in his oj._nion, in "Trakiata o Lyubvi~ [Treatise on Love]" and "Kniga Ukazaniy i Nastaleniy [Book of Directives and Precepts]" Avicenna delineates the problems of ~ Sufism in splendid fashior.. At the same time, Furzonfar emphasizes the fact that Avicenna led the kind of life which is in general not character- _ istic of ascetics.8 Said Hussein Nasr, while regarding Avicenna as the greatest representa~ive of the peripatetic school, observes at the same time that his views to a certain extent also include the essence of the philosophy uf Sufism.9 We are attempting to cast light on this subject on~the basis.of an analysis of Avicenna's book "Ukazaniya i Nastavleniya" and his treatises "0 Lyubvi," "IQlay ibn Yakzan" ("Zhivoy, Syn Bodrstvuyushchego") and "Ptitsa" because it is in these works that the thinker touches upon the pr oblems of Sufism. This analysis will help to provide a more telling indication of the nature of tize great thinker's attitude toward Sufism. In addition, defining the attitude of various practitioners of Sufism taward Avicenna and his legacy also had definite historical and philasophical importance. A number of Avicenna's works examine the basic prob~ems which occupy a special place in the philosophy of Sufism. ~The book "Ukazaniya~fi Nastavleniya" and the treatises "Khay ibn Yakzan," 0 Lyubvi, Ptitsa and Salamon i Absal focused attention on the questions which are particularly important for understanding Avicenna's relation to Sufism. � An analysis of Avicenna on the basis of the works of the Sufist representa- tives and publicists themselves is characterized by the fact that it is ad- dressed in g~eat part to a rationalistic explanation of the theory and aims of Sufism and to a philosophic corroboration of the potential for intuitive knaw ledge . Avicenna does not argue against Sufism; on the contrary, he is in sympathy - w ith its tenets. Moreover, in his works Avicenna~defends Sufism again~t 58 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . the attacks of those who denigrated its representatives. The following statc~m~mt of his beara witnesy to thip: "The idar~a encompttaHti~d by thie science (i.e. Sufism) appear ludicrous to the ignorant fool but to the scholar they are instructive. He who hears about this (i.e. mystical cognition) but entertains hatred toward it is condemned in spirit and is unworthy in respect to it."10 When we examine Avicenna's relation to Sufism we believe it necessary to keep in mind first, the use of Sufistic terminology in his works and second, the explanation in fac~ of the doctrines of Sufism and the interpretation of them. This point of view can also best explai.n the thinker's attitude toward Sufism and its theoretical tenets. On the other hand, a comparative study of the the philosophy of Sufism anci peripateticism provides valuable mater- ial_ for an explanation of the peripatetic philosophy's influence on the theory of Strfism and vica versa. ~ In a number of his works pertaining to Sufism Avicenna employs Sufistic terminology, He also uses such terms most frequently encountered among Sufistic thinkers as stage (daradzha), station (makam), dedication (riyezat), truth (khak), knowledge (marifat), and others. Avicenna's treatises make extensive use of allegories and favorite modes of expression of veiled ideas and aims for the Sufists. "Khay ibn Yakzan," "Salamon i Absal" and ;'Ptitsa," written with artistic brilliance, are rich in symbols and all the subjects the~ treat are allegorical. "Abu Ali Sino was not a Sufist but, like many other progressive thinkers af the Tadzhik nation, employed Sufistic terminology to cloak his humanistic and anticlerical ideas because this was the only way he could defend him- self against the persecution of the fanatical scholastics of Islam."11 Avicenna sets forth a favorable characterization of the Sufists (orif)in the book'Vkazaniya i Natavleniya." He writes that the knowledgeable people (orifon) have stages and conditions which are peculiar to them and are not found in other people. They want to free themselves from mundane corporeal commitments and to fix their eyes on the divine and spiritual world. In delineating the basic aims of Sufism Avicenna emphasizes the point that its require~hents are fulfilled not so that God may reward the Sufist after death, as the representatives of any official religion usually conceive this; he [the SufistJ tries to cleanse his soul. Gradually, as a result of the purification, the sou perceives the luster of the active mind, joins with it, and becomes holy.