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JPRS L~'8928
15 February 1980
~ IJSSR R~e ort
_ p
,
ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
~FUUO 2/80)
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JPRS L/8928
15 February 1980
USSR REPORT
EL~CTRONICS Af~D ELECTRICAL ENGINEERIHG
(FOUO 2/80)
_ This serial publication contains articles, abstracts of articles and news
items from USSR scientific and technical journals on the specific subjects
reflected in the table of contents.
Photoduplications of.~foreignlanguage sources may be obtained from the
Photoduplication SPrvice, Library of Congress, Washingtoa, D. C. 20540.
Requests should provide adequate identification both as to the source and
the individual article(s) desired.
CONTENTS PAGE
= ANTENNAS 1
Antennas (Present State and Problems) 1 
Certain Features of Designing Type ADE Antenna Exciters....... 4
Improving the Decoupling Between Antennas Located
on a Convex Object.. 14
~
CERTAIN ASPECTS OF COMPUTLR HARD AND SOFT WARE; CONTROL, 
AUTOMATION, TELEMECHANICS AND MACHINE PLANNING 23
Physics of Cylindrical Magnetic Domains 23
COMMUNICATIONS; COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT; DATA TRANSMISSION
AND PROCESSING 25 ~
Echo Suppressors in Communication Lines... 25
A Space Communication Ground Station in Bulgaria 27
LongRange Propagatin~.z of Radio Waves in the Ionosphere....... 28
 a [III  U5SR  21E S&T FOUO]
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 CONTENTS (Continued) ~ Page ~
COMPONCNTS AND CIRCUIT ELEMENTS; INCLUDING WAVEGUIDFS
 ANl) CAV~'PY Itf?SONATOKS 30
Optical Band Dielectric Waveguides BasPd on
Organosilicon Compounds 30
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION; IONOSPHERE;
TROPOSPHERE; ELECTRODYNAMICS 34
The Active Cancellation of Electromagnetic Wa~~es............ 34
Determination of the Moisture Content of a Cloudless
Atmosphere From Measurements of Outgoing Microwave
Radiation From on Board an Aircraft 43
~ Some Features of the Ray Trajectory in the Propagation
of Radio Waves in an Irregular Ionospheric Waveguide...... 53
The Measurement of the Coordinates of a Point Object
Observed Through a Turbulent Atmosphere 66
EI.ECTRON TUBES; ELECTROVACUIJM TECHNOLOGY 77
Microwave Amplifiers With Crossed Fields 77
Book on Experimental Radiooptics 81 =
GENERAL CIRCUIT THEORY AND INFORMATION 85
 PhaseLocked Loops With Sampling Components 85
GENFRAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 87
Metrological Control System for Production 87
 INSTRUMENTS, MEASURING DEVICES AND TESTORS; METHODS OF
MEASURING 92
Plane Radiometers Made Witr Semiconductor L'pvices.'.......... 92
HighFrequency Method for Measuring Nonelectrical 
Quantities 99
 b  '
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CONTENTS (Continued) Page 
AtICROEL~CTRONICS [INCLUDING MICROCIRCUITS, 'tNTEGRATED ~
CIRCUITS] 103
Assurance of Linearity of Conversion in Developing
LargeScale Hybrid Integrated Circuits of a
 Precision AnalogDigital Converter 103
RADARS, RADIO NAVIGATION AIDES, DIRECTION FINDING 112
Superregenerative Detector 112
Computer Simulation in Radar 119
Optimizing Digital Coherent Weighte.? Processing
of Radar Signals 121
Radar With Adaptive Tuning 126
SEMICONDUCTORS AND DIELECTRICS 136
iJsing Palladium to Reduce the Reverse Current
Restoration Time of Pulse Diodes 136
A Microelectronic Position Photodetector Utilizing
the Longitudinal Photogalvanic Effect in Silicon........... 139
PUBLICATIQNS, INCLUDING COLLECTIONS OF ABSTRACTS 140
Abstracts from the Journal Izv. Vuz: Radioelektonika......... 140
Abstracts of Deposited Papers 142
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Antennas _
� UDC 621.396.677
ANTENNAS (PRESENT STATE AND PROBLEMS)
Moscow ANTENNY (Sovremennoye sostoyaniye i problemy) ~Antennas (Present
State and Problems)] in Russian 1979 signed to press 19 Apr 79 p 2,
206207
[Annotation and table of contents from book by D. I. Voskresenkiy, V. L.
Gostyukhin, K. I. Grineva, A. Yu. Grinev, B. Ya. Myakishev, L. I. Ponomarev,
and V. S. Filippov, edited by L. D. Bakhrakh, Associate member of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, and Professor D. I. Voskresenskiy, Sovetskoye radio,
30,000 copies 208 pages]
[Text] This book familiarizes radi~ engineers with main achievements in 
the theory and the technology of antennas, as well as with the problems
existing in this area. It describes the main tendencies in the develop
_ ment and the role of antenna devices in modern foreign radio engineering
complexes. Special attention is given to the types of antennas which are
most developed.and used (phased antenna arrays, active antenna arra,ys,
signalprocessing antenna arrays). It gives the main relations necessary
for the analysis of antennas and describes main achievements in the area '
of the synthesis of antennas and automation in designing antenna devices.
The authors used materials of domestic and foreign publications. �
The book is intended for a broad section of radio specialists and senior
students of vuzes. 
Figures 88; tables 5; bibliography 82 items.
Contents
_ Page
Foreward 3
1. Antennas in Modern Itadio Electronics 5
1.1. The Role of Antennas in the Modern State of Development 5
1.2. The Develc~pment of the Theory and Technology of Antennas
in Recent .'ears 7
1.3. Modern Problems in the Theory and Technology of
Antennas 11
1
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,
2. Main Characteristics of Linear and Plane Antennas 19
2.1. Parameters of Antennas and Antenna Arrays 19 
2.2. Main Relations of the Th~ory of Linear and Plane Antennas 31 .
2.3. Effects of Random Errors on the Charac~eristics of Linear
and Plane Antennas 3~
3. Phased 9ntenna Arrays 42
3,1. Introductory Remarks 42
3.2. Main Properties of Phased Antenna Arrays 43
3.3. Construction Schemes and Elements of Microwave Phased
Antenna Arrays 4~
3.4. Effects of a rtutual Influence of Radiators 53
 3.5. The Connection of the Directional Characteristic of
the Radiator in an Array with the ~haracteristics of a
Fully Excited Array 57
3,6. Discrete Phasing and Suppression of Co~nutation Lobes 60
3,7. Nonuniform Antenna Arrays 65 ~
3.8. Convex Phased Arrays 68
4. ApertureType Antennas 76
4.1. General Information About ApertureType Antennas 76
4.2. Mirror Antennas 77
4.3. Lens Antennas 95
4.4. Horn Antennas 100 
S. SignalProcessing Antennas 102
 5.1. Potentialities of SignalProcessing Antennas 102
5.2. Multipl.eBeam Antennas 104
5.3. Monopulse Antennas 109
5.4. Antennas with TimeModulation of Parameters (Dynamic 
Antennas) 115
 5.5. Antennas with Nonlinear Signal Processing ~ 118
5.6. Antennas with an Artificial Aper.ture (Synthesized
Aperture) 120
5.7. RadioOptical Antennas 124
5.8. Adaptive Antennas 128 _
5.9. Advantages and Disadvantages of SignalProcessing Antennas 137
h. Active Antenna Arrays 139
6.1. Introductory Remarks 139
6.2. Characteristics of Active Antenna Arrays 141
6.3. Block Diagrams of Active Antenna Arrays 144
6.4. Modules of Active Antenna Arrays 154
6.5. Some Problems of the Optimizati~n of Active Antenna Arrays 164
6.6. AdvanCages and Disadvantages of Active Antenna Arrays 167
7. Semidirectional passive and Activ~ Antennas 169
 7.1. Special Characteristics of the Calculation of Airborne
Semidirectional Antennas 169
2
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.
7.2. Meth~ds oF Finding the Radiarion Field of a Semi 
directional Aircraft Antenna 171
7.3. The Field of a Dipole Situated Above the Fuaelage of
an Aircratt of a Conical Sh,,tpe 174
7.4. Active Semidirectional Antennas 178
7.5. SuperwideBand Antennas 182
8. Some Problems of Antenna S}rntheais 187
8.1. On the Classical Methods of Solving Antenna
Synthesia Problema 187
8.2. Methods of MBthematical Progra~aning in Antenna
Synthesis Problems 190
9. Problems of the Automation of Designing in Developing Antenna
Devices 195
9.1. Introductory Remarks 195
_ 9.2. Mathematical Methods of Designing Antenna Devices 196
9.3. Problems of the Automation of Designing Antenna Arrays 197
Bibliography 2p2
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskoye radio," 1979 
[4710,233] 
10,233 
CSO; 1860
3
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UDC 621.396.677.833.2
CERTAIN FEATURES OF DESIGNING TYPE ADE ANTENNA EXCITERS
Moscow RADIOTEKHNIKA in Russian No 9, 1979, signed to press 9 Jan 79
pp 3539
~Article by Yu. B. Buzuyev, Yu. A~ Yeruki:imovich, A. A. Timofeyeva~
~Text~ The type ADE (Fig. 1) antenna consists of a basi c reflecting
mirror (OZ) a paraboloid with a shifted focal axis, a grimary ,
~ horn radiator (PI), an auxiliary mirror (VZ) with an elliptical
generatrix and a supporting system for the ~auxiliary mirror made, in
the ca sa being considered, of radiotransparent material in the shape
~ of a flat toroid (PT) with a special profile. We will call the unit
coasisting of a primary radiator, auxiliary mirror and toroid, the
exciter. The theoretical analysis and detai.led description of the
antenna were given in a number of papers ~14~ . Below we consider
some features of optimization af an ADE type antenna with = 105~
with respect to the coefficient of utilization of the sperture surface
, (KIP) and matching,
4 ~ i
_ ~i~ )
Z~ ~r~' rr
_ ~ ~^'jf
k~~~~ � '
C5~ ~ + ,
' L'
E ~ + i
i. ~~y ~
lg. 1
1. OZ 4. PT
2. PI 5. d ~
3. VZ 6� d3
.
4 ,
~'0~ 0~'~'~C~~, 01~~ ~ 
~ ~ 
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When designing an exciter for a type ADE antenna, it is necessary to
take into account one of its basic features the close location o�
the primary radiator to the auxiliary mirror, which causes a consider
able change in the amplitude and phase characteristics of the radiator
within ti~e radiation zone of the auxiliary mirror which is different
in the frequency raT~ge. Therefore, one of the bssic problems is to
obtain, as far as possible, unchanging characteristics of the primary
radiation within the limits of the working range. 
 One way of reaching the goal is Co use practically synphase horn
_ antennas with an aperature diameter 2R and a distance from the aperture
plane to the point of the auxiliary mirror selected so that total
dephasing Q~~ (of the horn itself and spatial) within the working
 range limits does not exceed 0.2`(Y i.e., that the following
condition is met:
(R' H=)~~2  H (R~ }1=}l~'  ~ 0, t~~ (1)
f
where H distance from horn aperture to its geometrical apex, ~ 
waveler.gth. According to (1), the horn radiator is practically
synphase, i.e., it has a phase center located near the horn aperature
~5 ~ and has all the advantages inherent in such a radiator (small
size) and shortcomings (poor match to the feed channeJ. and a compara
tively narrow frequency range).
Another way is to use various modifications of strongly dephased horn
antennas, for example ~68 etc. Dephased horn radiators are better
matched than s~~nphased to the feed channel and their phase center is
located near the apex. When using dephased horn antennas, it is
necessary to select a horn geometry, that within the working range 
~ c~~ ) Z j7'} i.e., fulfills condition:
~
(R= N')~1~  H 1 (R: ~ S,~~r~ _ S a . (2)
 where S distance along axis of horn aperture to the circle with a
center at focus "0" (Fig. 1), passing through the edge of the auxiliary
mirror. Fulfilling condition (2) makes it possible to obtain compara
tively stable amplitude and phase characteristics in a fairly wide
frequency range. For horns with a break in the generatrix (Fig. 2),
it is necessary, moreoever, that waveguide transition . from the wave 
guide cross section to the cross section ef the break have low dephasing
i.e,, the following condition be met:
~r: ~ h:)1~~  h ~ ~r2 (He f 1)~)~~1 (H, ~ O, lA, (3)
5 ~
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 where r radius of break cross section, h distance from the break
cross section to the geometrical apex of the cone forming the waveguide
transition, H distance from horn aperture to the break cross section.
In a usual dephased horn with a matched transition, condition (3) must
be fulfilled for the matching transition. This makes it possihle to
obtain a stable position oi the phase center in a wider range of !
frequencies.
~ ~ ' ~
1 ~ 5
' . `I / ~
iN~ N . n~.E 10 \
t If j N~ Rll.fJ
~N ~ lSd6 ' 
I _
20 10 U 10 20 ~
Fig, 2 Fig. 3.
1. plane E 3. db
2. plane H
In optimizing the antenna for KIY, it is necessary that the phase center ~
of the horn be superposed on the focus of the auxiliary mirrar for an
optimal amplitude characteristic.
 The relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the primary
radiator and the distance ~o the near zone is great; therefore, it is
necessary to know the position of the phase center of the horn very
 accurately. Moreoever, moving the horn closer to the auxiliary mirror
in order to sunerpose its phase center on focus "0" is limited due to
the effect on the horn of the radiation field of the basic mirror by
the auxiliary one. Therefore, it is found in practice when designing
= the exciter, that it is necessary to select 1~ ~~4 and
2R 1 should also be observed, where k= 2n/~ is the wave number, and a is
the wavelength.
We determine the field at point B which is due to the source at A by working
from Kirchoff's formula:
~1~ E=4~~f ~G~E'E~'~G}ds.
We shall use the we11kno~n expressions of [11  13] as tRe source function ~
El and Green~s funcfiion G:
1s
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iz~f
m rn" a w tm
(2) L,=1L1 erni~2Y~x~ ~tm_Qz w~t~ ~
) w(tm>y) ,
m ~
e ikRy e ~ (sezel f~ 
G = ein/: Z I ?L ~xpx~~ ~
_ li2 ~n(~Z
n
X w ~t^ys) w ~tny)
w ~tn) ~ ~tn) '
where ~ i y s
R~=Qe~ V1+ ~ ae R~=d ~ebe~> 1+ L a~ebe~) ~
are the distances~along the geodesic (fielical) line from points A and B to
the plane S where the additional diffracting ~creen is located; x~ _ 
_ _(ka/2)1~36~, xb  x~ _(ka/2)1~3(Ab  6~) are the distances from poinC~
A and B in referenced coqrdinates; ya =(2/ka)1~3k(ra  a), yb =(2/ka)1 3k�
�(rb ~a) and y=(2/ka)1/3k(r~  a) are the referenced heights of the cross
coupling antennas A and B, and the diffracting screen; w(t) is an Airy func _
tion, which satisfies the equation w"(t)  tw(t) = 0; tm and tn are the roots
~f the equations c~'(tm)  qw(tTi1) = 0 and w'(tn)  qw(tn~ = 0 respectively;
q is a parameter which takes into account the electrical properties of the =
 surf.ace and for horizontal and vertical polarizations, is equal to
i(ka/2)i~3 e~ and i(ka/2)'~' 1 respectively; ek is the complex
~ ve�+;4
 dielectric constant of the diffracting surface; M is a constant which char
acterizes the source A.
Having substituted expression (2) in (1}, we carry out the integration in
' Kirchoff's approximation over the surface S(the halfplane zA~), located
above the cylindrical body, excluding the portion occupied by the rectangular
shield of length 1 and height h=(r~  a). Tn formula (1), u is the nor
mal to the given surface. We carry out the integrat3on with respect to the ' .
variable z using the steadystate phase method, wfiile integration with re~
spect to y is accomplished in accordance with papers j12  13]. Without _
giving the voluminous intermediate mathematical derivations, we write the
final expression for the field of the cylindrical body with a flat rectan 
gular di.ffractor in the following form:
E=M w~tm~Ja) w~tnyb) e~~~~m+cxo~~?~~ X . 
m n w`tm~ w~tn~ r
 (3)
[t~ w(tm)w(t�) C~ J / ~i'
X L 1n7m1Yn~4~ Un,ml~\Ull` \U2/~~ . '
lY
_ Sn~m 
tm_Q= {F(v,)~F~Uz)},
16
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and when m # n:
S~ ~,a 1____ w
~t= y`~
w~ ~t~y~) w ~t~ya) w~ ~=~ya)
. ~NnNm~,ti t�_tT .
is a conver~~on factor which shows how the incident mode of order m of the
_ left side is transformed by the obstacle to a mode of order n, which propa ~
 gates from the screen, and when m= n:
1 J (
Sm'm Nm l~tm'yc~~w\tmye~Jz~~'~tm"l~elJa}~
.l . `ym`tmY3~ ~w~tm~ ~2~
~ Nw=(t�qZ) [w(t�) ~ 
8m~n = 1 when m= n and 8m~n = 0 when m~ n. The field is expressed as a
function of the length and the displacement of the compensator fxom the
geodesic line connecting the interacting points in terms of the Fresnel
integrals F(vl) and F(v2) in (3), and:
er~n e_rni~
r~vi~ _ y2 ( et~ni:~~~ dt, F(a~) = Y2 X
J
DJ
1'2 1
r rcn~
_ X~ e dt(j=1,2), v,= b(z~
~
_m
1'2 r ~ 1 ~ _l/?~d~~dad~)
. v' b~z`T 2' b Y d ,
6
Z is the length of the compensator, and d~ and (db  d~~ are the lengths of _
 the segments AC1 and C1B along the arc respecti'`ve1y~.
In the absence of the compensating screen, i.e., when (r~  a) = 0, we ob
tain a forroula from expression (3) whicfi defines the diffraction field of the
convex surface:
e~='~'" w ~t~yn) w ~tmya)
Eo=111 \
tm`Q UJ~tm~ 1/I~tmJ ~
m 
l The ratio of E to Eo wi11 determine the cRange in the shadow field wi,th the =
installation of the rectangular diffractor: 
17
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w ~tm_'ya) w ~tn~b) erc~~M+c=ek?r~~
~4~ ~ ~ rv(tm) w(~�) .
m n
~
Ei UJ ~tm yo~ w~tm yb~
_ ~ ~mQZ w \tm~ ~ \tm~ . ,
m
 X [ ~N Nn`~~~ Sn~mlll~ \Ut~F\US~ ~J+
_ /
~m~n fL' ~11 TL' ~Uy~ ~ J � .
i
tm Q~
In the case of an absolutely conduct~ng body and vertical polarization (q =
 = 0) for antennas loca~ed in deep shadow arith re~pect to the decoupling
element, for ya = yb = 0, expression (4) assumes a simple formt
~5~ B=S,,,[F(v,)F(UZ)]fF(v,)fF(v,),
where r =
1 w ~t+y~) lZ rw~ ~t~y~) l
5~.~= .t` { ~tsy~) [ w~t~) J  L w(t,) .1 } '
t
The first term in (S) depends on the height of tfie upper edge of the rectan '
gul.ar shield above the surface of the cylinder in terms of the function S1,1
1nd its length in terms of [F(vl)  F(v2)], and the remaining terms are deter
mined only by the length of the shield. Physically, this means that the dif
fraction field which envelopes the cyclinder, by virtue of the additional e1e
 ment, is split into components, the amplitudes and pRases o~ which depend on
the geometric parameters of the diffractor. Tfius, by varying the dimensions
of tl~e screen, one can vary the amplitudephase relationships of the terms
= in expression (5) and thereby control the result~ng field at the receive
point. The numerical analysis of formula (5) sfiows that there exist definite
parameters of the shield  the compensator  for which the function B has the
deepest minimum and the maximum ~upplemen`s~ decoupling wi11 he observed. As
the analysis shows, this occurs when:
(b) h~=1,3~ ~
, 1=0,8b.
rormulas (6) were derived for the case where tAe cent�er o~ the compensator
 is located on the geodesic line ~oin~ng ~he correspvnding po~nts on the sur `
face of the cylinder. .
The calculated graphs (the so1~d curves~ for B as a function of the geometric
rarameters of the compensator, ob~ained from formula (5), are shown in ~
Figures 2 4. A discussion of the calculated resu~.ts is given below in
a comparison of the latter with experimental data.
2. Experimental Results and a Comparison of Them with the Calculated Values
Lxpei~imental studies of the supplemental attenuation of a diffraction field
were performed under test conditions in an open space using convex
18 ~
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8,d6 ~B ~
O a ~ ~ 8,d6 d$
1 Y J 4 5 y~ 0 P ~ 6 8 1 lb
i ,
o �
B ~
8 0
12 �
12
0
16
16
20 � ~
_ 10
24
24
Figure 2. Figure 3.
6.d6 B,a6 dx ~ 
o d~ 0 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6m
0
3 2 1 0 ~ 2 z~
4 ~
4
0
8 1
~12 ~ 8 _
0 o P
  16 12 ~3
20
^Z~ 16
Figure G. Figure
conducting bodies where 3.3 cm. Used as the cross coupling antennas
were the open ends of rectangular waveguides (10 x 23 mm), which were mounted
in the shadow zone with respect to each other. The measurement setup al
lowed for continuously changing the position and geometric parameters of ~he
compensating elements. A GK419A generator served as the source of electro
magnetic radiations, while a P510 receiver mea~ured the d~ffracrion field.
The experimental curves For the change in the diffraction field of.B (the
small circles) as a function of the di~nensions and pos~tion of the diPfractor
~ are shown in Figures 2 4 along with the the theoretical curves, where the
electrical field E of the radiator Was directed along the radius of the cyl
indrical body, while the magnetic field vector was para11e1 to the axis of
cylinder and the mutually ~nfluencing antennas were pos~rioned directly on ~
the surface of the ob~ect where Ab = n. Tfie results cited here apply to a
cylindrical surface wiCh a radius a= 10 A.
19
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l~r~m tlie graph for the field attenuation as a funct3on of the referenced
height y~ (Figure 2), we see tRat Por a length of Z p 2.1~, for the case
of small values of the height of th~ screencompensator, a slight amplifi
cation of the field is observed, a~ter which a deep minirnum of the signal
~s revealed. Such a sharp drop in the radio signal level was caused by
 the outofphase addition of the field from the side sections oP the shield
 i:o the field produced by the upper edge oP the compensator, having approx
imately equal values of the amplitudes of these signals. A further increase
in the height leads to oscillations of the shadow field, which are caused by
the change in the amplitude and phase of the field due to the variation in
the sliield height for the case of constant side fields. It is easy to de
 termine the height of a shield at which the maximum reduction of the field
is observed from the graph of B as a f~}nction of y~. We find from y~ _
(2/ka)1~3kh = 2.5 that h= 1.9 (a/k2)~~3, For the given geometry, h=
_ = 1.2 a, A comparison of the theoretical curve with the measurement data
throughout the entire range of ineasurement of y~~ ~huws their completely
satisfactory agreement.
The naLure of the attenuation as a function of the diffractor length is
shown by the results presented in Figure 3, where plotted along the abscissa
~ is the ratio o~ the length of the rectangular attachment to the dimension
of the First I'resnel zone, b. This curve, ~ust as th~ graph of Figure 2,
was obtained for the case wi~ere the center of Che campensator is located
~n tt~e neodesic line ~oining the mutually ~nfluencing antennas. A~ can be
seen from the calculated and experimental results cited here, where a screen
with a height of h= 1.2a , when its length is increased, a substantial re
duction is observed in the ~ield,~which reaches a minimum value (22 dB)
for the given configuration of the antennas and the obstacle, where Z=
0.8 b. With a further increase in the widtfi, tfie degree of decoupling falls
off markedly. Just as in zhe case of B as a function of h, the change in
tY~e supplemental attenuation with a variation in the length of the rectan
gular element is explained by the inter~erence of the ~ields produced by
t11e upper and side edges of the diffractor.
The level of signal suppression falls off rather rapidly when the compensator
is shifted from the geodesic line jo~ning tRe antennas. This is illustrated
in i'igiire 4, which shows the change in the supplementa~ decoupling as a func
tion of the displacement z~/1 for the case of optimum dimensions of the com
pensating screen, determined from formulas (6) in the Porm h~ = 1.2A and Z~
= 2.1 a. When the element is shifted by even about 1.5 a, the level of the
diffraction field of the convex surface approaches its own initial value.
_ 'The maximum supplemental decoupling is achieved wfien the center of the rec
tangular attachement is located on the line ~oining the antennas.
