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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE= 2007/02/08= CIA-R~P82-00850R000200900002-6 l~.~~ Lf c ~ L 'f ~ ; r~i ~ . ~=3 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9172 2 July 1980 5ub-Saharan Africa~ Re ort p ~ ~ Fouo N~o, 680 _ FBIS FOREICN BROADCAST INFORMa4TION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain informaLion primar~ly from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also fron: news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources � , are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first ~.?ne of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- ~ mation was summarized or extracted. - Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the � original but have been supplied as appropriate in cor_text. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. - The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.t~tudes of the U.S. Government. For further information on report content call (703) 351-31E5. - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOV~RN~NG OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR 0~'FICIAL USE OitLY JPRS L/9172 2 July 1980 SUB-SAI~ARAN AFRICA REPORT FOUO No. 680 _ p CONTENTS - INTER AFRICAN AFFAIRS " Report on 7th French African Conference in Nice (Jacques Iarremoliere; MARCHE$ TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 16 May 80) 1 Commentary on North-South Dialog (Michel Jobert; JEUNE AFRIQUE, 21 Ma.y 80) 11 Concerns of French-Africa.n Sua~it Discussed (Siradiou Diallo; ,TEUNE AFRIQUE, 21 Ma.y 80) 14 Bokassa Talked About Although Ignored by Ivory Coast ~ ' ~ Press (JEUNE AFRIQUE, 21 Ma.y 80) 17 - ANGOLA C~ubaas Still Present Desgite Reportedly Low Morale (Francois Soudan; JEUNE AFRIQUE, 14 Ma.y 80) 19 Briefs ~ Postal A.greement With GDR 21 ~ Exchanges With Socialist Countries 21 , Polish Construction Materiel 21 CAMEROON President Ahmadou Ahidjo Iaterviewed (Ahma.dou Ahidjo Interview; MARCHES TROPICAUX ET I~DITERRANEENS, 18 Apr 80) 22 New Cooperation tigreement Signed With EEC (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRA.NEENS, 16 May 80) 3g - a - [ II I- NE & A- 12 0 FOUO J FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Br~efs Cacao Planting 40 Exploratory Oil Drilling 40 CHAD Political Situation in Chad Assessed (Jacqnes Buob; L'EXPRESS, 12-18 Apr 80) 41 CONGO Catholic Church Still in Process of Reorganization - (AFRIQUE-ASIE, 12-25 Ma.y 80) 45 Increa~e in Petroleum Prices Aids Nation's Ecoaomy (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 16 May 80) 47 EQUA,TORIAL GUINEA Srief s - President's Visit to Spain 50 GI~~NA ~ Briefs Political Controversies 51 ~ LESOTHO Briefs 52 LIBERIA New Government Iacks Program Other Thaa Improving Pol3tical Morals - _ (Ra.phael Mergui; JEUNE AFRIQUE, 21 Ma.y 80) 53 ~ Ship Registration Rules Remainiag in Force (MARC~S TROPICAUX ET 1~DITERRANEENS, 16 May 80) 57 - MPiI~I Briefs Diploma.tic Blunder 58 MOZAMBIQUE - Briefs Cahora Bassa Transportation 59 Fishiag Compaaies Nationalized 59 - b - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR GFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGER Briefs EDF Loans 1980-1984 60 Minister's May Day Speech 60 President Visits OPVN, ONAREM 60 Water Treatment Plant 61 New Well Drilled in Tarassadet 61 TANZANIA - Authorities Call to Mind Their Socialist Objectives (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 16 May 80) 62 _ Details of Fren~h-Tanzanian Cooperation Given (Jacques Latremoliere; MA,RCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRATIEENS, 16 May 80) 65 Briefs Kilwa Port Expa.nsion ~0 Na~ural Gas Exploitation 70 TOGO _ Briefs Eyadema, Critics ~1 ZAIRE Report on Oil Production in 1979 (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 16 May 80) 72 Briefs Belgian Shipp~ng Company Link 74 Diamond Pro3uctioa in 1979 74 Inga-Shaba Power 74 Mobutu Tiuping Portuguese 74 - c - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ZNTER~AFRZCqN qFFAZRS REPORT ON 7TH FREP,TCH-AFRICAN CONFERENCE TN NTCE Paris MARCI-iES TROPICAUX ET ?~[EDTTERRANEENS in Fren~fi 16 May 80 pp 1129-32 jArticle by Jacques Latremoliere: "The ~Trilooue' is Honored"] _ jText) French and foreign reporters for daily newspapers who were drawn to Nice by the 7th French-African Conference did not shy away from casting a generally pessimistic pall over the proceedings even before they began, despite the laudable but doubtfully effective efforts of Mr Giscard ;i~Estaing, - who tried to make less nebulous the idea of a Euro~Arab-Africa;~ "trilogue" and the French desire to play the part of Africa~s advocate on the internatidnal scene. It is even harder for a reporter from a weekly publication to sur- vPy after the fact the various tendencies that emerged at tfie conference, The agenda, the s~mnary of debate, and the final communikue, taken separately, cannot give a good idea of what went on. The agenda was never more than a proposal. Besides, it was prudently withheld from tfie public. Some items were leaked. Unexpected speeches were made, and these made the communique difficult to write, judging by the delay in Cistributing it, and it is probably incomplete considering that different concerns had to be brought together in one theme. First lei;~s take the unscheduled business: a declaratian by the vice-president of the Chadian government, Lieutenant Colonel Kamougue; counterdeclarations made from the floor by representatives Hissene Habre, ~ Messrs T�Iichel Froud and Oussman Gam; a~n explanation by Mr Senghor at a final press conference at NEG~ESCO [expansion , unknown]: the Eyadema solution-.for a cease,fire will be adopted'in principle by the OAU jOrganization of African UnityJ and supported by the presence of a buffer force of Beninese, Congolese, and Guinean detachments. If these cannot serve, the United Nations will be approached. A liaison committee of foreign workexs' associations in France sent to the - African heads of state present at the conference an open letter asking that a charter be established for their members. The committee will probably 1 FOR OFFICI.4;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY not get an answer. The president of the Islami.c Republic o� the Co;noxo Islands, Mr Ahmed Ahdallah., re~orted on the daanage caused on the ~:slands by several weeks of torrential rains, Conjectures were made about the absence of 1~1r Houphouet-Boign~~, We should nate, finally, the bizarre episode wfiere a British journalist asked Mr Senghor in the language of Sfiakespeare for details on on the "Frerich-style Commonwealth" and then said in excellent French tfiat he was quite satisfied with the explanations provided by tfie president of Senegal, who spoke ~diomatic English and good-naturedly apologized for doing so. Centers c~= Interest Those were obviously not the centers of. interest of the 25 delegations that were present, 14 of which were led by fieads of state and 5 of which were not from French-language countries but were well~equipped with the means suggested - to soften technically and financially the unfortunate effects of oil inflation on the balances of payments and to halt food shortages reportecl in some African ~ countries, especially in the Sahel, shortages that the remedies applied so far sometimes risk making worse, In their turn, Messrs Francois-Poncet, Rene Monory, Robert Galley, and Olivier Stirn analyzed situations and proposed actions, so~ne~o� which have already been taken, Iie spoke first of the.Franco~African situation and also of the action in progress in the ACDA (Concerted Action for the Development of Africa), which is bringing together the work of the six founding countries (France, - the FRG, the United States, Belgium, Great Britain, and Canad�) and the prio- rities set by African governments and international institutions. France's = action within the European communities and in the United Nations, where it is _ closely following the renewed North-South dialogue, was also brought up. ~ France's minister of Foreign Affairs recently had conversations with the _ Indian president of the "Group of 77." The Euro-African "trilogue" was discussed. It is intended to recycle the financial surplus from the petroleum-exporting countries into the development _ of non-energy producing Third World countries by mobilizing and paying for Western technology. ~ Food Shortages Since the co~t of oil more than doubled between 1973 and 1978, the new 1980 ~ price xise will cost $2 billion more over 1978 to non-energy producing African countries, whose consumption is about 17 million metric tons. Aid from OPEC ~ countries is distributed unevenly and does not pay the bill. No increase in exports to Western countries can ease the impact of this situation on the balance of payments because the consumsr countries' economies are being - slowed down. 2 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The explanations provided and the discussi.ons that ~ollowed showed~ howevex, that the situation is not tiopeless, because the Westexn countr~es c~n make capital and technology available to African countries to prospect for netv - deposits, to bring into production deposits tfiat fiave not been considered exploitable or to searcfi for otfier energy minerals sucfi as coal and uranium. Hydroelectricity is only in its infancy in tropical Africa, despite--such - great projects as Inga, in Zaire; Edea and, soon, Song~Loulou, in Cameroon; Kossou and Buyo,in tfie Ivory Coast, In the coming years, the dams of Kandadji, i_n Niger; Diama, in Senegal, and Manantali and Tossaye, in Mali, will greatly modify the encrgy capacity of the countries involved. The turn to solar energy will be favored by widespread need for low-level power, But especially, the absence of any infrastructure for solar or wind power, or etbanol- or methanol-producing "biomasses" will make it possible to innovate without running up against the weight of vested interests. The food shortages are linked to the vagaries of rainfall from 1968 to 1973, which have been particularly serious in th.~ Sahel countries, where the drought � = recurred in 1977, causing a grain deficit of 900,000 met~ic tons and lsrge losses of livestock, Conditi.or~s were not much more favr~rable in 1979 in Mauritania and Cape Verde, the Sahelian states th~.c have~lapsed into chronic food shortages, On the present basis, tfie shortage should reach a million - metric tons, half of which will be in Senegal alone. Only 3 Sahel countries were able to rise above the minimal nutritional level of 2,200 calories per person per day in 1979. In the Sahel, the phenomenon manifests itself in a process of desertification, which is linked to population growth. However, it cannot be separated from - economic factors, such as speculation in cereals, the rise in the rate of inflation,and the growth of urban centers at the expense of rural populations. Also, while international aid has made it possible to save people's livzs, the Sahelian states are to realize that this has not been without serious drawbacks, because eating haiaits have adjusted to imported foodstuffs and are hampering renewed national production, 'I'hus, the major thrust will . be to increase agricultural production by taking the greatest possible advan- tage of available hydraulic patential. This is especially true because food shortages are unfortunately not limited to Sahelian countries in both West and East Africa. Shortages also strike countries in the equatorial or intertropical zone--Liberia, Guinea, Benin, Tanzania, and even Nigeria--where it cannot be attributed to climatic causes but rather to demographically-caused social and economic imbalance, political restraints on farmers, and the appearance of industrial profits and wages. France's incomparable tool of research institutes and the experience acquired _ in rural development should enable it to give African countries increasingly appreciable aid in these areas as tropical agronomic research is dismantled in Belgium and Great Britain. 3 , FOR OFFICIti:, USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Procedures Such were the main themes of discussion, Some delegations were unhappy that time limitations prevented the Conference chair from taking up other usef~l subjects, such as tfi e transfer of technology or the new facilities that the International Monetary Fund has made available to the develoning countries. Actually, though the analyses presented were very interesting, the delega- tions were more interested in the procedures proposed by France for over- coming difficulties than the dif�iculties themselves. This has led to _ misinterpretation by s~me observers, who have confused the gloom due to an inescapable situation with what they thougfit was a lack of interest in the remedies being thought up to make it less burdensome, D1r Francois-Poncet thus stressed the agreement recently concluded by the OECD to center the Nortfi-Soutfi dialogue on three main themes (energy, food, and balance of payments) that more or less cover the five sectors delineated by the "77," on the guarantees introduced at his request in resolution No 138, whicfi sets forth the principle of starting immediate nego- tiations, and, finally, on certain priority objectives: balanced develop- ment through reasonable growth, stability of energy and raw material supplies, and the provision of currency to structurally deficit-ridden count~ies to finance their development, a special effort for the benefit of the neediest. I~9r Stirn stressed the government's action to hasten the stabilization mecha- nisms of Lome II. Mr Galley recalled the substantial Cooperation budget increase, which rose from Fr 3.5 billion in 1979 to.Fx.4.3 billion in11980, as FAC [Aid and Cooperation Fund] investment, in particular, interrupted its downward trend and rose from Fr 643 million to Fr 942 million. Tl-~e reports on the "trilogue" were the centerpiece of the Conference. It ~ was not easy to synthesize them, because the economic organization of a "French Commonwealth" dear to Mr Senghor~s heart, which might have been cons:idered one of the main themes of previous meetings, had yielded to the idea of a permanent concertation going beyond economic fxameworks and including European, Arab,and African civilizations, which had been _ united since antiquity by natural and universal affinities. Mr Henry Jean-Baptiste, who was himself a collaborator of Mr Senghor's, was thus able: to add a cultural dimension to an enterprise that had been at first purely financial in character, Within this new construct, the president of Senegal intends to pursue his grand design, which does not oppose the En~;lish-speaking world but rather finds a source of enrichment and renewal - in cooperation with it, _ 4 FOR OFFICIt~; USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY Mr Monory's economic commentary on the ~'trilogue~' may not haye met all the problems raised by the �ormula, because the xesouxces due to oil suxpluses will not suffice to I~alance out the underdeveloped countries'~ndebtedness, which amounts to more tfian $35Q billion, and there is also tfie fear that these surpluses might disappear for all practical purposes in tfi e next 10 - years. But it is worthwhile to consider in tfie middle term the idea of increasing French financial aid, particularly from the Central Fund for ~ Economic Cooperation [CCCE] (up 25 percent in 1980j for the purpose of recycl~ng international capital into Africa, This policy was .started in 1974 and mobilized Fr 800 million in discQUnted loans to make available Pr 2 billion in discounted Arab credits, In another direction, the search for European partners is 5eing hastened by the intermediary of the European Investment Bank. In sum, the French-African Conference in Nic~ has made it possible to set forth_ a French methodology adapted to circumstances. Tt implies no clai:n to a mono- poly. Notliing prevents Westerners or Arabs from working together for Africa without any outside motivation or intermediary. ~t is just that France has experience and credit in this area that its usual partners do not question, even though they may be ideologically opposed, and the fact is that others than French-language countries are beginning to realize this. Final Communique of the 7tfi French~African Conference (Nice 8-10 May 1980) _ At the invitation of Mr Valery Giscard d~Estaing, presa:dent of the French _ Republic, the 7th French-African Conference was held in Nice on 8-10 May 1980. The heads of state and the delegation~"leaders exchanged opinions on the world economic situation and its impact on the African continent. They noted that the new wave of oil price increases, the disorganization of the international monetary system, worldwide inflation and the resulting deterioration in trade terms tend to accentuate the gap between the industrialized countries and the _ developing African countries and are making the latter's financial difficulties considerably worse. In this context, the Conference recognized the double necessity for increasingly strict management and increased aid from the international community to meet these difficulties. _ In this respect, the participants expressed appreciation for France~s constant efforts on Africa's behalf despite France's own econorr:ic constraints. Indeed, French aid for African developr~ent has greatly increased, as the pre- sident of the French Republic announced in Kigali. The contribution from the Fund for Aid and Cooperation grew from Fr 633 million in 1979 to Fr 942 million in 1980, or 48 percent. Contributions from the CCCE continued to grow in 1980 at the increased rate of 25 ~percent a year, At the 1 evel of international development organizations, France has taken - initiatives that sl~o,ti~ the important it attaches to :nultilateral aid. Among these in itiatives are its helping form the capital of the World Bank (Fr 110 million) and its forthcoming contribution to the 6th reconstitution of 5 FOR OFFICIA;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the International Development (Fr 2.75 hilli.on in 3 Years). It h as agreed to underwrite ~.6 percent of the nonregi.onal ca~ital of the African Devel~pment Bank (:$50 million) and to increase retroactively its contribution to tfi e African Development Fund from 2.6 percent to 6,4 percent of the Fund's total resources. Also, France has continually sup- - ported the International bl~netary Fund~s efforts to redirect i~cs resources to help developing countries. Nor h as France spared any efforts to solicit increased contributions from the main contributing countries, In particular, the idea put forth by the - president of ;:he Fxencfi Repnblic at tfie Frencfi-African Conference in Paris in 1976 of a_n exceptional action on Africa's~Befialf materialized on 1 January 1980 in the founding of Concerted Action for Development in Africa (ACDA~. The participants are: France, the United States, the RFG, Belgium, Canada, and th e United Kingdom. The World Bank also accepted the request of the president of the French Republic to join the undertaking. The ACDA should soon make it possible to increase the effectiveness of Western aid to Africa through better coordination, Finally, as tlie economic crisis calls for imaginative efforts, France is studying ways of multiplying the eff.ects of development aid by better recycling capital, As of now, to help maintain the investment level required by the African countries~ situation, the French government has decided to increase substan- tially the volume of business from the CCCE on preferential conditions by pursuing the present policy o� association with foreign capital, a policy that has yielded encouraging results, as has been emphasized. Priority for these new contributions will go to projects in the least advantaged _ count ries or those affected by natural disasters. Top priority will go - to operations intended to achieve self-surficiency in food, to develop geological deposits, and to gain access to the sea. The he ads of state and government and the delegation leaders asked France to continue faithfully expressing their concerns to the other indu~trialized countries and especially its partners in the Euro~ean Economic Community so that s atisfactory solutions may be found for their problems. Among these problems is the stab3lization of prices for raw materials, which provide a large part of African countries~ revenues and for which they hope to obtain a fair price. The participants said they were convinced of the necessity to renew on a constructive basis the dialogue between cocoa producing and consuming countries. They emphasized their interest in th~ present negotiations for renewing the North-South dialogue, and they think the international community has a right to expect the restoration of a system of sustained growth and a broad solution to development problems. In this respECt, France has taken note of the priorities given by its part_ners t4 the problems of food self- - sufficiency, raw materials, isolation, and indebtedness and is resolved to 6 FOR OFFICIti,'.. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R004200100042-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY play an especially active role in pre~axing the genral that are about to start at tfie United Nations and to contj~nue working towards implementing a Common Fund of Raw Mater3als, ~ 'I'he participants stressed the importance they attach to importing technology into A�rican countries and then noted witfi interest tfie research undertaken in the context of bilateral procedures to conceive new technologies for Africa in both the rural and industrial sectors. The Conference restated the necessity of giving priority to the least advanced _ countries suffering from serious natural handicaps, such as enclavement, insularity, or drought, Tn this conne~tion the Conference noted that France's aid to tbe Safielian cauntries has been increasing continuously since 1975 and now accounts for more than a tfiird of the aid from the ministry _ of African Cooperation and that more than fialf of the subsidies from the Aid and Cooperation Fund in 1979 was allocated to tfie least advanced countries. - The heads of state and government and delegation leaders noted that while ` the new EEC-ACP jAfrican, Paci�ic and Caribhean countries associated with th e EEC] Lome Convention had not fulfilled all hopes, its signing under cur- rent economic conditions was an exemplary manifestation of dialogue between the industrialized and developir.