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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 ~ . . ~ ~ 22 FEBRUflRY 1988 (FOUO 2r80) 1 OF 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAI. USF. ONLY JPRS L/8942 22 February 1980 USSR Report BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIERICES (FOUO 2/80) FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered or transliterated are _ enclosed in parentheses. Words or iiames preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. - The contents of this publication in no way represe.nt the poli- ~ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. _ For f:irther information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULA.TIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 - N 0 T I C E Effective 1 March 1980 the title of this report will be changed to USSR REPORT: LIFE SCIENCES. This report will now be issued in three subseries and published in separate reports with subtitles as follows: 1. USSR REPORT: LIFE SCIENCES BIOMEDIC.AL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 2. USSR REPORT: LIFE SCIENCES EFFECTS OF NONIONIZING ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION 3. USSR REPORT: LIFE SCIENCES AGROxECHNOLOGY AND FOOD BESOURCES , Current subscribers to this report will automatically be put on distribution for these new subseries. If you receive your JPRS publications through NTIS, you may wish to . contact them concerning this change and your requirements.. If you receive your JPRS publications through a distribution control center, please contact them directly concerning your requirements. . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8942 22 February 1980 USSR REPORT BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIi:NCES (rouo 2/80) This serial publication contains, abstracts of articles and news ' items from USSR scientific and technical journals on the specific subjects reflected in the table of conter_:s. Photoduplications of foreign-language sourees may be obtained from thz Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540. Requests should provide adequate identification both as to the source and the individual arCicle(s) desired. CONTEHTS AGROTECHNOLOGY PAGE - Improvement of the Microbiological industry Control System (E. V. Yezhov; MIKROBIOLOGICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST', No 1, 1979) 1 Determination of the Lytic Activity of Lysosubtilin Using Different Substrates (0. V. Kislukhina and T. A. Kuznetsova; MIKROBIOLOGI- CHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST', No 1, 1979 5 Growth of Pleurotus Ostreatus in a Deep Culture (N. I. Shmatov, et al; MIKROBIOLOGICHESKAYA PROMYSHLFNNOST', No 1, 1979) 10 PHYSIOLOGY Physiological Problems of Automatic Identification of Speech (L. A. Chistovich, et al; VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSR, No 9, 1979) 12 PSXCHIATRY Recent Directions of Clinical Research in Soviet Psychiatry (E. Sternberg; FORTSCHRITTE DER NEUROLOGIE PSYCHIATRIE, _ Vol 47, 1979) 24 - - a - [III -~USSR~- 21A S&T FOUO; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CONTENTS (Continued) Page PUBI.ICATIONS Book Analyzes Action of Neutron Radiation on Anjtnal Epithelium (B. I. Monastyrskaya, et al; RANNYYE EFFEKTY DEYSTVIYA NEYTRONOV NA KLETKI EPITELIYA ZHIVOTNYKH,31 !3ct !8)........ 45 Book Analyzes Social Psychology in the USA (F. N. Shikhirev; SOVREMENNAYA SOTSIAL'NAYt.. PSIKHOLOGIYA SShA, 1979)..............................I 49 - Psychological Probl.ems Related to Space Flights (L. G. Rodionova; PSIKHOLOGICHESKIYE PROBLEMY KOSMICHESKIKH 55 POLETOV, 12 Dec 79) ..................s............. Book Analyzes Effects of Hyperbaric Environment on Human Body , (G. L. Zal'tsman, et al; OSNOVY GIPERBA?ICHESKOY FIZIOLOGII, - 18 Apr 79) 60 RADIOBIOLOGY Chemical Prophylaxis of Radiation Injury (Aleksandr Sergeyevich Mozzhukhin anci Foma Yur'yevich Rachinskiy; KHIMICHESKAYA PROFILAKTIiCA RADIATSIONNYKH PORAZHENIY [CHEMICAL PROPfIYLAXIS OF RAiIIATION INJURY], 1979) 69 SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZA7:IONS First Conference of Ural Hydrobiologisi-s � (I. V. Kozlova and Yu. G. Andreyashkin; GIDROBIOLOGI- j CHESKIY ZHURNAL, No 5, 1979)........,....������������ '2 Obituary Notice: Yakov Pavlovich Frumkin (ZHi;RNAL NEVROPATOLOGII I PSIKHIATRII, No 9, 1979)......... 77 - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AGROTECHNQLOGY UDC 85:663.1 INIPROVEMENT OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL INDUSTRY CONTROL SXSTEM Moscow MIKROBIOLOGICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' in Russian No l, 1979 pp 38-40 [Article by E. V. Yezhov, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Bioengineering] [Text] Improvement of the sector's control structure means organizing all-union industrial, production, and scientific-production associations. In light of this, the sector administrations of the USSR Council of Ministers Main Administration of Mircrobiological Industry have been transformed into all-union industrial associations, which in turn contain both enterprises representing independent legal persons on one hand, and production and scientific-product ion associations on the other. Trans- formation of sector administrations into all-union industrial associations and organization, within their composition, of industrial associations are fundamental changes within the existing microbiological industry control system. All-union industrial associations and production associations are units that operate on the basis of economic accountability, which is a method for controlling socialist production, while sector administrations were,purely administrative organs. Despite the fact that the foundations of enterprise economic accountability were laid back in the 1920's, economic accountability of associations is a new form of khozraschet. This goes a long way to -~xplain the absence of theoretical research on this probtem. Consequently the sectors face cumplex problems concerning the development (refinement) of certain premises of :-hozraschet in application to microbiological industry; we cannot wait for the sciPntific research to end before we solve these problems. And there are a rather great deal of such problems. As an example it was noted in the recommendations of the All-Union Scientific Conference "The Problems of Creating Complete Economic Accountability in the Economy of Developed Socialist Scoiety" that creation of a khozraschet - system adequate to the economy of developed socialism would be possible only within the framework of a unified complex of ineasures calling for alteration of the economic mechanism, to include mutually coordinated and successive improvement of the planning methods, the organizational structure 1 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of control, the distribution of capital investinents, and reinforcemer.t of economic stimuli and the mutualrelationships between enterprises and the state budget. The conference went on to indicate a number of priority problems that await their solution, particularly the theoretical problems of khozraschet (creation of a unified khozraschet system including sector, regional, and program aspects; revelation of opti:num forms of centralized planned control of the activities of khozraschet units in conjunction with their economic indeDender.ce; creation of a system of long-term planned economic standards and a price-forming system; work on the theoretical problems concerned with the economic mechanism of capital investments, and so on); problems associated with improving the organization of khozraschet (transfer of the principal operational functions of management to large industrial, production, and scientific-production associations, trans- formation of the ministries into scientific-technical and economic centers, and so on); the problems of improving the system of economic levers and stimuli (establishment of mutually coordinated criteria of capital investment effectiveness to be used in relation to all participants of production, conversion of the bulk of capital investments to a self- - payiiig and self-financing system, development of new depreciation norms with a consideration for economically grounded values for the life and � obsalescence of fixed capital, and so on). The effectiveness of the work of khozraschet associations can be insured by creating economic stimulation funds, reserves, and a system for their sensible use. Of special significance in this case is the question of creating a system of fund-forming indicators which would be selected as a rule by the associations themselves with a consideration for the concrete tasks they face and the specific features of their production operations. The urgency and importance of making a'correct choice of fund-forming indicators stem from the fact that in the end, they influence the action of the mechanism of economic accountability. The question as to the place (level) of formation of different funds and - reserves, and of the principle of their distribution and utilization is becoming no less important. In this case it is important to centralize some of the functions, the ones having to do with directing the activities of individual enterprises toward completion of certain tasks facing the association, and at the same time to decentralize other functions concerned with the use of funds and reserves, so as to insure the necessary inde- pendence of the enterprises within the association. Another urgent problem is that of establishing the order of forming and utilizing reserves for economic regulation when organizing concrete - industrial and production associations. Science cannot offer ready-made recipes iri this regard at the moment. Moreover the different ministries and departments follow different procedures for forming and utilizing reserves. As an example the USSR Ministry of Instrument Making, Automation Equipment, and Control Systems permits acquisition of equipment with assets from the reserve of depreciation deductions earmarked for 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR ONFICIAL USE ONLY overhaul, while other ministries do not. We can cite many such examples, and this means that if we are to organize concrete associations in micro- biological industry, we would have to make concrete decisions related to the choice of the ways for forming and utilizing reserves. - Among all of the problems we need to solve when creating the khozraschet mechanism, that of defining the en.terprise as a legally independent person has special place. The Statute on The Socialist Enterprise states that if an enterprise is a legally independent person, then it must possess a charter, an independent bookkeeping balance, and a separate bank account, and it may maintain independent accounts with suppliers, buyers, and the budget. But the statute does not clearly spell out whether all of these components must be present, or if presence of just one would be enough. This is a very important question, and apparently it must be resolved in each concrete case with a consideration for the unique features _ of the association being created (the number of enterprises, its di.mensions, its territorial integrity, the complexity of the production operations, the cooperative and marketing relationships of the enterprises, and so on). In light of tr.e above, the Main Administration of Microbiological Industry _ finds itself facing a number of problems of inethodological and