An important characteristic of decoupling devices is their band coverage
properties. Curve l, shown in Figure S, was derived from formula (5) and
shows the decoupling effectiveness when a rectangular attacIiment of 1.27~ x
2.1a is used in various ranges of change in the working frequency. The
value m= fmax~fminlB = const is plotted along tfie aUscissa in this figure,
20
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wherc~ I'm~X and fmin are rhe upper and lower frequenc~es of the band, while
while the supplemental decoupling of B ts plotted along~t~le ordinate.
Curves 2 and 3, taken fram paper j6], which illustrate the frequency char
acteristics of ribtsed structures consisting of 8 and 10 grooves respecti
ve1y, are also ~hown tt~ere for comparison. Tt can be aeen from this that
the band coverage properties of ribbed decoupling devices, the parameters
of which are determined from the condition of maximum bandwidth, are some
what better than similar characteristics of a rectangular compensator. We
will note that greater wideband suppression of tRe Pield using diffracting
elements can be achieved by means of specially profiled campensators, for
example, a stepped flat attachment with a fieight on the order of the wave
length makes it possible to obtain a supplemental attenuation of about
20 dB in a band with a coverage of 1.5. The structural design and the
_ results of studying wideband decoupling devices of this type deserve a
 separate treatment.
The calculated and experimental results obtained in this paper demonstrate
the possibility of the diffractor attenuation of a field for the purpose
of improving the decoupling between antennas, separated by a convex ob~ect. .
The use of compensators of a simple structural design and small dimensions
can preclude the necessity of experimentally selecting tice position of the 
_ antennas, as well as the utzlization of complex decoupling devices. The
presen.:e of a protrubance, which is extremely insignificant in the centi
meter band, cannot substantially limi.c the practical application of the
pro~osed method.
The authors would like to express their deep grat3tude to B.Ye. Kinber and
G.A. Postnov for much valuable advice in the performance of this work.
BIBLTOGRAPHY
 O.N. Tereshin, RA.DIOTEK&'~TKA I ELEKTRONTKA, 1960, 5, 12, p 1944.
_ 2. O.N. Tereshin, A.S. Belov, TZV. WZOV MVO SSSR (RADIOTEKHNIKA) _
[PROC~EDINGS OF THE HTGHER EDUCATTONAL TNSTTTUTES OF THE USSR MINISTRY
OF HIGHER EDUCATTON (RADTO ENGTNEERTN~)], 1960, 3, p 359.
 3. A.G. Dmitriyenko, TZV. WZOV MVS~O SSSR (RADTOELEKTRONIKA) jPROCEEDINGS 
OF THE HTGHER EDUCATIONAL TNSTTTUTES ~F THE USSR MINTSTRY OF HIGHER AND
SPECTAL EDUCATION (RADTOELECTRONTCS)], 1976, 19, 2, p 123.
4. J.G. Hoffman, "Antenna Decoupling by Means of a Lossy Dielectric S1ab"
US Patent Class 343771, No 3, 277488, 1966.
5. A.G. Kyurkchan, RADIOTEKIiNIKA I ELEKTRONTKA, 1977, 22, 7, p 1362.
.
6. Kh.S. Baksht, V.A. Zamotrinskiy, Ye.S. Kovalenko, G.G. Kretov, ?,h.M.
Sokolova, IZV. WZOV MVSSO SSSR (RADIOELEKTRONTKA~, 1969, 12, 6, p 571.
21
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7. V.~~. 'T'r~~ir5k~y, T:i,T:K'fROSVYA7.' [1?LFCTRTCAT C(1MMLINICATIONS~, 1964, 12. '
8. N. B. Chimi ~clorrfiiyev, I2AUIOTt?KHNIKA I FLrKTRONIKA, 1y69, 14, 5, p 896.
9. N.B. Chimitdor.zhiyev, Yu.L. Lomukhin, "Difraktornyy metod kompensatsii
SVCt~ polya meshayuslichj.kh radiosignalov" ["A Diffractor Method of.
Compensating for the Microwave Field of. Interfering Radio Signals"],
in the collecCion, ":Y Vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya po rasprostraneniyu
_ radiovoln, sektsiya 3" ["Tenth AllUnion Conference on Radio Wave
Propa~;ation, Section 3"], 91, Nauka Publishers, 1975. _
 10. P~.B. Chimitdorzhiyev, Yu.L. Lomukhin, ELEKTROSVYAZ', 1979, 1, p 54.
1.1. V.A. Fok, "1'roblemy difraktsii i rasprostraneniya elektromagnitnykh
voln" ["Problems in Electromagnetic Wave Diffraction and Propagatton"],
Sovetskoye Itadio Publishers, 1970.
_ 12. J.R. Wait, CANAD. J. PHYS., 1962, 40, 8, p 1010. _
13~ J.R. Wait, RADIO SCIENCE, 1968, 3(New Series), 10, p 995.
[~~082251
 Y,?'L5
CSO: ~I ~fi0
CONYRIi;HT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," "Radiotekhnika i elektronika," 1979. 
22
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Certain Aapecte of Compurer Hard and Soft Ware;
. Control, Automation, Telemechanica and Machine Planning 
UDC 621.318:681.327
PHYSICS OF CYLINDRICAL MAGNETIC DOMAINS
Moscow KIZIKA TSILINDRICHESKIKH MAGNITNYKH DOMENOV in Russian 1979 signed
to press 1 Jan 79 p 2, 191192
[Annotation and table of contents from book by Fedor Vikturovich Lisovskiy,
Sovetskoye radio, 3000 copies, 192 pages]
[Text] The author examines the physical properties and principles of 
practical applications of cylindrical magnetic domains (TsI~). He gives a
_ theoretical analysis of statistical and dynamic properties of domain
boundaries, isolated domains, and domain lattices. Information is given
on the methods of obtaining, characteristics, and methods of ineasuring the
parameters of materials with TsI~. The author analyses the methods of
controlling the movement, generation, and readout of TsMD, ss wel~ as the
principles of constructing memory devices based on Ts1~ID.
The book is intended for scientists and specialists engaged in the problems
of magnetoelectronics, computing technology, and the physics of magnetic
phenomena, as well as for undergraduate and graduate students of higher
educational institutes of these fields.
Contents Page
Foreward 3 
Introduction 5
Chapter 1. Statistical and Dynamic Properties of Domain
. Boundaries in Uniaxial Magnetic Materials
1.1. Basic Information from the Theory of Magnetism 11
 1.2. Structure of Domain Boundaries in Uniaxial
 Magnetic Materials 17 
1.3. Dynamic Behavior of Domain. Boundaries 32
 Chapter 2. Static and Dynamic Properties of Cylindrical
Magnetic Domains
2.1 Static Properties of Isolated Cylindrical Magnetic
Domains 61
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2.2. The Lattice of Cylindrical Magneric Domains _
2.3. The Dynamics of Cylindrical Magnetic Domains 79 .
Chapter 3. Materials wirh Cylindrical Magnetic Domains
3.1. Epitaxial Fi.lms of Mixed RareEarth FerriteGarnets 107 _
3.2. Metl~ods Cor Suppressing Rigid Cylindrical Magnetic
Domains and Effects of the Dynamic Transformation of
the Structure of Domain Boundaries in Epitaxial Films
of FerriteGarnets 134
 Chapter 4. Measurement of the Parameters of Magnetic Films with
~ Cylindrical Magnetic Domains
4.1. Measurement of Static Parameters of Films 143
4.2. Detection of Defects in Films and Measurement of the '
Coercive Force for the Movement of Domain Boundaries 148 ~
4.3. Measurement of Mobility 152
Chapter 5. Utilization of Materials with Cylindrical Magnetic
Domains in the Memory Devices of Digital Computers ~
5.1. Movement of Cylindical Magnetic Domains 159 _
 5.2. Generation of Cylindrical Magnetic Domains 164
5.3. Division of Cylindrical Magnetic Domains . 165
 5.4. Detection (Ke~istration) of Cylindrical Magnetic
Domains 168 
 5.5. Organization of Memor.y Devices Based on rlaterials ;
 with Cylindrical riagnetic Domains 170
5.6. Preparation of Circuits Based on Materials with
_ Cylindrical Magnetic Domains 173
t 5.7. HighCapacity Memory Devices Based on Cylindrical
 Magnetic Domain Lattices 175 _
Conclusion 177 '
Bibliography 183 
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel.'stvo "Sovetskoye radio," 1979
[4810,233] _
10,233 ,
CSO: 1860 _
~
24
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Communication,a Communication Equipment; ,
Data Tranamission and Procesaing
4.
i
UDC 6�21.395.664.12
ECHO SUPPRESSORS IN COMMUNICATION LINES
Moscow EKHOZAGRADITEL'NYYE USTROYSTVA NA SETYAKH SVYAZI (Echo Suppressors '
in Communication Lines) in Russian 1979 signed to press 30 Oct 78 p 2, 88
[Annotation and table of contents from book by Mikhail Kronidovich Tsybulin,
Svyaz', 4400 copies, 88 pages]
[Text] The author describes the phenomena of electric echo in long audio
frequency channels, examines the methods of controlling the interfering
action of echo currents during telephone calls, and surveys the existing 
domestic and foreign echo suppressors. Special attention is given to the
operation of channels equipped with echo suppressors.
'fhe book is intended for engineers and technicians engaged in the designing,
tuning, and operation of. telephone communication channels.
Contents
Page 
Foraward 3
~ Introduc tion 4
 Chapter 1. The Electrical Echo Phenomenon. Main Methods of
Controlling Its Interfering E�fect 7
1.1. The Electrical Echo Pheno;3enon 7
1.2. Effects of Echo Currents on the Quality of the Trans
mission of Telephone Information 10
1.3. Main Methods of Controlling the Interfering Effects
of Echo Currents 14
_ Chapter 2, Domestic and Foreign ~cho Suppressing Devices 24
2.1 Main Characteristics of the Echo Suppressor 24
General Information 24
Static Characteristics of the Echo Suppressor 37
Transmission Characteristics of Units of the
Reception and Transmission Channels of the Echo `
Suppressor 39
Characteristics of the Neutralizer of the Echo
Suppressor 42
Dynamic Characteristics of the Echo Suppressor 44
25
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2.2. Domestic Echo Suppressors 45
, 2.3. Foreign Eciio Suppression Devices 57
"1~4"Type Echo Suppressor 57
"LEIT:"Type ~cho Suppreseor 62 
Chapter 3. Problems of the Operation of Telephone Channels
Equipped with Echo Suppressors 65
3.1. General Information 65
3.2. Location of Echo Suppressors 66
3.3. Preparatory Work Before the Inclusion of Echo Suppressors
in Audio Frequency Channels 67
3.4. Operation of Audio Frequency Channels Equipped with Echo
Suppressors 72
3.5. Quality of the Transmission of Speech Through Audio
Frequency Channels Equipped with Echo Suppressors 74
General Information 74 .
Method of Study 76 _
Result of Study 78
Analysis of the Results of the Evaluation of the
Quality of Speech Transmis;ion 82
Conclusion 85
Iiibliography 86 _
COPYRTGHT: Izdatel'stvo "5vyaz'," 1979
[4910,233]
10,233
CSO: 1860
~ ~ 26
~
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~ ' 
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 USSR UDC 621.396.9G6:629.783:525
A SPACE COMMUNICATION GROUND STATION IN BUI,GARIA
RAnIO. TCLEVIZIYA ELEKTRON in Bulgaxian Vol 27 No 7~ 1978 pp 23
. STOYKOV, S. .
[From REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL RADI.OTEKHNIKA, No 1, 1979, Abstract No. 1A273
by N. Ye. Sirotina]
[Text] A brief description is presented of a station constructed with ~
the assistance of the USSR and intended for operation in the "Intersputnik"
system. A tworeflector antenna with a counter reflector is used for
reception and transmission. The antenna rotation system is controlled
by a programmed device which coordinates the rotation of the antenna with
 the trajectory of the satellite. The receiver has a lownoise 4stage
~ parametric amplifier at its imput, with the first 2 stages cooled by
liquid nitrogen. The specific features of the telephone equipment are
noted. Figures 1.
6508 ~
CSO: 1860
.
27
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UDC 621.396
LONGRANGE PROPAGATION OF RADIO WAVES IN THE IONOSPHERE '
Moscow DAL'NEYE RASPROSTRANENIYE RADIOVOLN V. IONOSFERE (LongRange
Propagation of Radio Waves in the Ionosphere) in Russian 1979 signed to
press 27 Apr 79 p 2, 151152
(Annotation and table of contents from book by Aleksandr Grigor'yevich ;
Shlionskiy, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio
Wave Propagation of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Nauka, 850 copies,
152 pages)
[T'ext) The author examines the conditions and characteristics of super
long range (roundtheworld, backward, antipodalj and longrange propaga
tion of short radio waves in ionospheric channels when the radiators are
on the surface of the earth and in the ionosphere. .
_ The book gives the results of the analysis and� interpretation of experi
mental data and theoretical examination of the dependence of the character
istics of ionospheric radio waveguides on the main parameters of the iono '
sphere.
The book is of interest to~radio physicists, radio engineers, and graduate
and undergraduate students specializing in the area of longrange iono
spheric propagation of radio waves. ~
Tables 2; Figures 66; Bibliography 118 items.
Contents Page
Foreward 3 . '
Chapter I. Propagation of SuperlongRange Radio Signals 5 ~
1. AroundtheWorld Radio Echo 5
2. Backward Itadio Echo 15
3. Attenuation of AroundtheWorld and Backward Echo Signals 19 ~
4. Effects of the Azimuthal Anisotropy of the Ionosphere on '
the Propagation of SuperlongRange Radio Signals 23
5. Antipodal Propagation of Radio Waves 32
6. Ionospheric Radio Echo with Multisecond Delays 42
Chapter II. LongRange Propagation of Radio Waves When the ~
Radiator is Located in the Ionosphere 48 '
_ 28
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_ , 1. Experimental Investigations of LongRange Radio Sibnals 48
~ 2. Effects of the Global Properties of the Ionosphere on
thc Chur~cteristica of LangRange Signals 53
= 3. The "Anti.pode ~ff`ect" During the R~ception of Siqnals
It~idlaled [n the Ionosphere 62
3.1. Reception oC Antipodal Signals of the First
Artificial Earth Satellite in Mirnyy (Antarctica) 62
3,2. Reception of Antipodal Signals of Artificial
Earth Satellite at MediumLatitude Points 65
3.3. Observations of Antipodal Signals of Artificial 
Earth Satellites in the Equatorial Region 67
4. An Experiment on the Propagation of Signals Between the
Radiator and the Receiver Located in the Ionosphere 69
Chapter III. Refraction of Radio Waves in Ionospheric Channels 71
1. Initial Propositions of the Extremely Parametric Method
of the Determination of the Characteristics of
Ionospheric Waveguides 74
2. Composite Quadratic Model of the HighAltitude Course
of Electron Concentration 79
3. Composite Quadratic Model of HighAltitude Modified
Dielectric Constant 85
4. Extreme Boundaries of Channels. Values of the Minimum
of the Modified Refraction Index 88
5. Axes of Ionospheric Waveguides. Values of the Maximum
of the Modified Refraction Index 92
 6. Upper Boundary of the Frequencies of the Reflection of
Radio Waves from the Ionosphere 96
7. Limiting Frequencies of the Degeneration of Ionospheric
 Radio Waveguides 102
Chapter IV. Some Characteristics of Ionospheric Channels 110
1. Refraction Characteristics ot the Capture and Descent 
of Radio Waves by Ionospheric Waveguides 111
2. Some Refraction Characteristics when the Radiator Is
Located in the Ionosphere 117
3. Some Characteristics of the Oscillation of Radio Waves
 in Ionospheric Channels 125
4. Group and Phase Routes 133
5. Absorption of Radio Waves in Ionospheric Channels 136
6. Spatial Attenuation of Radio Waves in Ionospheric Channels 141
Bibliography 146 
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel`stvo "Nauka," 1979
_ [4510,233) 
10,233
CSO: 1860 
29
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Camponents and Circuit Elements; Including
Waveguides and Cavity Resonators
~ 
_ UDC 621.372.8 ~
OPTICAL BAND DTELECTRIC WAVEGUTDES BASED ON ORGANOSTT,ICON COMPOUNDS
Kiev IZV. VUZ: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 22.No 8, 1979 pp 9698
manuscript received 12 Jan 7$; after completion 16 Feb 78 ~
[Article by L.M. Andrushka, V.A. Voznesenskiy, L.G. Gassanov, Ye.P.
Krivokobyl'skiy and B.V. Tkachuk]
i
[Text] It is we11 known that thin polysiloxane films, obtained in a ~1 
decaying discharge, can be used to produce planar dielectric waveguides.
They are distinguished by 1ow optical losses and higfi stability with aging
 [1]. However, despite the obvious promise of the application of thin
~oly~ner films, the da~a on the structure and their properties in the liter
ature is inadeCUate.
The purpose of this paper is to study the structure of waveguide and optical
properties of thin polysiloxane films, derived by means o~ the polymeriza
tion of organosilicon compounds in a decaying discharge plasma. The influ 
ence of the derivation conditions on the structure and properties of the
films are also studied. ;
The organosilicon compounds octamethatrisiloxane (OMTS) and hectametha
disiloxane (GI~ID SZ) were chosen as the original subs~ances. The polymer
films were obtained in a series produced UVN2M1 ~acuum installation using
the procedure of [2]. To perform the polymerization, the reaction chamber
was pumped out down to a pressure of 1� 103 Pa, and then the monomer was _
 admitted up to the requisite pressure.. The polymer films were obtained
both a~ the electrodes and in the intere~.ectrode space under the following ~
conditions: the vapor pressure of the original compounds in the reaction
chamber was 140 Pa, the current density at the electrodes was 0.20.8 ~
ma/cm2, the disctiarge burn voltage was 3001,500 volts and the generator
frequency was 1,000 Hz.
The polymerization pracess wa~ carried out under dynamic conditions of a~ 
pump�doam rate of 5 1/s. The polymer films were applied to a substrate '
of type KV fused quartz (n~= 1.45). The waveguides were excited by a
_ HeNe laser = 0.63 um) by means of a prism coupler. Tfie refraction .
indices and the film thicknesses were determined from measurements of the
resonance excitation angles and tRe calculation og the dispersion equations ~
30
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~S1 _ a,aG/~5 dB of [3] . The optical attenuation was meaeured
2 cm by meana of moving the extraction prism, as
~ 1,5J y well as by photodiode scanning along the track.
The atructure of the filme was sfiudied using
J,50 infrared spectroscopy with the IKS22 apectral
~ photome~er in a range of 6504,000 cm'1.
1,G9  ?
Polymer filma of OMTS and GMDSZ were made with
1pa a thickneas of from 0.3 to 3 um (Figure 1,
0 JD 10 JO p Ila curves 2 and 3) . Tt was found that polymer
Figiire 1. The variation ~M~S films, obtained at low monomer vapor
in the index of refraction Pressures (p = 1 Pa), had a yellowish color,
(n) and the losses (a) of and the waveguide properties of such structures
polymer films, obtai~ned ~re unsatisfactorp (a = 10 dS/cm). The index
at different monomer vapor of refraction for films based on OMTS was 1.53.
pressures in the reaction The values obtained for the refraction index
chamber. are not typical for organosilicon polymer films,
and are apparentlp due to tfie considerable
increase in the:carbon content in the polymer
composition, as we11 as to the mechanical stress ~n the film.
. With an increase in the pressure in the reaction chamber, polymer films
were obtained with a somEwhat louer value of the refraction ~ndex. At a
pressure of 25 Pa, polymer films of aMTS had an attenuation not exceeding
 ~ 1 dB/cm (Figure 1, Curve 1). The refractive ~ndex in this case was 1.485,
~ the film thickness was 2.7 ~nicrometers and tRe moderation ratio was Y=
= 1.469. The films had good adhesive and mechanical properties.
~ ~ 1 D ,7,% D
00 i i'i; 80 ~ _
! � F�~�
60 ~
~ ~ , i 6~ +�^J ?r, : 0,1
n i~, ~ ai ~ I 0.3 "6
kn i i~Y 40 6 0,3
V ~ ~ i~ 05 Q5
Zp ~i 0,7 70 0,7 
0 ' 1,0
~a.xJ 1l".~? l6~0 1300 hxXJ a;c~,' ~
p a~ 4GU0 2A?Q i600~. l,~IJO l000 J?'cM�~
n.
Figure 2. Infrared spectra: a. Of the orig3nal monomer (a) and the
polymer GMDSZ (b) at p= 20 Pa and 0.4 ma/cm2;
b. Of the OMTS pol.ymer films at p= 20 Pa, U.5 ma/cm2
(a~ 0.76; b 1.1; c 1.76 micrometers). _
It should be noted that incr~asing the vapor pressure of the monomer in 
_ the reaction chamber lead to a s~gnificant increase in the rate of polymer
film formation and at a pressure o~ more than 35 Pa, the process of poly
. merization from the gaseous phase began. Apparentlp, s~multaneously with
the process of forming the polymer f31m on the substrate surface,
31
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~ pol.ymerization occurred in the volume of the discharge, as a result of
wl~ich, the resulting film had spotting of the polymer, where the spots
reac:f~ed a diameter of 1 to 3 micrometers and more. With a further increase
in the pressure, the polymerization process in the volume of the dishcarge .
developed even more intensely. The waveguide properties of such structures
were considerably degraded.
The structure of the thin polymer films was studied by infrared spectros
copy. The spectra of the original GhID SZ and the polymer films based on
it are shown in Fi~ure 2a. The presence of absorption bands at 940 cm1,
which correspond to the valence antisymmetrical vibrations o~ the SiNSi
bond, is :.haracteristic of the IR spectrum of the original GIrIDSZ. Absorp �
tion bands at 3,380 and 1,190 cm 1 belong to the valence and deformation =
vibrations of the NH groups. Absorption in other regions of the spectrum 
is due to valence deformation and pendulum vibrations of the carbonhydrogen
bond in the methyl groups and the SiC bond [4].
In a comparison of t,he spectra of the polymer film (1) and the original
~nonamer (2), it was fo~.ind that the redistribution of the intensity of the
absorption bands is substantial in a range of 6501,200 cm1. Moreover,
the absorption bands which correspond to the deformational and valence
vi.brations of the NH bond (3,380, 1 560 and 1,190 cm 1) and the valence
vi.bra~i~ns of the SiC bond (692 cm are reduced in the spectrum of
the pol.ymer. This is evidence o~ the fact that the polymerization process =
ocr_iirs both by virtue of the rupture of the SiC and CH bonds, and by means
of the rupture of the NH bonds and the compounds of the fragments formed
via Free bonds [5].
The IR spectra for polymer films of differing thicknesses based on OMTS
ar.e shown in Figure 2b. The 1.035 cm1 absorption band corresponds to
valence antisymmetrical vibraLi:ons of the SiOSi siloxane group. Bands
corresponding to vibrations of inethyl groups (1,255, 1,420, 1,460, 2,915
and 2,950 cm1) are intensively manifest in the spectrum of the polymer.
As can be seen from the figure, the ratios of the optical densities of
the bands of the valence vibrations of the SiOS~ groups to the bands of 
methyl group vibrations (DSiOSi/DCH2) for all the polymer films remains
constant, and is equal to 1.5. This allows the conclusion that the struc
ture of the polymer formed does not depend on the film thickness or the
duration of the polymerization process. '
Thus, through the choice of the appropriate discharge conditions and the
original monomers, inhomogeneous planar dielectric waveguides can be
fabricated using the given technology with a specified law governing ttie
change in the index of refraction with respect to filzn thickness. The
inh~:~�~nogeneous dielectric waveguides have great possibilities as compared
to homogeneous ones, They allow for an expansion of the single mode band
32
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of frequencies, the transmission of pulse signals with little distortion, the
compensation for the dispersion of the material, etc. [6].
BIRLIOGRAPHY ~
 7.. Tien, P.K,, Smolinsky, G., Martin, "Thin Organosilicon Films for Integrated
Optics", APPLIED OPTICS, 1972, 11, p 637.
 2. Tkachuk, B.V., "Polimerizatsiya kremniyorganicheskikh soyedineniy na
poverkhnosti tverdogo tela pod deystviyem tleyushchego razryada" ["The
Polymerization of Organosilicon Compounds at the Surface of a Solid Subject
to the Action of a Decaying Discharge"], VYSOKOMOLEKULYARNYYE SOYEDNINENIYA
[HI(;H MOLECULAR ~dEIGHT COMPOUNDS], 1967, 9A, No 9, p 2018.
