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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 ~ f , ~ t~ f~P'1~ I L ~ F~~~ ~ ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICiAL USF. ONLY JPRS L/9047 21 April 1980 - ~Vest E u ro e R e o rt p p S~IENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CFODU 5/80) ? _ ~'~IS FC~REIG~~~ BROADCAS~' INFORlVIATIOI~ SEI~VICE I~OR OF~iCi/.L USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 ~ NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from fore~gn-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. _ Unfamiliar name~rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded b~ a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within ~ttems are as given by source. - 1fie contents of tY~is publication in no way represent t~?e poli- _ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. ' For further information on report content call (703) 351-2811 or 351-2501 lGreece, Cyprus, Turkey). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODU~ED HEREIN REQUIRE T~LAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATIGN BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 ~ _ _ .,....,a - JPRS L/9047 21 April 1980 WEST EUROPE REPORT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 5/80) � CONTENTS _ INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS European Data Banks Linked in EURONET (Fabien Gruhier; I~E NOUVEL OBSERVATEUR, 11-17 Feb 80) 1 Present Status, Prospects of Spacelab Program (Pierre Langereux; AIR & COSMOS, 26 Jan 80) 4 _ European Spa~e Cooperation Planned Capabilities _ Training of Astronauts - Plans for F`irst Mission Improvements, F~ture Missions . FRANCE - Trends in Civil Aviation Policy Discussed (AIR & COSMOS, 23 Feb 80) 20 ITALY New National, International Reseaxch Center at Trieste . (F. Cianf.; CORRIERE DEL?~A SERA, 5 Jan 80) 22 Center for Solar Systems Manufacture, R&D, in Ftriuli (Enrico Negretti; CORRIERE DELLA SERA, 13 Jan 80) 24 UNITED KINGDO~M Rolls-Royce RB 211-535C Status Report (AIR & COSMOS, 23 Feb 80) 26 . _ ' a - ~III - WE - 151 S&T FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 r'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS ~ - EUROPEAN DATA BANKS LINI~D IN EURONET Paris LE NOUVEL OB~ERVATEUR in F~ench 11-17 Feb 80 p 46 [Article by Fabien Gruhier] [Text] This next Wednesday, 13 February, shoul~i be a great day. Roy Jenkins, chairman of the European Communities Con~mission, Simone Veil, and all the veritable European "Who`s Who" asse~nbled at Strasbourg are going to p1ay, ceremoniously, with cathode ray screens and terminals. All for the _ purpose of marking a birth: that of Europe~~. telemation. Computers of all countries: Unite; by virtuP of the brilliant new network designated EU~ONET-- "the living memory for Europeans," "the most important progressive step since Gutenberg," "the instrument which places data at one's fingertips"--the "intellectual resources" of the Old Continent are finally going to be avail- able, accessible at any it.~,tant in any place by means of a simple ~elephone call. The pro.iect goes back to 1971. It consisted of linking, to potential uses, _ the principal "data banks" by a special network--these data files which are . sprouting like mushrooms on the surface of the indus~rial world. The prop- erties of new pharmaceutical products; the status of cancer research, the standards imposed by Denmark upon imported toys, the list of delinguent debtors in Ita1y, the effects of nuclear radiation upon some organic sub- stance, the results of the last Irish elections.... Hexice.forth it is only - necessary to bend dawn and punch some code numbers on the first terminal one encounters in order to have instant access to this manna of data. The banks which contain these data are bursting forth at the stupefying rate of one every other day in the EEC alone. It was truly urgent to design a method of consultation. The European Communities Commission has already succeeded in assembling a group of 30 services--public or private institu- tions which have connected their data banks to the EURONET Network. The ensemble constitutes DIANE--Direct Information Access Network for Europe-- a sort of telemation gal~.xy which has been operating as an experiment free of charge since last autumn. 1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 r'UK OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Godsend for kesearch Workers Those were the good times; us of this ~Zednesday payment will h~,ve to be made for use of the EURONET-DIANE, The files of the OECD, the rulings of the Italian Audit Office, the catalogue of the toxic effects of chemical substances, the worlctwide index of patents, and so forth--all the data is going to be sold. But the rates will remain very moderate. Moreover, = such is essential to the operation, for, although the experimental EURONET 3i~ not charge for its services, consultation of the Eur~pean data banks by means of the standard telephone networks, on the other hand, up to the present has been very expensive. So exper_sive that in some countries it was attractive to consult American files. ~ - With EURONET the cost of access to a Europea.n file will become '~from a ~ third to a fifth as high," is the assurance of an expert. "And independent of distance." Thus EURONET-DIANE will be a genuine godsend for all who are E eager far data--enterorises, research workers, officials--as well as for the compilers and sellers of those data. "The fund of European documenta- - tion at last will becoa~e profitable." A true miracle; to organize E'URONET - there was e~Ten no need to install new te'lephone lines. It was simply a matter af assigning lines to the "package transmissions" required by the data processin~. Lines all along which the messages, "packages" of figures - properly labeled by the cotnputers are entered in bulk, like bottles in the sea, which will with absolute certainty reach their destinations by virtue of sophisticated localization. "Several inquirers can be stacked up on the sane line, "~xnlains Phillipe Coll~er, editor-in-chief of the first French specialize~~ dat~, bank publication. "From w~iich result the lower costs." From which also arises the difficulty in succeeding. "There are people who have divergent interests," said one of the officials responsible for market- in~ the EURONET. "The various Posts and Telecommunications administrations of the E'EC countries receive comfortabZe revenues when they connect their subscrir,ers to American data banks. It is difficult to interest them in EURONET." Some of t;hese European Posts and Telecommuriications administra- tions, it is said, have had to have their ears tweaked ir~ order to agree _ to assign, to those requesting it, the indispensable "open sesame"; an access number to the EURONET system. The Bel.gians, ii; seems, ~,roved to be unwilling. Nloreover, all problems have not been resolved. - The system's promoters, for example, have not succeeded in establishing how many customers there are. "Perhaps 200 at present? The various Posts and Telecommunications administrations have neglected to keep us up to date," said Garth Davis, the European Commission's project head. *INFOTEC`rURE; 11, rue du Marche-Saint-Honore, 75001 Paris 2 FOR OFi~ICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Everything leads it to be believed, nevertheless, that the success will be considerable--in fact blazing. "In comparison with the United States tbe market in Europe for j'on-line data" is woefully underdeveloped. It is going to increase this year. And that will cause a snowball effect. _ EURONET c;onstitutes an enviranment favorable to the creation of new data banks, which will in