practical nature, solution of which would make it possible to create effectively operating industrial and production associations. Foremost among them are: determination of the economic and legal status of enterprises within the association; creation of funds and systems of fund-forming indicators insuring successful introduction of fundamental khozraschet principles; creation of economic reserves; stimulation of enterprises to solve _ scientific-technical problems associated with technical progress; centralized development of a system of material, financial, and labor standards; development of a system of planning ard accounting indicators for industrial, production, and scientific-production associations, enterprises bearing the rights of a legal person, and enterprises without the rights of a legal person; development of the forms and sector-specific procedures of drawing up the plans and accounts of the associations; development of sector-specific procedures to be used in the application of estimated prices when forming and utilizing reserves in the associations, and the methods for computing a working capital standard for the association insuring correct and uniform allocation of working capital and creating the conditions for formation of the association's working capital; improvement of the wage system with the goal of raising its effectiveness, and so on. The scale of the work and the complexity of controlling industrial, production, and scientific-production associations require that the system that is to control these complexes must insure a sensible relationship between centralization and decentralization, a combination of vertical (linear-functional) and horizontal control (interfunctional); optimum distribution of rights and responsibilities; fina'11y, effective uti.lization of the information and computer systems. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Obviously when we create a concrete control structure we must utilize new organizational concepts insuring effective control over specific - - technical programs for creating and assimilating new prr~.ducts, raising and maintaining their quality, arriving at integrated solutlons to prnduction problems, and so on. This in turn requires that each concrete association (industrial, production, and scientific-production) develop a matrix-type - control structure which would organically unitelat 3iff.erent levels of the control structure, the linear-functional reyationships in the control apparatus with the branched interfunctional coordinating system. If we are to create oontrol structures by which to unite microbiological industry associations, we would need to carefully analyze the existing structure and study the experience we have accumulated in creating association control systems in other sectors; we would need to arrive at a clear idea of the goals and tasks fa.cing the association for which the structure is being developed. Finally, the developed structure must be tested at a ccncrete facility. As we develop the control structure of the association ar.d create the khozraschet mechanism, we must remember that all of the problems associated with this process must be worked out in integratad fashion. In my opinion the existing microbiological industry control structure should be transformed into a new system based on khozraschet complexes by the Main Administration of Microbiological Industry in accordance with a completely developed master plan for improving the control system of microbiological industry. Considering the complexity, scope and urgency ~ of the problems that must be solved when organizing associations on a - khozraschet basis,it would be desirable to organize a special subdivision dealing with the problems of improving control of microbiological industry. As I see it, this subdivision should solve the problems of tying in the tasks and functions of the production unit with the control structure, with the principles of khozraschet and the forms of economic stimulation; this subdivision mustdevelop the instructions and methods applicable to these problems, it should study the experience of other sectors, and it should utilize this experience for the needs of microbiological industry. [543-11004) COPYRIGHT: Otdeleniye nauchno-tekhnicheskoy informatsii i tekhniko- ekonomicheskikh issledovaniy mikrobiologicheskoy promyshlennosti _ (ONTITEImikrobioprom), 1979 11004 CSG: 1840 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 ROR OFrTCIAL (ISE ONLY AGROTECHNOLOGY UDC 577.15.087.5 DETERMINATION OF THE LYTIC ACTIVITY OF LYSOSiJBTILIN USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES Moscow MIKROBIOLOGICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' in Russian No 1, 1979 pp 22-24 [Article by O. V. Kislukhina and T. A. Kuznetsova, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Bioengineering] [Teat] Cell walls or the cells of different microorganisms are used as substrates to determine the activity of lytic enzymes by the turbidimetric method. The choice of the substrate depends on the specific action and sphere of application of the lytic enzyme or complex of lytic enzymes. Mierococcus ZySOde2kt2CZlS cells or cell walls are used as the specific substrate for determining the activity of bacteriolytic glycosidase. The activity of a complex of yeast-decomposing enzymes is determined from their action on the cells of yeast in the genus Candida. In addition to lytic enzymes with clearly pronounced specificity, such as the lytic glycoSidases, there exist lytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of action--lytic proteases ' and peptidases. Owing to the presence of protein compuunds in the cell walls of all microorganisms, these enzymes lyse the cells of various microbes to one extent or another. Studying the specificity of lytic - enzymes in a lysosubtilin preparation obtained from a Bac:iZZus subtiZis 402 culture, we discovered two lytic peptidases in the preparation,exhibiting - differing specificity in relation to synthetic peptides. The preparation lysed the cells of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeaFts. Use of the preparation is most promising in relation to lysis of bacteria in the E. coZi group, and yeasts. The substrates we selected for lytic activity deteYminations were E. coZi and C. guiZZiermondii yeast cells, as well as cells of the lysosubtilin producer B. subtiZ2s, which we had used for this purpose previously. The qoal of our work was to find a substrate to be used in standa.rd determination of the lytic activity of lysosubtilin, and to clarify the possiblitity for comparing the bacterio- lytic and yeast-decomposing activity of lysosubtilin. The latter is extremely significant to regulation of the preparation's production and use, since it can be used in hydrolysis of both yeast and bacterial biomass. When bacterial and yeast cells are exposed to lytic enzymes produced by B. subtiZis, maximum activity occurs at low ionic strength and at a pH value close to neutral (Table 1). 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 tn C N ~ r- .rA ~ -ri ~ a N O U) a w 0 >1 ~ ~ .,a ~ U ~ U . r.{ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ 44 O Z O ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ -p A O ~ Ga ~ N ~4 .r., ~ CI' 41 ~ ro N N ~ O �rl H ~-I N O ~ a~ A r-I a~ ~ .ct ~ Ei FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i �a N O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O I I I I 000 ~ ~ N N CS ~ rd ~4 V ~ ~ r G ~ ro ,cT Ln r-I r-I ~0 O t11 ~ ul I I C ~ ~ � ~ ,--I r-A r-i N N M N r-i r-i + m O I- M O-p N tn to Ol 61 LIl 00 tf1 ul Lf) O r-1 t3~ C' O � a tn ul u1 tl1 I UI N Cl W N l0 t~ I~ O O Oc r.l O r-1 rl ~0 O (1) WN iz 000 4.) w (O 44 A tn L~l rn c14 o k.o o %o r0 rn ri ri r~ r,.c ~,S N ~ ~ I I 000 I 1 M I I � I � ~ H 13 M t~1 M O N O~ r-I r-I 3 ~ r r ~ y CO S4 ;s .0 N N N U z tJ 't~ ~ �rl �a 4.) b (d ~ ~ ~4 4J np 0 a m c: O ~4-) N ~ W R~ N ~ a ~4 0 4) rd U .,i ~ ~ H N N N N N N N N N N I- N(`7 N(`J 00 00 000 O O O m N 00 00 ~Iq %rAr ~11 qv wIT IT IT r- a T 11 X X x x x X x ~ x ~ ~ ~ tn ~ o ae o ae 000 x o .~e o N M r-I M r-I M rl r-1 r-I M rl M rl U C~ C~ U U C7 C7 C~ C~ C~ U (9 C~ �.1 �rl �ri �rl �ri .r{ .r{ .r{ r{ ,q �H �rl r-i r-i r-4 r-I r-i 44 �rl �ri �rl 44 �.i �rl 44 �rl �ri �rl �rl �rl �rl �rI �rl 4J 4J 1J J J ~ ,1 .1 .1-~ 1 ~ J JJ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , , ~ N N ~ p , ~ , N ~ N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N 4J O O O 4J O O +1 O O O 0 O O O O r-I N UI N rl N U) r-1 U) U1 U7 U1 N N N ~ >1 ~a aa uaa ~aaaa aa aa N U U ~ ~ I O W r-I (C UI M ) ~ N .f., 'Li rl ~ r > O 44 O ~ N 7~1 0 ~ ~4 " + � a ~ + i ~ r d ~ .u o ~+o rto a ~+5+>i >ro Ln -r-i ~ & ~ ~ u�Hx o ro +J cd td rtS r. 04 0 41 -4 U N rt1 9 w w�A 0'~o " og ~n ~ a ~ 0 ~ U x 0 U 55aq ~ tA 0. N 0 0 N ~ f..~" N~+ F.' �rl N N H U) ~ O J-~ �H a, A ~ d O o r~ L) z o 0 �q (a a; zo � + x>1 -P a b ~ o ~ o U) 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Variation of the temperature within 30-50�C produces an insignificant impact in the case of bacterial substrates; this is especially true for ]y:;()~;uh; i I iu G10kh from P. -117-4htiZ2^ 402, which has a Lemperature o}>timum of 30�C. The effect of temperature was more strongly pronounced when the - activity of lysosubtilin was measured in relation to its effect upon yeast cells. The ratio of activities measured at the end point of the 30-40 and 40-50�C intervals was 3.6 and 2.8 respectively. The former value somewhat exceeds the temperature factor of the rate of chemical reactions following van't Hoff's law. Fol.lowing the lead of other researchers, we selected a temperature of 401C for standard measurements of the activity of lysosubtilin in relation to yeast cells. - E. eoZi cells, which underwent 80-90 percent lysis, were found to be the most sensitive substrate for determining the degree of substrate lysis by lysosubtilin G10kti in equal conditions (temperature--40�C, time of exposurP to enzyme preparation--1 hour, lysosubtilin concentration--1 mg/ml reaction mixture at a preparation activity of 1,000 units/mg E. coZi substrate; buffer solutions were not added to the reaction mixture). When lytic activity is determined in standard conditions, the limits of this substrate's ' hydrolysis may be 20-39 percent, while when activity is determined with yeast and B. Sl.lbtZZZS cells the range of a direct proportional dependence between the amcunt of enzyme and the degree of substrate tiydrolysis decreases by 12-15 and 5 percent respectively (see Table 1). The scatter - in permissible values of the degree of hydrolysis can be explained by the complex nature of the preparations which contain, in addition to lytic enzymes, neutral protease and trace quantities of B-glucanase. Neutral protease is capable of lysing bacterial and yeast cells. The yeast- decomposing action or the enzyme grows considerably when it is combined with S-glucanase. The optimum conditions for synthesizing bacteriolytic enzymes, neutral protease, and R-qlucanase differ; therefore the ratio of these components in the lysosubtilin enzymatic complex depends on the conditions under which fermentation proceeds, on the producer strain - employed, and on the closeness with which the productian conditions are maintained in the preparation isclation stage. One significant requirement governing the choice of substrates to be used in determining lytic activity is presence of a range of substrate optical density values within wYuch determination of activity wnuld provide identical values, given maintenance of a permissible degree of substrate hydrolysis-- that is, within which the absolute value by the optical density of the reaction mixture decreases does not depend on its initial optical _ density. The rPason for this requirement lies in the fact that lytic enzyme substrate suspensions are standardized in relation to optical density, and not concentration by weight. We cannot arrive at an exact - cor_respondence between these values, since optical density does depend to a certain degree on the procedure used to prepare the susper_sion. We had demonstrated eaY�lier that an initial optical density of 0.8-1.5* for - * Optical density values greater than 1 were measured in cuvettes 3 or 5 mm thick. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI3LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFiCTAL USE ONI,Y . N ~ ~ _ ra ~4 -p _ ,tQA U) -p ~ N ~4 N 4-1 . �4 A ~ _ -p 3 b N b ~ ~ 4J ~ .,q 4J U ~ U 41 >1 a ~ r-4 .rl ,~i~ _ u~1 - o ul >4 - a N ~ ~ H. M Ol V' l~ N l0 I~ d' M w v 0.11 � 00 00 41 M d' M l0 d' H ~ GD O O CO m q r- 4,1 .,4 . . . ul ~~j M d' d' M M O O U i ~ �a � ~ N b c ~ I ~ c~ O � %0 l, ~ ~ d1 u1 N 61 d' l0 M 4J ~4 ~ r r �rl 4I N 44 ~ 4a ~ A U) >r N ~ ~ -ri ,y ~$4 N tq Vj O N O 00 �rl $4J �0 CO N Ol M d' I I o ~ co ICi' b N N U ~ �rl U7 41 ~ N I * a~ ~b ,s~ N O tIl N k0 Lfl M 00 N N ko N i-1 r-I ~ ~ N U ~ ~J 't.l '.y �rl ~ ~I ~ d~ ;i' llz!' l, I- ~i Ao Cn a (n r. 0 ~ N (d ~ o m r- w ~ c7 C7 10 p`' ~ ~ � r-I r1 r-1 4-1 �rl �rl ' ~ U) U) W ~ a i c a 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ N 4J ~ ~ * APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a susperision of E. coZ2 cells and within 0.5-1.5 units for B. suht2Zis cells does not have an influence on the determination of lysosubtilin activity, given a permissible degree of substrate hydrolysis. The absolute value of the decrease in optical density experienced by a suspension of C. gui?Ziermondii cells having an initial optical density of - up to 3.6 units increases as the initial density rises, even though the degree of substrate hydrolysis remains within permissible limits (11.7- 14.7 percent). The obtained results prevent us from recommending the use of C. guiZ22- ermond2i yeast cells for standard determination of the lytic activity of lysosubtilin. Nevertheless we did use yeast cells when comparing the activity of lysostlbtilin in relation to different substrates, selecting a reaction mixture optical density of 1.6 units as the standard. We can see from Table 2 that the ratio of activities measured in relation to E. eoZi and B. S1dbtZZZS cells is constant--1:4. Activities measured in relation to bacterial cells and yeasts do not correspond obviously. This is understandable, if we consider that the mechanism of enzymatic lysis of bacteria and yeast differs, and that lysosubtilin has a complex nature. We believe on the basis of our research that it would be suitable to use E. eoZi cells when determining the lytic activity of lysosubtilin. [543-11004] COPYRIGHT: Otdeleniye nauchno-tekhnicheskoy informatsii i tekhniko- - ekonomicheskikh issledovaniy mikrobiologicheskoy promyshlennosti (ONTITEImikrobioprom), 1979 11004 CSO: 1840 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AGROTECHNOLOGY UDC 582.28-113 GROWTH OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS IN A DEEP CULTURE Moscow MIKROBIOLOGICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' in Russian No 1, 1979 p 22 [Abstract by N. I. Shmatov of "Experience in Deep Cultivation of PZeurOtus ostreatus Mycelium in Complex Mediums" by A. S. Bukhalog, E. F. Solomko, L. A. Parkhomenko, M. N. Martynenko, and R. K.Pchelintseva in "Proiz- vodstvo vysshikh s"yedobnykh gribov v SSSR" (Production of Higher Edible Fungi in the USSR), Kiev, Izd-vo Naukova dumka, 1978, pp 29-321 [Text] The ease with which a mycelial culture can be obtained from the fruiting bodies of PZeurotus ostreatus, the rapid growth of the mycelium, and this mushroom's unpretentiousness in relation to nutrient sources makes it a convenient object of cultivation in liquid nutrient mediums. Cultivation of P. ostreatus in mediums containing different nutrient sources demons-trated that growth occurs fastest, with formation of the largest biomass, in complex mediums containing higher plant extracts or decoctions. The authors propose a nutrient medium for P. ostreatus containing a 10 percent red clover decoction, sucrose, peptone, and mineral salts; this medium produced a high yield in a test tube agitator--up to 20-30 gm of mycelium per liter. Good results were also obtained with the same medium in which peptone was substituted by urea (up to 17 gm ASV [not further identified] per liter on the third day and up to 22 gm on the fifth day). P. ostreatus was subjected to a number of fermantation steps in a stand fermenter. It was demonstrated that the method by which the seeding - material is prepared has a tremendous influence on the length of the lag phase. When the seeding material is cultivated on the surface of the cultvxe medium for 5 days the lag phase lasts 10-12 hoLirs, while when the seeding material consists of mycelium grown in medium in a fermenter the lag phase is practically absent, and the growth rate is significantly higher. In one of the experiments the mixing rate was increased at the end of the exponential growth phase fYOm 350 to 500 min-1, which resulted in a doubling of biomass in 6 hours. Despite the fact that biomass continued to increase following a longer period of cultivation (more than 3 days) , the increase in cultivation time led to a decrease in the quantity of crude protein from 27 to 18 percent. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The morphology of culture growth must be kept under control, since large mycelial balls contain many degenerative vacuolated cells having a low protein content. Formation of large smooth mycelial balls was noted when growth occurred in agitated flasks seeded with a small quantity of seeding mycelium (up to 10 percent by volume). The dimensions of the balls decreases when the quantity of the inoculate is increased to 1 gm ASV/liter, or when it is grown in flasks containing baffles whiclz promote better mass exchange and aeration. [543-11004] COPYRIGHT: Otdeleniye nauchno-tekhnicheskoy informatsii i tekhniko- ekonomichesk.ikh issledovaniy mikrobiologicheskoy promyshlennosti (ONTITEImikr.obioprom), 1979 11004 CSO: 1840 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PHYSIOLOGY UDC: 612.85 PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF SPEECH Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian No 9, 1979 pp 27-35 [Article by L. A. Chistovich, doctor of biological sciences; V. A. Kozhevnikov, doctor of biological sciences, and Zh. A.Pershin] [Text] The problem of automatic identification of speech was put to engineers about 20-25 years ago, in connection with the appearance of electronic computer technology. It soon was separated into two tasks. One was to identify isolated command words from a limited vocabulary. This . task can be performed quite well by means of formal mathematical methods, and it does not require investigation of either perception processes or speech formation. The second task related to automatic identification of natural continuous - speech without vocabular restrictions underwent significant evolution, and _ it began to be formulated as the task of comprehending the meaning of a verbal communication, emerging into a greater problem, that of man's communication with a machine in the natural human language. There is no - need to prove the importance of this problem. For example, the possibility of verbal dialogue with a computer over a telephone would open up utterly new prospects of computer applications. It became obvious about 10 years ago that the only proper fnrmulation of the problem of automatic comprehension of continuous speech is to define it as a problem of modeling processes of perception and comprehension of human speECh. Soviet researchers were the first to demonstrate the inevitability of such an approach. At present it is accepted everywhere; there has been a drastic intensification all over the world of basic research directed _ toward defining the process of perception and comprehension of human speech. We know that the first variants of systems that could, if we were to stretch the point, be called systems of comprehension of coherent speech, were developed in the last 2 years. Although there are still some serious restrictions with regard to the system's operating conditions, it became obvious that the task had moved from the realm of science fiction to reality. Another perceptible result of the research that was done is that the principles of organization of the system were largely defined. It became 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY know-n which successive units of infermation processing this system must contain and which questions pertaining to these different units are the mc>st imPortant. In general, a certain new scientific direction was formed, which not only combined branches of knowledge that seemed to be remote from one another, but defined the tasks tha*_ are within the competence of, let us say, acoustics specialists, physiologists, phoneticists or mathematical linguists. Processing of a human verbal signal begins with auditory analysis of this signal. Different scientists (Darwin, Sechenov, Pavlov) expounded the view _ long ago that upon perceiving an acoustic verbal signal man reconstructs verbal movements corresponding to this sound. In the 1960's, our team at the Institute of Physiology imeni I. P. Pavlov, USSR Academy of Sciences, conducted a cycle of studies for the purpose of experimental verification of this hypothesis. We used a very simple procedure. Verbal signals (natural or artificial-- synthetic) were presented to a subject, and he had to repeat them as _ accurately and rapidly as possible. A syste:n of sensors was developed, which made it possible to record concurrently with speech the set of articular _ phenomena, i.e., to observe the movements and sequence thereof made by man. First of all, the obtained results revealed that there is very rapid recoding of verbal signals into movement: the lag of articulatory reactions from the time that a sound is presented to a subject constitutes 150-200 ms. These data are of basic significance; they show that the requirements with regard to volume of immediate auditory memory of the model are not very high; the model must process simultaneously a relatively short segment of the signal. Longer segments of speech can be memorized in concise form, as a program of articulatory movements, rather than an auditory image. Recoding of a perceived verbal signal into a program of articulatory movements is tantamount to description of the signal in the form of a sequence of discrete elements, which can really be designated by phonetic signs. This thesis is confirmed by experiments, in which subjects imitate svnthetic signals. It was found that the a group of auditory signals, which differ physically from one another but are within a certain common range of parameters, induces the same response, while a group of signals falling into another range induces a different reaction. The number of such reactions is rather limited. Recoding of a verbal speech signal into a series of discrete elements, phonetic images, is a mandatory prerequisite for singling out and analyzing words in the communication, i.e., to find the semantic meaning of a word and its grammatic characteristics. In other words, as soon as a verbal signal is transformed into a series of discrete elements it passes to the input of the next level of information processing. Development of a model of this level, which is called a model. of the analyzing part of language, is in the hands of mathematical linguists, psycholinguists and neurolinguists. 