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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~EP'TEIHBE~ t~. I . T I 1~5 ~ ~ ~F a ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 F(1R OFFIC'IAL tiSN: ~7NLti' JPRS L/9289 8 September 1980 Translatian TINRO-2. IN THE OCEAN By ~ M.i. Tirs ~ ~B~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATiON SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 NOTE ~ ~ JPRS publications contain information pr~marily from foreign - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials froR~ foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as (Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate h~w the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are ~ enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. For f:irther information on report content call (703) 351-2938 (economic); 3468 (political, sociological, military); 2726 ' (life sciences); 2725 (physical sciences). COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GOVERNING OWDIERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION _ OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ODtLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ JPRS L/9289 8 September 1980 TINRO-Z IN THE OCEAN - Leningrad TINRO-2 V OKEANE in Russian 1977 signed to press 14 Nov 77 pp 1-152 [Text of book by M.I. Tirs, Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye," 60,000 copies, 152 pages, UDC 629.127.4] CONTENTS - Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - Chapter I. The Birth of the Craft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter II. The Craft is Ready to Dive : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Chapter III. The "Black" Black Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 - Chapter IV. Six Irbnths in the Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Postscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 -a- jI-USSR-�EFOUOJ F~R OFFICZAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 PUBLICATION DATA Englisn title : TINRO-2 IN THE OCEAN Russian title ; TINRO-2 ii OKEANE Author (s) ; M. I. Tirs . I. B. Ikonnikov Ed:ttor (s) � Publishing House ; Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye" Place of Publication : Leningrad Date of Publication , 1977 Signed to press , 14 Nov 77 Copies , 60,000 COPYRIGHT , Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye" - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ANNOTATION The author of this book--the first tes~cer and co~ander of the TINRO-2 submersible--describes the stages of the craft's planning and construction _ and the unique features of its design~ he offers recoam?endatioi?s on organizing the craft's dives and maintenance, and he shares his im- pressions on dives to different depths. - The book is of interest ta specialists involved in the planning and operation of submersibles, as well as to all who are interested in unrler- water researah. J 1 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 rux urr t~tt~t, u~a unLr FOREWORD "We saw the bottom from a distance of 40 meters. The undenaater scene literally astounded us. Before us was a jwnble of huge stony lumps covered with exotic corals. We moved slowly throuqh this stony maze, skirting o~~tacles cautiously. Z'he fifth hour of our sojourn beneath the water was nearing its end." This passage was written in my diary on 12 November 1974 following the first ocean dive of the Soviet self-contained undezwater apparatus TINRO-2. The "we" referred to above included Marlen Pavlovich Aronov, science officer for thP ~r� of the scientifi~-fishing vessel "Ikhtiandr", and the author of this bouk, tne ~aptain-mentor of the TINRO-2 submersi.ble, graduate of the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute and, in the recent past, designer for the Giprorybflot [State Institute for the Planning of Fish Industry Enter- prises] in Leningrad. This dive was preceded by great and me`ciculous work by planners, desianers, - engineers, technicians, and laborers. Underwater research beqan in fisheries back in 1953, when the hydrostatic vessel GKV-6, planned by A. Z. Kaplanovskiy for the emergency rescue service, was given to the Polar Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (PI~iRO). Scientists made about 200 dives in this hydrostat, which was l.awered by a cable from aboard tha scientific research vessel "Persey-2". - ~he obtained data had great significance to subsequent development of underwater fisheries research. In 1958 the world's first scientific research submersible "Severyanka", a = refitted battery and diesel powered submersible, was placed at the disposal of the All-Union Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRp). It was used in 10 cruises in the NorL�h Sea basin. Colleagues of the Giprorybflot - also took part in the work of the "Severyanka". The experience of operating the QCV-6 serv~ed as the basis for a technical assignment to build a new, improved hydrostatic vessel, which was named the "Sever-1". 7.'he latter was planned in 1960 at the Giprorybflot, and it is still being used successfully tor7ay. It is outfitted with still and motion 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~icture cameras, floodlights that may be rotated with the help of a hydrau~ic system, resources for communicating with the parent vessel, a depth gauge, and a gyrocompass. When lowered into the water, the hydrostat's negative buoyancy is 100 ;cg. Should the cable break, emergency ballast could be cast off, and the hydrostat would surface. A special shock absorber is - mounted ta the hydrostat's suspension in order to minimize the effects of the jerking cable in heavy seas. In all, the hydrostat made more than 600 dives, producing valuable informa- tion on the composition of fish schools and providing explanations for the readings of fish detectors, making it possible to classify different forms of tape recor3ings, for exanrple to distinguish recordings representing accumulations of plankton and fry from the recordings of fish schools. In addition, interesting observations were made of changes in the behavior of cod, herring, and haddoak depending on Lime of day and season, and the distribution of algae in the White Sea was studied. The rate of mo�;rem~nt of such hydrostatic vessels relative to the bottom is limited to the drifting rate of the parent vessel, which reduces their potentials for exploratian. This is why designers of the Klaypeda branch of the Giprorybflot planned the "Atlant-1" craft, specially adapted to be - towed by a vessel. This made it possible to significantly increase the sea floor area surveyed in oae dive, and to conduct operations with active fishing gear such as trawls. The craft carries a single passenger, its working depth is 100 meters, and its towing speed is 5 knots. Electric po~aer is supplied to the craft by the towing cable. The course and depth of the craft are controlled by vertical and horizontal rudders. Ballas~ _ tanks assist in the lowering and surfacing of the craft. The "Atlant-1" took part in many cruises on the Atlantic aboard the scientific research vessel "Muksun". Observations, photographs, and film obtained by hydronauts V. Korotkov and V. Martyshevskiy during dives in _ this craft helped designers to make better trawls having higher fishing effectiveness. A model of the craft was exhibited at F,,xpo~-67 in Canada and at the "Inrybprom-68" exhibition in Leningrad. Conzrol in complex conditions, for example near a moving trawl, still photography, and filming aboard the "AtYant-1" are concentrated in the hands of the sole crewmember, which of course significantly complicates his work, making it extremely tense. This is why the crew of the submersible "Atlant-2", which was ~.~~~icmed and built in LeninSrad with the direct , participation of the Giprorybflot, consists of two persons. The diving dep*h was increased: The diving depth of the craft is 300 meters in hydr~- static mode and 200 meters in towing mode. It has a constant Fositive ' buoyancy of about 60 kg. Submersion occurs in response to a hydrodynatnic - force exerted upon the towed apparatus's fir_-s, which are mc~unted at a slightYy negative angle of attack in relation to the approaching current. As the towing speed drops, the craft rises to the surface, and when the tawing vessel stops, the craft surfaces. Maximnm tawing speed is 6 knots. - 3 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE OP1LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 r~ec urrlLieit. ua~, ~rLr Electric power is transmitted to the craft by the cable; the latter is also used for telephone communications. Floating hydrodynamic buoys are attached at certain intervals to the cable in order to impart zero buoyancy ~u it. Zn an emergency situation the craft commander can sever the cable with a special pnetmiatic cutter. The craft may surface at any time--solid ballast is simply cast off for rhis purpose. For work in hydrostatic mode, ballast is suspended beneath the hull of the craft, imparting the necessary negative buoyancy to it. The craft is lowered by a cable, but without the hydrodynamic buoys. " Aft portholes permit the underwater observer to watch the operation of a movinq trawl, and f2.codlights and electronic flash allow him to take still and motion pictui�es. The c~aft is delivered to the reqion of operations on the deck of an "Atlantik" class carrier vessel outfitted with a trawl winch and a special high-power winch used to tow the craft and stow the towing cable. Z"he craft is lowered and raised by shipboard cranes. The "Atlant-2" craft was exhibited at the international "Inrybprom-75" exhibition in Leningrad, and it elicited considerable interest among ' speciaii~ts. Soviet scientists u~ed these craft for the first time in world practice to conduct lengthy unde naater observat~ons of fish behavior and of the work _ of fishing gear. WhQn I first came to work at the Giprorybflot, there were plans for several self-contained submersibles in variou.~ stages of readiness in the undersea technoloqy division, and construction of the "Sever-2" craft was nearing J completion. This craft, which had a diving dep~:~ of 2,000 meters, was ina tended for work on the continental shelf and on the ocean floor. The current task of the division, which was staffed by highly skilled specialists and enthusiasts of this new sector of technology, was to create a self-contained underwater craft that was simple to maintain and which would operate dependably. ~'his was to be the TINRO-2, and I irmnediately joined in on the work on this craft. The craft was given this name quite recently in honor of the Pacific Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography in Vladivostok. The Pacific Ocean was to be its initial principal region of operations; the figure 2 means that the crew consists of 2 persons. This work was started when many countries of the world were building sub- mersible~ of the most diverse designs and purposes, and when a new pro- fession--that of the hydronauts--came into being. This was the name given to people working in submerr~ibles having a pressure hull isolating the crew from the influences of the water outside. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The hydronaut's profession is similar in many ways to that of tihe cosmonaut. As with a cosmonaut, a hydronaut must have great courage, he must be quick to react, and he must be maximally self-controlled, so that he could ~ quickly make the correct decision and insure the safety of the other crew- members in any situation, no matter how complex and unexpected. The crews of practically all such modern underwater craft are small, con- sisting of two or three persons. This is why the captain of the craft must know not only the layout of all mechanisms and systems installed in the craft, but also submarine navigation, communication, and diving and piloting practice, and he must be a good mechanic, sonar operator, and oceanologist. "Captains of modern submersibles" said Roswell F. Busby, . "are a group of exceptionally competent, *~i,ghly motivated enthusiasts : filled with the desire to assist a scientist or engineer. The responsi- bility laid upon the captain of a submersible is measured on one hand by valuables such as human lives, and on the other hand by the capital invest- ments, which run in the millions of dollars." It is no accident that the "Association of Submarine Captains" was organized in the USA in 1968 with the goal of raising the dependability and effective- ness of these craft, and brcadening the potentials of their use in explora- - t.ion of the World Ocean. In order to become a member of this association, the individual must have experienced not less than five ~ives as a craft captain, one of them being to a depth of more than 200 meters. Ir. our country, hydronauts are still few in number, but construction of 5ubmersibles is continuing, and new captains are appearing. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL OSE ONLY C~iAPTER I THE BIRTH OF THE CRAFT The Purpose of TINRd-2 A little history.--Can the fish in the ocean be counted?-- Craft and trawl.--Craft and fish. The first self-contained manned subtnersible craft was designed and built by the Swiss scientist Auguste Piccard in 1948. This was the bathyscaphe ' FNRS-2, intended for submersion to depths of several thousand meters. Several similar bathyscaphes appeared in the next 10 years. It is int~resting that man's penetration into the ocean with the help of self-contained technical devices began immediately with great depth- The reason for this was that the first dives were made more for the purposes - of advertising and prestige t}ian for scientific goals. Later, after - visiting this completely new .snd unusual world, researchers and designers began thinking about the possibilities for putting bathyscaphes to oz-a~tical use. Everyone was interested first df all in the oceanic shelf, or the continental shallows, limited to a depth of 200 meters. The principal wealth of the World Ocean is co~icentrated on the shelf, which occupies an area of 27.5 million square kilometers, or just about 8 percent of the floor of the World Ocean. One of the first to discern the potentials offered by a submersible to exploration of the ocean was Jacques-Ives Cousteau, a pioneer of the ocean deep. (In 1953 Jacques-Ives Cousteau descer,ded to a depth of 1,230 meters in the bathyscaphe FNRS-3.) In his boo}c "The Living Sea," he wrote: "Z became more an3 rnore convinced that to study the depthsof the ocean, we needed manned submersibles built specially for underwater operations." Conducting explorations in shallower areas with bathyscaphes is economically disadvantageous and unfeasible owing to their large size, the difficulties of delivering the_m., to the region of operations and of servicing them, and - the high cost of their operation. Therefore beginning in about the mid-1960's almost all developed countries began building self-contained submersibles 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ intended to dive to depths of several hundred meters. These were new undersea transportation resources used to convey researchers deep into the - ocean, differing fundamentally from bathyscaphes. First, buoyancy is ~ achieved in them basically with a pressure hull, rather than with a float filled with gasoline or other fluid having density lower than the density of sea water, as is done with bathyscaphes. Second, the displacement of these craft is several times less than the displacement of bathyscaphes, and it does not exceed 10-15 tons. The overall dimensions of self-contained craft are also szgnificantly lower, and therefore they may be de livered to the region of explorations aboar3 a carrier vessel, or even an airplane. In 1955 the French Administration for Undersea Explorations began planninq - one of the first of such submersibles, "Denise", named after the wife of the chief designer, Jean Mollard. Jacques-~ves Cousteau's ideas were laid at the basis of the design. Apressure hull with lenticular shape and intended for a diving depth of 900 meters was manufactured in 1957. An accident occurred during unmanned tests of the hull in the Mediterranean Sea--the cable by which it was lowered broke, and the hull descended dowr, to 990 meters. A new craft was not built until 2 years after this failure, and in 1959 it began to undergo tests at sea, this time successfully. - During the time of its operation, "Denise" made more dives than any other - craft of this type (performing numerous oceanographic studies and observing the behavior of deepsea life forms). U.S. scientists leased the craft twice - for long periods of time to perform an extensive complex of undersea opera- tions, particularly to conduct geological explorations. Many have been able to see this craft in the fabulous films of Jacques-Ives Cousteau, taken under water. "Denise" was the starting point for construction of submersibles in ~nany countries of the world. Since 1960, more than 150 submersibles have been built in. the world, with about 90 of them capable of diving to 200 meters. The largest quantity of such craft was built in the USA, the FRG, Japan, and France. They are being used successfully in both integrated and specialized hydrological, oceano- logical, ichthyological, geological, and archeological studies of the shelf of the World Ocean. Craft intended for technical operations such as cable laying, examination of unde naater oil wells, inspection of. pipelines, and so on have recently appeared. At the time of its planning, the TINRO-2 was intended to conduct research on - the continental shelf in fisheries oceanography, one of its purposes being to determine th e abundance of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans so as to permit sensible harvesting. The range of tasks that were to be performed by researchers with the help of the craft and which in many ways predetermined the work of the planners had to be clearJ.y formulated, a.r.d the required apparatus and equipment had to be chosen. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 rux urrl~l~. u~~; UNLY The traditional methods for detennining the abundance of fish from aboard surface vessels usually entail sampling trawl runs, sonar recordings, and bottom dredging. In such research methods the strip of ground surveyed is very limited, an d the results are rather approximate and random. Research conducted with the help of captive submersibles greatly increases the possibility for obtaining dependable informaticn on the distribution - of biologica.l forms_ But becat~se such craft cannat move independently, undersea researchers ar.e deprived of the possibility for choosing the - object and regions of ~bservation. The self-contained submersible is devoid of these shortcomings. It can be used to survey lar_~e areas of ground according to a plan, after which the obse.rvation results can be extrapolated to entire fishing regions in which it is impossible to lay a trawl or tow a scoop due to certain features of the bottom. _ It was believed that a self-contained submersible could explain the errors observed in sonar fish detectors used by fishing vessels. Prior to the advent of undersea observations, sonar recordings were decoded by analyzing trawl catches. Special decoding albums were published on this basis. We often encounter cases in prac~ice where a fish detector provides distinct recordings but the trawl comes up empty or, on the other hand, where the detector remains silent but the trawl returns full of fish. A scientist using a submersible:.can not only estimate the density of fish in a school and obtain an impression of its horizontal and vertical di- mensions, but he can also determine their species, size, and age, and consequently make conclusions on the suitability of fishing. - Evaluating the work of a trawl in real conditions was very enticing. The length of modern trawls reaches 200 meters, and their opening i~ 200-150 meter.s *.~ide. A trawl is a complex engineering structure that must be _ = planned with a consideration for various factors, for example the speed at which it is to be towed. Movement of a trawl can naturally be studied with scale models in special flow channels or basins, but observations in the field are extremely valuable to designers and fishermen. They are i~nterest~d in how the trawl orens, how it reaches its required depth, and how the fish - enter it. A free-ranging submersible that is not connected with its carrier vessel in any way could find a nloving trawl beneath the water and observe its work ` only in the event that it is outfitted with modern sonar resources, and _ mainly if it is able to generate high speed, so as to catch up with the _ trawl and overtake i~. However, the maximum speed of submersibles is 2-3 knots, and their navigational independence is relatively J~w, and therefore it was decided not to im~ose this task upon the creators of TINRO-2, all the - more so because planners were concurrently working on the craft "Atlant-2", intended specifically to study moving fishing gear. It was felt that the a FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY working ability of the TINRO-2 craft near nonmoving fishing gear such as fixed bottom nets, crab nets, ~nd so on could be checked later. Observations made from a submersible open up great nossibilities for ichthyologists, who are in~erested primarily in changes in fish behavior depending on external conditions and the time of the day. When do fish feed, when do they gather together into shoals and schools, at what ti.ate do they rise up in the water and when do they once again descend to the bottom? How does change in sea water parameters such as temperature, salinity, illumination, translucence, and the concentration of different - chemical elements affect fish behavior? This is far from a complete list of the questions for which scientists would like to obtain answers. Of course we can observe fish by placing them in large aquariums, as is , still being done today. ~But this method 3oes not ~rovide conclusive answers, _ since the fish are in an artificial environment, which cannot but have an _ effect on behavior. Nor can we obtain exhaustive answers from observations of fish made with SCITBA, since depth and time under water are significantly limited for a SCUBA diver. - m Bottom research is of great interest to scientists. The chara~teristics of seabed topography can be recorded by echo soundings from aboard a surface vessel, and data on bottom deposits are obtained with core samplers and dredges. Direct observations "tied in" with echo recorda.ngs and a map of the region can be made from a submersible, as a result of which the shape and dimensions of outcr~ppings, the structural elements of. rock, and so on could be �3etermined precisely. It is only from a submersible that we can observe topographic features of biological origin: various craters, cones, ridges, and depressions--the result of the vital activities of different organisms. Analyzing new information, we can establish the mutual relationship between bottom deposits, topography, currents, and the @~r;tri- bution of living benthic organisms. Numerous conferences of representatives of fisheries scientific research institut~s and of TINRO specialists who were to work with the craft in the future were held in order to determine the range of tasks to be per- formed with the help of the TINRU-2 craft, and to seleci: the required scientific research equipment. It was only after this that the basic tasks for which the TINRO-2 submersible was intended was formulated. It was to be used for the following: Study of the distribution and migration of commercial fishes, crustaceans, - and mollusks; observation of the work of nonmoving fishing gear; _ visual observation with the purpose of decoding the readings of fish de- tectors installed aboard scientific fish detection vessels; 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY study of the behavior of fish and other biological objects in natural condi- tions; observation of accumulations of plankton and the benthos; performancp of integratAd hydrological research; exploration of the floor of the continental shelf. - Visual observations were naturally to become the principal means for ac- quiring irifo~ation. However, the tasks listed above also required various ~ equipment, prima~rily still and motion picture cameras outfitted with hiqh- power underwater floodlights and electronic flash. It was also d~cided to install a hydrological complex of instrtnnents aboard the craft to record 8 parameters of the water outside (such complexes :Eor submersibles had not existed in either domestia or foreiqn practice), and a special portable tape recorder to record underwater observations. Of course, these were all just general plans. How well suited would *he apparatus be to the tasks planned for it? Will it not frighten the fish away? Will the fish allow themselves ta be photographsd? Much still re- mained unclear, since the only experience we had was with noiseless hydro- static vessels or towed craft, which the fish dic? not hear. Some believed that undersea observers would never manage to see even a single fish, since the craft is a source of noise, light, vibrations, undulations, and an electromagnetic field, which woul.d scare the fish away. Hydrologists pre- dicted the presence of strong underwater currents against which the craft - would be helpless. Would the t�:uislucence of ocean water be sufficient at great depths, and would the floodlights be able to illtuninate the zone of observation well? Questions, questions, questions.... The~ could be - answered only in the course of the craft's operation. Planning of the Craft The displacement must be small.