3. Deryugin, L.N., Marchuk, A.T., Sotin, V.Ye., "Svoystva ploskikh nesimmetrich
nykh dielektricheskikh vo~lnovodov na podlozhke iz dielektrika" ["The Proper
 ties of Planar Asymmetrical Dielectric Waveguides on a Dielectric Substrate"),
IZVESTIYA WZOV  RADTOELEKTRONIKA jPROCEEDINGS OF THE HIGHER EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTES  RADIO F.LECTRONTCSJ, 19b7, 10, No 2, p 134.
4. Bellami, L. "Infrakrasnyye spektry slozhnykh moleltul" ["Infrared Spectra of
 Complex Molecules"), Mosr_ow, ITL Publishers, 1963.
S. Tkachuk, B.V,, K~lotyrkin, V.M., "Polucheniye tonkikh polimernykh plenok iz
gazovoy fazy" ["The Derivation of Thin Polymer Films from the Gaseous Phase"], 
Moscow, Khimiya Publishers, 1977, 101 pp.
6. Andrushko, L.M., Litvinenko, O.N., "Metod sinteza ploskikh dielektricheskikh 
svetovodov, osnovannyy na reshenii obratnoy zadachi ShturmaLiuvillya" ["A
 Method of Synthesizing Planar Dielectric Lightguides, Based on the Solution
of the Inverse SturmLouiville Problem"], RADIOTEKHNIKA T ELEKTRONIKA,
1967, 22, No.ll, p 2272.
[168225]
COPYRIGHT: Izvestiya vuzov SSSR  Radioelektronika, 1979.
8225
CSO: 1860
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Electromagnetic Wave Propagation;
Ionosphere; Troposphere; Electrodynamics
~
UDC 537.867:621.3.018.2
THE ACTIVE CANCELLATION OF ELECTROMAGNETTC WAVES
Moscow RADTOTEKHNTKA I ELEKTRONTKA in Russ3an Vol 24 No 10, Oct 79 pp 19821988
 manuscript received 2 Jan 78
[Article by V.V. Tyutekin, A.T. Ukolov and M.V. Fedoryuk]
[TextJ The problems of the active cancella~ion of a
steadystate electromagnetic field in free space and
in a waveguide are treated. It is sRoam tRat in a
region outside the source, the electromagnetic wave
can be completeXy cancelled by using receiving and
radiating surfaces on which point dipole receivers
and radiators of botfi electrical and magnetic types
are continuously distributed.
The problem of cancellation with a precision of down
to the inhomogeneous ~modes is treated for a waveguide
which is uniform over the path. It is shown that this
problem can be solved with the use of a finite number
of receivers and sources, equal to twice the number of
propagating modes.
So called active methods of cancelling acoustical fields have undergone
 rapid development in recent years in acoustics. The essence of these methods
consists in the fact that by receiving information on the initial field by a
system of receivers, processing it in the requisite manner and radiating a
secondary (cancelling) ~ie1d by a system of secondary radiators, reductions
in the levels of the original field are achieved in a~pecifi~d region of
space. Although the problem of devel,oping and applying active methods to
changing the 1eve7.~ of sound fields aras studied comparatively long ago, its
solution d~d not Rave a strictly theoretical substantiat~on until recently.
The most complete and exhaustive substantiation of the problem of active
methods of cancelling acoustical fields was set forth in jl, 2, 3], as well
as in the paper j4] wliich was close to the idea of these. The possibility of
total cancellation of an original field of any kind inside (or outside) a
closed surface by means of creating receiving and radiating systems around it
consisting of monopole and dipole type elements which physically realize
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closecl Iluy~;ens wave surPaces, was theoretically demonstrated ~or the firat
 time in the papers cited here. The essential feature of sucR systems is 
the fact that their ~tructure does not depend on the kind of incident field.
Later, a number of experimentai work~ appeared in which active systems
designed around this princ~ple were studied, where the systems cancelled
acoustical waves for a si'ngle mode waveguide [5, 6, 7], a multimode waveguide
[8], for free space j9], etc. Moreover, this principle ~ra~ extended to the
case of elastic waves [10], and flexure waves ~n rods and plates [11].
Active cacellation of wave fields, based on the construction of receiving
 and radiating Huygens surfaces, is treated in this paper for the case of the
cancellation of steadystate electromagnetic fields.
1. The formuZation of ~he problem. We shall consider an electromagnetic
Field in a space R3, filled with an isotropi,c medium, w~th smooth real
e(x) and u(x). The fields U satisfies the system of Maxwell~s equations:
~1~ LU~ (rot H+ikeE, rot Eik�H) =J. _
The time dependence is given by the Pactor exp(iwt), x=(xl, x2, x3),
U(x) =(E(a), H(x)), J(x) are the 6vectors (a11 column vectors).
It is assumed that e and 1~ tend sufficiently quickly to the positive constants
when ~x~ ~ and that the field U satisfies the radiation condition.
Let S be a smooth closed svrface, D be its interior, D~' be exterior, and
the sources J which produce tfle fietd U are located at D~', i.e., J(x) _
_ ~ 0, x E D', Let ~S be a sm~oth closed surface wRich contains S within
itself, and J(x) = 0 within S. We sha11 position lectrical and magnetic
and dipole radiators (receivers) continuously on and pose the problem: 
the gener3tion of a compensating field U* such that the tntal field in the
region D' becomes 0, while in the region D+, it remains equal to the incident
field; morPOVer, we shall require that the receiving surface does not react
to the field incident to the system from ~,~ithout. This problem is broken
down into two parts:
 I. The Radiation Problem. Find those densities of the radiators on S so
that the compensating field U* (x) generated by tfiem has the form:
_ U. ~X~ _ xED~ 
( 2 ) ~ 0 g~D+, . .
then the overall field U will be equal to:
0, xED, 
_ . U (x) _ ~ u ~ XED+ ~
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II. The Receive Problem. Obtain a11 of the information needed for the _
operation of the ,~adiators, from the readings of the receivers which measure
the field U on S.
= We will. note that the second parC of condition~(2) assures the absence af
imcleslr.ibl.e Eeedbnck between the receivers and tfie secondary rudiators. .
To salve the active cance7.lation problem, we need certain properties of
_ Green's operator, and we sha11 now move on to a consideraCion o~ this.
2. Green~s Operator. Let G(x, x') be a Green's matrix of the system of
Maxwell's equations (1), i.e., the solution of the equation:
, ~i:
c ,
L=G(x,x )=S(~cx )I6,
c
_ which satisfies the radiation condition (T6 is a unit 6 x 6 matrix), and
U(x) _(E(x), H(x)) is an arbitrary smooth vector.
We shall introduce Green's operator (I'SU)(x) using the �ormula:
~ ~I'6U) ~X) = 4n ~ G~~' Un dS',
~3) ,
Ll�~~)=~~II~~), ns~, ~H%t`~), �x)). 
 tlere S is the smooth closed surFace, nX is the exterior normal to S at
the point x, and ja, b] is a vector product.
T.t fo1l.~ws from definition (3) that Greent~s operator describes the field
 generated by the radiating sur~ace on whiclt electrical and magnetic dipoles
with vecto~s den~ities of p(x) _(c/4n) [H(x), nX] and m(x) _(c/4~r)[E(x), `
nY] respectively are continuously d3.stributed. There is an arbitrary aspect
to the selection of tfie number of dipoles and the orientation of their axes,
 7.oca~ed ar one point. For example, the surface can be eonstructed so that
thexe are twv electrical and two magnetic dipoles at each point with axes
Langential to the S plane. The axes of the electrical (or magnetic) dipoles
do not f.a11 on one straight 1ine, while tfieir vector densities pl and P2
 (ml , m2 ) are such that p1(x) + P2 (x) = p (x) (m1(x) I� m2 (x) = m (x) ) . The ~ 
, sur~ace which is constructed in this manner possesses tfie following propert~:
in the case of a change in the vector U, it is not necessary to change the
orientation of the axes of the dipoles; it is sufficient to change in an ~
appropriate manner the absolute values IPlI and Ip2l (Imll, Im2l). Tn this
case, the selected number of radiators at each point is minimal. The basic
 property of Grecn's operator is the following: 
~rsU~ '~s~Y~U~%~~, 
LU ~?C~ Y BIIyTpii S~ _
(inside S), '
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wher.e ~g(x) = 1, when x ie ~ns~.de S, and ~e(x) = Q, wRen x is outside S.
The proo~ oP the we11 known formula (4) ~o11oWa �rom tRe 7.emtna oP T,oreatz.
~
In fact, let D be a limited regio~ witR a smooth Doundary S, and then: j
~5~ f {(iJ(x'),Lx~G(x',X))
D !
,
i
 (G(a',x),L='U(x'))}dx' = 4n 9,(x)U(x).
c
We shall make use of the lemma of Lorentz:
f {(L=U(x),U(~))(U(s),LxU(x))}dx=
 D ' '
= f {(E,H,n)(E,H,n)}dS.
8
Here (a, b, c) is a mixed 3vector product, (a, b) _~a~D~ is the scalar
 product of the 6vectors or 3vectors. By apply~fng th~Ls 7.emma tv the left 
side of formula (5), and taking into account the equality~G(x, x') _
= GT(xT, x) (the r~ciprocity~principle), we obta~n formula (4).
Tn comparing expressions (2) and (4), we find that;
cb) u(X>=(recU)) cx)�
It follows from (6) that the solution of problem T is realized by the radia
ting surface described above, in which case:
(7 ) P~ ~x) ~'P: ~X) =P ~X! 4~ IH ~g), n=~ ~
m, (g) +m: (x) =m (x) 4n ~ E (x)' n=J' ]CES' 
Applying formula (4), we find that the solution of tfie receive problem is
given by the formula: ~
_ ~g> U(X) = t rs U) (X), R E s.
Finally, the active ,crancellation scfieme looks like this: By means of re
ceivers arranged on S, we measure tfie components of the electromagnetic field 
tangential to S. Then, by computing the integral 1'SU, ~re find the amplitudes
of the electrical and magnetic dipoles on S, t~hich must be specified in arder
to obtain the compensatin~ field.
= In order to compensate for the field U outside of S, it is sufficient, of
course, to position only electrical dipole radiators on S(correspondingly, 
in the acQUStical p�roblem, one can place only monopole radiators on S).
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But then ~he radiarion wi7~1 no~ be ~rn~dixectiona~ the compensating field
 will not be ze:o autside S, i.e., feedback wi11 appear between the radiators
, and the receivers. ~
~ The integral I'sU can be approximately replaced by an�integral Riemannian sL~m.
Tl~is means ti~~at one must place a discrete system on 3 consisting of a suEfi
ci.ently lar~e number oL receivers. Correspondingly, we sha11 place a dis
crete sy~~em of radiators on S. Then the calculation of the amplitudes of
L}~e radiators on S reduces to a radio engineering problem. Each receiver
must be coupled to each radiator, including in each such coupling an ampli ~
= Eier and a phase shifter.
The cancelling system treated here differs from the analogous acoustical
system in having twice the number of both receivers and radiators (in the
acoustic case, located at each point of the receiving and radiating surfaces
were one monopole and dipole each, and in the electromagnetic case, two e1
ectrical and magnetic dipoles each). This circumstance is due to the fact
that it is necessary in the electromagnetic case, in contrast to the acous
 tic one, both when receiving the original field and when radiating the secon
dary field, to take their polarization into account.
We wi.]_1 note that the processing of the readings of tlie receivers based on 
formula (7) makes tRe receive surface unidirectiona7.. I`n fact, 1et a field
U, generated by a source J" which is located 3n D fa11 on ~ in addition to
rhe field Then:
~y~ (~'S (U f U)) = (rs U) (rs u~ = u (Y~, . E s.
The latter equality obtains by virtue of a formula similar to (4):
(4') ~1~BU) ~X)=(OS(x)1)U(x).
 Here, U satisfies the homogeneous ~pstem of Maxwell's equat~ons outside of
 S and the condition for cancellation feasibility.
U~}ier variants af the active cancellation problem have also been studied in
a similar manner. For example, 1et it be necessary, as before, to cancel a 
_ field U in the region D', but let there be a source J' sucfi that J"(x)  0,
x D+. Then formulas (6) remain uncRanged, while (9) obtains instead of
= 3, The r~avegz~ide probZem. Let W be a waveguide wi~h an axis x3, with a _
smooth boundary and witfi ideally conducting wa11s, and the field U satisfies
equati.on (1). Here, .T(x) = J'~'(x) +,T"(x), J'� are smooth finite vector func
 tions of J+(x)  0 when x3 > Z1, J(x)  0 when x3 a Z2, Z1 ~ Z2. It is
~ required that the rigfit ha1f, Wf', of the waveguide be in~ulated; x3 > ZZ
�rom the sources J~" located to tfie 1eft, i.e., it is required that the fol
' lowing field be generated: ~
U' (x) =U~ (x) 0 (x,l,) . '
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 W~� ~;I~;il I Cr~ke L�{~e secti.on~ xg ~ Z~ and x3 = Z2 respectively as the receiv
Y
,in~l r:i~Jlril~in>> S girr('~~re, Then, P.ormulnA (6) and (S) are preaerved~ but
Li~yt ~~iicl ~>f Crc~en' ~ matr tx C, the Green t s marrix Gr,,i musC be taken for the
wave~;uide W, while the normal n wi11 be directed along the x3 axis. It
f.ollows from this that the axes of the electrical and magnetic dipole radi
~itors, located on S, fa11 in the plane of the crosssect~on. It is suffici
~nt Eor the proof ro appl.y formula (4) to the reg~on x�+ W, a< xg< N. By 
virt~ie oC the bot~ndary conditions, the integral over the surface of the
waveguide goes to zero, while the integral over the crosssection x3 = N
rends to zero when N~+~ because of the rad~ation conditions.
We shall consider a regular waveguide W with a constanC crosssection D.
Let e and U be smooth real functions which do not depend on x3. The problem
is treated with the assumption that the r,eceivers and radiators, aad the
_ external sources, are spaced sufficiently far apart. Then, one can neglec`
. inhomogeneous modes and limit oneself~to the cancel~.ation of only the pro
pagating modes. The normal modes have the Porm 1Ja(x1, x2)exp(iYaxg), where
_ if~ is an eigen function; the spectrum of tfie corresponding boundary problem
in the crosssection, as is wellknown, is symmetr~cal with respect to the 
point a= 0. Let the frequency w be noneritical; then:
GW ~X, _ ~ ~ta esp (i'~ta ~x~x~~) ) X
(10)
a
X ~U":a~x~~, xZ~) ) TU}a \x~, x:).
'1'he summing is carried out wtth respect to those ~~a, such thar Y~ > 0 or
Im Y a > 0.
The plus or minus signs are chosen when x3 > x3 and x3 < x3 respectively.
~11~ Cwa=~{Ua, U"}`, 
where we designate: {Ua,U"}=~ ([II",ER]=,[L~,Ii"]=,)dx,dx2. The ortho 
D
_ gonality relations follow from (4):
(12) {Ua, U~}=0, a}~~p,
 This relationship is also preserved in the ca~e when e and u are symme~ri
cal complex tensor.s. Tn an absorpt~Lonless medi`~m (e and u are ~?armitian
tensors), expression (12) is replaced by the follow~ng one: _
 (13) {U�~, (U~)'}=0, aF~`~0.
In the case of. constant values of e and u, expression (12) is simplified,
as is we11 known, and has the form [12]:
~J ~E~, H~l~~ dxz=0, a~~.
D ,
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. Let the freque:~cy w be such that there are exactly N propagaCing modes
in W.
~ The field generated by the source J~ has the flollowing form when x3 > Z1
(a11 subsequent formulas are written with a precis~on of down to the inhomo
geneous m~des): N
U+ ~g~ _ ~ Va+U�` (x) .
a~t
We shall normalize the eige~nfunctions with the condition {L~, U~'} = 1.
We shall locate electrical and magnetic dipole radiators at the point 
xl E S, 1< i< 2N, where the axes of the radiators fa11 in the plane (x1,
x2). We pose the following problem: Select ~he amplitudes and axes of the
radiators such that the field produced by them is equal to U+'(x)0(x3  Z2).
This problem is substantially nonunique because of tfie arbitrary nature of
_ the orientation of the radiators; we sha11 orient them in the same way, in
the g direction. Here, g is a 6vector, for which even one of the first
three and even one of the last tRree components can Be different from zero. 
We write the compensating field in ttie form:
zx
U' _ ~ ~;g? (x) , 

wtiere gi(x) is the field of a radiator located at the point xl, i.e.:
x
 b~ \Y~ C~�tU*a l!Cl f C(tt$~ \U$a \xt~ f g~ �
a..f
From the conditions for the field U*, we find the tollowing from Cramer's
rule:
yr= e=detllC~a~ll� 
The problem posed is solvable if 0. Thi~ condition is of the nature of
a prohibition on the positioning of the points xl.
By way of example, we sha11 consider a very simple problem: a waveguide with
a rectangular crosssection, 0< x~ < a, 0< x2 < b, a~ b and e and u are
constants. Let ~r/a < k~ Z2, Without radia
ti.ng anythin~ in thia case into Che region x3 < Z2. Let Zl ~ 0. We place
electrir_al and magnetic dipole receivers at the point P~ _(xq, x2, 0) of 
the section x3 = 0, orienting Chem along the Ox2 and Oxl axes respectively.
Then, based on measurements of the total field U at this point, one can
find the amplirude A+ of the field iJ+;
A*= [k~~Ht ~1'�) ^(Ez (P�) ] C"~k�
8n sin (x,�n/a) '
We shall place electrical and magnetic di ole radiators having the same
orientation as above at the point Pl =(x~, x2, Z2~. TRese radiators
generate the fields:
~ 4n n \ 
UD c ab sin ( a x,' 1~I,ot ;
~ ~
4n n
Um clc ab sin ( Q x,' ~ It,at Sgn (x,1~),
� ~
_ Knowin~; A+ we determir~. the amplitudes p and m o~ tRe radiators:
~abA+ kEIaGA+
~ 2 siu (x,'nla) ; ~n+ siu (x,'n/a) .
Then the compensating f.ield U~(x) has the form;
4n
U' ~X) =PUF ~Xl +mUm (a) A+II,o+ (x) 0 (x,l:),
c
i.e., such a pair of radi_ators cancels the field iJ+ when x3 > Z2, and does not .
radiate into the region x3 < Z~.
IiLBLIOGRAPRY
 1. C.D. Malyuzhinets, "Ob odnoy teoreme dlyR analiticheskikh funktsiy i yeye
obobshcheniye dlya volno�vykh potentsialov" ["On One Theorem ~or Analytic
I'unctions and Tts Generalization for Wave Potentials"], in the collecr_ion,
"III Vsesoyuznyy simpozium po difraktsii vo1n, RePeraty dokladov"
["The Third AllUnion Symposium on Wave Diffraction. Ahstracts of Re 
ports"], Nauka Publishers, 1964.
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2. G.D. Malyuzt~inets, "Nesta.~sionarnyy~ zadactli dii'rakCsi:i dlya volnovogo
 uravneniya s finitnoy pr~voy chast*yu'' j"Nonsteady~stste Diffraction
Problems for the Wave Equation with a Finite Right Side"], TRUDY
AKUST. INTA [ACOUSTICAL TNSTTTIJTE PROCEEDINGS], 1971, No 15, p 124.
~1, hi.V. l~c~doryuk, "0 rnhc~takh G.D. Malyuzhints~ pa teorii volnovykh
~~c~lcnlsialov" ["On tt~e Paper~ og G.D. Malyuzhinets on Wave PotenCial ~
Theory��F] , TRUD'f AI~UST. IN~TA, 1971, No 15, p 169.
4. M. Jessel, "~coustique Theorique", Paris, 1973. ,
i
5. A.A. Mazanikov, V.V. Tyutekin, AKUST. ZH. jJOURNAL OF ACOUSTICS],
1974, 20, No 5, p 807.
6. A.A. Mazanikov, V.V. Tyutekin, AKUST. ZH., 1976, No 22, p 5.
7. J.H.B. Poole, H.G. Leventhal, J. OF SOUND AND VTBRATTON, 1976, 49, No 2,
p 257.
8. A.A. Maaanikov, V.V. Tytlteki:n, A.T. Ukolav, AKU~T. ZH., 1977, 23, No 3,
p 485.
9. G. Mangiante, "Les absourbeurs acoustiques actifs" [''Ac~ive Acoustic
Ahsorbers"], Third Conference on Noise Abatement, Warsaw, 1973. �
10. M.V. redoryuk, ZH. VYCHTSL. MATEM. T MATEM. gTZTKT [JOURNAL OF
COMPUTATTONAL MATHLMATICS AND MA.THF.MATICA'~ PRYSTCS], 1976, No 4, p 1065.
11. V.Yu. Prikhod~ko, AKUST. ZH., 1976, 22, No 3, p 462.
1.2. L.D. Landau, Ye.M. Lifshits, "Elektrodinamika sploshnykh sred" ["The
F.lectrodynamics of Continuous Media"], GTTT Pu~l~she~s, 1957.
[408225]
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," "Radiotekhnika i elektronika," 1979
8225
CSO: 1860 '
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UDC 551.501.8
DETERMINATION OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF A CLOUDLESS ATMOSPHERE FROM MEASURE 
MIIVTS OF OUTGOING MICROWAVE RADIATION ~ROM ON BOARD AN AIRCRAFT 
Gor'kiy IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKIi UCHEBNYKEi ZAVIDENIY, RADIOFIZIKA in Russian Vol 22
No 9, 1979 pp 10771084 manuscript received 12 Jul 78
 [Article by V.A. Rassadovskiy, Scientific Research Radi~ Physics InstituteJ
[Text] Regression equations are obtained for determining the moisture content
of both all the strata of the atmosphere and in the layer below flight altitude
from measurements of outgoing radiofrequency radiation in the vicinity of
water vapor absorption line a= 1.35 cm from an altitude of H= 3 km above
the water surface. Estimates are made of the sensitivity of the method in
measurements of outgoing radiofrequency radiation over different surfaces.
The procedure and results are given of an experimental determination of the
total moisture content of the atmosphere above a water surface. Sever~ _
where T(0) is the temperature of the air at the surface, which correlates
well witt~ T~ in the case o� a water surface, and LIT is the correction for
the nonisothermicity of the atmosphere [8]. From (5) and (6) follows a
greater (than that caused only by an increase in Q) growth in Tya for ~
"hotter" surfaces. This fact also results in an increase in m~ with regard
to the data in fig 1, Thus, the coefficients of regression equations for
Tya~ depend in a complex manner also on the nature, unknown beforehand, of
interaction between the atmosphere and the }~nderlying surface. Hence it
follows that substantial refinement of coefficients for a specific realiza
tion (in particular, by refining the temperature of the surface as compared 
with the mean seasonal by means of an additional receiver in the centimeter _
. band) meets with considerable difficulties. It is interesting 'to note that
the accuracy of a determination of Q in terms of Tya,~ , which can be obtained
_ from confidence intervals for coefficients of the regression equations given
in table 1, is in good agreement with the data of [2,4], in spite of the
difference in the coefficients themselves caused by the selection of sta
tistical data on the atmosphere and underlying surface. In our opinion, .
this agreement is the consequence of the factors mentioned above. When
 observing over sections of dry land having lower values of R~ as compared
with the water surface, the relative contribution of the reasons discussed
For the variability of the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to
changes ~.n the total mass of water vapor increases, which together with
real errors in measurement of brightness temperatures severely worsens the
method's capabilities even when observing over homogeneous sections of dry
land.
46 ~
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~ K/i'~tt1 1 '
,ts 1)
~o ~ ,
. s ~
o ~ 
o,e o,s o,4 a,3 0,~ o,, o~,,
Figure 1. Dependence of the Sensitivity, ma~, of the Radio Brightness
Temperature at a= 1.35 cm to Changes in the Total Mass
~ of Water Vapor, on the Mirror Reflection Coefficient, R~ ,
of the Surface (Observation Toward the Nadir from an
Altitude of H= 3 km 16urface Temperature of 278�K;
2Surface Temperature of 293�K
Key: �
1. �K/g�cm 2
In [9] are given model calculatiQns of variations in brightness temperature
caused by variations in the altitude distribution of water vapor with an
unchanged moisture content when observing from an altitude of H1= 3 km .