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In Lliis report we shal_1 discuss only the lower levels of signal proces5iilg, the levels on cohich transformation of a verbal signal into discrete phonetic elements occurs. In computer language, these levels are rAferred to as the unit of primary processing that singles out the useful tags in the signal and tlie unit of phonetic interpretation. The key question in developing such units [or modules] is the nature of the useful tags isolated in the signal. The initial verbal signal constitutes sonic pressure that changes in a certain way in time. It can be recorded with an oscillograph. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such a tracing, in general, for a very simple word "kakoy" [,ohich]. The oscillograms of verbal signals are quite variable in different people, and it is virtually impossible to determine from them what was uttered. Processing of these signals is needed. What sort of processing? Al1 serious researchers have long since abandoned an empirical search for metho3s for processing the initial signal. Two routes became delineated: on2 oriented on a model of speech formation and one oriented on a model of perception, The former route appeared very attractive at the start, since an acoustical model of word formation has already been developed in a rather good approxi- mation. Using some simplifications, the model can be described with a relatively small number of parameters. Thus, it remains for us to find mathematical methods of processing a sonic signal that would enable us to reconstruct the current values of these parameters and, from them, make a phonetic interpretation. However, expressly the research teams that took this route before others and investigated it the best have become dis- appointed with this approach. Now, more and more attempts are made to try the second route, i.e., to address oneself to the mechanisms of hearing. One can arbitrarily single out two parts in the auditory system: peripheral and central. The peripheral part refers to the cochlea of the middle ear, which is a complex hydrodynamic system that begins to oscillate in response to sonic signal. This is where spectral analysis of sound is actually made. Here too, in the mLddle ear, there is a system of receptors, sort of sensors, that are situated along the cochlea and transform mechanical oscillations of different regions of th.e cochlea into nervous impulses that flow along the fibers of the acoustic nerve. The central auditory system consists of an entire set of accumulations of neurons organized in a specific way, ganglia that are situated in different parts of the brain and interconnected by neural pathways. At the present time, the peripheral part of the auditory system is being studied intensively. Although the physical processes occurring in the cochlea are not yet completely understood, there are sufficient data characterizing the cochlea as a spectral analyzer to define the specifications 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE'ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY for a functional model thereof. The process of transformation of inechanical oscillations into neural impulses has been studied considerably ].ess; however, cven in this resPect, we understand approximatety which farmal trau;5formationti - of a slgnal must occur and which effects should be reproduced by the model. Figure l. Oscillogram of the word, "kakoy." There is 10-fold amplification on the bottom tracing. Time mark 20 ms ~ooo Hz 020 Hz . . . 12B iooHz 2 3 Figure 2. Block diagram of linear variant of model of peripheral auditory analysis The situation is immeasurably worse with r(=_gard to investigation of the central part of the auditory system. Al1 :Cnformation available in this area is limited to a set of effects and functions obtained by 15 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY neurophysiologists with the reactions to sound of neurons of central. elements, on the one hand, and psychoacoustics specialists who deal with sound perceT-tion. For the time being, only some conjectures can be made on the basis of these data concerning the principles of signal transformation. But it is expressly central auditory processing of a signal that is of the most interest to those who investigate speech. Having begun experimental studies in this direction, we soon becanie con- vinced that, first of all, we must have a model of the peripheral part of the auditory system; without it we simply do not know what image travels to the input of the central levels of sonic signal processing. In practice, we had to create this model in the form ef an instrument, in order to oUtain ~ images of any sonic signals with the use thereof. We also hau to supplement this model with the next, more "central" units [modules] for information process, which we are now developing. The studies dealing with a functional model of the cochlea were conducted mainly by V. S. Shchuplyakov at the Institute of Physiology imeni I. P. Pavlov. Then specialists from the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Acoustique et Radio-Electricite in Grenoble joined in this part of the work, and with them we are presently conducting research on the topic of "Acoustic Dialogue Between Man and Machine." At the present time, this model has been executed in the form of two digital variants and an analog machine. Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of the model. The CY [synchronizer?] unit adjusts the input signal to the frequency characteristics of the midd].e ear. Units 1 are resonance filters with low Q factor that are connected successively and insulated [separated?] by buffer amplifiers. Their fre- quency characteristics multiply and, as a result, there is formation of frequency and amplitude characteristics with a very steep incline in the direction of high frequencies. Units 2 are resonance filters that form a long electric line reproducing passage of waves along the cochlea. Units 3 are resonance filters with average Q factor that provide for additional formation of frequency characteristics. The output signal from eac11 filter represents oscillations of a specific circumscribed region along the axis oC the cochlea. Thus, the entire system provides for "frequency--coordinate" transformation and serves as a parallel-action spectrum analyzer. Figure 3 illustrates the model's respor_se to the word "kakoy." The obtained - image can be arbitrarily called an acoustic spectrogram. The frequency is plotted on the y-axis and time on the x-axis; the black areas reflect intensity of oscillations. One of the key questions of automatic identification is that of segmentation of the signal. If the signal first separates into segments (such segments are clearly visible in Figure 3), such features as length of segments, such concepts as initial spectrum, end spectrum, etc., can be used to identify it. However, as a rule most sounds in normal continuous speech do not separate, and there are no pauses between most words in a phrase. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFYCIAL USE ONLY Figure 3. Image of the word "kakoy" at output of model of acoustic spectral analysis; xPU --kHz If there is no segmentation, one must be governed by the current values of the spectrum or other parameters of the signal. A typical approach is to take spectrum samples every 10 ms and to determine each time which vowel or consonant sound this sample resembles the most. Expressly this approach is used in most systems of automatic speech identification in present use. However, studies on man conducted in recent years established reliably that the duration of the segments--this applies to both the sounds and pauses-- is a f.eature of paramount importance, which is used for auditory discernment of both vowels and consonants. Neurophysiological data indicate that there is some sort of inechanism in the nervous system for singling out the ends of a sound: a significant number of neurons responds only at the start or end of a sonic message. A series of psychoacoustic studies was conducted to identify these mechanisms. It can now be asserted that drastic changes occur in the envelope of impulse density in some frequency channels of the auditory system, i.e., in the groups of neurons related to narrow segments of the cochlear membrane. In the first approximation, the experimental data are described here by a model that consists of a band filter with central frequency of 25 Hz,to the input of which comes a rectified signal submitted to logarithmization from the output of the cochlear filter. There are devices that pr.ocess the marks of auditory segmentation at the output of the band filter. - Figure 4 illustrates the model's reaction to the same word, "kakoy." We _ see that the marks indicate the phenomena designated as the "start" of the sounds (black marks), "end" of sounds (white marks) and frequency "transi-, tions," white oblique marks. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY m APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tnterestingly enough, our model, like man, begins to demonstr.ate pauses in - the signal when they last only 4-5 ms. Obviously, one of the flaws of most existing systems of automatic speech identification is that they do not no*_ice brief acoustic events. A r_lassical question that arises when studing problems of speech identifica- tion pertains to the choice of phonetically significant spectrum parameters. This can be explained conveniently by demonstrating the acoustic spectrum of the natural stationary vowels, u, o, a[Russian vowels, pronounced as "ee," "o" and "ah"] (Figure 5). The spectra were obtained using the digital variant of the model of a cochlea. We see that the patterns are quite complex. A series of studies was conducted with synthetic vowels, in order to find minimal differences in sounds (or, what is the same thing, in their spectral images), with wbich these sounds are referable to two different vowels and to determine the condiLions under which there is maximum similarity of perception of sounds with obviously different spectral images. The results of these experiments warrant the belief that the first stage of central processing of the peripheral acoustic spectrum is singling out local heterogeneities in it (on the frequency axis). The simplest and physiologically plausible model that can do this is a procedure of so-called lateral inhibition, which makes it possible to calculate something that is close to the second derivative from the curve that des- cribes the spectrum. The parameters of such a model have already been determined in the first approximation. At the next stage of information processing there is integration of the image of the sonic signal over rather wide regions of the frequency scale, the range of averaging is at least an octave. At present we are considering several variants of a model of this second stage. Experiments are being - conducted to choose a variant and define the quantitative parameters of - the unit of the