turn attract new customers; and so on. We are going to see a great explosion of telemation data," Everyboc~y will profit from it. A Data-Processing Esperanto Including the Posts and Teleco~unications administrations, which fear losing the benefits of the (small) present traffic with the United States: "They are going to profit, from the prodigious growth of the market ;rhich will occur in Europe, with rates comparable to domestic American ~~tes, which is to say, very low, but quant~.ty will make up for that," explains a Luxembourg official. "hareover, when the network is fir~ally operational, the European Commission will withdraw from it completely. But without us, � the nine Posts and Telecotmnunicatic?ns administrations would never get together around a table to tune their violins...." Nor to make the~r networks and computers compatible. Because even for electronic language Europe is a Tower of Babel. The elements of rate - structure, t~e technologies, the standards for signal modulation--all are differen~:, EURONET is therefore a network af frightening complexity. With a multiplicity of "inter~aces," of decoder-transcoders unt~ringly handling the signal p~ckages. However, the European Commission has had to develop a universal command _ language, a sort of data processing Esperanto which enable. all computers . to be interrogated 3_n the same manner. But, here too, at the price of co~cplexity; to have access, at Turin, to a German data bank it is neces- sary to compose upon the keyboard a combination of 60 figures: Al1 the whi~e this must be done very rapidly without the slightest error under pain of losing the line and having to start over again. But in this curious game of numbers and letters the problem of the letters rexnains the thorniest. "It is not enough to have easy access to a data _ bank. ~rther, one must be able to understand the da~a gained frotn it," said Loll Rol.ling, in charge of automated translation within the European Commiss~.on. "Alreac~y, in the nine countries of the EEC we must speak six languages, and the commur.ity organizations employ a regiment of 4,000 translators. We look forward with some trepidation to the entry of Portugal, Spain, and Greece...." COPYRIGHT: 1980 "I~e Nouvel Observateur" 11,706 C SO : 3102 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PItESENT STATUS, PROSPECTS OF SPACELAB PROGRAM European Space Cooperation Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 26 Jan 80 pp 32-33 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "Spacelab: The European Contribu~iori to the Shuttle"] [Text] The cooperation agreement signed on 24 September 1973 between NASA, - representing the United States, and the European Space Agency (ESA) for the ' development and building of Spacelab enables Europe to parti.cipate in the largest American space program of the 70's and 80's: construction of the Space Transportation System, with the posaibility of entering the reserved domain of manned space flights and sending the first European astronauts into space! Spacelab is actually one of the main reueable Elemenrs of the.Space Trana- - port Syatem (STS), which ia destined to replace the traditional American _ rockets ia the 1980's and therea~ter. NASA expects that one-third of the 400 Shuttle missions planned for this decade will use Spacelab. The Space Shuttle, the main element of the STS, is entirely built in the United States, along with the upper stages (SSUS and IUS) needed to launch , payloads into high terrestrial orbits (in particular, geostationary orbit) or toward the planets. - On the other hand, Spacelab, which is put to work by the Shuttle for low- orbit missiona (with or without a crew), is made completely in Europe for NASA. ; This major program of European space cooperation, along with the Ariane rocket, which was aimed at ensuring Europe's independence for the launching of commercial satellites, is the precise counterpart of the American Space Shuttle. 2,000 Persons in Ten Countries 'Ten European countries are participating in the Spacelab program, including ~ nine out of the eleven members of ESA: Germany, Italy, France, the United 4 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Kingdom, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Switzerland, along ~ with one of the observer countries: Austria. This is an optional program in which the European nations are free to pa?-ti- cipate financially, depending on their own interest. Germany, the promoter of the operation, finances over half (53 percent), Italy pays 18 percent and the other c~untriee finance the balance. The building of Spacelab ia head~d at ESA by a program committee made up of representativea of all participating nations. Some 2,000 persons frum 50 firms in the ten countries involved participate - in the Spacelab program. ~ � The building of Spacelab began in June 1974 with the drawing up of the development contract with the German firm Erno in Bremen. _ The i-~dustrial organization includes ten AEG [German Elect~ric Company]-Telefunken and Dornier in Germany, Aeritalia in Italy, Bell 'Telephone and SABCA [expansion unknown] in Belgium, Fokker-VFW in the Netherlands, British A~rospace in Great Britain, MATRA [expanaion unknown] in France, Kampsax in Detzmark and Sener in Spain. These companies work with some 40 subcontractors in the ten participating�countries. Sev- eral American firms, including TRW [expansion unknown], Martin Marietta, _ and so on, also lend their aid and experience in manned space sys*_ems to European builders for whom Spacelab is a new and difficult problem. Delays and substantial cost overruns also occurred very quickly in complet- ing the Spacelab program as the result of technical dfffieulties, parti- cularly regarding software, problems further aggravated by a certain laxity in program management. Numerous personn~l transfers also occurred amor.g program officials. Five persons gucceeded one another as head of the program at ESA, until the arrival of Michel Bignier in November 1976. The project heads were also replaced, both at ESA (Pfeiffer has been there since 1977) and Erno (A. Kutzer aince September 1979). Program Costing 4 Billion Francs The estimated cost of completing the Spacelab program exceeded initial esti- mates (308 million accounting units at 1�73 prices) by 20 percent and then - by 40 percent. The current estimated cost of completion has leveled off since the end of 1979 at 140 percent the initial package, or 704 million accounting units (1979 prices), which represents some 4 billion francs. This new cost of completion of 704 million accounting units includes the study costs (16 million accounting units)., the Spacelab development contract with Erno and certain work after delivery (578 million accounting unita), the contract to develop the IPS space plotting instruments at Dornier (35 milli,on accounting units), and the internal expenses,of ESA (75 m~llion - _ accounting units), which are not as high as expected (savings of some 3E million accounting units). - ~ 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Ciai. a�DO~nue.� . ss.c�i�s � 1` ~ 2 saleude dp poursuilc � 1'~Ib b b. NwNb qMld~ . ~ ~M de reWu des GonnAc us:aon ~ ~ - ~ ICSl:~ ~ ~ i 7 ~ ~ ~ o~oviascurs 9 ~ I - O;~ppo:nl 6~ cenlrc d~ cunlrAM dr. m~:s~ns' cl 6es opBr~tans dc chugc ul ,Ce~ ~~a - *.~,.-,~-rr"'?"'S!~if~'a~'-~ . 1~ I - I . o~� x . I = e ~ i Qrt16SBQ9 ' _ ',4~:~ ~r 2) . 1) '~~:;;;,'i:s`' I . ''r~, � `.'�S~. u~Y~~~ derrob~teu . _ ;~f;,. c~;,.:. I ~ ~ . _ 1 : ~ ~ n't.0rlt6flt � . ' i ~:P,NUU , ~ e?xj ~?^.~j:@6 _ ~,~~kr ,F. I - ( : "5 . . R. - . . � 1 . ;'''r: : . ~ ~ ~ ~1 . ' ~~''~,~i ~ � � ex rie oCS � ti ~ ; 11 ~ I ~A : w~;c,~~~t~ ~ . ' ' I _ ~ as crp~rimn .,i._i rti, ` ~ ~ 18~~ ih n~ 2..