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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 20U7/U2/08: CIA-R~P82-0085URU0020U08U0'10-U E~~~ ~ _ - - u ~ ~ FC~~~ ~{t~~ ~ G~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 � FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9073 - 7 May 1~~9so - USSR Re ~rt . p ELEC i RONICS AND ELECTRICAI ENGINEERING _ CFOUO 8/80) F~~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 NOTE . JPRS publications contain information primarily fro~ fore%gn - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency _ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language - sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing ar?d other characterisrics retained. Headlines, e~'itorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Texr] - or [Excerpt] in thP first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- _ mation waG summarized or extracted. tTnfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses k�ere not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- _ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For fsrther information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economicl; 346II (political, socio].:,gical, military); 2i26 (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATIOIv OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTFD FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/9073 - 7 May 1980 , USSR REPORT - EL~CTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (FOUO 8/80~ - ' CONTENTS ~ SEMICONDUCTURS AND DIELECTRICS; CRYSTALS IN GENERAL ~ Development of Methods and Equipment for Producing Large Crystala 1 CERTAIN ASPECTS OF ASTRONOMY, SATELLITES AND SPACE VEHICLES Selecting Parameters for an Intersatellite Communication Link 9 ' "Moskva" Sat~llite TV Transmission System ...................e... 17 "Moskva" System Receiving Station 27 COMPONENTS AND CIRCUITS ELEMEN:'S, INCLUDING WAVEGUIDES, CAVITY RESONATORS AND FILTERS ~ Asynchronous Rectifier of Microwave Oscillations With a Volume - Element of Gallium Arsenide at Room Temperature 37 = ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PR~PAGATION; IONOSPHERE, TROPOSPHERE; ELECTRODY:JAMICS The Synthesis of Randomly Distributed Sources Focusing an ~ Electromagnetic Field in the Case of ~ Given Current Norm 43 " GENERAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Chemical Processing and Photolithography in the Production of Semiconductor Devices and Microcircuits 50 ~ IIII - USSR - 21E S&T FC~O] T~1T ~wwT~~'~~ ~~~w APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CONTEN'TS (Continued) COMMUNICATIONS, COriMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, NETWORKS, RADIOPHYSICS, ~ DATA TRANSMISSION AND PROCESSING - Interference Imr~unity of Electronic Systems With Optical Signal _ - Processing 53 Interference Immunity of Elevation and Frequ~ncy Diversity- Spaced Reception of Signals in a Channel With Concentrated = Interference 57 Electronic Filtering Systems Employing Recu~rrent Heterodyning 66 Uae of the "Pentakonta" Automated Telephone Exchange in the Urban Telephone System of the USSR 68 - Communications Equipment Used for Centralizing Printing of Local Newspapers 83 High Speed Facsimile Transmission Syste~ Described 91 - b - FOR OFFICIAL tISE OI3LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Semiconductors and Dielectrica; Crystals in General UDC 548.0:537.001.1 - - DEVELOP'MENT OF :IETHODS AND EQUIPMENT FOR PRODUCING LARGE CRYSTALS _ Mcscow ELEKTROTEKFINIKA in Russian No 11, 1979 pp 4-7 manuscript received - 13 Mar 79 [Article by Candidate of ~echnical.Sciences S. V. Bodyachevskiy, r,ngineer L. A. Awakumova and Candidate of Technical Sciences E. Ye. Khazanov] [Text] In conaection with the need for new highly sensitive devi~es of various purposes, it becomes necessary to improve traditional methods of growing single crystal.s and to develop new meichods when producing perfect and large crystals of such compounds as leucosapphire, alkali _ halides and alkali earth metals. Obviously this problem cannot be solved by merely scaling up the size of the technological growth zone since processes of growing large crystals have a number of peculiarities. ` In the synthesis of large crystals the boundary conditions of crystal- _ lization acquire an important role a.s they determine the intensity of heat transfer processes, and also the configuration of the temper~ture field in the system comprising the melt and the crystal. The fact that the surface of the crystallization frarYt is well developecu becom~s im- portant. The techniques that show the greatest promise and have so far yielded the b est results wtth respect to the mass and dimensions of the crystals produced are methods of growing from the m,elt as the Stokbarger method, the Stober technique, the Kyropoulos procedure,, the NYeM [ex- pansion not given] method and the method of the moving isotherm. The Stokbarger m~thod is most exten~sively used in industrial and labora- tory practica for producing such single crystals as sodium iodide, cesium _ iodide and fluorides of alkali earth metals (CaFZ, BaFz). The method conaists in slow (1-5 mm/hr) vertical movement of a container with melt relative to a gradient temperature field. , 1 ~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 I I FOR .OFFICIAL u~a uivLY The material crystallizes during this movement. After completion of _ _ growth, an isothermal field is set up in the volume of the crystal, and annealing is done by programmed change of temperature. The ma,jor conditions for growing high-quality optical crystal3 can be formulated from an analysis of the ~data in the literature: 1. High axial temperature gradient (more than 10�C/cm) close to the - - crystallization front, held stable at the same level throu$hout the process. This c:ondition is necessary to produce tha m~ximum purificati.on effect. . 2. Flat or sli~htly convex form of crystallization front ensuring ~ini- formity of the pliysical properties of the crystal over the cross sect~on. 3. High time stability of temperature conditions (no worse than 1-1.5�C) - and given rate of movement of the container to eliminate nonuniformity of movement of the crystallization front, and accordingly the nonuni- formity of physical properties of the resultant crystal. _ Crystal growing practice has shown that the first two conditions are - easily realized in the traditionally used designs of facilities for _ - producing crystals of fairly small diameter (up to 200 mm). An increase - in the dimensions of crystals produced (primarily the diameter) disrupts ' the first condition of the growth process. An increase in diameter re- duces the dxial gradient. Besides this, considerable radial heat fluxes _ arise that distort the shape of the crystallization front as the charged container is moved. In installations for producing large crystals of more than 300 mm diam- eter, heating elements are needed not only on the lateral surfaces of the container, but on the end surfaces as well to meet the conditions of - , growth considered above. Taking all these considerations into account, the ISEV-8.8/15G facility was developed to provide conditions for producing fluorite crystals up to 600 mm in diameter. A diagram of the unit is shown in Fig. 1. It con- tains two end-face heaters 1 and 7, and two vertical heaters 2 and 6 separated by diaphragm 4. Each of the heaters has a self-contained - power supply, regulation and programming of temperature canditions. The multiple-zone design of the heating chamber of this unit provides both a high axial temp~rature gradient close to the phase interface, and an isothermal surface with a nearly planar. shape. Besides, the use of several heating zones mal~es it possible to combine gradient growth con- ditions with isothermal modes of crystal annealing in a singl~ techno- logical chamber. The design of the ISEV-8.815G facility is such that BaFz and CaF2 crpstals can be grown with good optical quality up to 600 mm in diameter and 100 mm high. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - ~ nr, N ~ 2 ~ ~ o 0 4 K 5 i r- 6 7 _ � 8 t , ~I~ 0 1J90 �C . I Fig. 1. Diagram of the heating chamber of the ISEV-8.8/15G facility, and nature of heightwise tempprature distribution: 1, 2, 6, 7--heaters; _ 3--cructble with melt; 4--diaphragm; 5--rod; 8--heat insulation . s _ . I 3 7 - 1 ~ Z ~ ~ 2 ~ 5 . ` ' 6 4 , . naxy M i BaK,yyn Ile a b Fig. 2. Diagram of installations fo: growing leucosapphire crystals: a--by the heat-exchange method; b--by tha Kyropoulos procedure; '1-� heater; 2--crucible with melt; 3--seed crystal; 4--~eat exchanger; 5-- heat insulation; 6--cruciUle pedestal; 7--seed crysta~l rod; Ba xyy~t-- Vacuum Hc+wever, it should be pointed out that a complicated temperature-time pxogram for each of the heating zones is needed to produce such large crystals on SEV type installations by the Stokbarger metl:od. It is com- plicated to produce a precision mechanism for techno'logical movement of a container with m.3ss ~f several hundred kilograms. The large size of - the unit (about 8 m high with area in the plan view of about 80 m2) - makes it difficult to service. It can be assumed that fundamenL~: and technical difficulties of pro- ducing still larger crystals (which are needed even now) will make it impossible to grow them by the Stokbarger method. , This problem ean be solved when other methods are used such as the Stober _ technique in its varicus modifications. All installations that operate 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFtCIAL u~r u,VLY on this technique are typified by one particular feature: there is no mechanism for moving the crucible; the crystal is grown both by a pro- grammed change in the temperature of the heating element, and by a simul- taneoua change in the temperature of the l:eater and directional heat transfer. Thia moves the cryai.allizatio~t front at a co.itrolled rate _ ~ either upward or d~wnward (Fig. 2). The absence of moving parts in the facility considerably reduces overall dimensions, maximizes utilization of the working volume of the installation by the useful charge, and increases the yield of high-quality crystals by eliminating sources of vibration. Stober-process facilities have recently produced large leuco- ~ sapphire c:ystals up to 225 ~n in diameter and 125 mm high. It should be noted that with the currently used precision programmed controllers, these facilities can prod~ice high-quality crystals in a . growth pr~cess with slow Zinear displacements of the crystallization front under conditions of low temperature gradients (0.5-1�C/cm). The ~ successful application of the Stober principle in growing large leuco- sapphires has demonstrated its advantages for growing large crystals of calcium, barium and lithium fluorides. - The authors used the ~tober principle to develop an experimental facility for growing lithium fluoride and calcium fluo:ide crystals 350-600 mm in diameter by the mathod of the moving isotherm. Use was made of experi- ence in developing the ISEV-8.8/15G facility in producing crystals with _ _ height-to-diameter ratio of less than unity. A diagram of the heating - chamber used for producing LiF crystals 350 mm in diameter is shown in b b� I 7 8 ~ S 9 _ ~ D _ ~ - 4 - - fp a 12 ~ 10 11 ) J ~ Z 1 12 ~ ~ . , , - ~ - a 12 10 c Fig. 3. Diagram of the heating chamber of a facility for producing ~ crystals by the method of the moving isotherm (a), and t~le sequence of change in shape of the cr;~stallization front depending on conditions of heat transfer with uniform heat transfer from the bot,tom of the crucible _ (b) and with nonuniform heat transfer (c): 1-7--heaters, 8--crucible with the melt; 9--diaphragmg; 10--crucible supports; 11--cooler; 12-- cen*_ral rod of the cooler 4 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Fig. 3a. On all inside surfaces of the chamber (the two end surfaces and the side surface) are heaters. Each of the end heaters is sectional- ized into central and peripheral units to enable regulation of the heat flux with respect to the cross section of the crystal; the lateral heater - is divided into three sections for controlliLlg the shape of the horizon- tal iy~thermal surface by regulating the heat flux through the aide sectione of the refractory lining of the heating c:~amber. For purposea of localized action of the individually controllable zones of the corre- sponding sections of the crystal, these zones are sepaxated by dia- phragms. DYrectly beneath the heater in the lower part of the chamber is a cooler that is also sectionalized. Zhe central part of the cooler is a rod 60 mm in diameter that can make direct contact with the bottom ' of the container. This configuration enables regulation of the axial temperature gradient over a range of a-12�C/cm. Each of the heaters has a self-cuntained power supply. The working temperature of each heater is regulated by a precision controller with accurucy of �0.5�C. The sensor is a PR30/6 thermocouple. Programmed tempera*_ure variatian :~n the working volume of the chamber is provided by a single BPV-8 controller with differential - connection of the regulating thermocouples of all zones. 1'he seed crystal was placed in a graphite container. Since ~he process was carried out i_n air, the container was protected by a thin ceramic ~ shell to prevent interaction between the graphite and atmospheric oxygen. After melting the initial charge and holding the melt under isothermal conditions at a temperature of about 950�C, a t~mperature gradient of about 10�C/cm is set up heightwise of the container by matching the working conditions of the end heaters and the cooler. Then the crystal- lization front is moved from the bottom upward by a simultaneous reduc- t~on of temperature on all heat zones. A rate of temperature change within the chamber of about 5�C;hr ensures a li.near rate of crystal growth of about 5 mm/hr. After completion of the growth process, the crystal is - annealed in the same chamber under isothermal condi~ions. ~he sequence of change in the isothermal surfaces on the various stages of growth is shown in Fig. 3b, c. Uniform heat transfer from the bottom of the crucible produces a crys- tallization front of concavoplanar form. The pl~nar front extends 300 mm when the crystal is 350 mm in diameter. Curvature of the front on the peripheral regions of the cross section is due to the structural peculi- arities of the chamber, i. e. to the additional heat transfer from tihp crucible to the annular pedestal on which ~t rests. Nonuniform h eat transfer from th e bottom of the cricible due to direct contact between the central part of the cooler and the crucible produces a convexo- concave crystallization f.ront. No appreciable difference in the optical properties of the crystals produced was observed for these two shapes of isothermal suxfaces. At 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFICIAL USI' ONLY the same time, the concavoplanar crystallization front leads to the formation of a large number of crystal blocks. Crystals produced by this method have high transparency in the ultraviolet region (from 0.2 _ to 0.3 ~tm) as compared with crystals grown in air by the Kyropoulos procedure. The results of experimental studies have shown that the design of the unit pr~vides the conditions needed for growing high-quali.ty crystals. The presence of sectionalized heaters on all surfaces of the chamber - make~ it possi'ble to maintain isothermal conditions within the crystal to a high degree of uniformit3~_[with variations of] less than 0.3�C/cm. At the same time, control of the temperature gradients and the shape of - the cr.ystallization front, espQCially conversion from the planar to the convex crystallization isotherm, is possible only to a certain It was also shown that the degree of action of the lateral heating zones on the temperature field of the system comprising the melt and crystal is determined by the design of the container (its geometry, and the _ thermophysical properties of the material). This eff~ct is minimum for the case of growing lithium fluoride crystals from a graphite crucible with ceramic shell. Therefore the uumber and dimensions of the lateral heating zones must be determined for each specific case. The results of investigation of the conditions of growing lithium - fluoride crystals 350 mm in diameter hy the method of the moving i.