The variations in brightness temperatures for frequencies of 20.83 GHz and
22.22 GHz equaled approximately 3�K with fixed T In the real statistics
of sondes, the contribution of these variations is completely "washed away"
by the factors mentioned above. A comparison of the equations obtained for
different frequencies from the viewpoint of "zero errors" in the method does
not make it possible to give preference to any of them. However, if the
errors in mes,suring T are taken into account, then a determination of
the integral moisture ~on~ent is made better at a frequency of 22.23 GHz, since
here with equal errors in Tya ~ are obtained lower errors in Q.
A substantial improvement can be reached in the accuracy of determining Q
by using equations not for brightness temperatures but for absorption. In
terest in this changeover has grown considerably in the case of a cloudy
_ atmosphere by re~tson o~ the ~dditivity of absorption, but at the present time
a practical pxocedure has not been wox~ted out ~or determining the total vertical
absorption ~rotq on board an a3xcraft.
2. Experimental measurements of outgoing radiofrequency radiation on line
 a= 1. 35 cm we~ce made in May~~une 1976 from on board an ~'i,~.4 aircraf t in
the area of fihe Rybinsicoye Reservoir in keeping with a~oint scienti~ic
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program with the USSR Aca,demy~ o~ Sciences ~~A [~nstitute o~ Physics of the
Atmosphere]. The reception of radio~requency xadiation was accomp].ished
with a horn antenna with a di7rectivity diagram width in relation to the half
power level of 10�, installed in the nadir direction, by means of a modulation
type radiometer with a fluctuation threshold of sensitivity of 0.4�K. The
design of the radiometer and its characteristics are given in [10]. Calibra
tion of the receiver in relation to the antenna temperature was accomplished ~
with reference to an internal reference noise signal source. For the purpose
of calibrating the radiometer's scale in terms of radio brightness temperature,
_ a series of flights was made under conditions of stable weather conditions,
after which the factors for the conversion from antenna temperatures measured
in this series to computed radio brightness temperatures were found by the
method of least squares. As the reference level for the brightness temperature
during the days of the following measurement cycle was used the radiofrequency
radiation of a surface covered by a forest, in view of its independence, noted
above, on the state of the atmosphere. Since aerological sounding was not
carried out immediately in the flight area (the nearest sounding station was
located at a distance of 50 km on average from the meaurement area), we made
a measurement of vertical absorption, T~, of the atmosphere in the 0.1 to
3 km layer, nat requiring calibration o~ the radiometer. Actually, using
equation (3) and the equation for the relationship between the brightness and
antenna temperatures, it is possible to demonstrate that
T'ASTp~
~ = exp (to), .
~ TA~TAi
where superscripts 1 and v indicate antenna temper.atures measured above
a forest and above water, respectively, and subscripts 1 and 2, antenna
temperaturas measured above surfaces at altitudes of 0.1 and 3 km, respectively.
By virtue of the triviality of absorption, the diff erences of antenna tempera
tures at different altitudes are approximately equal and the accuracy of de
termining the relationship is determined by the stability of the equipmenC and
" the accuracy of making readings (the influence of the receiver's internal
noise is not important, since forestwater contrasts are sufficiently high).
Therefore measurements of Tp a according to the procedure described served
 for us as a criterion for eliminating gross errors in measurements of the
= brightness temperature of outgoing radiofrequency radiation.
The results of ineasurements of brightness temperature~ ~nd absorption are
shown in table 2. In fig 2 is shown the variation ir~ the integral moisture
content during the obser~ation pexiod, computed from the data o~ aerological
sounding. Given theze aJ.so axe yal.ues of ~ computed from measured values ~
of brightness temperatures and absoxption. Tti~ agreement of the values of
_ Q computed in xelation to T a a and T~ a , even without taking into
= account the exx'ox in measuxezit~nt o~ the rad"io brightness temperature, which
equaled approximately 5�K when ca1:3.bxat3.ng by the proceduxe described, makes
_ it possible to conclude that there is considerab~.e variability in the integral
moisture content o~ the atmosphere on relati;vely not too gxeat spatial scales.
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'Cahle 2. 
1~ JlnYn 7",~~~v, K 3~~1~19N1 K~tR~av~ Hrrn~p~t~~~u, t/~nrp
24.05.76 I 152,8 133 0,0&4 0,029 ~
25.05.76 149,9 134 0,073 0,039
26.05.7G 15G,5 158 0,092 0,080
28.05.76 142,6 144 0,054 0~046
30.05.76 151, 3  0, 075 0, 079 
4.05.76 153,9 156 0,098 O,lI2
5.05.T6 146,6 164 0,073 0,15?
6.05.76 148,4 156 0~071 0,086
?.05.T6 156,5 153 O,i01 0~049
~ Key: 
1. Dat 4. T"}'~h , nepers
2. Tvych [caiculated] �K izm
~a ' S. T , nepers
3. T Zm [measured] �K
ya '
.
~ ~ 0;~/cn1
2,5
1)'
2,0 
1,5
1.0
0,5
.s ,
~ . . r... ts! i ~
O
zo ~ ~ s~ ~2, zs , 3 s AM~ 4)
naN ~tw?+a MlCFL~O 5~
Figure 2. V~riation in Mass of Water'yapox', Q' (g/cmz) , in a ~3 km
Atmosphere Column During the Observation Period:
[Caption continuation and key on following page]
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solid linedata ~xom aerological sounding; cixc~.zsvalues of
computed ~rom measurements o~ T ; trianglesvalues of
0' computed .from measurements oJ' T~a
Key: 
1. g/cm2 4. Days ~
 2. May 5. Months
 3. June
3. Let us now dwe11 briefly on the feasibility of further refining moisture
content characteristics in connection with making multifrequency measuremen,`s
of outgoing radiofrequency radiation. Let us turn, in particular, to two
ch~.nnel measurements, in favor of which can be pre~ented the followl.ng arguments.
First, the kerr.els of integral equations for outgoing radiofrequency radiation 
at different frequencies in the vicinity of a= 1.35 cm can in a first approxi
mation be approximated by linear functions of altitude, at least up to an
altitude of 6 km [11]. By virLUe of this fact, measurements at just two
frequencies will be independent, which in turn speaks in favor of the ability
= to obtain information from such measurements of two parameters of the moisture
content of the atmosphere.
~ Secondly, the variations in brightness temperatures for variations in the
altitude distribution of water vapor are not too great [9], znd with the
moder.ri sensitivity of equipment it is possible to rely on measurement of
_;~~st maximum contrast (i_n terms of the line's slope).
Thirdly, since the difference in frequencies for measurement of these cor~
trasts is not too high (approximately 1.5 GHz), it is possible to make a
~radiometer which would measure directly the difference in brightness tempera
 tures. Furthermore it is possible to improve measurement accuracy by increasing
the accuracy of calibration of the receiver and reducing the influence of the
state of the underlying surface.
In fig 3 is given the ensemble o~ ~T calculated for frequencies of 20.83 
_ GHz and 22.22 GHz for the en~emble ofysondes employed in sec 1, when observing
over a water surf ace. ~lotted there also is the line o~ least squares. As
 was expected, the di�ference in br.ightness temperatures proved to be suffi 
ciently sensitive to variations in characteristic altitude H in order for
it to be able to 1ie recorded reliably. The brightness temper~atur~s for days
with a different alti_tude distribution oz water vapor can diFfer by 5 to 6�K
~ with an identical integral moisture content. At the same time the set of
points corresponding to identical H is approximated with high ac~curacy
by a straigb.t line regardless q~ theptempexature o~ the underlying water
surface. The line o,~ least squares coxresponds to H~ 2.2 ktq (white dots).
As is obvious from this figure, the maximum differenc~s from a atraight line
are not greater than approximately 0.5�K fox' sondes with the H in question, _
 although the surface tempe�r,atuxe ,fox the~ ~luctuated ovex a wid~ range
 10�K).
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~ p7~~ K 1~
. �
18 ~ �
_ ' ~
. ~
~ ~
~ a .
~ . � . :
.
.
, . .
.
_ .
. . ,
_ 12 
� . .
.
.
. .
. �
o ~ ~
, .
.
6
, 0,5 15 2,5 4,~ ,
rigure 3. Ensemble ~Tya = Tya v Tya v~ Calculated from Aero _
 logical Soundi~g ~ata ~ur the SutnmEr Months of a~Number of ~
Years in the Central. Section of the European Sector of the
USSR
Key:
1. OTya a'~K 2. Q~ g~~m~
Thus, it can be concluded already from a brief analysis that in observations _
at least over a water surface it is possible to refine information on moisture 
 content characteristics, although, of course, the procedure for obtaining this 
information must be different from the regression equation procedure. The
development of such a procedure, it can be hoped, will make it possible to
achieve a substantial improvement in the accuracy of determining moisturP
content characteristics from measurements o~ outgoing radiofrequency radiation,
as compared with the regression equation procedure, whose possibilities have
 by this time been apparently exhausted to a considerable extent.
The author wishes to express deep gratitude to A.~. Naumov ~ox' assistance in
formulation o~ the problem and d~,scus~ion o~ reaults, to M.S. Malkevich and
A.P. Or1ov for active assistance in per~orming the experiment and to M.B.
Zinicheva ~or making calculations.
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P'UK UFFICIAL US~: UNLY 
Bib1i ogxaphy~
~ 1. Gorchakova, ~.A., Demin, y.V� and xershoy, A.T. IZy. AN SSSR, FZ~IKA
� ATMOS~ERX T OKEANA, 7, No 8, 841 (1971). 
2. Rabinovich, Yu.I. and Shchukin, G.G. TRUDY GLAVNOX GEOFIZICHESKOY
OBSERVATORTT, No 222, 62 (1968).
3. Rabinovich, Yu.T. and ~hchukin, G.G. TRUDY GLAVNOX GEOFIZICHESKOY
OBSERVATORII, No 309, 3 (1974).
~ 4. Uilkheyt, T.T., Fauler, M.~., Stembakh, G. and Gloersen, R. In "Sovetsko
amerikanskiy eksperiment 'Bering [The SovietAmerican "Bering" Experiment),
Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1975, p 15.
5. Gurvich, A.S. and Demin, V.V. IZV. AN SSSR, FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA,
6, No 8, 771 (1970).
6. Rabinovich, Yu.I. and Melent'yev, V.V. TRUDY GLAVNOY GEOFIZICHESKOY
_ OBSERVATORII, No 235, 78 (1970).
7. Zhevakin, S.A. and Naumov, A.P. IZV. WZOV, RADIOFIZIKA, 10, Nos 910,
1213 (1967).
8. Kislyakov, A.G. IZV. VUZOV, RADIOFIZIKA, 9, No 3, 451 (1966).
9. Naumov, A.P, and Rassadovskiy, V.A. IZV. AN SSSR, FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I
_ OK~ANA, 14, No 7, 716 (1978).
10. Khrulev, V.V., Samoylov, R.A., Fedyantsev, B.K., Zborovskiy, V.S. and
Larionova, L.F. IZV. WZOV, RAI)IOFIZIKA, 21., No 2, 295 (1978).
~ 11. Staelin, D.H. J. GEOPHYS. RES., 71, No 12, 2875 (1966).
12. Basharinov, A.Ye., Gurvich, A.S. and Yegorov, S.T. "Radioizlucheniye
Zemli kak planety" [RadioFrequency Radiation of Earth as a Planet],
Izdatel'stvo Nauka, Moscow, 1974.
13. Boldyrev, V.G., Koprova, L.I. and Malkevich, M.S. IZV. AN SSSR, FIZIKA 
ATMOSFERY I OKEANA, 1, No 7, 703 (1965).
 COPYRTGHT: IZyESTzXA yYSSH~KH UCHEBNXKH ZAVEDENZY, RADZO~ZZ~KA, 1979
[508831]
CSO: 1860
8831 r
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~
UDC 621.371.242.7
SOME FEATURES OF THE RAY TRAJECTORY IN THE PROPAGATION OF RADIO WAVES IN AN ~
IRREGULAR IONOSPHERIC WAVEGUIDE '
Gor'kiy IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNYHIi ZAVEDENIY, RADIOFIZIKA in Russian Vol 22
 No 9, 1979 pp 10611069 manuscript received 9 Oct 78 =
[Article by M.V. Tinin, Irkutsk State University] ~
[Text] By the averaging method an investigation ~s made of the behavior of
a ray in a threedimensionally inhomogeneous ionospheric waveguide. For
_ ray variations are obtained expressions which are suitable both at great and
at short distances. 
Introduction
In recent times a number of studies have appeared, devoted to the waveguide
propagation of signals in an inhomogeneous medium, important, in particular,
in the longrange ionospheric propagation of short radio waves [14]. Wave 
guide propagation has been studied quite well for layered media [5]. Of
great interest is the investigation of irregular waveguides whose properties
vary along the route. In a geometrical optics approximation such an analysis
involves asymptotic integration of the ray trajectory [6J. WherL the properties
of a waveguide vary fairly slowly along the route, for a number of estimates
is used the condition of constancy of the adiabatic invariant [3,4].
For the purpose of determining variations in the ray trajectory in the hori
zontal plane in a threedimensionally inhomogeneous medium, in [3,7] is used
an adiabatic approximation. However this approach is valid only with a great
distance between correspondents and does not agree with certain results [811]
of the usual perturbation method, which is applicable at least with short 
distances. In this study, for the purpose of analyzing ray variations in a
threedimensionally inhomo~eneous medium is used the averagzng method [1214],
which has made it gossible to obtain expressions valid botk~ at short and at
long distances.
_ 2. Application of the Averaging Method to the Ray Equation
Let us consider the behavior of a ray in a waveguide iormed in an inhomogeneous ~
medium whose dielectric constant equals
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t = ~(v;C, vy, zl. ~1~
I~ere by adding minor parameter v� 1 we explicitly take into account 
 the slow variation in the medium in the horizontal plane. The behavior of
the ray is described by the following system:
dz `
dx  ct~ Y ~
(2)
_  tg (3) ?
d 1 ~ 
dz 2 E (1 't s1n~ tg' ( dx ct~ Y dz 1'
1 1 (4)
 d ~ ~ (1 cos' ct~z a ~ _ d e tg ~P �
cix 2E ( dy dx )
(5)
In (1) to (5) z, x and y are the Cartesian coordinates of the ray, 
~ is the angle between the z axis and the projection onto plane xz of
the tangent to the ray and ~ is the azimuthal angle.
In order to employ the averaging method [1214], it is necessary first to
transform system (2) to (5). For this purpose we introduce new "slow"
(a, T, and "fast" (K) variables: 
, ~ T = vx; (6)
�  yy ~ 
E(T, Q, z) slnZ Y ~
~ ~
1{ sinz �5 tgs c~ ' g
 ~ Z _
1 r~ y� ~os ~ ~tZ
K=J _ ;Ko,
T y~e coS~ a (9)
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where
~ T= 2 (t~ Ya cos c~
J ~E COS~'~  R
s~ (10)
is the period of oscillation of the ray tra~ectory. The integrals in the
right halves of (9) and (10) are taken with fixed values of parameters a,
_ T and cr , and the turning points, zl 2(T,o) , are determined from the _
conc~ition '
E(t, Q, zi, z) Cost ~c  a= 0.
(11)
The meaning of the symbols in (8) and (9) is sufficiently clear for a hori
zontally homogeneous medium. In this case const and a takes on the
 value of a constant in the Snell's law, 
~ a. = e ~Z~ S1ri~ ~ = COI15t ,
~12~ 
where the angle of incidence, s, is determined from the equation 
sin' 3 = sin' Y
' . 1 sin2,u tg~ n .
 (13)
For a horizontally homogeneous medium, K, as is obvious from definition (9),
represents the hoxizontal range of the oscillating ray normalized for period 
T. Therefore in a layered medium the waveguide trajectory is a periodic
(with a period equal ta 1) function of K.
In the symbols of (6) to (10) ray trajectory equations assume the following
form:
~ dK 1
 ' y,S (u, t, o, c~~ K~;
dx T ~a, T, ' ' (14)
da de
dx  d 2 ~T+ ~ ~
(15)
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do
dx =vtg"~~
(16)
dn cos2~ ds ae � � "
~ v (t, a+ K) tg p(t, K)~ ~
dx 2 a dv dT ~ ~1~~ 
. d~
dx  v~
(18)
where S is the result of differentiating in terms of T the right half
of equation (9) wlth fixed z:
S= dK I dK ~ dK d E dK 1.
t +
T~Z = d ~ a~ d Q T (~'~C r
+ COS~'~ v=  t ~ d B CJ~K � .
~ 2z [ da g dt ] d~
(19)
System (14) to (18) is a system with a rapidly rotating phase [12,13]. The
right halves of equations (14) to (18) are periodic functions of fast variable
K and, consequently, permit averaging. Ther~fore it is possible to apply ~
to this system the usual arrangement of the averaging method [12,14], similarly
to how this was done for a twodimensionally inhomogeneous medium in [15].*
As a result we get
1(=~}'vvifvav,}...; ~20~
a = v. v ltil~ F 'i~ llll~ ;
~21~ 
o= c{ y ui'~ va u~'~ .
, (22)
' = tr Y [1i3~ 'Y= l1~3~ , ~
~ (23)
*Cf . also [ 16 ] .
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~here
 ~ .
. u? ~ T ~[v  r~1 ~K_^ d~, u,o ; cz4~
0
r'~ c~ l ~
vi = T S~ ul ~U1l I d~1 vio ~ (25)
o d ~ T J
u= = T ` I ui ~
S '~i  ~l ~u' F~ ~u~  F~ I r! ~ u:o; (26)
l. ~ b ] .!C9
F, = b ; ~2~)
 F~=lu~ ~~~~~F,d~J;
~ (28)
~~(SFttl ~ 1 .
I" J (29) 
Equations (24) to (29) are written in vector form by means of the following
vectors introduced:
S c>> c2> ca~) . (30)
u~  tc, , rc~ , ral , '
u, _ { ia~'~, llz~~, u2 ~ (31)
 ~ _ ~a, a, . (32)
The components of vector b are the right halves of equations (15) to
(17). In equations (27) to (29) the line above indicates averaging in terms _
 of fast variable n. Variables a, v and ~ are determined from the
averaged equations
d
dx ~v F, f v' F: f
(33)
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_ 3. Adiabatic Approximation
i
LeC ua plo~ the rny tra~ectory with an accuracy of up to terms of the first
order of triviality:
, . 1C ~ f 0(v) ; _ (34)
 x = 2 ~ ~ ( 35 )
o  Q + O(v)' (36)
c~  p (v) ,
(37)
As is obvious from (34) to (37), in this approximation for the purpose of
determining the ray trajectory it is sufficierct to solve the averaged
 equations:
dx T 1~.:) + v (5i) F ~ ; 
~ 
 (38)
. d5t = vF,~~~)� .
dx
" (39)
In view of the .fact that we are constructing an asymptotic solution to the
ray equation with a long range of x= 0(1/v) , in the right lhalves of (38)
and (39) should be retained terms on the order of v. For the same reason
in the first term of the right half of (38) it is necessary to substitute
slow variables determined from an equation of the following order of accuracy:
d~'' = v F~ F y' Fs .
 dz 
(40)
Let us note that with a known solution to equation (39) the solution to
equation (40) is easily determined by means o~ the usual perturbation method.
_ Let us transcribe system (39) as follows:
~
~ dz
da _ YdE _ 2v~~a COSq dT . '
dz d z T ~l~   '
s, Y E COSa n a
_ (41)
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da 
_ dx ~t~4;
~ ~42~ 
dq cos'~ d~  de cos=~ d~ da
dx  Y 2a da ~ tg` dT  v 2a da tg~ dt ~43~
\ z, d
E ~dz
v Cos' 2~ a Cos ~ � 
~ dQ da
tg~
2a T s, ~E cos'~  a dT
In the last equations, (41) and (43), it is T.aken into account that in a first
approximation averaging in terms of variable n can be substituted by in
tegration in terms of z by virtue of the equation
. y
d ~ = dK 4 (v) _ ~a cos ~ dz + Q ~ ~ ,
T V E cos' n a (44)
It is not difficult to verify that by virtue of (41) to (43) on the ray
trajectory is fulfilled the condition of constancy of the adiabatic invariant* 
~
I = f
t ~e  _ dz = ~ j~e  E (z,, 2) dz = const .
Z, cos2. Z,
(45) 
Condition (45), as we know [3,4] is very useful for making a direct analysis
of conditions for further propagation. Unlike the twodimensional case,
 where satisfaction of condition (45) is Qquivalent to solving an averaged
sys~em, in the threedimensional case the solution of functional equation (45)
does not eliminate the need to integrate system (41) to (43), but only lowers
its order of magnitude. _
*Let us note that the adiabatic invaxiant remains constant only along the
_ ray trajectory. ~hexe~orethe deriv$t~;on o~ ec~uations for. the "pro~ection
 of a ray" onto Earth in [7], which does not take this into account, is not
completely correct.
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 Thus, plotting the trajectory in a firsi approximation has been reduced to
solving system (41) to (43) in the range of 0(1/v) .
Unl.ike oriRinal syatem (2) to (5), system (41) to (43) does not contain
rapidly fluctuating factors; therefore, it can be solved numerically with
considerably less expenditure of machine time. Moreover, in some cases
system (41) ro (43) permits the use of analyfiical approximation methods.
4. Variations of A�rrival Angles on Routes of Different Lengths
Let us assume, in addition to a large characteristic amount of horizontal
_ inhomogeneity, a not too great amount of change in parameters of the iono
 sphere along the propagation route.
Let
= = Eu ~z~ el ~T, a~ Z~
� 1). (46) _
Then system (41) to (43) can be written as ~
d a _ ~ d e, . . 
d~  dT '
_ (47)
do ~  ~
dT tgr;
 (4$)
 ~os=~? aa,  de, 
 tg ~ ,
d~ 2v. ' d:. d~
(49)
System (47) to (49) in the range of T= vx ti 1 can be solved by the
perturbation method. The ~irst approximation with ir_itial conditions of
a = �o ~ a ~0) = Qo � 1 ~ ~r ~0) = Yo � l ~50~
has the form
~=xo~'; r a~, dt;
) ~x _o
� ~ . dT ada ~51~
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~
~ ~ ~ aE,
= 4~+ I dt;
2�0 ~ a o o
(52) 
S ~
c'� ao 'Po tI' 2an ~(t  S) ~ea e~~ ds.
. ~~P~ 
(53)
 By means of equations (52) and (53) it is possible also to solve the problem
of the variation in arrival angles with a fixed position of the source and
observer, i.e., to solve the twopoint tra~ectory problem:
~ Q ~xf~ _ a _ ao , ~
 (54)
For this purpose it is necessary by means of (53) and (54) to exclude from
(52) angle :
 ~ '
~?r ~xr)  2a T 1 s ~ a' ds.
0 0
(55)
_ Expressions (51) to (55) are outwardly similar to the corresponding equations 
obtained by the usual perturbation method [811]. The difference is that in
cluded in the integrands in (51) to (55) are not the derivatives themselves
of e, but their average in terms of the period of osciliations of the un ~
perturbed trajectory. ~ 
Equations (51) to (55) are valid at greaton the order of 1/vdistances, 
_ where the equations of the ordinary perturbation method are no longer valid.
On the other hand, equations (51) to (55) ceasa to be valid at shorton the
_ order of 1distances, since then T ti v and the retained averaged terms
in (51) to (55) prove to be commensurate with the discarded periodic correc
tions determined by equations (24) to (26). If of the latter the highest in
value are retained, then it is possible to obtain an equation which smoothly 
converts into the ordinary equations at short distances. In particular, for
twopoint problem (54) we have
xt ;t
nr ~ S d ii [zo ~S), y a',, O) ds Sz d d E~ ds
2ao xt o dY 2zox
r 2 d s d
y '
~ (56)
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where zp(x) is the ray txa~ectory in a regular waveguide (v = 0). It is
not difficult to verify that at a long distance, where x= 0(1/v) , in (56) ~
an important contribution is made by the secox~d term, from which it is
possible to derive (55) by integration by parts. At short distances of
x ti 0(1) dominant in (56) is the first term, which (taking into account that
= v� 1) converts into the equation for the variation in azimuth obtained in
[11) by the usual perturbation method (by a straight Poincar~ expansion).
From equation (56) and similar equations which can be obtained by means of
the averaging method for other parameters of the trajectory, can be concluded
this pattern for the change in properties of waveguide trajectories with
distance.* At short distances the shape of ~(x ) has rapid changes (on
_ the order of the trajectory's period). With d~stance is evidenced a slow
component (the second term in (56)) of variations in arrival angles, which
becomes dominant at a great distance.