--What is to be the shape of the hull?--The crew.--The craft comanar.der will be seated, the underwater observer will be prone.--Eight hours under water--a lot or a littlea--Z'he propulsir~n units.--Storage batteries and independence.--In an _ emergency. And so, the Purpose of the apparatus became known, and its planning could _ now be tacklec~ directly. Before starting our work we examined all simi.lar foreign submersibles, ~ their design, and the unique features of their operation and safety features. (The basic characteristics of some foreign craft used for shelr" exaploration are shawn in the table below). 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY (rdSII) co o ~ o~n o o+ o G N'~-x~~ o~i ~ ~n r~ ri ~r ~n cn a~ ~ v aanEag~~ r+ ~ cv t~T sn ) ao ~ u~ u~ ~n o o cv o ~ W ~~.zanzQ rn N oo ri ~r ui oo N�o w a 3Ta~S~~ ~ .a ~ ~ (~sn) ~ �aaniQ ~ o ~n o~n o o+ o v~ aaa~ ~ ~ oo ~ ui cv o~ ~~g~r ~ ~ o o ~n o 0 0~n o ~ o � � ~n - uaAz~eH� rn m ~o ri ri ~i ~ cn ~ (~tsn) ~n ~ ~n ~n o o ro ~n n o . . . . cn ~ ,~uo~XaN~~ rn r~ cv r~ cn w ~ ~ b V ~0 O O O u1 O O N ~ t0 O � � y.~ ~~�-.IL~$~~ O~ ~D O V' u1 M t~ t0 ~ r-i r-I ri . ~ ^ ~G O ~"1 O O O O N O - ~ H ~ ~ ~0 . . . . . 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Special v~ssels were hardly ever built abroad to carry ~ubmersibles; instead, old trawlers, coast guard cutters, pontoons, and barges were adapted for this purpose. These included the famous "Calypso", which was a trawler refitted ~or work with "Denise". There was the vessel "Birch-Tide", . refitted by the Americans in 1963-1964 out of a 41-meter freighter for work with the same "Denise". Foreign carrier vessels are sma11 in size. This can be explained to a certair extent by the fact that research conducted with submersibles basically involves the coastal zone, near ports, which could alwa~~s be visited to replenish supplies and allow the crew to rest. It. was believed that the regions of operations of our craft would be - considerably distant from the base port, and therefore the carrier vessel had to possess good navigational qualities and high cruising independence. - We had to r.eject high-tonnage BMRT class fishing trawlers and vessels like them because their operation requires consid~rable financial outlays. After careful analysis we selected the SRTM class vessel with a di.splacement - of 1,000-1,200 tons employing a stern trawling system. A special design - office was given the job of planning its refitting as a base fox the sub- ' mersible. One of the principal characteristics of the craft--displacement-- - was selected in accordance with the dimensions of the vessel. This decision satisfied the desire of the scientists to arrive at a submersiblQ that is small in size, maneuverable, and easy to maintain. Its diving - depth was set at 300 meters. First of all we had to decide what sort of shape to impart to the prew~sure hull. 7.'he hulls of most foreign craft intended for work at depths dosan to 400-500 meters are cylindrical. Only the hull of the "Denise" h~s the shape of a flattened sphere, for which reason the craft was gzven - the nickname "Diving Saucer". Carefully t:~inking out all possible variants, we decided to design the hull in the form of a cylinder with spherical terminal bulkheads. Thi~ was the most appropriate shape for the hull of a craft intended for diving at such depths. The planners were given a difficult task--they had to make all of the necessary equipment fit in a craft of rigidly limited displacement having a pressure hu11 of small diameter. Our industry was not producing special small-sized equipment a~ that time, and its development and manufacture were associated with additional material outlays, high cost of the craft, - and longer construction time. Therefore we decided to make do with existing equipment to the extent possible, and develop only that with which the craft simply could not exist, mainly the propulsion units and the water pump. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 rOR OFF'LCIAL USE ONLY After selecting the equipment that appeared necessary at first glance and tentatively working out its arrangement within the hull, we established that the displacement of the craft would be twice greater than prescribed. Thus we had to review the list of equipment, and reject some of it. By itnparting a spindle shape to the pressure hull--that is, by replacing the cylindrical shells from approxia?ately the middle of the hull to tl,,~ stern by tapered shells, we arrived at a hull of the nee~?ed dimensions. - We decided to make six portholes in the hemispherical fonvard bulkhead such that an observer lying prone could look through the thr~e lower port- _ holes and a seated observer could look through the three upper ones. The main, foYward porthole provided a view foYward and downward, which made it possible to see possible undenvater obstacles in front of the craft in time, and to concurrently inspect the bottom and its inhabitants well. As was noted earlier, the crew of m~rIRO-~ was to consist of two persons-- the craft commander and a researcher. The craft comnander is responsible for all technical support to the dive, he monitors the operating parameters _ of all systems and mechanisms, and he perforn?s the operations of separation from the carrier vessel, diving, travel to the place of operations,and re- turn to the vessel. The undezwater researcher follows a scientific program, he makes observations, takes photograp~s, makes motion pictures, c~ntrols th~ craft near the bottom, and records his observations on tape. Because of the small diameter of the pressure hull (jus~t a l~ttle more than 1.5 meters), it was impossible to place the two crewmembers side by side r in the bow of the craft. Therefore the craft comanander's seat was moved - into the center, directly beneath the entrance hatch. In order te permit a view through the coaming of the entrance hatch, it was decided to make another thxee portholes, one on ~op and two on the sides. When ~he craft - was surfaced, these portholes were to be above the wa~er and aid the craft coaunander in coordinating movement of his craft with that of the carrier vessel. Thus there were to be nine portholes in the craft in all. In order that the workplaces of tha underwater rese~rcher and the cxaft - commander could be as large as possi.ble, all equipment and mech~nisms that - were not needed for direct contral of the craft were located in the back of the hull and barricaded off by a soundproof bulkhead, so thai: noise from this equipment would not bc~ther the c.rew. As a result two compartments were foxmed--a manned fore compartment and an unmanned aft compartment. All craft and monitoring instru~..2nt controls were concentrateci in the fore manned compartment. Thus under normal operating conditions of the craft, the hydronauts had no need for entering the aft unmanned compartmen~ during its independent navigation. Such a layout prevented distraction of the crew from the principa~. task of the dive. A feature distinguishing submersibles from surface vessels is the equality - of the weight of the craft and the weight of the water displaced by a fully 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY submerged craft. When this condition is observed, a submersible lowered into the water should rest beneath the water surface and remain in "in- different" equilibrium--it should not drop deeper, and it should not rise to the surface--that is, it should have zero buoyancy. Further sub- mersion may be achieved either ~y turning on vertical screw propellers or by taking water aboard into a special tank. Zn order to save or. storage battery energy, two special weights are used to lower and raise some foreign submersibles. With these weigh~:s, the _ craft has negative buoyancy, and it drops down to the buttom immediately after being lowered into the water. After casting of� tha first weight the apparatus acquires almost zero buoyancy, and further cha:Zge in depth occurs as a result of the work of vertical screw propellers. The s~cond weight is cast off to permit surfacing. TINRC~-2 uses vertical screw ' - propellers to go up and down. In order that the entrance hatch and its portholes would extend above the water after the craft surfaces, two ballast tanks were placed on the outer sides of the pressure hull. When they are filled with water, the craft has approximately zero buoYancy, and it is entirely submerged. W'hen they are purged with compressFd air, the craft rises to its surface position. Such was the qeneral design of the TINR(1-2 craft, adopted in the earliest stages of its planning. ~ Now we had to decide how long the sub~ersi.ble could remain under water. This time depended on the capacity of the storage batteries and their number. On one hand the time under water had to be the longest possible. This would permit the crew to survey a large area o~ the seabed, take more - photographs, and acquire more infosmation, while on the other I:and excessively long gresence of peop]e in a small en~losed space elicits physical an3 mental tension, leads to fas~ tiring, reduces attention, and consequently creates a potential for errors in control of the craft. The maximwn time a cr~w can remain in foreign submersibles of this class does n~t exceed 6-7 hours. This is the figure used as the basis for es~~hlishing the length of the work day of hydronauts. To permit hydronauts to remain for long periods of time under water, special - large undersQa self-propelled and r~onself-prc~pelled laboratories are created, equipped with sleeping places, a galley, and all of the nFCessary - life support systems. - As the operating depth of a submersible increasPS, ~he time it needs to reach bottom and to surface, during ~hich the crew does not collect in- foxmation as a rule, increases. Therefore if the use of deep-di~ring craft is to be effective, their ~otal time under water must increase as the operating depth is increased. In addition we had to decide in the planning stage what its inde~endent _ survival ti.~e would be--~hat is, how long the crew may remain in the craft - 14 FOR OFFICIAT, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY if for ::cm~ reason it does not surface or, for example, if it cannot be raised aboard the carrier vessel due to substantial deterioration of the weathe.r. All of the necessary life support resources for the crewmembers - must be foreseen in the craft for the event of an emergency. Such resources in.clude emergency storage batceries, sin.;:e the main batteries may be used _ as expendable ~allast, reserves of oxygen and a carbon dioxide absorber or chemical regenerating agent, and an emergency reserve of water and food. Several mishaps in which crafts were unable to rise from the bottom for a long period of time have been known in the world practice of operating submersibles. Thus in October 1969 the American submersible "Deep Quest" was working in the G~ilf of California at a depth of 130 meters. A ca~le became wound around the screw propeller, as a result of which the craft - could not rise to the surface for 30 hours. It was freed from this "prison" with the help of another submersible, the "Nekton Alpha". The crew survived. In September 1973 the submersible �'Pisces III" belonging to Great Britain was working in the Atlantic Ocean by Ireland's coast. Due to a technical malfunction it sank to a depth of about 450 meters. The craft and its crew were rescued 7~t hours later with the help of three other craft, to include the remote-controlled unmanned craft "(Kurv)", which distinguished _ itself in the raising of the hydrogen bomb ofr Palmares. - While inspecting a sunken ship off the coast of Florida in 1973, the sub- mersible "Johnson Sea-Link" snagged itself against a guaxd rail at a depth of 110 meters. After 16 hours, the two aquanauts died of hypothermia in the decompression chamber of the craft. The son of Edwin Link, a famous Ainerican submersible designer, died in the disaster. This craft was also rescued by the "Kurv" remote-aontrolled craft. The American craft "Aluminaut" once got its nose stuck in mud and was unable to free itself for 22 haurs. One of the important tactical characteristics of a submersible is sp~eci. The maximum speed of TINRO-2, which is intended basically for visual ob- servations requiring slow movement relative to the bott~m, was limited to a few knots. This was quite enough for research purposes. Greater speeds require significant outlays of power and fast consumption~of the electric energy reserve, which means heavier batteries. Of course it is dangerous to conduct visual observations near the bottom at such a speed, since in poor visibility the crew may fail to notice an underwater obstacle, and the craft may collide with it. Thus the porthole of the American craft "Ashera" struck a coral reef while working off the coast of Turkey in 1964. Fortunately the porthole did not break, and the _ craft swrfaced uneventfully. However, when such a craft travels at low speed it is hard to cantrol. And, moreover, much time is required to examine even a small area of the bottom. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FUFt OFFICIAL U5E UNLY At that time we were still not experienced enough in the operation of submersibles to be fully certain of what the speed of the craft should be. Therefore we settled on a compromise--the minimum speed was chosen equal to 1.5-2.0 knots. The maximum speed of most foreign craft built prior to this time was about 3.0-4.0 knots while mi.nimum speed did not exceed 1.0-1.5 knots. After determining the basic tar.tical characteristics of TINRO-2, such as displacemen~, diving depth, speed, time of independent operation, and the number of c~rewmembers, we could begin selecting specific pi:ces of - equipment. First of all we had to develop the propulsion unit, which incZu3es the electric power sources, electric motors, and reduction gears that place - screw propellers into rotation. , About SO percent of today's submersibles use storage batteries, lead-acid batteries predominantly, as 'electric power sources. They are located outside the pressuxe hull, which permits reduction of its volume, and the us~ of a heavy battery as emergency ballast. Silver-zinc storage batteries are used less frequently, which can be explained by their high cost and lower number of charging-discharging cycles. After a power unit consisting of hydrogen-oxygen fue7. cells successfully passed the test aboard the American subtnersible "Star-I", a number of foreign companies began developing sirnilar energy sources. However, such sources cannot be used aboard subrnersiY+les such as TINRO-2 intencled for biological research, since during their operation they release nitrogen, oxygen, and other chemica~l elements that may make undesirable changes in the environment and influence the behavior of marine organisms. It was decided to outfit TINRO-2 with submersible lead-acid storage batteries, and to locate them beneath the pressure hull in several containers, - one o.f which was to be used as emergency expendable ballast if the craft was unable to surface conventionally. In contrast to submarines, which change their depth through hydrodynamic forces arising on the boat's hydroplanes as it travels, most submersibles submerge and surface in r.esponse to pressure created by vertical orswiveling screw propellers. Combinec~ vertical and horizontal propellers are usually installed aboard ~ submersibles; submersible electric motors that rota}e horizontally arE located on the sides. Sometimes water jets with swiveling nozzles are installed. The plans of TINRO-2 called for electric motors. But where were they to be located? We analyzed the different layouts and concluded ~.hat it would be best to install them in the pressure hull. Of course, at depths greater ~ than 1,000 meters significant power losses occur in the shaft stuffing box-- 16 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY seals through which the ~ropeller shaft paaser~. Owing to thiy we had to significantly increase the total paaer of the electric motor. Moreover this complicates the design of the thrust bearing, which experiences a load produced by the force of the propeller and hydrostatic pressure. However, TINRO-2 s~~rges only down to 400 meters, and therefore the layout finally - selected for the craft's propulsion unit consisted of electric motors in- tended for horizontal and vertical movement of the craft, locatec3 ineide the pressure hull. Such p?.acement of the propulsion unit was to reduce the noise level created by the craft beneath the water, which would be beneficial to scientific research. During the planning, s~ examined many variants for reversing and adjusting the rotation freque:icy of the horizontal and vertical screw propellers. Aboard foreign craft this is often done by chanqing the frequency of al- ~ terna~ing current produced by the electric motors. Static converters are - used to convert direct current into alternating current. We decided to employ mechanical adjustment in our craft. Installing direct current electric motors and varying the rotation frequency by changing voltage, or installing electric motors with several stator windings to permit stepped rotation frequency adjustment were unacceptable, because this could limit the craft's maneuverability. The optimum variant was smooth adjustment.of the frequency of propeller rotation from zero to maximum in both directions with the help of step~ess friction reverse-adjusters, or variators. This is the variant we used in the craft. In order that the nonrotating vertical propellers of the craft would uevelop maximum thrust when submerginq and surfacing, special design measures were implemented to make the rate at which the craft surfaced and submerged the same. Much attention was turned in the planning of the submersi.ble to in~uring the water-tightness of openings in the pressua~e hull. Such openings include portholes, cable inlets, and passages for var3ous shafts. Portholes usually have a self-sealing design--that is, when outside pressure iiicreases as depth increases, their lat~ral tapered surface presses harder against _ the opening in the craft's hull. Cable inlets may be sealed according to the sam~ principle. The only difficulty lies with insuring a tight fit between the opening and the lateral surface of the porthole or cable inlet. In order to insure the water-ti~htness of the passage for the screw pro- - peller shaft through the pressure hull of TINRO-2, the planners suggested an original system which not only dependably sealed the ~haft but also permitted constant surveillance of the condition of the seals. This system significantly facilitated preparation of the craft for submerging, and raised the navigational safety. The screw propell~r was installed on a hydraulically-driven swivel mount to permit control of the craft's heading. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ~NLY - The craft can move near the bottom effectively, with minimum outlays of electric energy, only in the event that it is precisely balanced--that is, if it is weightless in water. The buoyancy of the craft constantly changes due to change in compression experienced by the pressure hull depending on _ diving depth, and due to change in the density, salinity, and temperature of the surrounding water. Special compensating tanks were made to permit attainment of zero buoyancy. As diving depth increases, the craft becomes = heavier due to compression of the hull, and in order to maintain its zero buoyancy, some quantity of water must be pumped overbuard from the com- pensating tanks. However, this increases the density of the sea water - and reduces its temperature, which makes the craft lighter. Sometimes t.he effects of these two forces balance themselves out ~almost completely, and the need for altering the buoyancy of the craft disappears. It was decided to join the compensating tanks with the trituning tanks, and to locate them in the bow and stern of the pressure hull. A special piston pump is used to take in and pump out sea water. ~t can also be used to pump water from the bow trim�ning tank into the stern tank and back in order to level the craft or adjust its trim. In some foreign submersibles, the hydraulic system is located outside the pressure hull together with the pump, and its pressure is balanced relative to external pressure. T'he triuaaing-compensating system is also sometimes designed according to this principle. This produces a certain payoff in the weight of thes~ systems aboard craft diving deeper than 1,000 meters. This payoff does not occur for craft diving a few hundred meters. ~erefore these systems and the ptmrps were located inside the pressure hull of TINRO-2, and there was an electric motor to drive the system. A special system was included to control movement of the craft in several modes, from manual to automatic. A system for stabilizing the depth of the craft while in motion and while hovering motionlessly in the same place was also foreseen. When traveling near the bottom, the craft cor~u?ander, whose view of the bottom is poor, surrenders control to the underwater observer. A small remote console is intended for this purpose. It bears the main craft _ motion control levers. One of them is used to change the depth and heading of the craft, and another is used to control travPling speed and direction (forward and reverse). Z'he remote console is engaged by the craft commander from the main console, and the commander can immediately transfer control back to himself at any time, for example if some sort of complex situation arises. The traveling mode control systems are redundant. Thus if automatic control fails for some reason and the craft "strays" from its required heading, the commander can switch to manual remote control using a single control lever. If this system turns out to be inoperable as well, he can switch to emergency 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mode. In this case the raotion parameters of the craft ~re changed with tumbler switches, and the act~~:ating mechanisms operate in "on-off" mode. _ Manual mechanical control of all actuating mechanisms is foreseen for the most extreme case. In order that the craft could move at a constant distance from the bottom ~ and stop at some particular point when necessaxy, the craft is outfitited with an anchor-guide rope. ~Chis is a heavy metallic weiqr~t that is lowered from the craft on a thin anchor cable by a special winch located inside the craft's outer hull. The anchor-guide .rope keeps the craft above *~e bottom if a certain quantity cf water is taken into the compensating tanks. ~ When the craft Lravels with a lowered anchor-guide rope, its trajectory follows all of the rises and falls of the bottom. If the anchor gets snagged against something and cannot be hauled back into the craft, the cable could be severed by a special pne~aatic cutter. . The anchor-guide rope is located in the stern of TINRQ-2, so that silt _ stirred up by it while th~ cra~t is mmoving would not hinder observation through the portholes. There is a device to determine the moment at which the anchor touches the bottom; when the cable sags, the device turns off - the electric motor driving the winch. Special attention was turned in the planning of the craft to navigation safety. Several backup systems for servicing the craft are foreseen for this purpose. Ordinarily, TINRO-2 surfaces with of vertical screw propellers. If for some reason the vertic al screw propellers fail to turn on, the craft can be raised by piunping a certain quantity of water out of the compensating- trimming tanks with the pump. If t~'~e electric power supply is completely exhausted~ meaning that the vertical screw propellers cannot be engaqed and the pump could not be started to remove the water, the ballast tanks could be purged by high-pressure air. The air reserve in the craft is sufficient to create relatively high positive ?