~~otherm served as the basis for development of the design of a facility for pro- ducing larg~ fluorite crystals 600 mm in diameter. This prucess is carried out in vacuum at a temperature of about 1500�C. The diagram of the heating chamber of such a faciliiy is ahown in Fig. 4. In this 1 2 5 _ 4 5 ~ . ..L ~ s _ ~ ~ 7 , ~ 8 _ 9 Fig. 4. Diagram of a facility for producing CaF2 by the method of the moving isotherm: 1, 2, 3--heaters; 4--heat insulation; 5--crucible with the melt (three flat plates); 6--seed rod; 7--crucible pedestal; 8---extensible heat insulation; 9--cooler ~ 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY design the heaters are also located on all inside surfaces of the cham- - ber. The device for directional heat transfer in the lower part of the chamber is a combination of an end heater, extensible refractory lining and a cooler. This unit maximizes the axial gradient on the stage of growth during which the lower part of the refractory liner m~ves from the center of the furnace in the horizontal plane until the inetant when the bottom of the crucible is completely align~d on the sir-cooled hous- ing. Crystal formation chiefly in the center of trie crucible is attained by direct contact of the cooled rod with the bottom of the crucible. On the annealing stage, the refractory liner shields the crucible from the cooler, ensuring isother~al conditions in the crystal. The crucible is made up ~f two flat plates each 130 mm high, set one on top of the other, and a buffer plate 30 mm high for reducing uncontrollable tem- perature perturbations introduced primarily by the pedestai of the � crucible. All elements of the heating chamber, including the crucible, are made of graphitized carbon materials. Since experimental. investigation of the temperature fielci during growth af fluorite crystals is not currently possible, a preliminary forecast was made of the temperature field in the working volume of the crucible filied with fluorite materi3l, using programs on the Minsk-22 computer. In each of the variants of calculation, the various stages of the tech- ~ nological process of growing and annealing the crystals were simulated = as a function of a given position of the crystallization front, the , working conditions of the heaters snd the relative locatien of the com- ponents of the directional heat transfer unit. The temperature field was calculated by a zonal method in which the cross section of the crucible with the crystal was broken down into a number of computational . sections. The temperature was taken as constant within the limits of ~ each section. The selected number of sections was 35. It was assumed r_hat sections filled with crystal do not take part in radiant heat ~ exchange, and thermal connection bet~~~een adjacent sections of the crys- tai is only due to molecular heat conduction. - In this way, calculation of the temperature field was reduced to solution _ of a system of differential equations of first order in a number equal to _ the numb er of computational sections. The temperature fieid was deter- mined in a two-di.mensional system in which only the elements of the graphite crucible took part in radiant heat exchange, while the elements = of the crucible and crystal took part in heat exchange by thermal con- duction. The results of the calculation show that the axial temperature gradient _ for the selecte3 design of heating chamber is 5-9�C, while the radial _ - temperature gradient is 0.3-0.6�C/cm. . Analysis of the results of calrula~ion on the whole indicates that the proposed design is suitable for growing large fluorite crystals 600 mm - _ in diameter and 1Q0 mm high hy the method of the moving isotherm. _ ~ ~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Conclusions 1. The problem c~f developing technology and equipment for producing large bulk crystals in recent years has become one of the technological a~eas in the field of growing structurally perfect crystals. 2. Tha greatest success in dimensions of crystals produced has been achieved in facilities utilizing the Stober technique in various modi- fications, such as the NYeM method [expansion not given], a modified _ KyropouJ.os procedure, and the method of the moving isotherm. Facilities of this type enable optimization of the thermal conditions of growing perfect large crystals, maximization of utilization of the working space of the heating chamber by the useful charge, appreciable reduction of - the overall dimensions of the facility, and elimination of cumbersome = mechanisms for crucible transport. [5144/0878-6610] = COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", "Elektrotekhnika", 1979 6610 . - CSO: 8144/0$78 ` n 8 ` - FOR OFFICT.AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY~ Certain Aspects of Astronomy, Satellites and Space Vehicles - ~ UDC: 621.396.946 ' SELECTING PARAMETERS FOR AN INTERSATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK = Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian No 2 1980 pp 11-14 = ~Article by P. S. Kurakov: "Selection of Parameters of an Intersatellite Communications Link"] ~ [Text] Communications links between artificial earth satel- - lites comprising elements of various satellite communication systems will make it possi.ble to establish direct links be-� . tween the ground stations of these systems without instal- ling additional antennas and receivin~g-transmitting facili- ties at these stations. Optimization of selection of ~:he principal parameters of an intersatellite communications link: angles of separation be- tween geostationary satellites, mode of aiming on-board antennas and their diameters, band of frequencies, etc will help increase the technical-economic effectiveness of intersatellite communications. Ang7_es of aeparation between geostationary satellites. It is expedient to ~ _ employ intersatellite communication links on extended routea with the ob- ~ective of encompassing the ~argest possible geographic area. Obviously the separation angles between sa~ellites ahould be the maximum possible. _ We shall select angles of separation between satellites positioned in a geostationary orbit acCOrding to the criterion of amount of signal delay - in a voice channel. - Usually signal delay on an earth-satellite-earth link is appror.imately ' 290 nsec. According to the recommendations of the International Telegraph and Telephone ~onsultative Committee [1], acceptable signal delays in a voice channel fall within the range of 150-400 nsec. Therefore the allow- able signal delay time in a voice channel on a satellite-satellite link should not ex~eed 110 nsec. The angle of separation between eatellites - - is detemined as follows: - 9f~ +.n-~ ~M~. ~~V~ : r t , 4, t1w. "v.~"'"s'`r A., IM~ f~.. r f c ~ ~ . ! f 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ Y ~ 6 Q ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~l ~ V ~ ' ~ . ~ . ~ x . t ~ ~'y�~"xa'. ~ . ~ ' ! _ , E z : V~ P a ~ ' ~~x ~.a ~ ~ tt�� ~ _ - ~ w "~lFr _ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ - , '.,.,Y,~~�,~. ~ ~ ~ y'e ' ~ ~ 4 ' ~-w~w~a ~ ~ . ~ :3 a ~ t ~ ~ f'' K ' . , r~i ` .c ~i~~~~ ~ aal ~ w~~a ~ ng~'~~, ~`�r~~~s r i _ s9~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ " E''~ ~t~~: ~ ~ ~y ~ t ?yw~ F!~%~ ,~a,�'b 4,~ Figure 4 = ~ - ~ . ~ ~ ~~~e~ ~ ~ i ~ ` ~ ~ ~ g ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E;,~~; ~~:a~~~'~ _ ~ ; ~ - f i -w ~ d F~ 5 _ - h ~ ?~~~s`~3.,,a ~ ~ f. ~~;t~ . 2 , 'r - _ ~ arF ~ k~.z ~ ' j~ , _ 6 ~ ~ F ;;~3 ~ . ~~5~ � s~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ t . ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~t , , t~ a. ' e i~ } ~ A~;~ ~ , $ ~IS ~t ~ . a ~ay~~~~-. a ~ ` , ~ ~a~ - ~~i ~ ~ x ~vh~ a~~~ , Y ~ r : t . ~ r ";t j , ~ . ~ ~~jix, ~ ~ . s. v ,vk , �~~~i ~ f ~ 3~~.; ~ ~ - ~a , t: ; ; ~ r.f~ y~Mf, ~ I, 's ,r w ~`'r' . ' s'~ : - r~ ~ ` k y~, e., , ` d a. ~ b .s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ x ~ -t s a , ~ , ~ Mk~ 4i a. ;~:'i~, r,~t~ry?x~r yu,~~ ' : - r� ~ � - , . . . - 'Fs ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ A ~ ~ ~ , l ; . , x.:-. . . . . . _ s,. . . .