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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000300020024-0 i 1~ ~~~~1~ ~ ~ 1 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L~9252 - 13 August 1~980 ~ USSR Re ~e ~ ~ p _ ENERGY (FOUO 14/80~ - F~~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language _ sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or r2printed, with the original ghrasing and other characteristics retained. , Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Textj ~ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracte~. - Unfamiliar names ren'ered phonetically or transliterated are - enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the - _ original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. 4ther unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way rep-esent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. - ~Eor fsrther information on report conCent call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 - (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). ~OPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI~STIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HERETN R�QUIRE THAT DISSEI~[INATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 - FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY JPRS L/9252 ~ 13 August 1980 USSR R~PORT ENERGY . ~ (FOUO 14/8A) : CONTENTS ELECTRIC POWER Economics of US~R Power Induatry Exam~ned (EKONOMIKA ENERGETIKI SSSR: UCHEBNIK DLYA VUZOV, 1980) 1 Trends in Low Power Electrical Equipment Output (V.I. Nellin; ELEKTROTEKHNIKA, No 3, 198Q) ~ 7 New System Introduced Into Electrical Equipment Industry ' (V.Ye. Astaf'~?ev; ELEKTROTEKrINIKA, No 2, 1980)......... 14 Utilization of Steam Turbine Units in Central Heating _ (Yu.A. Averbakh, et al; TEPLOENERGETIKA, Jul 80)....... 23 Thermal Power Engineering Information in 'REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL' - (S.G. Dupleva; TEPLOENERGETIKA, Jul 80) 34 Heating Supply, Various Modes of Heat Utilization (TEPLOSNABZHENIYE, 1979) 38 Briefs ~ = Nuclear Power Use 40 ~ ' i FUELS i Development of Petroleum Refining Industry in 1980 ; - (Ya.G. Sorkin; KHIMIYA I TEI~iNOLOGIYA TOPLIV I MASEL, Jun 80) 41 , , ' a - [III - USSR - 37 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ~iLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFF?CIAL USE ONLY ELECTRIC POWER ECONOMICS OF USSR POWER INDUSTRY EXAMINED - Moscow ~KONOMIKA ENERGETIKI SSSR: UCHEBNIK DLYA WZOV (Economics of the USSR Power Industry: Textbook for Higher 8chools) in Russian 1980 � pp Z, 340-343 [Annotation and table of contents from book by A. A. Chernukhin and Yu. N. Flakserman, Energiya Press, 344 psges] [Text] The book deals with ways of streamlining po;aer output and problems of the economics of the construction and operation of electric power stations and networks. The second edition had been published in 1975. In this third edition new trends of scientific and technical progress in the industry and developmental prospects of coal, gas, and petroleum supplies are described. This textbook is intended for students majoring in power engineering at ~ higher schools. It may be used by engineers and technicians at power- system enterprises. Contents Page Foreword 3 Chapter 1. Power Industry and Electrification H;.thin the USSR - Economic S.ystem 7 - 1.1. Importance of Power Industry and Electrification to Building the Material-Technical Base of Communism 7 - 1.2. Stages in the Development of Soviet Power Industry 11 1.3. Outline of the Fuel and Power Complex and Its - Developmental Prospects 18 Chapter 2. Management, Planning, Personnel, and Labor Productivity in Power Industry 25 2.1. Basic Principles and Methods of Economic Management 25 ` 2.2. Structure of Industrial Management and Organization ~ of the Management of Power Industry 32 ~ 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page " 2.:3. Principles, Nature, and Ways of Improving Planning in Power Industry 37 2.4. Tasks and Principles of Power Industry Forecasting 43 2.5. Personnel and Wages in Power Industry 47 2.6. Techniques of Measuring and Ways uf Increasing � - Labor Productivity in Power Industry 53 Chapter 3. Assets and Production Capacities of Power Industry 58 - 3.1. Economic Nature of Fixed and Liquid Ca.pital 58 3.2. Classif ication and Structure of Fixed Capital, . P4ethods of Its Estimation 61 3.3. Ways of Improving the Utilization of Fix_ed Capital in Power Industr.y 68 3.4. Depreciation and Obsolescence, Modernization and _ Repair of Fixed ~apital 70 3.5. The Cor~~ept of Quality, Reliability, and Longevity - and Power Machinery Building 78 - = 3.6. Production Capacities of Power Enterprises, Ways and Means of Streamlining Their Utilization 80 3.7. Liquid Capital and Circulating Assets of Power Enterprzses 87 3.8. Indicators of the Efficiency of Utilization of Fixed Ass~ts in Power Industry 90 3.9. Tasks and Principles of the Organization of Ma.terial- Technical Sup~ly in Power Industry 93 Chapter 4. Capital Construction and Project Design in Power Industry 95 - 4.1. Economic Nature, Purpose, and Scale of Capital Outl3ys _ ~ on Power Industry 95 4.2. Basic Ways of Increasing tHP Effectiveness of the Utilization of Capital Outlays on Power Industry 96 4.3. Planning Principles and Financing Sources for Capital Construction 99 4.4. Organization and Stages of Project Design in Power Industry . 101 4.5. Project-Estimate Cost of Construction and Ways of Reducing It 102 4.6. Procedure for Overall Determination of Capital Outlays on Power Construction 104 Chapter 5. Power Generating and Transmission Costs 106 5.1. Economic Nature and Significance of Reducing Industrial Generating Costs 196 5.2. Features of the Formation of Power Generating Costs 108 _ 2 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE 'J[%LY Page - 5.3. Classification a:~d Structure of Power Generating Expenditures 111 5.4. Economic Nature and Proced~:re for the Determination of the Principal Elements of the Cost of Power Generation at Heat and Power Plants and Steam Power Plants 114 5.5. Economic Nature and Forms of Calculating Generating . Costs 122 5.6. Procedure for Calculating Overall Power Generating _ Cost at Heat and Power Stations 123 5.7. Production Expenditures and Power Generating Cost in Atomic Power Stations 130 - - 5.8. Power Generating Cost at Hydroelectric Power Stations and Gas-Turbine Power Stations 133 - 5.9. Power Transmission Cost and Total Power Generation Cost in Power Systems Z34 5.10. Principal tJays of Reducing Power Generating Costs 139 - - Chapter 6. Rates, Income, Cost Accounting, and Econrnmic Incentives in Pr~wer Industry 143 6.1. Principles of Theory and the Practice of Price-Formation Under Socialism 1G3 6.2. Principles for Drafting and Ways of Improving Rates for Electricity and I~eat 145 - 6.3. Finances, Income, and Profitability in Power Industry 153 6.4. Cost Accounting and Economic Tncentives at Power Enterprises 158 Chapter 7. Methods for Estimating the Economic Effectiveness of Production, Capital C+.itlays, and New Equipment in - Power Industry 164 _ 7.1. Economic Importance and Ways of Increasing the Effectiveness of Social Production, Capital _ Outlays and New Equipment 164 7.2. Starting Premises for the Procedure for Determining the Effectiveness of Production, Capital Outlays, and ' New Equipment 167 7.3. Indicators of Overall Effectiveness of Power Generation 171 7.4. Indicators of and Procedure for Determining the Comparative Economic Effectiveness of Capital Outlays and New Equipment 173 7.5. Features of the Procedure Used for Technical and _ Economic Calculations in Power Industry 180 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page I � 7.6. Methods for Determining the Effectiveness of New Equipment and of the Modernization and Automation of Power Generating Facilities 189 , 7.7. Sample Technical and Economic Pewer Industry _ Calculations 195 7.8. The Concept of Systems Approach in Economic - Calculations in Power Industry 197 - 7.9. Economic Nature of Final Expenditures in Technical- Economic Calculations 203 7.10. Trends and Sample of Utilization of Final Expenditures in Power Indust~y 206 7.11. Trends in the LTtilization of Econ~?nic-Mathematical Tech�niques and Electronic Computers in the Solution of F,conomic-Planning Problems 208 _ Chapter 8. Power Resources and Trends and the Economics of Their Utilization in Power Industry 211 - 8.1. Characteristics and Classification of Power Resources, Power Fuels and Technological Fuels 211 8.2. Methodological Principles for Power Resource Statistics and Measurements ~ 213 _ 8.3. World Reserves and Consumption of Power Resources 214 8.4. Reserves and Geographical Distribution of Power ~ _ - Resources as Well as Principles of Fuel Policy - in the USSR 216 - - 8.5. Economics of the Extraction and Utilization of Fu~l 218 8.6. Characteristics of Fuel Bases--Prir?cipal Regions of Location of High-Capacity KES 220 8.7. Economics of the Selection and Use of Fuel for Power Generation 224 Chapter 9. Power Balan~:a and P~inciples of Power Consumption . in the Nation's Economy 226 9.1. General Characteristics and Classification of the Power Balances Used in. the Natian's Fuel and Power ~;conomy 226 - 9.2. Power Balance in the USSR: Tasks and Trends of Its Optimization ?31 9.3. The Concept of Power and Fuel Balances of Heat and Power Stations and Power Grids 237 9.4. Methods for Computing the Expenditures Part of the - Power Balance of a Region 238 9.5. Ta~ks and Basic Trends of Electrification of. the - National Economy 241 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ Page 9.6. Directions and Prospccts for the Elecr_rification of Industry 24j 9.7. Power Supply Systems and Principles of the Economics of Power Consumption in the Housing and Communal Economy 247 9.8. Economic Principles of Power Generation and - - Consimmption in Railroad Transport 249 9.9. The Concept of the Economics of P~wer Consumption in Agriculture 252 Chapter.l0. Concentration, Centralization, Combination, and Principles of the Economics of Power Supply 254 10.1. Characteristics of Regional Power Supply Sources and Principles of Their Geographical Distribution 254 10.2. Nature and Economic Significance of Concentrazion, Centralization, and Combinir.~ 258 . 10.3. Economics of the Concentration of Capacities of KES and Heat and Power Plants 263 10.4. Economics of the Concentration of Capacities of Hydroelectric Power Stations 270 10.5. Economics of the Concentration of Capacities of " Atomic Power Stations 272 10.6. Effectiveness of Increasing the Tr~nsmission Capactty af Power Transmission Lines and the Fconomic Principles of the Centralization of Power Supply 274 10.7. The Concept of the Economics of Heat and Gas Supply 281 10.8. Effectiveness of Combining [MergersJ in Fower Industry 283 10.9. Comparative Effectiveness of Power Transmission and - ~ Fuel Transport to Regions Remote from Fuel Deposits 288 Chapter 11. Principles of the Economics of the Formation anci Development of Power Systems 290 11.1. Basic Concepts, Classification, and Econ~mic Advantages of Power Systems 290 11.2. Stages and Prospects of t:he De~~elopment of - Power Systems and Their Unification 294 11.3. Power and Economic Characteristics of the Principal Types of Power Stations as Power-System Components 295 ~ l1...4. Stand-By Capacity of Power Systems and the Concept of the Reliability of Power Supply 298 � 11.5. Methodological Principles for the Determination of ' the Longrange Development of Power Systems and the Substant~ation of Their Capacity Structure 307 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Page 11.6. Methodological Principles for the Selection of Capacity and Type-Siz2s of the Basic F~~iliti~es of Heat and Power Stations in a Power System 309 11.7. Economics of Hydroelectric Power Stations as an ' Element of Power Systems 311 11.8. Methodological Prir.ciples for the Selection of Optimal KES Capacity in a Power System 314 11.9. Developmental Prospects of the Mir Power Association 319 Chapter 12. Trends and Economic Problems of Scientific and Technical Progress in Power Industry 321 - 12.1. Economic Nature and Role of Scientific and - Technical Progress in the Development of Social Production 321 12.2. Technical Progress in Power Industry at the Present Stage o� Its Development 323 12.3. Trends and Economic Principles of Scientific and - Technical Pragress in Power Industry From the Standpoint of Its Overall Development 3'15 12.4. ~rends in the Use of Computers in the Management of the National Economy and Power Industry 329 Bibliography 332 Subject Index 335 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," 1980 1386 CSO: 1822 6 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY EI~ECTRIC POWER unc 6z1.313- T~ENDS IN I1JW POWfft EZECTRICAI., EQUIPNIENT OifrPUT Moscow ELEKTROTEKHNIKA in Russian No 3, 1980 pp 2-4 [Article by V. I. Nellin, deputy minister of the electsical equiptnent _ industxy~ "Development of Production of Low Power Electrical Machines I's the Most Important Task of the Electrical Equipment Industry"] ~ [Text] Low power electx ical ma,chines have become very widespread in the countxy's national economy. Household Alectsical appliances, medical equipment, communications devices, calculation equip~nt, systems of automatic control and regulatio~l, aviation and space equipment--this is far from a complete list of the areas of application of electrical machines of the given class. _ The consumption volumes of the luw pawer electsical ma.chines by different branches of the national economy ase continually rising. In the asea of - household appliances, for example, comparatively recently, the number of ` these ma,chines in one family was still coaznted in units. Today, it is increasing to several dozens. The number of ma,chines of the given class amon~ the electrical equipment of modern a3splanes has almost trip~ed. The decisions of�the 25th CPSU Con~ress set before the electrical equipment industr.y an important national economic task of developing the groduction of low power electrical machines at fast rates. The3r annual output must rise sever al times by the year 2000. Here an improvement in the technical par ameters and char acteristics of the machines~ increase in th~ level of _ their reliability and durability must be guaranteed. The complexity of the set task consists of ths fact that the p~aduction of low power electrical machines is characterized by a considerable nomen- - clat~e due to the diver sity of the areas of application of the items. The extxeme nonuni~ormity in the volumes of ~oduction of individua,l type- � - designs of machines (f`rom