~uoyancy following the purging of the ballast tanks, even when the operating depth is great. As the craft sur- faces, owing to reduction of outside pressure the air, the volume of which must constantly increase, displaces an ever-increasing quantity of water - from the ballast tanks, as a result of which the craft's rate of ascent gr.ows . - In the extreme case the craft will surface if emergency ballast, consisting - of the anchor-guide rope and a storage battery, is cast off by the action of compressed air. Air necessary for this purpose is stored in special tanks, and it is not used to purge the ballast tanks. If the craft snaqs itself agai.nst something on the bottom at a depth of 400 meters, alY of the methods would have to bP used together to surface the craft, and the positive buoyancy that may be imparted to the craft in 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FUR ~FFICIAL USE ONLY real conditions would for practical purposes be always sufficient to permit its disengagement and surfacing. The smaller the depth at which the craft gets stuck, the greater is this force, since a larger volume of water could be released from the ballast tanks. - Special firefighting systems are foreseen. Several cases of fire have 2~een _ known to occur worldwide in the operation of submersibles. Thus cabi~ ~ insulation caught fire as a result of a short circuit in a Japanese sub- mersible in 1974. And although the craft reached the surface quickly, since it was not very deep, the crew of two persons could not be rescued. Persor?al resources for protecting the respiratory organs of the crewmembers were apparent ly not foreseen aboard this craft. TINRO-2 has an air-foam firefighting system. Foam produced by injecting compres sed air into a foaming agent is nontoxic, and it possesses dielectric properties, and therefore it can be used to extinguish burning electric equipmen t carrying a voltage. In orde r to keep the crew from being sufsocated by smoke and toxic gases, SCUBA outfits are situated near each crewmember. The air reserve of each of tnes e outfits is sufficient to permit breathing at atmospheric pressure for 1 hour. This is enough time to organize the firef.ighting strategy and surface the craft. _ All poss ible emergency situations were foreseen during the planning of TINRp-2, to include one where the carrier vessel is unable to raise the craft aboard for some reason, for example due to dramatic deterioration of " the weather, failure of inechanisms in the lowering and lifting device, a mishap aboard the vessel itself, and so on. Sometimes the craft must be tawed in such complex situations. Therefore a towing device was �oreseen. A towing cable is delivered to the carrier vessel by a line-throwing gun mounted outside the craft's pressure hull. The maximtun sea state and - wind force at which the craft could be towed had to be determined in the tests. In orde r that the undexwater researcher could see the bottom well at any depth, and take still and motion pictures when necessary, high-power under- water floodlights and electronic flash had to be mountedon the craft, after first - determinang their locations. Were the floodlights to be"located above the portholes, and were their light aimed directly downward, the bottom would appear e ven and smooth as a table to the observer. 2"he images picked up by photographic film would also be distorted with s~ch illumination. Overhead illumination permits good examination of benthic life forms, while lateral illumination permits orientation relative to submerged obstacles, but it makes observation of undersea life forms difficult. Nbreover when the craft moves near the bottom it raises a large quantity of suspended particles, increasing the water's turbidity; therefore it would be best to locate the floodlights below the portholes, as close as possible to the ocean floor--something like the location of fog lights on automobiZes. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY After weighing all of these contradictory requirements we arrived at a compromise. ~tao floodlights with a broad beam were located in the forward- protruding upper part of the outer hull in such a way that they would illuminate the space before the portholes; the electronic f~ash and a narrow-beam long-range floodlight were aimed forward at a slight downward tilt to permit visual determination of obstacles in front of the craft. Zt~vo other floodlights were located on the sides at the bow of the craft in such a way that they would provide good illumination to the area ob- - served from the side portholes. When de~ired, these floodlights could also be rotated forward to illuminatethe forward zone of observation. Floodlights and sometimes other suspended items of equipment are situ~ted on telescopic or rotating rods aboard some foreign craft. This method has certain advantages, since the floodlight or another instrument can be ~ moved as close as possible to the object of observation. _ Change in the craft's trim resulting from rotation or extension of such a rod is compensated by pumping water into the trino~ning tanks. When the craft ascensls and descends, either the rods fold against its sides and the - floodlights and instruments enter special rscesses in the outer hull, or the rods are drawn into the side of the craft by a hydraulic system. - The plan was to install approximately this sort of rods aboard the TINRO-2 craft. D,iring the craft's planning, hawever, the designers constantly sought better vaz~.ants for locating the equipment. All instruments and devices mounted outside the pressure hull were scrutinized primaxily from the standpoint - of the safety of the craft's movement near the bottom. Therefore we re- jected the rotating rods, since they offered a serious hazard to movement of the craft near the bottom. The electronic flash was installed in the bottom front of the outer hull. ~,11 electronic flashbulbs were turned on by a single console, and they were synchronized for photography. A wide- format "Salyut" still camera and a"Konvas-avtomat"m~vie camera were in- stalled to permit filming through the portholes; it was decided to check the operatior_ of these cameras during the tests. Construction of the Craft Development of the engineering plan.--Everyone wants to work on the model.--The plan is approved.--Construction of the craft can begin.--The submersibles shop.--The pressure hull is readg.--The craft's color must be "coordinated" with the fish. The rough plan of TINRO-2 was finished. - 21 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 - r~UR Ur~r~lclai, us~ UNLY DeveloQment of the engineering plan began. No fundamental changes were - made in the layout of the craft in this stage. Its basic characteristics also remained as before, except for diving depth, which we were ablc to _ increase somewhat by implementing a number of design measures while main- taining the same weight of the craft. The main purpose of the engineering plan was to permit selection of the - best va:iants and their detailed development. _ Thus for example the rough plan suggested three designs for the onboard - ballast ~anks, differing mainly in the material employed. They could be manufactured from aluminum or fiber glass. Fiber glass was recognized to be the best: Its weight was lower than that of inetal. Structures made from fiber glass are easily repaired with fiber glass fabric and epoxy resin. Quter hull parts such as containers for submersible storage batteries, fins, and the keel and deck parts of the craft or the entire outer hull are made from fiber glass in foreign submersibles. Naturally we did not know how the fiber glass would react to the conditions in which - the craft was to be operated at sea. We were especially troubled by the ballast tanks, which jutted out Craft Comtnander' s Console . 4 .v~::~.~':~.'d Undezwater Observer's Workplace 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ~NLY ~ _ ''r - ~ x t ~ f _ ~ ~ r ~ ' w ~:is; ~~c',� _ ~ ^~s ~ ~ t1 '.z ^3 s~+,j~ - ~ ~yc; ~ ~,t` +eT.^ !'a' General View of Craft ~ Now began the next stage--producing the blueprints for the craft's con- struction. And so, our job was to create a craft with the following characteristics: Weight, kg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.500 Overall dimensions, meters . . . . . 7.4x2.5x2.9 Diving depth, meters . . . . . . . . 400 Crew, persons . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ' This period, which consisted of endless coordination conferences and meetings, often held in different cities, seemed like one long day to me. The trips made my work more varied, but the farther I traveled, the less they saw of ine at home, which brought on the justified reproaches of my wife. Of course we did not yet know then that this was only the beginning of such a confusing and intense life. And ima.gine how many documents we hac~ to read and edit during this period, and how many differeat instruction manuals had to be written: The finished drawings of the hull and the equipment layout were submitted to the plant. At this time another plant was creating the propulsion com- plex, a third was manufacturing the hydraulic system, a fourth was making _ the compensating T~umps, and so on. . 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Interdepartmental equipment acceptance commissions began their work. - I. N. Sakhalov, an experienced specialist who had judged upon the merits of inechanisms for "Sever- 1", "Sever-2", and TINRO-2--was the permanent chairman of the mechanical eqaipment acceptance commissions. He was very serious about his respons ibil~ties, he knew his work dawn to the brass tacks, and for the most part the equipment he certified for operation did not let us down. Manufacture of the main e quipment proceeded routinely, without surprises, and everything went on scYiedule. But things did not go all that well with production of the scientific research equipment. The hydrological instru- ment complex elicited special concern. It followed an original conception. All sensors are located in a capsule. The display block is situated in the craft's manned compartment right in f.ront of the underwater researchers, owing to which they coul d maintain a constant impression of the chemical composition and propertie s of the surrounding environment. Similar foreign hydrologi cal complexes u~ed aboard submersibles, inde- pendently,.or from aboard a surface vessel, usually measure sea water parameters such as tempe rature, saiinity, and pH (a hydrogen index describing _ the acidity or alkalinity of water). The parameters to be me~sured by the ' complex we were designing were to be much greater in number. Z'he measure- ment results 'zad to be tape-recorded, and time readings had to be indicated. After surfacing, the tape reccarding was to be interpreted using another - special tape recorder installed aboard the carrier vessel. Signals are fed from this tape recorder to a recorder that plots dependencies between all of the measured parameters and time or diving depth. All parameters - are simultaneously recorded for subsequent cotpputer analysis. ~ Naturally develoFment of such a complex was associated with considerable - difficulty. Moreover, during the work the weight and overall dimensions of this canplex tripled in comparison with the initially adopted figures. _ And this happened even in spite of brutal rejection of evezything other than that which was most neces sary. "Nothing extra, only that with which we - cannot do without," cons tantly drummed Valentin Pavlenko, who was saddled with all of the problems of the scientific equipment. Other specialists said the same thinq as well. Sut from their point of view other instruments we re the most necessary, ones without which existence of the craft would be "entirely uni.maginable": It was very difficult to please both them and the others. The designers had to perpetually invent, alter and re-invent something or other in order to satisfy all desires. To expand the research capabilities of the craft, a navigation system was developed concurrently wi th the hydrological instrument complex. In addi- ' tion to a gyrocompass, it included an a.utomatic course plotter which, re- ceiving speed data from an electromagnetic log, had to constantly draw the - course traveled by the craft on a plotting board. It was decided to use mini- aturized equipment to create this system. It had never been used before 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFTCIAL U5E ONLY this in our submersibles. We were in~terested in evaluating the work.of this equipment under water in the presence of intense, irregular rocking and high humidity. One could be persuaded of the merits of the course plotter from its model, which worked fabulously in the laboratory. . When it came to choosing the necessary scientific research equipment, installinq a"Biozvuk" sonar instrument was suggested. Using hydrophones mounted outside the craft, a researcher could record sounds etnitted by fishes and other dwellers of the sea. This instrument consists of a wide- band tape recorder and an acoustic analyaer for subsequent interpretation of the obtained recordings. However, this proposal was made too late, and a place for the instrument had not been foreseen. Thus we had to limit ourselves to introducing a cable for a hydrophone into the pressure hull, anc3 foreseeinq a power outlet for a tape recorder on the electric distribution panel. We decided to install the instnunent itself after the submersible was placec1~into operation, when conditions favorable for doing so would appear. The hydroacoustic equipment consists of an undersea acoustic communication station, such as one used by divers to communicate with each other, echo sounders, and a sonar set. A ready-made sonar set with appropriate overall dimensions and consumed power did not at that time. At first we suggested using an ordinary fi~h-.detecting echo sounder as the sonar set tor determining presence of obstacles in front of the craft and _ recording fish accumulations. The vi.brators were located in the bow of the outer hull, and the instrum~nt's recorder was placed on a console in front of the craft co~nander. The echo sounder's effective range was suffi- cient for TINRO-2. We did not have any experience in using a fish-detecting echo sounder for these purposes at that time, and we were unable to say what sort of sonar display method was better--using a recorder or a cathode-ray t~abe . Many specialists advised using undezwat~r television, but by this time - the craft was literally "stuffed" with instruments, and it was i.mpossible to put anything else into it; moreover we did not have the right kind of ' ready-made television apparatus. Later we tried using an industrially produced television device. At the time that the blueprints for TINRO-2 were nearing their completion, - the "'Sever-2" deep-diving subn?ersible was taking its first steps in the Black Sea. A group of specialists participated in its tests, which showed _ how difficult it was to assimilate a new submersible. The blueprints were finally completed, and the plant began construction of TINRO-2, which started with assembly of the pressure hull. First of all high-precision cylindrical and tapered rings and the fore hemisphere were manuf~ctured out of sheets of superior ship-building steel ~ 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY that had passed the most rigid inspections. Any deviation from proper shape beyond that permissible could lead to disintegration of the craft's hull in response to a load, even one lower than tie rated load. Then the ship assemblers and welders were given a very important task-- assembling the hull of the craft out of the individual sections. The life - of the hydronauts depended on the quality of their work. ~ After assembly and welding of the pressure hull was completed, }he quality of the welded seams was checked with the greatest care ~asing X-ray tech- ~ niques; correspondence of all of its geometric dimensions with the specifi- cations of the plan -ras also checked. All seams were perfect, and wherever minor deviations were discovered, reinforcements taking the form of stiffeners were installed. But there were very few such places, and the pressure hull was accepted for further work. The pressure hull had to undergo tests in a high-pressure chamber after the steel parts of the outer hull were welded on and before the equipment ~ was installed. Using the results of this test, plant builders and desig~zers had to make a final evaluation of the quality of the pressure hull and the - correct.ness of its design--in a word, they had to pass on the first major stage in the submersible's c~:�eation. AspeciaZ team of workers scrupulously prepared the hull for the test; they sealed all openings in the skin intended for the portholes, propulsion units, external fittings, and cables. The entrance hatch was already in- stalled by this time, such that ~ts tightness could also be tested. A special water sensing unit with a cable leading outside to a display was installed inside the hull, at its lowest point. If water appeared anywhere in the hull during the test, the sensor would imanediately make this known, . - and the test would be halted. _ The pressure hull of TINRQ-2 was drawn into the pressure chamber on rails by winches. '.i'he hull was secured with metallic lashings so that it would not rise up after the chamber was filled with water. Special sensors that were to show stresses in different places on the skin in response to . rising pressure were glued to the hul1. Z'he day everyone awaited with agitation finally arrived. The craft's pressure hull has been examined attentively for the last time. Everyone is leaving the chamber, and the hatch is closing. The noisy rush ~f water into it could be heard. F'inally the chamber is filled-- the examination has begun. The pointers of the control pressure gauges slowly crawl upward. For the first time the hull experiences the action of tons of water pressure, which it will � have to endure in the future many times while workir~g _ in the ocean. 2 f3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ODTY~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The pressure rises in stages of 10 atmospheres. Z'he pressure is held constant for a certain time at each stage. The hull behaves excellently. Pressure ` ~ is now 40 atmospheres. Now a load equal to 400 tons - is acting upon every square meter of the skin. T'his is the load the craft will experience at working depth. The pressure is increased even higher., up to the maximum permitted by the design. The pressure cannot be increased further--the hull may disinteqrate. We record the readings of all the instruments after a long period of time at this pressure. The stresses experienced by the skin of the hull are in keeping with the estimates. The signaling device indicating presence of water in the hull is silent. Z'he diffi- cult exam has been passed successfully: All congratu- late one another. Now the pressure beqins to decrease. These first serious tests did not end until the morning of the followi.nq _ day. Everyone waited impatiently for the moment when the water would be drained from the chamber and the hull of the craft could be inspected. - The hatch into the chamber was opened, and I was one of the first to qet into the hull. No changes of any sort had occurred, and it was completely dry inside the hull. It was hard to believe that such a thin shell could withstand the tremendous water pressure. Construction of the towed "Atlant-2" craft went on simultaneously with that of TINRO-2. This spectacle made a strong impression, and it was very ~ pleasant to realize that our dreams were beginning to come true. Z'he "Atlant-2" had an especially effective look about it. Installation of its equipment was finished, and the workers had star.ted trimaning and painting it. Basin trials were soon to begin. I was soaiewhat envious of the engineer who was to be the first tester of "Atlant-2", and I impatiently awaited the moment when TINRO-2 would achieve the same degiee of readiness. After the hull was drawn out of the chamber, experienced installers began - installing the equipment and laying the ntunerous pipelines and cable runs. All of the i.nternal equipment had to be of a size allowing its introduction into the craft through the entrance hatch. Therefore whenever we received mechanisms and devices, they were all passed through a special plywood ring of the same diameter. Every day the number of instruments increased, and looking at the boxes of equipment arranged next to the craft, it seemed as if it would be impossible to plaae all of this equipment inside. We be~~an installing the propulsion complex first. Before this, we tested it or,l a plant stand on which real operating c~:nditions were simulated to the extent possible. The friction variators, which had never been used 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY before at sea, were checked out especially carefully. On the whole they suited our needs completely. The external pressure compensating system intended to relieve pressure on :~haft stuffing boxes, and all of the other equipatent of the propulsion com- F~lexes worked very well, and i~ediately after their acceptance the propul- sion complexes were installed in the craft. I always carried a very high opinion of the plant fitter-assemblers, hut ' what I was able to witness during installatian of the horizontal propulsion unit in the stern of the craft was beyond all praise. It would be hard to describe the sharpness displayed by the assEmblers and the number of in- - genious devices they employed. The complex, which consisted of an electric motor, a variator, a compensating pump, and a co~t?on frame, weighed a rather great deal, but there was only enough room, and just barely, for two persons in the s~ern of the craft, and moreover our main, most experienced assembler - was of extremely substantial dimensions. One can~imagine haw difficult this work was: When the control system was finally delivered and we saw it in its assembled form, with all flf its blocks, consoles, information panels, and other parts, we thought that it would never fit in the craft, that it would not get through the entrance hatch, and if by some miracle it did, it would be impossible to turn it around in the craft. However, everythinq calmly assumed its place. Of course the main control console had to be desiqned to permit its lowering on special screws, so as to permit access to the ~ - blocks for their repair. By spring, assembly of most of the craft's systems and mechanisms was finally finished. The craft began to take on its intended appearance. As before, all delays involved the scientific research equipment. Because the hydrological complex was still undergoing laboratory tests at this time, it was decided to fill its place with items of identical weight and overall di.mensions. A capsule simulating the external sensor block ana recalling in its appearance some sort of mysterious gun was mounted - outside on the bow of the craft. It took a lot of hard work to procure underwater floodlights suitable for our craft. We had to make the rounds of a large number of enterprises, but in the end they were found and installed. After this the appearance of TINRO-2 transformed completely. The portholes and greenish floodlights made it resemble a mysterious goggle-eyed fish. The similarity was emphasized by the tilted aft fins, which imparted a certain streamlined = quality to its countenance. After installation of two electronic flash units with the poetic name "Biryuza" and the "Modul bathometer, the craft's assembly was practically compZeted. . 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~s~~ ~ ~~,a c x , ~z ~ Yy^r'V,1`~`.C".,S ~yd S;'~ ~X~zPk' Y AS-.., :(y.~^3... ::R.. . ;.::4 ~'I i y k~� ~ ~ ~t _ h~ ` ~ ~:1 'L F y re ~ A ~~d ~ ~3~ ~ Y t' . ~ V~ ~ 5 ~ i x ~r k ;:~t s~ 'Ex, , t ti " ~ � ~ -t ~ ~ ~ : ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~i � ~ y& ~fi~~" f 1~ ~ ~ b ~i'~~"i ~ ~ c.~} s'6 ~:F, 3s~. t att { s~",d ~ 4 . ~ ~ K~~ 2E~ N,~ .~,4� r~, ' F yy 4 ' ~.�a'2fl^k.. Y ~ ~ ~ d X~~~ . y~,~~s~eY~;y/ ~ y.::~ ~ & " Y ~3^r,{'~ + ~p i ~ .~,AA1i. ; < _ ~ A ~ ~f y~ ' 4' . m~fd � � A rt. .``~y.,:.:.: . ~ . � ~~,'>.~~jy ~~~~i.. ~ ~q.n ~ s'~x1.c'~~.~.. 'f+! 1~.~,. Hoisting Device ~ 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Engine Compartment Now it had to be painted. In order that the craft would be easily noticed on a seawater background, it was desirable to paint it as bright as possible, which elicited arguments from the ichthyologists. They felt that such a finish could influence fish behavior, and since the main purpose of the craft was to observe fish, the craft had to be painted subdued, dull tones. In the end, the sides were painted traditional battleship gray while the deck was painted white, and a bright red strip that was readily distinguishable from the air was painted along the top. What was most difficult still lay ahead--testing TINRO-2. 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR c~T~'FTC ~Ai. I1SE ONI~Y ~ C~iAPTER II THE CRAFT IS READY TO DIVE: A Dive...Ashore Testing of the craft in a high-pressure chamber.-- The first launching.--"Freshwater" dives.--Aboard the "Ikhtiandr".--The craft gces sduth. Before starting tests involving the craft's subtnersion, we still had to per- suade ourselves once again of its comp3ate watertightness, this time after all of the assembly jobs were completed, the cable inlets were sealed, and the portholes were installed. 