~�M~1L _ ~ Figure 5 ' 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 - As was already ncted, the frames are attached in bays. The bays consist of vertical columns which are attached on top and on bottom to connective cleats - common to the row. The spaces formed in column installation (between the column af one bay and thE column of its neighbor under the cover of the . connecti cleats, etc.) are used for laying the cables of interbay assembly and - power cables. _ The height of the bays used depends on the height of the rooms designed for ` installation of the RS-1000S. Standard bay heights have been adopted: 2270, 2670, 3070 and 3470 millimeters. For standard. ATS buildings in USSR cities, _ - the typesize of 3040 was adopted. But if necessary, eqiiipment of another height dimension may be ordered. The width of the bay is defined by the width of ti~e frame. It may be 725 or 1450 millimeters. According to the height of the bay, it holds from f:ve to eight (without pow~r frame) or from four to seven (with power frame) frames. The bays have a monitoring panel. A typical difference between ATS of the = "Pentakonta" system is that in each bay there is an IFD frame, and "lattice" type metal structures are used as the cable tracks, making it possible to lay - station cables along the shortest paths. This saves statio~~ cable. : Figures 4 and 4 show bays asembled in rows during the assembly process in the automatic switch room, and some of the the "lattice" type metal structures. . Asse~nbly of ATS is mainly carried out by the screw-on method, using sp~cial screw ratchet tools. Many standard connections (e.g., connections inside the bays and between them) are done by the flexible cable method with multicontact - plug connectors which must be connected at the plant. - Various areas are required ~or placement of the RS-10005 according to the height of the bays. Thus, fnr a 10,000 number station, the bay height of which is 3470 millimeters, an area of about 400 square meters is required; where bay - height is 3070, 500 square meters are required; for lower heights, about 100 square meters more are required. _ The load capaeity of automatic switching hall roofs should be at least 650 _ kg,~square meter. _ Operation of RS-10005 ATS The station is intended for operation by the monitoring-correction method. The essence of the method is familiar: ~hE qualit,y of communications is monitore~ by comparing it with a desired "threshold"; on-lit~e intervention by service personnel is only done if the permissible level is exceeded ("thres;~old") in communications quality. Preventive work is mainly envisaged only to test the working order of the monitoring-testi~g equipment and signal devices; this necessitated providing the station with the necessary technical hardware for - observation and monitoring of ATS operation and communications quality. ~ 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 ~ FOft OFFICIAL ~TSE ONLY F _ 7 n7HOCUTP/.~DHOl~ Bno~r~acme % 7 T O/ANOEYlTP/lGNOA B/1QAYNOCma % T , �C 1(' 10 ,~0 40 SO 60 70 BO 90 K �C 10 ?0 ,~0 40 50 60 70 BO 90 X 70 ~~`3 70 3~ B 60 d33 60 ,~33 50 ~13 50 31d 40 3ld 31d JO 303 ,~pf ?0 293 pp C A I 19,~ /0 A ?Bd 10 D - 193 0 273 0 173 - -f0 263 -10 263 _ -?0 ?53 -2 153 ' -30 ~ ?43 -3 243 - -4p 233 _ 733 D 2~ -5 ?23 Figure 6 Figure 7 (1) relativ2 humidity, percent (1) relat~ive humidity, percent Technical operations hardware includes all devices making it possible to evaluate station operation quality, to establish the kind of damage and its location. In particular, panels, bells and so forth for feeding alarm signals; rejection counters - for statistieal evaluation of communicatfons quality; erlangometers for moni- toring and messuring load; device for detecting and recording damage via teletype; automatons for generating outgoing and incoming messages to control outgoing connection lines; automatic robot for generation of 10 simultaneous messages; devices for monitoring passage of incoming and outgoing messages via predetermined devices: labels, registers, connecting sets, allotters, etc.; test table for testing customer and connective lines; device for testing customer - incoming registers; device for testing allotters. All these instruments and dev~ces (except for devices for testing registers) are made in standard frames and are built into the bay. The set of technical service hardware can include another two key pulsers and up to ten sets of anonymous - call tracers. Conditions for Transporting and Storing Equipment. Working Conditions of the Environment Figures 6 and 7 show the permissible conditions of temperature and humidity for - _ transporting, storing and operatiQn of ATS. The thick line in the figure~ bounds - the zone of possible :.~~xon content. The temporary limitations of equipment in these zones are: Figure 6-zone A-maximum of 6 months; zone B-maximum of 24 hours; zone C-maximum of three months; zone D--in aircraft, ma~~.murn of 16 hours; Figure 7(normal operating conditions)-- zona A--minimurr~ of 36 years; = zone B--maximum of four years; zone C and D-maximum of 19i6 bf servi,^.e life - of station with arbYtrary distribution. - 81 FOft OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 r ~ " ~l, vi� i~,...nL ~ ~ References 1. Kutashov, P.D. et al. Gorodskiye koordinatnyye ATS tipa ATSK (Urban - - coordinated automated telephone exchanges of the ATSK type], Moscow: Svyaz', 1970. _ 3. Shchepanski, Ye. Uchebnyye materialy po voprosam stantsii "Pentakonta 1000S" [Instructional materials on questions of the "PentRkonta" 1000S], Warsaw, 1978. COPYRIGHT: ~zdate]'stdo "Svyaz"', "Elektrosvyaz"', 1980 [130-861?] 861? ~ CSO: 1860 . r , . , 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC: 621.396.22:654.17:655:658.5 COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT USED FOR CENTRALIZING PRINTING OF LOCAL NEWSPAPERS Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian No 2 1980 pp 15-18 [Article by B. M. Sobolev and V. A. Uzilevskiy: "Employment of Communica- - tions Equipment for Centralization of Printing of Rayon Newspapers" (Pub- - lished as a discussion)] - [Text] The experience of the USSR and foreign countries in- dicates the effectiveness of employment of communications equipment~and technology in producing and p~abliehing news- papers, magazinea, and various information publications. Modern cammunications equipment makes it posstble not only flexibly and efiiciently to transmit printed :nformation - but also to combine editing and printing proces~~es into a - continuous production cycle. Thanks to thia it is poasible to accomplish an important political-economic task con- centration of printing involved in putting out local (rayon and city) newepapers, which will make it poesible to adopt = offset printing and photocomposition, and consequently sub- stantially to improve the quality of newspaper printing. The extensiva adoption of offset printing and photocomposi- - tion in the Sovi~t printing industry is specified in the resolutions of the 25th CPSU Congress. ~ General informatian. At the present time there are approximately 3,000 rayon and municipal print shops in this country. More than 50% of theae - print shops are small enterprises with from 5 to 20 employees [2J. This fact makes difficult incorporation of modern equipment and processes in rayon printing plants, which is reflected in the quality of printing of the newspapers they put out. iack of highly-skilled personnel is another problem for small. printing plants remote from industrial centers. - In spite of their small output capacity, unless outeide work is taken on, rayon printing plants are frequently only partially work-loaded and there- fore operate at a loss, since as a rule local newspapers have small cir- - culationa (5-15 thousand copies) and are published only three or four times - a week. Printing of blank forms and other items, although improving the economic perfarmance of printing plants, is contrary to a policy of 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL U5n ONLY special3zation and concentration of pri.nting activities. Alangside the expediency of employing high-productivity equipment in small print shops, one must also take into consideration th.e extremely low effectiveness of capital investment in construction of small rayon printing plants [2]. ~ Thus establishment of new printing facilities for printing local newa- papera meeting today's demande is a problem of vital import~nce. Its solu- ' tion lies in c~ntralizing the printing of local newspapers at large inter- - rayon, municipal and oblast printing plants. - It is necessary to determine how to deliver materials from newspaper of- ~ fices to the printing plant and proofe from the printing plant to the newspaper offie~ for pro~fing and final editor approval, as well as how to get the finislled papers to the readers. Trucks can be used for these - purposes, as is done in the GDR, for example, only with short distances, good road and climatic conditions. A major inconv~nience in this case, - however, is the trips newspaper personnel must make to the printiag plant; this is confirmed by the expei-:nce of the newspaper LADOGA in Kirovskiy Ray~n, Leningradskaya Oblast, which is located at a distance of only 30 kilometers from the Tosno Printing Plant, where for many years this news- paper was composed and printed. On publishing day, that is, three to four _ times a week, the editor would apend approximately 5 hours on travel to the printing plant. In addition, a lack of. continuous communications compli- cated composing. ad~ustment and aheet proofing during the entire newspaper - production cycle. Therefore centr.alization of the printing of local newspapers with employ- memt of communications equipment is optimal. In this ca~e newspaper - materials (text, illustrations, layouts) are tranemitted by communications equipment to a central printing