hundreds to millions of items per year) is linked to this same circumstance. As the circle of tasks to be solved with the help of low p~wer electx ical machines expands, the demand for their expanded nom~anclature rises, which 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY creates serious difficulties in organizing series production. Under these conditions~ the haphazard approach to planning and produ~ing low power electx ical machines that occ~ red at the onset of the development of this branch is now quite inapplicable. It is necessary to coiiduct extensive - scientific studies, and to have -the correct technical policy in questions linked to a dete~rmination of the paths for the hranch development. The stated problem bears a complex nat~e, since it is linked to perfection of both the methods of planning, and the technology and organization of p~oduction. Organization of ~ecise coordination of scientific research � and developments done by the scientific research institutes and design offices of the branch acquires great importance. It is impossible not to consider the need for a close link with other branches of industry that guarantee supFly of materials and parts that are necessary to ensure the - assigned technical level of low power electrical machines. - Reduction in the nomenclature of the developed low power electrical machines with a simultaneous stsiving to satisfy to the maximum the requirements of the consumers is currently being attained by the intxoduction into produc- tion of single series of ma,chines. With such an approach, the design and technological similarity of different types of machines is revea].ed and employed, and an extansive unification of both the electrical machines themselves and theis assembly units and, pasts is carried out. A high level - of item unification is guaranteed also by using preconstructed size and parameter series (grid tables) and branch standards for the type of - standardization created on their basis during the development of unified series. In recent years, in the branch a lot of work has been done in this direction ' and its result is the development of size-parameter grid tables for the overwhelming majority of the types of low power electrical machines. The gcid tables that set an efficient correlation of output parameters of electsical machines witii their overall and adjusti,ng_connecting dimensions si.multaneously determine the loxig-term nomenclature of the items to be - developed. This nomenclature is the original for consumers in planning devices, objects or systems that use low power electxical machines. _ - By restricting the combinations of output parameters and dimensions, the standasdizations promote an increase in the batch nature of the output of individual type-dasigns of electrical ma.chines, which has a favorable - effect on the organization of ~oduction, and ~omotes the introduction of the leading production processes. The development of size~parameter series and standardizations of low power - electrical machines is dona on the basis of a thorough consideration of the trends of theis development, detection of the long-term need for indi- vidual types of machines with regard for the required range of output para- - meters, as we11 as a set of long-term technical and operational require- ments. In this respact, studies have become wides~ead iti the bxanch _ 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL US~, ONLY on scientific and technical forecasting, that at the same time ~ovide calculation for the outlook for development of the technical foundation _ for creation of electxica~ machines with the assigned level of parameters _ and characteristics: electxical aquipment steel and magnetic materials, winding wires, insulation materials, bearings and luhricants, desi~~n r~aterials, etc, A characteristic example of the effici.ent construction of a series of low power electrical machines is the series of one-phase asynchronous electsic motors with power irom 0.6 to 180 w that was developed to dsive house- hold appliances, medical equipment, and ca.lculators and movie eg.uipmente The series provides for sections that include capacitor elec~ric motors with distxibuted and concentrated winding of the stator, as well as elec- tsic motors with asymmetsical magnotic ciscuit of the stator. Thorough - p~eliminasy study of the initial data for planning made it possible to creat9 electric mo-tors that are characterized by a high level of the para- meters and characteristics. The development of the series mac1A use of over 20 domestic invsntions~ a number of which hat�e been patented in the leading f oreign countries. - The results, obtained in the development of the series, are widely used in the ~mocoss of conducting the corresponding res6arch ana,~ development done in the framework of Intere7.ektro. - The development of the series made extensive use of the system programming app~oach. The complex p~ogram for development and intxoduction of the series into indus~tsial p~oduction provides for the broad participatiun of the related organizations and enterprises, in the fixst place, of tech- nological prof~le, As a result, in parallel to the development of _ elsc~trical machines that ase included in the series, stan.dard production ~ocesses are worked out, and advanced ~ociuction equipment is devised. New materials and parts ase formulated. The introduction into production of the new ser3es of asynchronous one- elect~ic motors ntakes it possible to ~ovide a saving of 8,200 T o~' electrical equipment steel, 1, 300 T of winding copper. The total national economic effect is over 140 million xubles. The series of low power electsical machines that have been developed in recent years for the automation systems ase characterized by a high tech- nical 1eve1. Here, in particula-r , a new, advanced sclution was the creation o~ a system of series small-sized axidl electxic fans designed to cool the e].ectronic and ra~iio equipment. These items realize an efficient combination of parameters of the dsive electric motor and the fan, tha.t united ~nto a single design with regard for the conveniences of building into -L-he ob ject to be cooled. - Elect.ric fans are successfully used in the cooling systems of e'lectronic - units of digital computers. For the ~~nified computer system alone the 9 - FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340020024-0 FOR OFFI('~~L, USE ONLY annual economic effect from their introduction surpassed 5 million rubles. Passenger seats of the new IL-86 airliner are equipped with indi~vidual , small-sized electric fans with 1ow noise level, which created noticeable conveniences for the passengers. In evalua.ting as a whole the results of working to create unified series of low power electxical machine~, one can note, that the a~lopted direction - in plannin~ ~ovides a noticeable reduction in the necessary nutnber of machine type-sizes, by p~eserving at the same time the possibility of creating on their basis the necessary nomenclature of the type designs. Analysis demonstrates that the introduction of new series of ln~r power electxical machines makes it possible to almost reduce 2.5-fold the re- - quised number of their type sizes, and halve theis net cost. Here, the ~ developed electrical machines in their parameters and characteristics ase on the level of the best foreign models. It is necessa~y, however ~ to tako into consideration that thP work that has ~ been done mainly permits a regulation of the nomenclature of the tsaditional types of electsical machines of low power~ i.e., those that are currently manufactured in series by the branch enterprises. In addition to this, in order to solve the main task of satisfying the needs of the national economy for electrical ma,chines of the given class it is necessary to pay attention also to the inevitable nomen~�lat~~3 shifts, that should be expected based - on the results of analyzing the scientific and technical achievetnr~nts both in the branch of sma.11 electrical construction itself, and in the related branches of industry. One can indicate in this respect that in the neax future technical solutions should ~ecome widely developed that ase based on the principles of synthe- _ sizing electrical machines and semiconductor transformers. mhese solutions in the first place guarantee perfection of designs of the contactless - direct current electric motors that can use modern achievements in the area - of devising integrated hybrid designs of commutators on semiconductor _ instruments and microcircuits. As a result, potentialities ase created for a signi.ficant reduction in ths weight and overall di.mensions of the contactless direct~ current~ electsic motoss, and their bringing to the level _ of' collector machines. The ind.ices of reliability and durability here rise significantly. Achievements in the field of producing permanent magnets with high values - of specific magnetic power also ~omote an expansinn in the areas of appli- cation of the direct current contactless electxic machines. - It is necessary to focus a lot of attention on the technical solutions that make it possible to guarantee simplification of the kinematic schem~es of mechanisms and instruments that use low power electrical ma,chinas. Here dasign solutions to create slow-moving electric motors have alseady been ~ realized in practice : with electxomagnetic reductiAn, multipolar syn- ch~onous with rolling rotor, wave, step-type, etc. One can expect 10 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY considerable simplifica~tion in the kinematic schetnes with the use of - electxic motor designs with open magnetic dxive, for example, linear. _ Their use parmits a reduction in the relative masses of movement, decrease - in the overall dimensibns of the sys+em as a, whole, and. i.ncrease in its fast-response and reliability, In evaluating the new design solutions~ one can indicate the promising nature of using electxical machines of various types in a planar design, _ . that in pasticular, are planned on the basis of~ using module designs and integ-cated technology. With regard for the rising requirements for reli- ability and dt~ability, the designs of electsical motors of 1ow power using gas, liquid and magnetic supports should become widespread. Among the new technical solutions one can note the use of t~~perties of piezo components to alter their linear dimen~sions under the influence of - electrical voltage, Vib~ation drives have Ueen developed on this basis for electric game devices of the fisst and highest classes. The developments use 11 domestic inventions. more than half of which have been patented abr oad . The great growth noted in the branch in the volumes of output of 1ow power electxical machines determines the need �to increase the level of - theix production technology in order to dxastically reduce the labor inten- sity of making the machines, as well as ~o significantly cut the consump- _ tifln of ma,terials. - The main trend in perfecting the p~oduction grocesses should be the bro~d introd.uction into production of low powex electrical machines of - line methods. With the apprcyp~iate organization they can be used both in the production of mass groducts, and in �the manufactt~e of electxical - machines in comparatively small batches. The principles of design-tech- nological similasity set up during the planning of the~ machine series p~omote . this. In the ~ocess of developing long-term ~moduction ~ocesses, and resources - of automa,tion and mechanization the experience of working on the techno- - logical support for the production of the new general-industrial series of asynchronous motors 4A can be extensively employed. A number of results of this work, in pasticulas, on the ~creation of ~oduction p~ocesses and - equipment for the winding-insuZation work have alseady been realized in ths process of introducing the new series of electric motors for household appliances into groduction. A number of other promising production processes and equipment have been introduced into ~oduction of low power electrical machines: processing of parts or~ machines with grogrammed control, highly productive stamping eguipment, automatic machines for assembly of packages of magnetic wises, automatic lines for producing a number of assembly units, and pa~ts of asynchronous motors, etc. A number of enterprises are efficiently using 11 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX ~ i;~{ :d;, F'~~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~m ogressive technology of laser welding employed in different types of sts uctur al part connections of over 30 types of low power electrical machines. - On the whole, howeve~, the modern level of ~oduction technology of low power elects ical ma.chines still lags behind the technical level of the developed inachines, which predetermines the relatively high values for labor intensity for individual types of machines. In this respect, the tasks of perfecting technology remain among the ~imary ones. Primary attention must be paid to questions of inechanizing and automating - the most labor i.ntensive oper ations. Here the ~inciple of concentrating the operations of manufacturing parts and assembly units that makes it possible to reduce ths interoperational transportation transfers and the number of parts that are in the flow must be placed at the foundatiDn of equipment planning. It is also necessar y to use the micx ocomputer and gener al-purpose computer in automa,ting the tests. Despite the ~ogress made in the asea of creating stator-winding equipment, the set task cannot be considered solved. Tt is necessar y to conduct - series scientific research on perfecting the plans of machines, both those designed for direct placement of the coils in the magnetic ware ~ooves, and those tha~E uge the grinciple of separate for~nation and laying of the turns in the grooves. The modern technical solutions do: not yet guarantee the necessary values for the coefficien~Es of filling of the grooves. The output of the machines designed for winding the two-layer loop coils.3s still low. The creation of winding machines with pxo,~Cammsd control re- mains a serious task. Due to the expanded i.ntsoduction into the design of the electrical machines of pe~manent magnets with high values of the magnetic energy, the cxeation of equipment for winding grooveless designe acquires ~reat importance. For - a number of machines here it is necessary to satisfy additional high requirements for uniformity of the wi.nding layer. - Of great importance is the t~aad intsoduction of long-term methods of metal-warking, such as tl~ ee-dimensional stamping, deep reduction, rolling, ' and electsical-erosion methods. Nontrariitional designs and, technology for ~oducing magnetic wires (twisted, made of a ribbon of electx ical equipment steel tha.t is continually coiled on the edge, and others) deserve attention. - - Among the long-term production trends one should classify the use of powder i metallurgy, By the method of pressing f~ om powder compositions one can make sliding beas ings, design components, magnetic wires of low power electrical machines. In par ticular, the manufacture of bearing housings and. housings ~ of sintered titanium permits a reduction in the weight of the paxts 2-fold as compared to the paxts made of stainless steel with higher anti- corrosion p~operties. At the same time there is a cut in the consumption 12 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of inetal due to the maximum convergence of the b].ank shape to the shape - of the finished part, and the l~~,bor intensity is reduced as a consequence of the drop in the numbar af operations of machining. An advantage of us~ng powder metallurgy is the possibility of obtaining materials t~ith _ the properties required for the given component. The listed p~oblems and te:chnical solutions do not exhaust the entire diversitv of paths for the technology of producing low power electx iczl machines. On should, however, indicate, that this perfection can only be attained with a com~ehensive ap~oach to designing the machinos with the use of the systems of automated planning,where the assigned levels of quality and teahnological effectiveness are guar anteed by the joint solutions of the designer and the ~moduction e~gatieer. The total effect attained both in the sphere of production and in tha sphere of - operation of the low power electxical tnachines must beco~~ a criterion for quality. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", "Elektrotekhnika", 198U. . - 90 35 CSO: 1822 - . yi 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - ELECTRIC POWER _ NEW SYSTEM INTRODUCED INTO ELECTRICAL EOUIPMENT INDUSxRY Moscow ELEKrROTII{HNII~A, in Russian No 2, 1980 pp 2-4 [Article by V. Ye. Astaf'yev, head of planning and economic administration: "Electxical Equipment Industxy under New Cond.itions of Planning and Economic Stimulation"] [Text] In the set of tasks to be solved, the electxical equipment industry occupies a special place in the system of interrelationships with the branches of the national economy. The final results of economic and social development of the country's economy depend to a consider able degree on its balanced development. the technical and production base far electri- fication of the national economy, the elec.tsical equipment industry ~o= vides a11 spheres of social ~oduction with the equipment to gener ate, ' t~ ansmit, transform and. consump electxicity. From he~e follows the special � role of the electx ical equiptn~nt industry in increasing the efficiency - of social production. , - This determines the orientation of alI the links in the b~anch economy towards imp~oving the final results of its operation with the least expenditures. The adopted decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers on perfecting the economic mechanism is a~pecific ~agram for realizing this most important task. Analysis of the work of the electrical equipm~ant industry demonstrates that the b~anch has attained significant advances. Ir! 1966-1979 the volwne of industrial ~oduction rose more than 2.8-fold (on the average 7.9q per _ year). T he output of electrical eguipment consumer goods increased 5.1~- fold (average annual growth rate was 12.ryJ). Duxing this per iod the same ! scientific and p~oduction potential was created in the br anch tha,t was ' accumulated during all the p~evious years of developmant of electrical equi.pment. The level of satisfyiti~~ the national economic needs for elec- ts ical equipment rose considerably. Here the completeness~ of satisfying the needs was oriented on specific consumers. Whereas in 197? the br anch under supplied about lOJ of the ~ products to the consumers, in 1979 the commitments for deliveries based on concluded contracts and orders were fulfilled by 96~. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON?..Y I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OE~FICIAL USE ONLY ~ The indicator for ihe final results of the br anch:'s work is not only the level of satisfaction of needs according to the quantity of products, but - also according to t!~e technical and economic level and the quality of the manufactured product, It is important to guarantee an increase in the consumer properties of the itetns, increase theis dtzrability, service life, operating life, etc. Analysis of the work of the branch under the new ' conditions of planning, financing and mater ial incentive for new equipment showed the high final results. This is indicated by the results of tvsting ~ the system for 10 yeass. Tha specific weight of items of the highest quality quality category in the volume of production of products subject to certi- iication increased from 12.2~ in 1968 to 55.gJ in 1978. According to the results of work for 1979, the indicator of specific weight of products of the highsst category of quality in the total volume of product~ion was 4,5J. The system of planning, financing and material stimulation of scientific and technical progress was oriented on saving not only of branch expendi- ` ' tures, but also a reduction in the national economic costs. The national economic effect from conducting scientific and technical measures in 1978 rose as compared to 1968 5.2-~'old~ and in 1969-1978 was about R 8 billion. Thexe was a significant increase in the specific eFficiency' of new items. Thus, the economic effect for one new item increased from R 29~-~~000 in 1968 to h 637,000 in 1978, and for 1 ruble of the unified fund for the develop- ment of science and technology--from 1 ruble 42 kopecks to 3 rubles 6 ko- pecks~ and for 1 ruble of the volume of scientific research and experi- mental design work--from 1 ruble 15 kopecks to 2 r ubles 77 kopecks. In the Eighth F ive-Year P lan~ the increase in the volume of ~oduction due to a rise in labor productivity was 73f, in the Ninth--8~J, and in the lOth Five-Year P lan the task was set of reaching 95-9?~. ~ 1971-1978 the average annual rate of increase in the volumes of production of electrical equipment ~moducts was 'j.~, the consumption of rolled products of ferrous metals increased by 3J, of copper by 2.Tf, lead by 1.FPJ~ while the speci.fic standards of these types of materials dropped respectively by 24.8, 30 and 35q. In the next 2 years, the increase in the volume of output of items of electrical equipment practically occurred without an increase in the rolled products of ferrous metals~ copper and silver. - T hese are positive results of the work of the electrical equipment industry. At the same time~ the conducted ana].ysis also showed the negative aspects of the br anch ' s deve lopment . ` Inefficient use of labor resour ces is still occurring. The needs of the national economy for electrical equipment are not satisfied completely. There asa cases of censure of the consumers on the quality of the manu- factured products. The efficiency of capital investments and the yield of riewly introduced production facilities are insu�ficient~ The force of inertia has not been overcome a-~ all the en-terp~ises and associations, and a decisive turn has no-t been tpad.e to all work towards 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY increasing quality, labor productivity and attaining the best results. In the last yeass of the five-year plan~ a f inal result was obtained that = was smaller than the of the brancr~ aconomy permit. - T he decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers - on perfecting the economic mechanism, and the decisions of the November (7-979) Plenum of the CtPSU Central Committee are orianted on im~moving the entire system of management and branch control, ~ The increased scales of production, complication i.n the economic ties, and the need for accelerating scientific and technical progress and intensi- fying production required a qualitatively new approach to the system of planning, in the.: first place, long-term. Sl.ortcomings in the branch work determined the formulation of a broar3 cis c~e of ineasures directed towards increasing the production efficiency, They beas both a long-term and a cur~ent nature. In this respect it was requised that the general trends and proportions of development of the electr ical equipment industry be ciefined for _ a long term. The branch has devel~ped a plan for development and arrangement of the electrical equipment industry for the period up to 2000. It starts from the maximum satisfaction of the needs of the national economy for electrical equipment products and the optimal arrangement of branch enterprises over the country's territory. It defines the main trends in scienti.fic and techni- cal progress, based on the outlook for development of science and tech- nology. A lot of attention is focused on questions of a social plan. _ The experience of planning the branch~.'s economic and social development - demonstx ates, that the final results depend a lot on the close correlation of the planned development of the en~erprises with the development of the corresponding rayon, city or region, the ~ esence of labor resources, the facilities of the construction industry, etc. Therefore~ the question on the need for closer combination of branch and territorial planning is raised with all acuteness. The branch is conducting systematic work in this direction jointly with the planning and economic organs of the union republics and the large industrial centers of concentration of the electx ical equipment industry enterp~ises. The trends in the development of the electrical equipment industry for the long rangA serve as a landmark in the formulation of plans for the average period. On their basis the branch has formulated sever a1 var iants of economic development of the electrical equipment industry in the llth and 12th F ive-Yeas Plans. In the first place, they focus attention on ~o- viding for the needs of the fuel and energy complex, transportation~ machine constxuction, agricultuse, metall~gy and other branches. It is known that the use of electr icity in industry is one-third, and for transportation two-thirds more efficient than the use of mineral fuel, Therefore, meas~es have been worked out to significantly increase the 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 F'OFt OFI'ICIAI. USL ONLY output of electr~_cal equipment for nuclear power, superhigh voltage - txansmission lines (1500 I~v of d~sect current and 1150 kv of alternating ct~rent~, and hydsopower. It is plannad to increase the production facilities for manufacture of ~a.ii~ and industrial electric Iocomotives, alECtric equipment for heavy-~'raight dump trucks, stzbizrban trains, subways - and trolleys. A considerable growth is envisaged in the production of sub- mersible electric motors to extract oil at the fi~lds with low ~essure beds, unique electrical machines for gas and oil pipelines, and electxical equip- ment in an explosion-safe design for -the neods of the coal industry. The decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers on accelerated rates of electrification of agxiculture requi~ces that the _ branch implement~~a corresponding increase in the output of electric motors, p~wer transformers, high-voltage and low-voltage electrical apparatus, resources of relay protection of the networks, electric heaters~ special electrical lamps, illumination engineering equipment and many other elec- trical items. The total volume of deliveries of electrical equipment for agriculture in the llth Five-Year Plan should be considerably increased. These and other tiasks are being solved on the~ basis of a further accelera- tion of the rates of scientific and technical ~ogress. F9sst, a consider- able ir_crease is planned for the quality and technical paxameters of the manufactured products, and creation and mastery of production of elact,rical items with increased specific technical and economic indices and level of mechanization and automation. Second, a broa,d program is planned ~f saving material and labor resources, The branch has worked out and is implementing 18 major sc~.entific and technical programs. They encompass the entire cycle "science-technology-production-consumption," ase closely interrelated not only within the electrical equipment industry, but~ also,with the related branches, and C~'IA member countries. The complex plan for saving material and labor resources provides for the creation of new~ more efficient itams with reduced materials consumption, labor-intensity and enargy consumption, , light-weigYit structural parts with the optimal technical and operational _ characteristics. Measures ase being planned that guarantee the replacement of deficit and. expensive materials. Broad introduction of aclvanced tech- nological processes, mechanization and automation of the production processes is planned . Thus, the plan of economic development of the electrical equipment industry - is oriented on high final results--more complete satisfaction of the social needs and all-possible saving not only of in-house resources, but also a consider able reduction in the national economic expenditures. An increase in the volumes of p~oduction at the active enter~ises will be guasanteed by means of a growth in labor pr.oductivity. The measures worked out for saving of material resources make i-t possible to increase the output of products w~thout a significant rise in the ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemical products and other types of raw materials and mater ials. From the production and use in the national economy of new types of electrical equip- ment and cabl~e items it is planned to guarantee in the llth F ive-Yeax Plan 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY . an economic effect of several billions of rubles. It will be obtained by our product consumers due to the increase in labor ~oductrvity and the . _ service life of the electrical equipment, and saving of current operational expenditures and capital investments. The formulation of ].ong-range plans ma,de it possible to plan the optimal paths of economic, scientific and technical, and social development of the - hranch, systematic i.mplementation of the planned measures for saving labor, material and financial resources, and