~ countries, Under the heading of French~African cooperation, which the participants again stressed as being useful, France explained tliat it would strive to maintain or increase the budget of tfie ministry of Cooperation despite inflation. - Four questions in particular held the Conference's attention: the development of energy sources other than oi.l, the quest for self-sufficiency in food, and the problems of education and of natural disasters. Concerning energy, Africa offers a vast field of possibilities: hydroel,ectric energy, wind energy, solar energy, or biomass, a potential source of ethanol and methanol. Their development could have only favorable effects on the financial equilibrium of African countries. One of the most serious problems that Af.rica may have to face in the coming years is an increasing shortage of food. The Conference participants recog- nize how difficult tfie task is, but they did express a desire to 3o research into food self-sufficiency as one of their high-priority policies. They recognize that France has an important part to play in this area by increa- sing its aid at the bilateral level and contributing to a better concerta- - tion at the international level. - The policy of the French ministry o�.Cooperation in the field of education and training was the subject of an extensive exchange of opinions. Stress _ was placed on the necessity of training African students, especially in technical subjects and in th,e. context of closer links between French and African universities. 7 _ FOR OFFICIA,'. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Conference also brought up the consequences of natural disasters--floods, _ cyclones, etc.--that strike certain countries. France has also granted a large amount o~ aid to Mauriti~is, which has been devastated by several cy:lones, and will also give emergency aid to the Comoro Tsiands, which were rec ently hit by floods. In this connection, it was reiterated that the general purpose of cooperation is to make national economies less vulnerable to accidents. After a speech by President Syad Barre, the Conference emphasized the serious- ness of the refugee situation in Africa and the negative repercussions that the flow of refugees has on tfi e countries receiving them. The Conference stressed the contribution that the international community ought to make in solving these problems. As for France, the president of the French Republic said his country is ready to participate in tfiis effort at the le~,:~Y it deems necessary. The French delegation reported to the Conference on the present state of the Euro-Arab-African trilogue. Encouraging results have emerged from contacts made at the international level, and concrete proposals were made that are likely to carry the project through in th e cultural, political, and economic areas. The Conference took satisfaction in the progress that has been made. It confirmed its active support for the project and expressed the desire that information would continue to flow to the Arab world and African countries in support of implementing the trilogue. The Conference heard a report on the situation in Chad, which was delivered by the vice-president of the national union transition government, The Conference heard with interest President Senghor~s report on the results of nis information mission to Kigali concerning an "organic community," The ~ _ Conference asked him to continue his mission. The Conference decided: - (1) to establish in Dakar a staff for ministerial conferences for partially or entirely French-language countries. This st aff would be based on th e technical staff for conferences for ministers of National Education and Youth and Sports. The management of this staff would be exercised in liaison with the agency for cultural and technical cooperation. This staff will be charged - with preparing a conference of the ministers of Foreign Affairs of the members of the agency and the "organic community" and should take place in Dakar on 5 November 1980. This conference will prepare for a meeting of heads of state and government from these same states in order to examine the ways and means of such cooperation; (2) to charge this secretariat as soon as possible and under the leadership - of President Senghor to convoke an advisory council of experts and high-level - personages whose mission would be to set directions and seek out the organiza- - tions and associations appropriate for developing increased solidarity and cooperation in partia.lly or completely French-language countries.... . 8 FOR OFFICIti;. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ In view of the report presented on this subject and the rec~mmendatons made by the minsters of Foreign A�fairs, the participants decided to assign the light administrative staff of t}ie French~African Conference to the host country of the Conference. France will take care of the archives. On this occasion they expressed their preference for the informal nature of this meeting.... - They accepted the invitation of the Zairian head of state to hold their next conference in Zaire in 1981, Zaire will preside. The Participants in the "Summit" _ Benin: Mr Isede Simon Ougouma, minister of ~oreign Affairs and Cooperation, Burundi: Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, president of the Republic. Cape Verde: Mr David Hoppfer Almada, minister of Justice. Central African Republic: Mr David Dacko, president af the Republic. Comoro Islands: N!r Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane, president of the Republic. Congo: Mr Pierre Nze, minister of Foreign Affairs. Ivory Coast: Mr Mathieu Ekra, minister in charge of reforming government corporations. = Djibouti: E1 Hadj Hassan Gouled Aptidon, president of the Republic. Gabon: E1 Hadj Omar Bongo, president of the Republic. Guinea-Bissau: Mr Basco Cabral, state commissioner for Economic and Planning Coordination. Equatorial Guinea: Mr Obiang Nuguema Mbasogo, president of the Republic. . - Upper Vo1ta: Captain Leonard Kalmogo, minister of Finance. Mali: General Mou~sa Traore, president of the Republic. Morocco: Mr M'Hamed Boucetta, state minister in charge of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Mauritius: Sir Seewoosaguz� Ramgoolam, prime minister. Mauritania: Mr Mame N~Diack Seck, ambassador to Paris from the Islamic Republic uf Mauritani~a. Niger: Colonel Seyni Kountche, head of state. Rwanda: Major General Juvenal Habyarimana, president of the Republic. - 9 FOR OFFICIIs; USE QNLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOk OFI'ICIAL USE ONLY Sao-Tome and Principe: (none) � Senegal: Mr Leopold-Sedar Senghor, president of the Republic. Sierra Leone: Mr Siaka Stevens, president of the Republic. Somalia: Mr :-iohamed Syad Barre, president of the Democratic Republic of Somalia. Chad: Colonel Kamougue, vice-president of the Republic. Togo: General Gnassingbe Eyadema, president of the Republic. Zaire: Mr Mobutu Sese Seko, president of the Republic. Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Ec{uatorial Guinea, Morocca, Sao~Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, and Somalia participated in the Conference as observers, COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1980 ' i i 8782 i CSO: 4400 ' 10 FOR OFFICIE,;, USE ONLY ` , , . . _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTER.-AFRICAN AFFAIRS = COMMENTARY ON NORTH-SOUTH DIALOG' Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French 21 May 80 pp 12, 13 [Article by Michel Jobert: "Dialog of the New Worlds"~ [Text] Last week, the representatives of France and 25 African countries met in Nice. We won't go over the preliminaries and the "agonizing" reap- praisals that must be made in the intellectual and material order for an idea like the "trilogue" not to be limited to appearances. But haven't I written of it in countless ways since 1973? ~Unfortunately nothing has changed in the established order; rather, our attention is drawn to the marginal changes. Trilogues are conceived of as being a decisive emergence of change ~in a world immobilized by divisions and the abuse of dominant positions; without them, the dialogues of the new worlds,~albeit incipient, better express the will to change. The exchanges begun between Brazil and Africa, and even the Near East, should be ha:iled not for what they signify but for what they foreshadow: the injectian of new elements in a static world, Brazil alone is a conti- nent: 8.5 million square km, a little less than the United States but more - than the European area of the USSR. Its population has more than doubled - " since 1950: now it has nearly 120 million people. It has an exuberant, promising economy that is developing anarchically, but it is definitely following a rising curve, with undeniable growth rates. These facts are leading Brazilian governments to practice an active foreign policy, one that is justified,by tfie necessity of breathing on one~s own. Since 1970 a dialogue has been sougfit and made with the various African states. Of course, Brazil is Portugal's daugfiter, as the United States is Great Britain's. The presiden~ of the Portuguese Republic, Admiral Americo Thomaz, brought back from Brazil on 22 April 1972 the mortal remains of Dom Pedro, emperor of Brazil (,1822). Brazil has always been care�ul not to dwell on the "Luso- Brazilian community~' but to note and~use Portuguese decolonization in Africa beginning in 1974, especially since the Brazilian entry into southern and Portuguese Africa begimiing in 1970 made ~moxe delicate �or tTi.e African policy of tfiis South American �ederal republic to get a second wind. (It is useful to consuYt tfie studies of the Grenoble Social Sciences Univer- sity on Latin America. Mr Guy Martiniere and others, in JEUNE AFRIQUE Nos 834, 835 GJanuary 1977) . ~ _ 11 FOR OFFICI~'i,�. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The necessities ar..d the �igures ~ox ~oreign trade are thexe; the mineral wealth, industrial activity and capital of South Africa interest Brazil - from all the way across tfi e Atlantic ocean. This is a decisive factor for a developing country like Brazil, a country tfiat is trying to be multiracial. "Brazil condemns apartfi eid but accepts capital." Also, in _ Mozambique and Angola, despite the Cuban presence, the Portuguese language _ naturally opens the door to Afro-Brazilian "Lusopfione" cooperation, It is - easy to plead the case for solidarity fietween decolonized countries: yester- day it was Brazil and today it is Africa tfiat }ias freed itself from Portu- guese colonialism, Besides, didn't Brazil immediately recognize the inde- pendent states of Guinea-Bissau and the People's RepuBlic of Angola? But - beyond these transitions, the whole dark continent interests Brazil. We know of the long-standing relationships between Leopold Sedar Senghor's Senega2 and Brazil and Guinea~Bissau, the joint political action taken to get the Portuguese out, and tfie cooperation agreements tfiat have been signed. Contracts were made or extended witfi the Tvory Coast (coffee and cocoa), Senegal (pfiosphates), Togo (phosphates), Kenya and Zambia (copper), Gabon (uranium, oil), Ghana, Angola, Nigeria, Zaire, the Congo, Madagascar, and Tanzania. Brazil needs potential buyers of its raw materials production, especially petroleum, and a mutual defense of tTie products it has in com- mon with Africa: coffee, cocoa, cotton, soya, sugar cane, and wood, But it is equally interested in white Africa and the Arab Near East. This attention explains the evolution of its policy toward Israel and its vote on the resolution "Zionism is a form of racism" at.the:30th General Assembly _ of the United Nations in November 1975. Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, the Emirates, the Sudan, and Libya have been approached liy Bxazil on the major subjects of oil, steel, construction, and politics. The "Luso- Brazilian" world also considers the virtues of "trilogue" perhaps less naturally and strongly than the "European-African~Arab " world does, but it is less~~inhibited and ponderous, Already Brazil is boasting of being ready for a technology adapted to tropical countries. They are giving notice to holders of capital and raw materials! The Brazilian effort takes some of its originality from its breaking into the closed �ield of trade and influence, By raising the threat of even marginal competition, it is stimulating the endless circle of speeches and causing anxiety or emulation. For once, a new nation is talking with countries still to be built. , How far has A�rica come? Uncertain, always captive Africa, The land of miscalculated or distorted planning, A recent dry, analytical book suffices to show that Africa cannot pull itsel~ up by its own bootstraps (Gerard Chaliand, "What is at Stake in Africa: Strategies and Powers" (Paris: Le Seuil, [n.~~~)). Thirty of the 50 poorest countries in the world are in Africa. And some of them have regressed since 196~. The most satisfactory explanation that can be given for this disturbing tr~nd is population growth. But there are other causes: the competitive strategies of Western capitalism, Russian communism, and the Chinese thirdrworldism; failures of the new local elites; ethnic balances and the newly-apparent inadequacy of local borders; 12 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY ; : : . . . _ . 4r~ _ , . ~ . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and the state of world raw materia: resources, which has a d~rect impact _ on mor~oproductive countries, There ~s no need to go on afiout that here, and the book is an eloquent inventorr. We should retain two things from this fiistory of violence and frustration, which will be Africa's history for a long time: (1) However great tfie drag and infiibitions, change always tritunphs, perhaps - because it expresses the profound essence of life. The anarchic and acci- dental way in which it occurs ougfit not to cause any doubts about its reality. 'The African "liberations" are a recent demonstration of it, though these liberations are far from being complete. ~ (2) The world will increasingly escape from tlie ideological and material _ (especially industrial) predeterminations tfiat it has wrapped itself in to ward off change. So many pressures are aimed at keeping Africa in the pocket of yested interests, but t~iey are opposed by Africa~s very disorder, its unresponsiveness to strategy, and its very indecisiveness, Africa is not alone in the world in finding neitfier equilibrium nor repose in a dominant order that is necessarily ~'old" as soon as it begi:ns. That is why the dialogues of the new worlds, even though they take the classic, - familiar paths of trade, money, and~interest, are bringing about a completely - new era. If they succeed, even a little, they will shed, more easily than any others, the rituals, imperatives, and, finally, imperial edicts. The great events of history go unnoticed at first. We must be all the more attentive to whisperings in tfie wind~ ~ COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 198~ 8782 CSO: 4400 13 a FOR OFFICI~'iL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ INTER~AFRICAN AFFAIRS CONCERNS OF FRENCH-AFRICAN SUMNiIT DISCUSSED Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French 21 May 8Q pp 26, 27 [Article by Siradiou Diallo: "The Summit of Anguish"] [Text] The economic crisis in Africa and fear of the - "Libyans" have made Frencfi-language concerns secondary. The 7th French-African summit conference was opened on 8 May by President Giscard d'Estaing at a banquet in Nice, capital of the department of Alpes Maritimes. It ended on 10 May with a press conference in the Negresco "grand siecle" rooms. The red and green roof of this famous palace overhangs the splendid Promenade des Anglais and is certainly well-known to royalty, But this was the first time so many African personages fiad gotten together and enjoyed its discreet charms: 26 delegations leaders made up an absolute majo- rity of the OAU, and 15 of them were heads of state. "Too bad!" said an onlooker in the crowd assembled at the entrance. "These Negro heads of state are all poor people wfio come to see Giscard just to get theix hands on our money. Nora, if they were just Arabs, we~d be better off because of the petrodollars." Candemned to Help The truth is that this 7th swmnit conference had nothing euphoric or amusing about it. In Paris in 1978, the participants were wondering about the meaning of the second invasion of Shaba; and in Kigali, in 1979, they laughed behind their hands as they watcfied Bokassa~s antics out of the corners of their eyes, because everybody knew tfiat his political fate was sealed, This time there was notfiing to distract them, The opportunities for recreation yielded to numerous and austere subjacts �or concern~ "For once," Niger President Seyni Kountche told us, ~'we felt we had been - listened to and understood,~' Indeed, the discussions revolved around the serious economic crisis that has beset Africa~s economy for the last 2 years, with its inflation, deteriorating balance of payments, and food shortages, True, everyone hastened to emphasize that the French head of state is not Africa~s intermediary or even spokesman with his counterparts in the indus- trialized countries. Nevertfieless, African leaders are counting on him to play the part of~mediator, 14 FOR OFFICI~� USE UNLY � ' ~ ~ _ , . . . _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is all a matter of knowing whether the rich countries will let themselv~s be charmed by the African sixen-song when they, too, are confronting woxrisome economic problems. The Europeans are condemned to fi elp us, say the African heads of state, because by doing so they help tfi emselves, Without African - orders for manufactured goods and e~quipment,.some European factories would have to close their doors. "The fact is that for some African countries," said President Kountche, "the problem is no longer one of aid for development but for national survival.~' That is why all the participants listened with interest to Presa~dent Giscard d~Estaing's progress report on setting up a Euro~Arab-African trilogue. "That's a subject that brings all Africans togetfier," we were told by Mr Henri Jean Baptiste, the technical ad~isor to the president o� the French Republic. Even the Algerians, who do not take part in tfie French-African forum, are "very interested" in tfie project, said the French "trilogue" specialist. France says it has rallied its European partners behind the _ idea and is only waiting for a formal commitment from the OAU and the Arab League to convene a special swamit conference tfiat would institutionalize this trilateral exchange. - On the other hand, the institutionalization of thn "French-style commonwealth " that President Senghor has been pushing for 30 years is still~having problems. Of course, giveri the respect normally shown t~ie Senegalese head of state, his counterparts do not dare or wish to displease hi~m by opposing his plan. In fact, he was enjoined to conti~nue his mission with the establishment of a veritable permanent secretariat linked with th.e Cultural and Technical Coopera- tion Agency. A conference of Foreign Affairs ministers scfieduled in Dakar for next November will rule on ths question. But as of now it seems that there is little chance that the "organic co~mnunity" dear to the Senegalese leader will be greeted with any unanimity, "We don~t want it," Gabon President Omar Bongo told us �latly, and he added, "It~s a r~ew form of colonialism. It's up to Giscard to defend Francophonia, not us Africans." Besides these subjects, others were the subject of numerous side discussions. There was Chad, were the trend was to ask for UN intervention. Since the Africans can~t separate the enemy brothers of Ndjamena, they will ask the "blue-helmets" to do it, especially since with the withdrawal of French troops, which most of the participants privately regret, everybody is afraid Libya will invade Chad. ~ The Family Circle Was it to prevent this threat that ~residents Omar Bongo and Gnassingbe Eyadema have heen feverishly active on the African stage? Gabon Pxesident Bongo went to Al.giers a�ter bringing together for more than 2 hours in his Negresco apartment two of the protagonists in the conflict, Mr Abba Siddick and Colonel Abdelkader Kamougue. The latter was visibly afflicted by 15 FOR OFFICIIu, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a cold that had nothing di~lomati.c about it, President Songo~s txip was taken not oniy to bring up the ~roiilem of thE Sahara but especially to talk about Chad so that his Algerian hosts migfit intervene with their turbulent Libyan neighbor, Meanwfiile, Togo Head of State Eyadema was. to tr, to put out the fire in Ndjamena or at least obtain a cease-fire from the bellgerants. The 7th swnmit at Nice will not Fiave been useless if only because it favored the harmonization and growth of certain main polit ical trends, not to mention the attendance for tfie first ti;ne of some non~French language heads of state, such as Somalian Syad Barre and Sierra Leonian Siaka Stevens, which struck a special note at tfiis meeting, Perhaps the 8th summit confer- ence, scheduled for Kinshasa in May 1981, will have the family circle grow even more. GOPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1980 8782 CSO; 4400 16 FOR OFFICIA; USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS BOKASSA TALKED ABOUT ALTHOUGH IQdORED BY IVORY COAST PRESS Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French 21 May 80 p 28 [Text] One morning an American diplomat posted to Abidjan was taking his dog for an early morning walk not far from the immenae residence for dis- tinquiahed guests at Cocody, the reaidential quarter of the Ivory Coast capital. Suddenlq he crossed the path of aa African who, like him, was taking hia dog for a Walk. Distractedlq, the diplomat greeted him with a slight wave of his hand. To whieh the African replied in the same waq. Several tens of ineters farther on, the American, stupified, thought better of it: he had ~uat met Jean-Bedel Bokassa. That American diplomat ie one of the rare individuals who have been able to see the former corporal in the French Army, the former emperor of Central Africa, a refugee in ivory Coaet aince his overthrow in September 1979. Be- cause Bokassa naves around like a breath of air. He could live as well in Abid~an as in Yamouasoukro (the "village" where President Felix Iiouphouet- Boignq was born) in the center of Ivory Ccast. It is also reparted that he was established in a villa belonging to a certain dignitary at Gagnoa, nearly . 