~~ The Sufist theorists set up definite stages for "perfecting" of Sufism for purposes of achievement of the ultimate aim--the bler.ding with truth as divine intelligence. In essence, these stages comprise the following: repentance (tavba), patience (sabr), giving thanks to God (shukr), fear of 59 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE OATL,Y . God (khavf), hope for salvation (ridzha), hope (tavakkul), and love of God (mukhabbar). The traveller who makes his way along the path to truth gradually traverses these stages and can achieve the desired goal. The stages indicated by Avicenna for the traveler in sea~rch of `ruth differ somewhat from the above stages although from a practical standpoint they do not differ. He points to just three stages. The first is devotion. In - this stage the Sufist must feel that he can embark on the path to txuth, not be afraid of any difficulties that may arise, and be convinced of the correctness of the path he has chosen. The second stage in asceticism and exercise of the spirit for purposes of development of the capacity to reject mundane commitments. The third stage is time. After the Sufist has traversed the two stages in- dicated above, the divine light will become clear for him. In Sufistic terminology this moment is designated by the word "vakt" (time). There- after, the momentary appearance of the hoiy light as a result of dedication and "cleansing of the soul" is transformed for the Sufist into an enduring radiance. In going through these stages the Sufist achieves such a state that when he looks upon any object of the material world, it illuminates him and he forgets all the cares of the terrestrial sphere. ~ The thing that chiefly attracts Avicenna's attention in Sufism, in our opinion, is its moral norms. For example, in "Ukazaniya i Nastavleniya" Avicenna describes the following moral characteristics of Sufism: '"Phe Sufist is courageous. He does not fear death. He is generous and magnaci- imous. He is far removed from untruth. He forgives others. He possesses a great soul as compared to other people, and, finall,y, man's evil cannot lead him astray. He is not envious. His thoughts are always focused on truth. "13 This perhaps explains Avicenna's favorable attitude tbward Sufism. Of course, if we consider the circumstance that in the earlier medieval op- pression of the workers by the feudal rulers, especially the Gaznevidskiy ones, that they reached the limit of their endurance, and that the repre- sentatives of Sufism took a stand against tyranny and repression, then Avicenna's attitude toward the Sufists becomes clear. We believe that it was precisely because of the free-thi.nking spirit of Sufism and the opposition of its representatives to tb:: inequities of the _ time that these conditions could not, of course, mee~ with the approval of the progressive thinkers, particularly Avicenna. ' Another subject which is coumion to the philosophy of Avicenna and to Sufism is the subject of love. 60 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Avicenna's "Traktat o Lyubvi" bears witness to the fact that Avicenna's conception of love is close to that of the thinkers of Sufism. For ex- ample, the well-known Sufistic figure Mansur Khalladzh wrote: The aim of all the world is love The whole world is the body and the soul is love. The subject of love occupies a very important place in the philosophy of Sufism. The love of cne iover for the object of his love (i.e. God) is the moving force in the self-perfection of the individual who seeks the absolute reality. For the Sufists ~love is a mystical force which sets itse lf against reason and ultimately becomes an instrument of insight into reality. In "Traktata o Lyubovi" Avicenna asserts that all matter strives for per- fection but perfection can only be attained through the instrumentality of love. Every object possesses love; the only difference is in the degree of perfection of the object. In some entities a natural element and is found in the lowest degree; in others it exists to a higher de~ree. Avicenna writes that "all existing beings (governed by high principle) pos- sess a natural