` ' - , . Y . Fl v~+n.~CaWn5 y~~ kne dvM~; - I .U WI SP~I 1 .1 /-'1""`�'_' , ti 13) , 4~ ~ ~;ti ~f . ~ . ~ex~e~~~ES14) 19) : ~ , ~ I~ , communaul~ ~ y 1;~t3 ' exp~rimenateurs des uui.5ateurs ~ ` ~ V ~4I . ~ : ~"1 , ~ . . . . > ~ _ I i ..iA~:N.,.. ~ 1� . i ~ . ~..J/.... i ~..n: 4V]~J.1~ . . . . ~ . . w. I. ~`f :ll1~:w�LL} 1~~~ Key: _ 1. Cycle of Spacelab operatione with 16. Training of space flight help of Space Shuttle research workers 2. Tracking and data.relay satellite 17. Experiments 3. Launching 18. Samples, films, tapes, 4. New tank datr~ 5. Orbiter 19. Compound , 6. Makeup prop~llants , 7. Tank ~ . 8. Solar station ~ 9. Mission Control and Payload Operations Center 10. Re-entry 11. Landing 12. Preparation of orbiter - 13. Integration and verifications 14. Experiments and research workers 15. Spacelab and experiments 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Only recently last we~k ESA confirmed that Lhe Spacelab development program can be finished within the limit flf ~40 percent of the initial package. Currently, expenditures amount to 103 percent and commitmenta made to manufacturers total about 120 percent of the package, Michel Bignier said. But ESA also recognizes that keeping the cost of the program within the limit of 120 percent depends to a very large extent on Erno's completion of its ta~k without exceeding the 525.5 million accounting units provided. Moreover, Erno has just reorganized ita team last year, mainly in order to second the central nucleus of 100 to 150 engineers w~rking exclusively on the program. NASA Mission Model of First Spacelab Flights (15 November 1979) Spacelab Shuttle Flight Orbit Partici- ~ Flight Flight Date NM � Spacelab Missions pants ~ SL1 (FSLP) Sh. 9 16 Apr 82 135 57 1 LM + 1P Multidisc. NASA, ESA _ SL2 Sh. 13 14 Sep 82 202 5C 3P Astrophysics NASA _ SL3 Sh. 16 7 Dec 82 200 57 1 LM + 1P Microgravity NASA = SL4 ~ Sh. 21 7 Apr 83 160 /~6 1 LM Life Sciences NASA, ESA _ SLS Sh. 25 22 Jul 83 216 57 4P Astro.-Phys. NASA _ SL6 (D1) Sh. 29 13 Dec 83 160 28.5 1 LM Microgravity Germany - SL7 sh. 37 3 May 84 210 57 1 CM + 3P Astro.-Phys. NASA SL$ Sh. 40 27 Jun 84 1 LM + 1P Applications NASA ESA will once again evaluate cost estimates upon completion of the Spacelab program in March 1980. Italy Angry The new 140�-percent package has not been formally accepted by the member states, but there are very good chances that it will be at the next ESA Board meeting to be held this week, on 23-Z4 January, Bignier said. The member nations have in fact all stated that they wanted to remain in the program and in nrinciple, have accepted the new schedu~e of contribu- tions to the overrun as proposed in September-October 1979. This distribu- tion should not therefore be questioned, although four member cauntries have not yet been able to approve the credits, for reasons removed from the Spacelab program, it is stated. Hawever, ?taly has decided to reduce its contribution to the overrun in a ~ spectacular fa~hion, from 18 percent to only 1 percent in order to manifest its discontent with the inadequate return obtained to date by Italian manu- ~ facturers in the Spacela~ program, which in fact dropped from 18 to 12 per- cent of all contracts between 1974 and 1978. 7 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ The deficit caused by the Italian position was therefore divided up among the other participating nations, with the exception of Switzerland and Austria, which are also protesting their unsatisfactory industrial return. Planiied Capabilities Paria AIR & COSMOS in French 26 Jan 80 pp 34-35 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "The Space Erector Set"] _ [Text] S~acelab is a space laboratory designed to be recovered and reused for 10 years or SO flights. It may be used directly by astronauts or aper- ated by renote control from the Shuttle attitude control station. This "satellite in a kit" can be used in eight different configurations, uniting pressurized modules (short or long) and/or instrument-carrying pallets directly exposed to space. The pressurized module, manufactured by Aeritalia, is an aluminum alloy cylinder made up of one or two segments 4.1 ~neters in.diameter and 2.7 meters long, closed by cones. One of the segments houses auxiliary equip- ment and part of the scientific instruments, while the other is exclusively reserved for mission equipment, arranged in standard racks, each able to hold a payload weighing 290 pounds (simple rack) or 580 kilograms (double rack). A linking tunnel 1 meter in diameter provides the connection with the Shuttle and interior access (no exit into space) for the astronauts. The Spacelab module can carry a maximum of 4.6 tons payload and it provides a useful volume of 22 cubic meters for the crew, which can work there with- out spaceeuita. The (air-conditioned) atmosphere is at a pressure of 1 kilogram per square centimeter with 70-percent humidity. The pallets, made by British Aerospace, are all 4 meters wide and 2.9 meters long and can carry a useful load o~ 3 tcns. Each one has 25 anchoring points and 18 panels supporting a mass of 50 kilograms per square meter. The pallets also have thermal control, an energy supply and a data trans- fer system. An igloo made by Fakker-VFW contains the sensitive electronic equipment in ~ an air-conditioned en~losure pressurized with nitrogen. _ - Throughout flight, from launching until return, Spacela~b remains in thE - Shuttle's compartment, whose dimensions (18 by 4.6 meters) surpass those of all payloads, including Spacelab. Likewise, the maximum mass of Space- lab is determined by the 14.5-ton limit imposed by the Shuttle's payload mass upon landing. Under these conditions, Spacelab can put a payload weighing from 4 to 9 tons into orbit around the Earth, depending on the configurations chosen. By way of comparison, a Spacelab made up of one long module and two pallets 8 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ~ g o d ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ d ~ ~ - . ~ y a ' ~ 0 ~ B E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ a - _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ $ E 2 ~ N C ~p ~ ~ C! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ O N ~ O r~-I ~ _ ~~p fn 3~ ~ r-I tA _ ~ Jf ~ ~b~0 O3 H H cvd C~1 t~ ~ ~ c~ a b H ~ ~ ua ~o u ~n ~ o a~ ~ ~ ~ $ ~ ~ U ~ 3 ~ a~i � a a~i ~o ~cp, u.~'~ ~ ~ t ~ o ~cn� ~ c~d oc�i o ~ ~d u ~ a ~o . ~w~x~++~ r-a c~1 N ~ la ap~, t/~ m O ~ i~+ G7l ~ c0 ~ ~P+O~NF+W3dUtl~ r-1 N M~t ~11 ~O 1~ 00 G1 O rl ~ ~i ~i G1 ~ - 9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - iy 1~.8 meters long and weighs 11.4 tons, about half the weight of a Soviet _ S~lyut arbital 9tation. - Seven to Twelve Days in Fligh* Spacel.a.b also depends on the Shuttle for all tts au::lliary equipment: _ energ~, atmosphere~ thermal control, stabilization, telecommunicationa, - habitat for the crew, and so on. The Shuttle's power, which is now limited to 7 kilowatts, allows Spacelab to remain in orbit only 7 to 12 days, with four astronauts who are payload speciallsts on board, in addition to the Shuttle crew. The Shuttle's crew normally includes three astronauts, including two pilots (one is �the ship coumiander) and one mission specialist exclusively in , charge of the payload. All are professional astroiiauts chosen from among NASA's ~orps. For the first time, NASA has extended recruiting to blacks - and women (six women have already been selected). On the contrary, the Spacelab crew is made up of amateur astronauts re- cruieed from among scientists or engineers specially trained to handle - Spacelab experiments and oversee operation of the laboratory. Spacelab's . crew