model. The researcher is constsntly confronted with contradictory requir.ements when working on the problem of automatic speech identification. On the one hand, he cannot lose either time-related or spectral details of images; on the other hand, the information must be amplified, both on the time axis and frequency axis. It can now be maintained that these problems are being solved concurrently for hearing. The peripheral image of the signal is reproduced in the central auditory system in several parallel versions, each of which singles out something inherent in it. But it is important that the axes of the images remain the same in all versions, axes of time and frequency. Thus, the principle followed differs substantially from the one presently used by engineers, who try, fram the very beginning, to drastically reduce the amount of information processed. The question arises as to whether there is any sense in striving to copy in a technical system the princirLps of signal processing by the brain. Many 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY L specialists answer it in the affirmative. The outlay of human labor and computer time would, in this case, be directly referable to investigation and development of a model, and as soon as algorithms are developed, even if they are cumbersome, that are acceptable, they can be run by means of microprocessors. The conclusions ensuing from the research already completed amount to the following: As a result of experimental investigation of inechanisms of acoustic segmenta- tion and mechanisms of central auditory processing of spectral information, a set of effects and psychoacoustic functions was found that limits drastically the number of permissible models of the phenomena and that permit evaluation of the structure and parameters of a number of units for process- ing sonic information. Figure 4. Image of the word "kakoy" at output of model for processing amplitude changes in "auditory channels"; top--output signals of band filters, bottom--segmentation marks. The research on simulation of hearing made it possible to develop an opera- tional system of processing acoustic information executed in digital and, in part, analog form. The system is so des?gned that it can be expanded in the future. Our immediate task is to test the possibility of reproduction - 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY by tlie model of neurophysiological and psychoacoustic effects, which were ilot taken into consideration when it was develo ped, and ta assess the capabili- ties of the model, from tce standpoint of receiving signals in the presence of noise. u o a q ~ ~ I I u ~ t 1 L � ` Figure 5. "Acoustic spectra" of stationary vowels, u, o, a 0,25 05 Af ter presentation of this paper Academician L.M. BREKHOVSKIKH asked for an update on the actual status of this reseacch at the present time and the number of words that the computer now understands. V. A. Kozhevnikov answered that the team at the Institute of Physiology is working on the basic aspect of the probiem, trying to help the engineers who, proceeding empirically, developed a system capable of perceiving speech, but the words have to be pronounced most distinctly, seParating phrases with pauses, and the vocabulary is limited to slightly over 1000 words. The computer gives answers with great delay, so that it is difficult to have a dialogue with it. Academician P. L. KAPITSA deems it important to single out, in the problem of automatic speech identification, the study of the cerebral impulse-signal, with which the process of transmission of information begins. He asked whether one should study signals by recording them directly, just as electroc:ardiograms are used to study cardiac function. V. A. Kozhevnikov said that this is a A,,~ry difficult, if not impossible, route, since it would require insertion of electrodes in the human brain and analysis of the function of millions of receptors and ensembles thereof, the principles of action of which are not yet known. Academician I. A. GLEBOV remarked that the process of verbal communication berween man and machine consists of two parts: acoustic information-- machine and machine--acoustic information. Which of them is more difficult to study? Probably the former. V. A. Kozhevnikov agreed with this and 20 FOR Ok'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 I 2 4 kHZ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY reported that the problem of synthesizing speech has already been solved: - a machine converses with an operator. As for the first psrt of the process, each individual has his own manner of speech and people's voices are different, as well as pronunciation; under such conditions, it is very difficult fcr a machine to single out what is important and meaningful, the main gist. Academician M. A. STYRIKOVICH stated that a machine receiving ordinary human speech is, so to speak, confronted with the task of reading an illegible manuscript, rather than a printed text, and only a guess can be made about the meanings of a number of letters according to their combinations in words. The main difficulty for the machine consists of the fact that each sound is not expressed by a single signal, but a combination of hundreds of signals that have to be analyzed in order to "guess" their meaning. This is a very difficult engineering task. In the discussions of this paper, K. P. Ivanov (acting director of the Institute of Physiology imeni I. n. Pavlov, USSR Academy of Sciences) reported that one of the most interesting projects of practical importance of the Institute of Physiology has been submitted for consideration to the Presidium of the Academy; it goes far beyond the framework of ordinary conceptions on conducting research in physiology. Even organization of this work is very complex, because the team includes not only physiologists, but acoustics specialists, mathematicians, engineers, but the physiologists - are the moving force in elaborating the problem. In this regard, K. P. _ Ivanov stressed that the widespread opinion that physiology is related only to meiicine is not quite true. The described study shows that modern phy- siology is involved with tasks that touch upon many very serious technical - tasks. M. A. SAPOZHKOV (Moscow Institute of Electrical Engineering of Communica- - tions) discussed the importance of team work by specialists in different fields, scientists and engineers. It is only after identifying the mechanism of speech perception that one can advance toward solving the entire problem. The speaker believes that the individual differences in human voices are so great that it is easier to recognize an individual by his voice than his fingerprints. And although the acoustic features of people differ and it is difficult to adjust the machine to this, the pros- pects of solving the problem are already evident. It is imperative to encourage work in the physiological aspect in order to "get down to the metal." Academician P. G. KOSTYUK believes that the studies under discussion are of basic interest to the physiologists themselves, since it is not deemed possible to investigate the reactions of individual receptor elements, individual cells, when there are hundreds of thousands of tllem and they function simultaneously, using the method of electrophysiological study. At present, modeling complex systems with due consideration of direct data pertaining to their functions is the only route for physiologists. For this reason, the research conducted by the authors of the paper is included in 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the complex "Brain" project (which is being worked on hy the Dcpartment of Physio~logy, USSR Academy of Sciences), and it is being rel.ted upon as an imporlant element in learning about the mechanism oE audttory perception. V. I. GAI,LINOV (Scientitic Council for the problem of "Acoustics," USSR Academy of Sciences) dwelled on the multiaspect nature of studies of speecfi that are being conducted concurrently in a number of directions that appear, at first glance, to be utterly unrelated: physiology, linguistics, physics, cybernetics, etc. So many aspects can be explained by the fact that, when formulating the r~-levant practical tasks, they cannot be expressed in a purely technical form as can be done, for example, with tasks pertaining to recognition of a limited number of commands. If the submitted paper is considered from the point of view described above, it becomes obvious that, in the first place, it represents a certain part!of a major multiaspect project and, in the second place, this is an utterly clear investigation in its scientifi.c set-up, and it will help solve a number of applied problems. T. K. VINTSYUK (Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrsinian Academy of Sciences) stated that the problem of automatic recognition of verbal signals is also, to a significant extent, a cybernetic problem, since cybernetics is largely an applied science which is concerned with development of practical systems of identification of verbal signals referable to a number of other problems. Rather good results on recognition of a limited set of words, as well as continuous speech, have already been obtained (true, under laboratory condi- tions) in such institutions as the Computer Ceriter, USSR Academy of Sciences; Institute of Mathematics, Siberian DeFiartment of the Academy, as well as the Institute of Cybernetics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, in Kiev. At the present time, cyberneticists view the problem of speech identification essentially as a problem related to information processing. How should this information be processed, how should a decision be made? Unfortunately, physiology cannot answer this question. When will it be able to answer it? Apparently, not soon. Investigation of processes of verbal signal processing is a vnry important task, and it should he worked on from the physiQlogical aspect; but, the speaker believes that apparently investigation thereof in the physiological and cybernetic aspects will come together on the highest level, sometime in the distant future, when we shall be able to refer to recognition of speech in a natural language, let us say Russian. N. G. ZAGORUYKO (Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences) supported the studies of physiologists dealing with the problem of sp2ech recognition. In his opinion, it is expressly the achievements of physiologists that will become the main foundation in the future for development of work in this direction, and physiologists have already obtained concrete results that are used in development systems of speech recognition. In particular, they have discovered the so-called "masking" effect, which, when simulated in a machine, makes it possible to 22 FOR OFFICIAL i?SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY advance very substantially in such a difficult part of the problem as adapta- tion of a machine to a speaker. As already noted, such studies must be conducted by representatives of different scientific directions. The All-Union Seminar-School oii Recognition of Verbal Patterns unites different specialists and gathers togL_Lier over 100 scientific organizations, both academic and sectorial, once every 2 years. One should consider the establishment of an official body that would coordi.nate research on this subject. L. V. ZLATOUSTOVA (Moscow University) called the attention of the audience to the fact that