increase in the efficiency of the new equipment and capital investments. An i.mportant tool in the realization of the planned measures to improve production efficiency in the branch and at each enterprise is the five-year plan. It has bean called upon to be the main economic activity of all links in the branch administxation~ and the branch institutes, associations and enterp~ises have been enlisted in its formulation. Their main task is a further search for reserves of pro- duction that can be discovered by counterplanning. Perfection of the entire planning system rests in the branch on the more efficient use of economic levers a:nd stimuli, and expansion of the sphsre of ypplication of cost accounting. In accoxdance with the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers on perf'ection of _ the economic mechanism, the electxical equipment industxy starting 1 Janu- ary 1980 switched to new conditions of planning and economic stimulation. New aconomic indicatars~ norms and standards were put into operation. Planning arui evaluation of the activity of each enter~ise, association and the branch as a whole for all technical and economic indicators are carried out by a cumulative sum from the beginning of the year. The bsanch has besn transferred to f ull cost accounting. The indicator of realizable products serves to evaluate the f ulfillment of the assignments for p~oduct deliveries in accordance~with the concluded contx acts and orders. The system of planning, financing a,nd material stimulation of scientific and technical progress was f urther developed. The amount of reso~ces allocated to the associations, enterprises and the branch as a whols was placed in direct dependence on the improved final results of cost accounting activity. Among the measures thayt directed towards improving the level of planning an important place is occupied by the econotnic indicators and standards. - On the order of an experiment the ~anch is verifying tha new econom3.c indicatoi for the growth in the volume of commodity output in compar able - ~ices with regaxd for the quality and efficiency of the new equipment, ~ This means that with the manuf'acture of highly efficient products with the ~ state sign of quality, the rates of ~owth in commodity output ass determined , by conversion of the commodity output volwne of the base year into a coef- ficient that takes into consideration the efficiency of the new p~roducts as compared to the replaced. For each new item, according to the formulated standards, a percentage is set for the economic effect from the use of this - ~oduct by the consumer. Th~s effect percentage is totalled for all the new items, and the obtained sum is excluded f~om the volume of commodity ou~put 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 _ FOF. OFFiCIAL USE ONLY of the i~ase year. According ~to the techniq~.~e developed i.n the 'b~anch, the pereentage of economic effect excludod ~om +,he base is called upon to - compensate for those losses in the growth of pr~daction, labor ~oductivity and wages tha~ the enterprise bears in tsansferring to the output of the new, highly efficient itams. The gr~wth rate for the volume of commodity output with regard for effi- ciency is set for each enterprise and the branch as a whole for the planned period in quarters by the cumulative sum. The planned assignment for the growth in labor ~oductivity and standasds of wages are also determined on its basis. Indices for the growth rate in commodity output with regard for the effect, labor productivity and specific weight of the products of = the highest category of quality are disective and fund-forming. Economic corulitions have been created that guarantee the interest of the enterprises in producing new products with lower ma,terials consumption and labor-intensity. The wholesale prices for such p~oducts have been set with rogard for preservation of the size of p~ofit 'obtained f~om rea].izi~g the previously manufactured products. In order to determine the volumes of ~oduction and labor produc-tivity, xholesale p~ices are used that were - adopted in the plan for the replaced products. The direc~ive indicators include the economic effectf`rom cond.ucting scientif ic and technical measures. It combines into one the technical and economic planning with planning of scientific and technical progress and its stimulation. The economic effact ob~ ained as a result of increasing the organizational and technical level of p~oduction serves�~,s the real - base for gua-ranteeing a reduction in the net cost of the products, rise in grofit and fulfillment of all the cost accounting indicators. The given _ indicator makes it possible to introduce into the sphere of cost accounting relationships of inaterial interest of the,enterprises and associations in reducing the labor-intensity and materials-consumption of ~oducts, and r aising labor ~oductivity. It serves as the basis for planning and the actual deductions for the in�centive fund to create and in-troduce new equip- ment. Thus, the new economic indicators are dis ected towards guaranteeing high fina,l results, saving not only of in-h~use, but also national economic expenditures. The advantage of the commodity output indicator wi~h regard for the effect consists of the fact that on the one hand, it creates con- ditions for intensif~ring the econo~ic interest of the enterprises in mas - tering new itemw, and on the other hand, nonfulfill.ment of the plan yor output of the new product, or decrease in its ef~ iciency results in nonful- fillment of all the indicators, and dxop in the incentive funds. The use of the new indicators will promote the preservation of the growth rates in the voli.unos oy~ production with a certain decrease in the fisst year in the quantity of manufacturad products, but in favor of theis quality. This is very important for the tr ansition to the comprehensive increase in the quality of products from raw materials and materials to the finished items. 19 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICI~I, USE ONLY - All of this will permit a strengthening of the link between the results of technical pro~ess and the cost accounting indicators of work of the _ industrial enterprises, and guasantse of the combination of collective interests with national. An importa.nt component in perfecting the systAm of planning ~rovided for by the decree is the introd.uction into ~ actice of long-term economic standards. They make it poss~ble to intensify centralized control of - production, and, to increase the initiative and independence of the pro- _ duction collectives. Among the economic norms and standasds an important place is occupied by the standards for the fund of wages. They a~e established in the ~ anch for each enter prise, based on the correlations between the growth in labor prod.uctivity and the average wages, increase in the volume of production ' due to a growth in labor ~oductivity so that a drop in the specific con- sumption of wages for the volume of product ~oduction is guarantesd. The definition of the planned fund of wages in the annual plan takes into consideration the conversion of the volume of commodity output ~om the ~e- vious year based on the coefficient of efficiency. If there is a deviation in the actual output of new p~oducts from the planned, the planned fund of wages is pinpointed by the cumulative sum since the beginning of the yeax. Consequently, both the planr?ed and the actual sum of the wages fund are placed in dependence on the number of new items. and the size of ~the economic effect obtained f`rom the use of these items by the consumer. Deduction standards from the profit at the disposal of the branch and the state budget were also set for 1980: to the unified fund of development of science and technology--in percentages of the planned volume of commodity output with regaicd for the effect; to the funds of economic stimulation. Calculations with the state budget for deduction from the profit are made b,y the ministry iri a centr alized manner, Here the payments to the budget are guaranteed in a full amount, regardless of the results of the work of individual enterprises and the branch as a whole, This increases respon- sibility and interest of all the links of the branch in the growth of pro- duction efficiency and the adoption of more intensive plans. At the same time, the interests of the budget are completely guaranteed. The branch has been equipped with other economic levers and stimuli that follow from the decree to perfect the economic mechanism. The use of long- _ term credit has been expanded as a so~ce of financing of capital invest- ments when there is a shortage of in-house resources of the branch. The ~ role�of incen~ive bonuses for the wholesale prices has been increased to stimulate the output of highly efficient items. Now they are set for the entire period of action of -the state sign of quality. In the first 3 years of output of new items, 70~ of the total incentive bonuses is sent to the incentive funds, and repeated certification--up to 3~J. Dedactions from the wholesale prices of 10~ are set for items of the second category ` ~f quality that axe subject to removal t~ om production. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340020024-0 ~ rOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY In order to intansify the stimulating role of wages in increasing pro- duction efficiency, the use of wages conservation is expanded. The - associa~ions and enterprises of the branch ha~re obtained the right to pay bonuses for the tari_~'f rates of the workers for plurality of professions and fulfilLnent of the set volume of work with a lowe~. nutnber of workers - frosn the savi.zg fDr the wages fund obtained compased to the set standasd. Fifty percent of the unused saving of' the wages fund in the given year will be sent to the fund of material incentive~ while permitted overcon- _ sumption is subject to compensation from the f und of mater ial incentive. The funds of economic stimulation will be formed acco~ding to stable - standards. T he branch has been given the right to set different fund- for.ming indicators wi~th regard for the features and imminent tasks for individual associations and enterprises. T he formation of the production - development f und is based on the deduction stas~dards from profit and amorti- zation deductions. The role of this fund considerably rises in implemen- ting measures for mechanization and automation~ replacement and moderni- zation of equipment, improvement in the organization of p~oduction and labor, as well as in conducting other measures for the� technical re - equipping of the industry. These measures that were for mulated by the associations and enterprises themselves, are included in the plan of capi- tal constr uction in the full volume of outlays, and are guar anteed in primary order by the material resources and facilities of the construction- cor~tract organizations. Interrelated measures have been worked out for further improvement in the economic mechanism in construction, which will be introduced into the branch in the llth Five-Yaar plan. These measures are disected towards increasing the efficiency of capital investments, and accelerating the putting into groduction of production facilities and objects. The main factor for impro- ving the construction business will be the transition to stable five-yeax plans of capital constr uction (with distribution o~ the assignments over _ the years). Intensi.fication is envisaged of the balance with material, - labor and financial resources, as well as the outputs of the construction- 3.rtstallation organizations. The allocation of capital investments wi11 be mada for the planned increase in products. The active production and the new constx uction now will be planned as a unit, with regard for the possi- bilities of increasing the output of products for the available production facilities, It is planned to allocate resources for the reconstr uction and technical re-eguipping of the active enterprises in the primary order. Such order for formulating plans of capital investment is directed so that the con- str uction of new enterprises begin s only in that case where the needs of the nation~,J. economy for speci~'ic -~ypes of produc~s cannot be provided for by th~ active enterp~ises with regard for their reconstr uction and tech- Yiical re-equipping. An impor-~ant stage will be the completion in 1981 of the transition to calcula-tions between the customers and the contractors for 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE 0~1LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 ruk urrtcitu, usc oNL~ _ completely finished constsuction of and putting into operation of enter- prises and facilities at the estimated cost of the construction commodity = output. With the transition to a new order of calculations, the austomers ~ will no longer be given advances for the contracting organizations ~or expenditures for incomplete ~oduction of construction and installation work. These expenditures ~ all the way to putting the facilities into - operation will be covered by bank credits. Thus ~ the entire new system of indicators, stand.ards and limits have the following inherent features: fisst, stablility, second, orientatinn on final results~ and third, unity for a11 levels of control. The indicators, standards and li.mits are set for the fivs-year plan with breakdown into years. The plan fulfillment will be evaluated by the cumulative total f~om the beginning of the five-year p1an. Depending on the fulfillment of tkia five-year plan, the economic stimulation will also be dependent. The specific putting into operation of the main funds, facilities, and objects will act as the final result of the association or enter~ise activity. Economic stimulation of both the contractor and the customer will depend _ on it. The final result is also the growth in the total efficiency of production, the growth in profit, labor groductivity, quality of products~ and economic effect from conducting scientific and technical meas~es. The branch ha,s formulated and is realizing a complex system for organiza- tional and economic measures. It has been called upon to implement re- . construction of the economic mechanism for the purpose of attaining the best final results. In all links of branch cnntrol extensive and tedious woric remains. It must be disectedtowasds overcoming inertia~ a compre- - hens~Ye. search for production reserves, a successful battle against poor mattagement in using material and labor resources, with losses of working time, and a11-possible fulfillment of the contract commitments. ~ Orientation of all the links of branch control to the final results is the guarantee of increased production efficiency and deepening of planned _ development and dynamism of its development. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", "Elektrotekhnzka" ~ 1980, 9035 cso : 18z2 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340020024-0 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY ELECTRIC POWER i ~ UDC 621.165:697.34 UTILIZATION OF STEAPI TURBINE UNITS IN CENTRAL HEATING Moscow TEYLOENERG~.TIKA in Russian No 7, Jul 80 pp 37-41 [Article by F.~igineers Yu. A. Averbakh~ V. A. Bonesko and Ai. L. Sheshelovskiy and Candidate of Technical :~ciencas Yu. P. Kosinuv of the Kharkov affiliate of tlie Glavenergoremont Central Design Bureau] [Text] At the present time, thermal loads are Frimarily being met with = heat released from heat and electric power stations, regional Uoiler plants and from cross-coupled GR~S's. At such GRES's the steam turbine units have been renovated i.n connection with the organization of regulated and un- regulated central heating and industrial steam extraction and the conver- sion of the extracted steam into work energy by means of back pressure and redu ced vacuum [1]. It will be expedient to examine the feasibility and future prospects of in- cluding steam turbine power units as practically unlimited sourc~s of heat. The utilization of tuese units for a heat supply makes it posaible to meet loads of several hundred mega~oules per second for consumers located in the immediate vicinity of the GRES as well as loads of several thousand mega- joules per second for the central heating needs of large cities. The feasibility of ineeting central heating loads by renovating the turbine _ units has been shown previously in [1,2]. The characteristics of renovated 160, 200 and 300 MW turbine units are cited in table 1. These characteristics testify to the units' considerable " potential as possible powerful sources of heat. When investigating the - problems associated with employing equipment having a total ouCput of 25 to 30 million kW for heat supply, it is necessary to analyze thoroughly the effect such renovation has on changing the controllability characteristics of the power units as well as on the power balance of consolidated power - systems. These questions have been examined previously [3]. Moreover, taking into consideration the fact that power units of 160 to 300 MW capa~ city began being installed at electric power stations in the 1960's and al- ready have run over 100,000 hours or else are approaching that many hours of oparation, it is necessary to evaluate the practical prospects of oper- - 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ating these units over the next 15 to 20 years from the point of view of both physical wear and obsolescence. The experience in operating equipment having high parameters (9MPa and 500�C), some of which has logged about 200,000 hours, and 35 years of oper- ating four power units of 150 M~J capacity with parameters of 17 r~a and 540/540�C as well as the results of an inspection of the nonmoving parts and the rotors of several turbines have made it possible to predict with a known degree of~approximation the sufficiently reliable operation of the tiypes of equipment in question up to the year 2000. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the fact that several turbines may require a replacement of the stop valve housings, steam bypass tubes, cylinder housings and, in ex ceptional cases, the rotors. It is possible that some turbines from the first production runs will have to be diamantled. Witti the constant improvement of power engineering~ previously manufactured equipment becomes obsolete much sooner than it we ars out physically. Ques- tions regarding the effect of technical progress in pow~er engineering upon the rate of obsolescence of thermal power stations are examined in [4]. A facility that is in operation is obsolete if the following condition is met: ZNSUp . In this case, ZN are the quoted unit expenditures for a new - f acility and Up are the unit operating expenditures (not taking into ac- count renovation) of the existing facility. Both fossil-fuel aad atomic electric power stations are examined as new facilities. For example, on the basis of comparison with a modern fossil-fueled electric power station with six 8U0 MW power units, one may say that units of 150 MW capacity and greater would not b e obsolete (with the cost o� fuel at 15 rubles per ton of conventional fue1~ E=0.15 and the number of hours of operation from 5,500 to 7,000) if their design indicators are used as a basis. When the actual indicators of 150 MW power units are compared to the design indicators, they prove to be obao lete. The considerable increase in the number of AES's planned for introduction in the coming years and tt?e trend toward increases in the prices for fossil fuels in the European portion of the USSR will lead to an accelerated ob solescence of even those electric power stations with 300 MW power units. In light of this, it is expedient to utilize the pro- - posed renovation in order to reduce substantially or evea eliminate temporar- ily the consequences of obsolescence of electric power station equipment which today puts out the major portion of the electric power produced. The detailed development of the means to utilize power units for heat sup- ply brought about the need to solve specific problems which had never be- fore been encountered in ths modernization of high-pressure equipment in - connection with the following design features: The presence of intermediate steam superheating; A modular principle of operation (boiler-turbine) instead of a cross- coupled arrangement; The crowded configur ation; : 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFZCIAL USE ONLY . Tiie more complex design of high-pressure cylinders; The use of noncombustible iiquids and water in the K-300-240 turbine's regulating system; _ The gre ater effort required in fitting the turbine blades; � The pr~sence of rotor blades of great length in the low-pressure cy~.inder which are sensitive to decreases in the volumetric flow rate of steam; ~ , The installation in 300 MW turbine~ of a back-pressure turbine drive for the feed pump, connected to the main turbine tn series, etc. In view of the installation~in 160-300 MW turbines of 0.76 to 1.05 m rotor _ blades in the final ~tages, designed for operation in the basic condensa- tion cycle, iC is necessary to insure their reliable operation during.the heating cycle with a reduced volumetric flow of steam. In connection with - this, until sufficient op~rational expe~rienee is accumulated, the maximum vdlues for the heat axtracted depend upon the condition that, when the electric load is carried for an extended period of time, the expenditure of steam into the condenser he held to the minimwn a]lowable level needed to satisfy the requirements of manufacturing plants, This condition re- quires that a considerable portion of the attached steam output be retain- ed. Therefore, after the redesign the turbines may be referred to as the thermocontrolled type. - Since after renovation the power units should share in meeting the variable _ schedule of electric loads, the extracted heat must, as a rule, be de- rived f rom the regulated steam bleed or be combined with an unregulated bleed. The orientation toward the unregulated bleed, although it does sim- glify the reconstruction in the design sense, at the same time 13.mits con- . siderably the absolute values of the ateam extract3on and sharply reduces the controllability characteristics of the power units, except for the _ means of discharge. For this reason as well as for technical considera- tions, the adoption of certain proposals that provide for or~anizing multi- stage preheating of netwnrk water by steam from the uaregu].ated bleeds in - such a way that the entire volumetric flow of steam (aside from that which _ goes toward regeneration needs) is expended in this preheating is hardly practicable on the operating turbine installations of power units. In this case a condenser is used for the first preheating stage. The organization of the regulated steam bleed requires the iustallation, o� special low-pressure steam-distributing units. Unfortunately, because of - design considerations, it is not possible to make this steam-distribution sufficiently economical, since it is accomplished wtth hinged baffles or butterfly ~alvea. In both versions a single throttle valve is used for i, steam distribution. The steam bleed is not always in a thermodynamically ~ optimum location, since its position is determined by the turbine's design - peculiarities. In connection with this, the unit output of the K-X60-130 - KhTGZ turb3ne unit is lOSkW�h/GJ, for the K-200-130 LMZ the figure is 25 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 roR o~~rlcl:~L usL orr~,Y N u1 I~ O � � .-1 CO ~ � � O ~G 1~ N 00 O. u1 NO~ 1 1 ~7~1 ( ~7N �O O O p N N N Q~ N N N N r-I r-I f~ N .T r"~ � N O O u'1 u"1 ~ c'f N u1 .TNN ~1~N a0 O 1~ T~D I 1 c~1 ~-i O v1 r'1 � O c'~1 O H~r1 r-I N o0 .-1 1 N N ri ~-I u1 N ,G N .-1 N - x � 0 ~ ~ nE ~D f~ C~ N N c~~1 u~1 O _ .-i o0 N � � I ~ ~ � ~''1 1 O ~ u'1 r-I .t ~ ( v1 O~i O O O? r-1 O? ~ cr1 ~ r~-I N N ?-I O c*1 - ~i O N ~O O~ ~ ~ N ~C r~ O N.~-1 cM~1 - ~I r1 CO N � � 1 ~ ~ � M ' O O 'CI - \ N~ 1 1 u1 ~7 N M~O r-1 Q~ 0'1 1/1 G) ~r1 ~-1 ~t ?r1 O~ r-i O~ 1~ N 1-I .~i N O ~ ~ Gl q .t .t q ~1C r-I v1 O .K � � CJ ~ ~7 N O~ ~D ~C 1~ c"1 U1 ~T N~ r-I u1 ~O 'O ~ r-1 r-I i-i N O ~7 CO N ~-1 ?-i O i-I M ~ O O Gl O N - ~ ` N ~ - 1 � ~ c�'1 00 op ~~7 O N c+1 ~~/1 O O Gl CI ,-I .t N Q~ I I u1 e~1 u1 ~t N.~-i v'1 O i~ J.i I ~ ~-1 ~ ~r1 00 N ~ ~-I O M ~ ~ '~r O ~ ~ ~ M ~ t� ~ ~ ~ I CUD ~ C) ~ ~ Ul fA u~ ~w ~ ~ xr ; 'b iJ w ~ ~ ~ z 3 ~+~oa .o v � ~ c �a a~ a~i ~ m a~+ ~-~i .-01i ~ ~ id LJ v~ u~ ,p t0 3 r-1 .t O Cl Lf ~ ~.1 .c a v, i.~ i~ ~ eba c~o 3''~i+ 3 e~i m ~ w~ ~ ,.i o o x > ct u-+ d w eo co a~ u? ~s s~ ~ m o o~ o0 o u o w a~ ~~U+ x a~ w o a+ atlo ~.a ~ m ~ ~ 3 N ~ ~ H i+ ~ ~ td Rf ~ q ~i ~ W ~ b 'd a~i 71 ~ O Cl Z � LJ ~ ~ d 41 'J O O F+ ~rl CJ N u a r-+ ~.-Z a? 3 3 W ~~~.C .C q w co ~ c~ ~ a+ ~ u-~ ..o c~ a~ o o~ f a a o~ v, a~ m ~v a, o~ a~~~ au ~ w ~�o a~ ~ ~ 3 v~ o b d .nww ~ q~d ~ o a~~ ed ~b o ~ o - ~ ~ a~ a+ a~ d o~ d a~ ~ a~ o.~ oo cq H ~ 41 ~ a~ i.1 O~~g~ ~ m t~ q~ tA ~rl ~ O c0 ~d cd w~ O~ y�r ~ W tii '3 tA Rt rl ~ tA 1+ ~ C7 Ed H ~.C ri O 1~+ ~ ~ p ~ c~oz ~~wa o~o~~a aui,.+d~ o gaaq ~~o m o ~ � c~i a w~ ~ ~ w% w t~ 6 q~a~~ a~ ~ ~ F+ ~c ~ ~ = 26 ~OR OFFICIAL USE OI]LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICTAL USE OM.Y 129 kW�h/GJ and for the K-300-240 it is 126 kW�h/GJ. Naturally~ these figures are inferior to the analogous indicators for the best domestic central-heating turbines. - In order to increase the efficiency of the renovation, it is expedient to ~ examine the feasibility of using the turbine condenser as the f irst pre- heating stage. This eliminates the loss of heat with the circulating wa- ter. However, the practical realization of this potential is more compli- ~ated than for low-output turbine units and, to a considerable degree~ is determined by the type of water-supply system (closed or open). In the closed water-supply system the temperature of the return network water may _ gc to 70�C and the corresponding steam pressure in the condenser will amount to 0.06 to 0.08 MPa. This is not permissible from the point of view of reliable operation of t~oth the rotor blades and the turbine itself. .ioreover, because of the relatively small values for the preheating ~f net- _ work water in the condenser, an unusually high flow rate of water is re- quired. D ata are cited in table 2 which characterize the indicated opera- ting conditions in the condenser (at a temperature head of St=4�C and with the rotor blades retained in the final stages). It follows from the table - tl~at, in order to recover all the heat usually ~.ost with the circulating _ water, it is necessary to remove the rotor blades in one or two of the fi- - r~al stages (to reduce the temperature of the exhaust nozzles to 60�C) in view of the sharply increased pressure in the condenser. In this case the nominal condensing capacity of the turbine is not retained. It is theoret- ically possible to renovate rhe condenser in order to separate the specially built-in tube bundles which would have utilized only a portion of the heat released, wliile still keeping to the noted operational limitations. It is more efficient to utilize the condenser to preheat the make-up water with an open water-supply system. Since the temperature of the watex at the condenser input is only about 5�C, provisions are made to heat it cc;n- siderably. The pressure of the steam in the condenser, the flow rate of the water and, consequently, the velocity of Che water in the condenser tubea decrease noticeably (table 3) . From table 3 it can be seen that, when the water is heated to 35�C, the - rotor blades in the final stages do not have to be removed. In this case, however, the flow rate of the make-up water fluctuates from 1.4 to 2.5 m3/s. When it is heated to 70�C, the flow of water is reduced by half but the rotor blades in the final stage must be removed. Separating the special make-up water tube bundles sharply reduces the ef- fect of utilizing the heat released. Thus, an analysis of rhe possible methods of utilizing the heat released reveals thar tY?e use of condensers in 160-300 MW turbine units for the first preheating stage of network or make-up water may probably be realized on a limited scale. 27 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 ~ ~ o o ~n ~n ~ ~ N r-I ~~-i y~j O {b LOJ 00 �~oa ^ ~awo agaxi N f-�~ oNO"~o o~a d H o q ~ 7 b ~ u ~ oD ~e w ~ m ~ n r~ ~ ~ a~ u d ~n ~o u� ~ - a~ o a~ o ~ rn a`~o ~,.�1c ~ ~ av w o ~ H U!'7 V N CO C? ~ o ~ ~ ~1 w w ~A IJ ,p 0~1 w N rl N ~ u1 00 a o o ~ N 1 J Cl ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ *~-1 ~~-I N +~1 ~ w - z a.~ ~n o a? cs ~ ~ v V N 'b O O N f~ ~ ~ O U~ ~ N c~1 U1 c~f ~-~I u~ ii ~ P4 N~ q ~ 01 'C! Cl L ~ ~-1 N c"1 ~t ~ r1 N ~ 0.~~i ~OJ O ~ 'U ~ td ~ O ~ w+ a ,a, 3 0 o ~ o 0 0~ ~o w H~ O~ ~ N p ~ ~ O H py U 00 y~tnj ~ N ~ d ~ G~D ~ ~ir1 ~ ~ - u1 O ~ CpS acU o p x' O O vf " p i.~ c~l O P~,+ U,'F'.+ ~.~i r~p ~ p V H 1.~1 C~I i N ~ O o P~ ~ OD ~ W O ~ p~ v~ ~ ~ ~ O .7 00~7 ~ N I O 1 0~0 I ~ x ~ N N.7 U1 ia w ~ O.C r-~i ^ O r� o ~ "a ar w a 0 w x ~3 ~ � ~ w ww W H ~ H N u1 e'~ ~D u1 o ~ a 3 N N W cr1 _ u1 a0 a~ p O 1~ 1.i ~ .-1 .