can in this way he made up of from one to four payload specialiata, whether men or women. But all the astronauta, those on the Shuttle and those on Spacelab, have r.heir quarters in the compartment located under the Shuttle's attitude - control station, where they eat, sleep, wash and dreas or do exercise to war.d off the discomforts inherent in prolonged space flight. _ Laboratory in Space The environment (cosmic vacuum, microgravity, and so on) and the features of Spacelab (human operators, and so on) make it an ideal platfor~ for many operations. Spacelab can be used for scientific missions invo~ving high energy astro- physics, solar or stellar astronomy, physics of the atmosphere, the iono- - sphere or the magnetosphere, life sciences (study of space behavior, bio- ' logy and medicine) and so on. But it can also be used as a test bench for space applications: telecom- munications, navigation, observation of the Earth, meteorology, climatology, _ production of materials in microgravity, and so on. - 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY = of Astronauts Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 26 Jan 80 pp L~0-41 [Artic~e by Pierre Langereux: "The First European Astronauts"] [Text~ For the first 52~acelab 1 mission in which Europe is paxtic~.natine, ~ in May~ 1978 ESA chose three astronauts who were payload specialists from _ among the 2,000 candidates presented by all the member nations in the compe- tirion that began in April 1977. The three are: Ulf Merboid, 39, German, physician; Wubbo Ockels, 34, Dutch, also a physician; and C?aude Nicollier, 36, Swiss, astronomer and - airline pilot. For its part, NASA also chose two astronauts who were payload specialiats but who have never been ii1 space: Michael Lampton, 39, a physician; and Byron K. Ichtc~nberg, 32, a research worker from MIT. Difficult Selection The conditions set by ESA for the selection of the fi.rst European astro- nauts were the following: The candidate had to: be a native (male or female) of a member nation or country with the status of observer participating in the Spacelab program; be no more than 47 years of age, which means a maximum 51 at thp time of - the mission; be between 1.53 and 1.90 meters ir height; and hold a univer- _ sity diploma (or th~ equivalent) in natural sciences or technology, accom- panied by a minimum of 5 years experience in at least one of the experi-~ mental fields in which the Spacelab 1 mission is involved. _ Candidates also had to be in good health and ready to submit to inteneive medical and psychological testing. A predisposition to verti~o or air sickness meant disqualification. The purpose of the psychological tests was to see that those in charge of experiments would be able to handle the work load and cope with the Spacelab environment, which involves high levels of tension. The general qualities required were a good memory, a _ logical mind, good.ability to concentrate, an aptitude for orientation in space and good manual dextez�ity. In addition, candidates chosen had to - show strong motivation, a flaxible personality, good emoti~�~nal stability and a lack of aggressiveness. Intensive Training The training of the European astronauts destined to be payload specialists is less rigorous than and different from that imposed by NASA on the Shuttle _ crew. However, the criteria imposed by ESA for its payload specialists are of the same level as those used by NASA in selecting the mission specialists, 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 ~ - FOR. OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ whc~ are professional astronauts. The first European astronauts are there- fore of a very high level. = Their training mainly consists of becoming familiar with European experi- - ments and the operation of Spacelab 1, as well. as preparing for life and - work under conditions of weightlessness. They will in fact have to work Iu h~urs a day during the Snacelab 1 flight. - - Training enables astronauts to become familiar with the purpose of experi- - ments by studyiz~g works on the subject and reports by scientists. They , will also be tra~ned in the laboratories in the handling of the scientific - instruments involved and participate in simulated operations applying the man-machine systems and the integration of equipment to be used in the first flight. To this end, European astronauts take training for Spacelab and in the use of its equipment at the DFVLR [expansion unknown] facilities in Porz-Wahn (Germany), where the ESA European team in charge of integrating and coor- dinating the payload (SPICE) is set up, as well as at the ESA Technical Center (ESTE~) in Noordwi,jk (Netherlands) and at the German pro~ect foreman, Erno, in Bremen, where Spacelab is assembled and integrated. One of th~ Furopean astronauts, Claude Nicollier, also participated in a simulated flight of a Spacelab mission on Uoard the NASA laboratory plane, the Convair 900 Coronado, within the framework of the Assess program. These - flights amounted to a practical simulation of the conditions of a Spacelab - mission (except for weightlessness). It therefore became apparent that like their astronaut colleagues who have already made flight~, the Spacelab crew would experience a disruption of their circadian rhythm and substantial stress, which should be prepared for by appropriate pre-flight training. Plans for First Mission ~ Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 26 Jan 80 pp 39-40 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "First Flight of Spacelab in April 1982"] ~ [Text] NASA has now scheduled the first Spacelab flight for April 1982. ~ It will be completed through the cooperation of NASA and ESA, which will share the weight, energy and operating time of the crew equally. ~ The flight is aimed at verifying the general operation of Spacelab and at carrying out v3rious experiments whose purpose is to show the possibilities ; of the manned orbital laboratory for space research. ~ The first pay~oad of this Spacelab 1, whose preparation has now gone on ! _ - for two and one-half years, includes a total of 76 scientific and - ~ 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY technologieal experiments: 61 Europeat: and 15 American, including one _ Japanese. r1n Indiar. experiment is being sh3red by ESA and NASA. Thcoi:gh these 76 experiments, 219 scientiats from 16 ..ountriea participate in the first Spacelab mission. Some 130 Gf them are from 12 European na- tions (Germany, Austria, Belgium, L~enmark, Spain, France, Italy, Norway, the Netherlanda, the United Kingdom, Sweden and ~witzers.and) and 80 are from the United States. The others are from Canada, India and Japan. The 61 European experiments are mainly devoted to materials science (40 experiments) and bioastronautics (10). The rest are divided among physics of the atmoaphere (3), plasma physics (3) and solar physics (2), astronomy - (2), and observation of the Earth (2). The American experiments mainly concern space biomedicine (7 experiments). The United States has no space processing experiment on the first Spacelab. Participants share the use of certain instruments such as the vestibular sled, ovens, the fluid physics module, the microwave radar, the photogram- metric chamber, and so on. European Experiments Discipline Countries Instruments Site Life Sciences (10) Germany, France, Vest. sled, Pressurized Great Britain, cell implants, module . Italy, Sweden, etc. Switzerland Physics of the atmosphere (3) Germany, Bel- Telescope, Inatrument gium, France spectrometer c~r~ier, - pressurized module Solar physics (2) Aelgium (and ESA research workers) Plasma physics (3) Germany, Austria," " " " France, Norway - ' (and ESA research workers) Astronomy (2) Germany, France, Infrared Instrument ~ Great Britain, telescope carri~r - _ Italy (and ESA res. workers) - Earth observation (2) Germany (data to Photogram- Instrument (Instruments) be supplied to metric carrier - res. workers chamber euerywhere - 13 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (cont.) Materials science (40) Germany, Au~tria, Belgium, Isothermic Pressur- Denmark, Spain, France, ovens with ized mod. - Great Britain, Italy, $radient - Netherlands, :iweden and mirrors Fluid physics ~ ~ module Larger Crew Spacelab 1 will be placed in a circular orbit around the Earth zt an alti- _ tude of 250 kilometers with a pitch of 57� over the Equator. The length of the flight is planned for 7 days, in the course of which~Spacelab astro- nauts will do 160 hours of work. On an exceptional basis. NASA expanded the crew for this first flight by naming two mission specialists (Owen Garriott and Robert Parker) in~tead of one, in ~ddition to the two Shuztle _ pilots and the payload speciali~t astronaut who will be named later. The _ action was taken because of the large density of experiments for the first flignt. For this first mission, Spacelab will be made up of one long module and an instrument-b earing pallet to carry a total 2.8 tons of payload that will be shared equally by Europe and the United States. At the present time, ESA and NASA have a problem remaining within the weight of their shar~ of . the payload (1,392 kilograms each). In partieu~lar, the European payload is ~ about 10 percent too heavy 140 to 150 kilograms and ESA is probably " going to have to drop some Spacelab experiments in order to remain within ; _ the mass Iimit imposed. The payload will first of all be integrated in Europe at Erno in Bremen (Germany), under the responsibility of the ESA SPICE group, before being shipped to Cape Canaveral (Florida), where the successive integrations of _ the payloads are to be completed, then with Spacelab and finally, with the Shuttle. Integration of the European payload will cost some 25 mil.lion UC [accounting units] (1978 prices) and will be financed by ESA. Research workers there- fore have free access to the first Spacelab with respect to flight expenses, but financing of scientific equipment must still be their responsibility. ' Improvements, Future Missions Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 26 Jan 80 pp 41-43 ~ [Article by Pierre Langereux: "Production and Impro~~ement of Spacelab"j [Text] The Spacelab p-rogram is now made up of four phases for ESA: devel-- opment (phase C/D), including the manufacture and delivery of a f irst flight - 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY model of Spacelab to NASA; production (FOP) of a second flight model of SFacelab, ordered separately by NASA; use of Spacelab by Eurepe (ESA and member nations individually); and improvements (FOD) in the currznt Space- ~ lab by ESA and NASA in cooperation. - The cooperation agreement signed in 1973 hetween ESA and NASA covers the - first thre~ phases of the Spacelab program. The fourt~ ~hase (improve- ments) has already been the sub~ect of preliminary studies, both by NASA and ESA, but to date, the European member nations have made no decision concerning their participation in this new phase. _ The development phase ~f Spacelab will be completed in 15 to 18 months, according to Michel Bignier, director of the program at ESA. Erno will complete integration of the prototype (engineering model) of Spacelab in September 1980 in Bremen and integration of the first flight model has already begun. - Delivery of First Spacelab in 1981 Delivery to NASA'of the different models of Spacelab will begin this year. The prototype is to be delivered in under a year, in November ~980 (instead of June 1979). The first flight model of Spacelab, which is made up of one iong module and five equipped pallets, will be delivered in two lots. The first lot (FU 1), including the long module and two pallets, will be delivered in February 1981 (instead of September 1979), and the other (FU 2), made up of three equipped pallets (with igloo) will be sent to NASA in May 1981 (instead of January 1980). The first plotting instrument to be used on the pallet missions will be delivered in September 1981. NASA has planned to use this first Spacelab for two initial flights that are respectively scheduled for April 1982 (Spacelab 1) for the ~oint NASA- ESA mission wfth a long-module and pallet configuration, and in September 1982 (Spacelab 2) for the second mission with three equipped pallets and - the instrument plotting system (IPS). For the time being, this schedule is confirmed by NASA despite the recent - report on the first flight of the Shuttle for October 1980 (instead of March 1980). Order for Second Spacelab The order for the second Spacelab by NASA (provided for in the 1973 agree- ment) is to be signed, in principle, tomorrow, 27 January. ESA has already signed the contract, on 20 December 1979, after the three parties: NASA, 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFEICIAL USE ONLY ESA and Erno, finally agreed on the am~unt of the supplier's contract for ~ the second Spacelab. This contract will total 117.1 ~r~illion accounting units (1979 prices), or about 660 million francs. NASA actually rejected _ the first European offer, whi~h amounted to 148 million accounting units. - Principal European Contractors Germany: AEG--Telefunken; Dornier System, Draeger= Erno, MBB [expansion unknown], Nord Micro, SEL [expansion unknown], VF'Id-Fokker Austria: OKG [expansion unknown] Belgium: Bell Telephone Mfg., ETCA [expansion unknown], SABCA Denmark: Christian Rovsing, Kampsax, TERMA [expansion unknown] Spain: INTA [National Institute for Aerospace Research], SENER [expansion unknown) France: SEMS fexpansion unknown], Matra, Thomson-CSF [General Radio Company] Italy: Aeritalia, Microtecnica Netherlands: Fokker-VFW ~ United Kingdom: British Aerospace, Dynamics Group Switzerland: Industrial Company, Radioelectric It is a fixed price contract (with revision to correct for inf lation), ex- ~ - cept in the case of the American manufacturers and their European subcon- tractors, which involves around $6.3 million.. The contract does not include the internal expenditures of ESA, however - (estimated to total 33 million florins and paid in that currency), or the supplying of the second IPS2 plotting instrument, whcase order by NASA was postponed until A}7ri1-May 19~0 due to delays in developing the instrument. NASA is awaiting the pro~ect review of the IPS before making its order. ~ The cost of the operation, estimated at some 13 million accounting units, ~ was deemed acceptable by NASA. ~ Delivery of the second Spacelab to NASA is scheduled in 14 shipments of material spread out from October 1981 to April 1984. This second Spacelab will includ~ one short module and five equipped pallets. Delivery of the second IPS will not take place until. the end of 1983 or the beginning of 1984. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Participation in the SSS ESA ie then to supply NASA with spare parts as they are n~eded ae soon as the Spacelab fllghte begin. It is quite likely that NASA will entruat the - American firm of McDonnell Douglas in charge of Spacelab in the United States with the taek of ordering spare parts directly from European _ industries, either from the pro~ect foreman or from the main contractors involved. If NASA should need a third Spacelab, ESA believes that the same procedure should be followed as for the second (ordered by ESA). ~ _ However, it does not appear that this possibility should be considered before 1985, Bignier says. The first two Spacelabs should in fact meet NASA's anticipated needs until 1987! For the first two years of Spacelab's operations 1982-1983 NASA only plans six to eight flights a year (one-third of them military), which can very well be accomplished with two models. The equipment can in fact be used in eight different configurations. Industrial Returns (Contracts) Compared With Contributions ~ Participants in Contributions Industrial Return in % Spacelab in Percent 1974 1978 Austria 0.76 0.40 Belgium 4.20 4.20 5.10 _ benmark 1.50 1.50 2.20 - France ~ 10.00 10.00 12.50 Germany 53.34 54.10 52.60 Italy 18,00 18.00 12.30 Netherlands 2.10 2.10 2.10 = Spain 2.80 2.80 3.60 Switzerland 1.00 1.00 1.20 United Kingdom 6.30 6.30 8.00 On the other hand, European industry should be consulted for the supplying of the special Space Sortie Support (SSS) pallets from the U.S. Air Force for scientific experiments with the Shuttle beginning in 1983. Actually, the U.S. Air Force plans to use the pressurized modules of tile Spacelab belonging to NASA for its military needs. It does plan to have pallets built comparable to those of the Spacelab, but without the igloo. The call for bids for the supplyin~ of the SSS was in principle to be s2nt at the end of January 1980, but the U.S. Air Force has announced that it will be postponed until around March 1980. ~ 17 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The project foreman of the SSS must be an American firm given the military nature of the system. The manufacturer will in fact have to set the SSS up _ on the launching base. Four American manufacturers are now interested: Rockwell International, TF~W Systema. Martin Marietta Corporation and - General Electric. The SSS contract is estimated at about $5Q million for two sets of pallets making it possible to average of one flight a year for 10 years. A e1 C .f ~�~rjl ~ ? , ~ 1 , `r ~ ~ / ;1ti~ ~ \ ~ :~f~ . ~ , i ~ .c a~ y:i!r'~ ~ J' ~ ~ IL~ ' 1 ~,-E'.-~'I ~ . � ' � E' f- [Above] Spacelab can be used for highly different missions: astronomy (A), atmospheric physics (B), solar physics (C), bioastronautics (D), the pro- duction of materials under conditions of weightlessness (E), and observa- tion of the Earth (F). - The current Spacelab can be considered as the precursor of a new family of . space capsules destined to become autonomous and thereby prepare the way ~ for future permanent orbital stations, which were originally part of the ' , American Space Transportation System (STS) program. ; For several years, NASA and ESA have been preparing for the following - phase beyond the current Spacelab through the planning of various pro~ects. The two space agencies recently set up a specialized work group: FOCO (Follow-on Couunittee), to study together the possibilities of future im- provements and developments in short- and medium-range terms of Spacelab, mainly through the conversion of existing elements and the addition of new speciali2ed modules (power, and so on). FOCO is to submit a report on its work at the end of March ?980. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY European Objectives European objectives regarding future development of Spacelab have been set forth by ESA and fit into three categories: political, operational and industrial. The political ob~ectives are to pursue cooperation with NASA in working on orbital stations, preserve European progress in manned space systems in order zo prevent the scattering of European teams, ens~re participation in the use of future manned systems in order to atrengthen ESA's position - and to maintain Europe's capability in the fvture production of Spacelab ` and the operational support of missions. - Operational objectives include opening up Spacelab to new uses (space - metallurgy and other fields that might provide commercial outlets), improv- ing the profitability of Spacelab missions for users and preserving Euro- pean users access to technological know-how obtained through Spacelab. Industrial objectives include ensuring the competitiveness of European industry, particularly in the fields of logistics and operational support and increasing the use of European equipment and technologies in future - space programs, in agreement with NASA. ESA has provided for development in two phases short and long-term the first of which has been awaiting a favorable decision from the ESA Council for e;~er a year. Unfortunately, member nations are not able to take a position on Spacelab improvements as long as the financing problem for the development phase has not been solved once and for all. Improvements which ESA has in mind are essentially aimed at th~ "search for a certain independence of Spacelab with regard to the Shuttle," Bignier explains. This autonomy would be gained by placing Spacelab in orbit with a Shuttle and bringing it back to Earth later by another Shuttle flight, inasmuch as the Shuttle's arm operated by remote control can be used for these transfers from (and in) the Shuttle compartment. At the present time, Bignier states, the same Shuttle takes the same Spacelab into space and brings it back, which immobilizes the Shuttle throughout the entire mission of the orbital laboratory. This is a waste. With 7-day flights, such a thing can still be accepted, but when the Spacelab flights last a month or longer, this procedure would immobilize 15 percent of the Shuttle flight's capacity! ESA therefore proposes to free Spacelab from its dependency on the Shuttle or vice-versa, which does not pose insurmountable technical problems. The = only crucial problem is supplying energy for an autonomous Spacelab which would no longer have the Shuttle's support, as is now the case. _ This means that an autonomous power module (also launched by the Shuttle) must be designed. It would be joined with Spacelab for every mission. ' COPYRIGHT: AIR & COSMOS Paris 1980 11,464 7-9 CSO: 3102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FRANCE T�.ENDS liv ~TV~IL AVIATION POLICY DI~CUSSED Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 23 Feb 80 p 36 - ;Article: "M Le Theule Traces the Limits o� the Policy of Liberalization"; passages ericlosed in slantlines published in boldface] [Text] The latest edition of the newsletter from the Minister of Transpor- - tation contains an editorial on the theme: freedom to transport and passen- ger safety. Referring to air transportation problems, the minister notea that his ministry's activity takes place in an area which, in international - matters, is characterized by deregulation and by the rise in fuel costs. - Referring to the offensive by certain countries in favor of /deregulation on international lines/, the minister declares that: "We should not, in the name of principle, however praiseworthy, favor an evolution of which we would be the first victima. The miniatry's attitude has thus conaisted of defend- ing the purauit of international traffic in an organized frataework, all the while urging the national company toward a pulicy of low tariffs for certain _ flights and for cert~in categories of passengers. The contract with Air France permiitted this attitude; the results obtained are encouraging and in 1979 do not indicate (as a matter of fact, they indicate the contrary) a de- terioration of results, while at the same time the statements of many com- panies give reason for concern." This assessment does aot exclude changes - here and there. In support of this remark, the minister cited the case of Strasbourg, declared an "open city" in the area of traffic dues. "But it is in the area of /unscheduled flights/ that the development has probably been felt most strongly. The governmental attitude toward inter- mediate-distance