craving and an innate love. It necessarily follaws f'rom this that in these beings love is their raison d'etre."14 - ~ According to the Sufist thinkers, an enduring love must lead to the unity of the object of the love (God) and the sub3ect (man). This unity is the loftiest aim and the highest form of beauty. Hence, for the Sufist thinkers it is the most honorable and noblest state of man; it defines the meaning of his life and l~ads him tn his final gcal. For example, Sanoi, celebrating divine love, wrote: For the man love is a crown - It is better than all the ~ther pursuits.l5 Speaking of the object and subject of love, Avicenna declares that~the ob- ject of love is the greatest good and the most perfect form of love is the love b� the greatest good for itself because other subjects' love for it cannot be complete "for it is the greatest blessing.. And the loftiest sub- ject of love is identical with the loftiest object of love and indeed with the loftiest and holiest essence of the Most High because tlie good loves the good by merging with it through the process of finding it and under- standing it."16 Avicenna does not limit love to just the relation between man and~an ab- , solute beingi He by no means rejects love between other individuals and phenomena. However, he believes that this love is less perfect when compared wiCh the love of absolute good. Every lower stage in the hierarchy of objects imitates a higher stage and the striving for perfection is char- acteristic of all the lower forms. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Avtccnu.l~4 roncc:1~Cton ul luv~~ does not uyHlgn ,i dominunt rol~~ lo thc~ pi~H- sionate exultation which is characteristic of the extremist Sufists. Pre- dominant in it is a rationalistic and philosophical exposition of the sub- ject under discussion, unlike the works of the Sufist thinkers~whose pri- � mary orientation is directed to inf luencing the feelings of the reader and speaker (for example, Ansori, Aynulkuzot, Dzhaloliddin Rumi and others). Nonetheless, Avicenna approves of this central idea of Sufism as a phil- osophy in unity with an absolute being. He declares in his writing that "all the existing objects love the absolute good inherent in love and what the absolute good represents to them but they perceive its manifestation in different ways and they link up with it in different ways. The final step in harmonizing with it is the perception of its manifestation in its true nature, i.e. the most perfect of the possible ways--and this is what the Sufists designate as unity."17 . In respect to cognizance of an absolute being Avicenna's views in "Traktat o Lyubvi" are contiguous to the views of the Sufist thinkers, especially Sanoi, Attorum and Rumi. In his poem "Khadikat-ul-Khakika" Sanoi explains that truth becomes known when it itself wishes that it be known and hence its essential nzture is perceived through itself. Man himself cannot know it (truth) through himself Its substance becomes known through itself.18 Avicenna says in his writing: "If absolute good did not reveal itself, nothing would be obtained from it; if nothing was obtained from it, then - there would be nothing real."19 In another treatise of his, "Salamon i Absal," Avicenna sets forth in al- Legorical form the difficulties which beset man in his efforts to attain correct kno~wledge and the freedom of his spirit from various evils. The plot of the story is this: Salamon and Absal are two brothers who live in friendship, are devoted to each other, and are characterized by�moral ~ purity and benevolence. However, Salamon's wife, who appears as a symbol of evil and depravity, while a?arried to her husband, wants to enjoy the love of his brother. But Absal tries his best to avoid her. Howevery : through various deceits Salamon's wife achieves her aim. Ultimately justice triumphs and the syinbol of evil.