plant, where all printing operations are _ performed. Before the presses begin to roll, proofs are transmitted to the newspaper offices. There they are examined by the editor and approved. _ The editor-signed approved copy is transmitted by fascimile equipment to the printing plant. - Preliminary calculations have indicated that the economic effectiveness of centralization is directly proportional to the number of newspapers printed at a single printing plant. In addition, concentration of produc- tion will lead to a substantial decrease in number of employees and units of equipment, while retaining production volume. Economic effect is ob- tained due to concentration of production and reduction of capital in- vestment in canstruction of new rayon printing plants in spite of the fact that additional expenses are incurred in leasing communication lines and communications equipment operation. There are several possible variants of arganization of a system of centralized newspaper printing employing com- munications equipment. Let us examine the two most effective arrangements: 1) typed originals, layouts, and proofs are transmitted only with the aid of facsimile equipment; 2) prior-encoded originals are transmitted with the aid of data tranamission equipment (APD), layouts and praofs by facsimile equipment, with the data carrier punched tape or magnetic tape _ ~ 84 - FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (magnetic cards). These versions differ not only in type of communications equipment utilized but also in character of editing-publiahing processes. The principal tasks of organization of electronic and postal communications, however, are identical for bath variants as applied to the system of - centralized printing of local newspapers. Principles of organization of communicatione. When selecting an electronic communicatione network arrangement for organizing transmission of materials between local newspaper offices and a central printing plant, it is essen- tial to take into consideration the existing structure of intraoblast com- munications and a future zone primary network. It is therefore most ex- - pedient to locate the central printing plant which prints local newapapers in the oblast seat, and most optimally existing oblast newapaper printing = plants. Dispatching and delivery of local newspapers should be handled together with oblast and central newspapers: diapatching at existing news- paper dispatching facilities, and haulit~g by postal truck and rail routes. Of course in many cases it will be necessary to enlarge dispatch operations and increase the number of vehicles employed. Maximum distance between local newspaper offices and oblast printing plant should not exceed 200-250 km, which makes it possible, in case of electri- cal communications breakdown, to deliver newspaper materials from the news- paper officea to the printing plant by car or train without missing local newspaper printing deadline or disrupting ne~*spaper delivery schedules. _ As an exception, in geographically large oblasts local newspapers can b~ centralized-printed at an interrayon printing plant located on oblast and central newspaper postal delivery routes. Otherwise local newspapers _ must be transported to rayon postal distribution centers by newapaper or printing plant ~notor transport. . � Experimental pro,jects conducted by the problems laboratory of LEIS [Lenin- grad Electrical Engineering Communications Institute] ~ointly with KONIIS [Kiev Branch of the Central Scientific Research Inatitute of Communications], " LGTS [Leningrad City Telephone Network] and Leningradskaya Oblast PTUS - [Poatal-Telegraph Communications Administration] to establish in Lenin- gradskaya Oblast a system of centrali~ed printing of local newspapers _ indicated that utilization of communication channels the parameters of which meet standarda in conformity with the requirements of YeASS [Unified Automated Telecommunications Network of the Soviet Unio~] ensures the requisite quality of transmitted materials. - Facsimilz equipment and data transmiseion equipment operate on tone frequency (TF) channels, which can be schedule-leased to newapaper offices; _ when channel occupation time does not exceed 15-20 minutes dur~ng a aingle - transmission session, operation on a switched network is possible. Extensive adoption of centralized newspaper printing with employment of communications equipment will require solving the probl.em of eervicing the _ 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY - terminal equipment installed at newspaper offices and printing plants. Since this will be subscribed-operation equipment, it should be operated - by newspaper of~ice and printing plant personnel; equipment servicing and ~ repair can be handled either by eiiterprises of the Goskomizdat system or on a contractual basis by rayon and oblast communications enterprises. Newapaper transmission by facsia~ile equipment. The simplest version of centralizatiQn cf new~paper printing from an organizational standpoint is shown in Figure 1. In this inatance employment of facsimile equipment � introduces no cb3nges either in editing or printing processes. Equipment with plain-language entry provides transmission o~ text originals and lay- outs, while transmission of half-tone illustrations is handled by Neva or Pallada type phc~torecorc~~Yig equipment [3]. 3 4 6 7 1 2 ~ A'ONO~ CD!l.ttl ~ firaErrvNUU Dumyr~mr Om,eJa~uruR lltpN. ~e- llQ ~oK6(rM ~amoHabqa o0y~ no~uNKa opcwwa~ arn. anrt a~~ na~uava Figure 1. Key: 1. Original 4. Facsimile tr ansmitting unit - 2. Typewriter 5. Com�nunication channel _ 3. Edited original 6. Facsimile receiving unit 7. Phototypesetting machine ~ As early as 1974 the LEIS problems laboratory, working ~ointly with the Publishing Houses, Printi-~g Plants and Book Trade Administration of the Leningradskaya Oblast City Executive Committee and the Leningradskaya Oblast PTUS, conducted experiments in centralizing printing of local news- papers with utilization of standard facsimile equipment. During these experiments origir~al typed texts and layouts were transmitted with a ~:*rikh unit [S], while illustrat~on originals were transmitted by a Neva half-tone image transmission unit with an FM adapter developed at the LEIS problems laboratory. Column proofs for editing and approva? were transmitted from the printing plant to the newspaper offices with a _ Neva unit. The experiments showed that the Shtrikh unit does not meet the requirements of the newspaper staff too much time is expended on trans- mission (approximately 7 hours;; it ie necessary to keep a special operator to work the receiving unit. In addition, du~: to poor image - resolution, the Shtrikh unit proved unsui~ed for transmitting newspaper - proofs for editor approval. _ - 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FAR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Table - Specification Items S ecification Fi ures for Unit , Shtrikh (USSA) Irif o tek-6000 Kopix-9600 FRG Hun ar Type of unit Faceimile, for transmittiag and receiving line images Method of transmiaeion and receiving Single-band duplex ~ Duplex Communication channel utilized ~ T~ne frequency - Type of scan Drum ( Flat Resolution, min/mm 3.~ 2.7, 4, 8 ~ 4, 8 _ Method of recording Electramechani- Electrostatic on dielectric paper cal, ink on paper - Maximum format of transmitted docu- ment, ~ 210 x 297 210 x 356 280 x 420 Developing method - Liquid Powder Transmitting time for a document of 210 x 297 format 6 and 12 min 35, 60, 12Q sec 30 sec For this reason the high-speed Infotek-6000 facsimile unit (FRG) was tested. It offera high-speed transmisaion on an assigned or switched tone f requency channel of line originals (typed and handwritten texta, diagrams, graphs, drawings, etc) with a high quality of reproduction at the receiving atation. The Infotek-6000 employe modern methoda of line and frame signal compression. Thanks to this unit, the time required to transmit the materials for a single issue was reduced more than threefold. Semiaut~- matic loading of the original copy and ~peratorless receiving considerably improved operation of the entire syatem. Amplitude frequency response and amplitude characteristic measurementa were taken in the procQSS of testing ~ the equipment, as well as measurements of interference level and tone frequency channel high-frequency train residual attenuation at a frequency of 800 Hz. The tests showed that inatability of channel reaidual attenua- tion exerts the greatest influence on quality of transmission. For example, excesr~ively high sigaal levels (measurements were made at a point +4.3 db of the cowmunication channel relative level) lead to distortion of a portion of the information blocka, which in turn leads to loss of a - portion of the lines on the copy. When signal level exceeds the standard level by more than 4.3 db, these diatortions become ao significant that - transmission breaks ~ff. At the same time excessively low levels (to -4.3 db at a point +4.3 db of the relative Ievel) do not affect transmis- _ - sion stability and quality. - Operation of an Infotek-6000 unit over the course of a year indicated that its utilization does not lead to ch~nges in organi2ation and process of putting out a newspaper either at the newspaper offices oY at the printing p lant . _ 87 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFZCIAL U5n UdLY The equipment operated reliably both on assigned and switched channels, and the quality of the copies was satisfactory both to typesetters and editors. 