7'he craft was once again placed in the chamber, once again the water sensor was mounted inside the hull, and _ polyethylene bags were glued to the inside of the portholes so as to determine from the leakage which one of them was poorly sealed. The same ~ sort of bags were glued to the ca?ale inlets. After the craft was kept under pressure for a time, it became obvious that it was absolutely water- tight, and that further tests could begin. Naw we had to think about the crew for the submersa.ble. An extensive training program followed by examinations was developed for the future hydronauts. A special commission issued a document the bearer - to independent control of the craft to those who passed the tests. Candidate hydronauts traveled to Leningrad for training at the very be- ginning of summer. Among them was Boris Ishtuganov, with whom I subsequently sailed a gr?at deal, both on and beneath the water. Valentin Deryabin was also included in the program. Being an r_lectrician, he placed all of the craft's electric and electronic equip~nent under his observation and control. The triumphant moment of the first launching of TINRp-2 was approaching, - but we were still totally unsure as to what vessel would be used as a base for the craft's running and state trials. A special carrier vessel for TINRO-2 had not been built yet. The "Odissey"--the carrier vessel of the submersi.ble "Sever-2"--was on a cruise, and therefore, after weighing all 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR (1FFtCtAL iTSF ~NLY of the pros and cons, we decided to step up construction of a second "Odissey" class vessel and outfit it for work with TINFD-2. ~ The amount of work that had to be done was not great, the vessel was soon launched, and it was christened the beautiful "Ikhtiandr". The chief designer and I toured all of the vessel's compartments intended t for work with tkie craft, and we established that minimum alterations would be needed, mainly in the hanqar itself. I~ so happened that construction of the carrier vessel would be finished while we were conducting basin trials of the craft. This suited us. Before launching the craft we had to test out its life support system. For this purpose a plant laboratory assistant and I had to sit in the craft _ for 12 hours, having taken the necessary reserve of food with us. Every 30 minutes she and I measured the gas composition of the air, temperature, and humidity. Our "sitting" provided us with the parameters for optimum operating conditions for the regeneration system, which functioned fabulously; the concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the craft's atmosphere was normal. We also established from these tests that in an emergency, the craft's time of survival would be as long as foreseen by the plan. The long stay in the sealed craft was especially interesting and useful to - me, because I was able to evaluate my sensations, and also because I was . able to once again practire, in a relaxed situation, all of the craft control operations, and "play out" gossible emergency situations. The long-awaited moment of the craft's first launching finally came. The craft was rolled out of the sho~, and a representative of the plant--the mechanic in charge--and I took our places in it and closed the entrance hatch. ~ I raised the pressu~e in the craft compartments by . releasing compressed air from special tanks. In the course of several minutes we check the tightness of the seals and the air pressure within the hull. The pressure is not fallingf this means that we can equalize it with atmospheric pressure and begin submerging the craft. I report this to the test leader. I can see the launching begin through the portholes. Z~ao railroad cranes smoothly separate the craft from its keelblocks, - and we hang suspended above the water. We are slowly lawered, I hear a light splash, and suddenly instead of the transparent air to which I am accustomed, ~turbid brownish water suddenly covers the portholes. The main goal of the first dive was to '�equalize" the craft--that is, to - check its buoyancy under water. It had to be zero. This could be achieved by changing the weight of solid ballast stowed on the craft. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ruK ur�r l~ us~ ~aLY AEtur tl?e crait t~~gaii rc.~cking evetily on the water surface, tYie hold of the cranes was relaxed, but two thick cables still joined it to the crane booms. Havi iig persuaded mysel f that everything was in order, I reported this to tt~c~ ~~~um~iuf E~~~ril ~yc~~3 rc~c~iv~,~l l:,u~rmi~~l~n tu tic~gin thn cllv~. A little apprehensively, I open the vent valves of the ballast tanks. No one knows how the first dive will go. 'I'he craft slowly begins to disappear into the water. The water reaches the upper portholes and covers them over. A report from shore tells us that _ only the cover of the entrance hatch is still above _ water. The craft stops d:opping--apparently the ballast tanks are completely filled with water. The craft's equalizing tanks are empty. I decide to fill them~ with water until such time that the craft would submerge completely. I open the valves, and water - fills the aft tank. The aft trim increases, and the craft swiftly drops down, to the bottom. Obviously too much water in the tank. It is not more than 7-S meters deep at this point, and in very short time we find ourselves on the muddy bottom, which , is so soft that we feel not even the slightest jolt as the craft settles. The water is very turbid, and - there is nothing for us to see. Pumping a 1 ittle water out, I persuade myself that the craft has zero buoyancy. A comtaand to begin surfacing is transmitted from shore. I open the ballast tank purge valve, and compressed air _ thunderously displaces the water,from the tanks. I can hear air bubbles escaping through the flooding ports, and suddenly we find ourselves on the surface. Our first dive is finished: The cranes pluck the craft from the water and careful ly place it on the keelblocks of its transporter. My mate and I crawl out of the hatch and drop down to our waiting friends. Everyone is pleased with the results of the dive. The craft and and its fi~st crew have received their baptism of fire. After this the dives became a daily occurrence; during them, the craft had to be subjected to what we call careening in order to determine its stability, we had to measure the thrust of the vertical and horizontal propulsion units with speciai dynanbmeters, and we had to make sure that all mechanisms operated adequately under water. I must give al? of the craft's creators their due--the mechanisms worked very well. - 35 FOR OFFIC IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY The electricians were concerned about the suhmersible storage batte ries - which, as experience showed, could be ~he source of a great deal of trouble due to the low resistance ~f insulation under water. However, awing to their careful maintenance by plant battery specialists, everything went all right with TINRO-2. The craft's mechanisms and main equipment undexwent meticulous inspection in real conditions. The horizontal and vertical propulsion units worked ~ normally. During one of the dives we attached special dynamometers to the - craft to measure the thrust created by the screw propellers. These tests _ shawed that the thrust of the propellers met the specifications. This meant - that the vertical and horizontal speed of the craft would be close to that planned. The anchor winch, the electrical equipment, and the navigational and hydro- acoustic equipment also worked well. However., we could not escape unpleasant surprises. Once during a routine ciive sea water began coming in, and my mate, who was on the researcher's mat in the bow got completely soaked before we could figure out what was going on. It turned out that one of the valves had not closed completely. _ The participants of the tests were oblivious to time; they worked late into the evening, and sometimes even at night. This was a restless but interesting time. The writing of the basic instructions, without which even a well trained crew was not entitled to operate a perfectly operating craft, was nearinq . _ completion. The safety rules applicable to hoisting the craft from aboard the carrier vessel and to independent navigation, and the rules of its operation had to be written out in precise and dry language. The instructions _ had to describe, in the proper sequence, all of the actions to be taken by the craft co~nander, the underwater researcher, and the maintenance personnel - from the moment of the craft's preparation for a dive to the moanent the underwater operations end and the craft is serviced after being returned to the hangar; all possible emergency situations had to be considered in detail, and ways to respond to them had to be recommended. It took a very long time to write up all of these documents, and it required the participa- tion of experts. Because n~ one had any experience at that time ic~ operatinq _ submersibles, it was decided to put the finishing touches on these documents after the first trials and experimental operation of the craft. We were not sure how many people there should be in the craft maintenance group, what their specialties should be, the munber of replacement crews that should be aboard the vessel to insure uninterrupted work, and so on. All of this also had to be determined during experimental operation, which could beqin only after the craft finished its plant and state trials. The training of hydronaut candidates also came to an end, and an examination commission was appointed under the chairmanship of the chief of the undersea technology division. Thi,s comanission included the chief designer and a 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL U5E UNLY large number of leading specialists involved in the pla:ining and con- struction of submersibles. I had to find the time to both take the exami- . nati.on and assume my place among the co~nission members. The examinations were taken not only by crew members but also by the buildera of the craft, the delivery .nechanic--in a word, by all who might have to take pa~t in dives during the craft' s running trials. All hydzronaut candidate~ passed _ the examination and were certified for independent control of TI~TRO-2. In the meantime the craft' s basin trials were completed, and we began pre- paring TINRO-2 for its departure for the Black Sea. Cons truction of the "Ikhtiandr" was also coming to an end, and I was once again compelled to fly south to participate in its running trials. The ship' s crew, headed by the captain-director, also traveled there from Kaliningrad. _ In one of the last days of May 1973, late in the evening, the snow-white , "Ikhtiandr" eased away from the walls of the plant. For practical pur- ~ poses there were two crews aboard the vessel--plant personnel and the official crew; add to this the members of the acceptance commission. = However, the plans called for a sea cruise in just 2 or 3 days, and there- fore all quickly adapted themselves to the inconveniences, and a good working atmosphere was established aboard. We were on the Hlack Sea by morning, and we began the running trials. I liked thP "Ikhtiandr". The vessel was refitted out of an ordinary BMRT with a displacement of 3,870 tons. The ship's crew consisted of 80 persons, including 11 scientists. The chief or assistant captain for scientific affairs was in charge of the cruise. _ The craft maintenance group initially included, besides the two craft crewmembers, an electri~ian, a mechanic, and a radio navigator. There were nine scientific laboratories, a decompression chamber with all of the necessary equipment, a diving station, an air tank filling station, several deepwater hydrological winches, and an undersea television station - aboard the vessel. Comfortable two- and four-man cabins ~:.::d a cozy ward- room and mess hall equipped with television sets were reserved for members , of the crew and the scientists. All of the crew quarters and service com- _ partments were outfitted with air conditioning systems. Qnly the p:esence of the hiige hangar for the submersible made our vessel different from - others. The hangar was on the m~in deck, and it took up about a quarter of the vessel's length. At this place the left side was cut out and re- - placed by sliding doors , which moved on special guides. Despite their great weight, the doors opened easily with the help of electric drives. The opening of the doors recalled a scene from a science fiction novel. = There were rubber gaskets and clamps along the entire parameter of the - doors, pressing them reliably aqainst the coaming of the cut-out side when the ship traveled, so that water would not enter the hangar. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY The hangar contained keelblocks for the craft and tracks upon which a lift truck conveyed the storaye batteries. In order that the lift truck and its stora e batte g ry container would not roll about when the ship rocked, there was a cable dri~~e outfitted with small winches that could be used to pull it quite safely �rom one position to another. There was a compartment for storage battery repair and charging forward of the hangar. Also located there was a highly productive device used to ob- tain distilled water for the batteries. The tracks led from the hangar to the stern, to a compartment in which the craft's main batteries undenaent charging and maintenance. - The charging unit itself was on the lower deck, and two outfits of batteries, charging cables, and a gas analyzer, used to check the hydrogen concentra- tion in the air, were stored on racks. The compartment was hermetically - sealed, and it was eutfitted with a ventilation system. The mechanical and fittir.~ shops as well as repair shops for the radio- ~ - engineering, navigation, and sonar equipment of TINRlJ-2 were situated on the same deck. A separator used to cl~an hydraulic system oil and a portable chemical laboratory for its analysis were installed in one of the compartments. Vast compartments on the deck below were reserved for storage of the needed spare parts, supplies, and special tools. In a word, everything was close at hand. A powerful roisting device was used to launch the submersible. It was built in the form of a bridge that was extended out after the doors of the hangar were openecl. Cylindrical c~tches that locked onto the craft's _ hoisting rods were lowered on thick cables from the bridge. In order that the catches would not swing about when the ship rocked, and in order that they could be guicled precisely to the craft's hoisting rods, prior to lowering the catchES special guide cables were attached to the rods. These cables were tightened, and thei~ the hoisting catches were lowered down them. The guide cables were wound on high-speed hydraulic winches which maintained constant tension when the craft was in the water by the side of the ship and attached to the guide cables. This guaranteed that the hoisting catches would be lowered precisely to raise the craft aboard. When the craft was suspended beyond the side of the ship--the bridge pro- truded several meters bey~nd the side at full ~xtension--unavoidably the ' sliip listed considerably. To compensate for this, special tanks were mounted on the sides in the central part of the vessel. Water was pumped from one side to the other by a high-de:ivery pump as the bridge and craft were extended outward. 38 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR (1FFICIAI, iISF ONLY ~ . kb .J' 3ti; ~kt~. . i~~x ~Y, 4~ ~~t L^` ~ r , ai ~ ~ t x 3?.'~ ~1 SS ;~}:p~ y~A -~l ~.~1~?L . 3 ,,.,�-bS a. ~ r - r,~..l1. i S ~ 3'vj ~~~,s^~:,~, . ' F .:a.�a ~ s~.' Y ts~fa~.. ~ y q ' ~ ~~n ' ~ r ~.~s ;~~~t~ .!P w a ' ,~s ~ g ~ Fx" y:` ~ ~4 ~ S'~'~,~.~~i~~~ F ~ ~ ~w~:: z .u -F3~,n,~ r:' , ~ ~ k ~~~r~ 1.s ~ y 5 ~ ~ ~ j, ' ~ y Sa,;�;: ~ ; y~~ y A ` ~ ~ f:: ~ 3.~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ f~. 4 $ R~~~&~5~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~g~ ~ a c TINRO-2 E`rom the Front One mechanic controlled the lowering and raising of the craft and pumping - of the water from a special console in a glass-enclosed cabin beneath the roof of the hangar. An electric compressor was used to fill the craft's tanks with compressed air. The air pipelines led directly into the hangar, where they were joined to the craft's high-pressure pneumatic system by a removable pipe. 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` ~ ~ R i~l' ti ~ ~ ~ ~s` r . ,r~' . , , ~ ~ 5 � � y`s~:? 1 e ~ . ~ z~ ;=i ~ ~ ,."k''riL~w�3~ . , 5s~ ' _ .�,g 5",, , ~ ~^~f.. s " ~ j ' ~ ~+'4~ Y S . ~ 1. ~.Y ~ ~ . . . t ~ : ,p; ~ ~..~q, t` t ~ ~ . , _ . ......r.w~ Scientific Research Vessel "Ikhtiandr" on the Ocean `~'Y~~.';:~.Sa.~, ~'~f, ? ~ ~5 3 ^Ny I~ ~ Gi 1�'dr y~~ ~ ~ ~ x. ~ ~ Y 4 . . a4~" . r.... . , .~i"... . ~ The Craft in the Hangar of Its Carrier Vessel "Ikhtiandr" 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY All o~ the craft's maintenance compartments, the hangar, and the hoisting device control cabin communicated with one another as well as with the fore and aft bridges by telephone and loudspeaker systems. " Communication was maintained with the submerged craft via a special hydro- acoustic station installed in the forward wheelhouse. The vessel possessed trawling equipment, and therefore the crew also con- tained a trawl-master and a fish processing technician. Of course the trawl deck of the "Ikhtiandr" was somewhat smaller than on fi~hing vessels, which hindered the work of the trawling team, but it was still possible to catch and process fish. The "Ikhtiandr" was also adapted for various hydrological operations--mainly - recording hydrological sections, taking measurements of the direction and speed of underwater currents at different depths, investigating the bottom with various dredges and bottom scoops, and collecting plankton with a - (Dzhedi) net. Owing to pre~ence of three hydrologi~al winches all of these operations could be performed almost simultaneously, and consequently a sufficiently detailed impression of ~che region of exploration could be attained quickly. Ztao sonar sets, one of which was to be used for hydroacoustic tracking of the submersible, and echo sounders made it possible to search for fish at a signif_icant depth. The gyrocompass, two radar sets, a radio rangefinder, and modern navigational equipment could be used to detemline the vessel's location with sufficient accuracy. It was universally recognized that the vessel was fabulously adapted for a _ broad complex of scientific projects during a cruise of many months i.n any - region of the World Ocean. The "Ikhtiandr" passed al:. of its tests well. The main engine, the auxiliary mechanisms, the winches, the radio-engineering and hydroacoustic equipment, and the lifeboats were all tested in action. The ship's acceptance certifi- cate was signed. The weather was calm during the trials, and we were unable to evaluate the ship's behavior in wavy seas. Everyone who had a relationship to the forth- coming trials of the submersible was very interested in how the ship would behave itself in wavy seas, and how this would affect operations with the submersible. ' 5ti11 untested at sea were the devices necessary for operation of the craft. Before leaving the plant, the hoisting device was tested out with a special load in order to insure its normal operation. 41 FOR ~JFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY After completing its running trials successfully, the "Ikhtiandr" returned - to port. The delivery team left the ship. TINR~-2's meeting with the "Ikhtiandr" was next. The place of this meeting was Sevastopol'. It was to this place that ::he craft had to be conveyed by rail. However, because it was somewhat oversized, special permission had to be obtained from the railroad service before it could be loaded onto a flatcar. Finally all _ of the formalities were observed, the craft was loaded on the flatcar, it was coveren over with a tarpaulin, and it began to resemble some sort of mysterious contraption. A freight car in which all of the spare parts were stowed was hitched to the flatcar. The plant group Escorting the craft was situated in this car as well. The craft's terrestrial period of life was coming to an end. The Craft Meets the Vessel TINRO-2 is loaded aboard the "Zkhtianc]r".--Lowering ~ and raising of the craft is practiced.--Preparations for sea trials. The craft was to be delivered aboard the vessel at the start of August, and sc~ w~ had to fly to Sevastopcl' from Leningra~. The "Ikhtiandr" reached Sevastopol' 2 days before TINRiO-2. During this time we managed to make the preparationE for its arrival. The plant de- livery team came to Sevastopol' even earlier than the vessel, so a3 to acquaint itself with the local conditions and determine the region of operations and the order of setting out ~o sea. The agent responsible for delivery and I inspected the harbor's moorinqs and our future base, a.^_d we located and leased a floating crane with which to unload the craft from the rail flatcar. The flatcar carrying the craft and the greight car carrying the supplies ' were conveyed right to the seashore on a siding. The transloading opera- tions were performed in several stages. First the craft was transferred by the fi~ating crane to its pontoon, upon which it conveyed it to the other side of tYie harbor where the "Ikhtiandr" was moored; then the craft was lowered to the mooring in front of the open doors of the hangar, and it was only after this that the craft was raised by the ship's hoisting device and placed in the hangar. The long-awaited meeting of the craft and ship occurred. From this moment on, they became a single whole, and even when the craft left for independent navigation, it maintained invisible but sufficiently firm communication with the ship. 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y ~w x.,._.~s~~`~.,,, , ~ TINRO-2 is Loaded Aboard the-"Ikhtiandr" The work of putting the craft in its place went on for alm~st the entire day, everyone was tired, and so it was decided to postpo~ze practicing the hoisting operations until the next day. Nbrning of the following day began sunny and calm--we could not have wished for better weather for the practice launching. I took my place in the craft, checked its tiqhtness, and began waiting for its first launching at sea. Through the portholes I could see the guide cables tightening, and the main cargo catches dropping slaraly along them, and i felt the sensation of the craft separating from the keelblocks. 7.'hen it was carefully raised to an elevation of about 1 meter, and after a few ~ seconds it was rocking on the water surface. I crawled down to the undenvater observer's place and looked through the side portholes--now greenish sea water was before my eyes. Despite the fact that the water in the harbor was rather turbid, I could see the side of the "Ikhtiandr" well. It was still clean, free of growths, and lower down somewhere I could ~aguely distinguish the bilge keels. I had to inspect the cable i.nlets and stuffing boxes, and check the water- tightness of the craft. Everything was in order, and the bumpy railroad trip did not have any effect upon the craft. I reported this to the ship ~ and then began waiting for the craft to be raised, wY;en suddenly I heard 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a totally incomprehensible noise. "Where could it be coming from?" I thought with alarm. "All of the mechanisms are turned off." Meanwhile the noise alternately grew louder and softer, but I could not - understand what was going on. No noise of any sort was heard aboard the ship, but after my report thPy also became concerned and started raising the craft very quickly out of the water. It was not until ~ was aboard ' the ship that it was all cleared up. It turned out that before raising _ the craft, it was sprayed with water from a manual fire pim?p in order to wash off the dirt, and I was not informed of this. What I heard, therefore, was the noise of the stream df water forcefully striking the hull. The most difficult operation was not the launching and raising of the craft, but its placement on the keelblocks in the hangar. This operation had to be performed very precisely, with a tolerance not exceeding 10 which ev~en on the still water of the enclosed harbor was not always successful with the first try. Therefore we immediately got together with the efficiency experts, and on the spot we adapted one of the hanqar winches with which to draw the craft to the necessary level. We perfoxmed the craft launching and raising operations three times, and when we were persuaded that the mechanic understood his job well, we de- cided to perform them out on the open sea as soon as possible. These first launchings demonstrated that the "Ikhtiandr" could not have been suited better to our craft, even though it had been planned for another. We were pleased ~st of all by the fact that the distance between the hoisting rods matched the span of the hoisting device, and therefore the latter did not need alteration. The tracks in the h~ngar used to con- vey battery containers tu TINRO-2 also suited our needs. We noted with satisfaction that at maximum extension of the bridge beyonC the side with the craft suspended, the ship's list did not exceed a few degrees, and thersfore we did not even need to use the counterflooding tanks. Plant representatives and designers arrived by this time to participate in the first operational sea cruise. The testing party grew extremely large by the time we were ready ~o set out to sea, but there was enough room aboard the "Ikhtiandr" for ~everyone, and comfortably as well. Divers that were to assist in Lnderwater operations, and provide help when necessary, also arrived. S~~~ of them had participated as aquanauts in an experiment with the "Chernomor", an undenvater house. The group was headed by Anatoliy Viktorovich--a very experienced diver, oceanologist, and operator. He intended to film our work and the craft's first steps. Getting a little ahead of myself, let me say that such a film was made. Cuts from it were shown on Central Television during a program devoted to th~ ocean trips of TINRO-2. Unfortunately the transparency of water in the Black Sea is x~ather low, and film taken at the bottom was not very effective. ~ 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY ~ I thought out the plans for all of the sea cruises and concrete dives of the craft together with the assistant chief designer and builder of the craft, who was now called the delivery official. A rather well-enclosed inlet offering good visibility and having a solid, even bottom that dropped away gent~.y to a depth of ~0-80 meters was chosen as the main region of the trials. This depth suited us completely for most of the items of the testing program. Deep dives were to be made in the vicinity of Alushta or Yalta, where such araft had been tested before. We decided to test the navigational qualities of the craft in different weather conditions at the first convenient opportunity, or during transfers from one region to another. We ended up having to schedule out the forthcominq work i.n detail, literally down to the minute, and coordinate our actions with the participants of the trials and t.'