S. Example. Irregular Waveguide with a Parabolic Profile for the Dielectric
Constant
As an example of application of the averaging method, let us consider the
 behavior of the trajectory of a ray with longrange propagation in a waveguide
formed in a medium whose dielectric constant varies with height parabolically,
and whose parameters are slow functiuns of the horizontal coordinates:
_(zzM 2
 E~m l d ~
~~m = em tt, Q~~ zm =~m l'~ d� d lt~ 1
 (57)
In this ca~e the application of the averaging method for the trajectory gives
l~dac dd 1 c dd 1
z = a,~ f llcd sln 2r. ~ v cos (2n,~)     I
4 Gt 4z d dT J
~ _ d2"` sln (4T  c ~ c dd cos (6~.ri) f O (YZ), _
_ 2 Ya dT 16 ~ da d~ ~58~
 , .
*Let us note that equation (56) is Valid both at short and long distances,
but with dif.~erent absolute accuracy. The relative accuracy, nevertheless,
 remains the same0(a) + 0(v),.
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y= Y y 2 d~2 dn sin (2r~~)  4 dnd cos (4nn)] +~(y~)~ _
(59)
where
d a+tgn a, d d_tg~a
dt  at aa dn  vo at _
Function a(T) and y(T) = Q/v are~found from the following system of
averaged firstapproximation equations:
d~ (a= i a ad ( ~
 Y vm �n~  l ~ 1Y3~ i
dx ~ d ~ + d~ cos2 p J d T~
 (60)
da'  _
dx  v tg G~ O~Y3)~
(61) _
 d~ ~~5~ ~ d E,~  tg ~ a~~ +
_v
dx 2a aQ a~ 
+ 1( dd _ tg ~ dd 1 r Em _ Q ~1 ~~y^~ .
~ d~ a o a~ l l ~osZ ~ 1
(62)
Equation (60) can be substituted by a functional equation following from the 
condition of constancy of the adiabatic invariant (45), 
a
d Em  =~const = c.
cos2 q 
(63)
Equations (60) to (63) can be solved either by means of the perturbation
method (cf. above) or strictly, when variables are s~eparated. Here it is
necessary to note that averaged equatians can permit the separation of
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variables, whereas in the initial xay equations (2) to (5) it is impossible
to separate variables. Tn particular, in the case of the model of the
medium discussed, (57), averaged equations (60) to (63) do not contain zm(T,Q) ,
nncl, ~c,nRCaqiientl.y, are so7.ved edsily when the variable in model (57) ~.R
onl.y Lhe height oP axis z.
 m
By definition (cf. (38) where ml = 0) the value of n in equations (58)
and (59) equals
x dX.
= f ~70 �
0 2r. d(v x, o) Ya ,
(64)
As we know from [12], at a long distance of x ti 1/v by virtue of integration `
operation (64) the_"phase," n, is determined with less accuracy than the
 "slow" variables a, a and Thus, in this case the error in variables 
a' a and ~ determined from equations (60) to (62) will be on the order of
v~ , and the error in n determined by equation (64) equals 0(r~) . At
short distuaces of x< 0(1) the accuracy of all the values determined becomes
the same, and as a result it is possible to obtain the equations of the usual
perrurbation.method.
As is obuious from (58) to (62), the irregularity of a parabolic waveguide
 results at a long distance in the fact that in addition to variations in the
ray of a rapi.d nature and low a:nplitude (on the order of v) slow variations =
_ are evidenced, the characteristic scale of variation of which is on the order =
of the dimensions of. inhomogeneities. The amplitude of the latter variations
at a long di~tance exceeds the amplitude of "fast" variations. Taking into ,
account the motion of inhomogeneities in the ionosphere, from the three
dimensional pattern obtained can be concluded a similar pattern for the varia
tion over time in the parameters of a radio wave in an ionospheric waveguide.
Thus, in the observation of arrival angles, polarization, etc., must be ob
s::rved relatively fast fluctuations with a period on the order of the ratio
~ of the trajectory's period of oscillation to the velocity of the inhomogeneity,
the parameters of which (amplitude and frequency) vary slowly, but over a
considerably wide range, in time. _
Bibliography
1. Kazar~tsev, A.N. and Lukin, D.S. KOSMI.CHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA, Vol 4, No 2, ~
z2i (1a66).
_ 2. Wong, M.S. RAvIO SCZ., l, No 10, 1214 (1966). ,
3. Gurevich, A.V. and Tsedilina, Xe.Ye. GEOMAGNETIZM I AER~NOMIYA, 1.3,
283 (1973). ,
64
FOR OFFT_CT.AL USE ONLY _
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4. 'fyc:cli.l.~,n~t, XE~.Xe. C~OMt~GNE~~zM ~ AERONOM~xA, ~.4, ~.OOR (1974) . 
5. Brekhoyskikh, L.M. "y'olny v sloistykh ~redakh" [Waves in Layered Media],
~zdatel'stvo Nauka, Moscow, 1975.
_ 6. Kinber, B.Ye. and Kravtsov, Yu.A. RADTOTEKHrT~KA, I ELEKTRONTKA, 22, No 12,
2470 (1977).  ~
7. Baranov, V.A., Yegorov, T.B. and Popov, A.V. Tn "Difraktsionnyye effekty
dekametrovykh radiovoln v ionosfere" [Diffraction Effects of HighFrequency 
Radio Waves in the Ionosphere], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1977, p 31.
_ 8. Baranov, V.A. and Kravtsov, Yu.A. IZV. VLTZOV, RADIOFIZIKA, 18, No 1, 52
(1975).
 9. Gusev, V.D., Makhmutov, N.A. and Khuri, A. RADIOTEI~TIKA I ELEKTRONIKA,
19, No 9, 1809 (1974).
_ 10. Lewis, R.~'.W. PROC. PHYS. SOC., B66, No 4, 308 (Z953).
11. Tinin, M.V. In "Issledovaniqa po geomagnetizmu, aeronomii i fizike
Solntsa" [Studies in Geomagnetism, Aeronomy and Solar Physics], No 41,
rioscow, Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1977, p 40.
_ 12. Volosov, V.M. and Morgunov, B.I. "Metod osredneniya v teorii nelineynykh
kolebatel'nylch sistem" [Averaging Method in the Theory of Nonlinear
Oscillatory Systems], Moscow, MGU, 1971.
13. M~iseyev, NeN. "Asimptoticheskiye metody nelineynoy mekhaniki" [Asymp ~
totic Meth~ds of Nonlinear Mechanics], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Nauica, 1969. 
 14. Bogolyubov, N.N. and Mitropol'skiy, Yu.A. "Asimptoticheskiye metody v
teorii nelineynykh kolebaniy" [Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Non
linear Oscillations], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1974.
= 15. Tinin, M.V. In "Issledovaniya po geomagnetizmu, aeronomii i fizike
Solntsa," No 39, Moscow, Nauka, 1976, p 16u.
16. Tinin, M.V. IVZ. WZOV, RADIOFIZIKA, 20, No 12, 1906 (1977). ~
COPYRIGHT: IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNXKH ZAVEDENIY, RADIOFIZIKA, 1979
[508831]
CSO: 1860
8831
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UDC 621.391.2
THE MEASUREMENT OF THE COORDTNATES OP A POTNT OB.TECT OBSERVED THROUGH A
_ TURBULENT ATMOSPHERE
 Moscow RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 24 No 10, 1979 pp 2027 
_ 2034 manuscript received 12 Jul 78
~Article by A.B. Aleksandrov and V.A. Loginov]
[Text] Algorithms are synthesized for the measurement of the
range and angular coordinates of a point ob~ect, raking into
account fluctuations in tfie 1eve1 and ~hase which arise during
the propagation of tfie radiation in a turbulent medium. A _
comparative analysis is made o~ tRe quaZity of the synthesized
and nonoptima7. algorithms, and the influence of level and 
phase fluctuations in tfie received field on the mea~urement
errors is ascertained.
Introduction .
One of the major obstacles which makes it difficult to use the high poten
tial capabilities of informat~.on systems is the disruption of the coherency
_ of laser radiation when it propagates in the atmospfiere. Distortions which 
have the nature of multiplicative interference, expl~(r, t) + is(r., t)],
appear in an electromagnetic wave wfiicfi passes through a layer of a randomly
inhomogeneous medium. The function s(r, t) describes the random phase chan
_ ges due to the passage of the wave through the inhomogeneity of a medium;
 fluctuations in the level of the wave (amplitude fluctuations), which arise
with the interference of secondary waves scattered at these inhomogeneities,
are designated in ter~ns of x�(r, t) .
Up till now, questions of synthesizing and anal}rzing algorithms for proces
sing the data contained in a laser signal were treated without taking the
 amplitude fluctuations into account. This is related to the intuitive
notion that the ma~or factor limiting tfie informarion capacity of a signal
when it propagates in a turbulent medium is tfie disruption of its phase
structure. The model of a signal distorted solely by pfiase fluctuations ~
is used, for example, in papers [1, 2]. Moreover, tfie question of the
influence of amplitude fluctuations on the quality of tfie discrimination
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of infor.mation has remained unclear up to the present. Titis problem is _
studied in this paper as applied to tRe proDlem of ineaeur~ng the coordi
nates of a point ob~ect observed through a turbulent atmosphere.
1. The Formulation of the Problem
We shall assume that the duration of the probe signal is short as compared
to the characteristic time for tfie change in the complex phase ~(r, t) _
= X(r, t) + is(r, t) (for the atmosphere, this time is on the order of
103 seconds) and we shall neglect the dependence of X(r, t) and s(r, t)
on time. The field reflected from the ob~ect and observed in the time
interval 0< t< T at the point R of the receiving aperture is represented 
in the form:
~ y (r, t) =Y2E Re { u (tti) eap [ ic~o ( t _ R+ (Rrl \ +
\ c 1
(1)
Ix (r) F~is (r) 1 ~ fn (r, t) .
 Her~, ~ is the surface energy density~ of the signal; u(t) is the complex
T
~ law governing its modulation lu(t)~2dt=17; ; wQ and c are the carrier
0
frequency and the speed of light; R is a radius vector directed from the
center of the aperture to the ob~ect; R= IRI is tRe range to the ob~ect;
 T= 2R/c is the time delay of the signal; n(r, t) tRe background inter
ference, which in the following we sha11 consider to be normal white noise
with a zero mean value and a correlation funct~on of: 
==1Vo~S(r,rx)8(t~�t:).
The parameters being measured are the range R(the time delay T~ and the
angular coordinates of the a~~ect, determined hy the projections nx and
_ ny of the vector n= R/R on to the coordinate axes, related to the receive
aperture.
_ 2. The Synthesis of the Algorithms. The Tnterpretation of Optimal
_ Processing
The logarithm of the probability ratio of the signal and noise mixture (1)
has the form [3]: 
~2) x
_ ~ ~ J ~r, t) ~ _ NO ~a;2 
1 " 
 2 ~ [B;.EI; 4~+~R~,n+x~9 f6kfBt+rr,R+Neiek~.
 i~k.. f 
This expression was derived given the following assumptions:
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1. The r.eceiving aperture is broken down into discrete cells, 0~ = 1,
Nj with an area SA/N (SA is the aperture area) in such a manner
that the continuous functions x(r) and s(r) are described quite well by
the set of their own values X~ and s~ in these cells, while the difference .
in the phase changes in the ad~acent cells is much less than 2~r. The a 
~~riori law governin~ the distribution of the quantities X1~ ~ XN~ S1~
, sN is assumed to be normal:
1 ~
 PZN _ (2n) det'~' K esP {  2 ~'Y'Y~) TK' ('Y'~o } ,
where ^(T= ~y.,, . . . , i~h, S,, . . . , S. ) , "(o = ( ~ Q,2,.
which is proportional to the signal/noise ratio~y significantly exceeds the
sccc,nd term and is practically independent of the angular coordinates, must
_ be taken into account. For this reason, it is to be used when finding the
estimate of the delay T. On the other hand, the information on the angular
coordinates is basically contained in the second term of (2), and by maxi
mizing it with respect to the unknown values of nx and n~, one can find the "
maximum likelihood estimates of rtx and r"t~.
In order to interpret the nature of optimal processing when measuring the
delay, we shall choose the origin for the time readout so that u(t)  0,
_ t> 0, and set ~ Rr ~R (1nr/R~r`/2Rz) . . Then a~ can be written in 
the form:
a;z= a,= (i) = Q I~Y (r, i) esp L i~
�(nrr~l2R) ~ dr I Z,
(5)
e!
 where t
Y(r,T)= f ~(r,t)u(tT)esp[iw,(tT))dt.
~6~ o
N
No~o, the ~eneration of z, a;z can be treated tliusly~; the received field

y(r, t) i.s passed through a filter with a pulse response of h(t) = Re[u(t)�
_ �ex~>([a~pt)]~ ~1RCj is then fed to a system of lenses, the apertures of which
cc~inclcl~~ with the regions if photodetectors are installed in the focal
plane on tiie axes of the lenses, where the photodetectors generate the
sc~uares of the absolute values of the field incident on them, and sum their
outputs, then the result proves to be proportional to the quantity zl. In
this case, the output of the circuit at the current point in time T cor
responds to the tuning for the range R= cT/2, i.e., timewise scanning of
the autput signal with respect to the delay is realized in it. When ob
serving in a time interval T, determined by the a priori coverage of the
_ range being measured, the position of the maximum of the output signal t
is the estimate of~the delay, while the quantity I~ = cT/2 is the estimate
of the range to the object.
We will note that an important feature o~ the processing being discussed 
here is the partitioning of the receiving aperture into ce11s, the dimensions
of which do not exceed the effective size of tlie ~ield coherency region;
this assures coherent storage of the energy from the entire aperture. The
engineering realization of such processing does not present any fundamental 
difficulties. 
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Whc~n findin~ l:he estimates r~x and rt~, which maximize the second term in
(2), tfie fact ttiat the information on the angular coordinates is contained
only in the phases 0~ of the field bein~ observed is to be taken inta ac
count, as well as the dependence of 6~ on the parameters nx and n~ being 
measured, where this is described by the expression:
~o .
. 6;   (n=x,.{nyJi) ~
. � c
where x~ and y are the coordinates of the vector r~. If the aperture is
symmetrical wi~h respect to the ~ and y axes, while the object is located
close to the normal to the aperture, running through th~ origin of the co
ordinates, then the explicit expressions for i2x and n~ are as follows:
N
~ xk\B1.AtNAi+Bli~N~AtNe1~
~ 1,A~?
~y~  N , 
~0 ~
xjxABf+N,,,+N
i.kt .
_ N
..F.i y~ ~B~,n+NA~iBi+N,~+xO~)
~ 1,n=t
nv = H ~
E J~ykBi+Na+~
1,A~!
 where A~, Aj and a~ are defined by expressions (3), in which the ~ollowing
is to be substituted:
r
( $ ) y~ _ ~ ~ f ,y (r, t) rz (tT) exp (ic,~ot) dt dr.
 e~ o
As w~3s noted in papers [2, 4], the estimation of the angular coordinates of
the radiation source reduces to the calculat~on of the smoothed average 
s1oPe of the phase front of the received ~ie1d with respect to the coor
dinate axes, chosen at the aperture. The processing of (7) is treated in
precisely the same way. The difference consists in the �act that during
the smoothing, not only the direct correlation relationships between the
_ values oE the Phases 6j in the different cells of the aperture are taken 
inro account, but also their relationships in terms of the field levels
A~. In engineering terms, processing of the form of (7) is considerably
more difficult to realize tfian operations of range estimation. In any
case, the issue is one of the necessity of registering the levels and the _
phases of the received field in the ce11s 6~, with subsequent digital pro
cessinp.
3. The Precision in the Measurement of the Time Delay in Optimal Processing.
A Comparison with Nonoptimal Algorithms.
We sha11 analyze the errors in the measurement of tlie ti~le delay T with the
assumption that the object being observed is located close to the normal
to the aperture passing through its center. _
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The estimate T which maximizes the function
z(T) a r/ (r, t) u(tti) exp (t~,t) dt dr
~IJJ� s
1~~ e! o
satisfies the li~:elihood equation:
aZ ~T~ I o.
(~T
_ The left side of this equation can be expanded in a series at the point T=
= T(T is the true value of the delay), and by linearizing the difference
i T with respect to the noise component, one can obtain the follow3ng ex
pression for the dispersion of the estimate:
/ f aZ~, (T> 1 Z ~ 
(9) _ ~ ai ~ ~
Q~=< ,
8zz~ (i) Z
_ ~ ~ aT~ ~ ~
~ where z~(T) and zW(T) are tfle signal and noise components of Z~T~. The
angular brackets in (9) indicate averaging with respect to the noise and
the fluctuations of the level and phase of the signal. Omitting a number
of mathematical derivations, we shall given the final expression for aT:
x i
(10) �lZ 1 " \ 1 N~e2x! 1
4~~"
j_, .
Here, q= ESA/Np is the signaltonoise ratio in the aperture, while ~w2 is 
the square of the root mean square spectral width of the signal modulation:
mr 2
(11) ao?= ~ f c~zltz(ic~)IZdw \2~ J culu(iu~)IZdc~) , ~

The low frequency modulation spectrum of the probe signal is designated as
u(iw) in (11). The fact that QT is proportional to the quantity 1/q~w2
does not require any special commentary: with an increase in fihe signal to
_ noise ratio and the spectral width of the modulation, the precision in the
measurement of the delay deteriorates. The ~actor. r~ _
x
\ ( ~1/iV) X~ ez=~ ~ ~
 ~ ,m ~
reflects the influence of the amplitude fluctuations of the ~'ield on this
= error for the case of optimal processing. We shall estimate this quantity
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in the limitin;; cases of small and large apertures (as compared to the
coherency region of the received field). In the first case, we shall
assiime Lh~it f~r. all Xj = X, i.e.:
 1 ~ ~
Z~ ~ \ \ 1~~ ~e~zr ) >~~(~~z~~ EXP~~Qx2~.
x �
For a large aperture, the quantity (1/N) ~eZx~ differs little from _
_ its mean value, (1/N) ~>=1, , so that in this case Y= 1. The
r.eduction in t}ie factor Y with an increase in the dimensions of the aperture
is related to its averaging effec~. The limits for the variation in Y are
determined by the quantity exp(4QX) and can be quite considerable (in the
satura~ion region of the intensity fluctuations, ctX = 0.7, so that
exp(4QX) = 16. 
It i5 interesting to calculate that potential gain in the delay measurement
accuracy which optimum processing yields as compared to algorithms in which
the processin~; of the amplitude fluctuations is absent. One of these al "
gorithms, which is used in practice, effects the storage from the entire
aperture S2; this processing is optimal if the signal is regular, while its
i.nitial phase is randomly and uniformly distributed in the range of (~r, ~r).
laitl~ this method, the estimate T maximizes the quantity:
 r
G~ ~z) = I f f y(r, t) u(ti) exp (iu~ot) dt dr ~I
0 0
 As yet another method, we shall consider an algorithm which maximizes the 
following expression with respect to T:
Y 1 T
_ Lx (i) I ~ f f y(r, t) u(ti) exp (iwot) dt dr I.
1f e~ o
As follows from [2], this algorithm is optimal when only the phase fluctua
_ tions of the signal are taken into account.
By considering the signaltonoise ratio to be high, and linearizing L1(T)
and L2(r) with respect to the noise components, one can derive the following
formulas For the errors of the algorithms considered here:
$ esp [x (r) Iis (r) J ~lr
(13) o:~ =~y,/q~c~` = 1 ~ I ~
2 G~(~Z \ I � ,SA
N :
(14) Q~~Z=Y:/qOw" _ ~c~z \ l N~ ez~l
4
1~~
~ 72 `
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The depc~ndencc~ ~,f RT1 ancl csT2 on the signul to�noise ratio q and ~he spectral ~
widtf~ oE the modulation is precisely tRe same as in (10). The influence of
the amplitude fluctuations on the error is described by the coefficients Yl
and y2. It is not difficult to see that in the case of a small aperture,
the quantities y, yl and Y2 agree. This is not surprising, since each of
the three algorithms considered in this case accomplish coherent spatial
pr.ocessing of the f.ield. More interesting is the relationship of the quan
_ tities y, y~ and y2 with large aperture dimensions, since specifically in
this re~;:ion does ttie optimality or nonoptimality of the processing have an
eEfect. In this case, Y= 1, while the quantities Yl and y2, which eharac
terize the corresponding gain in precision, are represented in the form:
i
(15) = r ,1, f f I'z~r,r2)dr, dr, ) ~ 7~~ QXP~Q:'),
~ S.,
00
 where 1'2(rl  r2) is a second order coherency function of a spherical wave
distorted in a turbulent atmosphere. It can be seen from (15) that the
quantity yl is of the order SA/Sk, where Sk is the size of the field co
_ herency re~ion, ~ahile the maximum value of y2 is approximately 2(when QX =
= 0.7).
'I'i~e estimates cited here provide a qualitative notion of the precision
c}~aracteristics of. the each of the algorithms considered.
4. The Precision in the Measurement of Angular Coordinates for the
 Case of Optimal Processing. A Comparison with a Nonoptimal Algorithm. 
Tt~e dis~~ersion of the error in th~ measurement of angular coordinates can be
ca].cul.ated using expression (7) for the estimates. By linearizing the right
sides oC (7) with respect to the random component, it is easy to show that
 the error consists of two components: a noise and a fluctuation component.
The first is determined by the presence of additive noise in the field being
processed; its dispersion is inversely proportional to tfie signaltonoise
_ ratio q. When q� l, the second component is more important, which is due 
to the spatial fluctuations of the level and phase of the signal. Limiting
ourselves to the treatment of only this component, the following expression
can be derived for its dispersion:
s c` 
~ 16 ) 6,~, _
w~=D~'
wher.e
N
~ 17 ` Llp _ ~ x)~'P.I3Ji�A',qtY~
)
j,A~ 1
while the elements of the B matrix are determined by formulas (4). Tt fol
lows from (17) that the value of. v~n [cr~x~J depends substantially on the
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r~iC ic~ ~~f tii~ cl imen5ions o~ the aperture and the characteristic scales 
which describe the spatial fluctuations of the phase and level. This
function can be clearly illustrated in the limiting cases of small and
lary;e aper.tiires.
In ~he Cirs~ case, it is sufficient for the estimate to limit ourselves to
the quadratic of the correlation functions KXX(p), Kss(p) and KXS(p) and
 to derive the following expression:
z
Q,p~  ~
(18> z  CZZ \  ~x'/
~o ~xx
where
� aZhxx
~xx Z I i
aP v=o
~19~ azKx~ ~ ,
t'x+   y i
 a~ v~o
2
a x�
~ . ~
Z
P oso
'Che quanti.ty which determines the relative contribution of the amplitude
fluctuations to the dispersion ~fl. is y SXs/ SX~ ' This parameter
coincides with the cross correlation factor for the level and phase og a
plane wave, determined in [SJ. It fol~ows from the estimates given in this
paper. that the quantity YZ 2oes not exceed a few percent, so that in (18),
c~ne can assi~me 6t1. _(c2/wp)Sss� The result obtained is extremely charac
teristic: with a decreaGe in the aperture, the fluctuation error ceases to
depend on its size, and is determined by the parameter SSS. The physical
expl.anation of this fact is obvious: with sma11 apertures, the portion of
the wave phase front being processed can be considered planar, and for this
reason, the precision in the angular position of the source is determined
only by the fluctuations in the angle of incidence of the wave, the dis
per.sion of which is proportional to ~ss�
Ttie other limiting case occurs if the area of the aperture significantly
exceeds the dimensions of tfie coherency regions of the fluctuations of the
level and phase. In this case, a changeover must be made from discrete
c~uantiti_es to continuous ones in expressions (4) and (17), and when solving
the resulting integral equations, one must make use o~ the Fourier trans
form of the correlation functions KXX, KXs and KSS. The final expression
for. c~f~ , has the form:
s 3c= Z1
Q~n = CF  Fx~ /
_ (20) 4c~ zhz ,
_ :x
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where:
1'xx~xz~xi~ xz~ ~x~~~y~oi
(21~ Fx,=~x.~x+, xx~ ~x~~,o;
F..=~., (x~, xo) I r,..~,_a.
mXX' ~Xsand ~ASS take the form of twodimensional spatial specCra of the
corresponding correlation functions; 2h is the linear dimension of the
aperture.
= It f.ollows from formulas (18) and (21) that the presence of amplitude
fluctuations and their correct processing leads to a reduction in the fluc
tuation component of the measurement error for the angular coordinates (we
will note that the first terms in (18) and (21) correspond to the error in
the measurement of ttie angular coordinates using only phase processing.