the research conducted by the team at the Institute of - Physiology, USSR Academy of Sciences, has a vast spin-off in linguistics, - both applied and theoretical. Suffice it to state that the nomenclature of perception units developed in this laboratory is used widely by specialists in different fields. A system, in which one is able to bypass the lowest - level of expression of speech, the acoustic level, will make it possible - to resolve in depth and effectively the problem of automatic speech recognition. Summing up the discussion, Academician V. A. KOTEL'NIKOV, vice-president - of the USSR Academy of Sciences, characterized the problem in question as one of definite interest, from both the practical and applied, as well as theoretical points of view. The mechanisms of identification by the human - brain of an image, a sound are ver.y complex. Still, one can hope that electronic machines will soon make it possible to run identification [recognition] processes, especially if scientists will learn how this is done in nature. [56-10,657] COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR", 1979 10,657 CSO: 1840 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PSYCfI TATRY a RECENT DIRECTIONS OF CLrNICAL RESEARCH IN SOVIET PSYCHIATRY Stuttgart FORTSCHRITTE DER NEUROLOGIE PSYCHIATRIE in German Vol 47, 1979 pp 1-23 [Article by E. Sternberg, Institute for Psychiatry of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, i-ioscow] [Text] The organization of research carries fundamental importance for the planning and execution of research work in psychiatry as well as for the organization of psychiatric care, which has been developed systematically in the Soviet Union. The system of state and territorial psychiatric dis- pensaries assures the registration and inclusion of practi- cally all psychiatric patients. It concentrates data on history, progress, therapy, individual personality traits of patient and family as well as of social status. Optimal preconditions are established in this way, not only for clinical-epidemiological population surveys, but also for complete records of hospitalized as well as of ambulant patients. The existence of six special psychiatric institutes with large staffs and all the necessary equipment constitute a favorable basis for the execution of expensive programs, such as epidemio- logic population surveys, extensive genetic-genealogic familv examinations or the course of diseases in large series. The article discusses fundamental theories of Soviet psychiatry, its predominantly clinical-nosologic and empiric-analytical character and points out, that pathogenetically oriented research on endogenous psychoses plays a central role in ongoing studies. The following broadly developed trends of research are discussed in detail: 1) Clinical-epidemiologic popula- tion surveys, in which we describe detailed studies on about 6000 scizophrenics. We describe also special studies on ambulatory patients with senile psychiatric abnormalities and on schizophrenic patients over 60 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ years of age. This was complemented by a field study of over 1,000 aged persons who were known to the dis- pensaries. 2) Clinical-genealogical examinations of 4600 family members of schizophrenic probands. They provided considerable information on genetic deter- mination of the disease, age of onset and degree of progression, thus viewing the problem of schizo- phrenia in a new light. 3) Eleven hundred patients of 60 or over, followed through several decades with disease onset at various ages. The author discusses the methods of prospective studies and the rules and dynamics of progress in various forms of schizophrenia. I should like to precede this report on recent clinical trends of Soviet psychiatry with some introductory remarks and explanations. It should be understood, that a single person cannot positively give an exhaustive re- view of scientific and practical psychiatry of a vast country like the Soviet Union. The country possesses in excess of 100 teaching chairs in psychiatry, six psychiatric research institutes; a wide network of psqchiatric - hospitals, sections of general hospitals, policlinics and psychiatric nursing homes for chronic patients. I restrict my report to the trends of clinical and clinical-pathologic work, not only because one article could hardly do justice to the existing wealth of material, but principally because I intend to portray those research ten- dencies with which I am personally familiar, thanks to my activities. To begin with I should like to emphasize that I desist from a discussion of the numerous important and many faceted research in the subject of biologic psychiatry, which is being carried out in numerous institutes of the country. In this respect I might refer to numerous papers which were published abroad, and to cnapters by K.K. Monachov and M.E. Vartanian in the monograph "Schizo- phrenie, Multidisziplinare Untersuchungen," which was published in German. In order to remain within the framework of this papery I also will not refer to multiple problems of modern psychiatry therapy, particularly psychotherapy. Besides, and exhaustive report on the state of nsychotherapy in the Soviet Union was recently published by the Duesseldorf psychologist W. Lauterbach (1978) who reports his personal experiences. riy present report builds on previous papers that have been published in this journal (1972, 1973) and dealt with certain aspects of the theoretic founda- tion as well as some concrete paths of Soviet psychiatry. In order to avoid repetition I shall deal primarily with futher developments of initiatives, which have been mentioned in previous publications. There are good reasons for discussing mainly studies in the area of endogenous psychoses. Questions concerning these types of disease still are in the center of Soviet scientists' scientific interest. This not only because of their frequent occurrance or practical and theoretical importance, but also because the pathogenetically oriented catamnestic, epidemiologic or genealogic studies of the age factor etc, provedto be fertilefor clinical work in other areas of psychiatry. Thus, 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the emergence of stereotypes of disease development pxoved to he useful in t}~e stuciy of clironic alcoholLsm and various other organic psychoseti. 7'he - central role of endogenous psychoses in contemporary psychiatry also ex- presses recent fundamental changes in the structure of psychiatric disease. General medical progress has led to a considerable decrease not only of progressive paralysis, but also of psychoses of infection as well as those based on trauma and othe physical abnormalities. Last not least my primary choice of research trends is very naturally based on my personal participa- tion and acquaintance with them. Again I should point out two significant items for this discussion: 1) The important role of psychiatric care organization in the Soviet Union, and the organization of research in planning and execution of this work, and 2) certain theoritical foundations, which form the basis of clinicalpsychiatry and determine its course. I also must point out the importance of psychiatric dispensaries, which have been functioning more than 50 years, in order to appreciate the charac- teristic organization of psychiatry in the USSR. Built on territorial principle, they offer not only free consultations, treatment and medication for psychiatric patients, but also all necessary social, economic and legal aid. The dispensaries function not only passively, like a policlinic, ac- cessible to patients and family alike, but they practice active care in the form of regular house calls by physicians and nurses. This is particularly important for the completeness of our observations. Repeated reviews by corresponding field studies shows that practically all organic psychoses, psychopathic and neurotic abnormalities, phobias etc., are registered in the district dispensaries. This means, that the dispensaries dispose of complete patient records. It is indispensable for the conduct of all-encompassing epidemiologic research. It is also of primary importance in studies of endogenous psychoses and of ` the inclusion not only of severe, but also of milder forms of disease, which are treated on an outpatient basis. No less important is the fact that it guaranteF.s a continuous record of hospital and outpatient observations, particul.arly concerning general health, the way of life and domestic circum- stances.of patients. As a rule all observations are concentrated in the dis- pensaries, They include clinical course, results of examinations, patient history given by the patient himself and close associates, heredity, personality development, family interreiations, social status, work dis- ability and work- and living conditions. Naturally this concentration of medical and social data affords a favorable climate for progress evaluation and long range catamnesis, particularly since they frequently cover decades. Organization also is important in the planning and realization of psychiatric research. As mentioned above, the Soviet Union possesses at present six psychiatric research institutes with adequate staffs and modern laboratories. On the basis of central planning they usually work on special (monothematic) programs. The program of the Inst4-:ute for Psychiatry of the Academy of Medical Sciences for instance, pursues er.dogenous psychoses, primarily schizophrenia. It is self-evident, that great research institutes are necessary for studies, 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY which require considerahle manpower. This is true particularly of epi- demiologic and genealogic studies. Multidisciplinary research is possible and promising only wittiin the Eramework ot such institutions. in regard to our basic theoretic positions I should like to refer to a de- tailed account, which was published in this journal in 1973. Therefore, I shall confine myself only to summarizing remarks. In the psychiatric literature one frequently finds indications of certain similarities between Soviet psychiatry and the so-called rlassical one which is based on the teachings of Kraepelin. This is justified inasmuch as Soviet psychiatry like Kraepelin always have attempted to base psychiatry on a scientific basis. Soviet psychiatry always has been nosologic and tended to join general medicine and pathology in the pursuit of research. Like German, American and French psychiatry it has pursued a straight line within the past decades. Radical directions of the so-called social psychiatry, such as psychoanalysis and psychology in depth, purely mental concepts, existen- tialism and anthropologic psychiatry failed to influence clinical nosologic and analytic-empirical psychiatry. Still, it would be amiss to consider Soviet psychiatry simply in orthodox kraepelism. Soviet psychiatrists have shown that the original Kraepelin theory was basically prognostic and that it lacked a theoretical basis in many respects. The establishment of psychiatric entities by purely etiologic criteria was always believed to be too narrow and only to be understood in historic context. In past decades a considerable part of the formulation of inethodical and theoretic aspects of psychiatric research has been performed under the auspices of A.W. Snechnevski et al at the Institute for Psychiatry of the Academy of Medical Sciences. In their work they defined nosologic forms of disease by entities of etiology and pathogenesis. Since we still know very little about the etiology of most psychoses, our studies concentrated on pathogenesis. Thus we could broaden the attack on biologic, genetic, epidemiologic and other studies. On the other hand our clinical studies were directed mainly at the course of disease. Thus, rules of successive changes and changes of conditions forming stereotypes of disease progress, became the subject of clinical-pathologic studies. The sequence of certain syndromes in the course of disease were viewed as the clinical expression of underlying pathogenic processes. The poly- morphism of clinical manifestations was seen asexpression of ramifications of the pathological process. The importance of such a model could first be demonstrated in the organic psychoses, as for instance in senile dementia or progressive paralysis. By pathogenic concepts and clinical experience we could establish three main course-types of schizophrenia, the chronic (continuous progressive), the remitting (progression in waves) and recurrent. The properties of structure of the various syndromes as well as the laws of change were established for each type by years of exacting analysis of manifestations and progress. It became necessary to separate general pathologic rule of progress forms from special ones, i.e. bhose charac- teristic for forms of specific diseases. 