~e ship captain. Finally all preparations were�finished. The tanks were filled with good Sevastopol' drinking water, and fuel was taken on. We were now ready for the sea: ~ The Craft Takes Its Exam The "Ikhtiandr" sets out to sea.--Problems with the hoisting device.--2'he first dive at sea.--'I'he craft on taa.--Fire.--200 Meters deep.--The state r,ouanission comes aboard.--Speed determination.--TINRiD-2's test = mile.--400 Meters deep.--Return to port. _ There were a large number of formalities, which no one had ever been able to foresee, before a ship such as the "Ikhtiandr" could set out to sea. Port quarantine authorities demanded a mandatory medical inspection of all "guests" aboard the "Ikhtiandr" and immunizations against cholera and tetanus. At another time the ship's documents were found to be not entirely in order. Later it was revealed that not all of the life rafts were secured as required. T'hen someone said that there was no soap aboard the ship, and - the most impatient passengers were ready to run ashore to buy some. This was finally getting to be a joke, but we were no longer amazed by anything, and we were ready to do whatever~we had to do in order to get out of port as quickly as possible. The delivery official, an extremely effusive person, hurried our captain on, but Viktor Aleksandrovich, a highly experienced captain, related philoso- phically to the swift passage of time and calmly surmounted each obstacle - _ as it came up. ~ 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In the end, all of the necessary signatures and medical certificates were obtained, everyone knew where to run and what to grab in the event of a water or fire alarm, and we were given the go-ahead to leave the bay. On Nbnday at 2200 hours Nbscow time the "Ikhtiandr" separated from its moorings with TINRO-2 aboard. Everyone's spirits were high. The weather was calm. But the superstitious shook their heads apprehensively--we~were setting sail on a Monday. In the morning we reached the vicinity of Yalta, and because the sea state _ did not exceed 3 points, we decided to launch the craft. At 1600 hours everything was ready for this operation. The ship was rocking slightly on the waves, its heel did not exceed 5� to port, and it appeared to us that it would be very ea~y to lower and raise the craft. This time the plant's delivery mechanic was in the craft, and I observed the launching from the hangar. Today, when it takes just a few minutes to lower or raise the craft, I - find it funny to recall the way thinqs went in those first days. It all happened about like this. Soft fenders were lowered a few minutes before launching from the hangar, so as not to damage the craft against the side of the ship. Five men were stationed along the open doors of the hangar with poles with which to push the craft away from the ship. At the same time three divers and three sailors manned a 70-man rescue motorboat. The boat moved away from the side of the ship and positioned itself opposite the hangar. Then the craft was launched from the hangar. When it touched water, two divers in diving suits jumped overboard from the motorboat in respon~e to a command, swam to the craft, climbed up it, and removed the catches manually. Then ~the craft conveyed them on its deck to the side of the ship, after tahich the divers, once again in response to a command, jumped overboard and swam to the motorboat, which took them back to the ship. The craft was raised in the reverse sequence. An interesting sight it was: - The very first launch was especially memorable to me, because I had to ob- serve it from the sidelines. Each participant of the forthcoming launch theoretically knew his place and the order of action. But the well-ordered theoretical succession was disturbed almos~ iAmiediately, p~issi.bly due to heavier seas, and possibly due to the generally shared anxiety. Whatever the case, when the time came for the launching to start, everyone began bustling about, and the delivery official tried to be in all places at - once. The craft, which was occupied this time by the delivery mechanic, barely touched the water when it started bucking about like a wild horse. The divers jumped overboard from the motorboa~, not without some reserva- tions, and removed the catches. After this the craft became completely uncontrollable, and it turned its bow toward the side of the "Ikhtiandr" 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 r'UK Ui''r'LI:lAL US~ ULVLY as if readying itself to ram the ship. At the most inappropriate moment _ the hoisting device jaimned. Z'he guide cables on the drums of the high- speed winches tangled themselves into a knot beyond the wildest imaginings, which took several people to untangle with difficulty. The divers scurried back and forth between the craft and the motorboat. In the end, the craft was locked on and raised into the hangar. Everyone sighed with relief. The operation took two and a half hours: As soon as the mechanic got out _ of the craft he announced that he would not sail the craft at a sea state greater than 2 points, since the rocking was too severe. But at this time TINRO-2 was on the leeward side of the boat, and it was protected from the - waves. Haw would things be when the craft finds itself on open water? The sea subsided somewhat toward evening, and we decided to subject the craft to its first real dive on the following day. ~ I was awakened around fiv~e in the morning by the sound of wind on the portholes. It was just beginning to grow light. The sea state was 4 points. It was still too early to get up, and so I went back to sleep. After break- fast the entire delivery team convened on the trawl deck to discuss matters of imanediate importance. Th~ delivery official said that in his opinion the weather was good, and that he was preparing the craft for the dive. We did not begin to argue with him, even though heavy leaden clouds began to stretch over the skx and the sea started to resemble our native Baltic. - By 1200 hours the sea state was already up to 5 points. The ship beqan rolling heavily from side to side, and for some reason about a third of the delivery team abstained from lunch. It was impossible to launch the _ craft at this time. The delivery official gloomily agreed with this as well. Meanwhile life aboard ship returned to normal. The ward-room was opened. A specific place was assigned to each person within it. All required supplies were issued. - In anticipation of better weather, the "Ikhtiandr" came closer to shore - and anchored itself within eyesight of Yalta. The part of the crew that was off duty tried its luck at, and the buckets began filling with haddock rather quickly. Someone managed to catch a pair of huge spiny dogfish, or Black Sea sha~ks. Meanwhile we analyzed the reasons why the hoisting device worked so poorly. - The morning of the following day bore absolutely no resemblance to the previous morning. The sky was clear, and the sea was barely undulating. - Everything bespoke success. We quickly prepared the craft for the dive, but as before, the hoisting denice would not work. Z'he ship mechanics could not fix it. Even Yasha, the best plant fitter-mechanic called in by the delivery official, was unable to help us. A pumping unit had _ broken down, and we did not have a spare pump. It was a pity to see how distraught the mechanics were. After a short conference we decided to 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY return to ~evastopol'. Remembering all of the difficulties associated with our departure from Sevastopol', we did not like returning there at all, but there was nothing we could do. So ended our first sea cruise, which lasted exactly 3 days. And of course, the fact that the ship sailed on a Monday was responsible for e~rerything. At an hour past midnight the "Ikhtiandr" dropped anchor at the roadstead of its familiar bay. The vessel was positioned with its stern to Pier _ - No 8, and ver1 soon we received a full taste of all the "joys" of such anchorage. As soon as the winds, came up, the "Ikhtiandr" received in- structions to leave for the roadstead, and those on leave who returned too late could not get aboard ship: Communication with them was cut off when the sea state climbed above 2 points. The "castaways" were forced to sit on shore without documents and money, and wear away the night on stools in the port dispatcher's office. The situation was even worse for those who were on the roadstead at the end of their tour of duty. Not only could they not make it on time to their airplanes or trains, but they could not even _ make it to shore. We remained in this predicament for a li~tle more than a week. During this time we brought in an installed a new ptuap in the hydraulic system. Finally, on 13 (:D September the "Ikhtiandr" once again set out to sea. Z'he hoisting dev~ce was readied for work, but during preparations for the craft's dive we discovered that the pressure compensator's piston was sitting a little too deep. It turned out that the bushinq of the vertical propulsion complex on tt~e left side had broken. It vTas a good thing that plant specialists were able to find a suitable stainl~ss steel rod and machine a new bushing in the ship's workshop. 'I'kiis work took up another day. _ Soon the cxaft's long-awaited dive at sea--its fiYSt independe~nt dive-- ~ began. We were in a convenient inlet. Z'his time the crew of the craft consisted of three persons: the plant delivery mechanic, the assistant chief designer, and I. I took my place at the control console, my comrades crawled to the bow of the craft, and ~oth of them situated themselves in the researcher's place. A passionate desire to participate in the first dive compensated for all of the inconveniences. The craft was lowered to the water, the divers released the catches, and - ~ we began rocking violently. 7.'he craft was towed away from the ship's side by the rescue motorboat. Through the portholes I had a fabulous view of the towing cable being attached and the motorboat' dragging us away from ~ the ship. At a distance of 100 meters from the ship, the divers unhitched the craft from the towing cable and returned to the motorboat. We were left on our own. The rocking increased noticeabl~--heel attained 18-20�. 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As we had predicted, the rocking was considerable due to the craft's great equilibrium. - Before beginning our dive we made several runs on the surface at different speeds--we had to see how obediently the craft responded to the helm. I was pleased by its controllability: It was easy to maintain a given heading. The automatic control system also worked fabulously well. We decided to check out all of the craft's other traveling modes later. I radioed for permission to begin the dive, and it was with a sense of ,pleasure that I heard the calm voice of our delivery official in the earphones: "Permission for the dive granted." I opened the ballast tank vent valves and began watching how the craft slowly started submerging. Because the crew consisted of three persons, the amount of solid ballast aboard had to be reduced somewhat, and so we did not know how the craft would proceed under water--quickly or, on the other hand, slowly. When the ballast tanks were completely filled, I set the vertical screw propellers for diving, but the craft's position did not change. Thus we had to take water into the compensating tanks, periodically checking the craft's capability for submerging. It was not until 20 minutes after the vertical screw propellers were turned on that the craft finally went below the water. I glanced into the portholes--the water surface was above us. 'I"he instruments showed a depth of 10 meters. We stopped and inspected the compartments. Everything was in order, and I reported this to the ship by our underwater cot~anunication system. Now we could calmly evaluate our sensations. At this depth, the water was of a greenish color, and rather translucent. Before our eyes, little jellyfish floated by and some sort of white balls and threads stood motionlessly. We noted happily that the intense rocking had ceased, and only gentle rolling remained. We decided to descend to 30 meters. As the craft moved, I glanced into the portholes--granted, it was falling upside-down, but it was snowing: At least it looked that way from so large a quantity of white particles of detritus around us. 7.tao minutes later the craft stabilized itself at a depth of 30 meters. We once again inspected the compartments and reported the situation to the ship. I set the course at 60� and turned on the gyropilot. TINRO-2 held - its course precisely. Then I switched to manual control and once again persuaded myself that the craft was very responsive. This was a twilight kingdom at this depth, and the water was greenish in color. After 30 minutes we were ordere~ to surface. I turned on the screw propellers, and at a depth of 5 meters, after persuading myself that the vessel was not directly above the craft, I purged the ballast tanks with compressed air--the craft rose to the surface e~~enly, without heel " or trim. The surface shimmered silver above the craft, and an instant _ 49 . rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - . ~`I , ' L I ~ The Craft is Lowered t~ the Water later we could see through the portholes that the motorboat had positioned itself 1 cable from the ship. We were put in taw, and moments later we were at the hangar. We could hear the catches locking on, and then the - craft being raised above t~-.e water and set upon the keelblocks with a gentle bump. We exchanged our impressions, and we congratulated one another on our first baptism at sea. The hatch finally opened, and I could see the smiling face of Yasha, who was subsequently always the first to meet us when we returned to the ship, and track us in our independent dives. Making our way to thc transfer bridge, we were met by embraces from our friends. We were congratulated with the first successful dive, and we congratulated the creators of TINRO-2 with the great success. Only two and a half hours had passed from the moment th:a entrance hatch was secured to the moment it was reopened, and we did not spend more than an hour beneath the water, but there were impressions enough to satisfy us for a long time to come. We devoted the evening of that day to telling the story and analyzing our observations. The work of the echo sounders was irregular. Our acoustical engineers - went right to work to find the causes of this problem and repair the apparatus. We had consumed hardly any of the storage battery capacity, and so it did not have to be recharged. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY From this moment on we settled into our work routine. The time the craft remained under water, and consequently the time I worked as craft commander increased to 6-7 hours. The battery discharged completely after such a lengthy dive. We did not have a standby battery outfit aboard the ship, and therefore it had to be recharged on the following day. This took ~ about 20 hours, during which we did not dive. _ Gradually all of the craft's characteristics were checked out. Serious malfunctions were not discovered, and the inevitable minor problems were cleared up by plant specialists on the spot. During one of the dives we had to check the effect~ve range of the radio communication resources and echo sounders. The weather was good in the morning, but by the time we selected the place for the dive, set out the buoys at different depths to check the echo sounders, and had the divers mark the route the craft was to take, the weather began to deteriorate. By the moment of launching the sea state was already up to 4 points. We had to postpone our planned operati ons, and instead we decided to have the ship tow the craft in the disturbed sea and determine its maximum safety parameters. We had to work out the towing mode for the event of poor weather, when it would be impossible to raise the submersible aboard ship. I took my place in the craft and pi loted it away from the ship by myself. Despite the roughness of the sea (the waves attained a height of 2 meters) , the craft moved away from the vesse 1 well~ I turned about and began per- forming various maneuvers while on the surface: I varied my heading 'ln ` relation to the orientation of the waves, and I determi.ned the minimvar? RPM of the main propeller at which the craft stably maintained its prescribed heading. After this I tabulated the results, which due to the intense rocking was harder to do than to control the craft, and I reported by radio: ~ - "Ready for towing." Something incomprehensible followed. I was to use a pneumatic line gun to "shoot out" the towing cable attached to the craft. This cable was supposed to be caught up and joined to the ship's towing cable. But the divers, who had not been briefed clearly, began climbing aboard the craft. There was no way I could fire the gun. I was forced zo imanediately stop the engines so that none of the divers would drift into the propellers. As a result the craft found itself at the mercy of the elements. Z`he craft was careening 32�, and the period of oscillations was about 5 seconds. Barely ab13 to hold onto the deck of the craft, the divers unhitched the totally wrong cables. They could not hear me, and so I radioed m1 advice to the ship, from which an attempt was made to conanuni- cate the informatian to the divers . Aboard the motorboat, which was _ dangerously close to the craft, no one had the slightest notion of what was going on. At the last moment radio comomunication failed, and there was nothing left for me to do but coldly watch the events unfold. After several attempts the divers managed to bind the craft, motorboat, and ship tightly together, and a stiff ~,aind caused the entire interconnected unit to drift slowly toward shore. I learned later that the engines could _ not be startPd aboard the ship, and that it was unable to travel farther from shore. 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL iTSE ONLY The captain gave the order to cut ~he towing cable so that the craft could move independently with the motorboat to the middle of the familiar inlet, but the motorboat was mistakenly severed from the craft, and so the craft _ continued to drift together with the ship. Everything turned out all right in the end, but the participants of this "adventure" ~.;re ~rery tired. We decided to meticulously coordinate forthcoming oper;;tions and to brief all participants in the future. We decided to :epeat the towing operation _ on the following day, taking all of the mistakes into account. Fresh winds were still at hand, but we started the trials anyway. The launching of the craft and its separation proceeded fabulously. I shut the motors off 1,000 meters from the hangar and ejected the towing cable with a thunder. It was immediately caught up and spliced to the ship's tawing cable, and in a few minutes the craft c-ias following behind it obediently. Communication was good, and I asked that the towing speed be increased qradually. At a speed of 4 knots the craft suddenly began submerging; trim attained 20� at the bow, and the craft heeled to starboard about 5� due to the main, which was shut off. nny further increase in speed was w~desirable. Thus w.e determined the tnaximum possible towing speed-- 3.5 knots. At this speed the bow of the craft submerges, but the commander's portholes remain on the surface. At higher speed the portholes disappear beneath the water as well, with only the towing cable visi.ble througl~ them _ amidst the beautiful greenish water. Now we had to make just two more trips at sea, and the state commission would accept the craft. Valentin Deryabin was my mate in one of the last dives. We had to make the - final inspections and adjustments of all electronic equipment. TINRO-2 separated from the vessel uneveiitfully, and the dive began. I noticed - that the craft had no intention of breaking away from the surface. In order to submerge, we had to take in additional water into the balancing tanks. The craft began descending, but at a depth of 20 meters, rather than stopping as was intended, it began dropping further rather quickly, and we settled on the bottom at a depth of 25 meters. We were unable to rise with the help of the screw propellers, and so we had to pump water out. The craft began surfacing. At a depth of 15 meters we stopped in order to inspect the craft and clarify the cause of its strange behavior. I additionally ~ set the anchor, and in order to increase its holding force I began taking on sea water into the aft tank. Suddenly water began gushing into the - _ craft from the trimming tank vent valve. I did not know that this tank was already filled. We had to close the valve and rise to the surface in order to equalize the craft's position. Then we began submerging once again. At a depth of about 5 meters Valentin and I simultaneously smelled sott!ething _ burning. I opened the door in the bulkhead--the aft compartment was full of smoke. 2 immediately turned on the emergency ballast tank purging - system, and the craft shot to the surface like a bullet. We turned off all 52 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOk ~FFICIAL USE ONLY power co:zsumers right away. It seemed as if the burning stopped, but there was much smoke in the craft. I reported the situation to the ship and requested permission to open the entrance hatch. ^_"he sea state was a little more than 2 points, and therefore water rarely swep~ over the hatch. Valentin and I took turns breathing the fresh air and diving back into the craft. Whenever a large wave appeared, we had to close the hatch. The smoke cleared, and I saw that the magnetic starter of the vertical propul- sion complexes and the cable:: leading to it were burnt. But the danger was already past, and there was no need to use our firefighting system. We also decided not to use the breathing masks because the craft was being aired out well through the hatch. The motorboat approached us, took the craft on tow, and delivered it to the side of the ship. Black from soot, we crawled out of the craft and went to wash up. After careful analysis of the causes of the fire, it ~aas established that ~ the starboard vertical propeller had jammed, and this caused ignition of the starter, the thermal safety device of which failed to operate. It was a - good thing that there was a spare starter aboard the ship. It took only a day to make the repairs, and so we did not have to return to Sevastopol'. Next day Valentin and I once again attempted a dive in order to finish what we started so unsuccessfully the last time. Everything went excellently. The final thing to do was to dive to 200 meters. This was the first time we ever descended to this depth. Having found a place for the dive with a good even bottom 210 meters deep, as usual we began waiting for appropria.te wea� This time we were in luck, and we were able to attempt the dive a day ~atez The delivery mechanic was my mate. We stopped every 50 meters in order to carefully inspact the compartments. Illumination changed very abruptly as we went . deeper. It became Practically dark at 70-80 meters. We turned on the floodlights to see the already-familiar "snow". We made two more stops-- - 100 and 150 meters. Everything in the craft was in order. At a depth of 200 meters there was an inipenetrable gloom beyond the porcholes; the bottom could not be seen, though according to the echo sounder it was but 15 meters away. We checked TINRO-2's "weight". As a result of the hull's compression the volume of the craft decreased, and it became somewhat heavier, but it obediently remained at its assigned depth. Now we had to , check the operability of all systems and mechanisms. We took turns switching on the electric instruments, changing the craft's heading, and changing its speed. We dropped the anchor. It settled to the bottom, and the winch switched off automatically. We checked the work of the floodlights and electronic flash. Everything was normal. We took four samples of water in the bathometer. It r~ow appeared that we cauld return. We ascended with halts every 50 meters as well. ~ 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - r'iii~lly we raached tht SurFace. Everything had operat~d stably, the craft was obedient, and after being raised into the hangar we congratulated each other with successful completion of the plant trials--a complex stage in the life of the craft. That same evening we dispatched a radio message summoning members of the state commission, and the "Ikhtiandr" returned to Sevastopol' with TINRO-2 aboard. - ~ a k . w' ~ ~ ':V;x ' ? .I,~x : +~~m~:.