-1 N u~ ed0 A W~ 3~ ~ iJ ~1 'U GO r-I u1 N O~tl H fy\ N NM ~ w ~ i~.l ~ b ~ ~ ~ .ti ~ W I y~ NM~t p q ~ ~0 ON~D V1 ~J ~0 N ~ ~ ~ 'Ly ~ tn CO 00 ~/1 .t~ U ~ ~ r-1 ~-1 t~ O~ F+ \ 00 O ~O ~ ~ W 1~ ao r1 u t~A x ~ w O ~ ~ ~ w ~ W G1 41 R1 U ~ " a0 ~7' b ~ R7 Gl Nq u'1 00 00 - ~ N 1~ O~ O 01 Q ~ 1~.r d) O~~7' n O u~ 1~.~ ~ u1 ~C O c~J O~ 00 q~ N N c~'1 ~-I ~H R~ W cn ~ ~ .C ~ ~ ~ w o~ 3 q d 00o u o00 N~-+ ~ rM-1 r~''~-1 N N M 0~ ~ ra1-1 N A GJ .0 ~ p ag dp. j,~ , i ~-I N M F' H~' M E'~'' H H+~ ~ ~4 A4 ~G ~G ~C ~G ~ 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAJ. USC ONLY In studies previously published [1,2], the design features of renovated 1b0 and 2UU ;SW turbines are examined. In the K-300-240 turbines of the L2~IZ ~Leningrad :Setals Plant imeni 22nd CPSU Congress] and the KhTGZ - [i:narkov Turbogenerator Plant imeni S. M. Kirov] there are essential de- sign differences associated with the presence of three low-pressure steam flows. The first is in the intermediate-pressure cylinder, the other two in the low-pressure cylinder. When a regulated steam bleed is created, a hinged baffle is installed ahead of the first flow as a low-pressure _ - steam-distribution element, while butterfly valves are incorporated ahead . of the remaining two flows in two reserve tubes ahead of the steam input in the low-pressure cylinder (SJ. The extraction o� steam is carried out - ahead of the first flow. In Ll~SZ turbines the turbine exhaust is directed into the first low-pressure flow, that is, into the intermediate-pressure cylinder. During the renovation, three methods of feeding the exhaust steam to the main turbine were examined. In the first version, steam is fed into _ _ the first low-pressure flow. As a result of this, the pressure after the turoine drive and the pressure in the regulated bleed are equal. Steam at the ra~e of 111 to 125 kg/s arrives at the network preheaters from both the turbine and the turbine drive. Th3s simplifies considerably the problem of extracting steam f rom the turbine. However, because of the constancy of the pressure after the turbine drive, it is possible to use the exhaust steam if the f low rate of live steam is not less than 156 kg/s. At greater rates of boiler discharge the output of the turbine drive is not sufficient to drive the f ee d pu:nps . In the second version, the turbine drive's exhaust is fed into the low- pressure cylinder after the butterfly valves ~ud, therefore, is not used for heat supply. In this case the controll~bility of the turbine unit is in- creased~ but the maximum steam extraction is limited to 94~5 to 100 kg/s due - to restrictions on the possible arrangement of steam~-extraction pipes. In the third version, the turbine drive's exhaust is completely isolated during the heat supply cycles from the turbine and all the steam is direct~d into separate network preheaters, the pressure in which �or a given flow rate of network water depends upon the temperature of the water and the flow rate of steam through the turbine drive. In practice, the realization of sucn an arrangement is impossible because of the considerable overdriving of the final stages of the turbine drive when the temperature of the network water is low, as well as the unacceptable reduction in the drive's output az network-water temperatures above 55�C. In the turbines manufactured by KhTGZ the turbine drive's exhaust is direct- ed infio the low-pressure cylinder. Two methods of discharging steam from - the turbine drive were examined. In the first version the steam is dis- charged into the regulated bleed chamber. Tn this case the diameter of the - pipe for the steam bleed from the turbine is reduced from 1.4 to 1.2 m, but the turbine dxive's exhaust steam may be utilized if the flow rate of the live steam is not less than 195 kg/s. In the second version, the steam feed to tlie turbine drive is carried out past the butterfly valves. In - hoth versions the maximum rate of steam extract~on is 125 kg/s. 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL iJSF. ~N7,Y Table 4 Flow rate of Specific heat flow q, - live steam J/(kW�s) Deviation Average, Conditions Gp. kg/s x According According to thermal to data of J/(kWs) X test data KhF TsKB* 139 2534 2534 0 0 poa12,7 MPa t�=540�C - 111 2573.7 253~1 43 1.67 1.81 pK=3.4 kPa 83.4 2658.6 2559 100 3.76 t�P =540�C GVPRa~ * Kharkov affiliate of the Central Design Bureau Table S , Indicators According to KhF TsKB* According to thermal ~ data test data Flow rate of live steam - Go~ ~8/B 139 139 Flow rate into unregulat- 9.45 21.8 0 19.4 27.8 0 - ed bleed, GuR, kg/s Flow rate into regulated 29.2 0 38.9 19.5 0 38.9 ~ bleed, GRi~ , kg/s Heat flow Q, MJ/s 100 69.8 100 100 69.8 100 E lectric output of tur- 137 148 134 140 150 137.5 bfne NE , tiW * see table 4 above 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus~ it is theoretically possible to use exhaust steam from the tuxbine drive of 300 MG~' power units �or heat supply. Howevero taking into ac- count the recommendations of [3]~ it is expediant to limit the extraction to 70 kg/s (150 2�SJ/s). Thus~ where it is possible~ it is desirable not Co - complicate the layout of a heat supply installation that is limited to the steam extracted from the turbine alone. It should be noted that during operation at some electric power stations consumers are found to be using the steam for production purposes and for their own needs in connection with the changeover of KES's [condensing thermal electric power stations] over to a semipeak mode of operation (supplying deaerators, fuel oil con- servation~ peak boilers, etc.). For example~ the feasibility of extracting steam at 14 to 16.5 kg/s at a pressure o� 2.5 MPa f rom K-150-130 KhTGZ tur- has been examined~ as well as design variants of K-200-130 LMZ tur- bines with a limited extraction of steam at a rate of 55 kg/s and a pres- sure of 1.5 MPa. Except for power stations with turbine units of 150-300 tiW~ more powerful fossil-fuel fired power units and tusbiae units for AES's with outputs of 220 to 1000 rn~ maq be used in the future~ depending upon the local conditions for meeting the considerable heat loads. It is already possible~at the present time to summarize the performance of the three K-150-130 KhTGZ turbine units at the Nazarovskaya GRES where the first modification of the renovation ~aas carried out. A stepped preheat of the network water with steam from an unregulated bleed at a pressure of = Q.06-0.12 PiPa and with steam from a regulated bleed at a pressure of 0.54 - t~IPa was created. Over the course of 5-6 years of turbine operation no tun- - damental diff iculties were manifested in the start-up, condensation and heat-supply cycles. While the renovated turbines were being set up, changes were introduced in the design of the turbine manifold and the low-pressure steam-distribution equipment. Free vibration in the baffle and some other small defects ware eliminated. Thermal tests of the turbine installation in power unit N~ 5 carried out by the Siberian branch of Soyuztekhenergo determined their phyeical iadicators after the renovation. In addition, it became necessary to expand considerably the pressure limits in the regulated bleed as a result of the pressure reduction to 0.25 MPa (see table 1). In view of this, a second modification was developed for all subsequent renovations of these turbines. This modification provides for the basic renovation of the stage cell between the hot intermediate- superheating and tlie regulated bleed, as well as for the replacement of the turbine manifold and the removal of the first stage of the low-pressure cylinder. It is necessary to emphasize that the renovation of the equipment must co- incide as much as possible with the modernization of all thermal engineering equipment (on the basis of developing manufacturing plants), with the re- 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR 0~'FICIAL USE ONLY placenent of parts that have outlived their calculated safe lif, as well as with the elimination of individual deaign defects that have arisen during operation. Conclusions 1. One of the directions in improving the economic indicators of power en- - gineering in the near future is the utilization of power units with tur~ bines of 160-300 MW capacity both for heat supply and for satisfy~ng the steam load of industry and the in-house needs of pow~er stations operating in semipeak modes. 2. The conversion of 160-300 MTJ condensing power units into units of the central heating class substantially reduces the obsolesceace of renovated e~uipment and should be matched by a considerable improvement in their physical condition. 3. Since GRES power units of 150-300 MW capacity talce part in covering the variable portion of the electric load schedule, it would'be wurthwhile to consider as a preferred direction in turbine unit renovatioa the organiza- tion of regulated bleeds in coa~unction with unregulated steam bleeds (when - it is technically ~ustified). 4. The utilization of condensers of turbine units of 150 MW capacity and greater for the first preheating stage of the network water reduces con- siderably the controllability characteristics of reaovated power units and may find limited application, primarily with open water-supply systems. 5. The use of exhaust steam from the turbine drive of K-300-240 turbines for heaz supply complicates considerably the operation of turbiae units, imposes some limitations on the turbine's operatioaal nature and is an un- sound practice when the optimum amount of steam is bled fram the turbiae proper. , BIBLIOGRAPIiY 1. Kosinov~ Yu. P.; Averbal:h, Yu. A.; Lyakin, A. V.; Sheshelovskiy, M. L.; et al. "Experience in Moderaizing Steam Turbinea for Xhe Purpose o� Heat Output," ELEKTRIC1iESKIYE STANTSII, No 11, 1976. 2. Averbakh, Yu. A.; Rosin, D. S.; and Sheshelovskiy, M. L. "The F~asi- bility of Covering Significant Heat Loads with Modern Steam Turbine ~ Units," TEPLOENERGETIKA, No 10, 1971. 3. Averbakh, Yu. A.; Brazovskiy, V. P.; Gitman, M. I.; Goncharov, G. I.; et al. "Prospects and Optimization of Operating Conditions of 160-300 MW KES Units for Heat Supply," TEPLOENERGETIKA, No 2, 1980. 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY 4. Filatov, A. I. "The Effect of Technical Progress ia Power Engineexing upon the Rates of Obsolescence of Thermal Electric Power Stations," TRUDY ENERGr~TICIiESKOGO I~vSTITUTA IME~TI G. M. KRZHIZHaNOVSKOGO, No 17ay - 1974. 5. Inventor's Certificate No 311022 (USSR) "Multiflow Steam Condensing Turbine," authors: Yu. A. Averb akh, I. L. Kam, V. I. Lezman., et gle Published in B. I., No 24, 1971. 6. Volynskiy, ~i. ri. ; Karliner, V. ;i. ; Lezman, V. I. ; et al. "Moderniza~ tion of the i~-160-130 Turbine's Regulating System when Creating ~ - Regulated Steam Bleed," TEPLOENERGETIKA, No 10, 1977. COPYZIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," "Teploenergetika," 1980 9512 CSO: 1822 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY LLECTRIC POWER THERMAL POWER ENGINEERING INFORMATION IN 'REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL' rioscow TEPLOENERGETIKA in Russian No 7, Jul 80 pp 74-75 - [Article by Engi.neer S. G. Dupleva: "Sci~ntific and Technical Information in the Field of Thermal Power Engineering. In Commemoration of the 25th Anniversary of the Department of Electrical and Power Engineering of VINITI"J [Text] In 1952 the Institute of Scientific znformation was organized within the system of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the initiative of Academician A. N. Nesmeyanov. In 1955 it was reorganized into the All Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI), the chief agency for scientific and technical information ia the USSR. This agencq publishes in Russian systematized information in particular specialties in the form of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL for the natural and applied sciences, as well as quick information (expanded abstracts), the review series "Itogi nauki i tekhniki" (INT) [Reviews of Science aud Technology], various indexes, etc. 'Phe VINITI REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL is the main information publicatioa of VINITI, and among similar publications is the largest in the world with re- gard to volume and the number of primary sources dealt with. In contrast to similar foreigu publications, the VINITI REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL is an il- lustrated ~ournal. The names of over 22,000 ~ournals, about 10.000 books and approximately 150,000 patents are used annually in its preparation. i~iore than one million publications with an overall volume of 25,000 typo- graphical units find a place in the VINITI REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL yearly. This 3ournal has received broad recognition not only in the USSR but also abroad. According to data for 1980, about 40,000 issues will go into cir- culation. Abstracts are published in the VINITI REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL (about 85 percent) as well as annotations and bibliographical descriptions of articles, collections, proceedings of conferences and symposiums, text- books, monographs, patents and standards published in 130 countries in 70 languages, including 20 languages of the peoples of the USSR. The material is published in an amount that is sufficient to obtain the necessary infor- mation about the contents of the publication, an evaluation of the primary source's importance and a determination of the expediency of referring to 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 - FOR OFFICIAL USG ONLY the original. The topical orientation of the individual sections of RErERATIVIIYY ZEiURNAL and its divisions make it possible for the special- ist to become familiar with practically all publica~tions in a certain field in the least amount of time. To facilitate the search for material, various types of indexes are published (author~ patent, sub~ect, geogra- phical, etc.) yearly or monthly. There are 17 scientific-industrial departments and several scientific sec- tions comprising VINITI. The scientific-industrial department of electri- cal and power engineering was formed in 1955. In its 25 years of existence - the department has undergone much development in carrying out the compl~x tasks associated with creating a scientific and technical information ser- vice in the USSR in the field of electrical and power engineering. Scien- tific caork and the preparation of the publications is carried out imder the supervision of an editorial board. The REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "T~ploenergetika" [Thermal Power Eng~neeringJ has been in existence