27 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In spite of his categoric denial of the unity of psychoses Kraepelin examined possible evidence of general conformity of disease progress in later years. His concept then was a rough approximation of genex'al rule5 of clitiea5e progrE:ss, Such as the succession af inelanchol.y, mznia, irra- tionality and dementia. Going beyond these four stages oC psychos.[s lie developed concepts of the preponderance of general basic forms of psychic abnormalities. This found its formulation in the teachings of the 1920's. Soviet psychiatry also worked out certain general pathologic concepts of syndrome classification, i.e. arranging them into various strata. Schema- tically they were shown as successive syndromes reflecting increasing severity and involvement. The sequence of severity comprises asthenic-hyperaesthetic, neurotic, affective, paranoid, hallucinatory-paranoid, paraphrenic and catatonic syndromes, disturbance of consciousness as well as organic states of epilepsy and dementia. This model makes it possible to determine not only the possible range of syndromes (as for instance cyclothymia or schizophrenia), but it also accepts the various types of psychoses (endogenous, exogenaus, organic etc) as important preconditions for nosologic classification. Such general psycho-pathologic concepts offered important new impulses to the studies of psychiatric syndromes. Soviet psychiatry understands a syndrome as an inseparable yet dynamic structural unity of positive and negative changes of activity. This is in contrast to earlier tendencies regarding syndromes as unique--as by Hoche and numerous French psychiatrists--and static characteristics of pathologic--productivP symptoms. The peculiarities of syndromes always indicate information of disease progress. Therefore clinical psychiatry in the Soviet Union has made research on the structural entities of psychiatric syndromes the subject of intensive study. Given the unsatisfactory state of contemporaty psychiatric teaching, its prematurity and contradictions, the difference of clinical criteria for disease entities as well as the undoubted multiplicity of etiologic factors, Soviet psychiatry has come to the opinion that only multidisciplinary research can provide adequate methods for the scientific study of psychiatric diseases. For this reason we planned and carried out studies of homogenous groups, i.e. patients selected on the basis of clinical-psychopathologic, pathologic, neurophysio- logic, genetic and pathophysiologic principles. Our German monograph on schizophrenia, published in 1977, conveys an idea of the planning, organiza- tion and practical execution of such a research program. [de were guided by the conviction that one of the most important and promising approaches can be seen in epidemiologic studies of certain populations or groups of psychiatric patients. Transition from selected hospitalized patients to all-inclusive epidemiologic studies should lead to further development oF our knowledge. This tendency has taken a broad and in many ways original development. Its potential scientific importance is self-evident. I should like to point out some of the possibilities of this clinical- epiodemiologic approach. It is the only way to determine the true incidence of agiven form of disease in various population groups. Numerical estimation of character- istic manifestations and progress, as well as the importance o� etiologic factors can be obtained only by means of epidemiologic population studies. They offer a complete picture of family relations, social status, employ- ability and adaptability. For this reason they may also be used for 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY objective verification of etiologic and pathogenetic hypotheses in psychiatry. This type of investigation is also important for scientifically based planning o� psychiatric institutions, the organization of psychiatric care and last but not least the evaluation of treatment methods. However, we are aware of the previously emphasized diEficulties of opidemio- logic population studies. They have to involve sufficiently great popula- tion samples in order to be meaningful. This in turn means expensive pro- grams and ample staffs of qualified specialists. These obstaclca were over- come by our specialized research institutes. The problem of data gathering also presents considerable difficulties. In _ this respect however, we are fortunate, because we possess complete patient records in our dispensaries. They insure comprehensive pictures of at least the psychotic patients, whether they are in clinics, hospitals, other in- stitutions or at home. Clinical-epidemiologic research of schizophrenia, which comprises the majority of our studies, can thus assume standardized comprehension of populations. Questions of inethodology naturally are of decisive importance for the validity of clinical-epidemiological research. I might mention only two questions, which play a great role in studies of national surveys*: The question of data gathering, the "instrument" used and the quest for optimal methods for identification of the patients' state of health. In contrast to the questionnaires, self-evaluation scales etc., which are used abroad, we use standardized exhaustive examination cards. These are filled out by the examining psychistrist after examination, i.e. a semi- structured phychiatric interview, and also the utilization of all available documents. These cards contain all information on heredity, family history, education and employment, social activities, personality structure, conditions of family and domicile, prior diseases and damages, onset and progress of disease as well as the entire clinical record, such as treatment in clinics, outpatient depatments, measures for rehabilitation etc. The emerging clinical status is then reviewed by us from the viewpoint of syndromes. iJe believe that this method has obvious advantages. Clinical symptoms always are artificially isolated, yet they usually have many connotations and are hardly comparable because they depend to a great extent on the syndrome in which they appear. Adequate and completely characterized syndromes however com- pletely reflect all peculiarities of a psychic disturbance at any time. The establishment of a syndrom catalogue is of special importance for classifica- tion and its diagnostic value. It lists complete and interdependent syndromes, based on theories and clinical examinations. The establishment of corresponding glossaries are another precondition for classification and diagnosis. Thus one may guarantee uniform judgment in various diseases. *Considering numerous problems (which are less important in this work's context) that have surfaced in the attempts at international cooperation of epidemiologic studies, I should like to refer to the publication by N.M. Sharikow (1977). 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ilsing the above describ.ed method, over 6000 s.chizophrenics and patients with affec�Cive endogenous psychpses have heen studied epidemiologically in tlie d i ti r r i c� t ci i SpontirlCl es n f Moscow. Analo};ou5 studies h;Ily (+f seeding. The question has been raised of setting standards for removal of biological production transformed by the fish without detriment to the pro- duction properties of the body of water as a whole. There is a question that requires a definitive answer: is it necessary to completely replace the aboriginal ichthyofauna with new species. It is stressed (N. V. Nesterenko, G. M. Lopatyshkina, N. M. Podkina) that seeding with whitefish - of most roach and perch lakes did not result in a substantial increase in the catches; commercial breeding in carp lakes was more successful. It is imperative to conduct more in-depth studies of correlations between seeded and aboriginal fish, as well as the influence of introduced species on ecosystems as a whole. There were also two papers dealing with pond pisciculture. Several papers submitted data on nutrition, dynamics of population size and distribution of young fish. An analysis was made of some biological distinc- tions of pelyad from Ural lakes related to reproduction (Ye. L. Galaktionova, A. I. Leont'yev). There was a discussion of the ichthyo- fauna of bodies of water, morphological variability of fish in these reservoirs (including coolants of state regional electric power plants), as well as lakes and rivers. There was a survey of considerable material pertaining to variability of Eurasian graylings (Ye. A. Zinov'yev), special attention being devoted to the parallel between form-producing processes within species and subspecies having an extensive range. Similar ecotypes appeared in different regions, and their ecological features were found to be the most similar; there was less frequent ccincidence of morphological features. It was reported that there is a severe worsening of ecological conditions in the Ural tributaries of the Ob' River related to anthropogenic factors (V. R. Krokhalevskiy, V. I. Polymskiy). There are spawning grounds of the pelyad, broad whitefish, Siberian powan in the Severnaya Sos'va, Sunya, Voykar and Sob` rivers; there too, these fish find shelter during the annual period of mass destruction in the Ob' River. It was suggested that immediabe steps be taken for biological and technical amelioration of these rivers, organizing protection of spawning grounds and particularly against increasing poaching. Macrophytes occupy extensive parts of Ural bodies of water, but they have been studied very little. For this reason, one should welcome the appear- ance of works shedding light on the composition and productivity of collec- tions of macrophytes in Ural waters. Several papers submitted the results of studies of phytoplankton in reservoirs and lakes (M. I. Yarushina, P. P. Vasil'chikova and others). Several papers contained information about the composition and production of zoobenthos and zooplankton in lakes, their role in the biotic cycle