150 km northwest of the capital. For hi~a as for others, the deposed tyrant would rather have found refuge in the region of Daloa, in the west-central part of the country. To add to the mqsterq, the press and television, no doubt on government instructions, do not breathe a word of the "i~r~perial" presence. For the rest~ the officials give very bad treatment to those in- discreet people who try to seek out the exile. At Gagnoa, according to some people,.it would be impoasible to.ahow interest in him without calling upon oneself the worse kind of unpleasatttness from the security services. How- ever, his atays in Abid~an do not go uanoticed: the number of armed guards, patrolling around the residence for illustrious gueste, suddenly increases in a significant way.... However, in spite of the strict security measures (and perhaps measures of discretioa imposed upon him), Jean-Bedel ~okassa makes himself talked about, 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ even if thE local press ignores him. Both Ivory Coast justice and French justice have seized upon his complaint ag~inet French businessman Bernard Tapie, whom Bokassa accusea of having "awindled" him by di~honestly depriving - him of his chateaux and other propet.ty in France (se~ JEUNE AFRIQUE No 992 and No 998). Although the matter has not yet been cleared up, it is believed to be a fact that Bernard Tapie o~res aeveral million dollars to the former non-com~issioned officer of the Colonial Army....As for the French bueinesa- man, he maintaina he awes nothing. At anq rate, he might have declared, the proceeds from the sale of ~Bokassa'e posaeeaions would go to UNICEF (United Nations Fund for Children). Might not the deposed earperor's atay in Abid~an be a kind of recog~ition of a debt~ a service rendered bq President Felix _ Houphouet-Boigny to a"friendlq" foreign power? That is reported. At any rate, it is poeaible only because the "old man," faithful to his friends, still controls, at 74 years, the country and the single party (Ivory Coast Democratic Party--PDCI) with a firm hand. Which explains the discreCion _ which surroumds the "butcher of Bangui." _ COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1980 12116 CSO: 4400 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . - . . _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 roK oF~~rcrAr, ~JSr: orr~.~ ANGOLA CUBANS STILL PRESENT DESPITE REPORTEDLY LOW MORALE Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1010,14 May 80 p 33 [Article by Francois Soudan] [Text] It is called the History of a Betrayal. Some 45 minutes of shocking images, montage of f ilmed documents and photographs of archi~es, which the propaganda.section of the aingle Angolan party has been taking from town to - village across the country for two months. The "betrayal" is, of course, that of Jonas Savimbi, the leader of the uaconquerables of UNITA [National Union for the Total Independence of Angola] who are sti11 carrying on sporadic guerrilla actions in the south. For the Luanda authorities, the goal of the operation is twofold: to discredit the rebel chief a little more, but also to legitimize the presence of the Cuban "internationalist comrades" at the time when manq rumors are speaking of their imminent departure from Angola. Jonas Savimbi and his 3,000 men are in fact in a critical position. L~ren if they still enjoy a strong current of support among the Ovimbudu peasants, even if they succeed from time to time ia carrying out a few audacious raids--like the one at the beginning of January which got all the way to the gates of Munenga, 200 Km south of Luanda--the guerrilla fighters of - UNITA are more and more feeling the effects of isolation. In Africa only three countries are still sheltering the UNITA diplomats as they pass through: Ivory Coast, Senegal and Morocco- which would involve a few cadres,from the FALA (Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola, the armed branch of the movement). Besides, Fraace, interested in Angola petroleum, seems to have turned its back on Savimbi; the United States is probably getting ready--finally--to recognize the Angolan I,uanda Government. China itself has not furnished weapons for some time. There remains South Af~ica, _ which shelters the UNITA camps, but which seems ready to "abandon" the movement if Angola does the same with regard to the Namibian SWAPO. Hence, no doubC, th~ vast "tournament of explanations" carried out by an uneasy Savimbi in Washington, London, Bonn, Paris and Rabat in late 1979 and early 1980. Amoag other declarations, Savimbi, for example, declared that he was on the point of proclaiming a"free Angolan republic" in the three provinces of 19 - FOR OFFICIAL USE UN~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 rOR OFI~ICIAL IJS1: ONLY the south, and that the Soviets were constructing in Tiger Bay, on the Atlantic Coast, a missile-launching base. Still according to the UNITA leader, Fidel Castro would be preparing to repatriate all his ,troops from Angoia, "because their security is more and more threatened by the actions of our valiant FALA." In fact, 4 and 1/2 years after their arrival, the bearded ones seem rather in the process of becoming permanent. Today they amount to 20,000 soldiers and 6,500 technicians, teachers and doctors. This is certainly a much smaller number than in 1976 (they had reached the overall total of 50,000) but it has not decreased in 2 years. Because of a f ew stunning setbacks, the Cubans have been removed f rom the ~ vital domains of the economy (petroleum and mines) and the security services (taken over by East Germans). The Cubans are still training the popular militia and providing for the country's sanitary establishment, they fight with UNITA with varying degrees of success and try to get agricultsral production going again--in spite of the incursions of armed b ands claiming to belong to Holden Roberto and his FNLA in the great coffee plantations of Kwanza Norte. It is true, on the other hand, that the morale of the Cubans is rather gloomy. It is enough to listen to the soldiers who have returned from - Angola, in Havana, Cameguey or Santiago, to realize that their stay on the other side of the Atlantic has hardly aroused any revolutionary enthusiasm. Finally, it is much more that feeling of being bogged down which weighs on the Cubans rather than any threat against their security. For the time - being, there is no questian of the bearded onea leaving Angola: the People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola [FAPLA] have not yet acquired the necessary organization and training to face the ~oint raids of UNITA and South African commandos alone. Kundi Payama, the minister of the interior and president Dos Santos, who went to Havana in February and in March were not mistaken. Both of them demanded a reinforcement of the Cuban military cont~ngent. COPYRIGHT: Jeane Afrique GRUPJIA 1980 12116 CSO: 4400 20 FOR OFFICIru. USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R004200100042-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ANGOLA BRIEFS POSTAL AGREEMENT WITIi GDR--A government agreement of cooperation in the � area of postal services between the GDR and Angola was signed 25 A,pril in East Berlin. According to the East German agency ADN, this agreement pro- vides in particular for the establishment of "stable and regular" postal and telecommunications relations between the two countriQS, as well as technical cooperation in this area. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1110] 9589 EXCHANGES t~?ITH SOCIALIST COUNTRIES--Angola's commercial exchanges with the main socialist countries have been establi.shed as follows (according to the respective national statisCics) during the past 2 years for which com- plete data are available: --with the USSR (in millions of rubles, 1 ruble equals approximately 6.43 French francs (FF): in 1977, exports to Angola, - 69.2, aad imports from Angola,~10.4; irs 1978, exports to Angola, 47.8, and imports from Angola, 9.6; --with Poland (in millions of zlotys, 1 zloty equals approxima.tely 0.13 FF): in 1977, exports to Angola, 27.7, and imports from Angola, 53.4; ia 1978, exports to A,ngola, I13.3, and imports - from Angola, 22.4; --with Romania (in uri.llions of lei, 1 lei equals - approximately 0.95 FF): in 1977, exports to Asigola, 27.9, and imports from Angola, ; in 1978, exports to Aagola, 36.8, and imporCs from Angola, 59.5; --with the Gernian Democratic Republic (in mi.llions of GDR ma.rks, 1 mark approximately 2.38 FF) : total of exchanges 236 in 1977 and 233.7 in 1978. [Text] IParis MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1110~ 9589 POLISH CONSTRUCTION MATERIEL--Ten large front-end loaders have arrived in Luanda from Poland. They will be followed by another purchase, consisting of 45 caterpillar tractors, af~er the 260 which had been delivered in re- cent years. This construction materiel will be maintained by a maintenance station established by Poland in Luanda in 1979. [Text] [Paris AFRIQUE- ASIE in French No 215 9-22 Jun 80 p 27] CSO: 4400 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CAMEROON PRESIDENT ARMADOU AHIDJO INTERVIEWED Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 18 Apr 80 pp 900-906 [Interview with Ah~adou Ahid~o, Preaident of the United Republic of Cameroon date and place of interview, n8me of interviearer not given ] ~Text] [QueationJ In the opening speech of the Third Congress of the Cameroonian National Union at Bafoussam, qou declared that "it is under the aign of the mastery of our development" that the congress was situated. Is that aign to be considered as belonging to the�"planned liberaliam" which, up to now, has been the principle of your development policq? [Anawer] ~f the Douala Congress in 1975 was that of maturity, the Bafoussam Congress was placed under the siga of the mastery of our development thanks to a better control over the mechaaisms ~nd over Che process of our growth by anticipation, planning, and applying reason and morality to economic activities. In fact, confr~nting the demands of today and thoae which Cameroon must face at the dawn of the 21st century, it seemed neceasary to watch attentively over what must still be the final goal of our development, to keep up both its rate and .quality,at the saue time that we are improving them, by always - consolidating evea more the economic app~oratus and by increasing it,s yield. I have always maintained and I repeat naw that there is no real progress except that whinc ~arriea poaitive values which have been tested by civili- zation. It must elevate man and all men unceasingly in their being and in their poasessions. For Cameroon has chosen the cause of mankind both as a goal and a zueaas of development, for man to be the mester of hia deetiny, the ~udge and the beneficiary of his well-being. It is for that reason that while compltting our option of planned liberalism, pursui~ng and reinforcing ehe option of self-reliant development, the maetery of our development d~mands a seeking out of the ways and means that caa lib- erate us from a grcwth modeX where qual~.ty, rate and goals would tend to get out of the control of the principal beneficiary of that grawth which i8 the Cameroonian man. This is a question of the deliberate will of the 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Gamerooaians to asawne firat of all their own development ~ before trying to make that development profit the various outside cooperr ',rs. Thus~ at the`end of 20 yeare of undeniable but neceasarily insufficient prog- ress, at the dawning of difficult and uncertain times, it has certainly be- co~pe necessary for the Camerooaians ~ by a new conscious choice, to engage themselvea in continuing aad in perfecting the work that has been begun, but by chenneling it~ by containing it, by harm~nizing it. [Question] That mastery appeare to the attentive obaervers of Cac~roon all the more neceseary since in the year 2000 the Cameroonian population will - riae to 16 or 17 million inhabitants and the active population to 5 or 6 million workers. Zn your policy--on the geaeral level of development--are - you takin g into account that demographic growth and the problema of educa- - tion and employment that it will preaent? ~ [Answer] The mastery of our meana for development necessarily implies taking into consideration that very important factor which is de~ographic growth. As I atated at Bafoussam, in the year 2000 the population of Cameroon will rise to 16.5 million inhabitants; that figure will grow to 40 million in the _ year 202 S and it is quite obvioue that the active population and the student population will follow the same evolution and in the same proportions. That perspective could not leave us indifferent or be lost from view. It was also necessary from that very moment to call upon all the resources in the imagination of the people for rationalization and mastery of their behavior as well as their creative apirit so that the strategy of economic growth may include the problems presented by demographic expansion, education and em- ployment in our entire development syatem. Camerooa has one of the highest rates of school attendance in Africa and its active population is large. It is for that reason that the reform of our educational sysCem has establiahed the faculties of adaptation of the Cameroonian man as ob~ectives to be pursued by promoting a national policy of long-range and im~ediate preparation for profesaional activity Dy the - rapid and efficient transformation of a great number of persona into pro- - ductive work forces, the constant improvement of the level of capacitation of the people, an adaptation of the programs and methods and techniques of ~ profesaional training to~the demands of national development. In putting our employment policy into operation, we believe that it will be necessary to create a center for coordination, acting as a data bartk and a 2abor exchange, which would include a permanent inventory of the poesibili- ties of placement. This center of admiaistrative and technical coordination of activities connected with employment, training and education would make - up the national commission for nationalization of jobs. Also, the facilities to be granted to investors will be a function of the capacity of the new c~mpaniea to create a great numiber of ~obs, and that 23 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - action ahould double with the creation of m~chaAiams to control the execu- tion of the obligationa taken on by the inveatora. Finally, the assessment for profeaeioael training to which the enterprises are sub~ected must be reconaidered. [Question~ The job problem is already preaent and at Bafoussam, emphasizing ita seriousness, you indicated that the diepositions of the Investment Code should be again brought up to date with the intention of favoring the crea- tion of a larger number of ~obs. What measures are envisioned for that purpose? [Answer) I think that I hat�t already suswered the first part of your ques- tion. I ahall therefore limit mqself to answering the second part. Cameroon is carrying on a policy of overall social development tending to progressively tranaform passive social assistance into ~oint assistance and participation, in other worda to prepare the people to help themselves. Thia could not excuse the atate from granting its aid under various forms to the needy and to the handicapped. Conacious of the fact that there cannot be any real balanced economic devel- opment without socisl juetice, we are trying within the limits of the possi- ble to progresaively limit insecurity and in~ustice in the condition of the worker. It is thus that wagea are constantly beiag revised; increases are al~ays regressive, to the profit of the neediest social categories. This is the action that we wiah to continue within the framework of our policy of social ~ustice, assured equally to all the people by a progressive redistribution of the fruits of grawth specifically in the domain of housing and collective transport. [Question] The doubling of the Cameroonian population between now and the year 2000 wi11 certainly bring with it a growing urbanization. Certain ex- perte estimate that the population of the citiea will amount to 9 million inhabitants by the end of the century. Are there suy plans for urban devel~- opment and for a policy of modernization in preparation for that increaee? At the same time is there any policy for checking the rural exodus? ~Answer] In Ca~eroon thexe is a clear and conetant increase in urbanization arrd in the modernization of housing. It is for thie purpoae that organiza- tions. like the Houeing Companq of Cameroon, the Land Credit and the Mission for Management and Equipment of Urban and Rural Lots [MALTUR] have been - created. It ia al$o for thia purpose that a ministry in charge of Urbaaism and Hausing has been created. It is however neceasary to recognize that faced with the rapid growth of the - population, the big cities, because of the attraction that they have on tihe citizens of the countryside, cannot welcome all Cameroonians. The problem 24 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the rurai e~codus is therefore of concern and aolutions are necessary be- fore it can be checked. At first, it is neceesary to create aepiration~s and awaken eaergy aawng the rural masees by ensuring the development of commnmity activities in the countryside in a cooperative framework; it ia also necessary to guaraatee a ~ust remun~ration for agricult~iral products, improve the organization of the rural way of life with the aim of malcing the cowntryside more attractive, guarantee the granting of facilities for setting up young people and allow- . ~ ing them access to ownership. In the end, it is a question of acting in such a way that the village com- munity will become a living realitq on the human scale offering a balanced framework of management. It is therefore a queation of a real and complete renovation of the rural enviromnent in order to make the village com,ommity _ into a political, economic, social and cultural unit, revitalized and con- sequently viable. . [Queation] Before the Bafoussam Congreas, all the provincial governora, all the party sections received a queationnaire to asaociate them with the re- aearch into the directions which are to become those of the Fifth Plan. Can ' you give us some more precise data on the overall directiona that that ques- - tionnaire has advanced? (Anawer] If we took that initiative, it was with the goal of associating all - Cameroonians with the reaearch into the~directions which will be the direc- tiona of the country during the next 5 years. It is that association and - that participation which are guiding our actiona. This is the place to coa- gratulate ouraelves on the resulta of that masaive and enriching consultation, whoae results are being felt in the general orientation and the resolutions taken by the Congress. [Question] Tomorro:: Cameroon mey have petroleum revenues available which will be added to its present revenues, principallq based, as is known, on the ex- ports of raw materials. Would it be possible for you to let us know how qour petroleum revenues will be used? Will they be devoted m~re to the development of economic infra- structures and to great industrial pro~ects rather thaa to the development of the social and cultural infrastructures, or vice versa...? [Anawer] As you know, the public receipts, whatever their source~ are not - assigned a specific destination as a function of their origin. I will simply declare to you that the determination of development priorities is an sutono- m~us process, which is in no Way dependent on the nature of the various public resources. That having been stated, the petroleum revenues are public receipts like the others aad will contribute, as part of the resources of the state, to the financing of national development within the framework of the priorities out- lined in the Plan. . 