The explanation of this unexpected results is that in a turbulent atmos
phere, the amplitude and phase fluctuations prove to be markedly correlated,
and for this reason, the processing of the signal levels allows for the ex
traction of additional information on the angular coordinates. As has
alr.eady been noted, for the case of a sma11 aperture, this reduction is
also small (a few percent), and in the case of a large aperture, the re
sulting in the error is determined by the Auantity u= 1 FXs~F XFss~^1
The expressions for the spectra ~XX, ~XS and ~SS, computed in [5~ for the
case of a plane wave propagating in a turbulent atmosphere, yield a value
 of u= 0.25. This figure eloquently speaks of the necessity of taking into
 account the amplitude fluctuations when synthesizing algorithms for the _
measurement of. the angular coordinates.
In conclusion, the authors would like to express their deep gratitude to
P.A. Bakut for his useful discussions and attent~on to the work.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ~
A.A. Kuriksha, RADIOTEKHNIKA T ELEKTRONTKA, 1968, 13, 5, p 771. .
2. P.A. Bakut, K.N. Sviridov, I.N. Troitskiy, N.D. Ustinov, RADTOTEKHNIKA
I ELLKTRONIKA, 1977, 22, No 5, p 935.
3. A.B. Aleksandrov, P.A. Bakut, V.A. Loginov, "OBrabotka opticheskogo
signala, rasprostranyayushchegosya v sluchaynoneodnorodnoy srede"
["The Processing of an Optical Signal Propagating in a Randomly
Inhomogeneous Medium"], "Doklady VII Vsesoyuznoy konferentsii po
teorii kodirovaniya i peredachf informatsii:'" j"Reports of the Seventh
AllUnion Conference on Coding and Information Transmission Theory"],
Part VI, p 6, 1978.
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4. P.A. Bakut, V.A. Loginov, I.N. Troitskiy, RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA,
1977, 22, No 2, p 286.
_ 5. V.I. Tatarskiy, "Rasprostraneniye voln v turbulentnoy atmosfere"
["Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Atmosphere"], Nauka Publishers, 1967.
 [408225]
 COYYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," "Radiotekhnika i elektronika," 1979.
8225
CSO: 1860
76
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Electron Tubes; Electrovacuum Technology
UDC 621.385.6
MICROWAVE AMPLIFIERS WITH CROSSED FIELDS
Moscow SVERKHVYSOKOCHASTOTNYYE USILITELI SO SKRESHCHENNYMI POLYAMI in
Russian 1978, signed to press 27 Dec 77 p 2, 278280
[Annotation and table of contents from book by Mikhail Borisovich Tseytlin,
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Fursayev and Oleg Vladimirovich Betskin, Sovetskoye 
radio, 550 copies, 280 pages]
[Textj This book describes methods for calculating and analyzing micro
wave amplifiers with crossed fields (type M). Beam amplifiers are con
 sidered (with an electronoptical system removed from tr~e interaction
~ :space). Besides a general theory of interaction between the electron flow
 and the retarded electromagnetic wave in the large signal mode, consider
able attention is given to investigating new arrangements and various 
operating modes of beam devices. In the section dedicated to the amplitron,
an analysis is given of basic electrical characteristics, as well as a
_ calculation of the output parameters of the amplifier.
The book is intended for engineers and scientific staff workers in the area 
of microwave electronics and radiophysics, as well as for instructors and
students in higher educational schools. It may also be used as a textbook
for course and diploma theses.
Pictures 157; tables 8; bibliography 175 titles. .
Contents
' Page
Foreward 3
Introduction q
Part 1. Mtype beam amplifiers 7
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Page
Chapter 1. Basic types of beam microwave amplifiers with _
 crossed fields 7
1.1. Introduction 7
1.2. Principle of operation and special features of ~
beam amplitiers with crossed fields 7 ~
1.3. Interaction (of amplification) mechanisms in crossed
fields 14 
1.4. Basic types of beam amplifiers with crossed fields 20
Chapter 2. Basic equations of the nonlinear theory of inter
action between an electron beam and a traveling ~ _
electromagnetic wave 3U
2.1. Introduction 30
2.2. Derivation of ba.sic equations for a model of a
device witl. an infinitely thin beam 31
2.3. Linearization of basic equations 47 
= 2.4. LBVM [Travelingbeam magnetront;.~pe tube] model
~ with a finite thickness beam 50
Chapter 3. Analysis of beam amplifier operation in the
nonlinear mode 54
 3.1. Introduction 54
3.2. Nonlinear theory of spatial charge wave 55
~ 3.3. Basic results of the calculation of the nonlinear
characteristics of a beam amplifier 63
3.4. . Eifect of a spatial charge and the beam thickness on 
ba~~ic characteristics of the amplifier 78 ~
3.5. Approximate analysis methods 86
_ Chapter 4. Analysis of new arrangements for microwave beam
Mtype devices 92
4.1. Introduction 92
_ 4.2. Problems of raising the amplification coefficient `
in bPam devices 92
4.3. Basic arrangements ror sectionalized stepbyste~
amplifiers and some investigations in the small
~ signal mode 100
4.4. Analysi.s of a twosection stepbystep amplifier in ~
the large signal mode 109
_ 4.5. Cascade Mtype amplifiers with two electron beams _
in the high amplitude mode 119
4.6. Sectional backward wave amplifier with a stepby _
step change in the height of the interaction space 133 ~
r 4,7. Analysis of the operation of a hybrid type LOVM
 [Magnetrontype backwardwave tube]LBVM 140
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Chapter 5. Investigation of the interaction between an
electron beam and higher time harmonics of
the microwave field 147
o. 
5.1. Introduction 147
' S.2. Derivation of basic equations 148
5.3. Analysis of the Mtype amplifier operation
in the multifrequency mode 150
5.4. Excitation of higher harmonics in the Mtype
 amplifier 156
5.5. Frequency multiplying in Mtype devices 161
5.6. Experimental investigation of multiplier 
frequencies 166 
Part 2. Mtype amplifiers with c~thode in the interaction 
space 171 
Chapter 6. Basic amplifier types 171
6.1. Introduction 171
6.2. Princ~ple of operation and special features of
_ ~ Mtype amplifiers with a cathode in the inter
action space 171
6.3. Basic types of magnetron amplifiers 177
6.4. Special features of magnetron amplifier operation
_ in an arrangement with an anode power supply source 186
 6.5. Operation of magnetron amplifiers in the mode of
input signal control 188
Cha~ter 7. Methods ~or analyzing amplitron operation 193
7.1. Introduction 193
7.2. Method of a selfmatched field 193
7.3. Basis for analyzing the amplitron by the method
_ of equivalent magnetrons 198
7.4. Simplest theory of amplitrons 204
Chapter 8. Analysis of electrical characteristics of
the amplitron 212
8.1. Introduction 212
8.2. Equations of an established mode of an
equivalent magnetron 212
8.3. Relationships for calculating ir~put parameters
of an amplitron and an analysis of its electrical
characteristics 216
8.4. Analysis of possibilities for raising the amplitron _
_ an:plifying characteristics 232
8.5. Analysis of phase characteristics of the amplitron 236
_ ' 79
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Chapter 9. Analysis of amplitron operation taking into
account the excitation of paxasitic kinds of
oscillations 243
9.i Introduction 243
9.2 Analysis of amplitron paxameters that chaxacterize '
the intensity of the excitation of low voltage
paxasitic kinds of resonant types of oscillations 24~4
9.3 Calculation of the power of parasitic amplitron
' oscillations of the leading and trailing edges of
the modulating pulse 255
9.~ Calculation of amplitron paramet.Prs in the excitation
mode of a reversewave magnetron kind of oscillations 260
Conclusion 2Ci~.
_ Biblio,,raphy ~(7
COPYRIGHT~ IZDATEL'STVO "SOVETSKOYE RADIO", 1978
~2662291]
2291
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BOOK ON EXPERIMENTAL RADIOOPTICS
~toscow EKSPERIMENTAL'NAYA RADIOOPTIKA in Russian 1979 pp 1, 254256
[Annotation and table of contents from book by N. M. Borovitskaya, et al,
Nauka, total copies unknown, 256 pages] 
[Text] ~Methods of coherent and incoherent optics, radiovision and
acoustics ~are discussed within the framework of a single radiooptical
approach, and corresponding installations and devices are described. The
part on coherent optics includes: investigation of the laser radiation 
spectrum, holography, picture multiplexing, optical methods for processing 
data, the study of statistical characteristics (noises) of data c~rriers,
 as well as the invesrigation of the intensity blips of laser radiation
propagating in the atmosphere. Incoherent and partially coherent light
are used to solve problems of spatial filtration and the correlation
 analysis of pictures, and for making integral Fourier and Fresnel trans 
formations. Descriptions of most installations are provided with circuits,
_ practical recommendations etc. which are sufficient for use in laboratory
courses.
~ 
Table 1; illustrations 117; bibliography 95 titles.
Contents
Page
Foreward by ~he editors 6
Chapter 1. Study of gas laser radiation characteristics by a
traveling wave resonatorinterferometer
(Yu. I. Zaytsev, V. G. Gavrilenko) 11
1.1. Optical resonator as a laser oscillating system (12).
1.2. Frequency spectrum of laser radiation (17). 1.3. Spectral
analysis of laser radiation by a traveling wave
 resonatorinterferometer (18). 1.4. Experimental 
installation (12).
_ 81 
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Table of Contents
 Chapter 2. Nonaberrational holographic pictures
 (I. Ya. Brusin). 33
2.1. Ba,sic laws (33). 2.2 ?iolo aphic installation (38~� 2�3�
Method for plotting holograma (41~ 2.4. Observation of an imaginary
 picture (46). 2.5. Observation of an actual picture (47~. 2.6.
Hologram defects (4~8~ .
Cha.pter 3. Holographic multiplexing of pictures
(V. N. 5lavinskaya) ' S1
3.1. Multiplexing principle (~51~. 3.2. Selecting the mode of
hologram recording and diffraction effici~ncy (57)� 3~3� Distortions
of multiplexed picture (58). 3.4. bcperimental method of holographic
multiplexing (63).
Chapter 4. Qptical analyzer of spatial spectra (V. A. Zvere~~
Ye. Yu. Zul'~armayeva, F. A. Ma,rkus). 66
4.1. The function of the device and its block diagram (66). 4.2.
Obtaining signal spectra in the optical system (69). 4~.3. Resolving
power of the analyzer ('72). 4~.4. Dynamic range of the analyzer (~4).
4~.5. Description of the installation (75~.
 Chapter 5. Visualization of periodic amplitude and phase
st.ructures in the Fresnel diffraction axea
(N, r1. Borovitska,ya, Ye. Yu. Zul'karnayeva~
T. P. Kosoburd, F. A. Markus, T. I. Soboleva,
N. V. ~ushko~ 83
5.1. Method. for reproducing periodic signal without lenses (84~.
Method for reprod.uc~ing sinusoidal phase signals without lenses (89).
5�3� Investigai��ion of light field intensity distribution (91~.
5.4~. Determination of modulation percentage in accordance with the
intensity dis~'tribution in the visualization plant (9~~� 5~5� ~Ferimen
taJ.installation (97)�
Cha.pter 6. Measurement of frequency characteristic of the spatial
filtration system (S. I. Zaytsev, A. I. Kh~l'ko) 99
6.1. Contrastfrequency characteristic of the optical system under
conditions of partiallycoherent illumination (9g). 6.2. Experimental
installation. 
Chapter 7. Light modulator noises in coherent optical systems 
(F. A~ Markus) 10~
_ 7.1. Light modulator noises (109~. 7.2. Experimental
investigation of nonuniformities of a light wave that passed
through the mbdulator (i1I). 7.3. E`ffect of noises on th~
resolving power and dynamic range of coherent optical systems
(121).
 82
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Table of Contents
Chapter 8. The use of optical methods for forming pictures
in the radio range (E. I. Gel'fer, S. N. Mensov) 126
8.1. Direct radiovision (128). 8~2~ Holographic radiovision
~136)� 
Chapter 9. Integral Fourier and F~esnel transformations in
 incoherent light (A. V. Sh�fsharin) i45
9.1. Special features of integral Fourier and ~esnel
transforma.tions in incoherent light (146). 9.2. bcperimental
 investigation of basic parameters of incoherent Fourier and
F+~esnel analyzers (151). 9.3. Resolving power and dynamic
range of incoherent analyzers (158~.
Chapter 10. Synthesis of optical filters (A. V. Shishaxin)
10.1. Analog methods for the synthesis of Fourier and Fresnel
filters (166). 10.2. Experimental installations (178)�
Chapter ii. Investigation of antennas with synthesized
aperture (V. G. Zakin, A. V, Shisharin) 184
ii.l Coherent pulse locator of the side field of view with
the synthesized aperture (185~. 11.2. Qptical processing
of RSA [expa,nsion unknown~ of the side field of view (192)� 
11.3. Experimental installation (200~.
Chapter 12. Twodimensional optical correlation meter
(E. I. Gel'fer, Yu. M. Sorokin~ 203
12.1. Arrangement of installation (204~, 12.2 Diffraction
theory of twodimensional correlation meter (205). 12.3�
Discussion of diffraction theory results. Selection of
installation parameters (209~� 12.4. The use of the
method (211). 12.5. Properties of the correlation
ftmct i on ( 213 ) �
Chapter 13. Optical methods for determining the characteristics
of spatial blips of the intensity of the light beam
propagated in a turbulent atmosphere (A. M.
Cheremukhin). 216
13.1 Random spatial intensity blips in the cross section of
light beams and their chaxacteristics (216). 13.2. Optical
methods for finding.the distribution function of the blip
axea at a given intensity level (217). 13�3� Determination
of the distribution law of the number of spa.tial blips at
high intensity levels ~223~.
_ 83
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Table of Contents
Chapter 14. Investiga~ion of stereophonic sound
(L. A. Zhestyannikov) 22(
14.1. the question of the theory of directional sound (226).
14.2. Stereophony. Effects of localization in stereophony
(236) �
 Bibliography ~ 252
COPYRIGHT: NAUKA. GLAVNAYA RIDAKTSIA FIZIK4MATEMATICHESKOY LITERATURY~ 1979
[292291]
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CSO: 1860
,
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General Circuit Theory and Information
PHASELOCKED LOOPS WITH SAMPLING COMPONENTS
 Moscow SISTEMY FAZOVOY AVTOPODSTROYKI CHASTOTY S ELEMENTAMI DISKRETIZATSII
(PhaseLocked Loops with Sampling Components) in Russian 1979 signed to
press 15 Jan 79 pp 224
[Annotation and table of contents from book by Vagen Vaganovich Shakhgil'
dyan, Aleksandr Alekseyevich Lyakhovkin, Vladimir Leonidovich Karyakin,
Vladimir Anatol'yovich.Petrov and Valentina Nikolayevna Fedoseyeva, edited
by V. V. Shakhgil'ayan, Svyaz', 4300 copies, 224 pages]
[Text] This book studies phaselocked loops (FAPCh) containing components
for sampling its coordinates of state (with respect to time, level).
The authors introduced a classification of systems containing sampling com
ponents. They discussed methods of the analysis and computation of radio
pulse, pulsed, digital, and continuous sampling FAPCh systems. They
analyzed the stability, dynamics, and noisa immunity of these systems and _
_ gave recommendations on designing and calculation of such systems. _
 The book is intended for scientists engaged in the development and use of
synchronization devices.
Contents
Page
_ Chapter 1. Introduction 5
1.1. General Information 5
1.2. Block Diagrams and Application Area of FAPCh Loops
with Sampling Components 8
Chapter 2. RadioPulse PhaseLocked L~ops 14
2.1. Mathematical Description of the RIFAPCh [RadioPulse
PhaseLocked Loops] 14
2.2. Investigation of a Linear Model of RIFAPCh Loops 20
 2.3. Analysis of Nonlinear RIrAPCh Loops of the First d
~ Order in the Absence of Noise Influences 37
2.4. Analysis of Nonlinear RIFAPCh Loops of the Seco*~d
Order in the Absence of Noise Influences 46 _
2.5. Statistical Characteristics of Nonlinear RIFAPCh Loops 53
2.6. Simulation of RadioPulse rAPCh Loops 64
2.7. Engineering Calculations and Technical Realization of
RIFAPCh Loops 67
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Cliripter 3. Pulsed PhaseLocked Loopa 74
3.1. Gener:~l M~thematical Description of an IFAPCh Loop 74
3.2. Stability o� IFAPCh Loops 79
3.3. Pulsed Phase Detectors and Memory Devices 86
3.4. Side Oscillations at the Output of an IFAPCh Loop 90
3.5. Effects of Perturbations on an IFAPCh Loop 92
3,6. Examples of Engineering Calculations and Realization
of an IFAPCh Loop 96
Chapter 4. Digital PhaseLocked Loops 99
4.1. Preliminary Remarks 99 
4.2. Fundamental Equation of a Digital FAPCh Loop 104
4.3. Autonomous TsFAPCh [Digital PhaseLocked Loop]
of the First Order 108
4.4. TsFAPCh of the Second Order 120
4.5. TsFAPCh of the First Order Under the Effect of Random
Perturbations 132
4.6. Statistical Analysis of TsFAPCh of the Second Order 146
4.7. Problems of Engineering Calculations and Practical
_ Realization of TsFAPCh 148
Chapter S. Continuous Sampling Systems of PhaseLocked Loops 158
5.1. General Information 158
5.2. Fundamental Equation of an FAPCh Loop with a 
Digital Ingetrator 161
5.3. Investigation of the Dynamics of a Continuous
Sampling Astatic FAPCh Loop 163
5.4. Analysis of an Astatic Continuous Sampling FAPCh _
Loop on the Basis of Its Continuous Model 184
5.5. Investigation of the Dynamics of a Retrieval
Continuous Sampling FAPCh Loop 193
5.6. Influence of Fluctuation Noise on an Astatic
Continuous Sampling FAPCh Loop 1~~6
" 5.7. Engineering Calculation of Continuous Sampling
FAPCh Loops 202
5.8. Technical Realization of an Astatic Continuous
; Sampling FAPCh Loops 204
Supplements 207
Bibliography 215
Subject Index 222
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz`," 1979
[3110, 233 ~ 
10,233
 CSO: 1860 ~
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General Production Technology
unc 389.14,006.354.065
i1i1;'I'ftc~l,(~GI(IAI~ CUNTFtUL SYSTEM FOR PRQDUCTION
Moscow TZMERITII,'NAYA TEKHNIKA in Russia,n, No 10, 1979 pp 78
[Article by L. A. Pronin~
 [Text~ Raising the quality of products manufactured by the tool 
pla,nts of the Minstankoprom ~Ministry of Machine Tool and Tool Building
Industry~ is a complex ar~d responsible problem impossible to solve without
metrological control (MO) of production.
To the "Ka,libr" Plant that produces a broad range of ineasuring devices (SI)
for lineax dimensions and angles~ with a great var~.ety of controlled paxam
_ eters, metrological control problems axe especialiy important. MO provides
for the followir.gi
analyzes the condition of ineasurements at the enterprise and~ on the basis 
of the analysis of the data, develop measures for improving the M0;
develops and introduces modern measuring methods; establishes efficient
nomenclature for the SI used;
introduces government and industrial standards, develops entergrise stand
ards that regulate precision norms, introduces methods for making the meas
urements, checks and tests;
obtains expert metrological opinion on the technicalnorm, design and 
technological documentation;
checks and obtains metrological certification of the 5I used at the plant.
Moreover, the plant deals with MD problems related to coordinating govern
 ment standards for the SI series produced by the plant which complicates
~.=.~h precision measurements; participating in metrological tests of special
design devices and automatic monitoring facilities, assimila,ted in accord
ance with the plans for new equipment; the study of the operating properties
 of the SI, produced by domestic industry: develop local checking arrange
_ ments that establish the order of transferring the dimensions of,units of
~
, ~7
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1~~rigLh aud r~tigles from Gosstandart standards and ma.ster SI to working S.I
a~ed at the ~~lant~ as well as for the entire list of SI products ma,de by
the plant.
The Central Metrological Service (Depaxtment of ~hief Metrologist) at the
plant was organized according to the "Regulation on Metrological Service
of the Minstankoprom" and typical regulations of the Gosstandart on depaxt
mental metrological services. The creation of a centralized metrolo~ical
_ service ma.de it possible to implement a single policy in the area of inetrol
ogy, create and introduce a metrologioal production control system and con
ditions where the head of the metrological service is responsible for all
kinds of ineasurements, the right SI sPlection, metrological supervision
over the measuring equipment and the introduction of new SI.
At the "Kalibr" Plant, as in many other enterprises of the Minstankoprom,
the Department of the Chief Metrologist (OGM~ was organized on the basis of
a central measurements laboratory and the KIP~Monitoring measuring devices~
service.
The specializa~ion of the OGM subdivisions (see axrangement) by individual
sections of the MO of product~on provided a single approach to the problems
 of the metrological preparation for production~and the fullest and most
efficient utilization of inetrologistsspecialists.
The OGM puts special importance on the expert metrological analysis of de
sign and technological dc~cumentation which permits solving beforehand the
problems related to the MO development and product manufact~uring~ i.e., to
determine the possibility of the accuracy of the monitoring norms called
for in the documentation, evaluate the authenticity of the established
methods~ determine the necessity for developing facilities and methods for
 measurements~ as well as providing the necessary conditions for production
and testing.
One of the most important aspects of MO for production is developing and
 introducing nonstandardized SI and monitoringmeasuring fixtures. In our
opinion, the greatest effect in solving these problmes ma.y be achieved when
OGM designers become involved in developing the indicated SI. In this case,
proper planning and the timely design of the SI; the measurement axrangements
 of units and parts of monitoringmeasuring fixtures should bP standardized.
The large product list of paxts and units with similax measured F.arameters
should be taken into account.
The efficiency of this approach is confirmed by the experience of sevaral
other Minstankoprom enterprises~ especially the Ka.unass Plant imeni
Dzerzhinskiy [1~
88
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lil. uN~reNep ~i ~

rn. Memponoz ~ 2 ~
3 ~
3aM ~n. Mern,oo~oz�
_ ~5) ~6~ ' 
GeKmop rremAo~oz~ CeKmop a6~ux Ban ~
vecKO~ nodaoinoBrrr~ pocoB Mernponoaucc, CeKmap HQd3opa
_ npau~BodcmBa u u3Me ucc~~daBainenbcrrvx sa usMepume~eNV~i
peyu~ amdemcm9eH pa6om u BHedpeHUA mexHUKO~i
Hv~i npodyit~u~1 NOBb/X CN
, ,
8, 9 0 ~ ~ ~
1 ~ ~ C~ N Q e. ~
~ y � ~ o � o ~ ~ ~ �y~ Q
 v~ d ~i~ �eE o ~ ZV C~x C~ t~
 CoE tr~~ ~O~j Z~~ ~oZ~ tlo~~ d~b C
Co~ E~ ~v~ bi F oo'`,~t i~ ~
F No ~ F~na ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ d ~ F~o~ � 5 ~ � ~
~o~ ooa ~ o o bo a,d o oa�y~ ~~~5 ��'Z ~
~ea ~oe d~o~ cl'~D�. ~ dF`o l~~c aj~~ bV ~
CIoC i J~C~i ~ C~ C~~ Qe~ ~CFF C~ o
`Y `a ~ ~ ` ~Z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L~ y e 
1. Chief engineer 9. Group for metrological expert
analysis NTD [Normtechnical
documentation]
2. Chief inetrologist 10. Group for testing, investigating
and introducing new SI
 3. Deputy chief inetrologist ii. Group for general questions on
metrology
4. Sector for metrological 12. Group for supervising lineax and
_ prepaxation for production angulax SI
and measurements of critica.l 13. Group for supervising electric
products and radio SZ equipment
5� Sector for general metrological 14~. (=roup far supervising pressure,
problems, research and intro weight, P3rr.ometric and heat SI
duction of new SI 15. Group for repair and adjustment of
6. Sector for supervision of SI for lineax and angulax measure
 measuring techniques ments
7. Group for metrological 16. KPP [Control and cr,eck point~
preparation for production _
8. Group for measuring
critical products
89
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At present a design bureau was organized at the DGM of the plant. In
addition to developing nonstandaxd SI and monitoringmeasuring fixtures, it
 is involved in problems of introducing in production active and automatic
monitoring~ and developing technical tasks on designing special complex SI.