of matter. There was discussion of the taxonomic compositlon of midges 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Chironomidae family] in the central Ural region (G. A. Sokolova), Oligo- chaetae in the northern Urals (V. M. Popchenko), effects of anthropogenic factors on the zoobenthos, zooplankton and fish (N. S. Solov'yeva, V. M. Gol'din, M. B. Stepanova and others). It was noted (L. A. Sherstneva) that the absence of penticides from water cannot serve as an indication of a good toxicological situation in fishery-involved waters, since DNOK [dinitro-o- cresol], Sevin and GKhTsG [hexachlorocyclohexane] settle at the bottom very rapidly and remain virtually unremoved from debris and silt. All pesticides are toxic for marine animals at all stages of their development. Pesticides of the GKhTsG type are particularly dangerous, and the possibility of presence thereof must be totally exluded. The results were submitted of a study of composition and productivity of zooplankton in a small, but interesting mountain lake, Arakul', which is used as a whitefish stock pond (T. S. Lyubimova). There was a summary of results of studies of species- related diversity, level of development and rate of zooplankton production in six typical lakes in the southern and central Ural region (I. V. Kozlova). fihe species-related diversity and composition of zooplankton there are de- termined by mineral content of the water, pH, extent of overgrowth, level of development and rate of production of zooplankton as a whole and of differ- ent groups thereof, differences in temperature conditions, as well as rela- tive profusion of highly productive species and age structure of populations. There was a report on changes in the feed base of Lake Duvankul' related to raising whitefish there (I. V. Kozlova, M. P. Koval'kova). Long-term ob- servations of the feed base in the case of dense seeding are urgently needed and should be planned; unfortunately, they are most often conducted on the basis of individual'initiative (as in the above-mentioned case). An effort was made to discuss the correlations between species-related, morphological, energy and other aspects of structure, on the one hand, and the system of control in biogeocenoses on the other (Yu. G. Andreyashkin, N. I. Andreyashkina). The biocenosis that regulates the flow of matter and energy is considered to be the controlling subsystem. The controllable parameter is the correlation between chemicals in the cycle and th e output signal is appearance of superfulous biogenous elements in the inanimate part of the biogeocenosis. Control is implemented by altering the structure of increment or even spe,~ies-related structure, Primarily in the phytocenosis. Z. M. Balabanova summarized extensive material pertaining to Ural lakes, where mass destruction phenomena are obser�ved annually. Other papers gave information about the effects of anthropogenic factors (mainly regula- tion) on hydrochemical conditions of the rivers in Chelyabinskaya Oblast (A. F. Krivopalova). In connection with the change at electric power plants to atomic fuel, there is a particularly acute question of investigating - the effects of dumping excess heat and waste from atomic power plants on  hydrobionts and the need to speedily elaborate the principles of ecological standard setting for levels of radioactive substances in reservoirs (N. V. Kulikov); a mathematical model has been proposed for the process of bacteri:ll. oxidation of bottoms (A. J. Zatsepin); there was a report on the trial of automatic classification in a study of size and age structure of mollusk populations (I. M. Khokhutkin, Yu. A. El'kin); the results were submitted of 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200054444-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a classification of lakes according to composition of zoobenthos, using a method that took into consideration the Euclidean distance between benttionic biocenoses in multidimensional space (K. Ye. Sherman); a link was traced between the cyclic fluctuations of fisi, ^atches and level of solar activity, consideration of which makes itpossible to predict catches with fair accuracy (V. I. Medvedev). The conference participants heard and approved of the program entitled "Productivity and Protection of Inland Waters of the Soviet Union," which was prepared at the initiative of G. G. Vinberg, corresponding member oE the USSR Academy of Sciences and president of the VGBO, and they appealed to all researchers to participate in its implementation. In the decision that they adopted, it was noted that some positive results - have been obtained from studies and development of biological resources of Ural waters. Research is being conducted with success in the field of production hydrobiology, hydrology, radioecology and hydrochemistry of ` bodies of water. ' Advances have been made in breeding and raising valuable fistl species (with special mention of the fish industry enterprises of Chelyabinskaya and Tyumenskaya oblasts). Poor coordination of hydrobiological research and virtual isolation of researchers working on Ural waters constitute a substantial flaw. As a result, not all types of bodies of water are investigated, joint analytic - work is not being done to evaluate the condition of the reservoirs, inter- action between seeded and local fish has not been adequately studied, small lakes (up to 100 ha in size), the importance of which has increased in recent years due to use thereof as hatcheries, have not been submitted to hydrobiological investigation; questions of marine toxicology and a number of others have not been sufficiently investigated. The following most pressing directions of hydrobiological work in the Ural region were defined at the conference: joint studies of the str.ucture and function of the main types of marine ecosystems; hydrobiological studies of small lakes suitable for use as hatcheries; determination of correlations between newly seeded and aboriginal fish; investigations pertaining to more rational use of liquid waste from heat and atomic Power plants for fishery purposes. It was agreed that the question of expanding toxicological studies due to the increasing pollution of water by industrial enterprise waste is an extremely pressing one. The participants at the conference also deemed it timely to summarize the significant material on hand dealing with hydrology and hyciro- chemistry, flora and fauna of Ural waters in the form of a monographic des- cription of the best studied bodies of water, as well as a retrospective bibliography pertaining to hydrobiological and ichthyological studies of the region in question. 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 CUtc Vrrttllrtl. u13L w.,.,. , This conference was instrumental in uniting the efforts of researchers con- cerned with Ural waters. It was decided to convene regular conferences for the purpose of continued coordination of studies. [88-10,657] - COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova dumka"Gidrobiologicheskiy zhurnal", 1979 10,657 _ CSO: 1840 , 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS UDC 616.89:929 Frumkin OBITUARY NOTICE: YAKOV PAVLOVICH FRUrIIZIN - Moscow ZHURNAL NEVROPATOLOGII I PSIKHIATRII in Russian Vol 79 No S, 1979 pp 1428-1429 [Obituary] [Text] On 29 September 1978 at the age of 76 the distinguished Soviet psychiatrist, Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian SSR, and Doctor of Medical Sciences Professor Ya. P. Frumkin passed away. - Yakov Pavlovich Frumkin was born 17 August 1902 in Smolensk. In 1924 he graduated from the Medical Faculty of. Moscow University after which he worked for some time at the Department of Psychiatry of the university as an ordinator and assistant under the direction of P. B. Gannushkin. From 1932 thraugh 1974 Yakov Pavlovich headed the bepartment of Psychiatry of the Kiev Medical Institute imeni A, A. Bogomolets, and then, till the end of his days, he was scientif ic consultant of the department. ~ 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ya. Y. Frumkin successfully developed qtiestions of clinical psychiz3try and was one of those who developed the ideas of the Moscow school of psychiatry of S. S. Korsakov and P. B. Gannushkin. Yakov Pavlovich was a widely educated and talented clinician. He was dis- tinguished by a rare ability to abserve. Following the principles of his teacher, P. B. Gannushkin, Y. P. Frumkin carried out clinical investiga- tions, penetrating deeply into the essence of psychopathological phenomena. His differential-diagnostic and prognostic oninions were characterized by exactitude and depth. The greater part of 150 works published by Yakov Pavlovich are devoted to - the study of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, ` and treatment of psychical illnesses, He worked out topical areas in epilepsy, its clizical forms and types of course of the disease; he des- - cribed the typological characteristics of epi2eptoid and arteriosclerotic - dementia and of the psychoses accompanying these diseases. To the pen of Ya. P. Frumkin belong a number af publications on the history of psychiatry, _ the organization of psychiatric assistance, psychotherapy, psychiatric deontology and a method of teaching psychiatry. In collaboration with Academician A. A. Bogomolets, Yakov Pavlovich participated in studying the qsestions of geriatric psychiatry and reactivity during psychical illnesses. Ya. P. Frumkin wrote monographs and school text books widely known in otir [USSR] country: "Psychiatric Termi_nology" (1939), "A Shert Differential Diagnosis of Several Mental Illnesses" (1951), the first native "Educational Atlas of Psychiatry" (1963), "Psychiatry: Tables and Diagrams" (1977). Under the direction of Ya. P. Frumkin more than 40 candidates' and doctoral dissertations were completed and defended. A number of his students were at the head of departments of psychiatry in medical WZes [i.e., institute of higher learning] of the Ukrainian SSR, many are successfully continuing their scientif ic and pedagogical activity and are organizers of psychiatric - help. Yakov Pavlovich was a brilliant pedagague. His brilliant and profound lectures invariably attracted a wide audience not only of studer.ts, but also � of practicing physicians. He was distinguished by the valuable gift of a teacher, was always simple in communication; he loved his patients, enjoyed = great authority and respect among students, physicians and scientists. Yakuv Pavlovich Frumkin was a member of the CPSU since 1943. Many times " - he was chosen as a member of the party bureau of the Faculty of Medicine, and performed active social work. Over the course of many years - Yakov Pavlovich was on the board of the All-Union and Ukrainian Societies - of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists; in 1974 he was chosen Honorary MemUer of the All-Union Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists. _ 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For his fruitful pedagogical, scientific, practical and social a^tivities Prof Ya. P. Frumkin was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian SSR. The blessed memory of Yakov Pavlovich Frumkir.--pedagogue, scientist and human being wi-il remain forever in our hearts. COPYRIGHT: "Zhurnal Nevropatologii I Psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakova," 1979 (66-9193] 9193 CSO: 1840 E1V-D 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200050044-6