25 ~ ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY { : , , , . _ _ < _ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is obvious that according to our established comception economic devel- opment properly called~ especially that of the infrastructures and of pro- ducti~re operatiane~ which condition social progrese, muet atill have priority. [Question) In the same way and oa a more general level~ how do you envisage - as of now the financing of economic and social development in Cmneroon, taking petroleum into account? For example, in the Fifth Plan, what will be the shares of internal and foreign financiag? Will borrowing be an exception or - will it become an easential meana of finaacing? _ ,lnswer] For the moment, the receipta from our petrolewa production are still very modest with relation to the other receipts an~d chiefly with regard to our immense financing needs. The financing of our economic and social developm~at will certainly be assured in part by thia new source of revenue. However, on the whole and more partic- ularly within the Fifth Development Plan, which i~ now being draWa up, the structure of our financing will probably not unde~go anq ma~or change with relation to the preceding periods. Cameroon will therefore continue as in the past, r~e the casea occur, aud with- in the measure of its capacitq for repayment, to call on foreign loans taking _ into accouat its enormoua needs for financing. - [QuestionJ Within the same order of ideas, what dcu you understand by "the mastery of the centera of decision in Cameroonian banka" that qou spoke of , in your report to the Cozigreas of the IINC? (Anawerj One of the ma~or concerns of the Cameroornian banking refora~was and still is the masterq of the ceaters of decieian i~ the banks operating in our - country. Thie concern aims at making thia formerly foreign-oriented sector an instrument of choice in the financing of our development. This reform specifically called upon the banks: --to be consxituted either in the form of a corpo~ation or in the fortn of a limited joint stock company aud as such to be corp~orations under Cameroonian law. It must be noted in this reapect that befor~ that reform, the foreign .banks w~re content to open simple aganciea in Cameroon ruled bq the laws of the country they were from; --to reserve at least one-third of their capital for Cameroonian public in- teresta, that percentage proportionally giving th~ right to active partici- pation to general assemblies and to adminiatrativ~ councils inside which importaat decisiona are taken With regard to oriea~ting the activities of the banks; --to be directed by Camerooaians; it is thus that, with rare exceptions ~usti- fied by technical conatrainta and for a time that is necessarilq limited, the manageaient of all banks is and ahould be aeaumed by Cameroonians. 26~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Additionally, all the presidents of the boards of directors of the banks are chosen by the government from amcng the Cameroonian adminiatrators and the repreaentation of public intereate is assured not only on the highest level of bank management, but also on the level of specialized and technical com- mittees, which are inveated by delegation with certain powers of decision. [Question] At Bafouseam, you also indicated that the industrial development of Cau~roon will speciglize in "intensifying the policy of transforming local materials and the creation of agro-industrial c:omplexes covering great areas." What kinds of financing do you plan to call on for carrying out this ob~ec- tive? What will be the share reeerved to private Cameroonian capital and _ fo~eign private capital and what more generally will be the ahare of the Cameroonian and foreign private aectors ia the Cameroonian economy? (MeWer] Aa in fact I emphasized in my speech on general policy to the Bafoussam Congreas, the agricultural sector will for a long time still be the key sector of our economic development. Also we ehall continue to put our emphasis on increasing the value of that sector by encouraging the trans- formation of local raw aiater3als on the spot, specifically by the creation of large agro-induetrial complexes. Since such projects need large investments, a call on foreign capital will - certainly be made. At the same time, we shall spare no effort on the one hand to stimulate local savings and the participation of private Cameroonian capital in the financing of our projects and, oa the other hand, to encourage afruitful association between the foreign private aector and the national private sector. (Question~ Can you tell me as of now what the total amount of the 1980-I981 budget is and what ita economic and social priorities are? In your next ~ budget has an increase in credtts extended to public investmeata been granted in the sector of infrastructures, since certaia inveatment programs were de- layed in 1979-1980? [AnswerJ Since the 1980-1981 budget is atill being drawn up, it is premature to determine its total amotmt and the priorities which, as is cu~tomary, will ~ be the aub~ect of compromises on the governmeat level before they are examined and approved by the National Asaembly. As far as the investment budget is concerned, I have givea strict inatructions to the various responsible people in the miniaterial departments to take care to speed up the rate of consumption of those credits. I muat declare that in addition to the development of agriculture which is still the prioritq sector as I have already ~mphasized, we shall exert a more - suatained effort on infrastructures. (Question] Judging that criticism is a"sign of health," you have cited a certain number of intervening organiems created within the framework of the 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 'I , . . . . . ..,W, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Cameroonian policy of planned liberaliam which have not effectively carried out their misaions. You have criticized the participation of the atate in the industrial enterpriaes and qou have announced a new approach to "privi- leged superviaion." What measures do you intend to take so that those criti- cisms will not have to be made again in the future? [Anewer] In order to remedy tbat deplorable situation, we shall watch to see that that participation is more selective and that the supervision is better adapted to permit private initiative to fully asaume its responsibilitiea. It must be hoped that the measures to be talcen concerning state participation in induatrial enterprises aad the new approach in privileged supernision wtll - contribute to forestalling or correcting the observed errors. [QuestionJ The Camerooaian Adminiatration has the reputation of working seri- ~ ously but at timea it aeems to have the defects o� its virtuea. What measurea has your government taken, on the eve of the Fifth Plan, to permit a simpli- fication and a speeding up of administrative procedures in the iaterests of the country itself, when for example it ie a question of the docwaentation of investments that are proj,ected? [AnswerJ It ie obviously difficult to conciliate the need for serious and efficient control with the need for a speed-up in the atudy of the invest- ment documenta. I honestly believe that it is not in the interest either of the admin~.stration or of the investors to precipitate the taking of decisions without thoroughly measuring in advance all the consequences on the level of the overall economq. We are aware of the effort which must still be made to make our administra- ` tion into a more and more efficient instrument in the service of development. I recall hawever that I have alreadq prescribed a rather rigorous procedure and timetable to the members of the government concerning the study of the investment files. I must aleo emphaeize that certain reco~nnendationa of ~ the Administrative Problem Technical Study Committees, established in February 1977; have been applied. I will cite among others: --the reiaforcement of the powers of the chiefs of the administrative divi- siona for the purpose of speeding up the central aervices; . --the suppression of certain administrative oversighte which unnecessarily delayed their passage through the departmants; --the centralization of the procedure of drawing up contracts for the public marketa in order to reduce the tinae apent on that procedure; --the reviaion now being made of the Investment Code in order to adapt it to . the ne~w demands of our economic development. [Queation) In your apeech at Bafoussam you regretted the "disilluaioning re- aulte" of the North-South Dialogue and the recent setback of the Fifth UNGTAD. To what causes do qou esaentially attribute that lack of resulta? 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 r~ux ur~r'IC1AL USE ONLY The member countries of the OECD, and particularly the member countries of the Europe~n Economic Conmannity who renewed the Lome Convention with the ACP [Aa~erican, Caribbean and Pacific CountriesJ know that they have devoted more efforts and more reeources than others have in the development of the Third wortd countries. They had the impreesion at the Third General Conference of UNIDO at New Delhi that those efforts, even if they were ineufficient, were not recognized. Does that intpression seem to you to be justified? If it is, wouldn't it be likely to cause a certain discouragement on their part? [Answer] It is in fact unanimouslq admitted that the North-South Dialo&ue, and more generally all the pledged agreements tending to modifq the economic xelations between the developed countries and the developing count~ies in the direction of equity, for a"new international economic order," have not given the results that people had a right to expect of them. In fact, the principal ob~ectives given to those agreements have not been achieved, for example: --the need to organize a new international division of labor; --the reevaluation of r~w materials, particularly those of agricultural ori- gin, especially by inatituting remunerative prices, the atabilization of ex- port receipts, as well as measures ensuring the transformation of the raw materials in the producing countries; --putting international economic and monetary relationa on a healthy basis with the aim of intensifqing the flow of capital toWard the developing coun- tries under acceptable conditions and according to acceptable methods. In our opinion, that absence of ~esulte is easentially due to the lack of a political desire to bring the matter to a head which predominates on the level of the rich countries~ and correlatively in the lack of a real desire to nego- tiate on the part of the developed countriea. Those countries, wrapped up in their selfishness and their desire for domination~ refuse to recognize the grawing interdependence of the economies and of the desire of the poor coun- tries to participate in the general development. They do not admit the idea - of a development model granting more respect to the essential needs of the poor countries and the establiahment of more balanced and ~uster relatioiia of cooperation. , _ It is also fitting to emphasise that the resiatance of the developed countries ~ ie all the stronger because the new international order to which our countriea legitimately aspire should be not only economic but political. The fiual dec- laration of the Colombo Confereace (August 1976) is clear in this regard, when it specifies as I quote: "It is undeniable that au inherent ~onnection exists between politics and economica, and it is erroneous to envisage economic quea- - tions in isolation without taking into acccunt the political questions. A total modi~ication of the political attitudes and the m~ifestation of a new political will are indispensible preliminary conditions if we wish to set up a new international economic order." (Ead of quotatioa.) i 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ! Under different circwnstances we have paid homage t~o the positive aepects of the agreements binding the countries of the European Economic Community to the countries of Africa~ the Caribbean and the Pacific, especially concern- ing exchange rates, the stabilizatiou of export receipts and the agreement on sugar, financial assistaace, inst:;:utional dispoaitions etc. We consider the EEC-ACP Convention as containing the gremisea of a new kind of relationship between Europe and the developing countries, as an evolutiotial approach on the difficult road to putting a new world-wide economic order into effect. In fa~t, its value is in the hopea that it opens and in the reali8tic approach which has permitt~d the moet sensitive problems of the developing countries economiea to be taken into coasideration. However, let us declare this, if the EEC-ACP agreement preaents the premises of a new kind of rela~ tionship, if it represente a step forward in the present situation of the _ iaegalitarfan world in which we live, it cannot pretend to have solved every- thing. The asperity of the argument8 which concluded that agreement and the resentn~ents expressed there, bear witness to it. Thus, if withia the framework of UNIDO, the efforts of the European Econom3.c Community and ttwse of the member couatries of the OECD appear to have been minimized, it is without doubt because the ACP partnera conaider the progress made in the realm of sid for iaduatrialization as particularly insufficient. The ob~ective aet at Lome in 1975 by the second general conference of UNIDO to raise the industrial production of the Third World at the end of this century to 25 percent of world production ia far from being achieved. And everything allaws us to believe that at the preaent rate that production will not go beyond 13 percent in the year 2000! The ACP strongly hope to be endowed with the necessary infrastructures for _ their industrial development and to be assured of openings on the European market for their industrial products. They are demanding in fact a new inter- national division of labor. In this context, the creation of a"center for industrial development" may seem laughable when the ACP are inaistently de- manding the creation af an induetrial development fuad--distinct from the EDF--endowed with its own budget, in whos~ management they will be associated. These demands by the ACP on the methoda to be put into action to favor a closer industrial cooperation, demands that met with disillueionment on the level of the general conference of UNIDO at New Delhi should on the contrary lead the member countries of the EEC, already engaged in making daring inno- vat3ons in the relationa between industrialized countriea and developing countries~ to again take up the negotiations with a view of defining a new policy of industrial cooperation which would effectively permit the develop- ing couatries to industrialize themselves and to participate in the inter- national division of labor in that domain. - [Q~~astion) However, up to now the cooperation of Camerocn with France and the other countries of the EEC seems to have given you satisfaction. For the 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 r'OK UFFICIAL USE ONLY eventual growth of that cooperation, what would be your suggestion, on the one hand concerning Franco-Cameroonian cooperation and on the other hand the cooperation of Cameroon with Western Europe? At the same time, do you hope for a more active collaboration with the other western countries, Americane (United States and Canada) and Europeans (not members of the EEC)? [Answer] It is only ~ust to recognize that our cooperation with France is exemplary in every way. Cooperation with the other countries is also giving us legitimate motives for satisfaction. That does not mean that the coope~a- _ tion of Cameroon with France and with the other EEC countries is exclusive or that it entirely our immense needs. We are open to ceoperation without regard to frontiers as soon as it promises reciprocal advantages, a reapect for our sovereignty and our independence and if it doe$ not ~sean in- terference or aligament. Our cooperation, which is greater and greater with the western countries in ganeral, the United States, Canada, etc.~ proceeds from that philosophq. For the eventual growth of that cooperation, our suggestions would be placed csa tvn 1 aval a� 1) in the immediate future: - a) a growth in the volume of financial resourcea to be tranaferred from the pledging countries to our country; the fulfillment of the ob~ective fixed for the second decade of development, or in other words an aid from the developed countries equal to 0.7 percent of their GNP. And taking into account the possibility, it would not be excessive to hope that that sid would reach 1 percent of the GNP. A reatructuring of the debt and making the conditiona for aid more flexible are part of that objectiv~. In the case of France~ in this context, we shall be led to request the assiat- ance accrued within the framework of the FFAC [Aid and Cooperation Fund] and in the Central Fund for Economic Cooperation (first and second wickets par- ticularly) to financ~ our great projects for production and to buy equipment. b) the intenaification and the diveraification of cooperation for the reali- zation of our communication, health, education and cultural infrastructures. c) n greater assistance for the training of technical cadres and a better underetanding for traasferring technology. 2) In a progressive way, and with a care for integrating the development of cooperation in the pursuit of our claim for a new international economic ~ order, we are adopting as our own the proposals generally formulated by the Third World countriea, as follows: a) a regulation of the raw material markets and of basic products, according to cases; stockpiling provisions in order to stabilize the receipts that they 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY get from trade in those producte in real terms, in other words at price levels indexed on the prices of the industrial products that they import; of a reevaluation of the prices of those products~ in order to take into account the ever-present inflation and the fluctuations in exchange rates, for the purpose of ameliorating the terms of exchange for the producers; snd encouragement for traneforming thoae products in their countries of origin. b) some ~easures fgcilitating access to the marketa of the developed coun- tries for the basic products and the materials as well as for the manu- factured products of our cotmtries, which involvea the suppression of tariff and non-tariff obstacles to the entry of manufactured artieles from our coun- tries into the industrialized countries inventive measures to faci?itate in- dustrial investments and the transfers of techaology to our countries. c) taking into consideration the cultural dimenaion of the cooperation equa- tion, so that the affirmation of the cultural idenities of our countries and the search for social m~dele of our awn will not constitute an obatacle to the development of cooperation. (Queation~ In 1978 and 1979, "Cameroonian Days" were organized in France and in the Federal Republic.of Germany. Were you satisfied with those two promo- tional events in Europe? . What concreze reaults have you obtained from them? Are any promotional events anticipated in I980 and 1981? [AnsWer~ In fact, in 1976 and 1978 Cameroon organized some Economic Days in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also, in 1979 an investment . miasion went to the United Statea of A,merica and to Canada. Those days and misaians had~as their esaential gaals: --to make Cameroon an~ its economic potentials better known abroad; --to encourage private investmettt in Cameroon. c?n the Whole I must declare that thoae operations were a great success and were Warmly welco~ned by the business circlea in the countries visited. As a result we have seen since then a ne~a interest in busineas circles in invest- ing in Cameroon. For example, we are atill receiving missions of business- men who come to inquire on the apot about the possibilities of investment or perhapa to continue negotiating the arrangements begun at the time of their ~ ourneys . If it is difficult to quote to you statistical data on the results of those promotional events, one thing is sure, and that ia that they have had a very real impact on strengthening economic relations between Cameroon and the coun- tries we visited, especially on the trade level and in the sector of small and medium enterprise. Finally, we.think that the outcome of those promotional events has established a greater underatanding between our partners and ourselves to the degree where 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY our objectivea and our concerns on the queation of development have been better perceived and better understood. We ahall therefore continue such promotion in other countries, eapecially Spain, Italy, Belgium and the - Netherlands in coming years. [QueatfonJ The industrial cooperation of the PMI [small and medium indus- trieaj--French or not--with Africa is developing and we know that Cameroon considers it an iadiapensible means for its industrialization. What have you anticipated to stimulate it't What are the formulas that seem to qou the most effective for conciliating the interests of the Cameroonian enterprisea and the PMI? [Answer] The promotion of small and medium enterprises with Cameroonian capi- = tal and directors constitutes an important atepping-atone in our development policy aince we believe that this sector, Which needa a relatively modest financial inveatment and which pute~into action relatively unsophisticated technology, can even better, as an initial etep, respond to our needs. From this point of view the government hopes for and encourages the conetitution in Cameroon of a real class of small Cameroonian buainesamen not only to favor the activities of retail businesa, but also to create ~obe as well as to create an embryo of industry chiefly in the secondary cities. To this effect the government has eatablished provisions permitting assistance to enterprises both on the 8tudy level and on the financing level and on the realization of projects. The National Asaistance Center for Small and Medium Enterprise, whose role was limited up to now to assistance in management, has been assigned - - the mission of encouraging projects by Cameroonian promotere in the idea stage and the creation of amall and medium Froduction enterprises. The Aid and Guarantee Fund, whose resources are con~tantly growing, guarantees the credits granted to small and medium enterprisea by commercial banks. . Finally, on the level of the ~lational Credit Council a request has.been made of the con~ercial banka to devote 20.percent of their rediacount quota to the financing of small and medium enterprises. All these measures should in the future be ab le to give a new impulse to the creation of PMI and we can see nothing but advantages in a close cooperation between Cameroonian enterprises and foreign PMI, the latter generally contributing technical knowledge and a complement of financing. [Question] In conformity with your principle of "cooperating without discrim- ination," do you hope--and under what form--to have closer relations on the econo~ic level with the "socialist" countries? Don't the interventions in Africa of certain of those countries seem to you to be of a kind to limit the extention of those relations for the time being? [Answer] What we declared earlier with relation to the que~tion asked earlier is valid as far as "socialist" countriee are concerned. 