3 ~ _ ~ 5 5 ~ 8 1 PQ60YOA PJtn[VO/.7RQ ~ O ~ /10'JANl110iL ~U/1.'O- Man~A pp~ 6 An,2 nep~oneNm No6op. Nai! Wpw nau~uNa llfaduv- JntNmpar~0- Ny!% npOtpoM a6�rruN~n y~?'0 ~rp�ontNma 4 nramonrMma 4 Figure 2. Key: 1. Original 5. Data transmiasion unit 2. Electronic prograu~~ing 6. Communication channel device 7. Printed copy from received 3. Working copy punched tape 4. Punched tape 8. Phototypesetting machine Transmitting newspapers with data transmission equipment. This variant of centralized printing of local newspapers (Figure 2) involves significant changes in editing-publishing and pr.inting processes. The bulk of materials (text originals) are encoded, and then, in the form of punched tape or magnetic tape, are transm3tted by data transmission equipment. Encading and preparation of data are done on electronic-programming or coding equipment, which makes it pos~ible to partially coded or fully coded punched tape. The latter, in addition *_o informatioa proper, cont~ins data (in coded form) on typeface and point size, composing format, and the entire text is braken down on the tape into lines of one and tne - same format. Punched tape is used at the receiving station for direct control of the automatic typesetting machine or phototypesetting machine. Special operator training is required to prepare a fully-coded punched tape, while a newspaper office typist can prepare a partially-coded punched tape aimultaneously with retyping the text: Layouta, illustrations and proofs are in thia case transmitted by facsimile equipment. Cod e d text originals are transmitted from local newspaper offices to the oblast prindng plant either by the PD-200 network or, ~ust as in facsimile transmission, by the existing public telephone aystem (TF-OP). In both cases the data transmission equipment operates on aseigned or switched channels. At the terminal ~tation TAP-2 equipment, which is extensively employed in this country, can ~,e hooked up for operation on the PD-200 networl~., and on the TF-OP eystem Soviet-built type Mikro A high-speed data transmis- sion equipment [6], as well ae the Akkord 1200 or experimeatal 1200 Sbor data tranamission equipment [7]. 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - In the process of testir~g TAP-2 equipment, in transmitting the local news- paper KIRISHSKIY FAKEL to the Leningrad Telegraph Office the degree of synchronous distortions in the channel did not exceed lOX, and system real information capacity comprised 166-170 bits per secoad, which is in good agreement with the rated figure (172 bits per second). One issue of the local newspaper, the information volimme of which is 70,000 print characters (560 kilobits with an 8-bit code) was transmitted in 55 minutes. - Tests ahowed that operatioa at a rate of 200 Baud with a block length of 260 bite is impaseible due to the high frequency of queries and their coneiderable duration. The n~ber of check bits placed in a block in this mode remains the same as with a 140-bit block 16 bits per block, which leads to less redundancy in the block (6.1 in place of 11.4X) and to decreas~d aignal noise immunity. It is most effective to transmit text information from newspaper offices to the oblast printing plant by public telephoae linea with a Sbor high- speed data transmission, unit. A Sbor data tranemiasion uait with punched tape I/0 devices was installed in an experimental eystem for centralized printing of local newapapers. Transmission time from newapaper office to printing plant for a 1,000 character capacity punched tape (with a 7-bit code) ranged from 50 to 90 seconds, depending on channel quality, which cor- responds to a circuit carrying capacity of 44.5-80 characters per second. For example, with a channel carrying capacity of 80 characters per second, with a bit error factor of 10'2, it took 14.5 minutes to transmit the materials of an entire issue. ' Regular centralized printing of the KIRISHSKIY FAKEL local newspaper at the Leningradskaya Oblast Printing Plant imeni Volodarakiy, employing Sbor data transmission equipment, began in October 1979. The newspaper's ex- penses on leasing communication channels ~nd typeaetting processes were con- aiderably leas than with utilization of facsimile equipment. A partially- - coded punched tape, prepared at the newspaper offices by a typist and transmitted to the printing plant by Sbor equipment, conatitutes a program for automatic newspaper compoaing on a Soviet-built FA-500 automatic photo- ~ typesetting machine [8]. - Conclusion. The experimental system of centralized printing foY~ local news- papera established iri Leningradskaya Oblast makes it posaible to elaborate the main points and ro work out different centralization process versions under actual production conditiona; to resolve numerous organizational- - standardizing questions arising as a result of changea in the editing- _ publishing process and equipping newspaper offices and printing plants with communications equipment; to refine centralized newspaper pririting tech- nical-economic effectiveness indices; to formulate specific technical requiremente on data transmission equipment and facsimile equipm,ent. - But some conr..lusions can already be drawn. In view of the radial-center principle of l.ayout of long-dis2ance communication networks and postal communication routes prevailing in this country, :tt is moat expedient to 89 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFICIAL U~~ UNLY centralize printing of ~ocal newspapers on the basis of oblast printing _ _ plants. In those cases where this is impossible for any reason, inter- rayon printing plants must be located taking into consideration oblast and central newapaper delivery routes, as well as communications network layout. At the first stage of adoption of a centralized newspaper printing system _ it is advieable to employ facsimile equipment to deliver all materials from newapaper offices to printing plant. It is more efficient, however, to transmit text materials by Sbor data transmission equipment. F~ � Bibliography 1. Yablokov, M. N. '"Communications Equipment and Development of a System of Decentralized Printing of Periodical and Information Publications" ELERTROSVYAZ', No 11, 1973. 2. Sorkin, M. F, "Ways to Centralize Printing of Local Newspapers," POLIGRAFiXA, No 9, 1977. 3. Oshero~r, V. Ye. "Pallada Fac~imile Equipment," ELEKTROSVYAZ', No 7, 1974. _ 4. Georgi~ev, A: I. '`The Kirishi-Volkhov Experiment," ZHURNALIST, No 10, 1975. S. Korol', V. I., et al. "T~e Shtrikh-M Ink-Printing Facsimile Unit," - ELEKTROSVYAZ', No 2, 1973. 6. Pshenichnikov, A. M. et al. "APD-Mikro A Data Transmission Equipment," _ ELEKTROVSYAZ', No 8, 1975. ~ 7. Rozhkov, L. I. "Sredstva peredachi dannylch v ASU" [Automated Coi,`rol System Data Transmission Equipment], Kiev, Tekhnika, 1977. 