` * ~ i c ~ '%~#I h ~ ijtF.k^ FI~~~ - 4 `>:k Y1 ' ~I.j i ;y The Craft Approaches the Side of the "Ikhtiandr" A few days later the state commission convened aboard the "Ikhtiandr". In addition to the usual tests, which were essentially a repetition of the plant trials, the program of the state trials included determination of the craft's maximum speeds in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a dive to 400 meters. At its first meeting the state comanission wrote up a clear schedule for the operations, set up in such a way as to complete them in minimum time. It was far into autuir~n, and we could not wait around for the weather to suit our needs. Ail of the commissio~i members were interested in the speediest end to the trials and certification of the craft for operation. Following the craft's se ~ral dives during the plant trials, the commission members were clearly aware of the most difficult aspects of organizing 54 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY operation of the craft and its carrier vessel. D~spite stable underwater communication, determining the range of the craft during its independent navigation continued to be difficult; however, as the ship's crew and the crew of the craft accumulated experience, even this operation became easy, since all ~f the necessary equipment was available for this purpose. Nboring of the craft to the ship was a sufficiently difficult o,perati~n, one which became especially complex in heavy seas. The ship's side fenders were adapted to the "Sever-2" craft, and they were poorly suited to TINR~-2. Therefore temporary fenders were made aboard ship out of automobile tires. These fenders served their purpose well. These issues associated with joint work of the craft and vessel were dis~ cussed at meetings of the commission, and after common agreement was - reached, the "Ikhtiandr" set out to sea for the final trials. We began to think about how to measure the craft's horizontal speed when it was beneath the water. 5pecial measured r.~iles with leading marks readily distinguishable from the surface of the sea are usually set up for surface vessels in rhese cases. The length of the measured sections in the regions in which we were sailing was about 2 nautical miles. TINFip-2 would have had to travel this distance three times. The power capacity of the batteries would not have been enough to propel the craf': at full speed for such a distance. Therefore we decided to set up a measured mile along the side of our ship. Two direction-finders were secured to the bow and stern, a bright-r.ed floating buoy was attached to the craft by a long buoy rope, and the vessel's position was fixed with fore and aft anchors. After the craft submerged, it was set precisely on the ship's course, and it traveled the measured section three times at a depth of 30 meters, main- taining a constant heading. The distance between the direction-finders was known, and observers recorded the position of the red buoy towed by the craft, the resistance of the former and the buoy rope having been _ detexmined earlier. The craft's maximum speed was a little less than ex- pected. The speed turned out to be less than that planned apparently because additional pawer not foreseen by the plan had to be picked off from the main motor, and because it was very difficult to precisely calcu- late water resistance for such a poorly streamlined body with a large ~iumber of protruding parts. . The craft's vertical speed was measured with a depth gauge during its sub- mersion tq 100 meters and resurfacing. The resulting measurements were precisely as planned. Then the craft's behavior at low and moderate speeds was checked out once again--everything was normal. The main examination was still to come--a to 400 meters. It was de- cided to perform it not far from Yalta, where the depth attained 460-470 - meters. Of course we were ur~able to find an even section of bottom, and 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY therefore we had to dive into a gigantic pit in the bottom at a depth of about 400 meters. The plant team prepared the craft especially carefully. _ The dive, in which the builder of the craft and I took part by tradition, began after lunch. The weather was favorable, and the craft was operating faultlessly. However the craft did descend suspiciously quickly. "WYiat is the matter?" I shared my doubts with my mate, and he admitted that he had taken a very heavy toolbag aboard with him, containing, amonq other things, very large wrenches. That was why we descended so quickly--the craft was heavier. We a~tained the prescribed depth in about an hour, since as usual we made stops along the way to inspect the equipm~nt in 'r.Yie craft. When the depth gauge reached its long-awaited mark, I called the builder = over to my console so that he could persuade himself of this personally. We stabilized the craft at thie depth, and in the course of an hour we - checked out the work of all mechanisms and the condition of the portholes, cable inlets, and stuffing boxes, and we performed various maneuvers. I reported completion of all items in the program via the comimincation sys~em, which operated stably, and I was qiven permission to ascend. Once again we made stops at different depths in order to check and recheck the operability of the mechanisms. And finally we leapt onto the surface: It is difficult to describe the way we felt at that moment. We had a sense of joy, and we were walking on air: Our friends, who greeted us aboard ship, also experienced the same feelings. And so the craft would now await interesting and entirely new work, and it was ready for it. , 56 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ 1 CHAPTER III THE ' BLAQC' BLAQC SEA The Craft Under Water Preparations for the trip.--The composition of the expedition.--More troubles.--We become divers.-- We dive with aqualungs.--New crews.--Ichthyologist under water.--An encounter with fish.--The boundary _ of light--the boundary of life.--Everyone wants to reach the bottom.--Journey with a geologist over an undersea slope.--The Black Sea trip ends. Life aboard the "Ikhtiandr" came to a temporary stan@~till after the trials. While decisions were being made as to where and how TINRO-2 would begin its experimental work, the "Ikhtiandr" was based in Sevastopol. In January 1974 a decision was made to transfer the "Ikhtiandr" together with its submersible to a new ship owner. The latter became the Adtaini- - stration of the Scientific Research Fleet in Kerch'. Soon the name of a new port of registry was painted on tfie side of the "Ikhtiandr". At the end of January the ship moved to Kerch'. While the numerous docu- menta involved in the ship's transfer were being filled out, the "Ikhtiandr" underwent preparations for a trip with TINR~-2 into the Black Sea. Representatives of the administration, mainly Konstantin Vasil'yevich Kostitsyn, followed the course of tYee preparations very attentively from the first days, and they helped form the crew for the ship. It was decided to include well-known scientist-biologists and ichthyologists among the detachcnent of underwater researchers . Before being transferred to the Administration of the Scientific Research ' Fleet, the TINRO-2 had to be demonstrated in action. I moved to Kerch' at the beginning of February in order to perform~a test dive. Several plant specialists and I beqan preparing the craft for work after i.ts altaost 57 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY K.. V. Kostitsyn 4-month period of inactivity. Boris Ishtuganov, who couYd not bear to part with the craft, also took an active part in these preparations. During this period we helped train the craft's new crew. The "Ikhtiandr" set out to sea on 20 February. The Black Se_. could not be called calm during this time, and it was a very-long time before we could find a place for the check dive. Finally on 23 Februaxy, after the sea , - calmed dawn somewhat, the craft made its dive. In addition to me, Boris Ishtuganov took part in it for the first time. The total depth at the place of the was only about 20 meters, such that we had to descend very attentively so as not to hit bottom. The new master of the c_aft was pleasea with its work, and therefore follawing our return to Kerch' the exact schedule for the forthcoming trip _ was im~nediately written out. It was decided to conduct the first experimental trip of TINRO-2 without leaving our territorial waters on the B1ack Sea. This was an absolutely correci: decision: Any new submersible must first be operated near native shores before setting out for the depths of t~e World Ocean. 'I'he program for the trip was developed by the VNIRO laboratory and Giprorybf2ot's undersea technology division. A large part of it consisted of technical and organizational tasks, as well as scientific research. Z'he work of the hydrological complex and the navigational system of TINRO-2 had to be checked out for the first time in the field. 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 rux ur'rl~la?~ u5~ UNLY ~ The administration asked me to take part in the trip (as the submersible's captain-mentor) in order to render assistance du�ring the Black Sea trip. Those who participated in the first trials of TINRD-2 were also to partici- pate in this trip together with me. The craft was manned by its official crew, which included both Boris Ishtuganov and Valentin Deryabin. M. P. Aronov was approved as the trip's scientific director. The trip was scheduled to begin in the first days of March, there was very little time left, and K. V. Kostitsyn hurried t.he preparations of the "Ikhtiandr" along at every dispatcher's conference. The ship's crew was already fully manned. A special Undersea Research Service was created. Later all submersibles, both built and planned, were to be placed at the disposal of this service. In the first days of March the "Ikhtiandr" once again set out to sea with TINRO-2 aboard. Operations were to be conducted in the vicinity of the inlet already familiar to us, and off the Caucasian coast. The vessel was ~ given permission to occasionally visit ports to correct possible malfunctions or for other purposes. Whenever problems arose that we could not correct through our own efforts, " we had to return to Kerch'. The number of dives was not planned, since the intensity at which the operations could be conducted was still not clear. IniLially ~he craft maintenance group consisted of just three persons: a i mechanic, an electrician, and a radio-navigator. Later a battery specialist was also officially added to the group specifically to charge the storage batteries. Because the new ship's crew had never participated in the launchings of the craft and had no idea what they involved, on arriving in the inlet we imanediately decided to practice the launching and raising operations and the interactions of the craft and vessel. Our new captain very much lived by the book, and he was a highly precise individual; th?s time, therefore, everyone had to completely learn all of the instructions, manuals, and _ regulations. 2'his helped the crew to assimilate the necessary operations quickly. Concurrently with studying the documents, all c~f the ship's services began a competition to improve the methods of work with the sub- mersible. Many efficiency proposals were submitted, and a decision was _ made to check them out and introduce the best during experi.mental operation. We spent the first 3 days in the selected inlet practicing the raising and launching of the craft. The captain's senior assistant and I wrote out the resQonsibilities of each crewmember in different situations, including emergencies. Each had to know what he was to do in a given situation or when general qudrters was sounded. Such was the demand of our captain, . and we did not begin work until everyone learned his "lesson". 59 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY After the thousand-and-first launching and raising operation, the de- cision to make the first real dive was made. But, as the sayinq qces, the first pancake came out a mess. A loud cra~k resounded during testing of the emergency storage battery container release mechanism--one of the four drive rods broke. We did not feel it po~sible to repair it in the facilities available aboard ship, and we did not have any spare rods. T'hus we had to Y�eturn to port and wait until a new, improved tie rod would be delivered from the plant. The break occurred, we found out, due to absence _ of lubricant in the bearing units. The defects were elimi.nated, the new rod was put in its place, and we once again set out to sea. We began work after leaving the port the secon8 time. The craft was con- trolled by Boris Ishtuganov during the first dive, so that he could acquir~ the p:~actical habits. During the trials we never came close to the bottom, and this perhaps was a shortcoming of the program, since for p~actical purposes the craft should be operated right at the bottoma Boris sa~t at the control console. In this instance I was in the observer's place. The bottom became distinctly visi.ble at a deptl~. of 40 meters. Boris turned the controls aver to me, and now I guided the craft as close to the bottom as possible. It is very difficult to determine distance beneath the water--everything seems much closer than it is in fact. Thus I was certain that the bottom of the craft was literally scraping the bott.~m, but when I wanted to settle the craft down near some small rxk outcroppings, I found that I was still alawst a whole meter above the bottom. Underwater visibility at this depth did not exceed 7-10 meters. The bottom was sandy, and all that could be seen were small rocky ridges - here and there. The water had a pleasantly greenish hue; the closer the craft came to the bottom, the lighter the latter became--reflection of light from the sandy bottom was having its effect. I should state that controlling the submersible at the bottom is an in- camparable pleasure. Oleg Nikolayevich Kiselev, one of our first scientists who made 100 dives aboard the hydrostat "Sever-1", compares moving over f.he bottom in a hydrostat with fliqht in a balloon. I would compare cruising in an independent submersible with the slow flight of an airplane--one completely ceases to hear the noise of the propulsion complexes, or to feel the discomfort of one's nosture. The underwater scenes are breath- taking--so unusual and attractive they are. _ Nor is there anything comparable with the pl~asure dt control~ing the craft beneath the water. The slightest turn of the control stick is - enough to make the craft obediently descend or surface. Even at a speed ` less than 1 knot--that is, 15-20 meters per minute, the craft maneuvero easily. When the bottom is even, onp can travel literally 10 cta above it for a rather long time, even with the vertical screw propellers turned off. On "approacY~ing" the bottom we rose to 5 meters above it and released the _ anchor. After the propulsion complexes came to a halt the craft began ~ 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY drifting slowly with the current. In order to stop this drifting we had to take a small amount of water into the compensating tanks. The craft stopped motionless and turned its stern in the direction of the current, which - d:.ew it a little closer toward the bottom. It was very pleasant to be in the underwater silence. I looked around. Small haddock occasionally floated by the portholes, and flounders or skates could be seen buried in _ the sand in two places. Having discovered nothing interesting, we decided to roam about with the guide rope out. Boris turned on the propulsion complexes, and the craft proceeded forward slowly. In about 10 minutes I turned left and very soon saw before me a straight trench 5-6 cm deep with flared edges, trailing off into the distance. It was only after I retraced my steps that I realized that this was the track left by the anchor-guide rope. "We will be able to mark out the region of operations in this way," I noted. "It would take a long time for silt to fill in such a trench." After this Boris and I decide to settle the craft on the bottam, the appearance of which seemed sufficiently firm to us. Boris takes in the anchor, and we gradually begin dropping to the floor. A gentle bump followed, and a small turbid cloud rises up about the craft--we are on the bottom. It is so close an8 so well visi.ble that I get the urge to touch it with my hand. I call Boris - dawn to me, so that he also could take in the plpasant sight. The two of us crowd together on the researcher's mat and survey the almost lifeless picture of the Black Sea's floor. It is quiet in the craft, and the gyrocompass is barely audible. We were under water for almost 5 hours when we were reminded from above that it was time to go back up. Those who remained topside were impatient to learn what we had seen. Boris equalizes the craft's "weight" and turns on the vertical motors. The cr.aft climbs slowly upward. The - bottom is no longer visible, and the water is becoming noticeably lighter. At a depth of 10 meters we make a check hait, and an instant later we are on the surface. We wait for the motorboat to approach the craft, set the tow cables, and lead us to the hangar. The captain prohibited us from approachxng the "Ikhtiandr" and separating fron it on our own with the hope of avoiding collisions. As always, the divers are the first to - meet us. They work very quickly, dexterously, almost automatically. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY V. Deryabin also took part in subsequent training dives. In my opinion Boris Ishtuganov was ready for independent work under water. _ Then began the scientific operations,in which scientist-researchers took _ part. They all underwent a special training course. They all acquainted themselves with the fundamentals of the craft's layout and the means of ~ its control, they learned what to do in the event of an emergency, and ' they studied the methods of undexwater photography. They all became certified specialists after a special examination and their first successful dive. They were issued c~rtificates permitting them to work in TINRQ-2 as underaater researchers. ~ 7.'he first undenaater researchers were colleagues of the VNIRO laborator~l. They began practicing approaching the bottom and maneuvering near it from the very first dives. Gradually we progressed to bottoms with more-cotaplex relief havinc submerged boulders and steep slopes. After a while I was fully persuaded that they all had a good sense of the craft's capabilities and could begin doing their principal work. Many of the first undenvate~~ researchers were experienced scuba divers, and therefore it should not take them much time at all to accustom themselves to work under water. The first underwater researchers were my mates in the very numerous subsequent dives, and we became used to working together, understanding ourselves well both above and beneath the water. _ My mate for the first dive perfoxmed for scientific purposes was Marlen Aronov. The craft was anchored at a depth of several dozen meters. The undenvater researcher began his work. Visibility attained 10 meters, and it increased significantly when the floodliqhts were turned on. Impressions were visible everywhere on the bottom. They were obviously impressions made by skates, which like to bury themselves in the sand. We observed accumu- lations of jellyfish, and red and white tunicates. Groups of whiting - floated by the craft's portholes. While Marlen was occupied with the diving program I tested the craft's buoyancy, which had shifted for some reasonfromzero to positive. The quantity of water in the compensating tanks had to be increased. However, after a certain time the craft began slowly surfacing once again. Air had apparently entered the ballast tanks. Just in case, we asked the vessel ~ to stay farther away from us and, bleeding air from the ballast tanks, we rose to the surface. After correcting this problem we began regular dives for scientific purposes, in which all of the underwater researchers and hydronauts took part. The thirteenth dive was interesting. It occurred at the apex of the _ Yazyk Depression. For the first time the craft had to work in a region _ having a complex, rough topography containing a wealth of cliffs, steep - slopes, and narrow troughs, and it proved itself well. 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 N'UK Ur~P'1l:lAL U5~ UNLY At a depth of 7 meter~ a school of tiny fish passed by the craft at great speed, and we ~aere unable to examine them. On anproaching the bottom we noted (glossy) and whiting. We counted 20-25 fish every 80-100 meters. � The fish were not scared of the craft, they came close to the portholes, and we could even observe larqe fish attacking smaller ones. Large Black Sea turbot came into sight frem time to time. Sometimes only the outlines _ of fish buried in silt were evident. One turbot had not had enough time to bury itself completely, and its jaws, tail, and fins stuck out of the silt, such that the craft almost snaqged against it. 7.'he craft went almost directly over another turbot, but the fish did not produce even a tremor. Deep burrows fran which small gobies skram out were encountered on rare occasion. Whiting was encountered throughout almost the entire water column, ~awn to 2-3 meters fram the bottom. During this dive the crew became persuaded that the Black Sea is in fact black. As we descended, visibility became worse and worse, and i~ began to get completely dark at 70-80 meters. The closar the bottan was, the fewer fish there were. Bzlow 130 meters the fish disappeared. It is approximately at this depth that the boundary of all life pssses in the Black S ea; below this is the hydroger. sulfide zone. First extensive black spots are observed on the bottom, and then gradually the entire bottom become s dark. Biologist Valeriy Pavlovich Fetrov obtained interesting results during the Black Sea trip. Fie observed the distri.bution of (fazeo) iny) , jellyfish, and other benthic organisms. The data he obtained made possible to reach a conc lusion as to the craft's suitability for conducting benthic research over significant areas of the seabed. Work with TINRO-2 excited everyone, even those who were not direct partici- pants of the dives. Ideas on improving the launching and raising processes and the communication and direction firiding systems literally poured in _ from all directions. The captain suggested moving the hydroacoustic R communication post from the vessel's forward wheelhouse into the shift chief's deckhouse, which was practically unused, and which contained _ back-ups for all of the ship's main navigational instruments, including echo sc~unders and a sonar set. It was decided to permanently install the radio station for underwater communication with the craf*_ there as well. . Prior to this one of the radio operators had to run about along the side of the vessel with the set on his back, which was naturally not very convenient. Surprising though it was, radio communication with the craft was sufficiently good, even when it was in the closed hangar and the radio - set's antenna was raisec~ on a mast. The radio operators could not explai.n this phenomenon, and we, without attempting explanation, simply capitalized on this phenomenon. The chief of the ship's radio service took on the job of outfitting the new compartment, and by the next dive both the radio operator and the sonar operator were in their new place. We enjoyed the benefits of this innovation right away. The control post now maintained - telephone communication with the craft and the workshop, and loudspeaker communication with the wheelhouses, the central control posts, and the cabin of t;ie hoisting device. 63 _ FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Love for the TiNRO also had an effect on our personal life at sea. Thus one _ of the ship's dogs was named Tinra (we had to change the ending as an ~ allowance for her sex); later she lived in my ho:ne in Leningrad, and when it came time to register her at the veterinary haspital the physician could in no way understand where such a strange name had come from. - >~:;:~r ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ II~.:,;, , S. P. Girs With the Dog Tinra In the intervals between dives all of the r.ydronauts learned diving. We noticed that people in marine specialties, especially pressure-suit and scuba divers,assimilate control of the seibmersible more quickly and feel more confident under water. Therefore we de~ided that all hydronauts making dives in the cra.Et should obtain diver's qualifications. An ex- perienced diving specialist conducted our training, and very sooal we were able to swim with an aqualung and sit in a decompression chamber. Our trip occurred in summer, and we sel~cted the hottest days for our SCUBA dives, such that this training was not only useful, but also pleasant. 