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We are pleased to emphasize the quality of the various kinds of cooperation that we are developing, especially with the People's Republic of China. In the same way the completion of the Dschang Agricultural School and that of the Mbalmayo School of Waters aad Forests by the USSR are a symbol of coop- eration between our two countries. You have brought up the "interventiona in Africa by certain socialist coun- tries" and their bearing on the development of cooperation with those coun- tries. We conaider that in that domatz each African country muat assume responsi- bility for ita own choices. As for us, we assume it fully and without any complexes and we are still vigilant so that the limits and the principles that we asaign to all cooperation worthq of that name are not overstepped. By that I ~aean that it must be an enterprise of solidarity with reciprocal benefits ar~d be respectful of the independence aad the sovereignty of each state. [Question] Aad the UDEAC [Customs and Economic Uaion of Central Africa]? Does its market offer today any interesting penetrationa for Cameroon? Would a broadening of UDEAC be possible? Could ECOWAS eventually be a "protective atructure" for Cameroon? ~Answer~ In apite of the inevitable difficultiea inherent in this kind of enterprise, the balance of UDEAC'a activities is eminently positive and we can judge that it has been consolidated as one of the moet solid foundations - for African unity and an eFfective inetrument for development in each one of our states. We think that a broadening of UDEAC is ob~ectively poasible, to the degree _ where all the states of the subregion satiafq the criteria which preaided over the creation of UDEAC, in other words the imparatives of geography, the conm~on historical heritage, ethnic affinities,, the neceseity of pooling their e�forts and their resources in regional cooperative organisms constituting realistic~ articulated and coherent economic wholes. UDEAC is therefore in principle an organization open to all the countries of the subregion which are animated by a political desire to partiaipate in the developmental efforts of our subregion as a whole. Of course, for several years Cameroon has been carrying on privileged rela- tions with most of the member countries of ECOWAS, but Cameroon is a Central African country and a founding member of UDEAC. Which means that it is diffi- - cult to envisage that ~COWAS can be "eventually a protective structure for Cameroon." Hawever, as we have stated, African uaity cannot be achieved ex- cept through concentric circles of solidarity which, etarting with a realistic regional cooperation, ~ill spread from one place to another as it awakens the conscience of the masaes until it ~eachea the continental scale. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In this context, it is the approximation of ECOWAS to UDEAC which should be eventually sflught. [Question] While examining in your report to the Congrese the deficit of Cameroon`s trade balance you announced some possible adminietrative measures for dealing with a crisis. What will those measures be? The ONCPB [National Basic Necessitiea Marketing ~ffice]--~whose leading role in Cameroon's foreign trade must be emphasized--will it have ite resources increased in order to insure an even more active promotion of basic products on the international - - markets? (AnsWer] In fact, in my report to the Congress, as I spoke of the deficit in the trade balance, a balance which, it must be pointed out, is easentually _ due to the effort undertaken by the government to industrialize the country, I announced that I was going to take a certain number of ineasures for the purpose of correcting that imbalance. On the sub~ect of ineasures of an administrative tqpe, there is room to mention: --the regulation of imports of products whose domestic supply is sufficient; --a more rigorous selection of products to be admitted free of duties and taxes within the framework of the public markets; --a reinforcement of customs control in the border posts; --an effective establishment of the National Center for Foreign Trade; --the creation of a bank for foreign trade. Finally~ the most important structural measures will bear on the increase of our capacitiea for induatrial and agricultural production. In tihe same way the communication infrastructures will be strengthened and a way sought to diversify our partners. As far as the National Basic Necessities Marketing Office [ONCPB] is con- - cerned, an increase in its resources is the function on the one hand of the volume of the products marketed and on the other hand that of the acceptance - of those products on the international market. However, taking into account the mission which has been assigned to that organization, it is evident that we shall put everything into action to grant sufficient meana to permit it ;.a play an effective role in the promotion of our basic products. I must add that the promotional activities carried out by the office are further complemented on the one hand by those of the ecoaomic and trade missions of Cameroon in foxeign countries and or? the other hand by thoae which the National Center for Foreign Trade will soon undertake. In a general way~ no effort will be spared to make our trade policy more enterprising, more active than in the past. [Question] Finally, on the international level you have often spoken of Cameroon's unity with the atruggles of the peoplea for their independeace. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 ~ ` FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ However, you have stated that "in spite of the changes that have taken pYace in Che team in power in Pretoria, the apartheid policy of the racist South ~ African Government has not undergone any modification." Certain n~embers of South African Prime tdiniater Botha's party have been finding fault with him on the contrary for too great a liberalism in the policy if not the Co~al re- nuncfation of the "mnnagement" of apartheid. Do you Chink that if the present South African Government gave proof of liberalism as compared to its predeces- _ sors t~e African states ahould accept h~ving contacts with it or that no con- tact is possible without the prelim3.nary renunciation of the apartheid policy~ [AnswerJ It is a fact that until recent times no important change has taken place in the inhuman apartheid policy of :he racist South African Government. Unless the "vertical" modification is considered as progress. At the same time we must conaider that with the effect of a certain number af factore--the political ieolation of South Africa~ the reprobation of the international community, the presaure of the blacks in South Africa who, under the resolute impulse of the liberation movements, the ANC and the PAC, have the coursge to challenge the onerous police syst~m and the scoundrelly South African laws, and finally the liberation of tY~e countries which sur- round South Africa (Angola, Mozambique) , the recent triumph of the Patriotic ~ Front in Zimbabwe, the probable eiictory of SWAPO in Namibia,--the raciats have been brought to think about the ineaorabls course of history. Thus the most realistic of those raciats, especially Prime Minister Botha, believe that they can channel the powerful breath of liberty by "managing" apartheid, which would consist in weakening certain provisions called "petty apartheid" and also to promote to a certain degree a black petit-bourgeoisie. ~ut we must not give in to any illusinns. In South Africa, it will always be a question of the same reality: racial oppression, the cynical and - limitless domination of the majority by a minority. It wil.l always be a question of the same absurdity: that of a system which bases its reason for being on contempt and the denial of equality among men and which erects the superiority of the white man endo~wed with power into a doctrine and scorns all the rights of the black man. In reality the management of apartheid does not change ihe basis of the problem. Fbr it is necessary Co consider that the South African problem goes beyond the simple recognition o� the claim for respect of the rights of man which postulate the equality of the races, the liberty of expression, and the equality of opportunity. Since South Africa is no one's colony, the South African problem is presented in the same terms as the Rhodesian problem. Its a question of terminating the shameful domination of the majority by a minority. Thus beyond the fact that South Africa is not ready to abandon ap~rtheid, ~hich it rightly or wrongly coasidere as a nec~aeity fc~r aurvival and for 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 I FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY the perpetuation of white domination, beyond the fact that it is not ready to envisage democratic practices and majority rule, the duty af the African - countries--ar rather the duty of all countries devoted to peace and liberty-- is to maintain a11 poeaible forme of preasure on South Africa in order to make it renounce its inhuman policy. In any case, Cameroon is not ready to establish contacts with South Africa - as long as the present state of affairs lasta. Cameroon urges all the coun- triea devoted to peace and libertq, whoae complacency in regard to South - Africa consolidates that country in its arrogance, to strive in the same - direction as the African countries for the triumph of ~ustice, morality, dignity and right in South Africa. COPYRIGHT: Rene rioreux et Cie Paria 1980 12116 CSO: 4400 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CAMEROON NEW COOPERATION AGREEMENT SIGNED WITH EEC Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1157 [Text] Financial aid f rom the European Development Fund (EDF) to Cameroon for the next 5 years will total between 65 and 77 million European account- ing units (19 an~ 22.5 billion CFA francs), according to an agreement signed in Yaounde on 30 A~.~ril between Klaus Meyer, general director of development of the EEC, and Pie~rre-Desire Engo, Cameroonian vice minister of economy and planning. - On the occasion of Meyer's visit, Engo expressed the position that it is vital for the future of cooperation between the EEC and associated nations that while it improve in quality, such cooperation must avoid any substan- tial reduction in volume. Engo referred to the repair of an initial section of the Douala-Yaounde railroad and the modernization of the port of Douala, two projects success- fully carried out, partly thanks to the assistance of the EEC. He also stated that the Cameroonian Government had already embarked upon the pro- cedure of ratifying the new Lome Convention. The agreement signed makes it possible to establish the provisional finan- cial and technical cooperation program within the framework of the Lome II Convention between Cameroon and the EEC. It specifies that 19.8 million accounting units (5,781,000,000 CFA francs) will be granted in the form of loans with special conditions and the rest in the form of nonrepayable _ aid. The final amount of the sum will be set at the time of the reexamination of the provisional program, which will take place, in accordance with the Lome II Convention, during the period covered by the agreement. Some 50 percent of the financial aid from the EEC will be for transporta- tion infrastructures, 30 percent for rural d~velopment, 5 percent for train- ing, 5 percent for health, and so~on. According fio the agreement, the European investment Bank may contribute to t~e financing of pro~ects, particularly in the industrial, agroindustrial, tourist, mining and energy sectors. 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At their work meetings, the EEC representatives indicated to Cameroonian leaders that the amount of financial resources that could be allocated for - regional projects in Central Africa (Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, the Central - African Republic, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Zaire) might be between 50 and 60 million accounting units (14.6 and 17.52 billion CrA francs) . The agreement indicates that Cameroon will also receive such aid by design- ing and proposing, in close cooperation with neighboring countries asso- ciated w~t:~ the EEC, projects aimed at promoting the econamic and social development of the region. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie., Paris, 1980 ~ 11,464 CSO: 4400 , 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CAMEROON BRIEFS CACAO PLANTING--On 15 April, an expert from the Ii'AO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Mr Bellon, visited the Cameroon.Development Corporation for the purpose of gathering all necessary informatian in order, at the request - of the Cameroonian Government, to draw up a national plan for the establish- ; ment of nurseries. The director of the Likomba cabbage palm plantation ~ explained the preparation of.the fruit of the oil. palm and the process of setting up nurseries, particularly f or coconut palms. Some 5,000 plants are produced by the Likomba i~ursery yearly. The two officials also discussed small plan~ation owners, the establishment of th~ir nurseries, the hauling of plants and harvests.and all factors affecting the drafting of the plan. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS 3.n Freneh 16 May 80 p 1157] 11,464 EXPLORATORY OIL DRILLING--According to a 9 May bulletin from the CFP [French Petroleum Company], more drilling done~on germit H17 in Cameroonian waters - off the coast of Victoria by Total Exgloration Production Cameroon, subsi- diary of the CFP, on behalf of an equal partnership with Mobil Exploration Equatorial Africa, has gone through a layer impregnated with oil. Tests are underway and the oil flow obtained confirms the quality of the reserve. It should be recalled that initial drilling on this permit in the summer of 1979 had already found signs of oil. Further work (seismic and drilling) should make it possible to measure the extent of the reserve and to evaluate the amount of oil it contains. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITER-- RANEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1157] 11,464 CSO: 4400 ' 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAD POLITICAL SITUATION IN CHAD ASSESSED Paris L'EXPRESS in French 12-18 Apr 80 pp 102-104 [Article by Jacques Buob: "Chad--The Explosion"] [Text] As with Sergio Leone, there is blood, dust, beating sun, friendship, bullets. And a final duel with an apocalyptic aspect. How can the war in Chad end if not with the death of one of the two heroes? For the point has been reached at which flight, negotiation, can no longer settle anything. At the end of the path of words, it is with blood that accounts are settle~. To what purpose the ceasefires, appeals for calm, mediation, so long as Hissene Habre and Goukouni Oueddei, combatants so close yesterday and so far apart today, remain face to face? Betrayed friendships engender the most adamant hatreds. What has become o� the Chadian National Liberation Front (FROLINAT) of the days in which the two men fought together among the rocks and the lunar mountains of Tibesti against the Nd3amena regime supported by Paris? When on the second day of this second battle of Nd3amena the two men met again for a last peace effort, they gave each other a paradoxical accolade imbued with the whole of their common past, their frustrated ambitions and their despairs. ~ Goukouni Oueddei, the frail and timid son of Derdei, the spiritual leader of the Tubu people, educated in~a Koranic school, speaks French imperfectly and has no Western cultural background. He who never traveled farther from _ his Tibesti than Tripoli, knew only the best of the colonial era with the camel-riding officers who administered the northern provinces, and the worst, with the paratroopers' repression. He lost two brothers. He learned to - mistrust servitude, to try to rally forces rather than impose his will. His hesitation and his doubt are his strength and his weakness. Hissene Habre, arrogant and sure of himsel~, is the son o~ a shepherd who was sent to Paris to study by a Freach officer won over by his intelligence. - From France t~e brought back diplomas and a good measure of realism and cynicism, an understanding of the wheels of politics and a style of speech which is bombastic but persuasive. 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , . . . : . . , _ . . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Habre for his part is no man for compromise. For him it is all or nothing. He is impatient. So different, these men together made a beautiful team. Together they made of the riffra�f of Tibesti a guerrilla army which stopped the French troops, and the kidnaping of Francoise Claustre contributed to catapulting the Tubu rebels into the forefront on the international scene. But how could these two leadera, who reapected each other and knew each other so well, have got along in the confines of Ndjamena, within the government itself, when the desert had already proved too small for both of them? They separated one day in 1975. Habre, to whom Goukouni had will- ingly yielded the leadership of the FROLINAT, was already pursuing a policy of stardom which was not much to the taste of the austere nomads of the North. The Claustre affair, wfiich Goukouni had not liked very much, had somewhat worsened their relations. The action in Libya, finally, which at that time promised France an African Vietnam, consummated the divorce. Habre wanted to engage in combat with Tripoli, while Goukouni preferred to wait until matters were settled with General Malloum's regime. Hissene - chose to leave. One fine morning he disappeared, taking with him into the desert some 50 faithful followers, to seek his fate elsewhere, leaying _ behind him no more than the print of his foot on the sand. Nothing has changed since. It is simply that the chasm between them has deepened further, to the point of becoming an abysm. Habre went off, _ opportunistically, to play the game of France, which saw in him a means of reconciling the Christian animists of the South and the Moslems of the North, while blocking the path of Libyan ambition. When a year ago Hissene Habre ousted General Malloum, whose prime minister he had been, - he still hoped to effect reconciliation with Goukouni Oueddei and to impose the unity of the strong on the factions in the South and all the others. But the weak Goukouni had not changed his ideas one iota. He wanted to - �negotiate unity for all, to be the great Chadian rallying force. They could no longer end this conflict except by engaging in a savage battle, finishing the destruction o~ one of the poorest cowntries in the world. So there they were face to face, these soldiers in fatigues looking as much alike as brothers, Hissene Habre`s Armed Forces of the North (FAN), with a - blue band on their shouiders, and Goukouni Oueddei's People's Armed Forces (FAP), with their white bands, cousins against cousins. They fought, and the torrid heat of noon did not stop them. For 20 days the successive - ceasefires did not calm their rage for battle, their desire to finish with it once and for all. And the blood flowed. A thousand dead, pexhaps, - during the first 2 weeks. Ndjamena emptied, and in the streets of its center, once filled with colorful costumes, nothing was to be seen but combatants, sometimes only children no taller than their Kalashnikovs, patrolling in the midst of the odor of death. Across the Chari, which marks the frontier with Cameroon, now in its low- water season, uninterrupted lines o~ Chadians streamed back and forth, during the lulls. At the central hospital a:~d university, in the midst 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , . , _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY combat zones, Red Cross teams and three international physicians operate and amputate on any available surface, without running water, splashing i about in blood. In the deserted city, some 15 FrenchmEn decided to remain at their risk and peril, because everything they have is here, not only their fortunes but a part of their past. The battle of the two men is that o~ two leaders, whether they like it or ~ not, as is the case with Goukouni Oueddei, who has never concealed his lack of any real personal ambition, his desire to return one day to the desert, his true fatherland. He has moreover already proposed giving up the co~ mand of the FAP if Hissene Habre will surrender his role with the FAN. This proposal is unacceptable to the former apprentice at the sub-prefecture of Chaumont, who cannot separate the battles"'he :Ls waging from his personal role. Under these conditions, the battle will continue to the end. The rules of this duel escape any_analysis, any Iogic, and diplomacy, as everywhere else, is lost therein. Franca cantinues to experience its purgatory ~ere. It cannot decide to pull out because no one wants its departure, neither Hissene nor Goukouni. It remains because it feels re- ~ sponsible for the drama in its former colony and feels somewhat to blame fQr it. It is further hanging on because Paris believes that there remains something to be rescued, if only by blocking the path of Tripoli or Moscow. While the recoilless 106 guns rumble ceaselessly, while the 2 camps machine-gun each other with 14.5s, taking a street, then losing it, hardly advancing after so many murderous days, the 1100 soldiers at the French base count the casualties they occasionally suffer (1 dead, 4 wounded by wild shots), and operate what can still function in the city to prevent the a savannah from taking over the area again. The military doctors at the base hospital are also operating and amputating in the midst of blood which there is no time to wash away between one patient and the next. In Kousseri, ~ in the Cameroon on the other side of the river, the Emmir, the French army field hospital, is in full operation, on a war alert for the first time in its history. French Ambassador Marcel Beaux remains, the last to be found in a city - abandoned by all foreign diplomats. He finds himself in a convoluted situa- tion, in a post for which none of his colleagues on the Quai d'Orsay envies him, crouching to avoid the bullets which whistle past the cathedral, crowded, simply dressed, into an unstable canoe on the Chari under a beating _ sun, the representative of Paris is trying to sponsor an African settlement from which France would not be excluded. During the most recent cease~ire, arranged on 6 April by. Gen Gnassingbe Eyadema, the pres:~dent of Togo, he is sti11-tx~ying to repair the damage done by the stubbnrnness,of the wa~ring parties. Goukouni immediately spread a wet blanket over the hope born of the si,gning of the text: "I am signing reluctantly." In brief, in order not to . 