8. Uzilevskiy, V. A. "Phototypesetting System for Transmitting Newspaper~ _ by Communication Lines," ELEKTROSVYAZ', No 1, 1976. Manuscript received 31 May 1977 [169-3024] COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz'," "Elektrosvyaz", 1980 3024 CSO: 1860 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.397.761.2 HIGH SPEED FACSIt:ILE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM DESCRIBED Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russiaa No 2 1980 pp 19-22 [Article by Yu. Ya. Sl~ats, V. I. Drozdov, N. I. Stepanets, L. G. Guzhba, 0. V. Tolatosheyev and I. M. Klinovskiy: "High-Speed Facsimile Transmission System"] [Text] Continuous increase in the rates of transmission of black-and- white line images is leading to the necessity of developing systems which ensure a decrease in informatifln redundancy aad matching of high scanning ratea with tlze limited carrying capacity of a data transmission channel. Reduced redundancy in such systems is achieved by means of binary coding of the transmitted image, and matching of system and channel rates is achieved by introducing a switched buffer memory and feed pitch delays [1]. We shall describe below auch a syatem, intended for transmitting weather maps (black-and-white) at a scan rate of 960 lines per minute, feed pitch - of 0.265 ~n/line and a reaolution of 3.1 linea per mm on a data transmis- eion channel with a channel capacity of 4800 bits per aecond. This system " makes it poasible to decrease from thre~ to fivefold tene frequency - channel transmiss{on time for weather mapa in comparison with the presently- employed FAK-DM and FAK~ facsimile equipment, which operatea primarily at - a scan rate of 120 linea per minuts. - A line code is employed in the facsimile transmission system. A scan line 480 mm in length containa 1,500 picture eleme~~~? (PE), th~ first 80 of which comprise the matching sector, and the remaining 1,420 the useful portion of the line. The useful portion of a line breaks down into white and black segments; the firat white segment of the equalization and synchronization sector begins with the lOth PE and ends with the appearance - = of a black segment in the useful portion of the line. - Line coding begins with formation from the first nine PE of the equaliza- tion and synchronization sector of a nine-bit word of the form 010000000. A white aegment is t.:~en coded, a segment which includes 71 PE of the equalization and syx~chronization sector, and if the segment length is - equal to 63 n FE (n=2, ...23), it dimi.nishes by rne PE with a simultaneous , increase in the length of the followin~ black segment by~ one PE. a 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 FOR OFFI~IAL uac UN~.z Coding is performed in 6-bit words: a white segment is represe:zted by n worde if its length is greater than 63 (n-1) PE and less than 63 n PE (n= - 1, ...24); all words with the exceptinn of the final word are of the form 111111, while the last word must contain at least one 0, indicating end of - coding of the white se~ent and transition to coding of a black segment. When coding a black segment, in case its length is equal to 7 n PE (n�=1, 202) it is decreased by one PE, and the ].ength of thefollowing white segment increases at the same time by one PE. Coding is done by 3-~it words: a black segment is repres~nted by n such words if its length is = greatEi than 7(n-1) PE and less than 7 n PE (n=1, 203); all 3-bit words other than the last word have the form 111, while the last word must contain at least one 0, indicating end of coding of the black segment and transition tu coding of a white segment. Table 1 M ~ o.,; ~ KoAxpoeaxxde yepwMe orpe3xx c 3�6Arosdr ~ Y 1'L 1(OAOBdL G7080M acf~ 2~ i 2~ I 2~ I 2~ I 2~ I I~~ I 2~ I Z~ 1 0 0 I - 4 0 I 0 3 0 1 I 4 I 0 0 5 1 0 1 6 ! I 0 - 7 1 l 0 8 I 1 I 0 0 1 9 I I I 0 I 0 10 1 I I 0 1 1 11 1 I I 1 0 6 12 1 1 1 I 0 1 13 1 I 1 I 1 0 1{ 1 I 1 I I 0 ' 15 1 I 1 I 1 1 0 0 1 Key: - 1. Length of segment PE 2. Coded black segments with 3-bit code word Tab?e 1 contains examples of coding of black segments. The lengths of code - words (number of b;ts) for white m6 and black my segments, as well as the structure and length of the phase ~aord for the selected code were deter- mined from the condition of providing it with maximum compensating capabilitp, that is, . k _ Q - Q6 ~m6) +Qa ~~a) +Q~ ~ - where Q is the total volume of uncoded information an a weather map; - , Qa~mo?,~Q.Im�1 volumes of coded information of white and black seg- ments; Q~(m volume of information on position of equalization and synchronization sector, determined as Q~ (m~) - m~ D ~R = 1824 m~. (2) - 92 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000200080090-0 EL~~1 ~ ~f~L - i ' . u ~ ~ ~R'~ ~ Ft~~~ ~r~ ~ t ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Here D=480 mm length or width of weather map, r~=3.8 lines/mm system reaolution in direction of feed. Total volume of uncodecl information on the weather Tap is Q=LDrp?n=2,72�IOa. (3) where L=480 mm length of scan line, rp=3.1 lines/mm system resolution - , in direction of scanning. � _ 20000 N(j~ N, _ >5000 - 10000 ` _ 5000 1001~ N~ - - 0 4 B /2 16 ~ 2O 24 ZB s Figure 1. Figure 1 contains distributions of lengths of white and black segments of a typical weather map N~(i), N.~(i). The distributions represent the num- bers of white and black segments with lengths i varying farom 1 to 1500 PE. With the aid of a computer we calculated S6 Qa _ ~ ~ S X s=i ' s (2m6 - l ) ` x ~ Ne ~t)~ (S-1) (2m6-1)~-~ S ~4~ _ q ~ Qa ~~n) = ma ~ S X Ssl ~ S (2m~-1) , x ~ Nq ~�(S-1) (mq-1)-F1 FOR OFFICIAT~ USE ONLY 93, I I- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOn OFFICIAL U~~ ONiY ' where S*6 and S* ti-- least whole numbers (when S> S*d S~ S*y the second sums in each equation of formula (4) are equal to zero). Calcula- tions were performed for md, mq=2, 12, and their results are contained in Table 2. With the aid of this table we calculated values m6 =6; m~ =3, - minimizing Q 6(m and Q y(m y) reapectively. For determination of phase word form and length it was taken into account _ that any group containing less than 9 bits, with the selected code, must - contain at '_east two 1. Minimtzation of Q~(m,~) ia ensured by selecting - length m~=9, whereby a phase word of the form 010000000 is always dis- . ~ tinguishable, since it consists of eight 0 and one 1. - Tab le 2 . r ~ m I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 6I 7 8I 9IIOIllI12 Q~.10 5 9.07 6.28 1.b8 3.72 I3.40I3.63I3,76I4,21I4.68I6.1bI5.60 I I I I Q~.10-6 I 1.61 I 1.b7 I 2,01 I 2.45 I2.96I3.46 3,95I4,4b~~.9616,~3~6,92 , ~ On the basis of Table 2 and formula (2) we find _ - min Qa (m6) = Q6 (6) = 3,40� IOb, bita; - tritn Qv (m.) = Qa (3) _~,57� 10�, bits; min Q~ (?n~) = Q~ (9) = 1824�9=0,16� 10~, bita. Taking into conaideration (3), with tormula (1) we shall obtain max k(ms, nt~, rr~) = k(6; 3; S~ _ ~,~2� ia = 5,3. ~ (3,40-~-1,57~-0,16)�10a " ~yatem operating princi.ple. ~he transmitter of a facsimile system,a block - di~gram o`f which is contained in Figure 2, consists of analyzing device - AY, phase pulse sensor j? image coder K N , phase pulse coder K~ , record keys K~1 and K32, memories 3 Y1,3 Y~, read keys KC1, KC2, monitoring and control devices `J K y, and modulator M, the output of which is connected to the communication channel. - To communication - - AS/ XN k3~ 3y~ ~C~ channel yK'J %y - a~ 1,~4~ N32 35/2 IfC2 _ Figure 2. 94 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The ax~alyzer performs line-by-line analysie of the tranemitted image, r~ilich is coded in the K h. At the beginning of the equalization and synchronization sector of each scan line the shapes the phas~ pulse, which is coded in the K~. The aggregate of co~ed pulses and lines passes through K~1 or K72 sequentially into 3 Y1 or 3 Y2. This set is further transmitted through KC1 or KC2 to M, where it is modulated before being fed into the communication channel. The YKY monitors reading of information fron 3 Y1 and 3 Y2 at the moment of phase pulse arrival and controls the step motor feed pitch to AY and sequential connectiion nf K 3i, KC2 or K3 2, KCl. Tranamitter operation can be broken down into cycles. In the initial - state 3Y1 and 3 Y2 are free. The firat cycle begins at the moment of appearance at,q ~output of the first phase pulse, which registers the first transmitted line and through YKY sets 3 Y1 in record mode, 3 Y2 in read mode, and AY in step motor _ normal feed mode. From communication X~~ 3y~ XC~ channel Q~ ~y ' ~ ~4M yiYl~ Q K3q 39Y KCy Figure 3 The first phase pulse and line, tranamitted in code form (in volume Q1) ` are entered in 3 Y1 through open K 3 1. Here Q~a9k~=91, (b) where - ~ ~kt~K~ 0~9iS9~ (6) . q = C/N, if the entire volume of 3 Y1 (3 Y2) is broken down into k+l blocks with ` identical volumea q and if we designate with C channel capacity, bits per second, and with N-- AY scar.ning rate, lines per second. Number kl is - stored in YKY. Logical zeroes of volume q are read through open KC2, and after modulation in M are transmitted irno the communication channel. ~ At the moment of appearance at,l.