64 FbR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 e~uk urr~lc;i~. U5~ UNLY i:n ac;c~~rdance wi th che rlans, iri the middle ot our tri~ we received an order to go to Sevastop~l' and take a group of fitters and instrument repairmen aboard together with a hydrological complex that was to be - installed aboard TINRO. It took several days to assemble the equipment. Another day had to be spent on a medical inspection of all new arrivals. _ Immediately after we set out to sea, the "underwater researcher school" _ once again opened its doors aboard the "Ikhtiandr" for the new arrivals. During this time we carefully wrote up the plan fr~r the dives. The work ' facing us was to be rather complex. We had to check the correctness of the readings of somz sensors in the hydrological complex using anotYier compler. of instruments lowered into the water on a cable. The craft was to remain not far from it throughout the entire time. On 15 June TINRO-2 made its twenty-second dive in the Black ~ea. The main task of this dive was to adjust the log in the hydrological complex. Once again we had to deploy our improvised measured mile, and anchor the vessel to two barrels at the inlet's roadstead. A sailor was planted on the stern barrel to take in the cable, but for some reason this maneuver was rejected, and our sailor was forced to linger alone for about an hour before he was finally removed from the rocking barrel. It turned out that there was a very strong undexwater current in the pla.ce of operations which almost caused TINRO-2 to collide with a bank of sorts right away. It was a good thing that the sharp decrease in the depth readings of the echo sounder was noticed in time. There was no longer enough time to seek another place for the measurements , and therefore the work had to be continued. It was not until six and a half hours later that we finally determined the craft's speed. In the next dive we had to compare the sensors of the two complexes. B. Ishtuganov went as the craft conunander, and a physicist served as the undenvater observer. Boris had to work hard during this dive because the craft had to be kept close to the control complex all the while, and lenythy halts had to be made at different depths to make the measurements. At first Boris constan~ly kept stumbli.-~g upon the ship's anchor chain, but he. could not find the cable from which the control comg~lex was suspended. There was no way that we could help him, but in the end Boris himself piloted the craft to the sensor block, and ~he measurements were made successfully at 15 and 30 meters. But at 45 meters the complex suddenly - strayed once again out of TINRO-2' s zone of visibility, perhaps due to worsening of visibility beneath the water--evening was already coming on. 2'he craft had to be set at anchor in order to keep from straying too far ~ from tl~e complex, and the work had to continue without the complex in sight. ' During these trials the craft was accompanied by divers, who performed prescribed operations with the sensors of the complex at certain moments. Unusual coimnunication was maintained between the divers and the crew of the 65 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY craft: They wrote all of their messages out with pencil on pieces of laminated plastic and pressed them to the porthole. _ Almost everyone aboard ~hip was in~rolved in these operations. Naturally this required good organization, coordination, and mutual understanding - among the experiment's participants. At first we had to devise a unique form of scenarios for the future actions beforehand. If especially complex Qperations were to be conducted, on the previous day we convened in the ward-room and "played out" these operations. Later, everyone learned to understand each other intuitiv~ely. - While on the Black Sea trip we made a few evening and night dives during which the ichthyologists observed the behavior of marine inhabitants with great interest. It was found that working in darkness was much simpler than in the presence of light. We turned on the bright light in the uppermnst part of the craft, making the craft well visible for a distance of more than a nautical mile when traveling on the surface and, as the - = craft surfaced, from a depth of 15-20 meters. Subsequent tests of the _ hydrological complex were con3ucted only in darkness, since in this case - the movement of the craft could be correct~d from aboard tne vessc.): We also tried out different direction finding methods in the dark, bec~~use we had to k.naw the po~ition of TINRO-2. We still did not know what the final results of the tests run on the hydro- logical complex were--the numerous tape reeordings had to be processed and the obtained data analyzed; nevertheless it was tin~~ to begin tests on the . navigational complex. Once again new faces appeared aboard the vessel--the designers of the navigational system. Once again apparatus had to be installed--a course plotter, a gyrocompass, and electronic blocks. Once again we had to adjust their operation. The instriunents were placed in the aft compartment, and - the course plotter was fitted to telescopic runners beneath the commander's chair. As we had anticipated, transportation did not do the delicate _ instruments any good, and it took some time to adjust them. Finally the complex began working as it should on a bench in one of our workshops, - marking the ship`s course on a plotting board. Th�~s complex was assembled entirely out of blocks and components used aboard airplanes of the Civil Air Fleet. During the first dive, the re- sistance of insulation on the complex' electric circuits dropped to zero, and it broke down. This occurred due to the high humidity in the craft, which attained 90-95 pe.rcent. All of the rest of the equ_pment was designed for use at sea, and therefore it was oblivious to high humidity, and even ocean spray. The failure of this com~lex was a let-down to us, since we - had been counting on it so much, but it had to be sent back for modifications. After this the "Ikhtiandr" made its way to our inlet in order to evaluate the possibilities the craft offered for working near fixed seines. 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Early in the morning on the following day, divers put out a seine about 30 meters lonq and approximately 2 meters high in water 35 meters deep. Weights touching bottom were attached to its lower edge, and floating buoys supported it from above. The dive was made in daylight. TINRO-2 sailed over to the area in which the seine was set up and began its dive, but the seine was not to be found, even though visibility beneath the water was 7-10 mPters. I changed my heading several times and made circles, but no signs of the seine were to be noticed. At this moment the c,yrocompass began working poorly for some reason; we turned it off and abandoned our attempts at orienting ourselvss under water. We had to surface. I did not want to resubmerge right at _ the seine, since we had to determ.ine the range from which it would be noticeable from the craft, and at which the craft could safely maneuver. We were compelled to ask one of the divers to don hi~ gear and guide TINRfJ-2 to the seine by swimning ahead of it. We were following right at the heels of the diver when suddenl.y he swam abruptly upward--the seine, billowing forth like a sail, was before us. It 5eemed from the craft that the ends of the seine were folded inward. 7rhe current made it vi.brate slightly. We began maneuvering near it. First the craft traveled along the seine, and we could easily see that it reached the bottom in some places and rose above it in others. Further on, the craft came extremely close to the seine, which suddenly beyan undulating--the craft stopped. It became obvious that - the craft was tangled in the seine. We shifted from forward to reverse, but the seine kept a firm hold on the craft. We could not see exactly what the craft had snagged from the portholes, and thus we were unable to attempt any sort of purposeful actions. After floundering about a little while longer, we asked the divers to help us extricate ourselves from this trap. Of course, we could have surfaced on our awn, together with the seine. At this depth the craft could create a lifting force of more than a ton, and together with all the weights, the seine did not weigh even half that. However, we did not want to resort to extreme measures, because the divers were ready to come to our aid at the first signal. It turned out that the swiveling floodlight on the starboard side and the tail fin were completely er_tangled in the seine. After we were "dissected out" we spent a little more time working at the bottom. Z'his dive taught us to be maximally attentiv~e when working with a seine. In general, a seine should be approached such that the current would be forcing the craft away from it. In this case maneuvers would be easier to _ perform, and the probability of becoming entangled would be lower. After we were raised aboard the "Ikhtiandr" following the dive~ we were showered by questions: "What did you see? Did you get scared? How did you feel when you found yourself caught in the seine like fish?" Inci- dentally, every crew fortunate enough to take TINRO-2 under water was greeted on its return in the same way. In the middle of July, participants of dives aboard TINRO-2 included an ichthyologist, a biologist, a sonar specialist, a diver, a physicist, 67 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a geologist, an oceanologist, a ship-building engineer, and even a mathematician: They all said that the dive brought them more pleasure than they had ever experienced before, despite the extensive work program. But no one felt fear before descending beneath the water. In a word, there was the total absence of a psychological barrier. All researchers and seamen aboard the "Ikhtiandr" wanted to see the under- water world with their own eyes, but Marlen Aronov permitted only scientists and the builders of the instrument complexes to dive. ~ Among the underwater researchers, Marlen himself made the most dives. It was literally impossible to drag him out of TINRp-2. An experienced SCUBA diver with a remarkable knowledge of the Black Sea's undersea world, he alt~rays found something new and unusual during each dive. He, and incidentally all other participants of undenaater expeditions, shared their impressions in the crew's mess hall before the mandatory film showing. These stories elicited considerable interest. The upshot was that following their return to Kerch', five members of the ship's crew went to the Undersea Research Service requesting enrollment in the hydronaut training group. This atmosphere of universal interest promoted successful work. The trip was nearing its end. It was decided to finish it off with a 400-meter dive on the continental slope, which was of interest to the aeologists. Therefore a geologist took part in the dive with me. One of - our tasks was to check out the work of the hydrological complex's sensors _ at such a great depth. The dive was made on 30 June in the latter half of the day. It was hot, and the temperature in the craft climbed to 28�. We began with 80 meters of water beneath the keel of the craft. After some time we saw the slope of the shelf and turned toward the direction of increasing depth. One hour into the dive we reached 120 meters. The slope descended at a 30-35� angle. Its steepness gradually increased, and so we had to decrease the craft's horizontal speed and increase its vertical speed. The craft's , stern was oriented toward the bottom, and therefore the lower end of the vertical stabilizer sometimes snagged against the ground, causing a trim of 10-15� at the bow. At such time the craft had to be moved quickly away from the slope. Whenever the craft touched the shelf, black streams of silt drained downward from it and disappe~red into the depths. - The geologist adjusted h=~aself we11 to the craft and im~ersed himself in his work. He was perpetually recording something on tape and photographing something else, and he forgot about the time. I had to hurry him on, so that we could reach 400 meters by 1800 hours. At this depth the tempera- ture in the craft dropped to 16�. We discovered a small, almost horizontal - platform on the slope, as if prepared s~ecially for us, and we lowered TINR~-2 onto it. We took a few pho~ographs of the,slape,and made ready to surface. 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI~dLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ~'UK Ur'r'1(:lAL U5~ UNLY In Jl'~g~`1' CU .~~:c a~~iv~~~i i.k.~f. at U~d UwEtwn ab wti ~a.;d~utd~1, wo ha.l tiu tu?~~ - the bow or the craft toward the slope. Before us was a gray, gloomy, totally lifeless sloped wall. At 180 meters we discovered outcroppings of layered white rock; higher up, bright yellow and black spots and hollows oriented downslope were encountered on the surface. And it was not until a depth of about 100 meters that we saw our old familiar whiting. We rose to the surface uneventfully. _ The operational trip of the submersible TINRO-2 ended successfully. The ca~tain's first mate congratulated the entire ship's crew on this event. Now we had to process the results of the observations and write up a de- tailed regort on TINRO-2's work. ~ The Trip's Principal Results What did we learn?--The craft passed its test--it could now begin work.--All of the craft's mechanisms and systems are functioning normally. 4?e returned to Kerch' and parted company for our own homes, but there was no time to rest. The results had to be sumanarized. The first operational trip of the independent submsrsible TINRp-2 lasted - 135 days, 90 of which were spent at sea; the rest of the time was spent standing in Kerch' and Sevastopol' waiting for mechanisms of the craft to be repaired, the crew to be manned, sttpplies to be obtained, and the hydrological and navigational complexes to be installed. During its cruises TINRp-2 made 29 dives in the Black Sea at different depths and for different purposes. ` 'Iwventy-nine dives. Is this a little or a lot? Twenty-nine times the ship's crew launched the craft, and it raised it back aboard as many times. During this time the crewmembers worked out all of their actions well, and they learned to understand one another intuitiv~ely. On days that the cxaft di~~ed, the ship's services worked so efficiently that for all appearances they were being driven by some sort of single mechanism. And although the trip chief and I wrote up detailed programs for each dive, we did this more to avoid misunderstandings than to work out our actions. Preparations of the craft began two and ~ half hours before the dive: All systems and mechanisms were checked out with a checklist that was presented to the hydronaut for final inspection. Following his report, I noted the craft's readiness for tihe dive in a special log kept in the wheeltiouse. The rest of the ship service chiefs also signed off this log. This order was establisheu by the safety division, and it was always - followed religiously. 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Just before the dive the hydrologi~t measured currents at different depths, and the water density and temperature, while the ship's surgeon checked the - health of the crew, and it was only after this that the dive could begin. The time required to prepare the craft decreased from one dive to the next, but it never did qet lower than two or two and a half hours. Because the maintenance group was so small and there was little space in the craft, it was impossible to perform all of the operations more quickly. The craft was fully suited to its purpose, it was dependable, and it was simple to control and maintain. However, we did decide to enlarge the maintenance group by including a few more fitters and electricians, so that the craft could be inspected more quickly after its ascent, and discavered problems could be corrected. Z"his usually took about an hour and a half. ~ After the dive was completed and the craft was placed in the hangar, the hydronauts usually described the work of the mechanisms to the maintenance group. ~ When the weather was good, the intensity of the dives was rather high= therefore on days when several dives were made in succession, ev~eryone became very tired. One of the most successful aspects of the trip was develaping the joint actions of the vessel and craft. Despite absence of dependable �endsrs, _ the craft was never damaged during the trip during the launchinq and raising operations.. And yet sevaral times tne craft had to be`raised in the presence of a sea state of 4 points. A good system for locating the craft under water was set up. In addition to a noise emitter, an additional device was install~d aboard TINRp-2 in the event of an emergency; using it, the ship's sonar could locate the craft with high accuracy during times of hydroacoustic communications. Locating the craft after it surfaced initially produced difficulties. Some sort of special, complex atations were suggested for this purpose, but a very siunple solution was found instead. A sonobuoy was placed in - the craft, in the pressure hull, and the antenna of the radio set was used as the transmitting antenna. The first test of the system showed that the craft could be located by the ship's direction finder at a range of 5-6 nautical miles. This was entirely suited to our needs, but the device was never used subsequently, since with good undenaater comanunica- tion and direction finding, the ship and surfaced craft were never more than 500-600 meters apart. At night-time the craft was easily noticed by its bright anchor light. Work was hardest in June. In 30 days we made 14 dives, mainly for scientific pur,poses. 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY What pleased us the most was that fish were not scared by the craft. All underwater observers--biologists, geologists, hydrologists--admitted that the portholes were canveniently located. The bottom and marine life forms could be observed through the fonvard lawer porthole, while the upper portholes could be used to survey the water column, slopes, canyons, and so on. The three lower portholes could alsa be used, though of course in this case the observer had to stand on his knees. In new craft, the diameter of the forward lower porthole should be enlarged. T'his would improve the view and increase safety when moving near the bottom. The observer's prone position was recognized to be convenient, especia].ly when working near the bottom, but it was decided to alter the headrest, since it was difficult to hold tt~e head up for so long: The neck muscles tire, and headaches dpvelop. The arrangement of the outboard floodlights was well conceived. The central floodlight, which was directed forward and produced a narrow beam of light, assisted movement in the presence of complex, rough relief, and it per- mitted prompt detection of an obstacle. Statio~ary floodlights with wide beams directed downward were used when working at the bottom. An area of about 4-5 m2 was lit up when they were turned on with the craft lying on the bottam. As the craft ascended, this area increased. The light from these floodlights was sufficiently bright, and it permitted good examination of the 3etails of bottom and benthos. The side rotating floodlights could be turned on to increase the contrast of objects in the zone of observation. Flashbulbs installed above the craft and on its sides permitted photography; hewever, we could not obtain contrasting images. Nbreover even when the main porthole was used for photoqraphy, the photographic field was not fully illuminated. In twenty-nine dives the craft com~nanders--V. Deryabin, B. Ishtuganov, and I--acquired the habits of control anc~ learned how to maneuver the craft . near the bottom. The only thing we could not do was determine the true distance between the craft's bottom and the seab~d. It would be desirable for TINRU-2 to have a flexible rod for this purpose, the tip of which, level with the bottom, should be visible from the main porthole. The underwater researchers acquired the necessary habits of contr~~lling TINRO-2 quickly, in just 1-2 hours of navigation under water. Of ~,ourse, the first time I transferred control of the craft to a new hydronau~ I was � somewhat anxious. How would the biological specialist mar~age with hi~: ~ew responsibilities? But the realities surpassed all expectations. All ob- - servers accustomed themselves very quickly to the single craft control stick, and they were able to perform all maneuvers near the bottom. 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I recall in this connection the American writer (G. Soul's) aascription of the first dive aboard the "Star-II" craft. Literally immediately after control was surrendered to him, he was able to chase a large crab scurrying along the bottom. Earlier, this had seemed unlikely to me. But na,+ that I have acquired my own experience, I can assure the reader that it is very easily to control a submersible. Of course I am referring only to moving the craft around under water; special training is required to aub- - merge the craft, to impart zero buoyancy to it, to change the craft's weight navigation, to surface, and to perform other similar operations. All were sorry that there was only room for two people in the craft. Many of the dives required observation by several specialists. As an example there were cases when an ichthyologist would see interesting qeoloqical formations and no fish, and a geologist diving on the following day would - see masses of fish but could not find that same plot of ground. Sometimes it is useful for two specialists of the same profile to dive together, so that they could exchange opinions on phenomena that are difficult to under- stand by a single person. Moreover ~he amount of work the undescwater researcher had to do was so great that sometia?es two people could barely complete it with difficulty. A third member of the crew could be given a large number of functions, such as taking still and motion pictures or controlling the craft near the bottom, which would increase navigation safety. In 29 dives we were able to clearly deterntine the best working speed of TINRC~-2. It wou'_d be suitable to conduct research at a speed of 0.7-1.0 knots. At a greater speed, it is difficult for observers to determine fish species. In any case we never traveled at maximum speed heneath the water. This does not mean that it should be liau.ted to 1 knot. T'he speed reserve should always be present in the event that obstacles must be sur- mounted, or if the craft is to be maneuvered on the surface when approaching the carrier vessel and separating �rom it. The power of the vertical screw propellers was insufficient, which was felt especially when submerging and when surmounting underwater obstacles. In general, it is better in this case to place the craft in reverse, rise in the water, and then detour it. These propellers were fabulous in stabilizing the depth o� the craft. The automatic motion control syatem also operated well. Touching down on the bottom turned out to be the most difficult dperation for all. But even this operation all of the hydronauts assimilated in the end. The craft began to touch bottom very gently, without r_oticeable bumps. ' The craft's negative buoyancy, which was equal ~0 10-15 kg, was fully sufficient to keep it on the bottom. TINRp-2 never got stuck in mud, though of course we never touched bottom when the thickness of the silt deposit was greater than 10-15 cm; furthermore we never stood in one place for more than 45 minuzes. 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We wrote out all of these conclusions and submitted our report to the Administration of the Scientific Research Fleet. Our work was given a good evaluation. The principal conclusion was that the craft fully suited its purpose, that it operated well, and that it was suitable to organize another trip, this time in ths ocean. Everyone was interested in the possibilities for using the craft for underwater biological research. Our work elicited a considerable amount of interest. In the end, we decided to make our next trip on the "Ikhtiandr" with TINRa-2 - aboard in the Atlantic Ocean that same year. Ztaenty-nine dives taught us a great deal, but this was still only the� beginning. 73 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAPTER IV Six Nbnths in the Ocean Preparations _ A training cruise on the Black Sea.--Eleven dives.-- Fabricated emergencies.--Raising the craft with the ship's cranes.--TINRO-2 fails to surface. - Before s etting off for the ocean, the administration management decided ~ to conduct a short two-week cruise on the Black Sea to practice interaction between tne craft and the vessel one last time, and in particular to test new methods for the bearing and location of TINRp-2. Moreover hydronaut candidates who had completed their theoretical training had to prove themselves in practice, and new members of the "Ikhtiandr" crew had to learn all of the operations involving the launching and raising of the craft. - Tn gene ral, much attention was devoted to selecting the crew, since unusual and difficult work was ahead. Lev Vasil'yevich Medvedev was appointed captain. 7.'his choice was no accident: Lev Vasil'yevich was an experienced seaman who had served for a long time as a ship captain. - Marlen Aronov was once again appointed chief of this training cruise, and I was appointed captain-mentor of TINRD-2. Once again we had to go to Leningrad, this time for 6 months. We set out to sea, and immediately we went to the inlet with which we were familiar. The weather was very good, and we began work on the next day. - We had to test a captive floating buoy with a buoy ro,pe that was 1.5-2 times - longer than the craft's maximiun diving depth as a means for indicating the location of TINRO-2. A similar method was used successfully by the Americans to determine the location of "Star-II". The buoy rope was a thin capron cord which was hooked to TINI~D-2's vertical stabilizer by a carabine. A breakaway having a breaking strength of 40-50 kg connected the carabine to the cord, pezmitting the craft to separate from the buoy rope in the event that it snagged itself beneath the water. An intermediate 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 ru?c ur~rl~lEU. ua~ u?vLY float was tied to the buoy rope 10 meters away from the craft; this float - drew the rope upward and prevented it from winding itself around the screw propeller. A bright orange Japanese capron float with a diameter of about 400 meters served as the floating buoy. It was well noticeable from the ship even in heavy seas at a range of up to 5-6 cables. At night, when a lamp powered by a battery operating off of sea water was turned on, the - buoy was visible for a range of 1.5 nautical miles. . , a . . ~ ~ .::i ~ ~a~ ~ ~,~;x ~ , r ~p,.,i t~~ �.5 R ~ ;~i ~ ~ ',ft ~ �~f2 l: ~ � ~ 2t Lr~i/!'