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY disappoint the president-general who had made such a great eff~.rt to obtain this fragile personal success. An ef~ort to prevent newsmen from printing Goukouni's terrible statement s~:rved no purpose. The hope of seeing the battle end was so slim! Between the "African-controlled Pinochet" (Aabre, according to the FAP) and "Tripoli's man" (Goukouni, according to the FAN), neither Libya, nor France, nor Africa, nor anyone else is in a position to impose a solution. The chasm is so great between the two men, the two armies, that neither reason, nor pressures, nor the OAU, which dispatched its secretary general, Edem Kodjo, to Nd~amena, can apparently do anything now: There remain only the guns, which came from Libya, Egypt or elsewhere, and are still sputtering. One day they will decide between these enemy brothers whose hair has whitened astonishingly, and who are risking here, in this war of absur.dity, more thar.. their future--their lives, and those of others. COPYRIGHT: 1980 S.A. Groupe Express 5157 CSO: 4400 44 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , . . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CONGO - CATHOLIC CHURCH STILL IN PROCESS OF REORGANIZATION Paris AFRIQUE-ASIE in French 12-25 May 80 p 42 [Text) Yn the People's Republic of the Congo, the Catholics, ~rho number 530,004 members, repreeent 36.8 percent of the ~opulation. After the over- throw af Abbe Fulbert Youlou, the puppet of the former colonial power, then above all following the proclamatiun of the choice of scientific Marxism - in 1963, not everything was going for the beat between the Catholic hierar- chy and the government, as can be imagined. All the m6re so becauae one of the f~rst measures taken by the new regime was to nationaliZe the schools and to suppress the youth movement and Catholic Action. For the Missionary Church tlxat was the end of colonial privileges and the obligation to reor- ganize itself if it was not to lose all credibility. The appointment of Monaignor Biayenda to the Archbishopric of Brazzaville in 1971 seems to have contributed to that reorganization to a great degree. In February 1972 the three biehopa in the country published a pastoral letter inspired by the encyclical Pacem in Terris, by John I~CIII: "Twielve years ago our people regained their independence and they are making every effort to construct national prosperitq in apite of all difficulties; to struggle against underdeve~~s~*ent, to ensure to the entire community and to each citizen an improvement in his life and the highest possible living standard with reapect to the valuea of our culture. To accomplish this great step forward, Cango has chosen the socialist way. That way is not opposed to the evangelical meseage; it even coincides with it at least inao- far aa it ia not nec~ssarily connected with atheism and with a conception which disavows and contradicts the true dignitq snd the supernatural destiny of maakind. S~.nce then, a cooperation has begun between the revoluntionary regime and th~ Cli.~rrah. At the national conference ia 1972, which met under the initi- ~:Ciw~ nf Preaident Ngouabi, a certain aumber of Christians were among dele- gates coming f~om all over the country and several priests and one pastor participated as repreaentatives o� the institutional churches. ~Zn a g~~,eral wayf theae churchee were from that time on associated with the � gr~u~ evet?ts of the nation and their delegatian came to give a me8sage to 45 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the Congress of the Congoleae Labor Party. "In Brazzaville and in the entire Congo today there exists a conviction among a growing number of Christians that the role of the Chrietian cocimunity is a determining fac- tor in social change and for the success of a policy of independence and of promotion in the socializing line adopted by the country," Rnbert Ageneau and Aenis Pryen wrote in a book consecrated to the "Third Church~" which appeared under the title A New Age of the Mission, distributed by the maga- zine SPIRITUS. It is known how the assassination of President Marien ~Tgouabi, on 18 ~far 1977, folloWed, several days later, by the kidnapping and murder of Cardial Emile Biayenda--who had been the last person to see the president alive--plunged the country into tummult and two years of torment. Struck with a hard whip- lash by the disappearance of the archbishop--it was the first time in half a century that a member of the Sacred College found death under such tragic ' conditions--the Congolese Catholic Church saw its activities slowing down. After the appointment of the new archbishop, Monsignor Batantu, a former _ curate of the Parish of Notre Da~ de Bacongo (a popular quarter of the capital), the Congolese Church began to zeorganize itself. However, it is not certain that the traumatism has yet been complet~ly eradicated. COPYRIGHT: 1980 Afrique Asie 12116 CSO: 4400 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CONGO INCREASE IN PETROLEUM PRICES AIDS NATION'S ECONOMY Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 16 May 80 pp 1159-1160 [Article: "Improvement of the Economic Situation, Thanks to Oil"] [Text] Under the effect of the oil price rise, the Congolese economy has recovered to some extent since the beginning of the year. From 1.8 million tons in 1977 and 2.4 million tones in 1978, production of crude went to 2.8 million tons in 1979. The large investment program (100 billion CFA) decid- - ed on by the two operating countries, ELF [Gasoline and Lubricants Company of France]-Congo and AGIP [Italian Petroleum Enterprise], together with the contribution from the new deposits discovered, is tha basis for forecasting production of more than 3 million tons in 1980, with 5 million tons reached in 1982. The successive price rises are reflected in the volume of royalties, which wnet from 15 billion CFA in 1978 to 20 billion in 1979; this income is fore- cast at 40 billion for 1980, which would thus represent 60 percent of the funds for the operating budget. The improvement in budgetary intake has permitted resumption of regular payment of the salaries of the civil ser- vants and accelerated settlement of the arrears and debts owed to the state's suppliers. Nevertheless, despite the reasserted desire to put the state apparatus back in order and impose the rules of rigorous financail management on the na- tional enterprises, the balancing of their expenditues will have to be en- sured by increased and more economical productivity. A certain disorganization of the public services, ideology entrenched at all levels, ill-considered demands, untimely ared frequent stoppages in the pro- duction system, deficiency of the means of communication and of water and electric-power distribution: these remain disturbing problems. In such a context, the private sector finds itself confronted with many dif- ficulties, and the recovery of the public enterprises becomes problematic. Both in Brazzaville and in Pointe-Noire, some enterprises have been forced to shut down or limit their activity to a few hours a day because of lack of raw-materials supplies from the state organism that has a monopoly on impor- 47 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200104402-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tations. At certain times, deliveries of rough lumber have been suspended. Cutoffs of water and energy supplies, deficiencies in the telephone and tel- ex systems, tlie deterioration and slowness of the traffic of the Congo-Ocean Railway, the precariousness and irregularity of the air connection between the capital and the port, mobilization of workers for reasons that are too often futile, and excessive absenteeism are restricting production and the profitability of the enterprises. The enterprises have become no longer competitive: exports are down sharply, and the domestic market, for lack of sufficient supply of consumer goods of local production, is invaded by imported goods, often introduced through a parallel circuit. What is more, the domestic market is characterized by a decrease in buying power and contraction of demand. The deficiencies of the National Marketing Office (OFNACOM), which has a monopoly on importation, have been so obvious in recent years fihat a'funda- mental structural reform of this agency is necessary within the framework of the austerity and efficiency policy prescribed by the chief of state, with an overhaul of the public enterprises; these measures will contribute to an improvement of the national economy. This reform is all the more necessary in that the internal and external pub- _ lic debt is a crushing one: it is estimated at 250 billion CFA, and it should take some 10 billion CFA to service it in 1980; because of the finan- cial situation, application has been made to the International Monetary Fund. For years, the support given to the state companies in deficit and the ex- cessive staffing of the civil service and the semipublic establishments have burdened the budget, which is now in better financial condition because of the increase in oil royalties. The Congo presently has financial means which, with recovery of the state enterprises, make possible the revival of production, attenuation of the de- ficit in the balance of trade exchanges, and resumption of equipment pro- grams halted in course of execution. The private sector is also suffering from heavy and restrictive administra- tive, fiscal and social regulation. Although the public authorities accept concertation with the representatives c+f the enterprises, the contacts re- main uneasy, the tax load has not been alleviated (the law of i4 January 1980 has put off for 1 year the contribution to the National Solidarity Fund), and price exceptions and rises are too late in following the pay in- creases granted to workers. - Since the beginning of 1980, sales of new vehicles have climbed, after the 25-percent drop in 1979 vis-a-vis 1977. The construction and public works _ sector, seriously affected last year by the shortage of cement, has been having better activity for the last few months. The work to realine the Congo-Ocean Railway is continuing and making progress despite the difficul- ties encountered. 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040240100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - As regards shipping, the traffic of the port of Pointe-Noire consists large- ly of the shipments of manganese ore of the Ogooue Mining Company (COMILOG); in 1979, thie traffic came to 2.3 million tons (up 36 percent over 1978), coming from Moanda in Gabon. In Pointe-Noire, the oil refinery is going to become operational, as well as the glassworks. A better environment would facilitate resumption of a flow of private in- vestments in forest exploitation and in the agroindustrial branch (oil-mill- ing, flour-milling, livestock feed). The AGIP-Research company has obtained a permit for prospecting and eventual mining of uranium-bearing ores in the - southwestern part of the territory. An exposition-fair will be held in Pointe-Noire from 20 December 1980 to 2 January 1981. This event could attest to a solidified recovery of the Congolese economy and, with loosening-up of the control-oriented and social- ist constrainta that hem in the country's options, could promote a flow of ~ - private investment indispensable to development. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie., Paris, 1980 11267 ' CSO: 4400 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3 EQUATORIAL GUINEA BRIEFS PRESIDENT'S VISIT TO SPAIN--President Obiang Nguema Mbasogo has paid an of- - ficial visit to Spain, where, on 1 May, he talked with Adolfo Suarez, prime minister, in Madrid. According to an informed source in the Spanish cap- ital, the Equatorial Guinea chief of state set out for Mr Suarez the most urgenr needs of his country and called for the aid that Spain could, in his - view, give it. The same source indicates that Mr Nguema Mbasogo also told - Mr Suarez about the principal subjects taken up at the latest OAU meeting in Lagos, which he attended. The next day, Lt Col Nguema Mbasogo had a working breakfast with King Juan Carlos. At the conclusion, on 3 May, of a 5-day visit in Spain, the Equatorial Guinea chief of state made a private visit to - Morocco. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITLRRANNEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1099] 11267 CSO: 4400 50 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~i ~ , I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ~ GH/?NA BRIEFS POLITICAL CONTROVERSIES--Dr Bilson's statement was made precisely at the moment when President Limann was absent from his cot~n~ry and was attending a su~nit me~ting of the Organizr._ion of African Unity (OAU) in Lagos. The government did not wait for his return to publish immediately in the local press of 30 April a clarification calling Dr Bilson "irresponsible" and stating its desire to hold its ground and to defend the constitutional order. The government carefully noted in this clarification that it was in no way responsible for the country's current economic situati.on inherited from previous military regimes, and that it will need more than 6 months to rectify it. The political unrest founrl expression elsewhere in the announcement of the formation of a new movement, Che New Democratic Move- ment, which would like to have the man on the street participate in the discussions of national interest. This movement plans to organize various ' ' demonstra~ions: meetings, conferences, and film showings throughout the country. President Limann who, it was said, sought to upset an attempted coup d'etat perpetrated by the military in the middle of the month, seems in fact to be more afraid of the civilians and certain old politicians than of the military. [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1095] 95~9 CSO: 4400 51 . FOR OFFICI~,I. USE ONLY . I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , LESOTHO , BRTEFS _ ARAB LOAN FOR AIRPORT--A. M. Monyake, representative of the Lesotho Ministry of Finance, Development and Planning, and Dr Chedly Ayari, president of the _ Arab Bank for African Economic Development (BADEA) recently signed in Khar- toum two loan agreements by which BADEA will provide $9.9 million to finance two pro3ects for transport development. The first, approved by BADEA in _ 1978 and totaling $6 million, with 18-year term including a S-year grace period and 4 percent annual interest, is for an international sirport at the Lesotho capital Maseru. Other international aid is also expected. The ~ _ second pro~ect is a road pro~ect a~proved by BADEA in 1979 for a total of $3.9 million. Leaotho has already obtained from BADEA an urgent loan of . $2.8 million. [Excerpts] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUR ET MED7TERRANEENS in French 11 May 80 p 1168] CSO: 4400 , 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY LIBERIA NEW GOVERNMENT LACKS PROGRAM OTHER THAN IMPROVING POLITICAL MORALS Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French 21 May 80 pp 18-21 [Article by Raphael Mergui: "The Noncommissioned Officers Who Took Power a Month Ago Have N.o 'Program' except for Reforming Politica-1 Morals--After the Executions, Moderation"] [TextJ Sergeant-Major poe, frail and timid, always barricades himself be- hind his dark glasses to read his declarations in a hesitant voice. One may photograph him but not speak to him. He has said nothing or has nothing to - say. By doing so, he is breaking one of the most solidly established rules of politics: the more one keeps silent, the more one speaks. The soldiers were still attending the meetings of the opposition formations: the PPP (Progressive People's Party) and the MO.;A (Movement for Justice in Africa). A number of these people had been arrested following the agitation in March. Thus there was a union of the discontent of the military and of the poverty- ~ stricken people of the shanty-towns (one inhabitant out of two in Monrovia is jobless). On 2 March, Bacchus Matthews (leader of the PPP) organized a , strange demonstration. He made the rounds of the ministries at midnight, at the head of a thousand sympathizers, to demand to meet with the ministers. When, on 7 March, he issued a call for a general strike, he was arrested-- several embassies h~ving refused him asylum--with 70 militants of his par- ty. The chief of state, William Tolbert, accused him of having prepared an armed insurrection and promised him an exemplz~zy punishment. Matthews and - his friends were to be judged on 14 April. On that day, it was Tolbert's ministers who were hauled before a military tribunal. By carrying out his putsch on 12 April and saving Matthews from a trial--and perhaps execution--Doe knew that he would arouse the enthusiasm of a popula- tion won over to the PPP. But the military did not bring any civilian into , the preparation for the putsch, .iich had been decided on 2 weeks earlier. Doe and his companions bet on the support of the army and of the people. They won that bet. But taking power is not everything, especially when one does not have any driving wheel. The second act of the new regime expresses astonishing political sagacity on the part of these soidier-novices in poli- 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR O~'rI(:IAL IJSE ONLY tics. Sergeant Doe, installed in the Executive Mansion on Saturday morning, 12 April, im:nediately put in place the elements essential to the exercise of his power. First of all, the army. Sergeant Thomas Quiwompka--who christened himself the "strong man"--was named commanding general of the armed forces, with the mission of disciplining soldiers left to their own devices. With the excep- tion of the former co~nander-in-chief, all the officers retained their posi- tions. Certain were even assigned ministerial pos~ts. The new minister of finance, Major Perry G. Zulu, is 31 and has a licentiate in economics. Chubby and well-behaved, he has a good head for the job he held before 12 April: controller general in the Ministry of Defense. How did he react to the coup d'etat? - "I was sleeping when soldiers came to announce the death of Tolbert to me. They advised me not to stick my nose out-of-doors." "Were you frightened?" - "Of course, especially when soldiers sent by Doe came looking for me to take , me to the presidential residence. I had time to take off my insignia. Sam- uel Doe ordered me, to my great surprise, to pu,. them back on. Then he told me I was named minister of finance." "Do you have some power?" "I am the president's technical advisor." "But how can Sergeant Doe take financial decisions?" "I prepare the options and he chooses." The CPR (Popular Council of Redemption--the name of the junta that took pow- er) has also kept some of Tolbert's ministers, such as Gabriel Tucker. The PPP and the MOJA share between themselves the six or seven remaining port- folios. They have been assigned, it appears, without their future holders' ~ being asked their opinions. Nah-Tipoteh, head of the MOJA, learned by radio that he was named minister of planning and economic affairs. As for Mat- thews, he was brought directly from prison to the presidential palace, where Doe offered him Foreign Affairs. The overwhelming majority of deputy ministers and cadres have kept their ~ jobs. A former minister of finance, Mrs Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, has become a very influential advisor of her successor. All the ministers are answerable for their management to the CPR, which, obviously, inspires great fear in them. Why, then, the macabre staging for the execution of the 13 close collabora- tors of Tolbert's? It was doubtlessly an irrespressible--and not at all ex- - cusable--reflex of vengeance by people who had been long oppressed. Most 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Liberians, including the most fervent su~porters of the new regime, have disapproved of them. Lt Col Frank K. Senkpeni, who presides over the mili- tary tribunal, is said to have "recommended" only four executions. The chaplain-general of the army called Sergeant Doe to order in a radio-broad- cast sermon: "It is up to God and God alone to take away people's lives." The new chief of state himself admitted on 29 Apri~: "Because the people have asked us to, we have no other choice than to halt the executions." ~ Nevertheless, the 137 persons arrested continue to file before the military tribunal in general tedium. Each accused must draw up a list his houses, - present his bank account and a report of his annual income; contrary to what might have beEn feared, there is no witch-hunt of the Afro-Americans, the privileged ones under the old regime. 