Since 1977, certification was introduced in the Minstankoprom system to im
prove the MD [2~. The certificate, which is the basic document that char
acterizes the state of the MO at the enterprise on 1 January of each year,
Includes informa.tion on the structural subdivisions of the metrological
service and data on cadres~ rooms~ master and working SI etc.
The introduction of MO certificates, besides obtaining authentic and opera
tional information on the state of the MO in the industry, permits the
metrological service of the enterprise to evaluate the development of the MO
and the results of the work of the metrological service and to detect short
comings.
The MO system is a component part of the KS UKP [expansion unknown~ intro
 duced at the glant. At present, a number of STP [expansion unknown~ operate
at the plant. They regulate the order of the MO of production~ in paxti~
ulax, the metrological supervision of the SI; glant monitoring tests; expert
metrolc,gical analysis of design and technological documentation; development
and manufacturin~ monitoringmeasuring fixtures; methods and facilities for
checking the ~I produced by the plant etc.
Solving MO problems of production of precision measuring equipment is im
possible without highly skilled metrologists. The enterprise has a contin
uous system for prepaxing metrologistsspecialists and raising their skills.
Al1 OGM inspectors and metrology technicians are trained in courses to in
crease their qualifications according to two programs. The first includes
a general course on the principles of the interchangea~tlity theory, me:rol
ogy and the technique of lineax measurements; the second a course on the
organization and methods of checking certain kinds of the SI.
_ Study in these courses is stimulated by an order established at the plant,
accoraing to which the class of inspector is raised depending upon the re
sults of the training. F3zgineersmetrologists raise their skills by study
ing at the institutes of the Minstankoprom or Gosstandart for raising ~hese
skills.
The metrological service of the "Kalibr"Plant is developing scientific
technological cooperation with leading metrological orga,nizations in the
country.
At present, metrological and +.echnical services and the entire "Ka.libr"
Plant collective are faced with critical problems related to raising the
technical stanc~ards and quality of output. Tnese problems can be solved by
metrological control in developing new products, expart metrological analysis
90 ~
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of design and technological documentation at all stages of groduction,
the assimilation of the latest measurement techniques and measvrement
methods and the fmprovement of inetrological supervision of the SI etc.
1. IZMERIT~' 'NAYA TII{HNZKA, No 5~ 1977 PP 721. _
 2. Markov, N. N.; Zinin, B. S., IZMERITEL'NAYA TEh~TIKA, No 8~ 1977�
COP~'RIGHTs TZDATII,'STVO STANDARTDV~ 1979
[562291]
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i5 FEBRRURRY i988 CFOUO 2188) 2 OF 2
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Instruments, Measuring Devices and Testors; 
Methods of Measuring
~
UDC 535.214.4 _
PLANE RADIOrfETERS MADE WITH SEMICONDUCTOR llBVICES "
Moscow RADIOTEKHNIKA in Russian No 9 1979, signed to press 'L3 Jan 79
pp 4245
[Article by A. G. Semin, Yu. B. Khapin, A. N. Sharapov~
[Text] In radiometric investigations from planes of the atmosphere and
underlying surfaces, multifrequer.cy measuring methods are the most
preferable. They make it possib?.e to increase the measurement accuracy
c~f ~e.ophysica7 Parameters and a~~roach the measurement of atmosphere and
tiurfnc:c l~r~ramctc~rs as single proUlem of remote sounding.
In creating radiometric comple~es that span a broad range of frequencies,
including tt~e shortwave part of the millimeter ran~e, difficulties arise
t't~at are related to the implementation of simple and reliable systems with
l~i~h sensitivity and stability. One promising way to overcome these diffi
culties is the use of sem~conductors. At present, semiconductor radiometers
can be made For the entire millimeter range of wavelengths.
The IKI [Institute of Space Research] of the USSR AN developed a complex of
_ semiconductor radiometric receivers of the superheterodyne type with
mixers at the input for experimental investigations of the atmosphere and
underlying surfaces. The radiometers operate at frequencies of 89 gigaHz
(ri = 0.~4 cm), 37 gigaHz (~l = 0.8 cm) and ZO gigaHz = 1.5 cm). The
radiometers showed high operational characteristics during the operation
of the complex under various seasonal and climatic condit~_ons. A brief
ciescription of the radiometers and their i..ndividual uni.ts is given below.
Radio meter for an 0.34 cm wavelength. The special features of a radio
meter: transfer output modulation to an intermediate frequency (PCh) and
use a mixer operating on the second harmonic of the heterohynes* [3]. The
noted f.eatures made it possibie to reduce los~es considerably in the input
channel due to the breakdown of the SVCh [riicrowave fr.equency] modulator
* In literature, they are sometimes called mixers with subharmonic
pumping.
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nncl ~li~~ ~lr~~~~u~~l f n~; clev f ces, as well f~e to usG n semiconductar heterodync~
= wl.th an avalailch~~transit diode, operating ~c 40 gigaHz. 'I'he block diagram
of the radiometer is shown in Fig. 1, where the following designations are
 used: Srnixer; M modulator; G heterodyne; A Attenuator:
ST system for stabilizing the mixer current; GSh noise oscillator;
PU and UTD parametric and tunnel amplifiers; D detector attd pre r
liminary UNCh [Ultralow frequency]; F Faraday switch of polarization
plane; NF directional filter; V rectifier; K signal switches;
_ R recorder; BP power supply units. '
 _
J
_ (i)RNj~~~~3J~~~ 
~ ~ yTQ Lf ~ ~ yH4 C4 y/1 ~ P
~ ' ic~ + ~ ~ ~
rtu .9 M i ~.L~' j ~ 13 ~ i
I
~ ~ GT J'tu ~ ~ f'ON I
~~6)'' 7) 18} ~ ~ ~ i(14}
 _
Fig, 1
_ 1. Ln ~line 1 9, GSh
2. S l0o L
3. UTD 11. M
4. D 12, PU
5. UNCh 13a GON
 6, SD 14. BP
7. UPT 15 o A
8. F 16o G
The basic sources of the instability of the radiometer with PCh modula
tion are: the mixer, the transmission coefficient and the external
noise temperature which depends on the heterodyne input power, The
problem of obtaining a highly stable receiver with PCh modulation may
= be solved by two methods: by designing a mixer insensitive to changes
in heterodyne ower or by the rigid stabilization of the heterodyne
_ power~ In ~3~ , a calculation is given of the allowable instability
of the heterodyne power, which should not exceed 0,025% at a sensitivity
of the PCh channel of 0.05K at the modulator inputo In the experimental
= modulator, described there, a heterodyne power stabilization system
that would maintain the mixer input power with the required aacuracy
was used,
93
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 l1 mure clticient method for elimin~ring the ei'fecL of tl~e insl~bility
of the heteroc!�.~ie power on thc: mixer operation is the use of a system
to stabilize the operating currents of the mixer. The system operates '
in the following manner. The initial shift of the oper.ating point of
= the mixer diode is provided by the stable voltage source. A reference
resistor is placed in the DC circuit of the diode; voltage changes
across the resistor, related to the heterodyne power changes, control _
an amplifier iti whose input circuit is placed an attenuator for regulat
ing the transmission coefficient of the heterodyne channel. The
in~tability of the mixer operating currents in thi~ device was < 0.01%
for a heterodyne voltage changes of � 25%.
r1 r ~z~' ~ ~ ~
 ~i~ R~2 ~3 ~ 5~ C6 7~~~~ uNV~ c.al ynr ~ r,
a ,N B Hm c Unv ~ '
t � _ ` . a ~ i
j( y~~ 1 R X Ci C i 6~ i I yN4~ CQo yl7T,
~ i,~~ ~ B . i7  ~ ` .
; ~ ~ ~i8~ ~ ~ ~{i9 f, ~
i I' rDN ' 5r ~~20~
L~~
Fig. 2
1. Ln (line) 11. CD1
2. F 12. UPT1
3. A 1~. R1 
4. M 14. A
 5. V 15. GSh
6. NF 16. ST
 7. S 17. V
8. UPCh 18. G
9. D 19. GON
10. UNChl 20. BP
A signal is sent t~ the diode in the mixer over a 2.4 x 1.2mm2 waveguide
which is reduced to a third in the connection plane of the di~de. The
heterodyne voltage is brought to the mixer over a 5.2 x 2.6mm waveg'uide. 
Transformed PCh signal passes through a low frequency filter (FNCh)
 into a 23 :c 2mm2 waveguide and then to an intermediate frequency channel. ~
A Schottky barrier diode (DBSh) with parameters; series resistance
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R= 10 ohms and barrier capacitance C= 0.022 piCofarads, were
. u~ed in the mixer. The mixer operates�in a singleband mode.
The first UPCh stage is a degenerated parametric amplifier in the 3cm
 ran~;e with a noise temperature of 150K and a 13db amplification
cocLficient. The followiY:~; three UPCh stages are tunnel. diode amplifiers.
The total UPCh amplificati,~n coefficient is equal to 52db with a non
unifo nnity of about 15db in the amplitudefrequency characteristic
(AChKh).
Radiometer for 0.8cm wa~elength. This radiometer receives radiation
from one of two orthogonal polarities as well as simultaneously from
~ both polarities. As may be seen from the block diagram (Fig. 2, where
the designations are the same as in Fig. 1), the receiver has only
one receiving antenna that receives radiatian in two orthogonal planes
and one SVCh channel. The switching of the antenna for receiving
one of the polarities is done ~y a switch operating on the Faraday
 effect basis.
When the polarities are received simultaneously in ~wo planes, a three
frequency signal s~lection method of different polarities is used. A
frequency of f= f voltage is sent to the synchronism detector of
the first chan~iel from a reference voltage oscillator, and frequency
f2 = fo/2 voltage is sent to the second synchronism detector. The
Faraday switch switches the antenna from one polarity to the other with 
a frequency of f3 = fo/32. A frequency fl modulating voltage is applied
to the modulator during the first half period T= 1/f3 and an f2
frequency voltage is applied during the second ~alf period T3. The 
signal selection of various polarities is done by synchronism detectors
and signal switches that switch corresponding inputs of the low
frequency channels at a frequency of f3. Frequencies fl, f2, f3.are _
_ rigidly synchronized. Decoupling between various polarity channels is
about 25db and is determined basically by the decoupling properties of
the Faraday switch. The use of signal switches is not compulsory. _
Switching period T3 of the antenna is selected so that during time T3/2 
the spot of i:he radiation pattern is shifted by not more than 2% when
the plane is at a height of about 300m.
 The transformation of the sigreal frequency into the intermediate
frequency is done by a single diode mi:ter with an encased diode (DSSh).
_ The waveguide height (cross section 7.2 x 3.4mm) was reduced to 1/6th
in order to match ttie impedances at the mixer input. The signal and
= the intermediate frequencies are separated by a band FNCh. To stabilize
. the operating mode of the mixer, a stabilizing system of mixer operating
currents is used which is similar to the 0.3centimeter channel.
95
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A Hanna diode oscillator is used as~a heterodyne. Noise suF~pression
of the heterodyne is done by singleresonance directed filter with the ~
following parameters: central frequency of the fil'ter 37.I ~igaHz;
passband at 3db 100 megaHz; transit attenuation about 2.6db;
directivity about 7eb; losses in the direct channel outside the
band ~ O.ldb.
The use of a high Qfactor directional filter made it possible to 
utilize a comparatively low frequency transistor amplifier for the ~
interniediate frequency with the following characteristics: operating
range 300 to 1000 megaHz; amplification coefficient about 55db; 
nonuniformity of the amplitudefrequency characteristic 1.5db;
integral noise coefficient about 3.9db.
 It should be noted that with simultaneous reception on the two polarities,
 the radiometer sensitivity is halved.
Radiometer for 1.Scm wavelength. The radiometer is made with a circuit
 similar to Fig. 2. It was designed for receiving the radiation of only
one polarity. It has no Faraday switch and no second low frequency
channel.
The radiometer uses a twodiode mixer with opposite connection of the
diodes, similar to the one described in ~4~ . The special feature
 of thi_s mixer is the separation of odd (nm~tw~; n=1,~3, 5, and even
(n = 0, 2, 4, combination frequencies into orthogonal modes, 
~vith the odd having a waveguide type of oscillations and the even
= coaxial, Thus, decoupling is provided betwaen tlie signal and the
intermediate frequencies. Encased barrier Schottky diodes are used
in the mixer. A Hanna oscillator is used as a heterodyne, frequency
 stabilized by a high Qquality resonator. Heterodyne noise suppression
is done by means of a directional filter with the following parameters:
central frequency of the filter 20.1 gigaHz; passband at 3db level
50 megaHz; transit attenuetion about 2.4db; direc*ivity about
7db.
The internediate frequency amplifier has the following characteristics:
operati_ng i~equency range ?50 to 260 megaHz; amplification coefficient
about 55db; AChKh nonuniformity 1.Sdb; integral noise coeffient
_ about 3.6db. In all other respects,,the radiometer is similar to
the 0.8cm receiver. _
 Attenuators made with pin diodes are used as attenuators and modulators
. in the radiometers. Semiconductor noise oscillators using avalanche
diodes are used for introclucing noise when operating in the quasizero
mode and calibrating the amp~ification coefficient. Power sources for
important units of the radiometers have instability coefficients not
worse than 10'~. 
96
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Structurally, the radiometers are placed in the rn~ally controlled
housings on a rotary platform in a plane hatch. ~he platform makes
~ it possible to measure rising radiation at angles of 0 to 45 degrees
from the nadir. The~radiometers have horn antennas with the width of
the radiation pattern of 6� for a 3db level.
The basic characteristics of tt~e radiometers and their units are shown
in the Table where the designa~ions are: losses in the antennafeeder
channel La.f; mixer transformation losses L~m (for sing?.eband 
reception for 0.34cm and for twoband reception for J~ = 0.8
and 1.5cm); noise coefficient Fsh and UPCh bandpass .d f; noise
temperature Tsh. Radiometer sensitivities T are measured aboard
_ the plane by the difference of ineasured radio brightness temperatures
at a time constant of one second of the integrating circuit and are
reduced to the antenna input. The in~tability of the amplification
coefficient �i K/K was measured for 5 hours of operation after an
hour of heating.
~Tp K itp,J4tM
3
2
0
1
ATp K 17~0,8cr, 
1
0
J
pTp K d /5CM
1
0
~
Fig. 3
. Table
x. cy I~�a. d~,fi I ~cr. a6 Pw ~ nb ~1~ MTu =
I I TW~ K dTm~ K 8KlK, 46' .
I I
, 0,3~ 0'S 7 ~ 700 .
,
~'5 2~~ 3,9 700 5900 p 3 5
~'5 2~5 3~6 400 2100 p~15 2 _
= 1. L f 4, megaHz
2. d~' S. Tsh
3. Fsh
t
97
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S r;lww:~ rtn example of eynchronouy recordinK oL a peCroleum film
on the Caspian Sea at the three wavelengths made on 24 May 1978.
In conclusion, the authors express their deep gratitude to V. S. Etkin
 for his constant interest and help.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Basharinov, A. Ye.; Gurevich, A. A.; Yegorov, S. T. "Radio Radiation
from Earth as a Planet," Moscow, Nauka, 1974.
2. Norman C. Grody. Trans. IEEE, 1974, v. AP24, No 2.
3. Bordonskiy G. S.,et. al. Preprint IKI AN SSSR, Pr~21, Moscow, 1977,
No 256577 Dep.
4. Baulin, V. A.; Strukov, I. A. "Second AllUnion SchoolSeminar
on Microwave RadioReceiving Devices," Yerevan, 1974.
COPYRIGHT: "RADIOTEKHNIKA", 1979
[35229i~
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98 =
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HIGHFREQUENCY METHOD FOR MEASURING NONELECTRICAL QUANTITIES _
Moscow VYSOKOCHASTOTTTYY METOD IZMERENIYA NEELEKTRICHESKIK;~i VELICHIN (High
Frequency Method for Measuring Nonelectrical Quantities) in Russian 1978
signed to press 20 Sep 78 pp 2, 277280
[Annotation and table of contents from book by Vladimir Andreyevich
, Viktorov, Boris Vasil'yevich Lunkin and Aleksandr Sergeyevich Sovlukov, _
Nauka, 2600 copies, 280 pages]
[TextJ This monograph generalizes the results of studies and development
of ineasuring devices for nonelectric quantities (level, amount, positior.
of interfaces, continuity, small distances, flow rate, etc) using the
~~roperties of electrom~;netic systems of distributed parameters (long lines,
 waveguides, resonators, e+~~). The authors discuss the fundamentals of the
theory and the pri.nci~~es of the construction and use of ineasuring devices
for general indusr_rial and individual purposes.
Contents
Page
Foreward 3
Introduction 5
Chapter l. Physical Principles of the HighFrequency
Method of Measuring 10 
1. Electromagnetic Systems with Distributed Parameters 10
2. Interaction oF the E1ec~romagnetic Field with the
Controlled Object 29
_ Chapter II. Informational Potentialities of the HighFrequency
Method of Measuring 33
l. Integral Characteristics of Electromagnetic Systems 
 with Distributed Parameters 33 ~
2. Resonance Frequency of ~lectromagnetic Oscillations 34 
2l. General Relations 34
22. Method for Calculating Frequency Character
_ istics of Segments oF Long Lines and Waveguides 40
23. Influence of Controlled Objects on Resonance
Frequencies of Segments of Long Lines 42
 24. Approximate Relations for the Fundamental 
Resonance Frequency of Segments of Long Lines 50 '
2S. Influence of Controlled Objects on the Resonance
Frequencies of Cavity Resonators 59
 99
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3. Number of Resonance Pulses in the Final Frequency
Interval 64
4. Some Other Integral Characteristics 65
41. Propagation Time of an Electromagnetic Signal
~ and Its Functions 69
42. Number of Maximums or Minimums of the Field _
Density oF a Standing Wave Passing Through a
Fixed Point in the Wave Field in a Definite
rrequency Interval 72
43. Frequency Shift of a FrequencyModulated Incident
Wave in Relation to a Reflected Wave 72
 44. Phase Shift of an Incident and a Reflected Wave 73
45. Doppler Frequency Shift 74
46. Pawer of a Wave that Passed Through a Controlled
Medium
Chapter III. Principles of Constructing and Areas of Application of
HighFrequency Measuring Devices for Nonelectric
Quantities 79
1. Survey of Some Problems of Measuring Nonelectric
Quantities 79 ~
2. Principles of the Construction and Potentialities of
HighFrequency Measuring Devices for Nonelectric
Quantities 80
3. Block Diagrams of HighFrequency Meters 86 =
31. Block Diagrams of SingleChannel Meters with
Conversion of Resonance Frequency 86
32. Block Diagrams of Multichannel Meters with 
Conversion of Resonance Frequencies 96
33. Block Diagram of a Meter with Conversion of the
Number of Types of Oscillations in a Fixed
Frequency Interval 98
. 34. Block Diagrams of Meters with Conversion of the
Propagation Time of the Electromagnetic Signal 99
3S. Block Diagram of a Meter with Conversion of the
~ Doppler Frequency Shift 101
36. Block Diagrams of Meters with Conversion of the
Amplitude or the Power of the Reflected Wave or
the Wave that Passed Through the Object 102
37. Block Diagrams of Meters with Conversions of the
Phase Shift of the Incident and the Reflected Waves 104 ~
38. Block Diagrams of Meters with Conversions of the
Frequency Shift of the FrequencyModulated Inciden~
and Reflected Waves 104
_ 39. Block Diagram of a Meter with a"Traveling Wave"
Type Sensor 106
_ 4. Advantages of Meters with Sensors in the Form of Electro
 magnetic Systems with Distributed Parameters 107
Chapter IV. Theory and Principles of Constructing HighFrequency
Level Gauges 111 
100
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1. Areas of Application of HighFrequ~ncy Devices of Measur .
 ing and Signaling the Level Using Segments of Long Lines
as Sensors 112
~ 2. Sensors on Segments of Long Lines for Continuous Measure 
ment of the Level 116
21. Resonance I.evel Seneors for ElectricityConducting
Med La 116
2'L. Resonance Level Sensors for Dielectric Media 118
'L3. Resonance Sensors with a Dielectric Covering
of the Conductors of Line Segments 125
24. HighFrequency Pulsed Level Sensors 131 _
3. Structures and Algorithms of Invariant Resonance Level
Gauges 135
_ 4. RadioInterference Level Meters 149
_ 5. Principles of Constructing Microwave Level Meters 150
6. Sensors for Diacrete Level Measruements 155
61. Resonance Sensors for Multipositional Signaling 155 _
62. "Traveling iJave"Type Sensor ~ 160
7, HighFrequency Level Meters and Level Signaling Devices
for General Industrial and Individual Purposes 162 
71. An Aggregate Complex of Standardized HighFrequency
Meters and Signaling Devices of the Levels of
Liquid and Dry Media Consisting of ~ilocks and
Modules 163
72. Hig}~ Frequency Level Meters for Individual Uses 167
Chapter V. Theory and Principles of Constructing HighFrequency
Devices for Measuring Quantities (Volume, Mass) 169
1. Physical Principles of the Operation of HighFrequency
Devices for Measuring Quantities 170
2. Resonance HighFrequency Devices for Measuring Quan
tities of Dielectric Media (Theoretical Prerequisites
 of Construction) 172
3. Sensors of the Quantity of a Medium Occupying an Area
with a Plane Interface in the Case of an Arbitrary
Position of the Containei 179
31. Sensors in the Form of Connected Segments of
Long Lines 179
32. System of nao Metallic Surfaces Inserted into
One Another 184
4. Resonance Sensors of the Quantity of a Medium Arbitrarily
Distributed in a Container 188
41. Sensors Containing a Thin Metallic Line Distributed
Over the Volume of the Container 189
42. Principles of Constructing Resonance High
Frequency Sensors of the Mass 207
5. Methods for Compensating P~4ethod Errors of Resonance
HighFrequency Quantity Sensors 212
6. Potentialities of the Method of Counting the Number of
Resonance Pulses in the Final Frequency Interval for
Measuring the Quantity of a Medium 217
101
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_ 7. 11t};lirrequency Quantity Meters 224
Chapter VI. Theory and Principles of Constructing llevices for
Measuring the Position of Interfaces, Continuity,
Small Distances, and a Number of Other Nonelectrical
Quantities 225
1. Measurement of the Position of Interfaces Between
Components of a Medium and the Quantity of Each Component 225
11. Measurement of the Position of the Interface
Iietween Components of a TwoComponent Medium 225
12. Measurement of the Position of Interfaces Between
Components and the Quantity of e ach Component of
a Multicomponent Medium 231
2. Measurement of the Continuity of Flow and Average Density
of Media 236
21. Measurement of Average Density 236
22. Measurement of the Continuity of TwoPhase Flows
= of Media 237
 3. Measurement of Small Distances 240
31. Sensor in the Form of a Segment of a Long Line
with a Variable Load 241
32. Simplest Types of Long Lines as Sensors of Small
Distances 243
33. Increasing the Sensiti.vity of a Sensor on Segments 
of a Long Line Excited on Various Natural Frequencies 244
4. rieasurement of Geometrical Dimensions of an Article 247
5. Measurement of the Moisture Content of Various Media 250
6. Measurement of the Flow Rate and the Flow of Liquid
and Dry Media 260
 Conclusion 270
Bibliography 271
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1978
~3010,233]
= 1U,233
CSO: 1860
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Microelectronics [including microcircuits; integrated circuits]
UDC 62503
ASSURANCE OF LINEARITY OF CONVERSION IN DEVELOPING LARGESCALE HYBRID
 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS OF A PRECISION ANALOGDIGITAL CONVERTEF
Moscow RADIOTEKHNIKA in R~zssian No 9, 1979 signed to press 2 Feb 79
PP 1822
[Article by G. Ya. Gensirovskaya, A... A. Kotkin, A. V. Krivosheykin,
V. I. Moskvitin, M. A. Stolypin]
[Text] The possibility of obtaining high indicators when making digital
analog converters (TsAP) by microelectronic technology methods predeter
 mines greatly [he attention given them by microelectronics. ~
Depending upon the required TsAP characteristics, two technological
directions became apparent for their realization: semiconductor for
making relatively inexpensive compact TsAP; and hybridfilm for making
 multibit, high precision [15] TsAP. The TsAP theory is highly developed
with respect to principles of operation and design [6~. However, there
are a number of problems related to the organization of their production.
Therefore, speaking about the special features of development, we will
 keep in mind the solving of the problem of BGIS*TsAP production. To obtain
the basic TsAP parameters most fully (accuracy, linearity, fast action)
[i] a BGIS TsAP (see Fig. 1) [7] based on the current summation principle
is used. ~
We will consider the possibilities of the given implementation a'ccording
to the basic characteristics when building with hybridfilm components,
taking into account the existing technological standards.