--Salamon's wife--is curelly pun- _ ished. In this story Avicenna wants primarily to depict the difficulties which confront ma.n on the path to knowledge of absolute truth. To attain truth, according to Avicenna, man must free himself fram evil designs and thoughts and from the commitments of terrestrial life. In their motifs, devices and aims Avicenna's stories "Khay ibn Yakzan" and "Ptitsa" are closely related to some of the Sufist works. - ~ 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In the first of these stories the old man Khay, in carrying out the tasks of a tutor, leads his students through many stages of know ledge. He eluci- dates the paths and the obstacles which face the travelers. One of the obsCncles is ~~ntuiled in the terrestrial and material phenomena which impede the attainment of correct knowledge. And at ~he summit ia the eternally young tsar who illuminates the path for all the seekers. He is not unlike the sun and it is blinding to look upon him. But he shows his beauty and his greatne~s. Here we see a certain device which is widely used by the Sufists--likening God to the sun: Na shabam, na shabparastam, ki khadisi khab guyam Chu gulomi oftobam, khama z-oftob guyam I am not night and I am not a worshipper of night for telling the story about dreams (No) I am not a slave of the sun nor say: Everything from the sun. (Dzhaloliddin Rumi) Or: Chunbishi nur sun nur buvad, . Nur z-oftob kay dur buvad The ray makes its way toward the ray - Haw can it separate from the sun? (Sanoi) However, Avicenna's stories are pervaded by the spirit of rationalism more than by mysticism. ~In "Khay ibn Yakzan" Avicenna descrines the structure of the physical and spiritual worlds and the paths of knowledge of these worlds through internal and external feelings. In "Ptitsa," another philosophical talA, the thinker also emphasizes the point that the man who has become free of deficiencies and has enhanced his character with reason and knawle~ge becomes not unlike an angel and gains his "true " identity. In tha allegorical form of birds which have fallen into the hunter's net, ~vicenna portrays the spirits of people who are held captive by the body. While there is still even one thread at the - birds' feet, they cannot gain complete freedom. They can only be freed by . " a wise ment.or who leads them to the wise tsar. _ The words of Avicenna and the historical-biographical information about him indicate that he was not a member of any Sufist order and moreover did not consider himself a Sufist. This is indisputable. However, as a 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY distinguished scientific and freedom-loving thinker he could not be in- different to the ideological, political and aesthetic trends of his time. Although he himself was not a member of any Sufist school, he had friends among the followers of Sufism. Evidence of this is found in his meetinge with well-knawn Sufists, such as the poets of his time Shelkh Abusaid Abulkhayr Maykhani and Abulkl-~asan Kharakoni and also in "Traktat o Lyubvi," the work by Avicenna himself,which is about a certain Abdullokh, a Sufist attorney. (Some researchers believe that this Abdullokh was a student of Avicenna). These ideas of Avicenna~as delineated in h is works "Ukazaniya i Nastavleniya," "Traktat o Lyubvi" and "Salamon i Absal;' indicate that the thinker was not indifferent to the theoretical and ethical principles of the philosophy of Sufism. He apparently felt a close kinship with the questions which were in some degree common to the philosophy of eastern peripateticism and Sufism and specifically the theory emanating from it, the theory of love and prophecy, although the interpretations of them were not the same in peripatheticism and Sufism. However, despite all this, Avicenna was not concerned with justifying - mysticism. He always tried to explain everything from the standpoint of science. A. M. Bogoutdinov observes: "Even in the parts of his work "Ishorot" where Abu Ali Sina seem~ to be approaching Sufism, we still see in him not an apology for mysticism, and not a paean to ectstasy but an attempt at scientific analysis of the relevant psychic circumstances."20 The works of Avicenna had a definite influence on the Sufist thinkers. Such well-knawn and highly artistic poems as "Sayr-ul-ibod ial Ma'od" ("Puteshestviye Rabov (Boga) k Mestu VozvraCa") by Abulmadzhdi Sanoi; "Mantik-ut-Tayr" ("Beseda Ptits") by Faridaddin Attor; "Salamon i Absal" by Abdurrakhman Dzhami; and "Lisonut-Tayr" ("Yazyk Ptits") by Alisher Navoi are to a certain extent reminiscent of the content of Avicenna's treatises. Ye. E. BPrtel's remarked on the similarity in content be~ween Avicenna's "Khay ibn Yakzana" and Sanoi's "Sayr-ul-ibod ial Maod" and Dante Alighieri's "Devine Comedy."21 - In its devices, symbols