'The conflict between "Americans" and "natives" is real, but its scope has been greatly exaggerated. There is even prudence in economic matters. The new masters are surprised when they are asked what their program is. The stated objective of the coup d'etat is not to overthrow the economic and social structures but rather to inject morality into public life by ridding it of corruption and abuses of power. As for the rest, Doe and his friends are assuring bankers and indus- trialits that they will not touch free enterprise. The workers who wanted to demand pay raises will have to wait patiently. They understand noneChe- less that one of the government's first measures has been the doubling of the salaries of the lower-level civil servants and of the soldiers. The minister of finance hopes to compensate for the resulting increase in public _ expenditure by savings on sumptuary expenses and seizure of the property of the executed dignitaries. Liberia wants to remain the paradise of flags of convenience. It could triple its ship-registration fees without losing its No 1 position as a world maritime power. The unknown factor remains the attitude of the business circles, which are all foreign. The CPR has frozen all banking operations to prevent a flight of capital. This measure was to be completely cancelled on 15 May. The businessmen are concerned mainly about the risks of political instability. We are, one of them told me, "like water: we take the form of any vessel whatsoever. The carruption will probably resume, but the new leaders will certainly be less gluttonous." The problem remains the supply of rice and gasoline. When Doe took power, there was a rice supply for only 1 week, and gasoline reserves for 2 weeks. The Liberian "Revolution" is remarkably quiet. But will the leadership team remain united? Will it continue to enjoy the support of a people to whom, for the time being, it gives only a vague promise to lower the price of rice - and furnish school books free of charge? The delegations of students and pupils, soldiers, businessmen, merchants, etc, follow one another in pledg- ing allegiance to the "redeemer," Sergeant Doe. On Monday 5 May, however, the crowd of young people gathered on the immense lawn of the presidential ~ palace reacted to the appearance of Sergeant Doe without too much enthusi- asm. The president of ths Liberian Students Union spoke first, reading an 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' impressive list of...demands and complaints. "The people," he declared, "will respect the CPR if it establishes an agenda for return to a civilian regime." He was already reproaching the leaders with having taken a liking to the material advantages of power, including the use of the Mercedes and American .limousines of their predecessors. "The people," he concluded, "are - complaining that you are behaving like Tolbert and his acolytes." Doe, im- perturbable, heard the student leader out to the end, and then read a brief reply in which he promised to examine all these demands carefully. COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1980 - ' 11267 CSO: 4400 '~I 56 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY LIBERIA SHIP REGISTRATION RULES REMAINING IN FORCE Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1156 (Article: "The Maritime Regime Will Be Maintained"] [Text) The Liberian minister of finance, Maj Perry G. Zulu, announced on 7 May that the country's maritime regime, which it was thought would be re- voked after the military coup d'etat (see in particular JOURNAL DE LA MARINE MARCHANDE of 17 April, p 881), is to be maintained. The minister gave assurance that "Liberia will continue to shoulder its re- sponsibilites as the world's No 1 maritime nation and that the financial laws as well as the rules concerning ship registration would remain in force." He added, however, that studies had been initiated toward "a reas- onable increase in the tariffs." Thes tariffs, unchanged since 1949, come to $1.20 per registered ton, with an annual tax of $0.10 per ton. Major Zulu also stressed the importance of the receipts from the country's maritime activities, specifying that in 1979 they totaled $13.5 million, and more than $9 million already this year. He also called attention to the assurances given on 15 April by the chief of state, Samuel K. Doe, according to which all foreign and national contracts � are to be lionored by the new governm~nt. In conformity with this promise, he stated the o , government of the Popular Council of Redemption has, since taking power, honored all scheduled loan repayments on time, and will con- tinue to do so. Major 2ulu further announced that Liberia had obtained a credit of $4 mil- lion from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and $8.2 million under t"e heading of special drawing rights. On the domestic level, he stated that the tax-collection system remains un- changed for the present and that the Liberians had even responded favorably to his minis~ry's calls for payment of them. However, he announced that his department would shortly be given more extensive powers for combating tax " fraud. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie., Paris, 1980 11267 CSO: 4400 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY _ , ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY MALI BRIEFS DIPLOMATIC BLUNDER--Mali is having trouble in making Africa forget a diplomatic blunder. When President Mnussa Traore was a member of the Comm~ittee of Wise Men of the OAU on the Sahara affair, one of his close advisors declared over Radio Bamako at the beginning of the year that Mali had granted to the POLISARIO the right to train its troops in Malian - territory. In apite of a denial by Alioune Blondin Beye, minister of foreign affairs, certain African atates are f inding it diff icult to pardon such a lapse by a mediating country. [Text] [Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French ~ No 1010,14 May 80 p 40]~ ~2116 CSO: 4400 _ 58 FOx OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 , ~U~ OFFICIAL USE ONLY MOZAMBIQUE BRIEFS CAHORA BASSA TRANSPORTATION--The Empresa Fluvial de Cahora Bassa [Cahora Bassa River Company], wl.iich is in charge of transportation on the Cahora Bassa dam lake, will start operating 5 boats purchased by Mozambique in Holland, each with a cagacity for 60 to 80 persons. Original plans called for the company to opera~te between the northern and southern shores of the . lake; additionally, it will transport passengers between Chicoa and Zumbo on the Zimbabwe-Zambia border. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPTCAUX ET MEDITER- RANEENS in ~rench 30 May 80 p 1281] - FISHING COMPANIES NATIONALIZED--Several ~4ozambique fisheries belonging to some Portuguese were nationalized at thF~ end of April, announced Mozambique's - Ministry of Finance and the Minist~-y of. Industry and Energy in a joint communique. According to this co~unique, the Impescal, Promar, Copesca, Emopesca, Camaronex, Arpem and Amilet Marterra enterprises had been managed in a fashion contrary "to the interests of the national economy" or had - ~ been abandoned by their owners. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1110] 9589 ~ CSO: 4400 59 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200104402-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGER ~ BRIEFS EDF LOANS 1980-1984--It was learned in Niamey on 5 May that for the period 1980-1984, the European Development Fund (EDF) will have available in Niger a sum between 21.316 and 24.528 billion CFA, including 2.236 billion in the form of special-condition loans and the rest in the form of nonreimbursable aid. The definitive amount will be arrived at upon reexamination of the de- velopment programs that are part of the 1979-1984 5-year plan. The EDF will - participate in the modernization of the road system, improdement of dry and irrigated crops, installation of water and sanitary systems in the rural zones, as well as industrial, touristic and mining projects. Furthermore, the Niamey-Zinder tarred road that links the capital and the prefectures of Dosso, Maradi and Zinder was officially inaugurated on 4 May. This road (902 km), whose cost totals 17 billion, has been financed entirely by the EDF. The work took 13 years. Finallp, a delegation of seven experts from the European Economic Community and the Eiropean Investment Bank (EIB), led by Mr Klaus Mayer, visited Niger starting on 1 May. to study the files for setting up a guideline program relating to the country's needs. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1093] 11267 _ MINISTER'S MAY DAY SPEE^:i--The Niger minister of civil service and labor, Mayaki Issoufou, announced on 1 May, on the occasion of the labor-day holi- day, that upgrading of the pension rates of retired wage-earners is under study in his ministry. He also announced that the National Social Security Fund has not only reabsorbed its deficit of 800 million CFA but has also built up a surplus of more than 1 billion CFA. In the area of occupational ~ training, Mr Issoufou said that special emphasis has been placed on this problem in the 5-year plan. It involves the future creation of two occupa- tional-training centers and a skill institute to deal with the shortage of skilled technical personnel. [Text) [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRAN- NEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1093] 11267 PRE~IDENT VISITS OPVN, ONAREM--On 24 April, the Niger chief of state, Col Seyni Kauntche, visited the warehouses of the OPVN (Niger Foodstuffs Office) in Niamey and the construction sites of the future Customs buildings and the complex that is to house the offices of ONAREM (National Office of Mineral Resources), This visit to OPVN enabled the Niger president to see the quan- tity of foodstuffs available in the capital and the measures taken by the officials for storage and protection of these �oodstuffs with the approach 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of winter. The OPVN presently has 5,814 tons of millet, 2,047 tons of sor- gtium, 2,177 tons of rice, 5,110 tons of corn, 3,748 tons of wheat, and an- other 413 tons of sorghum, a gift from the European Economic Community ~ELC) to Niger. The international aid that was supposed to be delivered in Octo- be,r of last year was received only a few days ago. President Kountche then visited the construction site of the Customs buildings, which will make it = posaible to decongest the Customs facilities at the airport. The construc- tion work is proceeding normally. Finally, the chief of state stopped at the si~e of the future complex of ONAREM, opposite the present headquarters of SONARA [Niger Peanut Marketing Company]. At present, the work is at the stage of clearing and levelling of the land. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPI- CAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1093] 11267 WATER TREATMENT PLANT�-A water-treatment plant at Goudel, near Niamey, was inaugurated in April by the Niger minister of public works, transportation - and urbanism, Moussa Bako, in the presence of the ambassador of the FRG, Harald Ganns. In his dedication speech, the Niger minister stressed that - the FRG contributed 3.5 billion CFA of the total cost of the plant, which is 4.5 billion CFA. [Text) [Paris, MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in _ French 9 May 80 p 1093] 11267 NEW WELL DRILLED IN TARASSADET--The Tarassadet well in the Tchintabaden ar- rondissement is completed and has been in operation since 21 February last. - The drilling of this well, one af the biggest in the region, was halted from February to November 1979. On his visit to the department of Tahoua last November, the Niger chief of state, Col Seyni Iiountche, instructed the of- ficials of OFED~S (Office of Subsoil Water) to resume the drilling of the well immediately. Thus the state released 60 million CFA for completing the - drilling of this well, which is indispensable for the pastoral zone of the Tahoua department. The ~aork lasted 3 weeks. [Text) [Paris MARCHES TROPI- - CAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 9 May 80 p 1093] 1I267 CSO: 4400 61 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY TANZANIA AUTHORITIES CALL TO MIND THEIR SOCIALIST OBJECTIVES Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1162 _ [Text] Participating in a seminar of the single party CCM (Chama Cha Mapin- duzi [Revolutionary Party)) in Arusha on 5 May, President Nyerere reviewed the political objectives of his government. He declared: "Our objective is the achievement of socialism, there is no discussion about that. At the present stage, we are not yet socialist. We are on the road af 'Ujamaa' - ('spirit of familial solidarity,' in Kiswahili), which will be realized . stage by stage." r-- The Tanzanian chief of state then went on to define the place of the private sector in the Tanzanian economy. It is important, he said, to identify which "bourgeosies" and "petites bourgeosies" should be attacked in the im- mediate future, and which should be temporarily left aside. The little occupations (shoeshiners, taxi drivers, etc) are not a danger to "Ujamaa," although they do not have a place in a true socialist situation, declared the president, who is also the national "Mwalimu" ("schoolmaster"). The national "capitalists" should not have access to the services sector, - but only to the sector of production of goods. This sector should be as- sisted and monitored by a state organism, Mr Nyerere further stated. During the same seminar, the Tanzanian minister for planning & economy, Ki- ghoma Malima, was entirely in agreement. The private sector should also, he - said, receive consideration within the framework of the national development program. The private sector's investment projects, like those of the public sector, will have to take into account the party's policy, based on egali- tarian development of all the regions of the country. The minister too urged creation of a state organism to control the private sector. He also suggested that direct external loans for industrial projects be pro- ' hibited. All such loans, Mr Malima declared, should go through the Tanzania Rural Development Bank. _ 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL L.'SE ONLY The minister asked that all measures be taken in order for public organisms to take Tanzanian foreign trade entirely in charge, so as to avoid the "si- phoning-off of our foreign-exchange resources." It is necessary, he said, to strengthen the role of the Board of External Trade and to ensure exporta- tion of the products of private firms through the channel of GAPEX (General Agricultural Products Exportation Corporation). Mr Malima made some comments on his program in rather violent terms. He de- clared: "This is the time to attack the roots of capitalism and feudalism ~ and of their social implications, for if we do not, they will develop at the expense of our policy of 'Ujamaa' and self-reliance." On 9 May the Tanzanian minister of trade, Ibrahim Kaduma, declared within the framework of the Arusha conference, which was to last 10 days, that in _ the long term, the private sector, restricted to production, would be ex- cluded from the domestic trading sector, except for the small vendors in the markets. He recommended that distribution of commercial goods in Tanzania be assigned to the national or regional state trading companies and that the community village shops and the state shops be supplied on a priority basis. A Preaidential Analysis of the Crisis In Arusha on 5 May, along with the statements that we have quoted above, President Nyerere expressed some considerations regarding the economic cris- is. He had affirmed that the principal problem that Tanzania has to face is not a lack of food but rather a lack of foreign exchange needed for importa- tion of raw materials for industry. These cash difficulties are due essentially, the chief of state said, to the sharp drop in production of the main money crops (cotton, sisal, coffee, cashew nuts). In order to reverse this tendency, he proposed that the party identify the crops to be encouraged in each region of the country and speci- fy purchase prices to the producer high enough to encourage production, in- asmuch as the food crops oft.en produce more income for the peasants than do the money crops . - The president also indicated ~echanization of agriculture as a solution to the crisis. The seminar participants generally stressed the role of agriculture as the - "spinal column" of the Tanzanian economy. According to a report published in the government newspaper DAILY NEWS on 8 May, one of the speakers, whose name is not given, declared that Tanzan- ~ i~,n agricultural production is tiot satisfactory "because of the uncertainty of the peasants in their day-to-day activities." 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY He is reported to have expressed the desire that the peasants have an organ- ism by which they can freely express their opinions on the development of their activities. Finally, this speaker is said to have declared that it is perhaps time to revise the rural cooperative system. Other speakers stressed the possible future role of food crops such as pota- toes, manioc and millet, which the Tanzanian authorities still only consider to be "emergency crops." - COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie., Paris, 1980 11267 CSO: 4400 ~ 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE OIVLY _ '!'ANZAN I /1 DETAILS OF FRENCH-TANZANIAN COOPERATIQN GIVEN Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 16 May 80 pp 1133-35 _ (~Article by Jacques Latremoliere: "France and Tanzania: a New Start for Cooneration] [Text] Will the weight of mistrust and misunderstanding that has been weighing on the relations between France and Tanzania finally lift and give way to a _ future of cooperation? Foreign Affairs Minister Mkapa's visit to Paris in October 1979 and Mr Soisson's statements during his mission to Dar es Salaam allow hope that this change may take place. (Mr J.-P. Soisson declared in Dar es Salaam on 12 April that President Nyerere had accepted an invitation - _ from President Giscard d'Estaing to come to France (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS 18 April p 937).) This change was begun under unfavorable - conditions by Mr de Guiringaud in 1978 and may find their fruition next July in an official visit by Mr Jean Francois-Poncet to the T;~nzanian government. The bad start that these relations have had may be e::nlsiined by certain Victorian prejudices left over from British colonizatio~?. These prejudices have been dissipated in Ke;iya and even in Uganda under mucF~ more difficult condirions when that country was under the heel of Marshal Idi Amin Dada. _ The complex personality of the Mwalimu is probably not unrelated to a situa- tion that has for a long time made Tanzania the instigator of hostility to France in the Organization of African Unity on the issues of Djibouti, the Comoro Islands, and Reunion. He is authoritarian with a kindly air, does not hesitate to take courageous and dangerous initiatives, is quick to reproach the USSR openly for its lack of economic aid to Africa and England for being too lax too long in settling the Rhodesian issue, and has had a view of French activity in Africa that may have been distorted by geographic particularism. He may have been more inclined to attribute imperialistic motives to them because he did not seem to find in Gr~~at Britain the formulas for cooperation that enabled the French-language states of West Africa to make economic pro- gress comparable to Tanzania's in size and resources. New French Contacts An obvious turning point in relations between France and Tanz~nia was reached on 22 September 1979 with the signing of an agreement concerning the enlarge- ment and modernization of the Dar es Salaam airpoxt. The work was assigned - to Aeroport de Paris for Fr 125 million. On 19 February 1980 a second agree- ment was signed that made available t65 anxania a loan of Fr 100 million FOR OFFICIEw USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY with privileged conditions for Technip~s furnishing a glassware factory in hlwanza. These agreements had to be a~preci.ated in Dar es 3alaam at a time when the arrival of capital contributes to the recovery o� the balance of payments. Its 1978 deficit (1,76 billion shillings) was greater than the amount of its 1977 surplus (1,23 billion shillings) because of the Tanzanian army's campaign in Uganda. (One Tanzanian shilling ec{uals approximately - Fr 0.55.) But for both France and Tanzania, the importance of these agreements is due more to the mechanism and conditions of the loans than to their size, because they actually signify in otfier forlns and procedures the opening of French cooperation to the whole continent preceding or following an analogous evo- lution of European aid. Many things have oriented French industrialists toward French-language countries; well-kno~vn trade networks, flexible insurance coverages, convertibilitY of currency, and free transfer of capital. These very advantages have turned industrialists away from East Africa, whicfi has long been considered a private British reserve (wrongly, it seems, judging by the positions gained by Japan, the FRG, and the Scandinavian countries), The free subsidies granted to African countries have favored the formation of credible economic partnerships and stable trade hetween them and France in addition to winning markets for French business. The World Bank at first argued against this formula but then adopted it, and France has decided to apply it for the first time outside of its traditional zone of cooperation. In tfie context of the loans granted to Tanzania, France will provide guaranteed private credits, 25-year treasury notes at 3 percent interest deferred for 10 years, and fTee credits totalling a gift vf about 36 percent adjusted for inflation in the case of the Dar es Salaam airport. In addition to the symbolic value of tfie projects �or which these loans are being made, these projects are characterized by studies and the high added value of equipment fuxnished mostly by 7-year commercial credits, the civil _ engineering being covered. The negotiations coincided with a marked increase in French exports to Tanzania, which rose from Fr 42 million to Fr 128 million between 1976 and 1978. Tfiis rise was unfortunately stopped in 1979 by a tight - blockade of imports due to the difficulties mentioned above, The projects have been followed by other, more classically financed operations. CGE-Alsthom is thus cooperating in the partial completion (Fr SO million) of an international electrification project i~ Zanzibar, beginning with the Kidatu continental plant. The financing guarantee of a 150-room hotel is now assured for Fr 50 ma~llion. Also under study are the completion of a textile mill in Nfasoma, south'of.Lake Victoria, �or Fr 130 million; th~e delivery of railroad equipment, and, in the radio-telecammunications sector, the delivery by Thomson CSF of inedium-wave transmitters and tfi e ir~stal.lation of a short-wave radio station in the new capital of Dodoma. 