~'�. L. V. Medvedev, Captain-Director of the Ship "Ikhtiandr", in the Wheelhouse The "Ikhtiandr" anchored in an area with water up to 40 meters deep, and - we prepared TINRO-2 for diving. Nikolay Surov, a hydronaut candidate, was to make tne dive. The divers were led by an experienced specialist who had also undergone training as a hydronaut and was now awaiting his underwater test. - After submerging, I crawled over to the observer's place, and from then on the craft was controlled by Kolya on his own. He passed his examination. 75 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 - T~OR OFFTC IAL U5E ONI.Y ' " ,`l - i, ?.r ' 'p ~ `1 - `a; , e' :a "1' 1 i _ ! ,1 .i - Installation of the Hydroacoustic Beacon The buoy turned out to be an excellent means for detecting the craft's - - position, and its buoy rope never wound itself around the propeller. During this dive, hydroacoustic com~unication with the vessel was very good, since the duty navigator, who oriented the ship relative to the buoy, never let the craft get far away from it. The position of the buoy could also be used to accurately determine the location of the craft when it was on the bottom. During subsequent dives we tested several types of hydroacoustic beacons mounted on the craft. They all differed in design, but they were tuned to a frequency corresponding to that of the ship's sonar set. We finally chose a beacon consisting of a small sphere, which contained its own pawer supply. Hefore the craft made its dive, this sphere was secured to the tail fin, and the beacon emitted acoustic pulses at short intervals. Whenever we entered into communication with the ship, we could hear the beacon's signals well, ones highly reminiscent of the signals produced by the first cosmic satellite. We measured the inertial characteristics of the craft once again. We found that it took 10 seconds for the craft to come to a full stop after being placed into reverse when traveling at a speed of 1 knot; during this time, the craft travels about 3 meters. This is quite enough room to stop the - craft before an obstacle detected even at a distance of 5-10 meters. 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 Fc)R U~F [ G 1 Ai. USI: (1NI.Y A dive in which TINRO-2 was "confronted" by an emergencv situation fabricated by us was the most interesting ~art of the cruise: According to the scenario, for some reason the cra�t was unable to rise from the bottom and surface, and we had to find it and raise it up. Takinq water into the tanks, TINRO-2 settled to the bottom at a depth of 40 meters. Divers approached the floating buoy and dropge~,..down to the craft along the buoy rope. A capron cable--a "bridle" which the divers secured to the craft's hoisting rods--was secured to the buoy rope before- hand. The capron cable was wound around the ship's cargo winch, and the craft was raised relatively easily to the surface. After this it was carefully placed back on the bottom, ~nd the divers removed all of their fastenings. Now TINR~-2 had to surface on its awn, but something unforeseen happened at this moment. While the craft was lying on the bottom, a strong underwater current filled its lower recesses with sand, and it became significantly heavier. The vertical screa p~opellers were unable to break - the craft away fram the bottom, even after water taken aboard to in~part negative buoyancy to the craft was pumped out. All of the water wras pumped - ' out of the compensating tanks, but even this did not help: It was only after partial purging of the ballast tanks that the craft began t~ surface. This unforeseen emergency situation did not cause us any concern, since we had just previously raised the craft with the help of cargo cranes and were prepared to repeat the maneuver at any time. Wp wanted to check out - the craft's capabilities, and even this incident was a good lesson for the crew. All of the methods for surfacing the craft in this situation - were not tested out. We could also have completely purged the nallast _ tanks, severed the anchor, and discarded t.he storage battery. - After placing the craft in the hangar and checking it out, we found out - that all of the storage batteries were covered with fine shell sand weighing 200 kg. A most curious goby was discovered between a battery and the hull; "guilty of no wrongdoings," it was released back to the se~.. In all we made 11 dives during the cruise, which lasted 14 days. Seven future craft hydronauts took part in it:, and only two of them were unable to fully master the craft in view of a number of objective and inobjective causes. IZVESTIYA reporter V. Belov, who requested a chance "behind the wheel of the underwater machine," participated in one of the dives, and he easily - completed his assignment. 'I'his demonstrates once again how easy it is to control the craft. At the conclusion of the training cruise a dive was made to the rated depth. Prior to this~ I was the only one who had ever descended to such a depth as a hydronaut; this time it was Boris Ishtuganov's turn. A diver was - appointed the second member of the crew. I was naturally concerned for them, since this was the first time they were to go to such a depth; I was even more agitated than h3d I been in the craft myself. - 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The dive began after lunch, and it lasted until darkness. Judging fro~ the calm reparts to the ship, everyt:hing was going excellently. Everyone aboard - the "Ikhtiandr" came on deck to see TTNRO-2 surface. ~'he radio operator, who climbed a mast, was the first to see thP yellow spot 30 meters below the water. And so it was that the successful return of the hydronauts fran the deep was announced by radio. This dive, which lasted a~~aost 8 h~urs, oncQ again confirmed the need for using a buoy as a means foz recognizing the craft. ~ We returned to Kerch', where we were awaited by the official quaZifying commission, which following a hard exam awarded class III hydr~naut qualifi- cations to all who passed the exam, underwent diver trainin.g, and clocked the required number of hours aboard the craft; I, who had clocked more than 100 hours under water by this time, was awarded the class II hydronaut category. We all received special certificates, and frc~m this moment on - we officially started to b~ called hydronauts. We began preparations for an ocean trip intended to last 175 days- We ha~ to stow everything necessary for a 6-month cr~ise for the ship and craft. ~ach day less and less free space was left aboard the "Ikhtiandr". Boxes ~ontaining spare parts, instruments, and storage batteries, and cans con- taining all sorts of oils and lubricants stood everywhere. The time of our preparations for the ocean trip coincided with a remarkable event in the history of K,erch'--presentation of the Gold Star of a hero city. Delegations from the hero cities of Leningrad, Odessa, Novorossiysk, - and Brest visited us aboard ship during these triumphant holidays; members of these delegations inspected TINRO-2 with interest, and they wished us - successful work in the ocean. ~ The program of the trip ana the composition of the scientific group were approved in Moscow. The latter included VNIRO colleagues who had already _ been working together with us in the same program for about 10 years nQw, _ and administration colleagues who had never participated yet in ocean cruises - aboard conventional vessels. Representation of the shore-based Undersea Research Service for the trip consisted of its chief, whose main task was to accumulate experience i.n operating the craft and analyze its research possibilities. The maintenance group of TINRfJ-2 now consisted of five persons: mechanic- repairman Sasha Vinogradov, who had already sailed aboard the "Ikhtiandr", electrician Aleksandr Khalizov, who replaced N. Surov when he became a - hydronaut, radio navigator Oleg Donets, battery specialist V. Sonin, and fitter V. Kuzovlev. 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ L. V. Medvedev was appointed captain of the "Ikhtiandr", G. Gordeyev was appointed executive officer, G. Tret'yakov was appoirited chief inechanic, and V. Loshchenov was designated first mate. They had all sailed aboard ~ the "3khtiandr" for a long time, and they knew e~ch otiner well. _ Preparations for the cruise and an inspection of the ship were compZeted by the second half of October. On 2'7. October the crew and members of the scientific group were assembled. _ The ship recalled a disturbed beehive. Many relatives appeared for the send-off. More bundles of various sorts and jars containing homemade jam and sauces appeared in the cabins , which already seemed overstuffed. But the moment of parting was at hand. All were excited--both those who were sending us off, and those of us wlzo were being sent off. This was the . first time I was to leave for such a long trip, and of course I was con- - cerned about leaving my family for so long a time. - The Cruise Begins Departure from Kerch' .--Test dives. --New undenvater observers . --Amphoras on the bottom.- -Bosporus . On 23 Octob~r at 1200 hours a coaurand resounde3 from the captain on the sr ip' s broadcasting system: "All vis'tors leave the ship . All hands _ prepare to cast off: " The "Ikhtiandr" moved away fram the wall and went into the Kerch' Strait through the fishing port's narrow inlet. - _ Spectators were standing right at the water. The ocean cruise began. We sailed from Kerch' to Yalta to fill our tanks with good fresh water. Kerch' water was so saline that it was difficult to rinse the storage batteries and raise the resistance ~f insulation to the necessary limit. we arri.ved at Yalta in the morning of the following day. The vessel moored - at the passenger pier to take on water. The crew was given a possibilzty - to stroll on terra firma for the last We were not allowed to leave _ Yalta because the creavmembers w~re missing some sort of inedical certificates. Thus everyone had to go to the medical unit. But the certificates were finally obtained, and examination was made, and the "Ikhtiandr" assumed a heading toward Bosporus. Owing to the training trip on the Black Sea, we were able to begin our dives right away on the ocean cruise. We planned to ma}:e one or two dives in the western, little-studied part of the Black Sea, so that our scientists could compare their observations with ones made in well-studied regions at the shores o= the Krimea and Caucasus. 79 - FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On 27 October the weather was calm and sunny. There were 130 meters of water beneath the keel. Conditions were right to launch the craft. Boris Ishtuganov and Nikolay Surov took part in the first dive on that day. Nikolay had to make a checkout dive and demonstrate that he had not for- gotten how to contro~ the craft after a month of idleness in Kerch~. Everything went well, and the craft was raised back aboard ship. After a few hours TINRO-2 was once again launched, this time with scientific - purposes. This time Surov played the role of craft comanander, and his mate was Marlen. However, they did not see anything interesting. They encountered the now-l~oring whiting and jellyfish. The bottom was firm, and it contained shell fragments. The third dive was made on that day as well. Once again N. Surov was appointed craft com,mander, and Gennadiy Solyanik wen~ as the underwater observer. He had alrea3y performed his ch ~cknvt d'_de for the ship commission. Gennadiy was lucky--this day he saw several l4~ye tuibroken ancient amphoras. Apparently an olden ship had sunk in this place, but r.othing of it remained to be seen. The crew of TINRO-2 wanted to survey this region, but suddenly, - literally within 10-15 minutes, the weather deteriorated considerably. The captain ordered the crew to return immediately. Wind speed was already up to 15-18 meters per second at th~s ~~oment. Rain began to fall before the sea even had a chance to get rough, and visibility became much worse. We had never needed to raise the craft in such complex conditions, and this was already the forty-third dive. I was anxious for our novices, who had to suffer such a turn in the weather in their first dive. - The craft surfaced, but there could be no talk of having it approach the ship on its own in such conditions. We launched a boat, which took the craft on tow, but it could not make any headway against the wind. The situation was becoming very se�riou~. At this manent the captain came to our rescue. He ordered the main engine started, and he oriented the ship in such a way that it approached the craft with the open hangar directly - opposite the latter. The divers, who were already on the craft, simply - attached straps to it and ascended together with it directly into the hangar. This maneuver was cc~mpleted quickly and precisely and, I would say, grace- - fully. Everyone gave a sigh of relief. Yes, with such a captain, none of the weather's whims could be feared: The weather turned to its worst. All night the ship slowly advanced toward Bosporus, rolling from side to side. Everything in the cabin had to be removed from the table, and in the hangar the craft had to be secured well to its keelblocks. By morning the sea subsided somewhat, but a strong, cold wind continued to blow. The entrance to the strait could be seen through the mist. After a while we could see small Turkish villages with their ever-present tall white minarets on the right shore of the strait, which was already lit b1 the sun. 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 r~ux ur~r l~ltu. ua~ ULVLY . zw~* ~;:~~:r~+- - ~ s 9 'j~ ~h ~ ~Y, ~:r ~ ~"w~ w 4 ~ ~ Changing of the Crew j ~ ~5.~..~~.. ..,s ~,, ~ s .a~~;;: '3 I rs~," nT~ . , ~ .1 's~r~. a: . _ TINRp-2 From the Back 81 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY After entering the strait, a Turkish pilot came aboard. Traffic in the strait was very brisk: Vessels of different flags and ferries carrying rail cars and motor vehicles passed along and across the ship' s path as an endless stream. After 2-3 hours we reached IstanbuL The city spread over both shores of the strait, which were joined together by a gigantic suspension bri~ge about 2 km long. A beautiful quay with brisk motor traffic stretches along the strait, and tall, brightly painted houses line the quay, making the city look very handsome and festive. And above all towered a fortress, which spilled in terraces almost dvwn to the water's edge, and the famous Mosque of St. Sofia, which had been fashioned out of a Christian cathedral. For the entire time that we were passing through Bosporus, Marlen stood at the bow of our ship with binoculars and cameras of all sorts hanging from his neck. By evening we passed through t~?e Marmara Sea, on the following day we crossed the Aegean, and on 30 October we reached the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean Sea - Storm.--In the footsteps of J.-I. Cousteau.--The first dive.--Rough bottom.--Encounter with fish.--Amazing underwater scenes. --To reach the ocean soontr.--Rescue of a Moroccan vessel in the Strait of Gibraltar. Several dives were planned in the Mediterranean Sea, in the vicinity of the Tunisian plateau. We knew that the water there was amazingly clear and that the bottom was good, and we intended to not only make scientific observations but also photograph TINRO-2 under water with the help of SCUBA divers. However, the Mediterranean weather would not make things easy for us--throughout the ertire time we were steaming along the coast of Greece, the sea state was 5-6 points. The craft was being prepared at full steam in the hangar. New members of the maintenance group acquainted themselves with the.craft's layout and learned their responsibilitie s. Sasha Vinogradov, who had undergone ~ training tugether with the plant specialists and who had participated in previous cruises aboard the " Ikhtiandr", and Volodya Kuzovlev, his assistant, spent their entire days beside TINRQ-2; they checked out its - me~hanisms, and they installed a backup depth gauge for the underwater observer. 1 The craft's new electrician, Aleksandr Khalizov, had sailed aboard ships - many times prior to this, and he immediately concerned himself with the craft, but he still had no idea as to the volume of work awaiting him. ~ 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Battery specialist Vasiliy Pavloviciz Sonin, a very serious and sizeable person, worked together with hi.m. Sasha was skinny and tall, while on the - other hand Vasiliy Pavlovich was short and fat. Despite the differences - in their appearance, character; and age, they came to work together well, and they were literally inseparable. During our passage they restored the outfit of storage batteries that had been expended in previous dives of the craft. Now we possessed two working outfits of batteries, Radio navigator Oleg Donets was on his second trip aboard the "Ikhtiandr", he underaent training in the grou~ of hydronaut candidates, he prepared himself for training dives aboard TINRO-2, and he prepared all of the craft's electronic systems, constantly making improvements on one thing or another. On his proposal a?~ackup gyrocompass was installed near the underwater observer, making conrrol of the craft near the bottom easier. Oleg spent a great deal of time charging various storage batteries in the ~ instrument power supply blocks. Whenever Oleg extracted them all from the craft and arranged them on the charging rack, large and small, acid and alkaline, transparent and opaque, it seer.~ed to me that our craft had been built mainly to carry batteries, and that there was nothing in it - but batteries. Z'he term "power block" became so permanently entrenched in our vocabulary that even the box of food which the crew of the craft took with it on dives was henceforth referxed to only by this name. A week had passed since our departure from Kerch'. Toward its end, the sea state reached 6--7 points. Intense rocking began, and all work in the = - hangar had to be stopped. The "Ikhtiandr" had never sailed in such weather before. Everything was creaking, and it was difficult to walk the deck. A lifeboat on deck above my caY~in squeaked repulsively whenever the ship rolled hard. It could not be secured any better, and I was forced to sleep beneath this unusual accompaniment. At night we reached the vicini~y of the Tunisiun plateau. The weather had not changed, and we decided to go on to Gibraltar without stopping. In the morning of the following day, there was nothing to recall yestsrday's - storm. There were 45 meters beneath the keel. We decided to set anchor. We could barel~ make out the African coast in the haze on the port side. Everyone awaited the first dive in the Mediterranean Sea with impatience. The captain announced on the broadcasting system that the dive was to occur at 1400 hours. The maintenance gr.oup began preparing the craft. The trawl was set out for the first time during ~~he trip, even tho~zgh large accumula- tions of fish had not been observed with the echo sounder; the size of the catch had to be compared with observations made frc+~n the craft. An hour later the trawl was raised almost empty: A couple of dozen 30-centimeter cat sharks and three moderate-sized spiny lobsters, which caused a great stir of excitement among the crew, were ;~ken from it. The cook was also interested in the lobsters, and in short time we were able to taste their _ meat. We found it to be very flavorful. ~:3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Jus t before the dive Senya Mikhaylov took several hydrological readings. The density of the water was found to be 1.028--that is, much greater than in the Bla~k Sea. In this connection we decided tc increase the craft's solid ballast by 100 kg. We used two reserve anchor-guide ropes as the ba1 last, placing them inside the pressure hull. They fit well between ribs in the hold of the craft; and so they remained there for the entire trip. The hands of the clock neared 1400 hours. The sun was shining brightly, - it was warm, and the sea state did not exceed 2�oints. A strong current with a speed of about 1 knot close to the surface of the sea caused us some con cern. During the craft's descent the current could carry it far away from the ship, since adjustment of its ballast in the new conditions would require a certain amount of time. At 1430 hours Marlen Aronov and I were already sitting in the craft. The ship was standing at anchor, and as soon as the divers released the catches the current began sweeping the craft away. A motorboat had to catch up to us and tow us back. I tried submerging the craft on tow, but nothing happened, and it was not until additional water was taken into the compen- sating tanks that the craft went down. Deeper down, the current was weaker, _ and we began work. We saw the bottom from a range of 25 meters. ?'he water was very translucent, _ , it was of an amazingly beautiful turquoise color, and it was so ~lear that - it was difficult to orient ourselves while diving--to determine whether or not the craft had started submerging or not,and its speed. The "snow" helped us with this in the Black Sea. We were in the traditional reg.ion of operations of J.~-I. Cousteau, and now the beautiful scenes of the undersea world of the Mediterranean Sea were before us in real life, rather than on a movie screen. _ Beneath us was a jumble of huge stony outcroppings. We traveled at a dis- tan ce of 20 meters from the bottom and looked for the most interesting place in which to settle the craft down. In the end, Marlen approached the bottom. We were traveling forward, precisely detouring the protruding crags, which were sometimes 10 meters high. When I].ooked through the portholes in the coaming ~f the hatcll, their su~~its were visible somewhere above the craft, in the haze. At the bottom, Marlen piloted the craft with special care, but despite this, he nevertheless hit the crags several times. Areas with bea utiful bright sand could be seen between the rocky outcroppings; w~ wanted to land the craft in them, but the current carried us away. Thus we had to come in under cover of a large cliff and take on a little more water in the tanks. It was only after this that the craft lowered gently to the bottom. I moved next to Marlen. Now we could look around at our leisure. After the - Black Sea, with its even bottom and monotonous, almost lifeless scenes, the picture we saw astounded us. Rocky outcroppings covered with sponges, corals, and bryozoans towered around us. In natural life they seemed boring and gray, but as soon as the flood~ights were turned on, red, yellow, and green colors immediately began to dance around. Damselfish and other 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300030009-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300034409-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY :~~r tishes swaiu t,y ~ulca olose t~ us. Vzsibility at the bottom was not less than 20 meters. We spent about an hour on the bottom, enjoying the underwater scenes, after which we surfaced uneventfully. After TINRfl-2 was raised aboard, the "Ikhtiandr" raised anchor and pro- ceeded further west, to Gibraltar. On the follawing day the sYiip reached the next bank, this one with a depth of about 120 meters. Once again TINRiO-2 descended into the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This time there were two Borises aboard--Boris Ishtuganov and Boris Vyskrebentsev. They experienced the same delight with what they saw as I~ad with Marlen. The amazingly translucent water and the colors of the undersea world were astounding. TINRO-2 settled down on the very margin of a rocky bench next to a 30-meter cliff, and the floor of this chasm was clearly visible through the trans- lucent water. A school of fish, mainly (antis) and horsemackerel, swam by the craft. In all, Boris Vyskrebentsev counted seven species of fish. No matter how interesting it was to dive in the Mediterranean Sea, the ocean awaited us, and therefore immediately after the craft was raised aboard, - the "Ikhtiandr" went on to meet it. After each dive everyone convened in the captain's quarters to analyze the work of the ship services and the results of the underwater observations. The scientific group and the hydronauts were invited to these conferences. The benefit of such discussions could not be doubted, and therefore this tradition remained in force aboard the "Ikhtiandr" until the end of the trip. On 7 November we reached Gibraltar. A triumph~nt meeting was held aboard - the ship, and a holiday banquet was organized. Everyone received congratu- latory radio messages from home. The ship's amateur artists put on a good concert. It began immediately after clinner beneath the open sky on the _ trawl deck,though naturally the weather suddenly changed abruptly (for the - umpteenth time:~, and intense storm windsbegan to blow from the ocean. The "Ikhtiandr" had already passed through the narrowest part of the Strait of Gibraltar and reached the ocean. At this time the radio operators re- -