since 1955. At first it was published as a section of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL ~.zt a joint volume entitled "Elektrotekhnika." Later, starting in 196~., it was published in a joint volume entitled "Elektrotekhnika i energetika." Since 1963 the REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL "Teploenergetika" has been a joint vol.u~tte, consisting of 5 sections of Ii~FERATIVNYY ZHURNAL which are also published in separate books. This is particularly convenient for specialists with specific interests. REF~RATIVNYY ZHURNAL is published annually in 12 numbers. An annual. Sub- jecC Index (with a volume of about 40 typographical units) and an Authors Index (approximately 15 typographical units a*inually) are published for the joint volume of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL entitled "Teploenergetika." Each section of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL and its divisions are printed in ac- cordance with an accepted arrangement published in the first number of REFE RATIVNYY ZHURNAL. On the whole, the order of headings in REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL is a part of "Order of Headings for USSR Abstract Publications." ' The majority of sections begin with the heading "General Section." Al1 headings are arranged according to the grinciple of linear classificat3on - from the ~eneral to the particular. The number of subheadings ls deter- mined by the structure of tlze section and the amount of information dealt with. The R~:FERATIVNYY ZHURNAL order of headings is constantly being im- proved and made more accurate. It is supplemented with new h~adings as new di.rections in science and technology arise. We will cite a brief descrip- tion of the five books in the REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL "Teploenergetika." The REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "Obshchiye i teoreticheskiye voprosy teploenergetiki. Gelioenergetika" [General and Theoretical Problems in Thermal Power Engineering. Solar Power Engineering] deals wiCh the current state and future prospects ior development of thermal power engineering, general and theoretical problems, terminology, as well as relevant papers on nydrogen power engineering, solar engineering and solar power engineering (about 300 publications monthly). 35 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR O~FICIAL iJSE ONLY The REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "Toplivnyy balans. Ispol'zovaniye gaza i mazuta" [The Fuel Balance. litilization of Gas and Fuel Oil] cites rele- vant papers on the fuel balan ce in various countries of the world, the thermal engineering characteristics of fuel, combustion processes, gas burners and fuel nozzles, data on automating their operat:Lon, on monitor- ing the combustion processes, on the utiliz ation of gas and fuel oil in industry and agriculture and on protecting the atmosphere from pollution wi th the products of incomplete combustion (about 200 publications month- ly) . The REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "Kotel'nyye ustanovki i vodopodgotovka" [33oiler Installations and Water Treatment] examines the configuration and arrangement of boiler installations, the design, operation, installation and repair of steam, water-he ating and waste-heat boilers, their compo- nents and auxiliary equipment, problems of fuel preparation, dust prepa- ration and fuel feed, furnace chambers and pulverized-coal combustion, in- stallations for burning industrial and domestic wastes, water treatment, the water cycle and chemical control at TES's, AES's and in boiler rooms (about 200 publications). The REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "Teplovyye elektrostantsii. Teplosnabzheniye" [Thermal Power Stations. Heat Supply] cites configura- ~ tions and arrangements for steam turbine, gas turbine, diesel and geother- mal electric power stations (ES's), the desiga, construction, operation and repair of ES equipment, district-he~ting and hot-water supplies, heat- exchangers, thermal insulation and the control and automation of thermal processes at ES's (up to 350 publications monthly) . The section "Atomnaya energetika" examines general problems in atomic power _ engineering in the world and in various countries, the design, construction and operation of AES's and their equipment, the types and designs of reac- tors, questions of AES safety, automation and control at AF.S's, fuel, mod- erators, coolant and construction materials for AES equipment (up to 400 publications monthly) . In a separate REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL section "Teplo- i massoobmen" [Heat and Mass Transfer] published since 1976, up to 300 relevant papers are publish- ed monthly on the current state and �uture prospects of the science of heat and mass transfer, on thermal conductivity, heat-exchange, two-phase cur- rents, boiling, evaporation, condensation, etc. The section is furnished with a monthly authors index and an annual subject index. In order to facilitate the search for materials, REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL has reference and search aids (indexea, references, etc.) . The vol~e of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL is const antly increasing, the scope of the primary sources is growing wider and the topics are expanding. The time needed to prepare the information, counting from the time the information arrives at VINITI to the time the abstract appeaxs in REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL, at present amounts to about three and a half months. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY The department also prepares "Itogi nauki i tekhniki" collections for pub- lication. These are information publications of the review type in which information about those achievements, basic trends and tendencies in the development of various fields of science and technology that had appeared in REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL in the last one to three years ie summarized and systematized. Since 1964, 85 volumes of INT have been publiahed, including lb volumes on thermal power engineering. In 1969 the volume entitled "Energeticheskiye gazoturbinnyye ustanovki" [Gas Turbine Power Installa- tions] was published. The present and the future of the Scientif ic-Industrial Department of Elec- trical and Power Engineering of VINITI is linked to further work in improv- ing the arrangement of the headinga and raising the quality of the issues through the use uf computers in the preparation and publishing of - RBFc.~ATIVIdYY ZHURNAL. Work is being conducted at VINITI on the creation uf an auto~aated information-search syatem called ASSISTENT [expansion not pro- vided]. It nas been proposed Chat, starting in 19 81, information be pub- lished on machine-read carriera, for example, on magnetic tape, in addition to the traditional publication of REFERATIVNYY ZHURNAL on paper. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya," "Teploenergetika," 1980 9512 CSO: 1822 � 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340020024-0 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` x;; - ELECTRIC POWER _ HEATING SUPPLY , VARIOUS MODES OF HEAT UTILIZATION Moscow TEPLOSNABZHENIYE (Heating Supply) in Russian 1979 pp 2, _ 254-255 [Annotation and table of contents from the book by Z. Siraks, Energiya Press, 256 pages, translated from the Latvian to] [TextJ The book describes heat users and the various modes of heat utilization. Technical-economic calculations of comparable variants of heating supply are presented along with procedures for selecting optimal heuting systems (closed or open, associated or autonomous). Probleins of the design, analysis, and operating adjustments of heating centers are considered, along with the siting of heating lines in horizontal and vertical urban plans. The book is intended for heating engineers, technicians, designers, and repairmen dealing with the installation of central heating systems in cities and settlements. It will also be useful to students majoring in ~ power engi.neerin~ at higher schools. Table of Contents Page Foreword 3 Introduction 4 I.1. Importance of Heat and Heating Supp3y 4 = I.2. Development of Central Heating 7 Chapter 1. Local Heating-User Systems 10 , I 1.1. Types of Heat Consumption and Heat Transfer Agents 10 1.2. Heating 12 1.3. Ventilation 22 1.4. Air Conditioning 27 1.5. Hot Water Supply 32 ~ 1.6. Technological Processes 36 - ~ 1.7. Heat of Secondary Energy Resources 37 38 FOR OFFICIhL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 ~ rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page Chapter 2. Galculations of Heat Expenditures 39 - 2.1. Modes of Heat Expenditure 39 2.2. Temperature Charts 46 2.3. Calculations of Heat Expenditure 57 2.4. Composite Table of Maximum Hourly Heat Expenditures 81 2.5. Annual Heat Consumption Graphs 83 Chapter 3. Heat Source 85 ~ 3.1. Selection of Heat Source 86 3.2. Technical-Economic Calculations 90 3.3. Selection of Heat Transfer Agent and Its Parameters 94 Chapter 4. Heating Centers and Heat Supply Systems 104 - 4.1. Designation of Heating Centers 104 - 4.2. Heating Centers Using Hot Water as the Heat Transfer Agent 106 4.3. Heating Centers Using Steam as the Heat Transfer Agent 128 4.4. Closed and Open Heat Supply Systems 4.5. Associated and Autonomous Heat Supply Systems 143 Chapter 5. Heating Networks ~ 147 5.1. Heating Chart 147 ~ 5.2. Location of District Heat Source 149 5.3. Installation of Heating Lines 153 ' 5.4. Combined Installation of Utilities 162 ~ - 5.5. Hydraulic Analysis of Networks 174 - 5.6. Pressure Curves 187 5.7. Technical Task for a Heat Source Design 198 5.8. Flushing of Heat Supply Systems 211 Conc Zusion 221 ~ - Appendix 1. Thermodynamic Parameters of Dry Saturated Steam � and Hot Water on Saturation Line 223 Appendix 2. Table for Hydraulic Analysis of Hot-Water Heating Lines 224 - Appendix 3. Table f or Hydraulic Analysis of Steam Lines 239 ~ Appendix 4. Density of Superheated Steam 250 Bitiliography 252 COPYRIGHT: "Liesma" 1973 Avtorizovannyy perevod s latyshkogo, "Energiya", 1979 1386 39 CSO: 1822 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - ELECTRIC POWER BRIEFS NUCLEAR POWER USE--In the West this would be considered a revolution. " In the USSR it is a major project. In order to save on petroleum, the Soviets are studying the installation of nuclear power plants in the very heart of their metallurgical or chemical complexes. Here are their calculations: A 1,000 megawart reactor would be sufficient for two chemical combines producing one million tons of ammonia per year. The same reactor would be able to power a unit producing two million tons of steel. It would be very clean! The only condition is to use "high temperature" (1,000 degrees Celsius) reactors. A demonstration power plant is alreadj~ under constructian but Moscow is refusing to identify its location. [Text] [Paris L'EXPRESS in French 28 Jun 80 p 69] 5157 CSO: 3100 i i ~ 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE O1vLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FUEIS ~ - DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 1980 Moscow KHIMIYA I TEKHNOLOGIYA TOPLIV I MASEL in Russian No 6, Jun 80 pp 3-6 [Article by Ya. G. Sorkin] [Text] Speeches by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev and the proceedings of the November (1979) Plenum of the CPSU Central Comm~i.ttee spelled out the work results of the party and people following the 25th CPSU Congress, they deeply and thorcughly revealed the ways for further implementing the - _ decisions of the congress, and they spelled out concrste tasks associated with fulfillment of the 1980 plan, which coneludes the lOth Five-Year Plan for development of_ our country's national economy. In his speech at the plenum, L. I. Brezhnev said: "We can note with satisfaction that since the beginning of the five-year plan, implementing the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress, we have made significant advances in developing the national economy, raising the material and cultural standard of living, and strengthening the defense capabilities of our motherland." Implementing decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress, the laborers of petroleiun refining and petrochemical industry are working successfully in the current five-year plan. In comparison with 1975, in 4 years of the lOth Five-Year Plan the country's petroleum refining volume grew by 15 percent, and motor oil production increased by 14 percent; production of raw materials for = petrochemical and microbiological industry increased significantly; pro- duction of benzene for chemical industry more than doubled, and production of liquid paraffins, used to produce nutrient yeast, increased by 1.8 times. The output of other products made from petroleum grew as well. The assortment of petroleum products widened, and the quaiity of the products ~ cl~.mbed. Produetion of high-octane gasolines (72 and above) inereased within the structure of total gasoline production~fram 79.5 percent in 1975 to 91 percent in 1979, while production of AI-93 gasoline grew by more than o5 p~rcent. Almost all diesel fuel is now being produced with a low - sulfur content. Electrode coke prAduction grew to 45 percent (in relation to total production of common coke). The effectiveness with which petroleum is used was increased due to a decrease in losses of petroleum and petroleum products, and in fuel consumption. 