carriers has gradually been fully liberalized: several companies have been or are to be authorized to equip themselves to suit the devQlopment of tourism and permit a reconquest of a market too largely aban- - doned to foreign competition. For the long-distance carriera the develop- ment has to be more gradual: following total liberalization of flighte to the Antilles, similar measures have been initiated for the Pacific zone. - Great attention is paid to the consequences on the economy of regulax car- riers, who must not be put out of business; this would be contrary to the sought-after result. The development thus engendered is nevertheless irre- versible and it will be extended to other areas each time that the market structure permits." - 20 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The minister notes further that for /domestic traffic/ the restraints of - ~he international ~phere do not exist. The government has cancel~d the convention with Ai.r Inter in order to be free to define the applicable rules from 1981 on. "I declare, although the definitive decision has not yet been � made, that I am not convinced of the neceseity of continuing a necessarily restrictive conventional framework. The ob~ect, for Air Inter as for Air France, must be full administrative reaponsibility: the development of Air France within the framework of its contract--we are dealing with a contract and not a convention--has proved the ~ustifiability of such a policy. The same principles hold for third-level transport, over which I refuse to exe.r- cise any special governmental controls; the government's role should, in the _ matter, be limited to verifying that safety conditions are co;~rectly ful- filled. The problem of /unscheduled flights/ finally presents itself in terms comparable to those of international transport: the ob~ect should be to favor the development of tourism and the seasonal demand, while limiting _ damage to regular lines. In this spirit, domestic charters have been liber- alized during vacation periods." The minister obaerves that "in conclusion, we can note that our air trans- port has for the past several months been initiating /a more profound de- velopment than it would appear/. The regulatory framework has not had to be reformed here. The civil aviation code furnished an elastic framework. The practicea, rather than the regulations as written, were modified. Simulta- neously, efforts for eafety have again been increased. The air navigation serviceb are being progreeaively endowed with additional meana. Supervision of operstion is incre~sed by developing toward control of the ob~ectives and organization of safety in the companies, rather than toward controlling the , execution of the tasks. The will to improve existing conditiona cannot be doubted by anyone." COPYRIGHT: Air & Cosmos, Paris, 1980 5586 i CSO: 3102 _ ~ i ~ 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ITALY NEW NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER AT TRIESTE Milan CORRIERE DELLA SERA in Italian 5 Jan 80 p 9 [Article by F. Cianf.: "Scientif ic Center at Trieste for Solar and Wind - Energy"] [Text] The exploitation of solar and wind energy and app lied technological and scientific research in many sectors make up the work programs of the new consortium being established in Trieste. The initiative is being under- taken by the county, the province, the region, the university and the Mira- mare Center for Phyeical Theory in addition to the induatries present in that regional territory. The long-range plan ie to develop, i.n the territory of Trieste, a scientif- ic research capability able to satiafy the region's industrial needs and _ at the same time capable of having an impar_t at an international level. At Banne, on 170 hectares located on a plateau 10 kilometers from downtown, a scientif ic and technological research center will be build which will affect the collective community. "This is not a new institute which devises research pro~ects on its own," _ explained Prof Giampaolo De Fera, dean of the University of Trieste who, together with the Nobel laureate Prof Salam of the Miramare Theoretical Physics Center, has created the statute for the new organization. - "The idea" continued the dean, "is not new. In 1967, 13 years ago, a group - of professors in the science department worked on a pro~ect for a scientif- ic research zone. This pro~ect was amended and modified several times and following necessary bureaucratic steps to set up the financial-administra- tive section, the center for technological and scientific research was ap- proved by legislation with a decree which calls for the instituting of a _ nonoptional consortium to manage it. The drawn out starting-up activities will begin soon, with the institution - of a center for advanced calculus thus providing an archive for answera to many questions. The main preoccupation of the organizers is to avoid use- less and costly duplication while developing original trends~ The task of 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 rvn vrri~ir~i, u~c, V1vt,I the "advanced data base" will be that of allowing access to the state of the art of researches on any given topic anywhere in the world. The calculus center is already, in effect, an embryo. It will involve the transfer to Banne of a nucleus which hae been functioning for aeveral yeare - at the local engineering department, which wi11 mean atrengthening it and transforming it. "It is our intent" atated professor Mario Policastro, who is in charge of sutomatic controls, "to undertake collabaration efforts in order to support computer aseiated instruction because nowadays in that field it is possible to turn out new methods able to provide highly specialized learning tech- niques. This is the case for the Plato, a sophisticated system of assisted - inetruction which could easily serve to further develop technicians involved - in research." While waiting to be definitely "on the map," the research department of the University of Trieste encourages links abroad, which are very active. Be- = cause of its favorable geographical position, Trieste could be viewed as Mitteleuropa's natural outlet to the sea. For that reason, perhaps, cul- tural exchanges with Eastern Europe are particularly well developed. Third World countries also look to Trieste and, following a collaboration agree- ment with the Uni~versity of Ife (Nigeria), a consurting contract is being negotiated with the University of Lagos. The Nigerians' problem consiats in creating a managerial group. With this in mind, the University of Ife requeated a collaboration with tha University of Trieste in those matters dealing with management of the environment and architecture. Specific programs to teach the Nigeriana these sub~ects have been organized, and in exchange the Univereity of Trieste will receive a modeat sum of hard esrned foreign currency. This sort of cooperation with developing countries can be effectively pur- sued in the soon-to-be research department, as is presently the case with the Theoretical Physics Center of Miramare. In this institute, periodic seminars on new sources of alternative energy are held. These seminars are also attended by numerous students and technicians of Arab countries which possesa not only oil wells but also dispose of a potential capacity f or solar eneroy collection. - - It is a matter of snlving problems which, because of their nature, are with- out boundaries. With the institution of the research department, the city of Trieste will be able to effectively give stimulus to its own cultural and intellectual life. ~ COPYRIGHT: 1980 Editoriale del "Corriere del~a Sera" s.a.s. 9209 CSO: 