~~i a~put of the second phase pulse, YKY changes 3 Y1 to read mode sets 3 Y2 in record mode if k=0 or stand by to record if kl ~ 1, and aets in AY normal feed mode if kl=0, or delayed feed 95 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mode if kl ~ 1. For k1=0, when the second transmitted line is determined by the second phase pulse, second phase pulse and line are entered through open K;j2 in code form of volume Q2, for which representations (5) and (6) are correct if one changes from subscript 1 to 2. The number = k2 is etored in YKY, and capacity Q1=q1 from the first transmitted phase - pulae and line, as well as capacity q-ql of logical zeroes is read from 3 Y1 through open KC1. Following modulation in M, all read information is fed into the communication channel. At the same time, for kl ~ 1, when the aecond tranamitted_line is deter- _ mined by the (k1+2) phase pulse, prior to its appearanc~e at,L~~ioutput from 3 Y1, caPacity qkl from the first transmitted phase pulse and line is iead and 3 Y2 entry standby mode is maintained, as is delayed feed mode in- to AY. Wir.h the appearance of (k1+2) phase pulse at,~ ~ output, YKY cha,zges 3 Y2 into record mode and establishes normal feed mode in AY. After this _ ~ Y2 i.s loaded with the second phase pulse and line transmitted in code _ form, while 3 Y1 is freed of the last ql bit of the first transmitted , pulse and line, just as when k1=0. The second transmitter operating cycle begins at the moment of appearance at,,~~i output of the ac1+3) phase pulse, which through YKY shifts 3 Y2 to read mode, sets 3 Y1 in write mode if k2=0 or write standby mode if k2 1, _ and secures in AY normal feed mode if k2=0 or dela.yed feed mode if k2> 1. _ The second cycle differs from tlie first only in the fact that Q2 bits are read from ,3 Y2 through open KC2 in place of q logi~al zeroes, modulating in - M and feeding into the communications channel. - The receiver of the facsimile transmisaion syetem, a block diagram of which is canta~ned in Figure 3, conaiste of demodulator DM, the input of which is connected to a communica~ion channel �q~, K,~ 1 and K 3 2, 3 Y1 and - 3 y2, KC1 and KC2, YKY, image decoder,q K, and synthesizer CY. A signal from the coumaunication channel is demodulated in DM and is fed through K3 1 and K3 2 sequentially into 3 Y1 or 3 Y2, an d from there _ *_hrough K C 1 or K C 2 into ,Q K, where it is decoded. The decoded signal is recorded in CY, which performs a line-by-line synthesis of the received image. Monitoring of loading of 3 YL and 3 Y2 at the moment of phase pulse arrival from ~(a is perforrned by YKYe The latter cont~ls motor feed pitch in CY and sequential connection of K31, KC2 or K32, KC1. The _ receiver operates in cycles. In the idle state 3 Y1 and 3 Y2, which are analogous to transmitter 3 Y1 and 3Y2, are free~. The first cycle begins at the moment of appearance in of the firs~ phase - pulse, which determines the first received line, and through YKY sets 3Y1 in write mode, 3 Y2 ~ iead mode, and CY intv normal feed mode. The ~ first phase pul~e and line of volume Q1, received in code form, are recorded in 3 Y1 through open K~ Z, in the form of kl+l blocks of volumes q, whereby the (kl + 1) block contains q-ql logical zeroes. YKY time- c~mpares completion of entry of each block with appearance of the second _ phase pulse in and establishes normal feed mode in ~ if K1=0, or 96 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FO& OFFICIAL USE ONLY delay~ed feed mode if k2 > 1. Volume q of logical zQros : is read from 3 Y2 during first-block recording in 3 Y1 through open KC2; these logical zeros, pasaing through,/~ K, are recorded in CY in the form of a white seg- - ment. - At the moment of appearance in,q4iof the aecond phase pulse, which deter- mines the second received pulse and line, YKY stops information entry into 3 Y1 on the (kl+l) block, sets 3 Y1 to read mode and ~ YZ to write mode, and CY to normal feed mode. The second pulse and line, received in code - form of valume Q2, are recorded in the form k2+i blocks of volumes of q bita in 3 Y2 through open K 3 2, whereby the (k2+1) block contains q-q2 logical zeros. YKY time-compares end a~f entry of each block with ap- _ pearance of the third phase pulse in p~and sets normal feed mode in CY if k2=0 or delayed feed mode if k2 ~ 1. Volume 41 from the f irst received - phase pulse and line is read during entry of the first block in 3 Y2 _ ~ through open KC1. This volume of information is decoded in ~ K and recorded in CY. The receiver second cycle begins at the moment of appearance in ,p,~ of t?~e third phase pulse, which determines the third r~ceived line and through - Y:CY s~ts 3 Y1 in write mode, 3 Y2 in read mode and CY in normal feed mode: This cycle diffprs from the first cycle only in the fact that volume Q2, which is decoded in ~ K and recorded by CY, is read from 3 Y2 through open KC2 in place of volume q logical zeros. - Syatem implementation and testing. The trar~s~itter.employs as an AY a _ drum-type device with scanning line length of 480 mm, 5-percent equaliza- tion and synchronization aector, acan rate N=16 lines per aecond, feed . - pitch 0.265 mm/line, and resolution 3.1 lines/mm. Scanning drive is _ provided by a type GSD 531-6 hyateresis motor, which operates at 4800 rpm _ and is powered by voltage with a frequency of 240 Lz. A type ~hD -5 D 1M step mo~or powera feed, operating at 400 rpm and powered by voltage with - a frequency of 1600 Hz. Its feed pitch can be reduced fourfold by shifting power supply to voltage with a frequency of 400 Hz. Weather map analysis was performed by a photoelectric converter, which includes a type FEU 84-3 phatomultiplier tube, a rectangular raster diagram of dimenaions 0.18 snd ~.2 mm in the direction of scan and feed, an~d a type OP 8-9 incandescent _ lamp ae light source. The system's resolution was provided by breaking down the picture signal to 15~0 PE per scan line by 24 kHz frequency pulses. Frequency instability did not exceed 1 x 10-~ relative unita. A flat-type device with contact recording (with a flexible electrode) of the image on a roll of type EKhB-V electrochemical paper was employed in the recPiver as CY. The CY has the same parameters as the AY. The = transmitter phase pulse aensor effiploys an FD-27K pho~odiode and a type . _ SG -28-0.05-1 incandescent lamp. The receiver's phase discriminator is a 9-bit input regiater to which a lockon circuit ia connected, which die- _ criminatea code words of the form 010000000. ` 97 FOR OFFICIAL USE OPTLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200084410-4 FOR OFFICIAL U~r~ UNLY The image coder and decoder employ Logika-2 series microcircuits. Each 900-bit memory consists of three blocks and is connected sequentially fe~r ,rrite or read. I The modulator and demodulator provide a data transmiseion and receiving capabillty of 4,800 bits per aecond, so that q=300 bits per line. In testing the sysiem with off-line transmitter and receiver ~ynchroniza- tion, transmisaion time for a atandard 486 x 480 mm2 weather map was . 2 minutes 54 seconds with an accPptable quality of reproduction: incom- ~ pletion of individual lines was less than 2%, lines which contained more ~ than 600 bita of coded information. There occurred an insignificant _ (1.3 cm) change in copy length in comparison with the original due to inertia of the optical carriage mechanism in the transmitter analyzer. - Experiments indicated that in this system the total number of uncompleted - lines may be less than 1% by only doubling buffer memory, while copy elongation can be reduced to 2-3 mm by reducing optical carriage inertia - with replacement of the photomultiplier tube with a photodiode [2]. Since the sel~cted code r,estricts occurrence of errors within, a single line, ' and the volume of transm?.tted coded information does not exceed 5.13 x 105 ' bits with modem. error detection not less than 1 x 10'4 during weather map transmisaion cannot be *aore than 52 diatorted lines. This comprises less _ than 2.8~ of the total number of lines (1,842) and is pr~ctically half as many as the allowable number of diatorted lines (5%y. Thus the described system of high-speed facsimile transmission makes it ~ posaible to reduce the information redundancy of weather maps and to - match high scan rates with limited data transmisaion channel capacity. BibliograFhy 1. "Sbornik tekhnicheskoy informatsii po voprosam svyazi" [Technical In- - formation Series oz Problems of Cou~unications], Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat, 1975, No 13. 2. Shats, Yu. Ya., et al. "Analyzer With Silicon Phatodiode for a Facaimile Transmitter," ELEKTROSVYAZ', No 8, 1977. Manuscript recQived 3 January 1977 - [169-3024J COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz'," "Elektrosvyaz 1980 ~ 3Q24 - ~ CSO: 1860 ~ - END - ~ 98 i- - FOR OFFIC~AL U~E ONLY ' I ~I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200080010-0