41 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The fixed capital possessed by petroleum refining industry increased signi- ficantly during the period under examination. The Lisichansk and Pavlodar petroleum refineries were put into operation. High-output and combined - petroleum refining facilities were erected at the Mozyr', Kremenchug, Novobakinsk imeni V. I. Lenin, Moscow, and Nizhnekamsk petroleum refineries, and in the "Groznefteor~gsintez" Production Association. The output capa- cities of secondaxy pet;.roleum refining pro~esses grew. A total of 28 new production facilities s~ere put into operation during the fourth year of - the lOth Five-Ye?.r Pl~,;~z. The increases in the sector's economic potential became possible owing to the selfless labor of all oil refiners, and their active and creative participation in the all-union socialist competition for completing and _ surpassing the assignments set by the annual plans. The work of petroleum refining industry also suffered complexities that prevented us from fully reaching the goals of the five-year plan. They include undersupply of petroleum, interruptions in deliveries of finished products, delays in construction and commissioning of new output capacities, and some others. Not all enterprises are making use of advanced skills or working persistently to raise labor productivity, to economi.ze on _ material resources, and to acr~ieve the best possible end results of pro- duction. Other shortcomings in the work have included delays in conanission- ing and assimilating newly built output capacities and in preparing good _ - quality raw material, especially for secondary petroleum refining processes, and failure to complete the plans for introducing new equipment and for re-equipping the production operations. The 1980 plan for petroleum refining industry, which was written by planning agencies, enterprises, and collectives of the USSR Ministry of Petroleum Re- fining and Petrochemical Industry, is an important component of the five- year plan for 1976-1980. It was compiled with consideration for the national economy's higher demand for petroleum products, and the petroleum _ processing volumes foreseen. Although the planned targets for 1980 are high in terms of the petroleum refining volumes and the technical-economi.c indicators, they are realistic, and it is the honor of every collective to _ insure that we reach and surpass them. Guiding themselves by decisions of the November (1979) Plentun of the CPSU Central Committee and statements made at the plenum by CPSU Central Committee General Secretary, Cha'irman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, ' _ Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, this year all of the ministry's production collec- tives and administrative machinery will devote a great amount of attention I to the following issues: ~ Revealing and utilizing all production reserves, and raising the output- I capital ratio by making more-intensive use of the equipment, preparing raw material to be processed better, and reducing the materials-intensiveness _ and cost of production; 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY insuring unconditional fulfillment of the plan for introducing new pro- duction capacities, accelerating their assimilation. and mini.mizing the time construction is left uncompleted; raising the effectiveness of production, intensifying it, accelerating i.ntroductian of new equipment, and improving the quality of products; increasing the growth rate of labor productivity by introducing new equip- - - ment, improved forms of production organization, and labor automation and mechanization; - reinforcing labor and plan discipline, and increasing the scope of socialist competition at the enterprises; .y supporting arici disseminating advanced skills and progressive forms and - nethods of wor~C promoting higher labor productivity; - consistently p~omoting an effort to economize on and make sensible use of ~ materials and money. During the wri~ting of the 1980 plan, because of a lack of by-product output capacities a somewhat critical situation arose in the production of certain light petroleum products. It was necessary in this connection to find ways - to intensify the work of existing secondary petroleum refining fac~lities (catalytic cracking, coking, catalytic reforming, alkylation, procluction of aromatic hydrocarbons and liquid paraffins, and so on). A critical situation is also evolving this year in relation to primaxy petroleum refining processes. This is associated both with delays in putting new plants into operation _ and with the fac~ that the output capacities of a number of plants cannot _ befully utilized because the quantity of petroleum they need cannot be supplied to them. We must write up a very clear plan arid schedule for supplying petroleum to the plants, ones insuring the most sensible use of petroleum for production of the planned volume and assortment of petroleum products. This plan must be meticulously coordinated with the USSR Ministry of Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry, the Ministry of Petroleum Industry, the Ministry of Railways, the RFSFR Ministry of the River Fleet, and the . Ministry of Maritime r^leet. Efficient operation of rail, water, marine, and pipeline transportation to deliver petroleum and ship finished petroleum products is a man3atory prerequisite of this plan. We do not _ have such a coordinated plan today, and this is seriously hindering the - rhythmic operation of petroleum refineries. These tasks and the practical measures of their completion were thoroughly exami-ned at a meeting of the governing board of the USSR Ministry of Petro- leum and Petrochemical Industry and the ~residium of the central committee of the trade union of workers in chemical industry, held at the of this year. The governing board suggested writing up, for each enter- 43 - FOR OFFICIAL ~TSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y prise, a concrete plan of ineasures aimed at increasing the output capacities of existing prociuction operations and facilities through their intensifi- cation and reconstruction. Fu1fi11mEnt of these measures by the enterprise collectives should insure that we not only complete the 1980 plan but also surpass it. The creative initiative of efficiency experts and inventors, and the attention of business managers and of 14ca1 party, trade union, and Komsomol - organizations must be directed at implementing these measures. Sensible organization of the production of petroleum products and distribution of - their production among the plants with the goal of reducing unsensi.ble shipments of petroleum products is a very important task that must be completed by the administration of the ministry and the all-union pro- duction associations within its composition. Augmentation of the output capacities of existing production facilities and operations, and introduction of new output capacities in 1980 should insure an increase in the gross output of enterprises of the "Soyuznefteorg- sintez" All-Union Production Association by 5.3 percent in comparison with - the actual volume for 1979. Automobile gasoline productien vo'lume should increase by 3 percent, and diesel fuel production should increase by 6 per- cent. The proportion of high-octane gasolines in the total volume of auto- mobile gasoline produced must be increased to 65 percent. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons, liquid.paraffins, electrode coke, and raw materials for petrochemists is to be developed at a preferential rate in ; 1980. In comparison with 1979, production of liquid paraffins is to be ; increased by 52 percent, production of raw materials for petzr,;hemi.stry is to be increased by 42 percent, electrode coke output is to be increased by ; 13 percent, and production of aromatic hydrocarbons is to be increased by i 8 percent. We must also increase production of lubricating oils, bitumen, ' furnace and gas turbine fuel, naval boiler fuel oil, and other products. The plan calls for achieving, through implementation of organizational and technical measures and intensification of production, a significant in- ' - crease in the capacities for primary petroleum refining, coking, catalytic cracking, hydrorefining, and production of lubricating oils and their additives. The plan accounts for products that must be obtained with new output capacities to be introduced in the first quarters of the present year. Therefore it is especially important to insure completion of their construction by the deadlines set by the plan, and to prepare them well ~ for assimilation of their planned output capacities. The plan for capital construction in the current year will necessitate much hard work on the part of both the contracting ministries and the clients. The appropriate subdivisions of the USSR Ministry of Petroleum ana Petro- chemical Industry and the boards of the enterprises under construction must insure that the facilities under construction are promptly supplied with the technical doctunents and equipment they need. 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Economization, reduction of the materials-intensiveness of products, and re- duction of the los~ses of petroleum and petroleum products and of fuel con- sumption for the in-house needs of the petroleum refineries acquire special significance to attainment of the targets�foreseen by the 1980 plan. In his speech at the November Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, L. I. Brezhnev devoted a great deal of attention to economization of all fozins of energy and fuel, and to reduction of their losses. He called conserva- tion of heat and energy the most important national task. Petroleum re- fining and petrochemical industry is a high energy consumption sector of the national economy, requiring significant quantities of petroleum for its own needs. During the first 4 years of the �ive-year plan the oil refiners attained significant successes in reducing losses and economizing on fuel. In comparison with 1975, the losses of petroletun and petroleum products per - ton of refined petroleum were decreased by 14 percent, while fuel con- sumption was kept at the 1975 level, even though the volume of secondary processes grew significantly. Such a decrease in losses and such economization of fuel resulted in a - savin~s on the order of 1 million tons of comparison fuel per year. However, an inspection showed that the petroletun refineries still have - significant reserves and possibilities for further economization of energy ~ resources. Not all enterprises are implementing the recon�nendations approved by the ministry for reducing losses and economizing on fuel, ~ _ wasteful expenditure of energy is continuing, large quantities of gas are still being burne3 away as waste products, and reservoir centers storing petroleum and petroleum products are being outfitted too slowly with devices that reduce losses of light petroleum products. Water heat exchangers and condensers are being replaced in air units and barometric condensers are being replaced by surface condensers too slowly. The advanced skills of some enterprises are not always brought to the attention of others. ~ One important issue for the sector is to raise the effectiveness of _ petroleum utilization by improving preparation of crude oil and raising the potential of end product removal. This pertains e5pecially to pre- _ paration of crude oil for catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming, and for acquisition of aromatic hydrocarbons, electrode coke, lubricatinq ~ ails, and some other products. Because raw material for the production processes of these facilities is not being prepared well enough, the quantities of end products recovered are low, energy expenditures are excessive, and the capital-output ratio and effectiveness of the use of crude oil in refining processes are low. Due to imprecise fractiona~ion, the petroleum products and semifinished products recovered by some enter- - pri.s~s do not meet tlze plant standards, and in order to raise their - quality to the required level, the enterprises must expand additional energy and chemicals, and sometimes even condone shipment of products failing to satisfy the necessary quality indicators. - 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We can noticeably improve the q~ality of some products:~and raise the - effectiveness of crude oil processing by initiating the use of new catalysts in a number of production facilities. However, such conversion is proceeding too slowly at a number of petroleum refineries. The pro- portion of products bearing the State Seal of Quality within the total volume of commercial production must be raised this year. This pertains to improving the quality of both motor fuels and lubricating materials on one hand, and petrochemical raw material and other products on the other. 1980 is not only the concluding year of the lOth Five-Year Plan, but it is also the sector's "launching pad" for the llth Five-Year Plan. Because the growth rate of petroleum refining is to decrease in the llth Five-Year Plan - in comparison with the lOth, the direction in which petroleum refining industry is to develop will c'~ange significantly, In the lOth Five-Year Plan, it developed mainly owing to preferential increase in the volume of = primary petroleum refining, while in the llth the basic attention must be devoted to deepening its refining, meaning that fuel oils will have to undc~rgo further refining as well. In order to do this, the scientific research and planning-design organizations of the USSR Ministry of Petroleum and Industry and associated sectors must hasten development of the new processes, and prepare the required planning and technical documents for manufacture of new petroleum refining apparatus and equipment that is to increase the output of light petroleum products. The industry's results for the first quarter of the current year show that - the oil refiners will do everything dependent upon them to insure the ~ sector's successful work in the concludin, year of the five-year plan. The plan for the first quarter for the sales and production of the most important types of products was completed by all of the main administrations and all-union associations of the USSR Ministry of Petroleum and Petro- chemical Industry. The production plan was exceeded by 26.5 million rubles. The rate of growth of product sales volume is 6 percent in comparison with the first quarter of last year. The labor productivity growth plan has h~en met. Despite significant difficulties and interruptions in the de- _ _ liveries of petroleum to the refineries and in shipment of finished products, the plan for delivery of the basic types of products has been completed. The oil refiners have managed to produce enough of the basic types of motor fuels, thus insuring the continued operation of the industry, and to create the necessary reserves of fuel for spring agricultural operations. - 1980 is the year of preparations for the 26th Congress of the Communist - Party of the Soviet Union. In honor of this noteworthy event, all of the sector's enterprises have initiated a major socialist competition; enter- _ prise collectives are adopting counterplans and stiffer socialist pledges, and they are organizing shock labor watches. The task is to make the achievements of the best collectives the property of all workers in the - sector. - ; . , ~.;=1 COPYRZGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Khimiya", "Khimiya i tekhnologiy topliv i masel", 1980 END 11004 46 CSO: 1822 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300020024-0