66 FOR OFFICIl~:~ USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 ~ '['he list is 5ti11 open, and Tanzani.a~s intexest in the ~oranulas of the French ministry of i~oreign Trade and the quality of French industries should lead to - new contract:; in the future. These contracts answer a double concern of France~s. The politica; and ~noral impact of its partner's population, wFiich the latest censuses put at li million, and the undeniable seriousness of its administra- tion are incentives to favor Tan2ania. On the other hand, the drawing down of foreign reserves, which had reached a critical level at the beginning of 1979--they then amounted to 2 months' imports--had had the effect of lengthening certain payments. Orthodox financing, which also coincided with Tanzanian efforts, led them to keep for the moment only the projects likely to improve the balance of payments. The bilateral and international flow of money to Tanzania continues to take the form o� credit, loans to domestic industrial credit organizations such as the Tanzania lnvestment Bank, or advances to buy equipment or food. In these various respects, the projects agreed to in principle or already under way amount to $644 million, Frencfi contracts not included. Of this total, $173.9 milliQn is from the World Bank and the International Development Asso- ciation, $15$.;~nillion from Great Britain, $95 million frOm Sweden, $35,6,mil- lion from the United States, $30 million from the EEC, $~],.25 million from the African Development Bank, $31.6 million from Canada, $33,7 million from . the FAO-WFP jWorld..Food Program], and the loans or gifts fxom Algeria, Denmark, - - and the OPEC countr~ie5 are at most'$20,.19, and 15 million dollars, respec- tively. The EEC's donations for 1980~-85 are estimated at more than $140 ' million. They are not included in the above amount, nor is a$15 million barter agreement made with the USSR for sisal, nor a$15 million - loan from the EEC special .fund for consolidating the balance of payments. Aft~r the argument between President Nyerere and the International Monetary Fund last September over ways of restoring the economy, new,unofficial contacts from this organization may soon bring about aid to the balance of payments in an a.:~unt not yet specified. It may thus be hoped that the i~port, expenses and prics..controls that are weighing so heavily on the private sector may be gradually relaxed and will enable Tanzania to pay its overdue bills. Despite the appeal made in 1978 for short-term commercial credit, this liberalization will be facilitated by the partial gift of foreign aid, which has made it possible to maintain a reasonable balance between debt service and export incoine (7,9 percent at - the end of 1979). This liberalization will naturally accompany new operations that French firms may be associated with, Industry and Infrastructure Needs In this area, FrencYl activity is not faced with payment problems more diffi- cult in Tanzania than anywhere else, unless it is due to the recent measures mentioned above, and it is hoped that they will remain temporary. The govern- ment will retain control over the retail sale of basic products, will set c~uotas for establishing private shops, and will give central puchasing agencies a monopoly on importing certain materials, but this will not hamper the owners of supply markets or "turnkey" plants as a matter of contract in taking pre- cautions against the difficulties of importing raw materials or the materials necessary for the job or for completing a project for which a loan was made. 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY However, it is a good idea to bring to the attention of investors that under present conditions import requests wi,ll be turned down unless they are accom- panied by 10-year credit with defcrment on contracts at or above 90 million Tanzanian shilling~ with, in ,nany cases, re�inancing and delayed down payments. Despite all, the structure of tfie economy remains liberal, at least for industry. It was even quite permissive in 1972-77, which also partly explains the present reaction. As for infrastructure, the amount of work to be done is surprising for a country that was equipped long before independence with a deep-water port and two railroads. The TAZARA (Tanzania-Zambia railwayl is of ambiguous support in the problem of communications with Zambia. This line was built by the PRC with a generous loan of $358 million payable in 30 years after 1983, but maintenance seems - to be beyond local means both in terms of management and in the lack of rolling stock and spare parts. A railway workers' sta~ike in March 1979 _ alone caused losses equivalent to 1978 profits, Floocis have carried away 20 km of track between Mbila and Makambako and revealed unfortunate routing errors, Sut the resumption of [~iodesian and South Afai~can railways' removal - of Zambian iron ore in 1979 can only be speeded up by a normal situation~s , being reestablished in Zimbabwe in 1980, and this will worsen the railway's deficit. The road network is theoretically 34,000 km long, but only 7 percent of it, 2,359 km, is paved. In contrast, the Ivory Coast has an area of 322,500 square km, 35 percent that of Tanzania, yet it has 44,000 km of roads, 3,000 km of Which are paved. The 1978-~81 development plan allows for the completion of 2,800 km of new paved main roads with priority to the following corridors: Makambako-Songea (325 km), Morogoro-Dodoma (285 km), Kibiti-Lindi (350 kma, Luisaluinga-T~aka (240 km), and Makuyuni-Oldeani (77 lan). These corridors are intended to serve the North and link to~;ether the northern and southern regions. The same is true for ports. According to the statistics of the Tanzania Har�'oours Corporation, the ports handled 2.4 million metric tons of inerchan- dise in 1978-79, whicfi rerlects a decline of sliipments in transit to Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire. Work estimated tc cost 6I7 million shillings and planned for tfie next 3 years will be necessary to open the Dar-es-Salaam access channel to vessels of all tonnages. It has poor mineral-~ and oil-loading equipment, dry docks, and warehousing, which are behincl the bottlenecks of recent years and have forced Burundi to airlift the 40,000 mc~tric tons left on the wharves because the Kigoma railroad and the Lake Tanganyika crossing can only handle a monthly traffic of 3,OOO~metric tons, In the case of air traffic, tfie airports of Dar-es-Sa].aam and Kilimanjaro will soon begin exparsion work, Purchases must be made of airport telecom- munications equipment (radioteletypes, VHP links,and TLS systems). A main- tenance workshop will lie built at Kiliynanjaro. Also, the Air Tanzania fleet was recently strengthened by the addi�ion of British airplanes. 68 FOR OFFICIlw USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Among the bids soon to be adyertised �or labor and supplies, we should mention especially the enlargement of the refinery built by AGIP IItalian Petroleum Enterprise] in Dar-es-Salaam in 1966; ~ts present capacity of 75G,000 metric tons is to be increased to 1.3 million metric tons to meet tfi e requirements of Tanzania and other African states. According to the process chosen, the lahor costs will fall between $180-250 million. The Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, the supervising company, is studying a financing plan with large credit organizations and the main international petroleum firms. Agriculture Agriculttire might be,a privileged area of French~Tanzanian cooperation provi- ded its particular structures are respected, ~'Ujamaa" ~nd villageing~-in effect the geographical rea.ocation of f.armers to help them benefit from a technical and social infrastructure--have evolved, These processes were speeded up between 1974 and 1976 and then moderated as various kinds of village cooperatives were being developed; they encountered many obstacles. - Some were accidental, like drought, wfiile otfi ers were due to a lack of roadway _ coordination, a lack of management, staff, and start-up personnel training, or to supply and marketing failures, In sum, only tea and tobacco liave shown ar. increase`in tonnage since 1973, All other crops have declined, But as Prof Rene Dumont writes, "13 million Tanzanians now live in 8,000 villages, where their essential needs are met, they have drinkable water and can send their children to school." - No administration, obviously, can imagine going back on the governing principles of a movement of this size. But it can be improved where it is most deficient and where France can provide qualified assistance, This is the case with agri- culttiral research, which was hard Tiit by the East African Community's being dismantled, as was the cessation of rural improvements and equipping, espe- cially in irrigation and technician training. Coopei�ation, in the strict sense of the term, between France and Tanzania is obviously still limited by the funds available to France and the many tasks - its personnel are called to perform elsewhere. However, France's aid is essential to prepare the climate for economic and financial cooperation, for which Tanzania offers remarkable outlets. It is surprising that better economic per�ormances have not been achieved with the great and varied international aid that Tanzania has enjoyed since it became independent. The reason may be that this aid was put into short- term projects rather than improving the material and human conditions that must first prevail before real development can be attempted. Tanzania is a demographic keystone of East Africa and must therefore overcome its backwardness, which may compromise A�rica's equilibrium if it is allowed to persist. Seen in this light, France's aid should be judged not only by the amount of its financial contriFiution but perhaps by tlie exemplary value of its methods. COF~YRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1980 8782 69 CSO: 4400 FOR OFFICItiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAi, USE ONLY TANZANIA BRIEFS - KILWA PORT EXPANSION--The Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD) has granted 16 million Tanzanian shillings to Tanzania Harbours Cor- ~ poration (THA) for expansion, in 1981, of the Kilwa port installations. The decision to enlarge the port of Kilwa is connected essentially with the prospect of exploiting the natural gas of Songo Songo (see following item). [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 16 May 80 p llb2J 11267 NATURAL GAS EXPLOITATION--The Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) has issued a call for bids for drilling the natural-gas deposit on the island of Songo Songo (Kilwa district), in the south of Tanzania. This call for bids, which was opened on 5 May and will last 45 days, concerns the drilling, in that region, of one land well and three others in the sea. The Tanzanian government has negotiated a credit agreement for the work with the International Development Association (IDA), a subsidiary of the World Bank. According to diplomatic sources quoted by AFP, Tanzania wQUld receive a credit of $25 million to go ahead with oilexploitation on Songo Songo. The same sources specify, however, that this credit has not been approved yet. The exploration done on Songo Songo in 1977 revealed that natural-gas re- serves on the other of 30 billion cubic meters, 82-percent recoverable, are lncated in this zone (see MARCH~S TROPICAUX ET MEDIT~.RRANNEENS of 29 July 1977, p 2072). In 1979, the Tanzanian government announced that it was con- sidering building a urea and ammonia production plant on Songo Songo. (Text) [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANNEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1163] 11267 CSO: 4400 ~ 70 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TOGO BRIEFS EYADEMA, CRITICS--On 3 May, in his Paris residence, Togolese President GnassinRbe Eyadema met with~500 of his fellow citizens, who had come from the capital and from the French provinces as well as from other countries in Europe. During the entire day he listened to the most varied criticisms and tried to explain his policies, which are under strong attack from the - opposition based in France. At the close of the session, the general- president was perauaded that he had convinced his audience. [Text] [Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1010, 13 May 80 p 40] 12116 CSO: 4400 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ZAIRE REPORT ON OIL PRODUCTION IN 1979 Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 16 May 80 p 1160 [Text] The general assembly of Cometra Oil held on 6 May provided an oppor- tunity for company president~Litvine to review the recent situation of oil production in Zaire, thereby completing information previously given by the firan on production in 1979 (see MARCHES TROPICAUX, 21 March, p 696). For the first four moaths of 1980, production evolved as follows: January, 621,000 barrels, an average of 20,030 barrels a day; February, 574,000 bar- rels, or 19,700 barrels a day; March, 505,000 barrels, or 16,900 barrels a ~ day; first half of Apri1, 191,000 barrels, or 12,740 barrels a day; second half of April, 335,000 barrels, or 22,330 barrels a day. The large difference between the two halves of the month of April stems from the following t~o factors: 1-- During the f irst 2 weeks, production of three wells in the Mibale field was inter=upted for several daya for repairs. 2-- Since 14 April, Mwambe wells 1 and 3 have gone into production. "Concerning the future," Litvine went on to state, "production experience in Zaire's maritime zone must make us ever more cautious in our estimates. With all the customary reservations, on the basis of information known to date, the total output of structures currently in production could be on the average between 20,000 and 25,000 barrels for the first half of 1981. No future prediction can yet be formulated. The increase foreseen for 1981 will perhaps tend more toward an improvement of performaz~ce at Mibale rather ~han toward an additional output from Mwambe." Regarding research work simed at expanding production sources, the report states that the large program drawn up for 1980 will probably have to be limited because not all the drilling platforms needed are available in - time. Part of the program will have to be postponed until 1981. The president of Cometra Oil also described technical proble~s confronting oil prodnction in Zaire's maritime zone, particularly the drop in pressure 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - at the Mibal~~ deposit. While not as successful as hoped, the injection of water did ac~iieve its essential purpose. Howev~r, maintaining the total production of GCO and Mibale at the 20,000-barrel-a-day level has not been regularly ensured. There is also a problem of gas pressure, which the operator is trying to solve by planning to take gas from the Moko and Motoba structures, where it exists, although the quantities of oil discovered in those structures seems negligible. In order to avoid any misunderstanding over the gas, Litvine recalled that it is naturally a matter of a comple- ment to the quantities of gas needed for oil production and not a marketable production of gas. Litvine also repeated tha;: "relations between Zairian authorities and mem- bers of the consortium remain excellent and marked by mutual trust. This is particularly important at a time when an adaptation of tax conditions in the concession agreement seems about to occur in the coming months." The 1979 Cometra Oil report states that the outstanding event in 1979 was the decision made by Zairian authorities to ask the consortium to deliver to the government, September 1979, quantities of crude oil amounting to some 60 percent of total production, royalties in kind (12.5 _ percent) included. This operation has enabled the Zairian organization in charge of supplying the country with oil products to meet its needs, par- tially through local refi.ning of Zairian crude purchased from members of the consortium with other qualities of crude and products. In accordance _ with the concession agreement, these purchases were made at the market price in keeping witl~ a contract renegotiated in 1980. It should be pointed out that between January and December of 1979, the price of Zairian crude w~nt from $14 to~$25.47 a barrel. One should recall that through its American subsidiary, the Muanda Oil Com- pany (MOC), Cometra Oil holds a 17.72-percent share of oil research and production in Zaire's maritime zone. Together with its partners Gulf and Teikoku, it is executing the oil agreement of 14 October 1969. Total pro- duction in 1979 amounted to 7,614,000 barrels, a figure in keeping with - estimates, but it should be ~nentioned that as yet, this is only the oil taken from the GCO and Mibale structures. Furthermore, the investment of some $25 million by the Gulf-Teikoku-Cometra finance the injection of water into the Mibale structure may not have resulted in the _ substantial increase in production constituting the most favorable hypo- thesis, but it did achieve the essential purpose, which was to bring :otal production of GCO and Mibale over the minimum of 20,000 barrels a day and apparently keep it there. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie., Paris, 1980 . 11,464 ~ CSO: 4400 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000200104402-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ZAIRE BRIEFS BELGIAN SHIPPING COMPANY LINK--0n 8 April, the Zairian Government ratified the new cooperation agreement liaking the Zairian.Shipping Company (CMZ) with the Belgian Shipping Company (C~NIB). This agreement, which replaces the one dated 22 October 1976, was the ~ub~ect of t~lks in Kinshasa and Anvers in February and March. Negotiationa essentially dealt with the - CMZ' recovery of the financial and administrative management controlled by the CMB, the roles and powers of the International Shipping Agency (AMI, a Belgian firm) and technic~l assistance provided to the CMZ by the CI~. [TexC] [Paria MARCHF:S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 18 Apr 80 p 935] 11,464 . DIAMOND PROpUCTION IN~1979--The Bakwanga Mining Company (MIBA), the Zairian diamond mining company�(industrial diamonds),.produced,8,062,869 carats in 1979, campared with 10.6 million in 1978, according to the firm's annual report. MIBA improved its net profits, which totaled 12,238,669 zaires in 1978, compared with 1U,042,372 zaires in 1978. The report indicates that - within the framework of its investment program and plan to rebuild its stock of spare parts and equipment, MIBA committed an overall sum of - 48,922,000 zaires in 1979. [Text] [Paria MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITER- RANEENS in French 18 Apr SO p 935] 11,464 INGA-SHABA POWER--Munga Mobindo, chairman of the board of the National Electric Company (SNEL), has announced that the first electrical tests of the Inga-Shaba line could take place t award the end of 1981 or the beginning of 1982. [Text] [Paris MARCH~S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 18 Apr 80 p 935] 11,464 MOBUTU DUPING PORTUGUESE--Kinshasa has once again announced that it would . like to receive 100,000 Portuguese workers to help build the economy of ' that country where, according to Mobutu, everyting is going well in that _ - best of all possible worlds. In crder to lure the European labor force, recruiting sergeants, relatives of the dictator., go to Lisbon, stay at one of the most lwcurious hotels in the Portuguese capital and receive in their suites the candidates for that country of wonders: Nor are the promises made the kind to diacourage Portuguese looking for~work: 100,000 escudos - (about 8,500 francs) a month, housing, good food, the climate, a real 74 ..FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6 r~UR UFFICIAL USE ONLY paradise! Last year, 40 Portuguese succumbed to the temptation. The re- ~ sult? No housing, an almost nonexistent wage, no transfer of funds to ~ Portugal, in short, nothing of what Mobutu's relatives had promis ed them in Lisbon. The workers then complained to authorities in Kinshasa. The - response? Either they would remain silent or they would get to know the prisons of the Mobutu regime! Realizing they had been duped, the Portuguese then went to the Portuguese Kinshasa and asked simply to be sent back to Portugu 1, which was granted. This cost the Portuguese Government 1.5 million escudos. An official bulletin from the Portuguese Government has been published in Lisbon on this subject and yet, Zaire is rep eating its wish to receive 100,000 Portuguese! [Text] [Paris AFRIQUE-AS IE in French 14-27 Apr 80 p 45] 11,464 CSO: 4400 END 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000200100002-6