3102 23 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY ITALY CENTF.R FOR SOLAR SYSTEMS MANUFACTURE, R&D, IN FRIULI Milan CORRIERE DELLA SERA in Italian 13 Jan 80 p 6 _ [Article by Negretti: "The Sun University Is Born in Friuli"] [Text] Cordenons (Pordenone). In this "big box" that rises amid greenery ~ and stands out against the harsh sides of the Massiccio del Cavallo, about 50 workers will set up, in about 20 days, solar panels and will be able to wash and warm themaelves thanks to the sun's energy. It will be the first plant in Europe which will be equipped with these very sophisticated units and which, above all, provide a concrete answer to the grave energy prob- lems. The device, which standa out, in crimson, over the black roof of the plant, made up of 324 s~uare meters of solar panels with a 60 degree slant pointing South, says everything: "Sunlife, making use of solar energy." They are the ones who will use it first. However, the Friuli enterprise, a leader in research in this field, has already built over 1,000 plants - and in rhe new plant not only those which are commonly called "panels" are - produced, but also, for example, those instruments necessary for the plan- ning of solar manufacturing plants. Here too, as commercial director Giu- seppe Bearzi explained, e?ery three months seminars are held for planners and installers who deal with helio technology. That is to say: this is _ the university of the stin. Anyone who comes here will learn all there is _ to know about how best to exploit its energy, how to capture it, package it = and redistribute it. "A new plant," said Bearzi, "but also a new method of working. Our workers _ will not stand at the assembly line: they will be divided into samll groups of 5 or 6 persons who will produce together a unit from A to Z." The manufacturing plant, between production sections and administrative of- fices, is spread over 1,360 covered square meters. Around the building, are 900 square meters of landscaping and over 2,000 of parking spacea and roads. The plant itself is futuristic, as is the large range of products it will turn out. They are anticrisis (oil, of course) products. 24 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 "Imagine that this concept," continued Bearzi, "is that which inspirea the builder of a sailboat: the sails, blown by the wind, and small auxiliary motor for when the wind is down and it is still necessary to travel. There we are: with the sun, it's like thie: one must use its energy with the - eame conditions that one uses ite light: when it's there. At night we use - light bulbs, right? But during the daytime we don't. We must think of do- - ing the same thing with solar energy: when the sun is therz, capture it~ exploit it. At night, as the hours go by, we can no longer cou~.t on the warmth produced by the sun during the day and therefore, if necessary, we make use of an 'auxiliary motor,' namely an integration with the more tra- - ditional systems. The plant, in fact, calls for a small oil heater." The innovation is important. The Sunlife heating system, explained in lay- man's terms, in addition to solar panels on the "South Wall," consists of a hothouse roof. T`wo thermo-ventilating exchanges with 10,000 liter accum- _ ulation systems (not of water but a sort of automobile antifreeze), pumps to channel the hot liquid through the coils, air circulating in ducts heated by the coils, hot water tanks for mess halls and showers are included in r.his system. A congenial and clean plant, but above all, an economic one they said. This is because it is sufficient for the solar panels to reach temperatures of 60-70 degrees, as is now the case in the middle of winter in order to attain 20 degree centigrade hot air in the plant. "However, if the temperature does not go that high" said Bearzi, "a tempo- rary integrative use of the heater will be sufficient: one thing is to at 10 degrees and bring the water up to 50, and another to bring it up to this temperature starting from 20-23 degrees." The heat developed under the hothouse roof, which is an interesting archi- tectural structure, is exploited in the winter by fans that channel the hot air in the premises. During the summer, on the other hand, use is made of the "Trombe Michel" effect, Michael's trumpet, named for French resear- cher who first observed the phenomenon. Basically what occurs is that very hich temperatures are formed under the roof while in the premises below the - heat reaches, let us say, 25 degrees: as in a chimney, air rises from he- _ low, creating continuous ventilation. Solar panels, according to recent studies, are the most immediate and econ- omic answer to low temperature heat demands. On the open market a complete unit costs about 200,000 lire per square meter: in a country like Italy, solar panels should sprout like mushrooms. It would bring about great sav- ings and oil could be used for medium and high temperatures. To burn oil , i.n order to obtain a temperature of 20 degrees (and this 1,000 degrees in the burner), an expert wrote, ie like heating by setting great master's paintings on fire. Forty sensors, distributed in the new plant at Cordenons continuously trans- mit data to a computer. "This," said the Sunlife director, "is a cotmnon patrimony, which we set aside for those who work in this sector." - Perhaps we have lost time with the sun, but judging by apartment heating bills alone, without bothering economists, it might be good to think of imitating this example from Friuli. COPYRIGHT: 1980 Editor.iale del "Corriere della Sera" s,a.s. 25 92Q9 CSO: 3102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UNTTED KINGDOM kOLLS-ROYCE RB 211-535C STATUS REPORT Paris AIR & COSM(7S in French 23 Feb 80 p 14 [Passages enclosed in slantlines published in boldface] ~ [Text~ As of 13 February, six RB 211-535C turbo3et engines developed by Rolls Royce had been tested for /more than 700 hours/. It will be recalled that the RB 211-535C is destined for the B-757 program and that the total ` number of firm orders and options by Eastern Airlines and Brit3sh Airways for this sircraft thus equipped with engines is up to /82/. Derived from ~ the RB 211-22B, the 535C version delivers a thrust of 37,400 pounds (1b,965 kg) siid, according to its builder, will permit a fuel saving of 40 percent per passenger over the Boeing 727. The first prototype of this engine went through a bench teat on 16 April 1979 and the second on 12 June 1979. A total of /3,000 hours of tests/ wi11 be required before certification, ex- pected in mid-1981, when the first deliveries should be made to Boeing for the beginning of flight testa in the B-757. The engine will then have to - undergo /7,000 hours of tests/ in the aircraft before being put in service in 1983. Among the five development engines, one accomplished test cycles equivalent to /1,500 flights in regular use/, i.e., four f.lights a day for a year. ~ Completely disassembled, all the components of this engine were acrupulously checked; they were found to be in excellent condition and were delivered for examination by Boeing, Eastern and British Airways engineers. Two other prototypes were sub~ected to more special uses, one for operational tests in the NGTE [expansion not known] altitude chamber,the other for tests of take-off and behavior under artifical sub-sea-level conditions. Pnoto Caption Left, the prototype of the RB 211-535C turbojet engine, which has accomplish- ed test cycles equivalent to ~,500 flights, is being disassembled. Right, all parts of the same engine are shown. COPYRIGHT: Air & Cosmos, Paris, 1980 5586 END � CSO: ?102 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200070040-8