and content "Sayr-ibn-ibod " is indeed very remi- niscent of "Khay ibn Yakzana." Where the tutor in Avicenna's treatise tells of the difficulties and ways to overcome them in order to achieve freedom of the soul, Sanoi, in poetry, describes ho~ the tutor will guide the student in his "journey." Acting as guide in Sanoi's poem is Reason, the instrumentality employed by man to free himself from the various com- mitments of the earthly life and heavenly realms. Faridaddin Attor's poem "Beseda Ptits" and Alisher Navoi's imitative poem "~azyk Ptits" have important differences but their basic idea is similar to Avicenna's treatise "PCitsa." Although th~se poems never indicate di- - rectly that they were wriCten in imitation ai Avicenna, nevertheless the 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r ; _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200044456-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY similarity of. their content is evidence that his literary and philosophic trcatises had a definite influence on the writing of these poems. Avicenna's influence is not limited to this. Actually his philosophic - works also had a de~inite influence on the evolution of the world views of a number of Sufist thinkers. Thus, afte~ becoming acquainted with Avicenna's work "Azkhaviya" ("Osbeshcheniye"), Aynulkuzat Khamadoni (a Sufist thinker of the 12th century), who considered himself a pupil of Abukhomid Gazali and Akhmad Gazali, in explaining the existence of an afterlife, rewards and punish- ment after death, etc., goes over to the position of Avicenna. - Apropos of the attitude of the Sufist thinkers taward Avicenna, we would point out that many of them, through acknowledging the great talent and outstanding scholarship of Avicenna, nevertheless were ~ritical of his rationalistic philosophy.22 This attitude is conspicuous in the poems of Sanoi, Attor, Khokoni, Dzhami and others. The f.act is many of the Sufist thinkers preached an irration- al conception of absol.ute truth (God) and hence their doctrine was at variance with Greek philosophy, or rather perpitateticism, which in the East was in a certain sense synonomous with atheism and materialism. And ~ since Avicenna was a true successor to and defender of the philosophy of Aristotle, the representatives uf Sufism rejected his tea~hings. . Especially after Abukhomid Gazali pronounced his verdict against "the heretical and antireligious" character~of the legacy of Farabi, Avicenna and their schools, the unfavorable attitude ~oward them became almost habitual for the Mutallim and a number of Sufist thinkers. FOOTNOTES 1. Footnote given in Islamic calligraphy. A lso: "Said Khuseyn Nasr." 2. Ibid p. 245. 3. Boltayev, M. N. "Alcidakhon Falsafii Abuali ibni Sino." Dushanbe, 1969, no 62. 4. Bogoutdinov, A.M. "Outline of the History of Tadzhik Philosophy." ~ Stalinabad, 1961, p 321. 5. "Said Khuseyn Nasr," p 250. 6. Ibid, p 52. 7. Footnote given in Islamic calligraphy. 65 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240040056-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 8. Footnote given is Islamic calligraphy. - 9. "Said Khuseyn Nasr," p 256. ' . 10. Footnote given is Islamic calligraphy. Also: "Ishorot." 11. "Ibn-Sina. Danish-aame." Foreword by A. M. Bogoutdinov. Stalinabad, 1961, p 45. 12. "Ishorot," p 248. 13. Ibid, p 256~. - 14. Quoted from the book by Serebrayakov, S. B. "Traktat Ibn Siny (Avitsenny) o Lyubvi." Tbilisi, 1976, p 48. 15. Footnote given in Islamic calligraphy. Also: Abdulmadzhi Sanoi. 16. Quoted from the book by Serebryakov, S. B. "Ukaz. Soch.," p 67. , ~ - 17. Ibid, p 64. 18. Ahulmadzhi Sanoi, p 62. 19. Quoted from the book by Serebryakov, S. B. "Ukaz. Sochi," p 67. 20. "Ibn-Sina. Danish-name," p 45. " ~ 21. Bertel's, Ye. E. "Avitsenna i Persidskaya Literatura [Avicenna and Persian Literature]" "News of AS USSR. Social Sciences Division," 1938, No 1-2, p 80. 22. See: Radzhabov, M. "Abdurakhmon Dzhami and Tadzhik Philosophy of the _ ltth Century." Dushanbe, 1968, p 33; Olimov, K. "The Ideology of Sanoi, Dushanbe, 1973, pp 55-56; Mukhamedkhodzhayev, A. "The Ideology of Fariddadin Attor." Llushanbe, 1974, p 19; Rzakuli-Zade, S. D. "The Social, Political and Philosoph~c Views of Khagani Shervani." Baku,. 1962 . 7:'i~2 - ~SO: 1800 EI~ 66 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200040056-4