The problem consists of the following: '
identify TsAP parameters monitored in the process of production; 
determine sources of errors of these parameters for a given TsAP and
, their quantitative evaluation;
*[Largescale hybrid integrated circuits.] 
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consider rnethods for compensating for errors or technical methods for
their elimination;
substantiate the expediency of using this or another method for error
compensation. 
B/ ,PJ Rl9 ,p'/
t Z1
RZ R4 ~,g K`o  U,~~y.
~J ~27
v ~y vZS ~.:s r'
Z v`~ (z)
 _ r r ~ rJ0~1
~ n.v2 nvi r n,~i4 ' 
R~ ~t'~Z i~ q~i~ '~~~~~y ~`r~
F~
Fig.
' 1. OUI 3. IION
2. TON 4. Volts 
For basic TsAP parameters, si~ch as accuracy, linearity and fast action,
the norms for the allowable errors are set for any code combination at
the TsAP input. Thus, to monitor these parameters, it is necessary to 
consider all code combinations which, for an nbit TsAP, is equal to
2n. It is obvious that to measure the characteristic of each TsAP would
require a long time and is unacceptable in series production. There
fore, an accuracy measurement is made at a limited number of points, `
permitted by GOST 1401568, which, however, does not guarantee that =
requirements will be met at all points. The situation is complicated
considerably for precision TsAP. Actually, the absolute accuracy of `
the TsAP output for any r~umber of bits should not exceed 2 of the
voltage, corresponding to the le~st significant digit (MZR) ~6~ .
Even fo; 12 bits, the relative accuracy should be no worse than 0.012%.
Apparatus should be used for measurement that has an accuracy corres
ponding to that of domestic devices for making metrological checks,
which is impossible to achieve in production. The solution is con
siderably worse when the number of bits increases. Therefore, accuracy
cannot be the parameter monitored in the process of production. A
quantizing step can be used as such a parameter.
_ Let a sequence of binary digits (code combinations) be sent to the ~
_ digital input of the TsAP, with each one of them numbered in increasing
order m=1, 2n; n number of bits.
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 A stepped signal is formed at the TsAP output. Voltage differences '
U~m~, lt~m"1~, corresponding to adjacent numbers in sequence m, m1,
r~re called yuantizing steps L~ m ,
Linearity requirements designate the accuracy requirements of a
quantizing step for any m E (1,2n). Thus, by monitoring the parameter
quality of a quantizing step, we will mor.itor the linearity.
We will prove that the nutaber of monitoring points in a sequence of 
 'binary digits may be equal to n. We will write the expression for a
quantizing step with number m:
n n
em ~U(m)_U(m1) ~ ~ 6~ )U~_ ~b~ i)U~~ mE~~. 2~~.
~_t ~=i _
where U� voltage at the TsAP outputy correspondin to a~n~ y
digit w~th one unit in the jth bit; coefficients b.~m~, b�~m~ ~ assume
values 0 or 1 depending on the value of the correspt~nding ~it in
 binary digits with numbers m and (m1) , whil~ for m~ 1 6
j'~ 0, 1 1,
n., 
Since these number differ by unity, there is alw~ys such a number of
bit k, for the consid~red binary digits, that:
1) the code combinations will coincide up to the (k1)th high order
bit;
2) for the mth code combination, the value of the kth bit is 1,
while the value of lower bits is equal to 0, i.e.,
 bk~"~� bj~�~~ Ik}l,n; 
3) for the (m1) code combination, the following relationships hold:
5~~1) , b% t ).a ~ I~ k+ 1 n.
. ~ ~ ~
Taking these properties into account (1) can be written in form
n rt rt 
 ~m ~ bJ 1 U. ~1 b,m11U: ~ Uk_ !
J U/+ ~ E~~ 2~l�
L
jk J=k J=kt1
Since voltages U, k= 1, n are independent, then in correspondence
with (2) there a~e such n linearly independent q_uantation steps
em,,, k=1,
n, that any quantizing step Am, m1, ~2^. coincides 
with one of fhem. The truth of the reverse assertion also foll.ows
from (2).
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_ 'I'lierefore, it may be asserted that the linearity error of any quantizing
step ~m. ~�6 (I, 2^~, does not exceed a given value only when
tlie error in n quantizing steps ~ rnk does not exceed the same value. _
 Therefore, the necessary and sufficient number of monitoring points is
equal to n, which was to be proven. Monitoring steps Q yy~k are formed
by voltage differ.ences at the TsAP output when only the kth bit and
simultaneo~isly all preceding lower order bits are included.
Before proceeding to the study of the basic sources of errors, we will
 consider tile circuit sho~,m in the Figure in greater detail. Current
_ oscillators, controlled by voltage E3T produce equal currents in each
bit determined by formula 
~r k� Fgr Sk~ k= n~ ~3~ .
where Sk = 1/Rrl~ transconductance of current oscillators; Rr.k
' corresponding master current resistor of resistive matrix Rr,; source
 of reference voltage (ION) and the inverting ION (IION) are intended
respectively for obtaining a signchanging voltage at the TsAP output
and the voltage for reference source E~T . Resistive matrix
R2R divides these currents at the TsAP output, and switches V1, V2, 
00 switch the oscillator currents in the bits. 
: The basic error sources in the T~;AP parameters are:
1) errors in manufacturing components of resistor matrices R2R and R;
r
 2) input currents I~k and bias voltages E of operational amplifiers
~ (OU), used in current oscillators; CM
=
3) inverse currents I~6p of the switching switches.
KP308 field transistors in the diode connection are used as switches
in such a way that the inverse current of the switches is equal to the
shutoff current and does not exceed one nanoampere~ This makes it
possible to neglect the third source of errors. Sources of errors due
_ to parameters OUE~M, I~x , in accordance with (3) may be reduced
to equivalent deviations from nominal values of the master current
resistors of current regenerators according to formula
SRrk =E~MIE9Tr aR~k � ~ex~lrp~ k a 1. ~4~ 
where b4k, a�~k equivalent relative deviations of
resistors R Thus, in calculating the TsAP parameter errors, it is
possible torconsider only the effect of resistor matrices R2R,
~ taking into account the equivalent errors in their components. ~is
applies also to the determination of the temperature relationships.
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Here the f.ollowing values were assumed: E~T = 10 v, I = lma;
R = 10 kohms (S = 10'4 ohms), k= 1.14; resistancesr~5f the matrix
r~~istors R2R ar~ equal to one to two kohms.
 Suhstituting these values into (4), as well as typical values ~ 8 ~
Cc~r. c)U ~ I~;~,M 8 mv, I X 50 nanoamperes, we will obtain for the
currene resistor evaluati$~is;
~aR k~
1 '
It:[c1 prt ~ I ~~o ~'r~~~ ~(~:lk~ ~Pr~rPltk~
~ ~nu
wliere p~}~ and ~pT~ are the lower boundary and the possible range of change
respectively in the spectral width of the interf.erence fluctuations. For
first and second order rejection filters, which are usually employed in
_ QS's, binomial coefficients are close to optimal [2]. We shall make use of
the well known weighting functions of DolfChebyshev and Kaiser, which are
clistinguished by properties of optimality in the frequency range, to approx
imate the coefFicients of the digital bandpass filter. As calculations have
shown, the DolfChebyshev function has proved to be more efficient for the
problem under consideration here, where this function has the following form
for even n:
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n!2� �L
I j :I( ~ ~ ll~ ~
~ ~ . . ~n~ I,u  ' ~ ~ ~ fl' I ~ co:; 11 cn; k  ._y ll ~
1~ " /J
wl~er.e n. is a p~~rameter. which determines the width of the main lobe and
its ~impl.itude with respect to the first ~idelobe; Tm_1 is a Chebyshev
~~ol.ynomial; _ 1 .
_ :o~: c�l~( ~ircft t~l.
n1
In carrying out the search based on the parameter a, one can achieve a
c:ompromise between the width of the main lobe and the 1eve1 of the side
 1.ot~,s, where the efficieny of the QS estimated by formula (1) or (2)
will be rnaximal. We shall write the target function of the optimization
problem in ehe f~rm ~iaV } maxa,. The problem posed fiere can be solved by
one dimensional search methods which allow for the determination of a 
series oF local extrema, and by sorting through these, the global extremum
~ is f.ound. The critierion for the completion of the optimization procedure
is the c:ondition ~uav j uav (j+1)I~uav j< e, where uav and Uav (~+1)
 are the values o� the target function in the jth and (j+1~th optimization
steP; e is a specified error in the determination of the optimum. With
tt~is criterion, the "method of the golden mean" is the most suitable
appr.oach [3].
In the numerical calculations, the resonance and gaussian curves which
ch:~racterize the normalized spectral width of the fluctuations at a level
oF U.5 oF the maximum are used as the approximations for the energy apec
trum of: the si~nal and interference respectively. The doppler velocity of
the .i.nterference is considered to be compensated, while it is constant
_ f:cir ~i~c si~;nal (c~dk = k~d), where n= 10 and p~ = 0.015.
Tt~e curves for the threshold signal as a function of the noise/interference
rwn in Fi~;ures 3a and b are the curves for D(q*) when F= I'~ = 104, _
where cj* = c~ ~n, for. n= 2 and n= 4 respeetively. The number. of the curve ~
corresponds to the number of algorithm. Additionally: curve 4 corresponds
to t}ie operation of a radar at the best frequency, i.e., matches the case
where there is complete apriori information; curve 5 corresponds to the oper
~itioil of a radar at the worst carrier. frequency.
Wc~ wi.ll nc~te in conclusion that the introduction of adaptation by means of
. rc~tuni.nfi the carrier frequency permits an improvement in the detection
characteristic both as regards a radar which employs equiprobable tuning of
the frequency and as regards a classical radar (for large values of D), which =
= oE~erates under conditions of apriori ambiguity with respect to the initial
cl~~ice oE the wor.king frequency (the gain is greater, the greater the depend
ence of. the eff.ective scattering area of the target or interference on
frequency).
It Eol_lo~as from a comparison of Figures 3a and b that increasing the number
or subpackets (adaptation steps) leads to an improvement in the gain, and for
_ this reason, when taking into account the real nature of the measurements being
made anci the limited observation time, the question of finding the optimal
rat:io between n and m comes up. It can be shown that when n, m and
d; m, the detection characteristics asymptotically tend to the potentia'lv
!~c~ssible (c~irve 4) .
 U 
~c 1 1 3 4
~ Q ~
_ ',a~v
4 Qo dQ Qo ~ f~ f
~zl 
~Gl o PHC. 2. ~
Figure 2. 
D ~ 3 D G' 3 I
0,8 2 ( G  0,6 2
0,6 i 0,6 ~ 1
0,4   Q4  _
0,2 ' ~ �S D,Z I ~ _
~ 1 2a3aG S 6q`" ~ I 2b3bG 5 6q`'
Figure 3. `
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_ BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. CusLaTson, A., F.s, R., "Kharakteristiki radiolokatsionnykh stantsiy s
_ L'l.111C!.Ily~iyi~shcheysya ot impul'sa k impul'su nesushchey chastotoy" ["The
Ciiaracteristics of: Radars with a Carrier Frequency which Changes from
l'ul.5e to l'u Lse"] , IARUBF.ZHNAYA RADIOFLEKTR(~NTKI1 [FOR~IGN RA.DIOELRCTRONICS] ,
_ 196.'i , I~c~ 4, ~~p 3037 . 
_ 2. Rey, I~h., "Povysheniye effektivnosti radiolokatsionnogo obnaruzheniya
~ tseley po dal'nosti i uglovym koordinatam pri perestroyke chastoty"
["Improvin~ the Efficiency of Radar Target Detection witlt Respect to
Range and Angular Coordinates for the Case of Frequency Ret�ning"],
ZARUBEZHNAYA RADIOELEKTRONTKA, 1967, No 6, pp 316.
3. Khansen, V� "Logika posledovatel'noy raboty obzornoy radiolokatsionno
stantsii s poimpul'snoy perestroykoy chastoty" ["Tfie Logic of the Sequential
Oper.ation of a Surveillance Radar with Pulse by Pu1se Frequency Retuning"],
ZARUBEZHNAYA RADIOELEKTRONIKA, 196~, No 4, pp 8098. 
 4. Sragovich, V.G., "Teoriya adaptivnykh sistem" ["Adaptive System Theory"],
Moscow, Nauka Publishers, 1976.
5. Levin, B.R., "Teoreticheskiye osnovy statisticheskoy radiotekhniki"
["'1'he `Cheoretical Principles of Statistical Radio Engineering"], Moscow,
Sovetskoye R~ldio Publishers, 1969, Book 1.
~1G8225]
COl'YRTGIIT: Izvestiya vuzov SSSR  Radioelektronika, 1979 _
8225
 Cso: 1860
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 Semiconductors and Dielectrics 
_ UDC 621.382.29:539.235.3
i1SI[~C PALLADTUM TO REDUCE THE REVERSE CURRENT RESTORATION TIME 0~ PULSE
DIOD~S
Kiev IZV. VUZ: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 22 No 8, 1979 pp 9596
manuscript received 30 May 78; after revision 30 Dec 78 `
[Article by A.K. Kolebanov, A.T. Mochalov and Yu.D. Chistyakov]
[Text] Semiconductor material having a short lifetime of the charge
carriers, T, is employed in tfie fabrication technology for pulse diodes 
[1]. Gold is most frequentJy used to reduce T in silicon. Because of the
f.act that one of the energy bands of gold fa11s close to the center of the
P.orbidden band [2], the reduction in T is accompanied by a marked increase
in tf~e reverse currents of a diode by virtue of the generation of the charge
carriers in tfie depleted layer. A11oy~ng silicon w~th platinum or palladium
_ introduces deep and symmetrical energy levels [3]. It is well known that 
palladium is used in microelectronics technology~ to make contacts. The
i.nF'l.uence of palladium introduced into silicon dur~ng combined diffusion
witli phosphorous, on the parameters of pulse diodes 3:s studied in this
~~aper.
The experiments were performed on silicon with a crystallographic orienta
tion of (111) and an acceptor concentration 7 x 101~ cm3. For the purpose
of comparison, the combined diffusion of phosphorous ~,ri.th gold (a ZF batch)
and phosphorous with palladium (a P~' batch) was carried out. The diffusion
processes gor the gold and palladium were accomplished from thin films
deposited on the silicon surface. TIie gold films were precipitated from an ~
aqueous solution of gold chlor~ide. The palladium films 0.02 and 0.06 Um
thick were applied by the ion plasma method, arid prior to the application,
the surface of the silicon was sub~ected to ion cleaning. ~
The combined diffusion processes were were carried out in a quartz tube at 
a temperature of 1,113� K for 1,200 seconds. ~
The parameters of the electronhole ~unctions were checked following the 
removal o~ the phosphorous silicate glass. Tfie measurement procedure 
consisted in the following: a square wave DC pulse was fed to the diode
being ~ested where the pulse fiad an amplitude of 100 ma (a width of 2 um),
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and then a reverse voltage pulse with an amplitude of 10 volts was applied.
The pulse repetition rate was 6 KHz. In this case, a voltage drop propor
tiont3l. t~ t}ie junction current of the diode was picked off across a load
reHlHl�rinc�c~ ~[n~c~rred in series with the diode. The transient procesaes whic.h
occur during swircliing were regietered on the acreen of an oscilloscope.
 The reverse current restoration time for a pulse diode, t, is equal to the
time interval between the zero crossing of the pulse diode current and the
moment when the reverse current fa11s off to a specified readout current
level.
The followin~ diode parameters were obtained as a result of the measurements:
in the PF batch, t= 30 nanoseconds, the reverse current levels were id =
= 0.010.1 ua, and the ZF ~roup, t= 4080 nanoseconds and ip = 0.011 ua. ~
= The forward voltage drop, U, when a current of 100 ma flowed, amounted to
45 volts for all samples. The subsequent production of nonrectifying con
tacts lead to a reduction in ~U down to 1.6 volts for the PF batch and
_ down to 1.3 volts for the case of alloying with go7.d. When alloying with
palladium, the scatter in the quantity t was ins~gnificant, while when
alloying with gold, it averaged 20%.
The reduction in the reverse current restoration tiune occurs because of the
curtailment of the charge carrier lifetime by virtue of recombination at
electrically active, deep impurity centers, created by palladium in silicon.
The palladium atoms diffuse in the silicon at a temperature of 1,113� K and _
replace the silicon atoms at the crystal lattice cites, creating one accep
tor level in the forbidden band of silicon with an enetgy 0.22 eV below the
"bottom" of the conductivity band, and a donor 1eve1 0.33 eV above the
"ceil.ing" of the val~ence band [3]. For this reason, to jointly diffuse
palladium and phosphorous, a temperature of 1,113� K was chosen, since
diffusion at higher temperatures leads to a reduction in the number of
interstitial atoms of palladium, whicR introduce only acceptor levels into
the forbidden band of silicon, where these levels have an energy 0.32 eV
above the "ceiling" of the valence band [3j, and consequently, can be the
cause of a rise in the reverse currents.
. Thus, it was determined that palladium, applied by the ion plasma method
to the surface of silicon, reduces the restoration time following high
temperature annealing, as we11 as the reverse current level of pulse diodes.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Pasynkov, V.V., Chirkin, A.K., Shinkov, A.D., "Poluprovodnikovyye 
pribory" ["Semiconductor Devices"], Moscow,Vysshaya Shkola Publishers,
1973.
2. Milns, A., "Primesi s glubokimi urovnyami v poluprovodnikakh" ["Im
purities with Deep Levels in Semiconductors"], Moscow, Mir Publishers,
1977.
J 137
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3. Lin~kon So, Sorab K., "The Energy Levels of Palladium in Silicon"
S~T.Tn S'I'ATT: I:LECTRONICS, 1977, 2Q, p 113.
(1 fi~?.2 `i ~
C~PYRIGIiT: Izvestiya vuzov SSSR  Radioelektronika, 1979.
138
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USSK UDC 621.383.51
A MICROELECTRONIC POSITION PHOTODETECTOR UTILIZING THE LONGITUDINAL PHOTO
GALVANIC EFFECT IN SILICON
Sofia (BULGARIA) ANNALS OF THE SOFIA UNIVERSITY'S PHYSICS DEPARTMENT in
 Russian No 67, 197475(78) pp 7986
VASILEV, V. and VELCHEV, N.
[From REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL, ELEKTRONIKA I YEYE PRIMENENIYE, No 1, Jan 79
Abstract No 1B386 by T. I. Olevanova]
[Text] A theoretical model of the longitudinal photogalvanic effect in
" onedimensional semiconductors is proposed, and on the basis of this model
there has already been developed a microelectronic positionsensitive
silicon detector. In an nSi wafer with an electrical resistivity of
approximately 7.511�cm and a(111)orientation one forms two strongly
doped diffusion pregions with an impurity concentration of 5�1019 cm3
which serve as resistive contact tabs. Between them runs a 12 mm deep
highresistance pchannel with an impurity concentration of (13)1016
cm 3. The dielectric above this channel is an approximately 8000 A thick 
layer of silicon dioxide. The metallic contact tabs are made of a binary
tungstengold alloy. One standard silicon wafer 30 mm in diameter carrier
four photodetectors. Such a photodetector has an exactly linear and
 symmetric inversion characteristic and a position sensitivity of 20 mV/mm
with an interelectrode distance of 6 mm. Figures 4; references 15.
2415
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Publications, Including Collections of Abstracts ~
ABSTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL IZV. VUZ: RADIOELEKTRONIKA
Kiev IZV. VUZ: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian No 6, 1979 pp 13, 37, 41, 57
AUTOMATIC RANGE TRACKING
[Abstract of article by Yu. M. Olyukha and S. F. Shimchik, Minsk Radio
technical Institute] ' 
[Text] This article considers a digital system for automatic range
tracking (ASD) of a pulsed RLS [radar stationJ. The system is a
specialized digital computer and can be made astatic both with the first, _
and the second and third order. The simplicity of the system in the first
case is emphasized. The ASD system which was developed is based entirely
on integrated circuit digital equipment parts and makes it possible to
measure the distance to the target and the error in the distance measure
 ment by means of one integrator, and the distance, velocity of target and
error in distance measurement with two integrators.
Special features in making the various system units are considered, such
as ttie distance meter, the velocity and acceleration (errors in velocity
measurements) meter, the scanning unit, etc.
The system was developed to do laboratory work in the "Radiotechnical
systems" course; however, the results of the work may be used successfully
_ for designing industrial systems of automatic range tracking.
_ ADAPTIVE DEVICE FOR SEPARATING A SIGNAL FROM BACKGROUND NOISE
[Abstract of an article by V. B. Ferents, Moscow Electrotechnical Insti
_ tute of Communication Order of Labor Red Banner]
[Text] This article considers the principles and possibilities of doppler
separation of a radar signal reflected from a moving target from a back
ground of interfering reflections from the ground.
140
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/1 radar station design with an adaptive device for separating the signal
_ was proposed which requires an additional channel for receiving the inter 
ference from the ground.
_ UDC 621.372.823
ANALYSIS OF HIGHER Z'YPE WAVES IN A MULTIWAVE WAVEGUIDE
[Abstract of an article by V. S. Vuntesmeri and V. G. Maksyutin]
_ [Text] A method for analyzing the structure of a multiwave waveguide
field is proposed. The use of a ferrite resonator in combination with
longitudinal probing of the waveguide field as a probe makes it possible
to use the structure in a large range of frequencies with a relatively
small volume of mathematical processing of ineasurement results.
~ UDC 621.372.834
CALCULATION OF COUPLING COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN OPEN~DIELECTRIC RESONATORS
 AND FIELDS OF SUPERHIGH FREQUENCY CHANNELS
[Article by M. Ye. I1'chenko, S. N. Kushch]
[TextJ Calculation was made of coupling coefficients between round open
dielectric resonators (with basic H and E oscillations) and a field of
twowave channels. Expressions were obtained for coefficients of trans 
mission, reflection and absorption of wave channels for the case of propa 
gation of TE10 and TE20 waves separated by the resonators.
[2472291]
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ABSTRACTS OF DEPOSITED PAPERS
_ Kiev IZV. VUZ: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 22 No 8, 1979 pp 9, 32, 64
[Abstracts of manuscripts deposited in the Ukrainian Scientific Research
Institute for Scientific and Technical Information]:
UDC 621.373.5 UDC 621.373.5
V. P. Cololobov, M. G. Ishchenko, 0. V. Tureyeva, G. N. Shelamov and
V. I. Tsymbal
Magnetically Tuned Wideband Microwave Semiconductor Devices
Results of a study of semiconductor, magnetically tuned microwave devices _
 are presented: filters, selective mixers, o~cillators and frequency
multipliers.
The results of a theoretical study of the interaction of a ferrYte
resonator with nturns are given. A comparative assessment of the circuits
of the devices is also given.
The devices which have been developed comprise the basis of the component
_ base for the design of ;aideband, superheterodyne magnetically tuned micro ~
wave systems.
Article deposited in the UkrNIINTI [Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute
 for Scientific and Technical Information], Manuscript No 1118, 83105,
deposited 25 July 1978. 23 pp with illustrations, 14 bibliographic
citations.
UDC 621.382
A. A. Popov
An Investigation of Microwave Power Limiters Designed Around Dynamic
Nonlinear Distributed Systems
142
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A SHF power limiter is described, which is designed around a pin
structure, the per unit length parameters of the electrical model of which
depend on the amplitude of the high frequency voltage or current. A
chain model of the limiter is treated. Expressions are derived for the
mode attenuation factor and VSWR. Concentrated and distributed type
limiters are compared.
 Article deposited in the UkrNIINTI, manuscript No 1118, pp 5664, deposited
 25 May 1978; 9 pp with illustrations, 6 bibliographic citations.
UDC 621.372.852.1
A. G. Fialkovskiy
A VARIATION METHOD OF RADIAL FILTER DESIGN ~
A coaxial waveguide with a radial resonator, formed by a double svmmetrical 
inhomogeneity of the outer conductor, is employed in various functional
microwave devices as a rejection filter. The primary mode rejection factor
is represented in the form of a functional of the longitudinal electrical
Fie1d at the coupling slot, where the functional is stationary with
r.espect to small variations. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm
is demonstrated even in the case of the approximation of the test field
by one linear function.
Article deposited in the UkrNIINTI, manuscript No. 1118, pp 137142,
deposited 25 July 1979; 6 pp with illustrations, 8 bibliographic citations. ~
[168225]
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